WorldWideScience

Sample records for back haul

  1. Selectivity in a trawl codend during haul-back operation: An overlooked phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Skeide, R.; Breen, M.

    2008-01-01

    ), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), respectively, the mean percentages escaping at the surface were 16, 12 and 38% of the total escape while 17, 8 and 28% escaped during the haul-up phase. Compared to towing, the escape rate (no./min) increased for haddock by a factor...... 2.7 during haul-up and by a factor 1.7 at the surface, whereas the escape rates of whiting were similar for the three phases. The escape rate of Norway lobster increased by a factor of approximately 7 for both the haul-up and surface phases, compared to the towing phase. The selectivity parameters L......50 (50% retention length) and SR (selection rangeá=áL75-L25) were estimated and compared for the three different phases and for the whole haul for haddock, whiting and Norway lobster. For all three species there was no significant (Pá>á0.05) difference in L50 between the three phases of the haul...

  2. Flight time, number of sectors and risk of low back pain among short and medium haul commercial female flight attendants in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Khrisnapandit

    2016-07-01

    with LBP among short and medium haul commercial female flight attendants in Indonesia. Methods: Cross-sectional study with purposive sampling among short and medium haul commercial female flight attendants who conduct medical examination on May 5-26th 2014 at Civil Aviation Medical Center. Demographic, job and LBP data collected using questionnaire and physical examination. Definition of LBP was historically pain that ever or still felt in lower back in the last month, non-neural, and no non-working related acute injury. Cox regression analysis used to identify risk factor associated LBP. Results: Among 333 female flight attendants who were conducting medical examination, 287 attendants willing to participate, and 240 meet inclusion criteria. There are 37.9% flight attendants experienced LBP. The dominant factors increasing LBP risk were flight time and number of sectors in the last 24 consecutive hours. Female flight attendant with 9 hours or more flight time compared with less have 82% higher LBP risk [adjusted relative risk (RRa = 1.82; p = 0.000]. Review from number of sectors in the last 24 consecutive hours, female flight attendant with 4 sectors or more compared with less have 53% higher LBP risk (RRa = 1.53; p = 0.034.   Conclusion: Nine hours or more flight time and 4 sectors or more in the last 24 consecutive hours have higher risk of LBP Key words: low back pain, female flight attendant, flight time, number of sectors, short and medium haul flight

  3. Uranium's slide - and the long haul back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavitt, E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of the origin and development of the SA uranium industry. Mr. Pavitt dealt with the present state of the nuclear-power industry (a matter of concern to major uranium producers of the world) and their applications, their usefullness and public opinion towards nuclear weapons

  4. Post-Haul Mortality - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  5. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  6. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  7. Quarry Haul Road Ecological Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    This biological survey was performed to document the summer flora and fauna found along the haul road constructed as part of the remedial action for the quarry bulk waste. State and Federal species listed as threatened or endangered were noted if encountered while surveying. Sampling locations were equally spaced along the quarry haul road, and a survey for vegetation and birds conducted at each location. Bird observations were conducted as breeding bird surveys once in June of 1991, and again in June of 1992. Each year's survey includes two observations in the early morning and one late in the evening. Vegetation surveys were conducted in 1991 using quadrants and transects. mammal, reptile, and amphibian sightings were noted as encountered

  8. Oxygen Uptake - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  9. Dissolved Oxygen - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  10. 20 CFR 653.106 - JS day-haul responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false JS day-haul responsibilities. 653.106 Section... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Services for Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers (MSFWs) § 653.106 JS day... Regional Administrator is obtained. (b) No JS applicants shall be referred to non-JS operated day-haul...

  11. TRADISI PERINGATAN HAUL DALAM PENDEKATAN SOSIOLOGI PENGETAHUAN PETER L. BERGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulloh Hanif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Haul is a tradition typical of Muslims in Indonesia. Although as a term, can be likened to haul in the tradition of pilgrimage of Muslims in general, but in Indonesia haul have different shapes and implementation in practice with the pilgrimage. This can be seen clearly as an institutionalized social activity. Meaning of pilgrimage as a reminder of death eventually not be the main objective in the implementation of the haul, although religious motives still underlie the practice. However haul relfeksi has become a kind of history, not just in view of the transience of human life, but rather the development of the vision and mission of human life further they get from the reflection of history celebrated figures. Making of history eventually become important to observe. History is not just a stretch of the past, present, and future, but, in the context of haul, history is closely related to building public awareness about the celebrated figures, either directly or through stories or media. Building awareness is what allows every individual who commemorate haul will internalize the objects of consciousness different from the historical reflection, although figures are presented objectively observed through individuals close to and understand objectively as himself. It is at least able to prove that religion is very closely linked to community activities. Keywords: Haul, Peter L. Berger, Sosiologi Pengetahuan dan Refleksi Sejarah.

  12. Slow speed object detection for haul trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Caterpillar integrates radar technology with its current camera based system. Caterpillar has developed the Integrated Object Detection System, a slow speed object detection system for mining haul trucks. Object detection is a system that aids the truck operator's awareness of their surroundings. The system consists of a color touch screen display along with medium- and short-range radar as well as cameras, harnesses and mounting hardware. It is integrated into the truck's Work Area Vision System (WAVS). After field testing in 2007, system commercialization began in 2008. Prototype systems are in operation in Australia, Utah and Arizona and the Integrated Object Detection System will be available in the fourth quarter of 2009 and on production trucks 785C, 789C, 793D and 797B. The article is adapted from a presentation by Mark Richards of Caterpillar to the Haulage & Loading 2009 conference, May, held in Phoenix, AZ. 1 fig., 5 photos.

  13. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  14. Un-ionized Ammonia (UIA) - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  15. Mine haul road fugitive dust emission and exposure characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2001-03-01

    Excessive dust generation from mine haul roads is a problem common to most surface coal mining operations. Optimal wearing course material selection parameters reduce, but do not toally eliminate the potential to produce dust. For existing operations, which may not have optimally designed and maintained roads, the problem of identifying the haul road dust defect, quantifying its impact on both safety and health and assigning priorities within the constraints of limited capital and manpower is problematic. This is reflected in the fact that most surface mine operators agree dust-free roads are desirable, but find it difficult to translate this into cost-effective betterment activities. The aim of this paper is to describe fugitive dust emission and exposure characteristics associated with ultra-heavy mine haul trucks running on unpaved mine haul roads. Models are described which enable mines to assess the likely dustiness of their chosen haul road material as a function of surface loading of fines, traffic types and volume, together with various material parameters. By combining these models with the results of quantitative exposure profiling, a mine can, in conjunction with the assessment, determine the most cost- and safety-effective haul road dust management strategy. 18 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Collection and hauling of cereal grain chaff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reding, B.; Leduc, P. [Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute, Humboldt, Saskatchewan (Canada); Stumborg, M. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Cereal grain chaff has been identified by Energy Mines and Resources, Canada, and Agriculture Canada, as a suitable feedstock for ethanol production. Canada produces 13,300,000 t (14,600,000 ton) of cereal grain chaff annually; mainly in the prairie region. Work conducted at the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI), Humboldt, Saskatchewan, has determined that the collection of chaff for centralized processing is a problem due to low bulk density in its natural state. This problem can be overcome by densification using either compression or size reduction. Either method will be economical in a chaff shed radius of 140 km (87 mi) when chaff is densified to 160 kg/m{sup 3} (10 lb/ft{sup 3}). The size reduction method of densification may be economical to hauling distances exceeding 166 km (103 mi), particularly if size reduction is a required part of ethanol processing. Further work is under way to develop the required equipment modifications to allow existing farm equipment to be used for this purpose.

  17. Consistent haul road condition monitoring by means of vehicle response normalisation with Gaussian processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Suboptimal haul road management policies such as routine, periodic and urgent maintenance may result in unnecessary cost, both to roads and vehicles. A recent idea is to continually access haul road condition based on measured vehicle response...

  18. Factors affecting driver alertness during the operation of haul trucks in the South African mining industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schutte, PC

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the seriousness of haul trucks accidents, SIMRAC initiated research to identify factors affecting haul truck driver alertness during mining operations. The information obtained during the risk analysis was used to identify possible...

  19. The relative importance of factors that determine log-hauling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin; A. Jeff Martin

    1971-01-01

    Hauling costs are a major expense to lumbermen, but little is known about which factors affect hauling costs the most. A recent Forest Service study of hauling costs on 34 logging operations sheds light on whmich factors of cost are important and which might require less attention. These results should help lumbermen adopt a cost accounting procedure and help them with...

  20. Application of flywheel energy storage for heavy haul locomotives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Wolfs, Peter; Szanto, Frank; Sun, Yan Quan; Cole, Colin; Nielsen, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design for heavy haul locomotive equipped with a flywheel energy storage system is proposed. • The integrated intelligent traction control system was developed. • A flywheel energy storage system has been tested through a simulation process. • The developed hybrid system was verified using an existing heavy haul railway route. • Fuel efficiency analysis confirms advantages of the hybrid design. - Abstract: At the present time, trains in heavy haul operations are typically hauled by several diesel-electric locomotives coupled in a multiple unit. This paper studies the case of a typical consist of three Co–Co diesel-electric locomotives, and considers replacing one unit with an alternative version, with the same design parameters, except that the diesel-electric plant is replaced with flywheel energy storage equipment. The intelligent traction and energy control system installed in this unit is integrated into the multiple-unit control to allow redistribution of the power between all units. In order to verify the proposed design, a three-stage investigation has been performed as described in this paper. The initial stage studies a possible configuration of the flywheel energy storage system by detailed modelling of the proposed intelligent traction and energy control system. The second stage includes the investigation and estimation of possible energy flows using a longitudinal train dynamics simulation. The final stage compares the conventional and the proposed locomotive configurations considering two parameters: fuel efficiency and emissions reduction.

  1. Problems and issues for short-haul air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of developing an efficient short-haul air system are not primarily technical, but economic and political. The key issues are whether the community will accept new and expanded air facilities, what standards of service the passengers will demand and how the system will evolve. The solutions recommended are national in scope and require the federal government to take a leading role.

  2. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  3. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short haul transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, T. P.; Stout, E. G.; Sweet, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of Quiet Turbofan STOL Short-Haul Transport Aircraft for the mid-1980 time period are developed and analyzed to determine their technical, operational, and economic feasibility. A matrix of aircraft using various high-lift systems and design parameters are considered. Variations in aircraft characteristics, airport geometry and location, and operational techniques are analyzed systematically to determine their effects on the market, operating economics, and community acceptance. In these studies, the total systems approach is considered to be critically important in analyzing the potential of STOL aircraft to reduce noise pollution and alleviate the increasing air corridor and airport congestion.

  4. 77 FR 45921 - Alaskan Fuel Hauling as a Restricted Category Special Purpose Flight Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... operations, each aircraft used to transport fuel will be required to receive FAA certification for the... regulations. The special purpose of Alaskan fuel hauling was considered for aircraft type-certificated under... required for this special purpose. The fuel hauling system must be shown to meet the applicable...

  5. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 02: log hauling cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Knowing the cost of fuel reduction treatments and associated activities, such as hauling cut trees, is essential for fire and fuels planning. This fact sheet explores the main factors that determine the cost of hauling cut trees and points the user to an interactive tool that can help plan for those and other expenses.

  6. 75 FR 35033 - U-Haul International, Inc. and AMERCO; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... closest competitor in the consumer truck rental industry to join with U-Haul in a collusive scheme to...-Haul International, Inc. U-Haul's primary competitors in the truck rental industry are Avis Budget... several years leading up to 2006, Mr. Shoen was aware that price competition from Budget was forcing U...

  7. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  8. Workplace violence in long haul trucking: occupational health nursing update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra Gay

    2004-01-01

    Almost 2 million workdays and millions of dollars are lost annually because of non-fatal assaults suffered at the workplace (NIOSH, 1996). Twenty workers, on average, are murdered each week in the United States and an estimated 18,000 workers per week are victims of non-fatal assault (NIOSH, 2001). Violence and stress are two interrelated issues that affect the work force. In-depth studies of these issues have not been conducted with long haul truckers in general, or with women in non-traditional, male dominated fields such as the long haul trucking industry. Epidemiological data related to violence and stress experienced by these under-studied populations are needed to plan effective interventions to reduce occupational risks. Studies employing both qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to articulate risk and protective factors related to violence against workers (Runyan, 2001). Occupational health nurses are qualified to participate in the development and implementation of research and intervention studies to improve worker safety related to violence at the workplace for men and women in both traditional and non-traditional occupational roles.

  9. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzabi, R Vaghar; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  10. Haul truck tire dynamics due to tire condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaghar Anzabi, R.; Nobes, D. S.; Lipsett, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Pneumatic tires are costly components on large off-road haul trucks used in surface mining operations. Tires are prone to damage during operation, and these events can lead to injuries to personnel, loss of equipment, and reduced productivity. Damage rates have significant variability, due to operating conditions and a range of tire fault modes. Currently, monitoring of tire condition is done by physical inspection; and the mean time between inspections is often longer than the mean time between incipient failure and functional failure of the tire. Options for new condition monitoring methods include off-board thermal imaging and camera-based optical methods for detecting abnormal deformation and surface features, as well as on-board sensors to detect tire faults during vehicle operation. Physics-based modeling of tire dynamics can provide a good understanding of the tire behavior, and give insight into observability requirements for improved monitoring systems. This paper describes a model to simulate the dynamics of haul truck tires when a fault is present to determine the effects of physical parameter changes that relate to faults. To simulate the dynamics, a lumped mass 'quarter-vehicle' model has been used to determine the response of the system to a road profile when a failure changes the original properties of the tire. The result is a model of tire vertical displacement that can be used to detect a fault, which will be tested under field conditions in time-varying conditions.

  11. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  12. The empty wagons adjustment algorithm of Chinese heavy-haul railway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jinchuan; Yang, Hao; Wei, Yuguang; Shang, Pan

    2016-01-01

    The paper studied the problem of empty wagons adjustment of Chinese heavy-haul railway. Firstly, based on the existing study of the empty wagons adjustment of heavy-haul railway in the world, Chinese heavy-haul railway was analyzed, especially the mode of transportation organization and characteristics of empty wagons adjustment. Secondly, the optimization model was set up to solve the empty wagons adjustment of heavy-haul railway and the model took the minimum idling period as the function goal. Finally, through application and solution of one case, validity and practicability of model and algorithm had been proved. So, the model could offer decision support to transport enterprises on adjusting empty wagons.

  13. The Impact of Specialized Hauling Vehicles on Pavement and Bridge Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This research study was performed to ensure that Texas complies with a Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) memo dated November 15, 2013, which requires each state to certify that it either does not permit operation of specialized hauling vehicles (...

  14. Sleep on Long Haul Layovers and Pilot Fatigue at the Start of the Next Duty Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrave, Jan; Wu, Lora J; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H

    2018-01-01

    Layovers are critical for pilot recovery between flights and minimum layover durations are required by regulation. However, research on the factors affecting layover sleep and safety performance indicators (SPIs) before subsequent flights is relatively sparse. The present project combined data from 6 studies, including 8 long-range and 5 ultra-long range out-and-back trips across a range of different layover destinations (299 pilots in 4-person crews, 410 layovers, 1-3 d layover duration). Sleep was monitored via actigraphy from 3 d pre-trip to at least 3 d post-trip. Pilots rated their sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS) and fatigue (Samn-Perelli scale, SP) at duty start for the inbound flight. Mixed model ANOVAs identified independent associations between fatigue and sleepiness SPIs and operational factors (domicile time of duty start for the inbound flight in six 4-h bins, layover duration, and total sleep time (TST) in the 24 h prior to inbound duty start). TST was greatest on layovers ending between 1200-1559 domicile time (time in the city from which the outbound flight departed) and TST was a significant predictor of both KSS and SP ratings at duty start for the inbound flight. TST in the 24 h prior to the inbound flight was greatest when duty start time allowed for the inclusion of a full domicile night time period. In this dataset, circadian end-time of layovers is a key determinant of pilot fatigue status at the beginning of the inbound duty period.Cosgrove J, Wu LJ, van den Berg M, Signal TL, Gander PH. Sleep on long haul layovers and pilot fatigue at the start of the next duty period. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):19-25.

  15. Vibration Monitoring of a Large Scale Heavy Haul Railway Viaduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatta Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, heavy haul railway transport was introduced in the mid-1970s for the Iron Ore and the Coal Export lines. In recent decades, the expansion of existing mines, new markets and the competition of iron ore- and coal-exporting countries have led owners and operators to progressively increase the capacity of the export lines. On the one hand, operational efficiencies have been improved; on the other hand, a significant increase of the rail traffic has been experienced. Thus, bridges along the export lines are now crossed by heavier and longer trains with more frequent train passages than in the past. Increasing train loading might lead to significant consequences on structures such as dynamic amplifications and reduction of service life due to fatigue. Hence dynamic assessment and monitoring of the structural condition of bridges under actual train loading are becoming more relevant to support decision making processes. The paper presents the investigations carried out on the Olifants River Viaduct, a critical structure along the Iron Ore Export Line, in order to implement a state-of-the-art vibration monitoring system.

  16. Evaluation and modelling of haul road dust palliatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T.

    2000-07-01

    Excessive dust generation from mine haul roads is a problem common to most surface coal mining operations. Optimal warning course material selection parameters reduce, but do not totally eliminate the potential to produce dust. For existing operations, which may not have optimally designed and maintained roads, the problem of identifying existing deficiencies, quantifying their impact and assigning priorities within the constraints of limited capital and manpower is problematic. This is reflected in the fact that most surface mine operators agree dust-free roads are desirable, but find it difficult to translate this into cost-effective betterment activities. This paper describes a dust palliative evaluation, management and costing strategy. Models are described which enable mines to assess the likely dustiness of their chosen wearing course materials as a function of surface loading of fines, traffic types and volume, together with various material parameters. These models are then combined with palliative suppression performance models to enable predictions to be made concerning the suppression- and cost-efficiency of various dust palliation options. 13 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Locomotive Schedule Optimization for Da-qin Heavy Haul Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiye Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main difference between locomotive schedule of heavy haul railways and that of regular rail transportation is the number of locomotives utilized for one train. One heavy-loaded train usually has more than one locomotive, but a regular train only has one. This paper develops an optimization model for the multilocomotive scheduling problem (MLSP through analyzing the current locomotive schedule of Da-qin Railway. The objective function of our paper is to minimize the total number of utilized locomotives. The MLSP is nondeterministic polynomial (NP hard. Therefore, we convert the multilocomotive traction problem into a single-locomotive traction problem. Then, the single-locomotive traction problem (SLTP can be converted into an assignment problem. The Hungarian algorithm is applied to solve the model and obtain the optimal locomotive schedule. We use the variance of detention time of locomotives at stations to evaluate the stability of locomotive schedule. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization model, case studies for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains on Da-qin Railway are both conducted. Compared to the current schedules, the optimal schedules from the proposed models can save 62 and 47 locomotives for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains, respectively. Therefore, the effectiveness of the proposed model and its solution algorithm are both valid.

  18. Transient immune impairment after a simulated long-haul flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Mustafa, Fatima B; Peng, Chung Mien; Earnest, Arul; Koh, David; Lin, Gen; Hossain, Iqbal; MacAry, Paul A

    2012-04-01

    Almost 2 billion people travel aboard commercial airlines every year, with about 20% developing symptoms of the common cold within 1 wk after air travel. We hypothesize that hypobaric hypoxic conditions associated with air travel may contribute to immune impairment. We studied the effects of hypobaric hypoxic conditions during a simulated flight at 8000 ft (2438 m) cruising altitude on immune and stress markers in 52 healthy volunteers (mean age 31) before and on days 1, 4, and 7 after the flight. We did a cohort study using a generalized estimating equation to examine the differences in the repeated measures. Our findings show that the hypobaric hypoxic conditions of a 10-h overnight simulation flight are not associated with severe immune impairment or abnormal IgA or cortisol levels, but with transient impairment in some parameters: we observed a transient decrease in lymphocyte proliferative responses combined with an upregulation in CD69 and CD14 cells and a decrease in HLA-DR in the immediate days following the simulated flight that normalized by day 7 in most instances. These transient immune changes may contribute to an increased susceptibility to respiratory infections commonly seen after long-haul flights.

  19. Airsickness and aircraft motion during short-haul flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M; Griffin, M J; Holland, I

    2000-12-01

    There is little quantitative information that can be used to predict the incidence of airsickness from the motions experienced in military or civil aviation. This study examines the relationship between low-frequency aircraft motion and passenger sickness in short-haul turboprop flights within the United Kingdom. A questionnaire survey of 923 fare-paying passengers was conducted on 38 commercial airline flights. Concurrent measurements of aircraft motion were made on all journeys, yielding approximately 30 h of aircraft motion data. Overall, 0.5% of passengers reported vomiting, 8.4% reported nausea (range 0% to 34.8%) and 16.2% reported illness (range 0% to 47.8%) during flight. Positive correlations were found between the percentage of passengers who experienced nausea or felt ill and the magnitude of low-frequency lateral and vertical motion, although neither motion uniquely predicted airsickness. The incidence of motion sickness also varied with passenger age, gender, food consumption and activity during air travel. No differences in sickness were found between passengers located in different seating sections of the aircraft, or as a function of moderate levels of alcohol consumption. The passenger responses suggest that a useful prediction of airsickness can be obtained from magnitudes of low frequency aircraft motion. However, some variations in airsickness may also be explained by individual differences between passengers and their psychological perception of flying.

  20. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, there doesn't appear to be one type of mattress that's best for people with back pain. It's probably a ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  1. Haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in Hood Canal, Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh M London

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to model haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the Hood Canal region of Washington State with respect to changes in physiological, environmental, and temporal covariates. Previous research has provided a solid understanding of seal haul-out behavior. Here, we expand on that work using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with temporal autocorrelation and a large dataset. Our dataset included behavioral haul-out records from archival and VHF radio tag deployments on 25 individual seals representing 61,430 seal hours. A novel application for increased computational efficiency allowed us to examine this large dataset with a GLMM that appropriately accounts for temporal autocorellation. We found significant relationships with the covariates hour of day, day of year, minutes from high tide and year. Additionally, there was a significant effect of the interaction term hour of day : day of year. This interaction term demonstrated that seals are more likely to haul out during nighttime hours in August and September, but then switch to predominantly daylight haul-out patterns in October and November. We attribute this change in behavior to an effect of human disturbance levels. This study also examined a unique ecological event to determine the role of increased killer whale (Orcinus orca predation on haul-out behavior. In 2003 and 2005 these harbor seals were exposed to unprecedented levels of killer whale predation and results show an overall increase in haul-out probability after exposure to killer whales. The outcome of this study will be integral to understanding any changes in population abundance as a result of increased killer whale predation.

  2. Investigation of human body vibration exposures on haul trucks operating at U.S. surface mines/quarries relative to haul truck activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayton, Alan G.; Porter, William L.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Weston, Eric B.; Rubenstein, Elaine N.

    2018-01-01

    Workers who operate mine haul trucks are exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) on a routine basis. Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pittsburgh Mining Research Division (PMRD) investigated WBV and hand-arm vibration (HAV) exposures for mine/quarry haul truck drivers in relation to the haul truck activities of dumping, loading, and traveling with and without a load. The findings show that WBV measures in weighted root-mean-square accelerations (aw) and vibration dose value (VDV), when compared to the ISO/ANSI and European Directive 2002/44/EC standards, were mostly below the Exposure Action Value (EAV) identified by the health guidance caution zone (HGCZ). Nevertheless, instances were recorded where the Exposure Limit Value (ELV) was exceeded by more than 500 to 600 percent for VDVx and awx, respectively. Researchers determined that these excessive levels occurred during the traveling empty activity, when the haul truck descended down grade into the pit loading area, sliding at times, on a wet and slippery road surface caused by rain and overwatering. WBV levels (not normalized to an 8-h shift) for the four haul truck activities showed mean awz levels for five of the seven drivers exceeding the ISO/ANSI EAV by 9–53 percent for the traveling empty activity. Mean awx and awz levels were generally higher for traveling empty and traveling loaded and lower for loading/dumping activities. HAV for measures taken on the steering wheel and shifter were all below the HGCZ which indicates that HAV is not an issue for these drivers/operators when handling steering and shifting control devices. PMID:29725145

  3. An introduction to the integrated design of surface mine haul roads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.J.; Visser, A.T. [University of Pretoria, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The world-wide expansion of surface mining has led to the development of very large off-highway trucks currently capable of hauling layloads in excess of 160 t. Typical axle loads ranging from 110 t to 170 t are applied to haul roads that have been, at best, empirically designed on the premise of `satisfactory` or `failed`, both in terms of structure and function of the road. The use of these empirical pavement design techniques will prove inadequate when high axle loads are encountered. Not only will the maintenance costs of existing haul roads of inadequate thickness increase, but vehicle operating and maintenance costs will also increase prohibitively. Under these conditions there is thus a clearly defined need for improved construction and management techniques for flexible mine haulage roads, appropriate for the wheel loads of vehicles now in use. The aim of this paper is to introduce developments in haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management which overcome the limitations associated with the previously empirical design techniques and to show how these developments are combined into an integrated design strategy combining construction techniques, available material and road maintenance equipment with hauler choice to realise a reduction in haulage and road maintenance costs. Future contributions will enumerate on the fundamental haul road structural, functional and maintenance design and management research from which these developments originated. 7 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  5. Aerial surveys of seals at Rødsand seal sanctuary and adjacent haul-out sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, J.; Dietz, R.; Edren, Susi M.C.

    This report describes the preliminary results of aerial surveys at Rødsand seal sanctuary, southeast Denmark and adjacent seal haul-out sites in southwestern Baltic. The work was carried out in connection with studies of potential effects of the Nysted offshore wind farm. Rødsand seal sanctuary...... is a part of seal management area 4, and the area is believed to hold a more or less closed population with little exchange to other areas. Although the harbour seal is relatively stationary there may be movements between the haul-out sites in the area. A possible reaction to disturbance from...... the construction and operation of the wind farm may be that the seals use other haul-out sites to a higher extend....

  6. Fighting Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academe, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In this new feature of the "Academe" journal, work by faculty members is highlighted who are mobilizing in support of academic freedom on their campuses and beyond. This September-October issue of the journal includes the following brief reflections from faculty all relating to the central theme of "fighting back": "Free…

  7. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight... SEPARATION OF COMMON OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.76 Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail...

  8. Summary and recommendations for the NASA/MIT workshop on short haul air transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The material is summarized that was covered by the MIT/NASA Waterville Valley workshop which dealt with the institutional, socio-economic, operational and technological problems associated with introducing new forms of short haul domestic air transportation. It was found that future air systems hold great potential in satisfying society's needs for a low noise, low landspace, high access, high speed, large network system for public travel over distances between 5 and 500 miles. It is concluded that quiet air systems are necessary for obtaining community approval, and is recommended that extremely high priority be assigned to the development of quiet aircraft for future short haul air systems.

  9. Low back pain - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backache; Low back pain; Lumbar pain; Pain - back; Acute back pain; Back pain - new; Back pain - short-term; Back strain - new ... lower back supports most of your body's weight. Low back pain is the number two reason that Americans see ...

  10. Economic comparisons of haul road construction versus forwarding versus longer skid distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Erickson; Curt C. Hassler; Chris B. LeDoux

    1992-01-01

    There currently exists no set of basic guidelines for Appalachian loggers to use in the decision making process for selecting the best way to harvest a tract of timber. Specifically, guidelines are needed for deciding between the alternatives of constructing truck haul roads to access an area or other alternatives such as skidding or forwarding timber longer distances...

  11. An exploratory study of long-haul truck drivers' secondary tasks and reasons for performing them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseland, Tobias; Johansson, Emma; Skoog, Siri; Dåderman, Anna M

    2018-08-01

    Research on drivers has shown how certain visual-manual secondary tasks, unrelated to driving, increase the risk of being involved in crashes. The purpose of the study was to investigate (1) if long-haul truck drivers in Sweden engage in secondary tasks while driving, what tasks are performed and how frequently, (2) the drivers' self-perceived reason/s for performing them, and (3) if psychological factors might reveal reasons for their engaging in secondary tasks. The study comprised 13 long-haul truck drivers and was conducted through observations, interviews, and questionnaires. The drivers performed secondary tasks, such as work environment related "necessities" (e.g., getting food and/or beverages from the refrigerator/bag, eating, drinking, removing a jacket, face rubbing, and adjusting the seat), interacting with a mobile phone/in-truck technology, and doing administrative tasks. The long-haul truck drivers feel bored and use secondary tasks as a coping strategy to alleviate boredom/drowsiness, and for social interaction. The higher number of performed secondary tasks could be explained by lower age, shorter driver experience, less openness to experience, lower honesty-humility, lower perceived stress, lower workload, and by higher health-related quality of life. These explanatory results may serve as a starting point for further studies on large samples to develop a safer and healthier environment for long-haul truck drivers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Modelling the volatility in short and long haul Japanese tourist arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C. Lim (Christine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional

  13. Modelling the Volatility in Short and Long Haul Japanese Tourist Arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C. Lim (Christine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional

  14. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  15. Commodification of Religious Tradition: Critical Study on Religious Tradition Tourism Haul at Pasar Kliwon Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ferri Setiawan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The policy on tourism development program of Surakarta especially on the calendar of the event takes advantage from religious tradition as tourism commodity. The purpose of this study is to describe the religious tradition haul, the programs by the tourism department of Surakarta, and how commodification through a well implemented marketing communications process, messaging, and other media, as well as responses from the audience regarding the marketing of haul tradition in general toward creating a leading tourism object. Haul which is a tradition for commemorating the death of clerics (ulama who are followed by some local communities in Surakarta, especially those in Pasar Kliwon Regency, is utilized in tourism. Through critical study, the cultural values that are supposed to be preserved, changed into marketing values to attract visitors. The used media are the advertisement and the calendar of events. The local community gain advantages economically from this policy, but they object to it socio-culturally. Meanwhile, the tourists are generally interested in haul tradition.

  16. On achievable rates for long-haul fiber-optic communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fehenberger, T.; Alvarado, A.; Bayvel, P.; Hanik, N.

    2015-01-01

    Lower bounds on mutual information (MI) of long-haul optical fiber systems for hard-decision and soft-decision decoding are studied. Ready-to-use expressions to calculate the MI are presented. Extensive numerical simulations are used to quantify how changes in the optical transmitter, receiver, and

  17. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  18. Information rates of next-generation long-haul optical fiber systems using coded modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liga, G.; Alvarado, A.; Agrell, E.; Bayvel, P.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the coded performance of long-haul spectrally-efficient WDM optical fiber transmission systems with different coded modulation decoding structures is presented. Achievable information rates are derived for three different square QAM formats and the optimal format is

  19. Alertness management in two-person long-haul flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, M. R.; Gander, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    Long-haul flight operations involve cumulative sleep loss, circadian disruption, and extended and irregular duty schedules. These factors reduce pilot alertness and performance on the flightdeck. Conceptually and operationally, alertness management in flight operations can be divided into preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. Preventive strategies are utilized prior to a duty period to mitigate or reduce the effects of sleep loss, circadian disruption and fatigue during subsequent flight operations. Operational countermeasures are used during operations as acute techniques for maintaining performance and alertness. Results from previous NASA Ames field studies document the sleep loss and circadian disruption in three-person long-haul flying and illustrate the application of preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. One strategy that can be used in both a preventive and operational manner is strategic napping. The application and effectiveness of strategic napping in long-haul operations will be discussed. Finally, long-haul flying in two-person highly automated aircraft capable of extended range operations will create new challenges to maintaining pilot alertness and performance. Alertness management issues in this flight environment will be explored.

  20. Determinants of Safe and Productive Truck Driving: Empirical Evidence from Long-haul Cargo Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; de Koster, R.; Rijsdijk, S.; Roy, D.

    2017-01-01

    Using GPS data of 370 long-haul trips in India, survey data of 49 truck drivers, and ERP data, this study examines the role of driver personality characteristics in predicting risky and productive driving. The results show that more conscientious drivers display more risky driving behavior. More

  1. Self-Management to Increase Safe Driving Among Short-Haul Truck Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Jeffrey S.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The relative impact of a self-management for safety (SMS) process was evaluated at two short-haul trucking terminals. Participants in the Pre-Behavior group (n = 21) recorded their intentions to engage in specific safe versus at-risk driving behaviors before leaving the terminal (i.e., before making any of their deliveries for the day), whereas…

  2. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

  4. The use of cell phone network data in traffic data collection and long-haul truckshed (geographic extent) tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzed the potential of cell phone positioning techniques in freight truck data collection and long-haul : truckshed (geographic extent) tracking. Freight truck identification and tracking algorithms were developed by means of : cell pho...

  5. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchon, A; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  6. Projection-based circular constrained state estimation and fusion over long-haul links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a scenario where sensors are deployed over a large geographical area for tracking a target with circular nonlinear constraints on its motion dynamics. The sensor state estimates are sent over long-haul networks to a remote fusion center for fusion. We are interested in different ways to incorporate the constraints into the estimation and fusion process in the presence of communication loss. In particular, we consider closed-form projection-based solutions, including rules for fusing the estimates and for incorporating the constraints, which jointly can guarantee timely fusion often required in realtime systems. We test the performance of these methods in the long-haul tracking environment using a simple example.

  7. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  8. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  9. The Problem of Multiple Criteria Selection of the Surface Mining Haul Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodziony, Przemysław; Kasztelewicz, Zbigniew; Sawicki, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Vehicle transport is a dominant type of technological processes in rock mines, and its profit ability is strictly dependent on overall cost of its exploitation, especially on diesel oil consumption. Thus, a rational design of transportation system based on haul trucks should result from thorough analysis of technical and economic issues, including both cost of purchase and its further exploitation, having a crucial impact on the cost of minerals extraction. Moreover, off-highway trucks should be selected with respect to all specific exploitation conditions and even the user's preferences and experience. In this paper a development of universal family of evaluation criteria as well as application of evaluation method for haul truck selection process for a specific exploitation conditions in surface mining have been carried out. The methodology presented in the paper is based on the principles of multiple criteria decision aiding (MCDA) using one of the ranking method, i.e. ELECTRE III. The applied methodology has been allowed for ranking of alternative solution (variants), on the considered set of haul trucks. The result of the research is a universal methodology, and it consequently may be applied in other surface mines with similar exploitation parametres.

  10. A neural network driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youneng Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy-haul train has a series of characteristics, such as the locomotive traction properties, the longer length of train, and the nonlinear train pipe pressure during train braking. When the train is running on a continuous long and steep downgrade railway line, the safety of the train is ensured by cycle braking, which puts high demands on the driving skills of the driver. In this article, a driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train based on a neural network is proposed. First, in order to describe the nonlinear characteristics of train braking, the neural network model is constructed and trained by practical driving data. In the neural network model, various nonlinear neurons are interconnected to work for information processing and transmission. The target value of train braking pressure reduction and release time is achieved by modeling the braking process. The equation of train motion is computed to obtain the driving curve. Finally, in four typical operation scenarios, comparing the curve data generated by the method with corresponding practical data of the Shuohuang heavy-haul railway line, the results show that the method is effective.

  11. Comparing selectivity of a standard and turned mesh T90 codend during towing and haul-back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Herrmann, Bent; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared the size selectivity of a T90 codend (netting turned by 90 degrees) with that of a standard codend made of similar netting. Sea trials were conducted in a Norway lobster directed fishery in the Kattegat- Skagerrak area, where there is a need for improved selectivity...... fewer Norway lobster both below and above the legal minimum landing size (40 mm, cephalothorax length), thereby causing a reduction of commercial catch. The difference was mainly due to a significantly higher escape rate during towing for the T90 codend. For plaice below minimum landing size (27 cm...

  12. Back pain and sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  13. Factors Affecting Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) in Tidewater Glacier Inlets in Alaska: Can Tourism Vessels and Seals Coexist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Gail M; Pendleton, Grey W

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use habitat in tidewater glaciers in Alaska for pupping, breeding, and molting. Glacial fjords are also popular tourist destinations; however, visitation by numerous vessels can result in disturbance of seals during critical life-history phases. We explored factors affecting haul-out behavior of harbor seals at a glacial site frequented by tourism vessels. In 2008-10, we deployed VHF transmitters on 107 seals in Endicott Arm, Alaska. We remotely monitored presence and haul-out behavior of tagged seals and documented vessel presence with time-lapse cameras. We evaluated the influence of environmental and physical factors on the probability of being hauled out, duration of haul-out bouts, and as factors associated with the start and end of a haulout. Location, season, hour, and interactions of location by year, season, hour, and sex significantly influenced haul-out probability, as did ice, weather, and vessels. Seals were more likely to be hauled out with greater ice availability during the middle of the day, and less likely to be hauled out if vessels were present. Cruise ships had the strongest negative effect; however, most vessel types negatively affected haul-out probability. Haul-out duration was longest in association with starting on incoming tides, clear skies, no precipitation, occurring in the middle of the day, and ending in the late afternoon or evening. End of haulouts was associated with increasing cloud cover, low ice availability, and vessel presence; large-sized tourism vessels or all-vessel-types combined were significant predictors of ending a haul-out bout. Probability of being hauled out was highest in June, during pupping season. Potential disturbances of harbor seals could be reduced, enabling longer resting times for seals and fewer interruptions for nursing pups, if vessels focused the majority of visits to glacial habitat to before or after the hours of 08:00-17:00 or, less optimally, 09:00-16:00.

  14. Back pain and low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, H.; Niethard, F.U.

    1983-01-01

    In patients with back pain there is only a poor correlation between clinical and radiological symptoms. Therefore the interpretation of radiological findings is only possible with respect to the natural history of the disease. Indication for radiological examination is given for early diagnosis and treatment of malinformation of the spine; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the spine with back- and low back pain and diagnosis and treatment of diseases which affect the stability of the vertebrae. (orig.)

  15. The effect of a large Danish offshore wind farm on harbor and grey seal haul-out behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edrén, Susi Manuela Clermont; Andersen, Signe May; Teilmann, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the construction and operation of a large Danish offshore wind farm on harbor and gray seal haul-out behavior within a nearby (4 km) seal sanctuary. Time-lapse photography, visual monitoring, and aerial surveys were used to monitor the number of seals on land...... in daylight hours. Seals were monitored during two preconstruction periods (19 June–31 August 2001 and April–August 2002), a construction period of the wind farm (August 2002–December 2003), and a period of operation of the wind farm (December 2003–December 2004). Monthly aerial surveys were conducted...... to estimate the proportion of seals in the sanctuary relative to neighboring haul-out sites. From preconstruction to construction and through the first year of operation the number of harbor seals in the sanctuary increased at the same rate as the number of seals at the neighboring haul-out sites. No long...

  16. Golay sequences coded coherent optical OFDM for long-haul transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cui; Ma, Xiangrong; Hua, Tao; Zhao, Jing; Yu, Huilong; Zhang, Jian

    2017-09-01

    We propose to use binary Golay sequences in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) to improve the long-haul transmission performance. The Golay sequences are generated by binary Reed-Muller codes, which have low peak-to-average power ratio and certain error correction capability. A low-complexity decoding algorithm for the Golay sequences is then proposed to recover the signal. Under same spectral efficiency, the QPSK modulated OFDM with binary Golay sequences coding with and without discrete Fourier transform (DFT) spreading (DFTS-QPSK-GOFDM and QPSK-GOFDM) are compared with the normal BPSK modulated OFDM with and without DFT spreading (DFTS-BPSK-OFDM and BPSK-OFDM) after long-haul transmission. At a 7% forward error correction code threshold (Q2 factor of 8.5 dB), it is shown that DFTS-QPSK-GOFDM outperforms DFTS-BPSK-OFDM by extending the transmission distance by 29% and 18%, in non-dispersion managed and dispersion managed links, respectively.

  17. Performance Deterioration of Heavy-Haul Railway Bridges under Fatigue Loading Monitored by a Multisensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-haul railway bridges play an increasingly essential role in the transportation in China due to the increasing transport volume. The performance deterioration of the scale models of a typical heavy-haul railway bridge under fatigue loading is monitored in this work, based on a multisensor system including the fiber-reinforced polymer optical fiber Bragg grating and electrical resistance strain gauges, linear variable displacement transducer, and accelerometer. Specifically, by monitoring/observing on the failure mode, fatigue life, load-midspan deflection response, material strain development, and so forth, this work develops an S-N model by comparing the relationship between fatigue life and rebar stress range with that between fatigue life and load level and proposes a damage evolution model considering the coupling of the stiffness degradation and inelastic deformation of specimens. It is found that the fatigue life of specimens is determined by the fatigue life of the rebar at the bottom and it may be lower than 2.0 million cycles with a 30-ton axle weight when environmental factors are taken into account. The predictions of the models agree well with experimental results. Therefore, this work furthers the understanding of the fatigue performance deterioration of the bridges by using a multisensor system.

  18. Municipal consultation key to understanding haul road maintenance agreements for Saskatchewan rural municipalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, R.E.A.

    1998-01-01

    Current municipal perspectives regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were described. Municipal jurisdiction and authority regarding road development and heavy haul road maintenance agreements were defined. Based on actual work experience, collaborative working relationships between the oil and gas industry and the municipal sector is well worth some industry time and effort since it will result in cost savings for the industry. In general, rural municipalities receive very limited tax benefits to recapture the costs of road reconstruction and maintenance caused by heavy industry traffic. Road servicing costs can be recaptured only if companies respect the weight limits, hauling regulations and road bans. On the whole, municipalities in Saskatchewan are favourably disposed towards the oil and gas industry, and have done well in the past to accommodate industry's needs. It is not unreasonable therefore to expect that industry show sensitivity to the impact of its activities on the local municipality, and does its level best to be on good terms with the municipalities through early two-way communication. Text of some relevant acts of the Legislature respecting the powers and authorities of rural municipalities are appended

  19. 2050 Scenarios for Long-Haul Tourism in the Evolving Global Climate Change Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jako Volschenk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and its “midwife”, aviation, are transnational sectors exposed to global uncertainties. This scenario-building exercise considers a specific subset of these uncertainties, namely the impact of the evolving global climate change regime on long-haul tourism (LHT, with a 2050 horizon. The basic problematique is that unconstrained growth in aviation emissions will not be compatible with 2050 climate stabilisation goals, and that the stringency and timing of public policy interventions could have far-reaching impacts — either on the market for future growth of LHT, or the natural ecosystem on which tourism depends. Following an intuitive-logic approach to scenario-building, three meta-level scenarios that can be regarded as “possible” futures for the evolution of LHT are described. Two of these, i.e., the “grim reaper” and the “fallen angel” scenarios, are undesirable. The “green lantern” scenario represents the desired future. Long-haul tourist destinations should heed the early warning signals identified in the scenario narratives, and contribute towards realising the desired future. They should further guard against being passive victims if the feared scenarios materialise, by adapting, repositioning early upon reading the signposts, hedging against risks, and seizing new opportunities.

  20. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognised in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase. Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs die cost for air travel. Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organisation in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in-the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  1. Air crew exposure on board of long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, F.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    New European radiation protection recommendations state that measures need to be taken for flight crew members whose annual radiation exposure exceeds 1 mSv. This will be the case for flight crew members who accumulate most of their flying hours on long-haul flights. The Recommendations for the Implementation of the Basic Safety Standards Directive states that for annual exposure levels between 1 and 6 mSv individual dose estimates should be obtained, whereas for annual exposures exceeding 6 mSv, which might rarely occur, record keeping with appropriate medical surveillance is recommended. To establish the exposure level of Belgian air crews, radiation measurements were performed on board of a total of 44 long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines. The contribution of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (photons, electrons, protons) was assessed by using TLD-700H detectors. The exposure to high-LET radiation (mostly neutrons) was measured with bubble detectors. Results were compared to calculations with an adapted version of the computer code CARI. For the low-LET radiation the calculations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements. The measurements of the neutron dose were consistently lower than the calculations. With the current flight schedules used by the Belgian airlines, air crew members are unlikely to receive annual doses exceeding 4 mSv. (author)

  2. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007422.htm Low back pain - chronic To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your ...

  3. A New Method for Haul Road Design in Open-Pit Mines to Support Efficient Truck Haulage Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Baek

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a haul road for an open-pit mine can significantly affect the cost associated with hauling ore and waste to the surface. This study proposes a new method for haul road design in open-pit mines to support efficient truck haulage operations. The road layout in open-pit mines was optimized by using raster-based least-cost path analysis, and the resulting zigzag road sections were simplified by applying the Douglas-Peucker algorithm. In addition, the road layout was modified by reflecting the radius of curvature suggested in the road design guides. Finally, a three-dimensional model reflecting the results of the road design was created by combining the road layout modification result with the slope of the open-pit mine and the bench design result. The application of the proposed method to an area containing gold deposits made it possible to design a haul road for open-pit mines such that it supported efficient truck haulage operations; furthermore, the time required for truck movement along the road could be estimated. The proposed method is expected to be useful for planning and designing open-pit mines and to facilitate the improvement of the road design function of existing mining software applications.

  4. Reduction of the safety and health risk associated with the generation of dust on strip coal mine haul roads.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thompson, RJ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available mine haul roads. This would be used to identify suitable spray-on or mix-in surface treatments to reduce the generation of dust, within the constraints of cost effectiveness and maintainability, through consideration of wearing course material type...

  5. Effect of hypobaric hypoxia, simulating conditions during long-haul air travel, on coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet function, and endothelial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toff, William D.; Jones, Chris I.; Ford, Isobel; Pearse, Robert J.; Watson, Henry G.; Watt, Stephen J.; Ross, John A. S.; Gradwell, David P.; Batchelor, Anthony J.; Abrams, Keith R.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Goodall, Alison H.; Greaves, Michael

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: The link between long-haul air travel and venous thromboembolism is the subject of continuing debate. It remains unclear whether the reduced cabin pressure and oxygen tension in the airplane cabin create an increased risk compared with seated immobility at ground level. OBJECTIVE: To

  6. Establishment and verification of three-dimensional dynamic model for heavy-haul train-track coupled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zhai, Wanming; Wang, Kaiyun

    2016-11-01

    For the long heavy-haul train, the basic principles of the inter-vehicle interaction and train-track dynamic interaction are analysed firstly. Based on the theories of train longitudinal dynamics and vehicle-track coupled dynamics, a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic model of the heavy-haul train-track coupled system is established through a modularised method. Specifically, this model includes the subsystems such as the train control, the vehicle, the wheel-rail relation and the line geometries. And for the calculation of the wheel-rail interaction force under the driving or braking conditions, the large creep phenomenon that may occur within the wheel-rail contact patch is considered. For the coupler and draft gear system, the coupler forces in three directions and the coupler lateral tilt angles in curves are calculated. Then, according to the characteristics of the long heavy-haul train, an efficient solving method is developed to improve the computational efficiency for such a large system. Some basic principles which should be followed in order to meet the requirement of calculation accuracy are determined. Finally, the 3-D train-track coupled model is verified by comparing the calculated results with the running test results. It is indicated that the proposed dynamic model could simulate the dynamic performance of the heavy-haul train well.

  7. Environmental Survey Report for the ETTP: Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Haul Road Corridor, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-12-20

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveys conducted within the corridor of a temporary haul road (''Haul Road'') to be constructed from East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located just west of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). ORNL assistance to the Haul Road Project included environmental assessments necessary to determine the best route for minimizing impacts to sensitive resources such as wetlands or rare plants. Once the final route was chosen, environmental surveys were conducted within the corridor to evaluate the impacts to sensitive resources that could not be avoided. The final Haul Road route follows established roads and a power-line corridor to the extent possible (Fig. 1). Detailed explanation regarding the purpose of the Haul Road and the regulatory context associated with its construction is provided in at least two major documents and consequently is not presented here: (1) Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January 2005, DOE/OR/01-2194&D2), and (2) Environmental Monitoring Plan for The ETTP to EMWMF Haul Road for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (April 2005, BJC/OR-2152). The focus of this report is a description of the sensitive resources to be impacted by Haul Road construction. Following a short description of the methods used for the environmental surveys, results and observations are presented in the following subsections: (1) General description

  8. Responses of Lower-Body Power and Match Running Demands Following Long-Haul Travel in International Rugby Sevens Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John A; Pumpa, Kate L; Pyne, David B

    2017-03-01

    Mitchell, JA, Pumpa, KL, and Pyne, DB. Responses of lowerbody power and match running demands after long-haul travel in international rugby sevens players. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 686-695, 2017-This study determined the effect of long-haul (>5 hours) travel on lower-body power and match running demands in international rugby sevens players. Lower-body power was assessed in 22 male international rugby sevens players (age 21.7 ± 2.7 years, mass 89.0 ± 6.7 kg, stature 180.5 ± 6.2 cm; mean ± SD) monitored over 17 rugby sevens tournaments. A countermovement jump was used to monitor lower-body power (peak and mean power) over repeated three week travel and competition periods (pretravel, posttravel, and posttournament). Small decreases were evident in peak power after both short and long-haul travel (-4.0%, ±3.2%; mean, ±90% confidence limits) with further reductions in peak and mean power posttournament (-4.5%, ±2.3% and -3.8%, ±1.5%) culminating in a moderate decrease in peak power overall (-7.4%, ±4.0%). A subset of 12 players (completing a minimum of 8 tournaments) had the effects of match running demands assessed with lower-body power. In this subset, long-haul travel elicited a large decrease in lower-body peak (-9.4%, ±3.5%) and mean power (-5.6%, ±2.9%) over the monitoring period, with a small decrease (-4.3%, ±3.0% and -2.2%, ±1.7%) posttravel and moderate decrease (-5.4%, ±2.5% and -3.5%, ±1.9%) posttournament, respectively. Match running demands were monitored through global positioning system. In long-haul tournaments, the 12 players covered ∼13%, ±13% greater total distance (meter) and ∼11%, ±10% higher average game meters >5 m·s when compared with short-haul (rugby sevens tournaments after long-haul travel.

  9. Study of short haul high-density V/STOL transportation systems, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    The relative advantages of STOL aircraft concepts were examined by simulating the operations of a short haul high-density intercity STOL system set in two arenas, the California corridor and the Chicago-Detroit-Cleveland triangle, during the 1980 time period. The study was constrained to the use of three aircraft concepts designated as the deflected slipstream turboprop, externally blown flap, and augmentor wing turbofan configurations. The projected demographic, economic, travel demand, and travel characteristics of the representative arenas were identified. The STOL airline operating scenarios were then formulated and through the use of the aerospace modal split simulation program, the traveler modal choices involving alternative STOL concepts were estimated in the context of the total transportation environment for 1980. System combinations that presented the best potential for economic return and traveler acceptance were then identified for each STOL concept.

  10. US long-haul truck driver work organization and the association with cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Adam; Lemke, Michael Kenneth; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Perko, Mike; Sönmez, Sevil; Strack, Robert

    2017-09-03

    Work organization, including long working hours, irregular work schedules, and job stress, has been associated with increased cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk for numerous working populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between work hours, work schedules, job stress, and CMD risk for a sample of US long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs). A nonexperimental, descriptive, cross-sectional design was employed to collect survey and anthropometric data from 260 US LHTDs at a major truck stop. The mean BMI was 33.40 kg/m 2 and mean waist circumference was 114.77 cm. Using logistic regression, researchers found longer work hours, especially greater than 11 hours daily, were associated with increased odds for an extremely high risk of CMD. Results support comprehensive and integrated approaches that address work organization, and in particular long working hours, to reduce drivers' CMD risk.

  11. Trends and individual differences in response to short-haul fight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, T. R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of airline pilots was undertaken to determine normative patterns and individual differences in mood and sleep during short-haul flight operations. The results revealed that over the course of a typical 2-d trip, pilots experience a decline in positive mood, or activity, and an increase in negative mood, or tension. On layovers, pilots report experiencing sleep of shorter duration and poorer quality than at home. These patterns are very similar to those reported by Gander and Graeber and by Gander et al. using high-fidelity sleep and activity monitoring equipment. Examination of the impact of two personality dimensions extracted from the Jenkins Activity Survey measure of the Type A personality, Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability, suggested that Impatience/Irritability may serve as a marker of individuals most likely to experience health-related problems on trips. Achievement Striving may serve as a predictor of performance in crew settings.

  12. Trends and individual differences in response to short-haul flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of airline pilots was undertaken to determine normative patterns and individual differences in mood and sleep during short-haul flight operations. The results revealed that over the course of a typical 2-d trip, pilots experience a decline in positive mood, or activity, and an increase in negative mood, or tension. On layovers, pilots report experiencing sleep of shorter duration and poorer quality than at home. These patterns are very similar to those reported by Gander and Graeber (1987) and by Gander et al. (1988), using high-fidelity sleep and activity monitoring equipment. Examination of the impact of two personality dimensions extracted from the Jenkins Activity Survey measure of the Type A personality, Achievement Striving and Impatience/Irritability, suggested that Impatience/Irritability may serve as a marker of individuals most likely to experience health-related problems on trips. Achievement Striving may serve as a predictor of performance in crew settings.

  13. Improvement of the mining technology with the ring movement scheme of the haul trucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodyanyuk R.V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the designed technology that allows to expand the use of the haul truck ring movement scheme and to reduce the share of an empty run time in the transportation cycle. A preliminary calculation of the efficiency of its usage has allowed to confirm the main advantages of this scheme over the existing one as follows: reducing the required number of transport for the needs of open-pit mine operation by increasing the productivity of mining trucks; decreasing the transport operating costs (some part of an empty truck movement occurs when the engine is switched off; dropping the probability of accidents (reduced a number of the counter transport maneuvers. The calculation showed the regularity of changes in the efficiency using the alternative scheme in relation to the basic one, which reflecting significantly higher effectiveness in situations with a smaller distance between the empty run sites of the ring scheme.

  14. Catch of pelagic hauls in Mediterranean acoustic surveys: Is it the same between day and night?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Machias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish sampling is a critical aspect of acoustic surveys, because it is directly related to the “transformation” of echo into species biomass and subsequently affects the accuracy of acoustic estimates. In the present study, we investigated the differences between day and night sampling in a the catch composition through certain diversity indices and b the length frequency distribution of anchovy and sardine using catch data of pelagic hauls collected from four different regions of the European Mediterranean waters. In addition, the possible bias in trawl efficiency due to sampling time and the possible error introduced in acoustic estimates were investigated. No statistically significant differences were found between day and night in any of the parameters examined. The results showed that a more flexible strategy can be adopted to reduce the duration and the cost of acoustic sampling for small pelagic species. The advantages and disadvantages of the two sampling strategies are discussed.

  15. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  16. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  17. Back Pain in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadi Kayiran ; Sinan Mahir Kayiran;

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular knowledge, back pain is quite frequently seen in children. While very rare in the pre-school age group, frequency reaches 30% in the adolescent period. In many cases, the causes of back pain in childhood cannot be exactly determined and the pain disappears by itself in a short time. It should be remembered that back pain that persists for more than two weeks may be associated with organic causes. Whether or not there have been disruptions in neurological functions should be definitely probed in the medical history. Keeping in mind that back pain could be a part of a systemic disease, a systemic examination should be carried out in cases where there has been long-term back pain. The complaint of childhood back pain should be assessed with a thorough history, a careful physical examination and advanced testing tools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 115-118

  18. Back Pain and Modic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus; Jordan, Alan; Mikkelsen, Connie

    Long awaited breakthrough Approximately 25 years ago a few researchers managed to publish an article in the renowned medical journal, The Lancet. The article demonstrated that intensive exercise was most useful for patients with chronic back pain. Many of our colleagues found this difficult...... to accept, nonetheless, intensive exercise has for chronic back pain has spread across the world and has become – in different forms – the most commonly prescribed treatment for back pain patients. Since that time, there has not been much research based progress in back science, however, we have taken...... a significant step forward with the advent of the new back pain diagnosis, ”Modic changes”. During the coming years, thousands of back pain patients will now be given a precise diagnosis as well as a useful treatment in cases where we previously we unable to provide either a diagnosis or a useful treatment...

  19. Factors Affecting Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina in Tidewater Glacier Inlets in Alaska: Can Tourism Vessels and Seals Coexist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail M Blundell

    Full Text Available Large numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina use habitat in tidewater glaciers in Alaska for pupping, breeding, and molting. Glacial fjords are also popular tourist destinations; however, visitation by numerous vessels can result in disturbance of seals during critical life-history phases. We explored factors affecting haul-out behavior of harbor seals at a glacial site frequented by tourism vessels. In 2008-10, we deployed VHF transmitters on 107 seals in Endicott Arm, Alaska. We remotely monitored presence and haul-out behavior of tagged seals and documented vessel presence with time-lapse cameras. We evaluated the influence of environmental and physical factors on the probability of being hauled out, duration of haul-out bouts, and as factors associated with the start and end of a haulout. Location, season, hour, and interactions of location by year, season, hour, and sex significantly influenced haul-out probability, as did ice, weather, and vessels. Seals were more likely to be hauled out with greater ice availability during the middle of the day, and less likely to be hauled out if vessels were present. Cruise ships had the strongest negative effect; however, most vessel types negatively affected haul-out probability. Haul-out duration was longest in association with starting on incoming tides, clear skies, no precipitation, occurring in the middle of the day, and ending in the late afternoon or evening. End of haulouts was associated with increasing cloud cover, low ice availability, and vessel presence; large-sized tourism vessels or all-vessel-types combined were significant predictors of ending a haul-out bout. Probability of being hauled out was highest in June, during pupping season. Potential disturbances of harbor seals could be reduced, enabling longer resting times for seals and fewer interruptions for nursing pups, if vessels focused the majority of visits to glacial habitat to before or after the hours of 08:00-17:00 or, less

  20. Functional requirements of the borrow area and haul route for the Waste Area Grouping projects at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.G.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes the mission and functional requirements for the development of a borrow area and the associated haul route to support closure and/or remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 and other WAGs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document specifies the basic functional requirements that must be met by the borrow area and haul route developed to produce low-permeability soil for the covers or caps at WAG 6

  1. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Mareev, Ivan; Becker, Jan Nicolas; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2018-01-01

    The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventio...

  2. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  3. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  4. Push-Back Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetenbaum, Toby J.; Tetenbaum, Hilary

    2003-01-01

    Describes push-back leadership, a model of leadership based on the work of Ronald Heifetz and Martin Linksky. Argues that the two key roles of the leader are to give the work back to people and to keep them within a healthy range of disequilibrium that generates creativity and innovation to solve organizational problems. (Author/LRW)

  5. Trapping and transportation of adult and juvenile salmon in the lower Umatilla River in northeast Oregon, 1996-1997. Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program. Annual progress report, October 1996 - September 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.; Duke, B.B.

    1997-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 30, 1996 to August 26, 1997. A total of 2,477 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 646 adult, 80 jack, and 606 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 618 adult and 24 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,194 adult and four jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 22 summer steelhead; 18 adult and two jack fall chinook; five adult coho; and 407 adult and three jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 2,245 summer steelhead; 70 adult, 51 jack and 520 subjack fall chinook; 593 adult and 24 jack coho; and 1,130 adult spring chinook released at Threemile Dam I In addition, 110 summer steelhead; 551 adult and 25 jack fall chinook; and 600 adult spring chinook were collected for broodstock. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts, The canal was open for a total of 210 days between December 16, 1996 and July 30, 1997. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 175 days and were trapped on 35 days, An estimated 1,675 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5), Approximately 80% of the juveniles transported were salmonids, No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from October 4 to November 1, 1996 and from March 26 to July 7, 1997. The juvenile trap was not operated this year. 6 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  7. Low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; van Tulder, Maurits; Öberg, Birgitta

    2018-01-01

    Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of years lost to disability and its burden is growing alongside the increasing and ageing population.1 Because these population shifts are more rapid in low-income and middle-income countries, where adequate resources to address the problem might...... not exist, the effects will probably be more extreme in these regions. Most low back pain is unrelated to specific identifiable spinal abnormalities, and our Viewpoint, the third paper in this Lancet Series,2,3 is a call for action on this global problem of low back pain....

  8. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  9. Climate change and the long-term viability of the World's busiest heavy haul ice road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Swindles, Graeme; Patterson, Tim; Galloway, Jennifer; Macumber, Andrew; Falck, Hendrik; Crossley, Laura; Chen, Jie; Pisaric, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Climate models project that the northern high latitudes will warm at a rate in excess of the global mean. This will pose severe problems for Arctic and sub-Arctic infrastructure dependent on maintaining low temperatures for structural integrity. This is the case for the economically important Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road (TCWR)—the world's busiest heavy haul ice road, spanning 400 km across mostly frozen lakes within the Northwest Territories of Canada. In this study, future climate scenarios are developed for the region using statistical downscaling methods. In addition, changes in lake ice thickness are projected based on historical relationships between measured ice thickness and air temperatures. These projections are used to infer the theoretical operational dates of the TCWR based on weight limits for trucks on the ice. Results across three climate models driven by four RCPs reveal a considerable warming trend over the coming decades. Projected changes in ice thickness reveal a trend towards thinner lake ice and a reduced time window when lake ice is at sufficient thickness to support trucks on the ice road, driven by increasing future temperatures. Given the uncertainties inherent in climate modelling and the resultant projections, caution should be exercised in interpreting the magnitude of these scenarios. More certain is the direction of change, with a clear trend towards winter warming that will reduce the operation time window of the TCWR. This illustrates the need for planners and policymakers to consider future changes in climate when planning annual haulage along the TCWR.

  10. Hauled liquid waste as a pollutant of soils and waters in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczmarczyk Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hauled liquid waste as a pollutant of soils and waters in Poland. Improperly maintained holding tanks are often underestimated source of contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water. As a rule, wastewater stored in holding tanks, should be transported and treated in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. There are 2,257,000 holding tanks in Poland, located mainly in rural areas. The article presents the results of analysis of wastewater management in 20 rural and urban-rural communes, which were chosen at random from the total number of 2,174 communes in Poland. The only criterion of commune selection was total or partial lack of sewerage system. Analysis of the collected data showed that on average only 27% of liquid waste from holding tanks ended at the WWTPs. The median is even lower and amounts to 17.5%. More than 4,000 Mg of P and 26,000 Mg of N is dispersed in the environment in uncontrolled manner. Those diffuse point sources of pollution may be one of the reasons in the difficulty of achieving of good ecological status of rivers and affect the quality of the Baltic Sea.

  11. Development of ergonomics audits for bagging, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick G; Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William L; Mayton, Alan; Heberger, John R; Gallagher, Sean; Reardon, Leanna; Drury, Colin G

    2017-12-01

    The development and testing of ergonomics and safety audits for small and bulk bag filling, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in coal preparation and mineral processing plants found at surface mine sites is described. The content for the audits was derived from diverse sources of information on ergonomics and safety deficiencies including: analysis of injury, illness and fatality data and reports; task analysis; empirical laboratory studies of particular tasks; field studies and observations at mine sites; and maintenance records. These diverse sources of information were utilised to establish construct validity of the modular audits that were developed for use by mine safety personnel. User and interrater reliability testing was carried out prior to finalising the audits. The audits can be implemented using downloadable paper versions or with a free mobile NIOSH-developed Android application called ErgoMine. Practitioner Summary: The methodology used to develop ergonomics audits for three types of mining operations is described. Various sources of audit content are compared and contrasted to serve as a guide for developing ergonomics audits for other occupational contexts.

  12. Unintentional stoppages of trucks hauling high-level nuclear waste in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Any unintentional stoppage of trucks hauling high-level nuclear waste in Nevada could intensify public concerns about the negative impacts of the Yucca Mountain Project. This paper provides estimates of the expected number and frequency of such stoppages under several alternative scenarios for the routing and volume of the anticipated truck shipments. At least twice as many truck stoppages are expected to occur on freeways as on non-freeways, and at least twice as many are expected to occur in rural areas as in other areas. The expected frequency of such stoppages in the state is estimated to range from about 3 per year to one every 3 1/2 years. About one in every 4 of the stoppages is expected to take place in Las Vegas and 3 out of every 4 are expected to be non-accidents such as mechanical disablements. The minimum duration of the stoppages is expected to be on the order of half an hour for disablements and an hour for accidents

  13. Research on Navigation Path Planning for An Underground Load Haul Dump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Yulong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The improved A * algorithm is a method of navigation path planning for articulated underground scrapers. Firstly, an environment model based on a mining Geographic Information System (GIS map is established, and then combined with improved A * algorithm, the underground global path planning problem of the intelligent Load Haul Dump (LHD is solved. In this paper, for the articulated structure, the method of expanding nodes by articulation angle is adopted to make expanded nodes meet the trajectory characteristics. In addition, collision threat cost is introduced in the evaluation function to avoid collisions between the LHD and the tunnel walls. As peran analysis of the simulation test to verify the effectiveness of the improved A * algorithm and a comparison with the traditional A * algorithm, the improved A * algorithm can enhance search efficiency. Acontrast of multiple sets of test parameters suggests that when the price weighted coefficient of collision is 0.2, the shortest path can be derived to avoid impact. Finally, tracking results indicate that the proposed algorithm for navigation path planning can maintain the tracking error to within 0.2 m in line with the structural characteristics of the scraper in the laboratory environment to realize the path planning of unmanned scrapers and trajectory tracking. Moreover, the algorithm can enhance the safety of scrapers and prevent roadway collisions. The feasibility and practicality of the proposed method is verified in this work.

  14. specific low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... SPECIFIC LOW BACK PAIN: IMPLICATION FOR DIRECT HEALTH. CARE COST ... abundant evidence suggesting the benefits of therapeu- tic exercise on pain and ... Exercise and behavioural therapies in chronic pain. 174.

  15. Squeezed fermions and back-to-back correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, P.K.; Krein, G.; Padula, S.S.; Csoergoe, T.; Hama, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Back-to-back correlations of asymptotic fermion pairs appear if in-medium interactions lead to mass modifications of fermion states in a thermalized medium. The back-to-back correlations of protons and anti-protons will be experimentally observable in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The strength of back-to-back correlations of fermions can be unlimitedly large, diverging as the momentum of the pair increases and the net baryon density decreases. (author)

  16. Squeezed fermions and back-to-back correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, P.K.; Krein, G.; Padula, S.S. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Csoergoe, T. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (RMKI, KFKI); Hama, Y. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    Back-to-back correlations of asymptotic fermion pairs appear if in-medium interactions lead to mass modifications of fermion states in a thermalized medium. The back-to-back correlations of protons and anti-protons will be experimentally observable in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. The strength of back-to-back correlations of fermions can be unlimitedly large, diverging as the momentum of the pair increases and the net baryon density decreases. (author)

  17. Sleep quality in long haul truck drivers: A study on Iranian national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh; Kazemifar, Amir-Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Iran has a high rate of road traffic accidents. Poor quality of sleep brings about loss of attention, which is an important cause of road traffic accidents particularly in monotonous roads. The causes of poor quality of sleep in occupational drivers are multifactorial. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of poor sleep quality among occupational drivers with rotating work schedules and analyze its different risk factors. 2200 professional long-haul truck drivers who had been referred to the Occupational Health Clinic for routine education course were invited. We obtained data from eight provinces from various parts of Iran during 2012-2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including questions about demographic and job characteristics. Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess drivers' sleep quality. Mean working (driving) time was (9.3±2.5) hours daily and (55.5 ± 18.29) hours weekly. About 23.5% of the drivers reported history of smoking, 14.5% had low job satisfaction and 60% had irregular work schedule. 16.4% of drivers had an accidents leading to injury during the past five years. The mean PSQI score was 4.2 ± 2.7; 54% had a PSQI>5 (poor quality of sleep). Multivariate logistic regression showed that smoking, job satisfaction, history of accidents, shift work and work hours per day were the most important risk factors for poor sleep quality. Results obtained from the current study showed a high prevalence of poor quality of sleep among professional drivers. It warrants more attention to this significant problem using some measures to improve working conditions in professional drivers, as well as health promotion interventions.

  18. Genome response to ionizing radiation exposure in a sample of long haul pilots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefano, G.F.; Fuciarelli, M.; Piacentini, S.; Romano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In 1990 ICPR accepted definitively that on average flying-crew personnel and pilots are exposed per year, for professional reasons, to ionizing radiation doses 5 to 10 times over that of people at ground level. Although these values are below the level stated by the ICPR as upper risk limit (20 mSv/y), because a number of epidemiological studies evidenced an increase of some specific tumors (among them: melanomas, breast cancer and leukemia) among pilots of different national companies, suspect arises on that these pathologies were a consequence of the over-amount of radiation absorbed for professional reasons. In order to give an answer to this question several studies have been developed in the last two decades, using the analysis of the frequency distribution of the chromosomal aberrations (mainly: dicentric and ring chromosomes and chromatic aberrations) as the most sensitive method to detect the long tern radio-biological damage (bio-dosimetric method). As the result reported in the previous literature are contradictory and thus largely questionable, a new study was performed taking into account some limits of the previous researches and treating to overcome the consequent criticisms. This paper is devoted to report the results obtained in such a study and refers on the cytogenetic and molecular analyses performed in our laboratories on a sample of 32 pilots employed in the national civil airline on long haul routes from at least 7 years. For comparison, a sample of 29 healthy males' donors of comparable age has been taken into account. New evidences on the increase of chromosomal translocations are presented and widely discussed. Furthermore, results obtained in an unusual attempt to study the association between the frequency and the 'category' of the chromosomal aberrations and the presence or absence of specific polymorphisms of genes encoding for some detoxifying enzymes (GSTs family) are also presented and discussed. (author)

  19. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    , Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical......#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre....... Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. But selfhood cannot be reduced to narrative identity since the identity of the self is only fully revealed the moment we include the ethical dimension including certain norms...

  20. Metal exposure and effects in voles and small birds near a mining haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Mora, Miguel A; May, Thomas W; Phalen, David N

    2010-11-01

    Voles and small passerine birds were live-captured near the Delong Mountain Regional Transportation System (DMTS) haul road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument in northwest Alaska to assess metals exposure and sub-lethal biological effects. Similar numbers of animals were captured from a reference site in southern Cape Krusenstern National Monument for comparison. Histopathological examination of selected organs, and analysis of cadmium, lead, and zinc concentrations in liver and blood samples were performed. Voles and small birds captured from near the haul road had about 20 times greater blood and liver lead concentrations and about three times greater cadmium concentrations when compared to those from the reference site, but there were no differences in zinc tissue concentrations. One vole had moderate metastatic mineralization of kidney tissue, otherwise we observed no abnormalities in internal organs or DNA damage in the blood of any of the animals. The affected vole also had the greatest liver and blood Cd concentration, indicating that the lesion might have been caused by Cd exposure. Blood and liver lead concentrations in animals captured near the haul road were below concentrations that have been associated with adverse biological effects in other studies; however, subtle effects resulting from lead exposure, such as the suppression of the activity of certain enzymes, cannot be ruled out for some individual animals. Results from our 2006 reconnaissance-level study indicate that overall, voles and small birds obtained from near the DMTS road in Cape Krusenstern National Monument were not adversely affected by metals exposure; however, because of the small sample size and other uncertainties, continued monitoring of lead and cadmium in terrestrial habitats near the DMTS road is advised.

  1. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC DEFORMATIONS OF THE TRACK CABLE ON EFFORTS IN THE HAULING ROPE OF AERIAL ROPEWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Raksha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate influence of elastic deformations of the track cable arising at movement of cars, on effort in a hauling rope of the aerial ropeway. Methodology. The method of consecutive approaches was used for research influence of elastic deformations of a track cable on effort in a hauling rope. Thus, definition of a tension of a track cable was carried out with use of the technique based on principles of modular configuration, the essence of which consists in formation of mathematical model by a combination of blocks of the formulas describing balance of the track cable on supports. Findings. The research has shown that influence of elastic deformations of a track cable on effort in a hauling rope was insignificant (less than 1 %. That points to possibility not to consider change of the track cable length, caused by its elastic properties, when modeling loading of elements of system «drive – traction rope – tension device». Also it has been found that use of the tension device of a track cable increased influence of its elastic properties on loading of rope system elements. At the same time the elastic component of the track cable tension in the test flight does not depend on a car position in the adjacent span, but only determines by the parameters of the rope system. Originality. The possibility of excluding the changes of track cable length caused by its elastic properties, when modeling loading of elements of system «drive – traction rope – tension device» was proved. Practical value. The use of these techniques and the results will simplify the mathematical model of loading of elements of the cable system and the system «drive – traction rope – tension device» as a whole.

  2. A Cost Effective Method for Determining the Position of Mine Haul Road Defects from the Road Edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sokolic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple method for estimating haul road defect positions from alongside roads. It is a method that is cheap and easy to implement, needing only a minimal amount of field equipment and training. Observers are required to estimate the bearing and distance to a defect, and to record their location using a GPS receiver. All further processing is automated and can be done entirely within a spatially-enabled database management system such as Microsoft SQL Server or PostgreSQL.

  3. specific low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... 2Department of Medicine, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana. ... ly, 10% to 20% of patients with low back pain develop ... directly because of illness which are not health care ... activity as regards the treatment outcomes of chronic .... maximal training at 70-80% maximum heart rate).

  4. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  5. Back Pain - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... List of All Topics All Back Pain - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated on 31 May 2018

  6. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    and reluctant to speak out. Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. The health professionals must incorporate the patients’ narratives as an integral part of the care and treatment. Conclusions: In order to acknowledge...

  7. NIOSH national survey of long-haul truck drivers: Injury and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang X.; Sieber, W. Karl; Lincoln, Jennifer E.; Birdsey, Jan; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Nakata, Akinori; Robinson, Cynthia F.; Collins, James W.; Sweeney, Marie H.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1,701,500 people were employed as heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers in the United States in 2012. The majority of them were long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs). There are limited data on occupational injury and safety in LHTDs, which prompted a targeted national survey. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health conducted a nationally representative survey of 1265 LHTDs at 32 truck stops across the contiguous United States in 2010. Data were collected on truck crashes, near misses, moving violations, work-related injuries, work environment, safety climate, driver training, job satisfaction, and driving behaviors. Results suggested that an estimated 2.6% of LHTDs reported a truck crash in 2010, 35% reported at least one crash while working as an LHTD, 24% reported at least one near miss in the previous 7 days, 17% reported at least one moving violation ticket and 4.7% reported a non-crash injury involving days away from work in the previous 12 months. The majority (68%) of non-crash injuries among company drivers were not reported to employers. An estimate of 73% of LHTDs (16% often and 58% sometimes) perceived their delivery schedules unrealistically tight; 24% often continued driving despite fatigue, bad weather, or heavy traffic because they needed to deliver or pick up a load at a given time; 4.5% often drove 10 miles per hours or more over the speed limit; 6.0% never wore a seatbelt; 36% were often frustrated by other drivers on the road; 35% often had to wait for access to a loading dock; 37% reported being noncompliant with hours-of-service rules (10% often and 27% sometimes); 38% of LHTDs perceived their entry-level training inadequate; and 15% did not feel that safety of workers was a high priority with their management. This survey brings to light a number of important safety issues for further research and interventions, e.g., high prevalence of truck crashes, injury underreporting, unrealistically tight delivery schedules

  8. Saltwater nectotizing fasciitis following coral reef laceration possibly exacerbated by a long-haul flight: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Necrotising fasciits is a rapidly progressive disease characterised by extensive necrosis of the fascia, skin, and subcutaneous tissue, with relative sparing of the underlying muscle. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 24-year old Irish male student who sustained a laceration to his right shin from contact with a coral reef while swimming in the Phuket region, off the west coast of Thailand. The following day, he returned to Ireland and presented with an aggressive and destructive variant of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal necrotising fasciitis originating at the site of the coral reef injury, and exacerbated by the long-haul flight. He was successfully treated with aggressive surgical debridement, vacuum-assisted dressings, split skin grafting and broad spectrum antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Necrotising fasciitis can progress rapidly to systemic toxicity and even death without expedient diagnosis and aggressive treatment. Long-haul flights induce significant fluid accumulation in the lower extremity. These physiological fluid shifts may have contributed to the severity of our patient\\'s necrotizing condition following his flight from Thailand.

  9. Evaluation of four-dimensional nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation for next-generation long-haul optical transport networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yequn; Arabaci, Murat; Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2012-04-09

    Leveraging the advanced coherent optical communication technologies, this paper explores the feasibility of using four-dimensional (4D) nonbinary LDPC-coded modulation (4D-NB-LDPC-CM) schemes for long-haul transmission in future optical transport networks. In contrast to our previous works on 4D-NB-LDPC-CM which considered amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as the dominant impairment, this paper undertakes transmission in a more realistic optical fiber transmission environment, taking into account impairments due to dispersion effects, nonlinear phase noise, Kerr nonlinearities, and stimulated Raman scattering in addition to ASE noise. We first reveal the advantages of using 4D modulation formats in LDPC-coded modulation instead of conventional two-dimensional (2D) modulation formats used with polarization-division multiplexing (PDM). Then we demonstrate that 4D LDPC-coded modulation schemes with nonbinary LDPC component codes significantly outperform not only their conventional PDM-2D counterparts but also the corresponding 4D bit-interleaved LDPC-coded modulation (4D-BI-LDPC-CM) schemes, which employ binary LDPC codes as component codes. We also show that the transmission reach improvement offered by the 4D-NB-LDPC-CM over 4D-BI-LDPC-CM increases as the underlying constellation size and hence the spectral efficiency of transmission increases. Our results suggest that 4D-NB-LDPC-CM can be an excellent candidate for long-haul transmission in next-generation optical networks.

  10. Hardware-efficient signal generation of layered/enhanced ACO-OFDM for short-haul fiber-optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qibing; Song, Binhuang; Corcoran, Bill; Boland, David; Zhu, Chen; Zhuang, Leimeng; Lowery, Arthur J

    2017-06-12

    Layered/enhanced ACO-OFDM is a promising candidate for intensity modulation and direct-detection based short-haul fiber-optic links due to its both power and spectral efficiency. In this paper, we firstly demonstrate a hardware-efficient real-time 9.375 Gb/s QPSK-encoded layered/enhanced asymmetrical clipped optical OFDM (L/E-ACO-OFDM) transmitter using a Virtex-6 FPGA. This L/E-ACO-OFDM signal is successfully transmitted over 20-km uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (S-SMF) using a directly modulated laser. Several methods are explored to reduce the FPGA's logic resource utilization by taking advantage of the L/E-ACO-OFDM's signal characteristics. We show that the logic resource occupation of L/E-ACO-OFDM transmitter is almost the same as that of DC-biased OFDM transmitter when they achieve the same spectral efficiency, proving its great potential to be used in a real-time short-haul optical transmission link.

  11. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  12. There and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    2002-01-01

    We present a programming pattern where a recursive function traverses a data structure---typically a list---at return time. The idea is that the recursive calls get us there (typically to a base case) and the returns get us back again while traversing the data structure. We name this programming...... pattern of traversing a data structure at return time "There And Back Again" (TABA).The TABA pattern directly applies to computing a symbolic convolution. It also synergizes well with other programming patterns, e.g., dynamic programming and traversing a list at double speed. We illustrate TABA...... and dynamic programming with Catalan numbers. We illustrate TABA and traversing a list at double speed with palindromes and we obtain a novel solution to this traditional exercise.A TABA-based function written in direct style makes full use of an Algol-like control stack and needs no heap allocation...

  13. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment....

  14. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  15. Predictors of severe trunk postures among short-haul truck drivers during non-driving tasks: an exploratory investigation involving video-assessment and driver behavioural self-monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R; Hahn, D I; Buckert, A

    2009-06-01

    Short-haul truck (lorry) drivers are particularly vulnerable to back pain and injury due to exposure to whole body vibration, prolonged sitting and demanding material handling tasks. The current project reports the results of video-based assessments (711 stops) and driver behavioural self-monitoring (BSM) (385 stops) of injury hazards during non-driving work. Participants (n = 3) worked in a trailer fitted with a camera system during baseline and BSM phases. Descriptive analyses showed that challenging customer environments and non-standard ingress/egress were prevalent. Statistical modelling of video-assessment results showed that each instance of manual material handling increased the predicted mean for severe trunk postures by 7%, while customer use of a forklift, moving standard pallets and moving non-standard pallets decreased predicted means by 12%, 20% and 22% respectively. Video and BSM comparisons showed that drivers were accurate at self-monitoring frequent environmental conditions, but less accurate at monitoring trunk postures and rare work events. The current study identified four predictors of severe trunk postures that can be modified to reduce risk of injury among truck drivers and showed that workers can produce reliable self-assessment data with BSM methods for frequent and easily discriminated events environmental.

  16. Formation flying as an innovative air transportation system for long-haul commercial flight : A focus on operational feasibility and potential gain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herinckx, L.E.; Gutleb, T.L.M.; Van Nunen, R.; Van Rompuy, E.; Bos, D.A.; Dijkers, H.P.A.; De Wit, J.; Radfar, H.; Sahin, S.E.; Beelarts van Blokland, W.W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Formation flying is introduced as a new and innovative air transportation system for long-haul commercial flight. With this paper the operational feasibility of formation flying is addressed, both from a market demand and economic, as well as an air traffic control perspective. Preliminary results

  17. Long-Haul Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission over Low-Crosstalk Heterogeneous 32-Core Transmission Line Using Partial Recirculating Loop System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Shibahara, Kohki; Ye, Feihong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present long-haul 32-core dense space division multiplexed (DSDM) unidirectional transmission over a single-mode multicore transmission line. We developed a low-crosstalk heterogeneous 32-core fiber with a square lattice arrangement, and a novel partial recirculating loop system...

  18. Imaging in mechanical back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem ...

  19. Understanding cultural influences on back pain and back pain research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henschke, Nicholas; Lorenz, Eva; Pokora, Roman; Michaleff, Zoe A; Quartey, Jonathan N A; Oliveira, Vinicius Cunha

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain is highly prevalent and places a considerable burden on individuals, their families and communities. This back pain burden is unequally distributed around the world and within populations. Clinicians and researchers addressing back pain should be aware of the cultural, social and political context of back pain patients and how this context can influence pain perception, disability and health care use. Culture, which influences the beliefs and behaviour of individuals within a social group, could be considered an important contributor to the unequal distribution of back pain. However, there is paucity of high-quality research exploring the influence of culture on the experience and management of back pain. Further development and testing of specific tools, assessment methods and communication strategies are needed to improve our understanding of how cultural practices, values and identifications affect those dealing with back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  1. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  2. Giving Back, Moving Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Fortmann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While reflecting on her own experience with giving back in Zimbabwe, Fortmann considers how the idea of “giving back” sits at the intersection of feminist theory, participatory research, and the democratization of science. From feminist theory arises the question of how to reciprocate to those who have contributed to our research. The participatory research and democratization of science literature push us to recognize and consider the collaborative nature of our research. Fortmann concludes by identifying three categories of reciprocity in research: material, intellectual, and personal. Sharing must occur, regardless of the kind of research taking place.

  3. Trends in spatial patterns of heavy metal deposition on national park service lands along the Red Dog Mine haul road, Alaska, 2001-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Neitlich

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of Zn, Pb and Cd deposition in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR, Alaska, adjacent to the Red Dog Mine haul road, were characterized in 2001 and 2006 using Hylocomium moss tissue as a biomonitor. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in moss tissue decreased logarithmically away from the haul road and the marine port. The metals concentrations in the two years were compared using Bayesian posterior predictions on a new sampling grid to which both data sets were fit. Posterior predictions were simulated 200 times both on a coarse grid of 2,357 points and by distance-based strata including subsets of these points. Compared to 2001, Zn and Pb concentrations in 2006 were 31 to 54% lower in the 3 sampling strata closest to the haul road (0-100, 100-2000 and 2000-4000 m. Pb decreased by 40% in the stratum 4,000-5,000 m from the haul road. Cd decreased significantly by 38% immediately adjacent to the road (0-100m, had an 89% probability of a small decrease 100-2000 m from the road, and showed moderate probabilities (56-71% for increase at greater distances. There was no significant change over time (with probabilities all ≤ 85% for any of the 3 elements in more distant reference areas (40-60 km. As in 2001, elemental concentrations in 2006 were higher on the north side of the road. Reductions in deposition have followed a large investment in infrastructure to control fugitive dust escapement at the mine and port sites, operational controls, and road dust mitigation. Fugitive dust escapement, while much reduced, is still resulting in elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd out to 5,000 m from the haul road. Zn and Pb levels were slightly above arctic baseline values in southern CAKR reference areas.

  4. Roll back malaria update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  5. Coexistence of enhanced mobile broadband communications and ultra-reliable low-latency communications in mobile front-haul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Kai; Kowalski, John M.; Nogami, Toshizo; Yin, Zhanping; Sheng, Jia

    2018-01-01

    5G systems are supposed to support coexistence of multiple services such as ultra reliable low latency communications (URLLC) and enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) communications. The target of eMBB communications is to meet the high-throughput requirement while URLLC are used for some high priority services. Due to the sporadic nature and low latency requirement, URLLC transmission may pre-empt the resource of eMBB transmission. Our work is to analyze the URLLC impact on eMBB transmission in mobile front-haul. Then, some solutions are proposed to guarantee the reliability/latency requirements for URLLC services and minimize the impact to eMBB services at the same time.

  6. MCDA APPLIED TO PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL OF SHORT-HAUL TRUCK DRIVERS: A CASE STUDY IN A PORTUGUESE TRUCKING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Morte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance appraisal increasingly assumes a more important role in any organizational environment. In the trucking industry, drivers are the company's image and for this reason it is important to develop and increase their performance and commitment to the company's goals. This paper aims to create a performance appraisal model for trucking drivers, based on a multi-criteria decision aid methodology. The PROMETHEE and MMASSI methodologies were adapted using the criteria used for performance appraisal by the trucking company studied. The appraisal involved all the truck drivers, their supervisors and the company's Managing Director. The final output is a ranking of the drivers, based on their performance, for each one of the scenarios used. The results are to be used as a decision-making tool to allocate drivers to the domestic haul service.

  7. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  8. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    policies thrive again, this time disguised in terms such as ‘empowerment’, but just as politicised as in the 1970s. Zambia is at the heart of this development. In the light of liberalisation, booming commodity prices and the increasing importance of Chinese investors, this article seeks to further our...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...... to the critique of the growing foreign dominance over the economy, and in particular of the upsurge in Chinese investments....

  9. Back wall solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A solar cell is disclosed which comprises a first semiconductor material of one conductivity type with one face having the same conductivity type but more heavily doped to form a field region arranged to receive the radiant energy to be converted to electrical energy, and a layer of a second semiconductor material, preferably highly doped, of opposite conductivity type on the first semiconductor material adjacent the first semiconductor material at an interface remote from the heavily doped field region. Instead of the opposite conductivity layer, a metallic Schottky diode layer may be used, in which case no additional back contact is needed. A contact such as a gridded contact, previous to the radiant energy may be applied to the heavily doped field region of the more heavily doped, same conductivity material for its contact.

  10. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  11. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  12. Photo-identification, site fidelity, and movement of female gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) between haul-outs in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Olle; Hiby, Lex; Lundberg, Torkel; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Helander, Björn

    2005-12-01

    The growing gray seal population in the Baltic Sea has led to increased conflicts with fisheries. Despite limited data on gray seal ecology, management measures, such as culling, have been implemented recently. We studied movements and site fidelity of Baltic gray seals using mark-recapture analysis based on photographic identification of individuals (photo-id). Seals were photographed at the major summer haul-out sites. Profile photographs of the head and neck were matched using purpose-written software to generate a database of capture histories from 1995-2000. The haul-outs were grouped into seven areas. Darroch's method (20) for a two-sample capture-recapture census was adapted to estimate rates of movement between the areas. The majority of seals were estimated to remain within the same area, suggesting that Baltic gray seals exhibit a high degree of site fidelity during the summer, and that fidelity to a site lasts for more than one season.

  13. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland FJ Popp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074 and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059. Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092. The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  14. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Roland Fj; Maier, Stefanie; Rothe, Siegfried; Zulley, Jürgen; Crönlein, Tatjana; Wetter, Thomas C; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM) phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074) and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059). Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092). The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  15. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE under-the-wing fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a variable pitch 1.34 pressure ratio fan for the under the wing (UTW) engine are included. The UTW fan was designed to permit rotation of the 18 composite fan blades into the reverse thrust mode of operation through both flat pitch and stall pitch directions.

  16. Bring back the Glory!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Whitman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drafted in response to Dr. Kiesow’s question, »Wozu Rechtsgeschichte?«, begins with a backward glance at the nineteenth century, when legal history played a leading role in the intellectual life of the western world. Since those great days, when legal history attracted figures like Karl Marx and Max Weber, the field has fallen on hard times. This is in large part the inevitable consequence of the declining prestige of law itself, which no longer seems to matter in the way that it did in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the paper pleads for something of a Return of Grand Theory in legal history. It is true that we can never bring back the glory years. But we can be figures of importance in the public debates of our time if we remain mindful of what it is that gives law itself its enduring social importance. Law reflects, in an unsystematic but telling way, some of the basic value commitments of society-commitments such as the contemporary American commitment to the free market, or the contemporary European commitment to »human dignity«. Law also reflects stylized histories of a given society’s past-histories like that of the American triumph over race slavery, or the European triumph over Nazism. These value commitments and stylized histories are the natural territory of legal historians, who can best claim a role for themselves in public debate if they think of themselves as historians of values, rather than as historians of social realities.

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  18. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change.

  19. Peeling Back the Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this panoramic camera image of the rock target named 'Mazatzal' on sol 77 (March 22, 2004). It is a close-up look at the rock face and the targets that will be brushed and ground by the rock abrasion tool in upcoming sols. Mazatzal, like most rocks on Earth and Mars, has layers of material near its surface that provide clues about the history of the rock. Scientists believe that the top layer of Mazatzal is actually a coating of dust and possibly even salts. Under this light coating may be a more solid portion of the rock that has been chemically altered by weathering. Past this layer is the unaltered rock, which may give scientists the best information about how Mazatzal was formed. Because each layer reveals information about the formation and subsequent history of Mazatzal, it is important that scientists get a look at each of them. For this reason, they have developed a multi-part strategy to use the rock abrasion tool to systematically peel back Mazatzal's layers and analyze what's underneath with the rover's microscopic imager, and its Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometers. The strategy began on sol 77 when scientists used the microscopic imager to get a closer look at targets on Mazatzal named 'New York,' 'Illinois' and 'Arizona.' These rock areas were targeted because they posed the best opportunity for successfully using the rock abrasion tool; Arizona also allowed for a close-up look at a range of tones. On sol 78, Spirit's rock abrasion tool will do a light brushing on the Illinois target to preserve some of the surface layers. Then, a brushing of the New York target should remove the top coating of any dust and salts and perhaps reveal the chemically altered rock underneath. Finally, on sol 79, the rock abrasion tool will be commanded to grind into the New York target, which will give scientists the best chance of observing Mazatzal's interior. The Mazatzal targets were named after the home states of

  20. Expansion effects on back-to-back correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, S.S.; Krein, G. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: padula@ift.unesp.br; Csoerg, T.; Panda, P.K. [Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI), Budapest (Hungary). Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (RMKI); Hama, Y. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Fisicas e Matematicas. Dept. de Fisica

    2004-07-01

    The back-to-back correlations (BBC) of particle-antiparticle pairs, signalling in-medium mass modification, are studied in a finite size thermalized medium. The width of BBC function is explicitly evaluated in the case of a nonrelativistic spherically symmetric expanding fireball. The effect of the flow is to reduce the BBC signal as compared to the case of non flow. Nevertheless, a significant signal survives finite-time emission plus expansion effects. (author)

  1. Expansion effects on back-to-back correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.; Krein, G.; Csoerg, T.; Panda, P.K.; Hama, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The back-to-back correlations (BBC) of particle-antiparticle pairs, signalling in-medium mass modification, are studied in a finite size thermalized medium. The width of BBC function is explicitly evaluated in the case of a nonrelativistic spherically symmetric expanding fireball. The effect of the flow is to reduce the BBC signal as compared to the case of non flow. Nevertheless, a significant signal survives finite-time emission plus expansion effects. (author)

  2. Expansion Effects on Back-to-Back Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S.S.; Krein, G.; Csoergo, T.; Hama, Y.; Panda, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    The back-to-back correlations (BBC) of particle-antiparticle pairs, signalling in-medium mass modification, are studied in a finite size thermalized medium. The width of BBC function is explicitly evaluated in the case of a nonrelativistic spherically symmetric expanding fireball. The effect of the flow is to reduce the BBC signal as compared to the case of non flow. Nevertheless, a significant signal survives finite-time emission plus expansion effects

  3. Impact of short- compared to long-haul international travel on the sleep and wellbeing of national wheelchair basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Miller, Joanna; Taylor, Lee; Sargent, Charli; Lastella, Michele; Fowler, Peter M

    2018-07-01

    Currently, very little is known about the impact of short- or long-haul air travel on the sleep and wellbeing of wheelchair basketball athletes. Eleven national wheelchair basketball athletes wore actigraphy monitors prior, during, and after air travel to the United Kingdom. Upon arrival, participants rated their subjective jet-lag, fatigue, and vigor. Individuals traveled to the United Kingdom from different locations in Australia, the United States, and Europe and were categorised according to travel length [LONG (up to 30.2 h) or SHORT (up to 6.5 h)]. Linear mixed models determined effects of travel length on sleep and subjective ratings of jet-lag, fatigue, and vigor. During competition, subjective fatigue and jet-lag were substantially higher (ES = 0.73; ±0.77) and (ES = 0.57; ±0.60), subjective vigor was lower (ES = 1.94; ±0.72), and get-up time was earlier (ES = 0.57; ±0.60) for LONG when compared to SHORT. Travelling greater distances by airplane had a larger effect on subjective ratings of jet-lag, fatigue and vigor, rather than sleep. Irrespective of travel group, sleep and subjective responses were compromised, reflecting the travel requirements, competition-mediated influences, and/or due to a change in environment.

  4. Health survey of U.S. long-haul truck drivers: work environment, physical health, and healthcare access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Sönmez, Sevil; Shattell, Mona M; Gonzales, Clifford; Fehrenbacher, Caitlin

    2013-01-01

    While trucking in industrialized nations is linked with driver health afflictions, the role of trucking in U.S. truckers' health remains largely unknown. This paper sheds light on links between the trucking work environment and drivers' physical health. Using a cross-sectional design, 316 truckers were enrolled in the Healthy Trucker Survey. Questions included work history, physical and mental health, and healthcare access. PASW 18 was used to examine patterns among factors. 316 truckers participated. Respondents were mainly full-time, long-haul drivers with over 5 years of experience, and who spent over 17 days on the road per month. While almost 75% described their health as good, 83.4% were overweight/obese, 57.9% had sleeping disturbances, 56.3% fatigue, 42.3% musculoskeletal disorders, and about 40% cardiovascular disease concerns. About 33% had no health insurance, 70% had no regular healthcare visits, 24.4% could not afford insurance, and 42.1% took over-the-counter drugs when sick, while 20.1% waited to reach home for medical care. Exercise facilities were unavailable in over 70% of trucking worksites and 70% of drivers did not exercise regularly. The trucking occupation places drivers at high risk for poor health outcomes. Prospective studies are needed to delve into how continued exposure to trucking influences the progression of disease burden.

  5. Cost characteristics of tilt-rotor, conventional air and high speed rail short-haul intercity passenger service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoendorfer, David L.; Morlok, Edward K.

    1985-01-01

    The cost analysis done to support an assessment of the potential for a small tilt-rotor aircraft to operate in short-haul intercity passenger service is described in detail. Anticipated costs of tilt-rotor air service were compared to the costs of two alternatives: conventional air and high speed rail (HSR). Costs were developed for corridor service, varying key market characteristics including distance, passenger volumes, and minimum frequency standards. The resulting cost vs output information can then be used to compare modal costs for essentially identical service quality and passenger volume or for different service levels and volumes for each mode, as appropriate. Extensive sensitivity analyses are performed. The cost-output features of these technologies are compared. Tilt-rotor is very attractive compared to HSR in terms of costs over the entire range of volume. It also has costs not dramatically different from conventional air, but tilt-rotor costs are generally higher. Thus some of its other advantages, such as the VTOL capability, must offset the cost disadvantage for it to be a preferred or competitive mode in any given market. These issues are addressed in the companion report which considers strategies for tilt-rotor development in commercial air service.

  6. Analysis of spontaneous and bleomycin-induced chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes of long-haul aircrew members from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzan, Alejandro D.; Bianchi, Martha S.; Gimenez, Esteban M.; Flaque, Maria C. Diaz; Ciancio, Vicente R.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous and bleomycin (BLM)-induced chromosomal aberrations in G0 and G2 stages of the cell cycle have been analyzed in peripheral lymphocytes of 21 long-haul aircrew members from Argentina in order to assess BLM-induced clastogenesis as a first approach to determine the DNA repair capacity and thereby the susceptibility to environmental cancers in aircrew. The possibility that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation can induce an adaptive response in their peripheral lymphocytes that can be detected by a subsequent in vitro treatment with BLM was also investigated. For comparison, aberrations were also scored in the lymphocytes of 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, health, sex, drinking and smoking habits to the flight personnel group. Aircrew exhibited a higher frequency of spontaneous dicentrics and ring chromosomes than the control population (p 0.05). However, the aircrew sampled population was almost two times more sensitive to BLM G0 clastogenic effects than controls (p < 0.05). Therefore, our data suggest that chronic exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation increases the in vitro chromosomal sensitivity of their peripheral lymphocytes to BLM (at least in the G0 stage of the cell cycle), and that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation does not induce an adaptive response to this radiomimetic compound. Our results justify further studies aimed at determine if those aircrew members hypersensitive to BLM are more prone to develop environmental cancer than BLM-insensitive individuals

  7. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  8. Epidemiology of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovron, M L

    1992-10-01

    At present, although there have been many epidemiological studies of risk factors for low back pain, there are few risk factors established in prospective studies; and our understanding of them remains relatively crude. Individuals in jobs requiring manual materials handling, particularly repeated heavy lifting and lifting while twisting, are at increased risk of back pain leading to work absence. In addition, exposure to whole-body vibration and job requirements for static postures are associated with back pain. Individual trunk strength has not been consistently demonstrated as associated with back pain; although there is some suggestion that when work requirements for heavy lifting exceed individual capacities, back pain is more likely to occur. The pattern of peak age at onset in the 20's is consistent with back pain development early in working life. Among other individual characteristics, only cigarette smoking has consistently been associated with back pain; and the biological mechanism for this finding is not understood. Evidence with respect to spinal flexibility, aerobic capacity, educational attainment and other variables is suggestive but not consistent. There is some evidence that the individual's relation to work, expressed as job satisfaction or supervisor rating, is also related to work absence due to back pain. While it is possible to describe, however crudely, the characteristics placing people at risk for back pain leading to work absence and/or medical attention, the problem of predicting chronicity and thus identifying patients for more intensive clinical intervention remains unresolved. At this time, only age of the patient and certain clinical features of the back pain such as the presence of sciatic symptoms, duration of the current episode, and history of prior episodes are consistently demonstrated predictors. In chronic patients, there is suggestive evidence that spinal flexibility, trunk strength, and certain psychological

  9. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain Share: On This Page Introduction Key Points About ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Low-Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common ...

  10. Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inversion therapy: Can it relieve back pain? Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Inversion therapy doesn't provide lasting relief from back ...

  11. Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weikersheimer, Patricia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing the idling of long-haul heavy-duty trucks has long been recognized as a particularly low-hanging fruit of fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. The displacement of about 10 hours of diesel idling every day, for most days of the year, for as many as a million long-haul trucks has very clear benefits. This report considers the costs and return on investment (ROI) for idling reduction (IR) equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space (EPS) equipment owners. For the truck owners, the key variables examined are idling hours to be displaced (generally 1,000 to 2,000 hours per year) and the price of fuel ($0 to $5/gal). The ideal IR option would provide complete services in varied climates in any location and offer the best ROI on trucks that log many idling hours. For trucks that have fewer idling hours, options with a fixed cost per hour (i.e., EPS) might be most attractive if they were available to all, or even most, truck drivers. EPS, however, is particularly cost effective for trucks on prescribed routes with a need for regular, extended stops at terminals. (EPS is also called truck stop electrification, or TSE.) The analysis shows that all IR options save money when fuel costs more than $2/gal. For trucks requiring bunk heat, a simple heater (plug-in or diesel) is almost always the most costeffective way to provide heat, even if the truck is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) or is parked at a single-system EPS location. For trucks requiring bunk air-conditioning, the use of single-system EPS is most cost effective for those logging fewer idling hours. Even for trucks with higher idling hours, the cost of EPS may be about the same as that for on-board air-conditioning. Clearly, trucks’ locations and seasonal factors—and the availability of EPS— are significant in the choice of “best fit” IR equipment for truck owners. This report also considers costs and payback for owners of EPS infrastructure. An industry that 5

  12. An optimization model for collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal of infectious medical waste: Application to a Greek region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzaras, Gerasimos; Voudrias, Evangelos A

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an optimization model to minimize the cost of a collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal system for infectious medical waste (IMW). The model calculates the optimum locations of the treatment facilities and transfer stations, their design capacities (t/d), the number and capacities of all waste collection, transport and transfer vehicles and their optimum transport path and the minimum IMW management system cost. Waste production nodes (hospitals, healthcare centers, peripheral health offices, private clinics and physicians in private practice) and their IMW production rates were specified and used as model inputs. The candidate locations of the treatment facilities, transfer stations and sanitary landfills were designated, using a GIS-based methodology. Specifically, Mapinfo software with exclusion criteria for non-appropriate areas was used for siting candidate locations for the construction of the treatment plant and calculating the distance and travel time of all possible vehicle routes. The objective function was a non-linear equation, which minimized the total collection, transport, treatment and disposal cost. Total cost comprised capital and operation costs for: (1) treatment plant, (2) waste transfer stations, (3) waste transport and transfer vehicles and (4) waste collection bins and hospital boxes. Binary variables were used to decide whether a treatment plant and/or a transfer station should be constructed and whether a collection route between two or more nodes should be followed. Microsoft excel software was used as installation platform of the optimization model. For the execution of the optimization routine, two completely different software were used and the results were compared, thus, resulting in higher reliability and validity of the results. The first software was Evolver, which is based on the use of genetic algorithms. The second one was Crystal Ball, which is based on Monte Carlo

  13. The effect of workload and other risk factors of metabolic syndrome among short-haul commercial pilots in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inne Yuliawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Sindroma metabolik (MS dapat menyebabkan kecacatan di antara pilot di Indonesia.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor risiko MS antara pilot komersialjarak pendek di Indonesia.Metode: Penelitian potong lintang dengan sampling purposif yang dilakukan di antara pilot komersial yangmelakukan uji medik di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan Sipil, Jakarta tanggal 27 Juli-30 Agustus 2014. Sindromametabolik dinilai menurutkriterian National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Faktorrisiko diperoleh dengan menggunakan kuesioner self-reporting anonim. Data laboratorium diperoleh daricatatan medis. Regresi Cox digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi faktor-faktor risiko yang dominan dari MS.Hasil: Selama pengumpulan data, 2135 pilot melakukan uji medik. Jumlah pilot Asia laki-laki memenuhi kriteriainklusi adalah 864 pilot. Prevalensi MS adalah 18,28%. Dibandingkan dengan kelompok 20-35 tahun, yangberusia berusia 56-65 tahun memiliki risiko 88% lebih tinggi untuk MS [risiko relatif sesuaian (RRa = 1,88;P = 0,019]. Jika ditinjau dari jumlah sektor dalam 24 jam terakhir, dibandingkan dengan 0-3 sektor, subyekyang memiliki 6-7 sektor mempunyai risiko 66% lebih tinggi untuk MS (RRa = 1,66; P = 0,033, sedangkanyang memiliki 8 atau lebih sektor dalam 24 jam memiliki 82% lebih berisiko untuk MS (RRa = 1,82; P = 0,072.Kesimpulan: Pilot berusia tahun-56-65, yang memiliki 6 atau lebih sektor dalam 24 jam terakhir, memilikirisiko lebih tinggi untuk sindroma metabolik antara jarak pendek pilot komersial di Indonesia. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:81-6Kata kunci: Sindroma metabolik, jumlah sektor, pilot, Indonesia Abstract Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS could cause sudden incapacitation among pilots in Indonesia.The aim of this study was to identify risk factors of MS among short-haul commercial pilots in Indonesia.Methods: A cross-sectional study with purposive sampling was conducted

  14. Analysis of spontaneous and bleomycin-induced chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes of long-haul aircrew members from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzan, Alejandro D. [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Miembro de la Carrera del Investigador Cientifico del CONICET (Argentina)], E-mail: abolzan@imbice.org.ar; Bianchi, Martha S. [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Miembro de la Carrera del Investigador Cientifico del CONICET (Argentina); Gimenez, Esteban M.; Flaque, Maria C. Diaz [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ciancio, Vicente R. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, 120 y 60, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-03-01

    Spontaneous and bleomycin (BLM)-induced chromosomal aberrations in G0 and G2 stages of the cell cycle have been analyzed in peripheral lymphocytes of 21 long-haul aircrew members from Argentina in order to assess BLM-induced clastogenesis as a first approach to determine the DNA repair capacity and thereby the susceptibility to environmental cancers in aircrew. The possibility that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation can induce an adaptive response in their peripheral lymphocytes that can be detected by a subsequent in vitro treatment with BLM was also investigated. For comparison, aberrations were also scored in the lymphocytes of 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, health, sex, drinking and smoking habits to the flight personnel group. Aircrew exhibited a higher frequency of spontaneous dicentrics and ring chromosomes than the control population (p < 0.05). BLM sensitivity test showed that aircrew and controls are equally sensitive to BLM G2 clastogenic effects, since both groups exhibited a similar frequency of chromatid breaks per cell (p > 0.05). However, the aircrew sampled population was almost two times more sensitive to BLM G0 clastogenic effects than controls (p < 0.05). Therefore, our data suggest that chronic exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation increases the in vitro chromosomal sensitivity of their peripheral lymphocytes to BLM (at least in the G0 stage of the cell cycle), and that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation does not induce an adaptive response to this radiomimetic compound. Our results justify further studies aimed at determine if those aircrew members hypersensitive to BLM are more prone to develop environmental cancer than BLM-insensitive individuals.

  15. Dispersion-optimized optical fiber for high-speed long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jindong; Chen, Liuhua; Li, Qingguo; Wu, Wenwen; Sun, Keyuan; Wu, Xingkun

    2011-07-01

    Four non-zero-dispersion-shifted fibers with almost the same large effective area (Aeff) and optimized dispersion properties are realized by novel index profile designing and modified vapor axial deposition and modified chemical vapor deposition processes. An Aeff of greater than 71 μm2 is obtained for the designed fibers. Three of the developed fibers with positive dispersion are improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.072ps/nm2/km to 0.063ps/nm2/km or 0.05ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from 4.972ps/nm/km to 5.679ps/nm/km or 7.776ps/nm/km, and shifting the zero-dispersion wavelength from 1500nm to 1450nm. One of these fibers is in good agreement with G655D and G.656 fibers simultaneously, and another one with G655E and G.656 fibers; both fibers are beneficial to high-bit long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing systems over S-, C-, and L-bands. The fourth developed fiber with negative dispersion is also improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.12ps/nm2/km to 0.085ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from -4ps/nm/km to -6.016ps/nm/km, providing facilities for a submarine transmission system. Experimental measurements indicate that the developed fibers all have excellent optical transmission and good macrobending and splice performances.

  16. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  17. Comments on the article by MM. R. Haul, H. Behnke, H. Dietrich 'die messung von gleichgewichtskonstanten des deuterium-aus-tausches zwischen schwefelwasserstoff und wasser'; Remarques sur l'article de MM. R. Haul, H. Behnke, H. Dietrich 'die messung von gleichgewichtskonstanten des deuterium-aus-tausches zwischen schwefelwasserstoff und wasser'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandcollot, P; Roth, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    MM. HAUL, BEHNKE and DIETRICH, having determined the isotopic exchange constant between water and hydrogen sulphide at 25 deg. C, obtain a value different from ours. A comparison of the techniques employed (these authors use a method of mass balance whilst we use a direct method) and of the isotopic analysis methods, and also our checks carried out from the spectrographic data, show that our determinations are appreciably more accurate. (author) [French] MM. HAUL, BEHNKE et DIETRICH, ayant determine la constante d'echange isotopique entre l'eau et l'hydrogene sulfure a 25 deg. C, obtiennent une valeur differente de la notre. La comparaison des modes operatoires (ces auteurs utilisent une methode par bilan alors que nous employons une methode directe) et des methodes d'analyse isotopique, ainsi que le controle que nous effectuons a partir des donnees spectrographiques, montrent que nos determinations sont notablement plus precises. (auteur)

  18. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...... the official music video for Laid Back’s Bakerman single, where the duo and a backing group dressed up as bakers is seen performing while skydiving. Rather than approaching this video as an illustration of the song, the paper suggests that the Bakerman video should be seen as the result of a curatorial act...... where Lars von Trier seeks to elaborate on his particular fondness of the values that this pop duo seems to represent for him; simplicity, popularity (in Danish “folkelighed”), and irony. In this sense, by promoting the Laid Back single by means of a music video, von Trier’s contribution leads us rather...

  19. Effects of Self-Efficacy on Healthy Eating Depends on Normative Support: a Prospective Study of Long-Haul Truck Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Hagger, Martin S

    2018-04-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake (FV) is insufficient in industrialized nations and there is excess of discretionary food choices (DC; foods high in fat, sugar, and salt). Long-haul truck drivers are considered a particularly at-risk group given the limited food choices and normatively reinforced eating habits at truck rest-stops. Self-efficacy and normative support are key determinants of eating behavior yet the processes underlying their effects on behavior are not well understood. We tested the direct and interactive effects of self-efficacy and normative support on healthy eating behaviors in long-haul truck drivers in a prospective correlational study. Long-haul truck drivers (N = 82) completed an initial survey containing self-report measures of behavioral intentions, perceived normative support, and self-efficacy for their FV and DC behaviors. Participants completed a follow-up survey 1 week later in which they self-reported their FV and DC behavior. A mediated moderation analysis identified an interactive effect of self-efficacy and normative support on behavior mediated by intention for FV and DC behavior. Specifically, we confirmed a compensation effect in which self-efficacy was more likely to have an effect on FV and DC behavior through intentions in participants with low normative support. Results indicate the importance of self-efficacy in predicting FV and DC intentions and behavior in the absence of a supportive normative environment. The compensatory effect of self-efficacy beliefs on behavior through intentions when normative support is low should be confirmed using experimental methods.

  20. Back surgery: Modern medical pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jc

    2002-01-01

    Medical iatrogenesis is at an all-time high with increasing deaths, disability, and costs compounded by unnecessary and ineffective surgeries despite the warnings from WHO, the US Public Health Service, and the Institute of Medicine. One area in particular, failed back surgeries, has drawn increasing attention by researchers due to disproved medical theories and surgical treatments. Paradoxically, while spinal manipulative therapy has been shown to achieve better results for this epidemic of low back pain in particular, medical and insurance programs often limit or boycott this inexpensive and effective treatment, indicating the solution to lowering medical costs and iatrogenesis now rests with political and economic factors primarily.

  1. Two lighter than air systems in opposing flight regimes: An unmanned short haul, heavy load transport balloon and a manned, light payload airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Lighter Than Air vehicles are generally defined or categorized by the shape of the balloon, payload capacity and operational flight regime. Two balloon systems that are classed as being in opposite categories are described. One is a cable guided, helium filled, short haul, heavy load transport Lighter Than Air system with a natural shaped envelope. The other is a manned, aerodynamic shaped airship which utilizes hot air as the buoyancy medium and is in the light payload class. While the airship is in the design/fabrication phase with flight tests scheduled for the latter part of 1974, the transport balloon system has been operational for some eight years.

  2. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: an analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrastek, D.A.

    1976-05-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  3. Back Schools for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia; Heymans, Martijn W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Esmail, Rosmin; Koes, Bart W; Poquet, Nolwenn; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2017-08-03

    Many people with low back pain (LBP) become frequent users of healthcare services in their attempt to find treatments that minimise the severity of their symptoms. Back School consists of a therapeutic programme given to groups of people that includes both education and exercise. However, the content of Back School has changed over time and appears to vary widely today. This review is an update of a Cochrane review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of Back School. We split the Cochrane review into two reviews, one focusing on acute and subacute LBP, and one on chronic LBP. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of Back School on pain and disability for adults with chronic non-specific LBP; we included adverse events as a secondary outcome. In trials that solely recruited workers, we also examined the effect on work status. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, two other databases and two trials registers to 15 November 2016. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and consulted experts in the field of LBP management to identify any potentially relevant studies we may have missed. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We included only RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating pain, disability, and/or work status as outcomes. The primary outcomes for this update were pain and disability, and the secondary outcomes were work status and adverse events. Two review authors independently performed the 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We summarised the results for the short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-ups. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. For the outcome pain, at short-term follow-up, we found very low-quality evidence that Back School is more effective than no

  4. 20 CFR 404.1242 - Back pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Back pay. 404.1242 Section 404.1242 Employees... Prior to 1987 § 404.1242 Back pay. (a) Back pay defined. Back pay is pay received in one period of time... an employer. It includes pay made under Federal or State laws intended to create an employment...

  5. Climbing back to the top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Lynn

    2010-07-01

    California - the top wind producer in the US since the 1980s lost its lead in 2008 in the face of intense competition from other states. But backed by strong financial and political support from the government, California's wind energy sector is slowly making a comeback. (orig.)

  6. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  7. Pilates for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, T.P.; Maher, C.G.; Saragiotto, B.T.; Hancock, M.J.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Cabral, C.M.N.; Menezes Costa, L.C.; Costa, L.O.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical

  8. Pilates for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, Tiê P.; Maher, Christopher G.; Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Hancock, Mark J.; Ostelo, Raymond W.J.G.; Cabral, Cristina M.N.; Menezes Costa, Luciola C.; Costa, Leonardo O.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical

  9. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  10. Low back pain and yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is chronic low back pain, one of the most common reasons to visit one's primary care doctor. Complementary approaches, including yoga, will be addressed.

  11. Correlations in back-to-back hadron production in SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pisano, Silvia [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2016-08-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong in- teractions. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first stud- ies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides ac- cess to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the CLAS detector at Jef- ferson Lab, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back (b2b) in the current and target fragmentation regions, provides a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions

  12. Battery Dimensioning and Life Cycle Costs Analysis for a Heavy-Duty Truck Considering the Requirements of Long-Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mareev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of heavy-duty battery electric trucks for long-haul transportation is challenging because of the required high energy amounts and thus the high capacity of traction batteries. Furthermore a high capacity battery implies high initial costs for the electric vehicle. This study investigates the required battery capacity for battery electric trucks considering the requirements of long-haul transportation in Germany and compares the life cycle costs of battery electric trucks and conventional diesel trucks in different transportation scenarios. The average consumption is simulated for different battery electric truck configurations on the main German highways and transportation scenarios incorporating battery charging during driver rest periods. The results show that in average case the required battery would restrict the payload to only 80% of a usual diesel truck payload that might be acceptable considering the statistical payload use. The life cycle costs in the examined scenarios also considering the charging infrastructure show that battery electric trucks can already perform on the same costs level as diesel trucks in certain scenarios.

  13. Overtreating chronic back pain: time to back off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A; Mirza, Sohail K; Turner, Judith A; Martin, Brook I

    2009-01-01

    Chronic back pain is among the most common patient complaints. Its prevalence and impact have spawned a rapidly expanding range of tests and treatments. Some of these have become widely used for indications that are not well validated, leading to uncertainty about efficacy and safety, increasing complication rates, and marketing abuses. Recent studies document a 629% increase in Medicare expenditures for epidural steroid injections; a 423% increase in expenditures for opioids for back pain; a 307% increase in the number of lumbar magnetic resonance images among Medicare beneficiaries; and a 220% increase in spinal fusion surgery rates. The limited studies available suggest that these increases have not been accompanied by population-level improvements in patient outcomes or disability rates. We suggest a need for a better understanding of the basic science of pain mechanisms, more rigorous and independent trials of many treatments, a stronger regulatory stance toward approval and post-marketing surveillance of new drugs and devices for chronic pain, and a chronic disease model for managing chronic back pain.

  14. Scintigraphic examinations concerning back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Brand, J.

    1983-01-01

    Radinuclide skeletal scintigraphy is recognized as a screening method for patients with back pain. The analog scintigram is a functional image with high sensitivity and low specificity. The improvement in specificity can be achieved using computer procedures as digital imaging, smoothing, contrast enhancement and profile selection to quantitate certain properties of the scan. Three-phase-skeletal scintigraphy, 67-Ga-citrate or 111-In labeled leucocytes augement the specificity, too. (orig.)

  15. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion adult and juvenile (non-pup) conducted on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and others from 1904-01-01 to 2015-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0128190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  16. Returning to sports after a back injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  17. Low back pain during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília Coelho Costa Carvalho

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It is estimated that about 50% of pregnant women complain of some form of back pain at some point in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of low back pain during pregnancy and its characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional study with low-risk pregnant women. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee and receiving written informed consent, we included pregnant women over 18 years of age and excluded those with psychiatric disorders, previous lumbar pathologies, and receiving treatment for low back pain. Results: We interviewed 97 pregnant women. The frequency of low back pain was 68%. The mean age was 26.2 years and the median gestational age was 30 weeks. Fifty-eight pregnant women declared themselves as brown (58%. Most (88.6% were married or living in common-law marriage, 56 (57.7% worked outside the home, and 71 (73.2% had completed high school. Low back pain was more frequent during the second trimester of pregnancy (43.9%, referred to as a “burning” sensation in 37.8% of patients, with intermittent frequency in 96.9% of the women. The symptoms got worse at night (71.2%. Resting reduced low back pain in 43.9% of pregnant women, while the standing position for a long time worsened it in 27.2% of patients. Conclusion: Low back pain is common in pregnant women, has specific characteristics, and is more frequent in the second trimester of pregnancy. This indicates the need for prevention strategies that enable better quality of life for pregnant women. Resumo: Objetivo: A lombalgia é uma queixa comum entre grávidas. Estima-se que cerca de 50% das gestantes queixam-se de algum tipo de dor lombar em algum momento da gravidez ou durante o puerpério. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a frequência da lombalgia na gestação e suas características. Método: Estudo de corte transversal com gestantes de

  18. Assessment of back pain in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Back pain is common in horses yet, in many cases, a definitive diagnosis remains elusive. The aim of this article is to present a systematic approach to the patient with a suspected back problem. For the present purposes, back pain is defined as pain arising from the thoracolumbar or sacral spine and associated soft tissues. Examination of the pelvis is also included

  19. When the Ocean Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    The disaster scenario is one of the predominant settings we find unfold in the pop-cultural imagination, namely in films and novels. In recent years, as increased awareness of environmental issues affect the agendas of public debate, we also see local and increasingly global environmental disasters...... is evolving caused by an intelligent life form of the deep sea striking back at mankind. This article aims at discussing in what ways The Swarm uses elements and patterns of the pop-cultural disaster imagination, specifically the disaster and science fiction movie of the 1990s. Furthermore, it investigates...

  20. Improvement of the chromatic dispersion tolerance in coherent optical OFDM systems using shifted DFT windows for ultra-long-haul optical transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minkyu; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Jaehoon; Jeong, Jichai

    2014-09-22

    In a high-capacity ultra-long-haul optical coherent orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system, the dispersion tolerance is determined by the length of cyclic extension (CE). In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to substantially improve the dispersion tolerance of CO-OFDM systems without increasing the CE length. Multiple time-shifted discrete Fourier transform (DFT) windows are exploited at the receiver, each demodulating only a part of the subcarriers. Effectively, the proposed scheme reduces the bandwidth of the OFDM signals under demodulation. Numerical simulations are performed to show the improved dispersion tolerance of the proposed scheme in comparison with the conventional CO-OFDM system. We show that the dispersion tolerance improves by a factor equal to the number of DFT windows. The tradeoff between the improved dispersion tolerance and increased receiver complexity is also presented.

  1. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  2. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    mattresses have a positive effect on LBP, and especially a hard mattress is commonly believed to have a positive effect. METHODS: One hundred sixty CLBP patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups, having a mattress/bed mounted in their sleeping room for 1 month. The beds were: (1) waterbed (Akva), (2) body......-conforming foam mattress (Tempur), and (3) a hard mattress (Innovation Futon). At baseline and after 4 weeks, a blinded observer interviewed the patients on LBP levels (0-10), daily function (activities of daily living, 0-30), and on the amount of sleeping hours/night. RESULTS: Because of dropout of 19 patients...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  3. Back to the 80s

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  4. Looking Back at 'Purgatory Dune'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dug more than 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep into the soft, sandy material of a wind-shaped ripple in Mars' Meridiani Planum region during the rover's 446th martian day, or sol (April 26, 2005). Getting the rover out of the ripple, dubbed 'Purgatory Dune,' required more than five weeks of planning, testing, and carefully monitored driving. Opportunity used its navigation camera to capture this look back at the ripple during sol 491 (June 11, 2005), a week after the rover drove safely onto firmer ground. The ripple that became a sand trap is about one-third meter (one foot) tall and 2.5 meters (8 feet) wide.

  5. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  6. Back-contacted back-junction silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangersnes, Krister

    2010-10-15

    Conventional silicon solar cells have a front-side contacted emitter. Back-contacted back-junction (BC-BJ) silicon solar cells, on the other hand, have both the complete metallization and the active diffused regions of both polarities on the backside. World-record efficiencies have already been demonstrated for this type of cell design in production, both on cell and module level. However, the production of these cells is both complex and costly, and a further cost reduction in fabrication is needed to make electricity from BC-BJ silicon solar cells cost-competitive with electricity on the grid ('grid-parity'). During the work with this thesis, we have investigated several important issues regarding BC-BJ silicon solar cells. The aim has been to reduce production cost and complexity while at the same time maintaining, or increasing, the already high conversion efficiencies demonstrated elsewhere. This has been pursued through experimental work as well as through numerical simulations and modeling. Six papers are appended to this thesis, two of which are still under review in scientific journals. In addition, two patents have been filed based on the work presented herein. Experimentally, we have focused on investigating and optimizing single, central processing steps. A laser has been the key processing tool during most of the work. We have used the same laser both to structure the backside of the cell and to make holes in a double-layer of passivating amorphous silicon and silicon oxide, where the holes were opened with the aim of making local contact to the underlying silicon. The processes developed have the possibility of using a relatively cheap and industrially proven laser and obtain results better than most state-of-the-art laser technologies. During the work with the laser, we also developed a thermodynamic model that was able to predict the outcome from laser interaction with amorphous and crystalline silicon. Alongside the experimental work, we

  7. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  9. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  10. Pilates for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical practice. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with non-specific acute, subacute or chronic low back pain. We conducted the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus from the date of their inception to March 2014. We updated the search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers as well as six trial registry websites. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We only included randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of Pilates intervention in adults with acute, subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain. The primary outcomes considered were pain, disability, global impression of recovery and quality of life. Two independent raters performed the assessment of risk of bias in the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We also assessed clinical relevance by scoring five questions related to this domain as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and for effect sizes we used three levels: small (mean difference (MD) 20% of the scale). We converted outcome measures to a common 0 to 100 scale when different scales were used. The search retrieved 126 trials; 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and we included them in the review (a total sample of 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered as high risk of bias.A total of six trials compared Pilates to minimal intervention. There is low quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain compared with minimal

  11. Rehabilitation of Low Back Pain in Golfers

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Context: Low back injuries are the most common injury in golf. Best practice guidelines for rehabilitation and prevention of these injuries are helpful for health care professionals and all golfers. Objective: To establish a best practice clinical model for low back pain in golfers from diagnosis through treatment and rehabilitation to return to golf. Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database and Google Scholar were searched from 1993 to 2012 with the following keywords: golf and low back inj...

  12. Neural network construction via back-propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwick, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    A method is presented that combines back-propagation with multi-layer neural network construction. Back-propagation is used not only to adjust the weights but also the signal functions. Going from one network to an equivalent one that has additional linear units, the non-linearity of these units and thus their effective presence is then introduced via back-propagation (weight-splitting). The back-propagated error causes the network to include new units in order to minimize the error function. We also show how this formalism allows to escape local minima

  13. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  14. Chinese energy demand falls back

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smil, V.

    1977-10-01

    China's growth in energy demand and production declined in 1976, partly because of difficulty of sustaining a rapid 5.4 percent growth and partly because of the disruptions caused by a major earthquake and the deaths of Mao Tse-Tung and Chou En-Lai. The earthquake, which damaged all mines, the power station, refineries, and transportation lines in the Tangshan area, has had serious economic consequences. The failure to back up a growing coal industry with adequate investments and mechanization was recognized in 1975 and prompted a 10-year modernization program. Progress has been made with new mine shafts, pulverizing equipment, and the use of small mines for local industries. Oil and gas production increased after the discovery of new fields and the use of new technology in the hydrocarbon industries. Ports and terminal facilities to handle large tankers will increase China's oil export traffic. Electricity generation increased with new power facilities, although China's dependence on human and animal power is still a major factor. Changes in energy consumption patterns are developing, but industry still represents 50 percent and transportation less than 10 percent. (DCK)

  15. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  16. Do functional tests predict low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, E P; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2000-08-15

    A cohort of 307 nonsymptomatic workers and another cohort of 123 workers with previous episodes of low back pain were followed up for 2 years. The outcomes were measured by symptoms, medical consultations, and sick leaves due to low back disorders. To study the predictive value of a set of tests measuring the physical performance of the back in a working population. The hypothesis was that subjects with poor functional capacity are liable to back disorders. Reduced functional performance has been associated with back pain. There are few data to show whether reduced functional capacity is a cause or a consequence of pain. Mobility of the trunk in forward and side bending, maximal isokinetic trunk extension, flexion and lifting strength, and static endurance of back extension were measured. Standing balance and foot reaction time were recorded with a force plate. Clinical tests for the provocation of back or leg pain were performed. Gender, workload, age, and anthropometrics were managed as potential confounders in the analysis. Marked overlapping was seen in the measures of the subjects with different outcomes. Among the nonsymptomatic subjects, low performance in tests of mobility and standing balance was associated with future back disorders. Among workers with previous episodes of back pain, low isokinetic extension strength, poor standing balance, and positive clinical signs predicted future pain. Some associations were found between the functional tests and future low back pain. The wide variation in the results questions the value of the tests in health examinations (e.g., in screening or surveillance of low back disorders).

  17. When Your Back Hurts: Don't Let Back Pain Knock You Flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Back Hurts Don’t Let Back Pain Knock You Flat En español Send us your comments ... Complementary Health Approaches Halt the Hurt! References The SPORT Value Compass: Do the Extra Costs of Undergoing ...

  18. Get the Monkey off Your Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciabattini, David; Custer, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Monkeys are the problems that need solutions, the tasks that need to be accomplished, the decisions that need to be made, and the actions that need to be taken. According to a theory, people carry monkeys around on their backs until they can successfully shift their burden to someone else and the monkey leaps from one back to the next. Managers…

  19. Predicting the effect of seine rope layout pattern and haul-in procedure on the effectiveness of demersal seine fishing: A Computer simulation-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Nina A H; Aarsæther, Karl G; Herrmann, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Demersal Seining is an active fishing method applying two long seine ropes and a seine net. Demersal seining relies on fish responding to the seine rope as it moves during the fishing process. The seine ropes and net are deployed in a specific pattern encircling an area on the seabed. In some variants of demersal seining the haul-in procedure includes a towing phase where the fishing vessel moves forward before starting to winch in the seine ropes. The initial seine rope encircled area, the gradual change in it during the haul-in process and the fish's reaction to the moving seine ropes play an important role in the catch performance of demersal seine fishing. The current study investigates this subject by applying computer simulation models for demersal seine fishing. The demersal seine fishing is dynamic in nature and therefore a dynamic model, SeineSolver is applied for simulating the physical behaviour of the seine ropes during the fishing process. Information about the seine rope behaviour is used as input to another simulation tool, SeineFish that predicts the catch performance of the demersal seine fishing process. SeineFish implements a simple model for how fish at the seabed reacts to an approaching seine rope. Here, the SeineSolver and SeineFish tools are applied to investigate catching performance for a Norwegian demersal seine fishery targeting cod (Gadus morhua) in the coastal zone. The effect of seine rope layout pattern and the duration of the towing phase are investigated. Among the four different layout patterns investigated, the square layout pattern was predicted to perform best; catching 69%-86% more fish than would be obtained with the rectangular layout pattern. Inclusion of a towing phase in the fishing process was found to increase the catch performance for all layout patterns. For the square layout pattern, inclusion of a towing phase of 15 or 35 minutes increased the catch performance by respectively 37% and 48% compared to fishing without

  20. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling towing and haul-back escape patterns during the fishing process: a case study for cod, plaice, and flounder in the demersal Baltic Sea cod fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Bent; Mieske, Bernd; Stepputtis, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    a specially designed experiment. Results demonstrate that the escape process during towing cannot be described sufficiently by a traditional logistic model or something similar. Instead, a model is required that explicitly considers that not all fish necessarily contact the codend netting to attempt escape...

  2. Effects of Long-Haul Transmeridian Travel on Subjective Jet-Lag and Self-Reported Sleep and Upper Respiratory Symptoms in Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P .05, d sleep responses, along with upper respiratory symptoms, in professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.

  3. Effects of long-haul transmeridian travel on player preparedness: Case study of a national team at the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; McCall, Alan; Jones, Mark; Duffield, Rob

    2017-04-01

    Describe the effects of eastward long-haul transmeridian air travel on subjective jet-lag, sleep and wellness in professional football (soccer) players prior to the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Single cohort involving twenty-two male professional football players representing a national football team. Data was collected from players prior to and following international travel from Sydney, Australia to Vitoria, Brazil. In total there were three flights, 19-h and 14,695km of travel east across 11 time-zones. Training load and wellness measures were obtained in the week prior to and following travel, whilst sleep and jet-lag measures were collected on the day prior to travel (Pre), the day of arrival and for five days following travel (Post 1-5). Compared to Pre, perceived jet-lag was significantly increased on Post 1 to 4, with significantly greater levels on Post 1 compared to Post 5 (pplayer wellness. Consequently, player preparedness for subsequent training and competition may be impeded, though physical performance data is lacking. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Back to Sleep, Tummy to Play Page Content ​What are the 2 most important things to remember about safe sleep practices? Healthy babies are safest when sleeping on ...

  5. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  6. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...... in Sorö Denmark. Detailed monitoring and modelling of the system in the DTU lab is done to be able to generalize the results, to other climates and loads and to make design optimizations. The advantage with drain back, low flow systems, is that the system can be made more simple with less components...... and that the performance can be enhanced. A combination of the drain back- and system expansion vessel was tested successfully. Small initial problems with installation and proposals for design improvements to avoid these in practice are described in the paper. Installer education and training is an important step to have...

  7. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000415.htm Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic ...

  8. The pharmacotherapy of low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower back pain: cancer, cauda equina syndrome, herniated intervertebral disc ... Is associated with new bowel or bladder problems. 7. Is accompanied by fever ... Orphenadrine is a nonselective mACh receptor antagonist and an H1 receptor ...

  9. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your favorite weekend sports. A tight neck and hamstrings also put unneeded pressure on the back. Make ... and restriction during motion that could signal an injury or impaired function.” DOs use OMT to help ...

  10. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

  11. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  12. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  13. Back End Programming in .NET Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Sapkota, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to develop a web application which provides the services for both web and mobile client. The complete application development process was carried out by the team of four members and a supervisor. According to the interest of group members the whole project was divided into four parts; that is user interface design, mobile application development, back end development for mobile services and server side back end development of application. I got the task of ser...

  14. Lifting Safety: Tips To Help Prevent Back Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevent Back Injuries Lifting Safety: Tips to Help Prevent Back Injuries Share Print Back injuries are common problems at work, home, and play. They can be caused by accidents or improper lifting technique. Below are tips to ...

  15. Dual-polarization multi-band optical OFDM transmission and transceiver limitations for up to 500 Gb/s uncompensated long-haul links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoumidis, E; Jarajreh, M A; Sygletos, S; Le, S T; Farjady, F; Tsokanos, A; Hamié, A; Pincemin, E; Jaouën, Y; Ellis, A D; Doran, N J

    2014-05-05

    A number of critical issues for dual-polarization single- and multi-band optical orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (DP-SB/MB-OFDM) signals are analyzed in dispersion compensation fiber (DCF)-free long-haul links. For the first time, different DP crosstalk removal techniques are compared, the maximum transmission-reach is investigated, and the impact of subcarrier number and high-level modulation formats are explored thoroughly. It is shown, for a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10(-3), 2000 km of quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) DP-MB-OFDM transmission is feasible. At high launched optical powers (LOP), maximum-likelihood decoding can extend the LOP of 40 Gb/s QPSK DP-SB-OFDM at 2000 km by 1.5 dB compared to zero-forcing. For a 100 Gb/s DP-MB-OFDM system, a high number of subcarriers contribute to improved BER but at the cost of digital signal processing computational complexity, whilst by adapting the cyclic prefix length the BER can be improved for a low number of subcarriers. In addition, when 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) is employed the digital-to-analogue/analogue-to-digital converter (DAC/ADC) bandwidth is relaxed with a degraded BER; while the 'circular' 8QAM is slightly superior to its 'rectangular' form. Finally, the transmission of wavelength-division multiplexing DP-MB-OFDM and single-carrier DP-QPSK is experimentally compared for up to 500 Gb/s showing great potential and similar performance at 1000 km DCF-free G.652 line.

  16. A correlation linking the predicted mean vote and the mean thermal vote based on an investigation on the human thermal comfort in short-haul domestic flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, Carlo; Orioli, Aldo; Di Gangi, Alessandra

    2015-05-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the human thermal comfort inside the cabin of some Airbus A319 aircrafts during 14 short-haul domestic flights, linking various Italian cities, are presented and used to define a correlation among the predicted mean vote (PMV), a procedure which is commonly used to assess the thermal comfort in inhabited environments, and the equivalent temperature and mean thermal vote (MTV), which are the parameters suggested by the European Standard EN ISO 14505-2 for the evaluation of the thermal environment in vehicles. The measurements of the radiant temperature, air temperature and relative humidity during flights were performed. The air temperature varied between 22.2 °C and 26.0 °C; the relative humidity ranged from 8.7% to 59.2%. The calculated values of the PMV varied from -0.16 to 0.90 and were confirmed by the answers of the passengers. The equivalent temperature was evaluated using the equations of Fanger or on the basis of the values of the skin temperature measured on some volunteers. The correlation linking the thermal sensation scales and zones used by the PMV and the MTV resulted quite accurate because the minimum value of the absolute difference between such environmental indexes equalled 0.0073 and the maximum difference did not exceed the value of 0.0589. Even though the equivalent temperature and the MTV were specifically proposed to evaluate the thermal sensation in vehicles, their use may be effectively extended to the assessment of the thermal comfort in airplanes or other occupied places. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term outcomes of a back school program for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hodselmans, AP; Jaegers, SM; Goeken, LN; Göeken, L.N.

    Objective: To assess the short-term outcome of a back school program for patients suffering from chronic, nonspecific low back pain (LBP). Design: Quasi-experimental cohort study with a waiting list control group. Setting: Dutch rehabilitation department. Participants: Experimental group (n = 14)

  18. Sources and mitigation of interharmonics in back-to-back controllable drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Hamid; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    for the sources, leading to undistorted grid currents, which are growingly important as more drives are tied to the grid. It is shown that in the case of back-to-back controllable drives it is possible to reduce the input current interharmonic distortion caused by motor current imbalance....

  19. Back reaction of excitations on a vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.; Hadasz, L.

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Back reaction of excitations on a vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arodź, Henryk; Hadasz, Leszek

    1997-01-01

    Excitations of a vortex are usually considered in a linear approximation neglecting their back reaction on the vortex. In the present paper we investigate back reaction of Proca-type excitations on a straight linear vortex in the Abelian Higgs model. We propose an exact ansatz for fields of the excited vortex. From an initial set of six nonlinear field equations we obtain (in a limit of weak excitations) two linear wave equations for the back reaction corrections. Their approximate solutions are found in the cases of plane wave and wave-packet-type excitations. We find that the excited vortex radiates the vector field and that the Higgs field has a very broad oscillating component.

  1. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  2. Acknowledging the patient with back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and aims: Research shows that back patients’ illness experiences affect their interaction with the healthcare system. It is important to examine the exact nature of these experiences in order to shed valuable light on how back patients perceive their illness and hospitalisation. The aim...... and translates into a certain way of perceiving and explaining illnesses and symptoms. Results: The thematic analysis shows that it is through experiences and memories that we create our identity and consciousness. Ignoring the illness experiences can therefore be seen as disregarding, the patient as a human...... of the included studies demonstrates the need for healthcare professionals to pay attention to back patients’ narratives in order to acknowledge them as human beings. This acknowledgement involves an ethical dimension and a sense of responsibility, manifested as respectful inclusion of the patient’s experiences...

  3. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  4. Back Reaction And Local Cosmological Expansion Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Geshnizjani, G; Geshnizjani, Ghazal; Brandenberger, Robert

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the back reaction of cosmological perturbations on a general relativistic variable which measures the local expansion rate of the Universe. Specifically, we consider a cosmological model in which matter is described by a single field. We analyze back reaction both in a matter dominated Universe and in a phase of scalar field-driven chaotic inflation. In both cases, we find that the leading infrared terms contributing to the back reaction vanish when the local expansion rate is measured at a fixed value of the matter field which is used as a clock, whereas they do not appear to vanish if the expansion rate is evaluated at a fixed value of the background time. We discuss possible implications for more realistic models with a more complicated matter sector.

  5. Why and how back pain interventions work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansell, Gemma; Kamper, Steven J; Kent, Peter

    2013-01-01

    be learnt from previous mediation research, much of which has investigated mediating factors of psychosocial interventions in other health conditions. It also summarises the few treatment-mediation studies of psychosocial interventions conducted in back pain. This chapter shows that there is emerging...... evidence about the role of some psychological factors as potential treatment mediators, such as self-efficacy and catastrophising. Mediation analysis can equally be applied to non-psychological factors. Pre-planned and appropriately conducted mediation analysis in adequately powered clinical trials would...... be a step forward in understanding treatment effects in back pain and improving patient management....

  6. Uncertainty Analyses for Back Projection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H.; Wei, S.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    So far few comprehensive error analyses for back projection methods have been conducted, although it is evident that high frequency seismic waves can be easily affected by earthquake depth, focal mechanisms and the Earth's 3D structures. Here we perform 1D and 3D synthetic tests for two back projection methods, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (Meng et al., 2011) and Compressive Sensing (CS) (Yao et al., 2011). We generate synthetics for both point sources and finite rupture sources with different depths, focal mechanisms, as well as 1D and 3D structures in the source region. The 3D synthetics are generated through a hybrid scheme of Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element Method. Then we back project the synthetic data using MUSIC and CS. The synthetic tests show that the depth phases can be back projected as artificial sources both in space and time. For instance, for a source depth of 10km, back projection gives a strong signal 8km away from the true source. Such bias increases with depth, e.g., the error of horizontal location could be larger than 20km for a depth of 40km. If the array is located around the nodal direction of direct P-waves the teleseismic P-waves are dominated by the depth phases. Therefore, back projections are actually imaging the reflection points of depth phases more than the rupture front. Besides depth phases, the strong and long lasted coda waves due to 3D effects near trench can lead to additional complexities tested here. The strength contrast of different frequency contents in the rupture models also produces some variations to the back projection results. In the synthetic tests, MUSIC and CS derive consistent results. While MUSIC is more computationally efficient, CS works better for sparse arrays. In summary, our analyses indicate that the impact of various factors mentioned above should be taken into consideration when interpreting back projection images, before we can use them to infer the earthquake rupture physics.

  7. Managing low back pain second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkaldy-Willis, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 26 chapters. Some of the titles are: Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine; Diagnostic techniques; The site and nature of the lesion; The anatomy of the lumbosacral spine; The perception of pain; Differential diagnosis of low back pain; and A comprehensive outline of treatment

  8. Low back pain tied to spinal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongxu, Zhao; Fei, Yin; Xing, Xiao; Bo-Yin, Zhang; Qingsan, Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Case report. We present a case of endometriosis of lumbar vertebrae. The literatures are reviewed with endometriosis of spine. Endometriosis is a common condition, which is defined as endometrial tissue lying outside the endometrial cavity. It is usually found within the peritoneal cavity, predominantly within the pelvis, commonly on the uterosacral ligaments. It can also be found in other sites such as umbilicus, abdominal scars, nasal passages and pleural cavity. But it is very rarely seen in the spine, with no report of endometriosis found in the lumbar vertebrae. A 33-year-old woman presented with severe low back pain. She had the low back pain periodically for 3 years, and the pain was associated with menstruation. Radiographs showed a lesion in the posterior L3 body. After surgery, tissue biopsy indicated the presence of endometrial tissue in the lesion and thus confirmed endometriosis. Most cases of spine endometriosis that have been reported are usually found inside spinal canal, endorachis or spinal cord. But spinal vertebrae can also be involved in endometriosis. Although endometriosis is a rare possible cause of periodical low back pain in women of childbearing age, we suggest that if a woman suffering from periodical low back pain is encountered, do not ignore the possibility of endometriosis in the spine.

  9. Paschen-Back effect in dyonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A formulation of the Pashen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed to explain the recent evidence for a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e. The masses for isospin I = 0 mesons are estimated and compared with experiment

  10. Instrument Records And Plays Back Acceleration Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Small, battery-powered, hand-held instrument feeds power to accelerometer and records time-varying component of output for 15 seconds in analog form. No power needed to maintain content of memory; memory chip removed after recording and stored indefinitely. Recorded signal plays back at any time up to several years later. Principal advantages: compactness, portability, and low cost.

  11. Teaching Communication: Back to the 60s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This piece, a preface to a reprinted 1971 article on communication practice, focuses on the need for real communication in the language classroom. In this article, the author drifts back to inspiring times in the 1960s and reflects on some events that prompted him to write the article in the first place.

  12. Imaging studies in chronic low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcalay, M.; Bourgeois, P.; Lazennec, J.Y.; Roger, B.; Dehais, J.; Dousse, V.; Laredo, J.D.; Morvan, G.; Ristori, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging brings to difficult problems in chronic low back pain incomplete data showing that it will need a lot of time to find therapeutic solutions. Some comparisons are made between tomodensitometry, nuclear magnetic imaging, the disco-scanner, these technologies allow to find small lesions but the problem is complete when it is not possible to find anything with persistent pains. 125 refs

  13. Management of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debarle, Michel; Aigron, Rémi; Depernet, Laure

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the level of consensus within the French chiropractic profession regarding management of clinical issues. A previous Swedish study showed that chiropractors agreed relatively well on the management strategy for nine low back pain scenarios. We wished to investiga...

  14. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  15. Energy-wasting hunt is back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveau, J.

    2005-01-01

    With the rise of automotive and heating fuel retail prices, energy saving policy is back again. Car drivers are purchasing less fuel and the government has announced some incentive measures for the improvement of the thermal insulation of residential and office buildings. Short paper. (J.S.)

  16. Back-contacted BaSi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vismara, R.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present the optical investigation of a novel back-contacted architecture for solar cells based on a thin barium (di)silicide (BaSi2) absorber. First, through the analysis of absorption limits of different semiconducting materials, we show the potential of BaSi2 for

  17. Herbal medicine for low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oltean, H.; Robbins, C.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.M.; Bombardier, C.; Gagnier, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines

  18. BURT: back up and restore tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karonis, N.T.

    1994-11-01

    BURT is just one of the tools in the Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS). In this document we address the problem of backing up and restoring sets of values in databases whose values are continuously changing. In doing so, we present the Back Up and Restore Tool (BURT). In this presentation we provide a theoretical framework that defines the problem and lays the foundation for its solution. BURT is a tool designed and implemented with respect to that theoretical framework. It is not necessary for users of BURT to have an understanding of that framework. It was included in this document only for the purpose of completeness. BURT`s basic purpose is to back up sets of values so that they can be later restored. Each time a back up is requested, a new ASCII file is generated. Further, the data values are stored as ASCII strings and therefore not compressed. Both of these facts conspire against BURT as a candidate for an archiver. Users who need an archiver should use a different tool, the Archiver.

  19. Reactor shutdown back-up system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Seizo; Sakashita, Motoaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent back flow of poison upon injection to a moderator recycling pipeway. Constitution: In a nuclear reactor comprising a moderator recycling system for recycling and cooling moderator through a control rod guide pipe and a rapid poison injection system for rapidly injecting a poison solution at high density into the moderator by way of the same control rod guide pipe as a reactor shutdown back-up system, a mechanism is provided for preventing the back flow of a poison solution at high density into the moderator recycling system upon rapid injection of poison. An orifice provided in the joining pipeway to the control rod guide pipe on the side of the moderator recycling system is utilized as the back flow preventing device for the poison solution and the diameter for the orifice is determined so as to provide a constant ratio between the pressure loss in the control rod guide pipe and the pressure loss in the moderator recycling system pipe line upon usual reactor operation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  20. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...

  1. Dutch physiotherapy guidelines for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Hendriks, H.J.M.; Koes, Bart W; Oostendorp, R. A B; Ostelo, R. W J G; Thomassen, J. M C; van Tulder, M. W.

    2003-01-01

    Many guidelines for the management of low back pain in primary care have been published during recent years, but guidelines for physiotherapy do not yet exist. Therefore, physiotherapy guidelines have been developed, reflecting the consequences of the current state of knowledge of effective and

  2. Making a Back-Illuminated Imager with Back-Side Contact and Alignment Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2008-01-01

    A design modification and a fabrication process that implements the modification have been conceived to solve two problems encountered in the development of back-illuminated, back-sidethinned complementary metal oxide/ semiconductor (CMOS) image-detector integrated circuits. The two problems are (1) how to form metal electrical-contact pads on the back side that are electrically connected through the thickness in proper alignment with electrical contact points on the front side and (2) how to provide alignment keys on the back side to ensure proper registration of backside optical components (e.g., microlenses and/or color filters) with the front-side pixel pattern. The essence of the design modification is to add metal plugs that extend from the desired front-side locations through the thickness and protrude from the back side of the substrate. The plugs afford the required front-to-back electrical conduction, and the protrusions of the plugs serve as both the alignment keys and the bases upon which the back-side electrical-contact pads can be formed.

  3. In Shackleton's trails: Central and local thermoadaptive modifications to cold and hypoxia after a man-hauling expedition on the Antarctic Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Michail E; Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola

    2018-04-01

    Cold and hypoxia constitute the main environmental stressors encountered on the Antarctic Plateau. Hence, we examined whether central and/or peripheral acclimatisation to the combined stressors of cold and hypoxia would be developed in four men following an 11-day man-hauling expedition on this polar region. Before and after the journey, participants performed a static whole-body immersion in 21 °C water, during which they were breathing a hypoxic gas (partial pressure of inspired O 2 : ~97 mmHg). To evaluate their local responses to cold, participants also immersed the hand into 8 °C water for 30 min, while they were whole-body immersed and mildly hypothermic [i.e. 0.5 °C fall in rectal temperature (T rec ) from individual pre-immersion values]. T rec and skin temperature (T sk ), skin blood flux, and oxygen uptake (reflecting shivering thermogenesis) were monitored throughout. The polar expedition accelerated by ~14 min the drop in T rec [final mean (95% confidence interval) changes in T rec : Before = -0.94 (0.15) °C, After: - 1.17 (0.23) °C]. The shivering onset threshold [Before: 19 (22) min, After: 25 (19) min] and gain [Before: - 4.19 (3.95) mL min -1 kg -1 , After: - 1.70 (1.21) mL min -1 kg -1 ] were suppressed by the expedition. T sk did not differ between trials. The development of a greater post-expedition hypothermic state did not compromise finger circulation during the hand-cooling phase. Present findings indicate therefore that a hypothermic pattern of cold acclimatisation, as investigated in hypoxia, was developed following a short-term expedition on the South Polar Plateau; an adaptive response that is characterised mainly by suppressed shivering thermogenesis, and partly by blunted cutaneous vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transmission system for distribution of video over long-haul optical point-to-point links using a microwave photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01-10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar Huerta, Ignacio E.; Pérez Montaña, Diego F.; Nava, Pablo Hernández; Juárez, Alejandro García; Asomoza, Jorge Rodríguez; Leal Cruz, Ana L.

    2013-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of an electro-optical transmission system for distribution of video over long-haul optical point-to-point links using a microwave photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01-10 GHz. The frequency response of the microwave photonic filter consists of four band-pass windows centered at frequencies that can be tailored to the function of the spectral free range of the optical source, the chromatic dispersion parameter of the optical fiber used, as well as the length of the optical link. In particular, filtering effect is obtained by the interaction of an externally modulated multimode laser diode emitting at 1.5 μm associated to the length of a dispersive optical fiber. Filtered microwave signals are used as electrical carriers to transmit TV-signal over long-haul optical links point-to-point. Transmission of TV-signal coded on the microwave band-pass windows located at 4.62, 6.86, 4.0 and 6.0 GHz are achieved over optical links of 25.25 km and 28.25 km, respectively. Practical applications for this approach lie in the field of the FTTH access network for distribution of services as video, voice, and data.

  5. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  6. φφ Back-to-Back Correlations in Finite Expanding Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padula, S. S.; Krein, G.; Hama, Y.; Panda, P. K.; Csoergo, T.

    2006-01-01

    Back-to-Back Correlations (BBC) of particle-antiparticle pairs are predicted to appear if hot and dense hadronic matter is formed in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. The BBC are related to in-medium mass-modification and squeezing of the quanta involved. Although the suppression of finite emission times were already known, the effects of finite system sizes and of collective phenomena had not been studied yet. Thus, for testing the survival and magnitude of the effect in more realistic situations, we study the BBC when mass-modification occurs in a finite sized, thermalized medium, considering a non-relativistically expanding fireball with finite emission time, and evaluating the width of the back-to-back correlation function. We show that the BBC signal indeed survives the expansion and flow effects, with sufficient magnitude to be observed at RHIC

  7. Facilitated pronociceptive pain mechanisms in radiating back pain compared with localized back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition are often found in chronic pain patients. This study compared clinical pain profiles, pain sensitivity, as well as pro-nociceptive and anti-nociceptive mechanisms in patients with localized low back pain (n=18), localized neck pain (n=17......), low back and radiating leg pain (n=18), or neck and radiating arm pain (n=17). It was hypothesized that patients with radiating pain had facilitated pain mechanisms and impaired pain inhibition compared with localized pain patients. Cuff algometry was performed on the non-painful lower leg to assess...... threshold (HPT) at the non-painful hand were also assessed. Clinical pain intensity, psychological distress, and disability were assessed with questionnaires. TSP was increased in patients with radiating back pain compared with localized back pain (Ppain or localized low...

  8. The development and exploratory analysis of the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-05-23

    To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: 'vulnerability of the back'; 'relationship between back pain and injury'; 'activity participation while experiencing back pain'; 'prognosis of back pain' and 'psychological influences on recovery'. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (α=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (α between 0.50 and 0.78). The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability

  9. Analysis of Back-to-Back MMC for Medium Voltage Applications under Faulted Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anurag; Martins, Joäo Pedro Rodrigues; Chaudhary, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes a 10MW medium voltage Back-to-Back (BTB) Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) without a DC-Link capacitor with halfbridge submodules. It focusses on the system behavior under single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault when there is no capacitor on the DC-Link.The fault current is compute...... to prevent DC overvoltages in the sub-modules during faults....

  10. Looking back at 'looking back': operationalising referential gaze for dingoes in an unsolvable task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bradley Philip; Litchfield, Carla Anita

    2013-11-01

    This paper examined the performance of dingoes (Canis dingo) on the rope-pulling task, previously used by Miklósi et al. (Curr Biol 13:763-766, 2003) to highlight a key distinction in the problem-solving behaviour of wolves compared to dogs when in the company of humans. That is, when dogs were confronted with an unsolvable task, following a solvable version of the task they looked back or gazed at the human, whereas, wolves did not. We replicated the rope-pulling task using 12 sanctuary-housed dingoes and used the Miklósi et al. (Curr Biol 13:763-766, 2003) definition of looking back behaviour to analyse the data. However, at least three different types of look backs were observed in our study. We, then developed a more accurate operational definition of looking back behaviour that was task specific and reanalysed the data. We found that the operational definition employed greatly influences the results, with vague definitions potentially overestimating the prevalence of looking back behaviour. Thus, caution must be taken when interpreting the results of studies utilising looking back as behaviour linked to assistance seeking during problem solving. We present a more stringent definition and make suggestions for future research.

  11. Tweeting back: predicting new cases of back pain with mass social media data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hopin; McAuley, James H; Hübscher, Markus; Allen, Heidi G; Kamper, Steven J; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-05-01

    Back pain is a global health problem. Recent research has shown that risk factors that are proximal to the onset of back pain might be important targets for preventive interventions. Rapid communication through social media might be useful for delivering timely interventions that target proximal risk factors. Identifying individuals who are likely to discuss back pain on Twitter could provide useful information to guide online interventions. We used a case-crossover study design for a sample of 742 028 tweets about back pain to quantify the risks associated with a new tweet about back pain. The odds of tweeting about back pain just after tweeting about selected physical, psychological, and general health factors were 1.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.80-1.85), 1.85 (95% CI: 1.83-1.88), and 1.29 (95% CI, 1.27-1.30), respectively. These findings give directions for future research that could use social media for innovative public health interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The Cernettes are back at the Hardronic!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN MusiClub

    2017-01-01

    Five years after their last epic performance, at the Hardronic Festival 2012, “Les Horribles Cernettes” (the rockin’ LHC) will be singing and dancing again on the planks of the CERN Festival on July 15th. The band’s comeback is a real challenge, since the four singers are scattered as far as Washington DC and Mauritius, passing through Glasgow and Montecarlo. The backing musicians too, live in Tenerife, Mauritius, London. So to make their comeback this summer, CERN’s favourite High Energy Band needs to raise funds for travel. The good news is, we’re half way there, and if you click on the donate button on their website, you can help make every fan’s dream come true. Get the Cernettes back at CERN!                      www.cernettes.com #cernettescomeback

  13. Patient transfers and risk of back injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Madeleine, Pascal; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2017-01-01

    in Danish nurses during patient transfers performed with different types of assistive devices, and (2) to combine the exposure profile for each type of assistive device with fortnightly questionnaires to identify the importance of muscle load (intensity and frequency of transfers) and body position (degree...... which type of assistive devices most efficiently prevent LBP, exposure assessments using technological advancements allow for quantification of muscle load and body positions during common work tasks. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are (1) to quantify low back and neck/shoulder muscle load....... The prospective cohort study will consist of questionnaires at baseline and 1-year follow-up, as well as follow-up via email every other week for one year on questions regarding the frequency of patient transfers, use of assistive devices, intensity of LBP, and back injuries related to patient transfers...

  14. A Germanium Back Contact Type Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Tomonori; Okumura, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    A Ge back contact type photovoltaic cell has been proposed to reduce resistance loss for high current densities in thermophotovoltaic systems. The back contact structure requires less surface recombination velocities than conventional structures with front grid contacts. A SiO2/SiNx double anti-reflection coating including a high refractive index SiNx layer was studied. The SiNx layer has an enough passivation effect to obtain high efficiency. The quantum efficiency of the Ge cell was around 0.8 in the 800-1600 nm wavelength range. The conversion efficiency for infrared lights was estimated at 18% for a blackbody surface and 25% for a selective emitter by using the quantum efficiency and a simulation analysis

  15. ["Round back" in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoflid, N; Fragnière, B; Dutoit, M

    2000-10-01

    The hyper-kyphosis or "the postural round back" is one of the most common complaints in orthopedic practice. In the majority of cases, the thoracic kyphosis are painless and flexible. The vertebral bodies are normal on radiograms. This is "the kyphotic attitude" or postural round-back. A medical treatment is not the necessary rule. Life hygiene, sports and simple supervision are needed. Nevertheless, there are still pathological fixed kyphosis, induced in the majority of cases by Scheuermann's disease. The other possible etiologies (congenital, paralytic, post-traumatic, Pott's disease, postradiation, or metabolic origin) are a lot rare ones and will be excluded by clinical examination and imaging studies. The structural hyper-kyphosis require treatment. We will approach successively steps of the diagnosis and treatment of the hyper-kyphosis of the adolescent.

  16. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  17. BackTrack testing wireless network security

    CERN Document Server

    Cardwell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-follow step-by-step format, you will be able to get started in next to no time with minimal effort and zero fuss.BackTrack: Testing Wireless Network Security is for anyone who has an interest in security and who wants to know more about wireless networks.All you need is some experience with networks and computers and you will be ready to go.

  18. Back extrusion of vocadlo-type fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Jiří; Filip, Petr; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), , 45366-1-45366-8 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : viscosity * back extrusion * annular pumping * vocadlo model * Robertson-stiff model Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.592, year: 2013 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/23840225602.368/ApplRheol_23_45366.pdf

  19. Looking Back on the Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Looking back at the ups and downs of China's stock market in 2007,it is clear that it has developed far beyond people's expectation. While the stock index constantly reaches new highs and the size of the market becomes larger and larger, the Chinese financial market has also reintegrated. A multi-level revolution occurred in 2007, involving changes in stock structure, the variety of core composition, chip cost of the capital market, investor makeup, as well as trade rules and operational methods.

  20. Brunkow exercises and low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emela Mujić Skikić

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Brunkow exercises starting with dynamic contraction of hands and feet with fixed point on the wrist or/and heal. Dynamic contraction from the beginning, transferring through kinetic chain, leads to isometric contraction of the group of muscles, which has to be included in the exercise. Starting positions determine the group of muscles to be trained. The purpose of this study is to investigate influence of Brunkow exercises on spinal motion improvement and pain relief and to evaluate use of Brunkow exercises, as a routine method for lower back pain in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Centres. Thirty-four patients with symptoms of low back pain were included in study. Patients received a mean of 14.9 treatments with standard deviation of 8.96. All patients were assessed before and after the treatment for spinal mobility and flexibility as well as pain intensity. All parameters for spinal movements showed statistically significant improvement in patients with low back pain who practiced Brunkow exercise program at the end of treatment in relations to pre-treatment values, with significant difference of p<0.01 for all motions. Pain was reduced on VAS for X=1.,7 with S.D. 1.97. Difference Test was t=6.020 with significant difference p<0.01. Flexibility of spine increased, so average difference in values before and after treatment for Shober test was 0.5 cm with SD 0.65. Difference test was t=3.794 with significant difference p<0.01. Brunkow exercises for low back pain are beneficial treatment for increasing flexibility and mobility of spine and improving the pain.

  1. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Back end of the fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.; Lambert, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    At present, that portion of the nuclear fuel cycle involving reprocessing, waste management, and mixed-oxide fuel fabrication is in an unsettled state. Government regulatory requirements with respect to all aspects of the back end of the fuel cycle are still being formulated, and there is little positive experience on the operation of commercial reprocessing or mixed-oxide fabrication plants. In view of this unsettled situation, it will be difficult to meet the reprocessing and mixed-oxide fabrication needs of the next decade in the pattern previously anticipated. The costs in the back end of the fuel cycle are much higher than had been anticipated several years ago, a situation similar to that of almost all large endeavors in this country. On the other hand, the added costs are small relative to total power costs and do not affect the economic advantage of nuclear power as compared to other power sources. A rough economic analysis indicates that the question for the back end of the fuel cycle has changed from one of optimizing profitability to one of determining the most economic disposition of spent fuel. Long-term spent fuel storage is a practical and economically acceptable way to provide time for determining a sound course of action for the back end of the fuel cycle. Indeed, if one could count on a breeder economy before the end of the century, one possible course of action is to store light-water fuel until the plutonium can be used in breeders. However, for philosophical as well as practical reasons, it is important that the uncertainties in the course of action should be resolved as quickly as possible. Long-term storage should not be an excuse to delay resolution of the basic questions. (U.S.)

  3. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  4. PROTOCOL OF TREATMENT IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain can be considered as one of the main factors that lead to decreased functional capacity of the human being. Being a frequent dysfunction in people, causing a decrease in quality of life, productivity and functional disability and is associated with important social and economic impact. Therefore the objective of the research was to assess the treatment protocols in low back pain. The study is characterized by being a literature of scientific articles, based on data published in PubMed, SciELO, BIREME and Cochrane from 2000 to 2012. We found eight scientific articles that addressed physical therapy methods in the treatment of low back pain, including a literature review. Related Articles show variation from one to 55 patients in groups, with a total of 185 patients studied. It was concluded then that it hasn’t met a specific treatment that is placed as the most effective for this pathology, although all include electrotherapy, manual therapy, exercise and RPG they show significant results in pain relief, quality of life thereby increasing functionality.

  5. Lombalgia ocupacional Occupational low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A lombalgia ocupacional apresenta etiologia multifatorial, elevada prevalência e incidência. Caracterizada por quadro de dor de variada duração e intensidade, a dor lombar pode levar à incapacidade laborativa e à invalidez. A lombalgia acarreta sofrimento aos trabalhadores, custos às empresas, aos sistemas previdenciário e assistencial de saúde. Os autores, pela relevância do tema, elaboraram este artigo de revisão bibliográfica dando ênfase ao embasamento teorico-conceitual e à experiência de especialistas.The occupational low back pain presents multifactorial aetiology, important prevalence and incidence. Characterized by pain of varying duration and intensity, low back pain may lead to disability. Low back pain causes suffering to workers, implies costs to companies, to the social security and health assistance system. Because of the theme's relevance, the authors have elaborated this review of literature with emphasis on a theoretical and conceptual basis, as well as experience of experts.

  6. Banking and back-loading emission permits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaton, Corinne; Creti, Anna; Peluchon, Benoît

    2015-01-01

    In this article we focus on the so-called back-loading policy adopted by the European Commission to increase the carbon market price. This environmental measure consists of removing a share of the allowances allocated for a given period in order to reallocate some or all of them later on. To analyze the impact of the permits back-loading, we determine the CO 2 price equilibrium with and without the policy measure, considering not only the market for permits but also the output market of regulated sectors. We propose a two-period model, where the market for permits is perfectly competitive, and the output market can be either competitive or oligopolistic. First, we define the condition under which banking from one period to another is optimal. This condition, that is the absence of arbitrage opportunities (AOA), depends not only from the period initial allocation but also on production market fundamentals. When this condition is satisfied, the market for emission is shown intertemporally efficient. Second, we point out that the back-loading measure may create inefficiencies or leave unaffected the permits price, if it alters the AOA. -- Highlights: •Relationship between the market for permits and the output market of regulated sectors. •Analysis of CO 2 prices and banking. •Impact of a recent environmental policy measure (backloading) on CO 2 prices

  7. Nuclear nonproliferation: The long haul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The policy of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency rests upon the recognition that nuclear proliferation would profoundly threaten international stability and global order. Suspicions among traditional rivals would be exacerbated, regional disputes made more complex, and the possibility of local conflict increased. The security and well-being of the United Sttes and its close friends and allies, but also the security and well-being of the countries acquiring these weapons, would be threatened. Indeed, the greatest chance of use of nuclear weapons stems not from the US-Soviet strategic balance but from the possible emergence of small, unstable nuclear arsenals in many regions of the world characterized by crises and periodic military conflict

  8. The Long Haul: An Autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Myles; And Others

    In 1932, Myles Horton founded the Highlander Folk School in Monteagle, Tennessee. Horton created an adult education center dedicated to helping groups of primarily poor and uneducated people strive together to solve their social, economic, and political problems and conflicts by mining their own experiences and awareness. In this book, Horton…

  9. Back School: The Development of A Nigerian Urban Model | Odebiyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine ... Although back schools are available in many parts of the world, none has been developed for ... structures and functions of the back while the second and third parts consist of demonstrations ...

  10. Prolotherapy: An Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain? Is prolotherapy an effective treatment for chronic low back pain? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Prolotherapy is ... reduced pain. Studies of prolotherapy in people with low back pain have had mixed results. A combination of prolotherapy ...

  11. Adolescent low back pain among secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ent-administered, validated questionnaire on low back pain in adolescents. Participants (Female: 298 ... affects public health6,8 and it is now being increasingly recognized that LBP in ..... back pain but are repetitive in nature. The finding of.

  12. Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Adolescent Students in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyewoleye

    KEYWORDS: low back pain, prevalence, adolescent students, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Low-back ... content validity of the questionnaire was assessed among ten experienced ... in the orthopaedic ward and out-patient physiotherapy clinic.

  13. Lower Back Tattoo: OK to Have an Epidural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and delivery, postpartum care Could a lower back tattoo keep me from having an epidural during labor? ... Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. A lower back tattoo won't necessarily prevent you from having an ...

  14. The United States Army Low Back Pain Workshop,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    obtained in weightlifting , twists, turns, lifting heights, operational heights, etc. 4. Establish training programs in back injury prevention and care...Back pain, complaints, problems, injuries , prention 19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numbe)resentations covered: Low...Back Injury Prevention Program; Striving to Prevent Back Injury , A Historical Perspective; The Data Picture--Collection and Use; An Approach to the

  15. Adolescent low back pain among secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent low back pain among secondary school students in Ibadan, Nigeria. BOA Adegoke, AC Odole, AA Adeyinka. Abstract. Background: Adolescent low back pain (ALBP) can be considered a signal or precursor of a serious organic disease or telltale sign of future incidence of low back pain in adulthood. Published ...

  16. Exercise therapy for chronic nonspecific low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middelkoop, Marienke; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W

    Exercise therapy is the most widely used type of conservative treatment for low back pain. Systematic reviews have shown that exercise therapy is effective for chronic but not for acute low back pain. During the past 5 years, many additional trials have been published on chronic low back pain. This

  17. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated

  18. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory fitness of Nigerians with Low back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of Nigerians with low back pain (LBP) and apparently healthy counterparts. A total of Seventy (70) subjects participated in the study; 35 of them were low back pain patients, while the remaining 35 were apparently healthy adults. For low back pain ...

  19. Asset backed securities : risks, ratings and quantitative modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jönsson, B.H.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2009-01-01

    Asset backed securities (ABSs) are structured finance products backed by pools of assets and are created through a securitisation process. The risks in asset backed securities, such as, credit risk, prepayment risk, market risks, operational risk, and legal risks, are directly connected with the

  20. 26 CFR 1.460-6 - Look-back method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) for the redetermination year, as adjusted for past applications of the look-back method and taking... the year in question with respect to other contracts. Notwithstanding the look-back method, the...) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included § 1.460-6 Look-back method. (a) In...

  1. Effects of back warming in cocoon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnison, J.R.; Williams, I.P.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that dust shells frequently surround young stars, and attempts have been made to determine some of the properties of these shells. It is probable that the dust absorbs the outgoing radiation from the star and re-emits it in the infrared. If the dust shell does absorb radiation both its inner and outer surfaces will re-emit a certain proportion and some radiation will return to the central star, causing what amounts to 'warming of its own back'. It is interesting to consider how such a star evolves, compared with evolution of a normal pre-main-sequence star. A model for a contracting star that is receiving radiation from an external source has been developed by the authors in connection with the evolution of Jupiter within the radiation field of the Sun (Astrophys. Space Sci., 29:387 (1974)), and this model is here applied to the situation just described. It is emphasised that the discussion is concerned only with the evolution of the central star, the dust being regarded merely as a means of redirecting radiation back on to the surface of this star. Amongst conclusions reached is that a thin shell will cause no significant change in the structure and evolution of the central star, whilst the presence of a thick shell has a substantial effect on the star, slowing down is evolution. Whilst a dust shell is present the star cannot be seen, but only the dust shell emitting in the infrared, but once the dust shell clears the star is seen in a position and with an age that differs considerably from what it would have had if it had evolved without 'back warming' from the dust shell. (U.K.)

  2. Open-Switch Fault Detection Method of a Back-to-Back Converter Using NPC Topology for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo_Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    system can break down in the worst case scenario. To improve the reliability of WTG systems, an open-switch fault detection method for back-to-back converters using the NPC topology is required. This study analyzes effects of inner and outer open-switch faults of the NPC rectifier and inverter......In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, a back-to-back converter with a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used because this topology has more advantages than a conventional two-level topology, particularly when operating at high power. There are 12 switches in the NPC topology....... An open-switch fault in the NPC rectifier of the back-to-back converter leads to the distortion of the input current and torque vibration in the system. Additionally, an open-switch fault in the NPC inverter of the back-to-back converter causes the distortion of the output current. Furthermore, the WTG...

  3. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  4. Turning your back to the border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Rune Bolding

    2018-01-01

    authority of a Limbuwan state in the context of a major national transition. The movement, I argue, describes a balancing act of political mobilisation between an indigeneity-oriented politics of culture and a state-oriented and state-emulating culture of politics.These two dimensions operate at different...... scales. While the former connects the movement to pre-national histories and global narratives of ethnic belonging, the latter ties the movement thoroughly back into the territorialised politics of the Nepali nation state. Counterintuitively, the political practice of this movement for local autonomy...

  5. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  6. Automated back titration method to measure phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, J.; Tehrani, M.; Avdeef, A.; Ross, J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphate was measured in soda drinks and as an additive in flour, by a back titration method in which phosphate was precipitated with lanthanum, and the excess lanthanum was titrated with fluoride. All measurements were performed using the Orion fluoride electrode and the Orion 960 Autochemistry System. In most commercial automatic titrators, the inflection point of the titration curve, calculated from the first derivative of the curve, is used to find the equivalence polar of the titration. The inflection technique is compared with a technique based on Gran functions, which uses data collected after the end point and predicts the equivalence point accordingly

  7. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  8. Neuropathic low back pain in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R; Binder, A; Attal, N; Casale, R; Dickenson, A H; Treede, R-D

    2016-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common chronic pain conditions. This paper reviews the available literature on the role of neuropathic mechanisms in chronic LBP and discusses implications for its clinical management, with a particular focus on pharmacological treatments. Literature searches were performed in PubMed, key pain congresses and ProQuest Dialog to identify published evidence on neuropathic back pain and its management. All titles were assessed for relevant literature. Chronic LBP comprises both nociceptive and neuropathic components, however, the neuropathic component appears under-recognized and undertreated. Neuropathic pain (NP) is challenging to manage. Many patients with chronic LBP have pain that is refractory to existing treatments. Typically, less than half of patients experience clinically meaningful analgesia with oral pharmacotherapies; these are also associated with risks of adverse effects. Paracetamol and NSAIDs, although widely used for LBP, are unlikely to ameliorate the neuropathic component and data on the use of NP medications such as antidepressants and gabapentin/pregabalin are limited. While there is an unmet need for improved treatment options, recent data have shown tapentadol to have efficacy in the neuropathic component of LBP, and studies suggest that the capsaicin 8% patch and lidocaine 5% medicated plaster, topical analgesics available for the treatment of peripheral NP, may be a valuable additional approach for the management of neuropathic LBP. Chronic LBP often has an under-recognized neuropathic component, which can be challenging to manage, and requires improved understanding and better diagnosis and treatment. WHAT DOES THIS REVIEW ADD?: Increased recognition and improved understanding of the neuropathic component of low back pain raises the potential for the development of mechanism-based therapies. Open and retrospective studies suggest that agents like tapentadol and topical analgesics - such as the capsaicin

  9. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  10. Looking back 2005. Eleven studies evaluated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Between December 2000 and June 2002 the Netherlands Court of Audit ('Algemene Rekenkamer') carried out a study on the title subject, focusing on the effect of energy saving measures on the energy consumption per product unit in the greenhouse sector in the Netherlands for the period 1994-2000, including the effect of the energy conservation policy for the period 1997-1999. In this retrospective the Court of Audit looks back at the results of eleven studies, among which the fore-mentioned study, in order to assess if and how the ministeries involved followed and implemented the recommendations of the Court of Audit [nl

  11. Steering assistance for backing up articulated vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Zoebel

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Articulated vehicles belong to the category of nonholonomous wheelers. Under the aspect of control theory they require a sophisticated handling. This corresponds to the experience of unexercised drivers, for instance maneuvering a car and its caravan into a parking box. In this context some adequate advice for the right steering movements would give an appreciable assistance. Here a visual assistance is proposed and realized. The decisive advice for the driver is derived from kinematic modeling. The system is designed to be integrated into standard cars and trucks. For testing purposes the actual system has been incorporated into an existing backing up simulator.

  12. Heteropagus twinning on back -- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Bidyut; Biswas, Sumitra Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Heteropagus twins, also called parasitic twins, are malformation of the foetus where the development of one twin is incomplete. They are attached most commonly to the lower chest and upper abdomen. We report a case of heteropagus twin, where the parasite possessed well-formed limb as well as blind ending intestine. It was attached to the back of the host by a broad pedicle. We take this opportunity to classify areas of confusion prevailing regarding twinning, foetus in foetu, teratoma and caudal duplication.

  13. Back pain in seniors: the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) cohort baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvik, Jeffrey G; Comstock, Bryan A; Heagerty, Patrick J; Turner, Judith A; Sullivan, Sean D; Shi, Xu; Nerenz, David R; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Kessler, Larry; James, Kathryn; Friedly, Janna L; Bresnahan, Brian W; Bauer, Zoya; Avins, Andrew L; Deyo, Richard A

    2014-04-23

    Back pain represents a substantial burden globally, ranking first in a recent assessment among causes of years lived with disability. Though back pain is widely studied among working age adults, there are gaps with respect to basic descriptive epidemiology among seniors, especially in the United States. Our goal was to describe how pain, function and health-related quality of life vary by demographic and geographic factors among seniors presenting to primary care providers with new episodes of care for back pain. We examined baseline data from the Back pain Outcomes using Longitudinal Data (BOLD) registry, the largest inception cohort to date of seniors presenting to a primary care provider for back pain. The sample included 5,239 patients ≥ 65 years old with a new primary care visit for back pain at three integrated health systems (Northern California Kaiser-Permanente, Henry Ford Health System [Detroit], and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates [Boston]). We examined differences in patient characteristics across healthcare sites and associations of patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with baseline patient-reported measures of pain, function, and health-related quality of life. Patients differed across sites in demographic and other characteristics. The Detroit site had more African-American patients (50%) compared with the other sites (7-8%). The Boston site had more college graduates (68%) compared with Detroit (20%). Female sex, lower educational status, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse functional disability as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Except for age, these factors were also associated with worse pain. Baseline pain and functional impairment varied substantially with a number of factors in the BOLD cohort. Healthcare site was an important factor. After controlling for healthcare site, lower education, female sex, African-American race, and older age were associated with worse

  14. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  15. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  16. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braidot, A A; Brusa, M H; Lestussi, F E; Parera, G P

    2007-01-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture

  17. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  18. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braidot, A. A.; Brusa, M. H.; Lestussi, F. E.; Parera, G. P.

    2007-11-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0° to 50° because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  19. Prevention and treatment of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Nadine E.; Anema, Johannes R.; Cherkin, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Many clinical practice guidelines recommend similar approaches for the assessment and management of low back pain. Recommendations include use of a biopsychosocial framework to guide management with initial non-pharmacological treatment, including education that supports self-management and resum......Many clinical practice guidelines recommend similar approaches for the assessment and management of low back pain. Recommendations include use of a biopsychosocial framework to guide management with initial non-pharmacological treatment, including education that supports self......-management and resumption of normal activities and exercise, and psychological programmes for those with persistent symptoms. Guidelines recommend prudent use of medication, imaging, and surgery. The recommendations are based on trials almost exclusively from high-income countries, focused mainly on treatments rather than......-related disability or its long-term consequences. The advances with the greatest potential are arguably those that align practice with the evidence, reduce the focus on spinal abnormalities, and ensure promotion of activity and function, including work participation. We have identified effective, promising...

  20. Back end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    Most of the nuclear spent fuel that is discharged from the reactors in OECD countries is destined currently for long term interim storage before final processing or direct disposal. There are at least three basic considerations affecting the dicision on spent fuel, that is, the capacity of prompt reprocessing is insufficient at present, reprocessing is not urgent for the reason of economy or plutonium availability, and the cooling of spent fuel in controlled storage is economically advantageous. The basic technology of reprocessing has been commercially available for several decades, but political problems and the lack of immediate incentive for reprocessing slowed the buildup of new capacity. To avoid the problems related to plutonium storage, it is reasonable to postpone reprocessing. Some OECD countries plan the direct disposal of spent fuel elements instead of reprocessing. The technology, supply and demand and cost of the storage and transport of spent fuel, reprocessing and waste disposal are discussed. The share of the back end in the total levelized fuel cycle cost is expected to be between 10 and 20 %. The impact of the choice of back end options on the cost of power generation will be only 2 %. (Kako, I.)

  1. Scintillation investigation of the straight back syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, M.; Serro Azul, L.G.; Kedor, H-H.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Mignone, C.A.; Carvalho, N. de

    1976-01-01

    Scintigraphic study of the lungs was undertaken in 17 patients with the straight back syndrome divided in three groups: I. mild form; II. moderate form and III. severe form. The results showed that: a) there is a decreased flow through the pulmonary arteries; b) bilateral morphological alterations are most common (64.6%); c) the compression of the chest cause an increased cardiac silhouette in groups II (22.2%) and III (50%) besides widening of the mediastinum in all groups (25%, 44.4% and 75%, respectively); d. functional restriction is moderate in 61.5% and severe in 38.4% of the patients in the first two groups; in group III, moderate restriction is observed in 75% of the patients and severe restriction in 25%. Results indicate that the alterations observed in the scintigraphic study of the strainght back syndrome are caused by the effects of the deformed chest on the arterial perfusion of the lung. However, the severity of the anomaly and the decrease in the pulmonary circulation could not be correlated statistically [pt

  2. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  3. National supply-chain survey of drug manufacturer back orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, G S

    2001-07-01

    The impact of manufacturer back orders on the supply chain for pharmaceuticals in the institutional setting was studied. A questionnaire was distributed during May and June 2000 to 600 institutional pharmacies affiliated with a major national drug and supply group purchasing organization. The instrument included questions on basic institutional demographics, perceptions about the frequency of manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals, the quality of communication with manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders, the two most significant back orders that had occurred in the 12 months preceding the survey, and the reasons for and impact of back orders. A total of 170 usable surveys were returned (net response rate, 28.3%). Reported manufacturer back orders included an array of drug classes, including blood products, antimicrobials, antiarrhythmics, benzodiazepine antagonists, thrombolytics, corticosteroids, and antihypertensives. Respondents perceived significant back orders as increasing in frequency. Communication by manufacturers and wholesalers about back orders was reported to be relatively poor. A raw-material shortage was the most common reason given by manufacturers for back orders (36.5%), followed by a regulatory issue (23.2%). In most cases (92%), medical staff members had to be contacted, indicating an interruption in the normal drug distribution process. In over a third of instances, respondents stated that the back order resulted in less optimal therapy. A survey found that manufacturer back orders for pharmaceuticals were increasing in frequency and that information flow within the supply chain was insufficient to meet the needs of end users.

  4. Reactor operation feed-back in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltin, C.; Fourest, B.; Libmann, J.

    1982-09-01

    The Nuclear Safety Department (DSN), technical support of French Safety Authorities, is, in particular, in charge of the analysis of reactor operation and of measures taken consequently to incidents. It proposed the criteria used to select significant incidents; it analyzes such incidents. DSN also analyzes the operating experience of each plant, several years after starting. It examines foreign incidents to assess in what extent lessons learned can be applied to french reactors. The examples presented show that to improve the safety of units operation, the experience feed-back leads to make arrangements, or modifications concerning not only circuits or materials but often procedures. Moreover they show the importance of procedures concerning the operations carried out during reactor shutdown

  5. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (Co......P) on a force platform. Portable force platforms might be of clinical relevance, but their reliability for LBP patients in a clinical setting has not been demonstrated. As LBP patients are more dependent on vision compared to healthy controls, the ratio of tests performed with eyes open and eyes closed (Romberg...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...

  6. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Centre of Pressure (CoP) measurements were tested against pain, fear of pain, and physical function. Velocity, anterior-posterior displacement, and the Romberg Ratio obtained on a portable force platform were used as measures of postural stability. RESULTS: Baseline and 12-week follow-up results of 97....... CONCLUSION: This first study of concurrent and predictive validity of postural balance in LBP patients revealed no association between CoP measures and pain, fear of pain, and physical function....

  7. CERN firefighters have got your back covered

    CERN Multimedia

    The Fire Brigade

    2011-01-01

    There’s not much room in the centre of a detector. Ensuring the safety of technicians who have to work on components close to the collision point is an absolute priority. With this firmly in mind, the Fire Brigade has recently acquired a back immobilisation device known as a spine splint.   CERN firefighters show off their new spine splint. Conscious of the potential safety hazards for personnel working on ALICE’s inner detectors, the collaboration’s GLIMOS, Fernando Pedrosa, asked the Fire Brigade to organise an exercise in March to simulate the emergency evacuation of a person from the centre of the detector. Despite the exceptionally limited space available in the centre of ALICE, the Fire Brigade successfully met the challenge. However, although specially designed for emergency evacuations, the cumbersome dimensions of the stretcher used in this first exercise caused many problems.   Following the exercise, the Fire Brigade therefore inves...

  8. Low Back Pain in Primary Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Munck, Anders; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations...... in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented...... of five patients had had previous episodes, one-fourth were on sick leave, and the LBP considerably limited daily activities. The general practice patients were slightly older and less educated, more often females, and generally worse on all disease-related parameters than chiropractic patients. All...

  9. The Harwell back-scattering spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windsor, C.G.; Bunce, L.J.; Borcherds, P.H.; Cole, I.; Fitzmaurice, M.; Johnson, D.A.G.; Sinclair, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron diffraction spectra in which both high resolution (Δ Q/Q approximately equal to 0.003) and high intensity are maintained up to scattering vectors as high as 30A -1 (sin theta/lambda = 2.5) have been obtained with the back-scattering spectrometer (BSS) recently installed on the Harwell electron linac. The theory behind the spectrometer design is described, and it is shown how the above resolution requirement leads to its basic features of a 12m incident flight path, a 2m scattering flight path and a scattering angle (2theta) acceptance from 165 0 to 175 0 . Examples of the resolution, intensity and background are given. It is shown that the problem of frame overlap may be overcome by using an absorbing filter. (author)

  10. Procedure and apparatus for back projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    (1) The procedure is for back projection in the form of a tomographic picture of a member, characterised in that the strip pictures are written onto the signal plate by a conversion pick-up unit; and that to the address inputs of the pick-up unit voltages are applied that represent a rotating coordinate system. (2) Procedure following claim 1 characterised by the fact that the voltages are respectively applied as sawtooth waveform horizontal and vertical television deflections. (3) Procedure following claims 1 and 2, characterised that in order to correct the television deflection voltages for the effect of a fan shaped radiation beam, first one and then the other of the amplitudes is modulated. (G.C.)

  11. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  12. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  13. [Gender features of low back pain syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseĭkin, I A; Goĭdenko, V S; Aleksandrov, V I; Rudenko, I V; Borzunova, T A; Barashkov, G N

    2010-01-01

    Forty-four patients with low back pain caused by a radix syndrome (mean age 46.18±9.11 years) have been examined. Patients have been stratified by sex. The pain syndrome has been assessed in 1st, 10th and 21st by the VAS, pressure pain measurement and laboratory tests for measuring neurotransmitter levels. It has been shown that women endure a pain worse as assessed not only by the questionnaires but also by the pressure pain measurement especially at night. The analysis of blood serum revealed higher levels of β-endorphin, serotonin, dopamine that were correlated (р<0.05) with the pain level, their amount decreasing with the reduction of pain.

  14. [Low back pain during pregnancy. Multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Padilla, D; Gallo-Padilla, C; Gallo-Vallejo, F J; Gallo-Vallejo, J L

    2016-09-01

    After explaining that low back pain is considered the most common pregnancy complication, its pathogenesis, risk factors and the clinical characteristics of the very painful symptoms of this condition are described. As for its approach, it is stressed that it must be multidisciplinary, introducing very important preventive measures, including proper postural hygiene. For its treatment, the methods may be based on non-surgical or pharmacological interventions of a conservative non-invasive nature. Thus, physiotherapy, osteopathic manipulation, multimodal intervention (exercise and education), exercises performed in water environment, acupuncture, etc., have proven to be effective. Finally, it is emphasised that given the significant impact on their quality of life, different health professionals must be proactive and treat the lumbar disease in pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    MRI in LBP patients: good or bad? Background: The routine use of radiology is presently discouraged in patients with low back pain (LBP). MRI provides clinicians and patients with detailed knowledge of the spinal structures and has no known physical side effects. It is possible that detailed...... of MRI (the "old" group). As a new approach, all patients with certain criteria are now referred to MRI before the clinical examination (the "new" group).   Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate if the two different MRI approaches, the "old" and "new", resulted in differences in relation...... to: 1) duration of treatment, 2) number of contacts with clinicians and participation in group exercise, and 3) admission to primary care or another hospital department.   Design: Retrospective inspection of patient files. Method: Files were retrieved from consecutive patients from the "old" and "new...

  16. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  17. From spouse to caregiver and back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågård, Anne Sophie; Egerod, Ingrid; Tønnesen, Else

    2015-01-01

    and rehabilitation in general hospital wards, rehabilitation facilities and at home. Consequently, millions of spouses become informal caregivers. Little is known, however, about the concrete challenges spouses face in post-intensive care unit everyday life. DESIGN: Explorative, qualitative grounded theory study...... their role from spouse to caregiver and back' was identified as the core category of the study. The role shifts progressed in a dynamic process involving four elements: (1) committing to caregiving; (2) acquiring caregiving skills; (3) negotiating level of caregiving and (4) gradually leaving the caregiver...... role. Post-ICU caregiving comprised five patient dimensions: observing, assisting, coaching, advocating and managing activities. CONCLUSIONS: Spouses play a vital and multifaceted role in post-intensive care unit recovery. The findings can inform healthcare professionals in their efforts to prepare...

  18. The hyperfine Paschen–Back Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentile, Mark A; Andrews, Rebecca; Weller, Lee; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G; Knappe, Svenja

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the Faraday effect in an atomic medium in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime, where the Zeeman interaction is larger than the hyperfine splitting. We use a small permanent magnet and a micro-fabricated vapour cell, giving magnetic fields of the order of a tesla. We show that for low absorption and small rotation angles, the refractive index is well approximated by the Faraday rotation signal, giving a simple way to measure the atomic refractive index. Fitting to the atomic spectra, we achieve magnetic field sensitivity at the 10 −4 level. Finally we note that the Faraday signal shows zero crossings which can be used as temperature insensitive error signals for laser frequency stabilization at large detuning. The theoretical sensitivity for 87 Rb is found to be ∼40 kHz °C −1 . (paper)

  19. Verification of aspheric contact lens back surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Holger H; Cox, Michael J; Douthwaite, William A

    2003-08-01

    To suggest a tolerance level for the degree of asphericity of aspheric rigid gas-permeable contact lenses and to find a simple method for its verification. Using existing tolerances for the vertex radius, tolerance limits for eccentricity and p values and were calculated. A keratometer-based method and a method based on sag measurements were used to measure the vertex radius and eccentricity of eight concave progressively aspheric surfaces and six concave ellipsoidal surfaces. The results were compared with a gold standard measurement made using a high-precision mechanical instrument (Form Talysurf). The suggested tolerance for eccentricity and p value and is +/-0.05. The keratometer method was very accurate and precise at measuring the vertex radius (mean deviation +/- SD from Talysurf results, -0.002 +/- 0.008 mm). The keratometer was more precise than and similar in accuracy to the sag method for measurement of asphericity (mean deviation of keratometer method results from Talysurf results, 0.017 +/- 0.018; mean deviation of sag method results from Talysurf results using five semichords, -0.016 +/- 0.032). Neither method was precise enough to verify the asphericity within the suggested tolerance. The keratometer can be efficiently used to verify the back vertex radius within its International Organization for Standardization tolerance and the back surface asphericity within an eccentricity/p value tolerance of +/-0.1. The method is poor for progressive aspheres with large edge blending zones. Deriving the eccentricity from sag measurements is a potential alternative if the mathematical description of the surface is known. The limiting factor of this method is the accuracy and precision of individual sag measurements.

  20. On the enhancement of the back-to-back two-electron-one photon ionization in molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusia, Miron; Drukarev, Eugene

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the long ago predicted quasi-free mechanism of two-electron photoionization was detected already at relatively low energy photoionization in He. It was observed that some pairs of electrons are leaving the target atom back-to-back, i.e. in opposite direction with almost the same energy. They have opposite spin directions. The cross-section of this process depends upon the probability for a pair of electrons to be close to each other before meeting the incoming photon. Such probability is greatly enhanced in molecules with covalent bonding, like H2. In this and similar molecules the electrons spend an essential part of time being between nuclei and thus screening them from each other. We demonstrate that indeed the back-to-back contribution is much bigger in H2 than in He. We analyze qualitatively some other situations that lead to relative growth of back-to-back contribution. Atoms with electrons with bigger principal quantum numbers have bigger back-to-back contributions. An external pressure applied to molecules forces electrons to be closer to each other. As a result for them the back-to-back contribution can be controllable enhanced.

  1. Combination of taping with Back School in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Tana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 70-85% of the general population suffers from back pain. Back School programs have being effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Taping may be useful in reducing pain and normalizing muscle function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of taping with Back School at short- and long-term. Methods: Randomized controlled clinical trial. The experimental group used tape and made Back Scholl and the control group only made Back School. At the beginning and the end of treatment, pain was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, the flexibility determined with the Modified Finger Tip-to-Floor Test and functionality was calculated with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Depression was recorded with the Depression Beck Inventory just at the beginning. Results: 220 patients were enrolled, only 42 in the experimental group and 33 in the control group completed the treatment. The variation of pain between the first and the fifth session showed no differences between groups regardless of time (p = 0.329. There were no differences between groups in functionality (p = 0.75, flexibility (p = 0.20 and depression. Conclusion: The combination of taping and Back School compared with only Back School was not more effective in reducing pain, increasing functionality and flexibility in patients with chronic low back pain. Key words: Taping; chronic low back pain; spine school; therapy exercises; flexibility; depression.

  2. Compound Half-Backed Weave Design For Digital Jacquard Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jiu

    2017-12-01

    Based on layered-combination design mode and compound structure, this paper presents a design method, named compound half-backed weave in order to achieve innovating weave structure and surface effect of fabric. This design method includes primary weaves chosen, half-backed technical points set up and half-backed weave databases established. The fabric produced using compound half-backed weave designed by this method can exhibit a unique half-backed effect that only half of the threads on the fabric surface remain in a state of being covered by adjacent wefts. Compound half-backed weave can not only meets the design need of jacquard fabric with different digital images and effectively improves the efficiency of structural design, but also puts forward new theory and method for innovative design of digital jacquard fabric.

  3. Low back pain and lumbar angles in Turkish coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S.; Gumustas, S.; Koc, U. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Medicine

    2007-02-15

    This study was designed to assess the incidence of low back pain among Turkish coal miners and to investigate the relationship between angles of the lumbar spine and low back pain in coal miners. Fifty underground workers (Group I) and 38 age-matched surface workers (Group II) were included in the study. All the subjects were asked about low back pain in the past 5 years. The prevalence of low back pain was higher in Group I than in Group II (78.0%, 32.4%, respectively, P {lt} 0.001). The results of the study showed that low back pain occurred in 78.0% of Turkish coal miners. Although the nature of the occupation may have influenced coal miners' lumbar spinal curvature, lumbar angles are not a determinant for low back pain in this population. Further extensive studies involving ergonomic measurements are needed to validate our results for Turkish coal mining industry.

  4. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  5. Advanced Control Strategy of Back-to-Back PWM Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Luong Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control scheme of back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the machine-side converter (MSC, while the grid-side converter (GSC controls the grid active power for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT. At the grid fault condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed using a feedback linearization (FL theory. For the MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia moment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dynamic performance. The validity of this control algorithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system.

  6. The Areva Group back-end division - challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This document presents the Areva Group back-end division challenges and prospects. Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, analyzes in this document, the high-profile mix of complementary activities of the nuclear energy industry, concerning the back-end division the full range of services for the end of the fuel cycle, the fuel cycle back-end markets, the economic and financial associated considerations. (A.L.B.)

  7. Predicting low back pain outcome following rehabilitation for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew J; Dew, Angela; Bridger, Robert; Etherington, John; Kilminster, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are known to play a key role in determining the progress of back pain patients. However, it is not known whether these factors are applicable to military personnel, who tend to be fitter than the general population. The aim was to identify physical and psychological predictors in a prospective study of the outcome of back pain rehabilitation over 6 months and a longer follow-up time of between 15 and 32 months. Two hundred and fifty military personnel reporting for a residential rehabilitation programme completed a battery of physical and psychological tests. The physical tests included 800 m run time and the Biering-Sorensen test. The psychological/psychosocial measures included items on fear avoidance, self efficacy, anxiety and depression and occupational psychosocial factors such as job satisfaction. Self efficacy and 800 m run time predicted self-reported functional ability at 6 months and medical discharge/return to full fitness at 15–32 months. Patients with 800 m run times of more than 3 minutes 31 seconds had a four times greater chance of medical discharge from the Armed forces. Eight hundred metre run time and self-efficacy were independent predictors of both self-reported functional ability at 6 months and return to full fitness/medical discharge at 15–32 months. Self-efficacy also predicted 40% of the variance in the intensity of back pain and 10% of other non-back pain. Rehabilitation should include greater emphasis on physical fitness and on improving self-efficacy.

  8. Fluorinated tin oxide back contact for AZTSSe photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershon, Talia S.; Gunawan, Oki; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2017-03-28

    A photovoltaic device includes a substrate, a back contact comprising a stable low-work function material, a photovoltaic absorber material layer comprising Ag.sub.2ZnSn(S,Se).sub.4 (AZTSSe) on a side of the back contact opposite the substrate, wherein the back contact forms an Ohmic contact with the photovoltaic absorber material layer, a buffer layer or Schottky contact layer on a side of the absorber layer opposite the back contact, and a top electrode on a side of the buffer layer opposite the absorber layer.

  9. Physical activity associate low back pain and intervention program: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhamad Aizat Mat; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Marican, Nor Dalila; Halim, Muhd Hafzal Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The person who have low back pain often report impaired disability to performance daily activities which passive movement of daily life. The effects of low back pain on daily function of patients can describe as a patients level of disability or reduction in physical function it interferes with the movement of patients for running a daily lives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review to examine the relationship between physical activity and low back pain. Besides that, the suggestion prevention program to patient who has low back pain. This systematic review study was used internet to find databases and search engines. Data were collected using Wiley online library, Bioline International, SAGE, Science Direct, NCBI, ProQuest, Biomed central, American Diabetes Association, PLOS One and Springer. The search was performed using keywords of "physical activity", "low back pain", "back pain", "activity level" and "intervention". The study was reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different section The results were classified based on several sections including years of reporting, who were reporting, the origins of articles and their health criteria about physical activity and low back pain. There are positive associate physical activity and low back pain from the systematic review. Future intervention treatment can reduce associate physical activity to low back pain.

  10. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Burdorf, Alex

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated in the vast majority of all episodes. Yet, there is ample evidence that the symptom of back pain is recurrent, with one-year recurrence rates reported of more than 60%. In many industrial populatio...

  11. Systematic review of conservative interventions for subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengel, Heloise M; Maher, Chris G; Refshauge, Kathryn M

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of conservative interventions on clinically relevant outcome measures for patients with subacute low back pain. This is particularly important because effective treatment for subacute low back pain will prevent the transition to chronic low back pain, a condition that is largely responsible for the high health care costs of low back pain. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality of each trial was assessed. Effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for pain and disability and risk ratios for return to work. Thirteen trials were located, evaluating the following interventions: manipulation, back school, exercise, advice, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), hydrotherapy, massage, corset, cognitive behavioural treatment and co-ordination of primary health care. Most studies were of low quality and did not show a statistically significant effect of intervention. For the strict duration of low back pain (six weeks to three months), no evidence of high internal validity was found but when other methodological criteria were considered, evidence was found for the efficacy of advice. Furthermore, there is evidence that when a broader view is taken of the duration of subacute low back pain (seven days to six months), other treatments (e.g. manipulation, exercise, TENS) may be effective. Our review identified a major gap in the evidence for interventions that are currently recommended in clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of subacute low back pain. Lack of a uniform definition of subacute low back pain further limited current evidence.

  12. Optimum back-pressure forging using servo die cushion

    OpenAIRE

    Kawamoto, Kiichiro; Yoneyama, Takeshi; Okada, Masato; Kitayama, Satoshi; Chikahisa, Junpei

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on utilizing a servo die cushion (in conjunction with a servo press) as a "back-pressure load generator," to determine its effect on shape accuracy of the formed part and total forming load in forward extrusion during cold forging. The effect of back-pressure load application was confirmed in experiments, and the optimum setting pattern of back-pressure load was considered to minimize both shape accuracy of the formed part and back-pressure energy, which was representative ...

  13. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  14. Vertebroplasty in the treatment of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Mario; Muto, Emanuale; Izzo, Roberto; Diano, Alvaro Antonio; Lavagna, Arcangelo; Di Furia, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to show the utility of vertebroplasty in the treatment of some types of back pain. Vertebroplasty is a venous embolisation of the vertebral body performed under computed tomography (CT) or fluoroscopy guidance with transpedicular, anterolateral, intercostovertebral or posterolateral approach with acrylic element. Materials and methods: We report our experience in 85 patients suffering from low back and thoracic pain and treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty owing to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, vertebral haemangiomas or secondary lytic lesions of the spine. Patient selection was performed on the basis of physical examination, magnetic resonance or less frequently, with bone scan. CT has a minor role in selected cases to evaluate the integrity of the posterior wall. We treated 55 patients affected by acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, 10 patients with vertebral haemangioma and 20 patients with metastatic lesions. The patients were placed in the prone position and the procedure was performed under fluoroscopy guidance in 80 patients and under CT guidance in 5 patients affected by metastatic lesions. In no case was phlebography performed before the treatment. The approach adopted was bilateral in 45 patients and unilateral in the remaining 30 cases. Injection with a low viscosity cement was performed under fluoroscopy guidance with extreme precision in all cases. The amount of cement injected ranged from 4 ml (thoracic level) up to 12 ml (lumbar level). Results: The results were better for osteoporotic cases (95%) and patients with vertebral haemangioma (90%) than with metastatic lesions (77%), with improvement within 24-72 hours after the treatment. We noted asymptomatic cement leakage in 39 cases but only in 2 cases was there an acute radiculopathy due to epidural cement leakage, which was treated and resolved medically in 1 month. At follow-up no cases were noted of fractures of vertebral bodies

  15. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world's riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future

  16. Biomechanical aspects of nonspecific back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Harrianto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a common problem in adult life, since despite its benign nature it is commonly associated with incapacity, productivity loss due to sick leave, and correspondingly high costs to the individual worker. Psychosocial and lifestyle factors and work-place exposures have been implicated in the onset of symptoms. Heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting and postural movements, repetitive work, and whole body vibrations are occupational factors associated with LBP. The usual classification of LBP is related to the duration of the complaints (acute, subacute, and chronic. However, these terms fail to take into account several clinically important aspects of the course of LBP, which is frequently recurrent and thus neither acute nor chronic. More realistically, LBP should be classified as specific and nonspecific. Approximately 90% of LBP cases have no identifiable cause and is designated nonspecific LBP. However, despite its high prevalence, the etiology and nature of nonspecific LBP are not yet well understood. Its pathophysiology remains complex and multifaceted. Multiple anatomic structures and elements of the lumbar spine (e.g. bones, ligaments, tendons, discs, and muscles are all suspected of playing a role. Many of these components of the lumbar spine have sensory innervations that can generate nociceptive signals in response to tissue-damaging stimuli. Other causes could be neuropathic (e.g. sciatica. Some cases of LBP most likely involve mixed nociceptive and neuropathic etiologies.

  17. Stress and back pain: who can escape?

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 28 April each year, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization organise a World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   For the third consecutive year, CERN will be celebrating the World Day through events and initiatives coordinated by the BE Safety Unit, the HSE Unit, the CERN Medical Service and finally the Fire Brigade. Two main themes that will be highlighted this year are: work stress and musculoskeletal disorders. These two frightening items actually refer to situations that we may all be experiencing. On the day of the event, you will be given information and tips on how to reduce daily stress. You will also be invited to follow a “back pain” course that will bring to light all the activities you can try out in order to fight this affliction and reduce its consequences. The Fire Brigade will also be present to show you how to use the “portoire” chair. Don’t know what a “portoire” chair ...

  18. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  19. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  20. Glide back booster wind tunnel model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, M. V.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Stoica, C. I.; Niculescu, M. L.; Neculaescu, A. M.; Persinaru, A. G.; Boscoianu, M.

    2017-07-01

    Affordable space access requires partial or ideally full launch vehicle reuse, which is in line with clean environment requirement. Although the idea is old, the practical use is difficult, requiring very large technology investment for qualification. Rocket gliders like Space Shuttle have been successfullyoperated but the price and correspondingly the energy footprint were found not sustainable. For medium launchers, finally there is a very promising platform as Falcon 9. For very small launchers the situation is more complex, because the performance index (payload to start mass) is already small, versus medium and heavy launchers. For partial reusable micro launchers this index is even smaller. However the challenge has to be taken because it is likely that in a multiyear effort, technology is going to enable the performance recovery to make such a system economically and environmentally feasible. The current paper is devoted to a small unitary glide back booster which is foreseen to be assembled in a number of possible configurations. Although the level of analysis is not deep, the solution is analyzed from the aerodynamic point of view. A wind tunnel model is designed, with an active canard, to enablea more efficient wind tunnel campaign, as a national level premiere.

  1. LHC Report: Back to record performance

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The technical issues that caused a rocky re-start after the technical stop and a relatively low performance of the machine have been tackled and resolved in the past days. The LHC is back to record collision rates and matching the 2011 data set now seems within reach for the summer conferences.   The technical stop at the end of April was followed by a period in which increased beam losses were observed before the beams were brought into collision, causing reduced peak luminosities. This issue was tackled by optimising the beams in the injector chain, making a fine adjustment of the orbit during the energy ramp-up and ensuring precise bunch collisions in ATLAS and CMS. These measures brought the peak luminosity at the beginning of a fill up to record levels of 6 x1033 cm-2s-1, but the fills were short as there were still sudden losses of some bunches that triggered the beam dump. The lost bunches were identified as bunches that only collide in LHCb. These bunches see fewer collisions, so the &am...

  2. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  3. Scenarios for backing out of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schefold, B.; Heeren, R.; Hege, U.

    1987-01-01

    The study takes as a basis the investigations published by an Enquete Commission of the Federal German Bundestag, on 'Future atomic energy policy', and a BMFT project on 'The social compatibility of various energy systems in the development of the industrialized society', carried out by the Vereinigung Deutscher Wissenschaftler. As it has become clear by now that the strategy of pushing forward the breeder reactor technology has lost support, the authors of the study thought that it is opportune to actualize the comparison of the strategy of continued utilisation of nuclear energy by means of light-water type nuclear power plant, and the strategy relying on rational energy utilisation and renewable energy sources. In contrast to sometimes short-sighted 'backing-out scenarios' that consider only the electricity sector, the study in hand also takes into account broader economic and social connections. It demonstrates the feasibility of a cost-efficient, environmentally acceptible and socially compatible energy supply system without nuclear energy, but also defines the necessary decisions energy policy must supply - also and especially those that foster the principles of the free market economy. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Curcumin: getting back to the roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Shishir; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2005-11-01

    The use of turmeric, derived from the root of the plant Curcuma longa, for treatment of different inflammatory diseases has been described in Ayurveda and in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The active component of turmeric responsible for this activity, curcumin, was identified almost two centuries ago. Modern science has revealed that curcumin mediates its effects by modulation of several important molecular targets, including transcription factors (e.g., NF-kappaB, AP-1, Egr-1, beta-catenin, and PPAR-gamma), enzymes (e.g., COX2, 5-LOX, iNOS, and hemeoxygenase-1), cell cycle proteins (e.g., cyclin D1 and p21), cytokines (e.g., TNF, IL-1, IL-6, and chemokines), receptors (e.g., EGFR and HER2), and cell surface adhesion molecules. Because it can modulate the expression of these targets, curcumin is now being used to treat cancer, arthritis, diabetes, Crohn's disease, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, Alzheimer's disease, psoriasis, and other pathologies. Interestingly, 6-gingerol, a natural analog of curcumin derived from the root of ginger (Zingiber officinalis), exhibits a biologic activity profile similar to that of curcumin. The efficacy, pharmacologic safety, and cost effectiveness of curcuminoids prompt us to "get back to our roots."

  5. Endogenous Opioid Inhibition of Chronic Low Back Pain Influences Degree of Back Pain Relief Following Morphine Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehl, Stephen; Burns, John W.; Gupta, Rajnish; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Chont, Melissa; Schuster, Erik; France, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Factors underlying differential responsiveness to opioid analgesic medications used in chronic pain management are poorly understood. We tested whether individual differences in endogenous opioid inhibition of chronic low back pain were associated with magnitude of acute reductions in back pain ratings following morphine administration. Methods In randomized, counterbalanced order over three sessions, 50 chronic low back pain patients received intravenous naloxone (8mg), morphine (0.08 mg/kg), or placebo. Back pain intensity was rated pre-drug and again after peak drug activity was achieved using the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form (Sensory and Affective subscales, VAS intensity measure). Opioid blockade effect measures to index degree of endogenous opioid inhibition of back pain intensity were derived as the difference between pre-to post-drug changes in pain intensity across placebo and naloxone conditions, with similar morphine responsiveness measures derived across placebo and morphine conditions. Results Morphine significantly reduced back pain compared to placebo (MPQ-Sensory, VAS; P effects of opioid blockade on back pain intensity. However, individual differences in opioid blockade effects were significantly associated with degree of acute morphine-related reductions in back pain on all measures, even after controlling for effects of age, sex, and chronic pain duration (P morphine. Conclusions Morphine appears to provide better acute relief of chronic back pain in individuals with lower natural opioidergic inhibition of chronic pain intensity. Possible implications for personalized medicine are discussed. PMID:24553304

  6. The course of low back pain from adolescence to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study with 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of low back pain from adolescence into adulthood. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: High prevalence rates of low back pain among children and adolescents have been demonstrated in several studies, and it has bee...

  7. The Scope of Back Pain in Navy Helicopter Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Environmental Medicine 55: 556–7. 40 Frymoyer, J. W., & Cats- Baril W. L. (1991). An overview of the incidences and costs of low back pain. Orthopedic...between individuals. Does back pain affect safety of flight? Frymoyer and Cats- Baril (1991) reported that in the civilian community, at any given

  8. Disability associated with low back pain in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    204 patients with mechanical back pain were enrolled in the study, after screening all consecutive new adult patients referred with low back pain as the major complaint. A validated modified Oswestry instrument was used to collect data. Nine daily activities: sleep, sex, lifting, traveling, social and recreational activities, ...

  9. Prevalence and Pattern of Back Pain among Pregnant Women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr S.B. OLALEYE

    Back pain is (BP) is recognized as an important problem in pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and pattern of back pain. (BP) in pregnancy. A survey of 2,187 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in selected Medical facilities in Ibadan and Ogbomoso, Nigeria was carried out ...

  10. Back Surgery: When Is It a Good Idea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one of the most common ailments seen by family doctors. Back problems typically respond to nonsurgical treatments — such as anti-inflammatory medications, heat and physical therapy. Back surgery might be an option if conservative treatments haven't worked and your pain is ...

  11. Solidification with back-diffusion of irregular eutectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska-Łent

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the α - parameter back-diffusion has been introduced in the work. The alternative models of solidification were describedtaking into consideration back-diffusion process. The possibility of using those models for eutectic alloys solidification is worthyof interest.

  12. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang

    1986-01-01

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  13. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set...

  14. 13 CFR 120.612 - Loans eligible to back Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans eligible to back Certificates. 120.612 Section 120.612 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.612 Loans eligible to back Certificates. (a) Pool Certificates...

  15. Herbal medicine for low back pain: a Cochrane review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagnier, J.J.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.; Bombardier, C.

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine compared with placebo, no intervention, or "standard/accepted/conventional treatments" for nonspecific low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Low back pain is a common

  16. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayden, J.A.; van Tulder, M.; Malmivaara, A.V.; Koes, B.W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise therapy is widely used as an intervention in low back pain. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise therapy in adult nonspecific acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain versus no treatment and other conservative treatments. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  17. Frequency Selective Surfaces for extended Bandwidth backing reflector functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasian, M.; Neto, A.; Monni, S.; Ettorre, M.; Gerini, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) to increase the Efficiency × Bandwidth product in Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna arrays whose efficiency is limited by the front-to-back ratio. If the backing reflector is realized in one metal plane solution its location will be

  18. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  19. Disability associated with low back pain in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain is sufficiently disabling and a common cause of disability particularly during the productive middle years of adult life. Disability implies interference with daily activities. Objective: To assess and document the disability associated with low back pain in terms of sick leave days, interference with ...

  20. Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of ...

  1. Theeffectivenessofginger compress on non-specific low back pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theeffectivenessofginger compress on non-specific low back pain. ... for a total of ten sessions and control group (n=7) did not received any treatment. ... in pain relief and reduces functional disability in patients with non-specific low back pain.

  2. LOW BACK PAINS –THE ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEON'S ENIGMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this century that the low back pain symptom complex has taken on ... of low back pain in 1911 by Goldthwait (1). Major ... no specific diagnosis is made in 80% to 90% of patients ... wound and cures a freeman, he shall receive ten pieces of ...

  3. Effects of backing board materials on wood combustion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew J. Hagge; Kenneth M. Bryden; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2004-01-01

    Cone calorimeter tests show that backing board materials do not affect the ignition time, initial heat release rate, or the total heat released of combustion for redwood slabs. However, it has been observed that backing board materials alter combustion performance by altering the secondary heat release peak observed when the pyrolysis reaction front nears the unheated...

  4. Nursery function of tropical back-reef systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.J.; Dahlgren, C.P.; Kellison, G.T.; Kendall, M.S.; Layman, C.A.; Ley, J.A.; Nagelkerken, I.; Serafy, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Similar to nearshore systems in temperate latitudes, the nursery paradigm for tropical back-reef systems is that they provide a habitat for juveniles of species that subsequently make ontogenetic shifts to adult populations on coral reefs (we refer to this as the nursery function of back-reef

  5. Prepayment and the Valuation of Danish Mortgage-Backed Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Svend

    Ph.D. thesis on prepayment modelling and valuation of Danish mortgage backed bonds. The thesis discusses several aspects of mortgage backed bonds including after-tax valuation, the special Danish delivery option, rational prepayment behavior, transaction costs and heterogenous borrowers. The thes...... concludes with an empirical analysis of pricing and holding period returns...

  6. Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urquhart, D. M.; Hoving, J. L.; Assendelft, W. W. J. J.; Roland, M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are commonly used in the management of low-back pain. However, their use is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo for the treatment of non-specific low-back pain. SEARCH STRATEGY:

  7. German research reactor back-end provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, Siegfried; Gruber, Gerhard

    2002-01-01

    Germany has several types of Research Reactors in operation. These reactors use fuel containing uranium of U.S. origin. Basically all the fuel which will be spent until May 2006 will be returned to the U.S. under existing contracts with the U.S. Department of Energy. The contracts are based on the U.S. FRR SNF (Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel) Program which started in May 1996 and which will last for 10 years. In 1990, the German Federal Government started a program to long-term store (approx. 40 years) and finally dispose of spent fuel in Germany after the so-called U.S. fuel return window will be closed. In order to long-term store the fuel, a special container was designed which covers all different types of spent fuel from the Research Reactors. The container called 'CASTOR MTR 2' is basically licensed and is already in use for the spent fuel of Russian origin from the 'Research Reactor Rossendorf' in the eastern part of Germany. All that fuel is expected to be stored in the existing intermediate storage facility, the so-called BZA (Brennelemente Zwischenlager Ahaus). BZA already accomodates spent fuel from the former THTR-300 high temperature reactor. A final repository does not yet exist in Germany. Alternative provisions to close the back-end of the Research Reactor fuel cycle are reprocessing at COGEMA (France) or in Russian facilities, perspectively. Waste return in a form to be agreed will be mandatory, at least in France. (author)

  8. Feed-Back Regulation of Haemopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, M. [Department of Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)

    1968-08-15

    Studies ate reported on the feed-back regulation of erythropoiesis by means of the intrasplenic cloning system of haemopoietic cells. Polycythaemia, produced by passive transfusion of synzeneic, allogeneic or xenogeneic red blood cells, inhibited the formation of bone-marrow derived erythroid clones. Polycythaemia also inhibited the formation of erythroid clones of endogenous stem cells. Oxygen overloading was found to be a necessary factor in the suppression of erythroid clone formation: no suppression of erythroid colonies was observed when polycythaemic animals were kept under hypoxic conditions. Erythropoietin, either of exogenous or of endogenous origin, elicited a reformation of erythroid clones in 'suppressed' animals. Studies on the kinetics of reformation of erythroid clones after the administration of erythropoietin suggested that the colony-forming stem cell can replicate a few times in the absence of erythropoietin and the cell progeny thus formed are the target cells for erythropoietin action. If, indeed, the colony-forming cell replicates in the absence of the specific inducer, then the cells thus formed should themselves be stem cells. This was substantiated by demonstrating that the cloning efficiency of spleens of polycythaemic recipients was higher than that of non-polycythaemic animals. Experiments indicating that erythroid clones produced by erythropoietin in polycythaemic animals disappeared after the discontinuance of erythropoietin application demonstrated the distinction between the 'mitogenic' and the 'morphogenetic' effects of erythropoietin. The latter seemed to be operated by an early transcription of RNA for proteins necessary for the complete maturation of the red blood cell, Erythroid clones produced by foetal haemopoietic stem cells seemed to be regulated by a different mechanism from that which controls the formation of bone-marrow derived clones. Clones produced by foetal cells were only partially suppressed in the polycythaemic

  9. Imaging studies for failed back surgery syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, G.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Soulie, D.

    1995-01-01

    In patients with failed back surgery syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be the best first-line imaging study because it simplifies the diagnosis. This update is based on over 600 cases. MRI shows the scar tissue at the surgical site, persistent evidence of disk herniation for several weeks after surgery, and evidence of local and regional edema in one-fourth of cases. The edema is most marked between two months and two years after the operation and can misleadingly suggest discitis. MRI is the best investigation for detecting recurrent herniation at the same vertebral level or another level. Herniated disk material is seen as a mass that does not enhance after gadolinium, in contrast to the vascularized scar tissue. Free fragments are often clearly visible within the scar tissue. Fragments that migrate to the epidural space can give rise to granulomatous reactions. Scar tissue can be seen in the epidural space and within the disk; it can show enhancement after gadolinium for several years. The scar can be atrophic or hypertrophic and can encase or impinge on the dural sac and nerve roots. Pathological fibrosis cannot be differentiated from ordinary scar tissue. Arachnoiditis causing adherence of the nerve roots to the dura mater or to each other occurs in 5 % to 10 % of cases. Nerve root enhancement after gadolinium is seen in three-fourths of cases. Bone lesions are common, especially some time after surgery; they are usually accompanied with other lesions. Hematomas are seen in less than 10 % of cases. Infections are similarly rare (0.25 % each for discitis and epiduritis). The diagnosis of discitis is difficult and requires percutaneous biopsy of the disk, especially when MRI shows fluid within the disk, with decreased signal intensity on T2 images, and non enhancement after intravenous gadolinium. (authors). 19 refs., 7 figs

  10. The come-back of hypo fractionation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hypo-fractionation (i.e. the use of fewer higher fractional doses than usual) is not a new concept. It had actually been proposed in the early year of Radiotherapy by the German and Austrian specialists. In the seventy's, supported by the - wrong - hypotheses which gave birth to the NSD (Nominal Standard Dose), hypo-fractionation reappears. The consequential increase of late complications which was observed led the radiation oncologists to give up again using large doses per fraction, except for a few specific situations, such as palliative treatments. We are recently facing a new 'come-back' of hypo-fractionation, in particular for breast and prostate cancers. In the case of breast cancer, the aim is clearly to look for more 'convenience' for both the patients and the physicians, proposing shorter irradiation schedules including a lesser number of fractions. Some 'modestly' hypo-fractionated schemes have been proposed and used, without apparently altering the efficacy/toxicity ratio, but these results have been seriously questioned. As for prostate cancer, the situation is different, since in that case new radiobiological data are at the origin of the newly proposed hypo-fractionation schedules. A number of papers actually strongly suggested that the fractionation sensitivity of prostate cancer could be higher than the one of the tissues responsible for late toxicity (i.e the exact opposite of the classical dogma). Based on those data, several hypo-fractionated schemes have been proposed, with a few preliminary results looking similar to the ones obtained by the classical schedules. However, no randomized study is available so far, and a few recent radiobiological data are now questioning the new dogma of the high fractionation sensitivity of prostate cancer. For those two - frequent - cancers, it seems therefore that prudence should prevail before altering classical irradiation schedules which have proven their efficacy, while staying open to new concepts and

  11. Reducing the cost of back-contact module technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, I.J.; Eerenstein, W.; Rosca, V. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    Back-contact modules made using a conductive back-sheet foil have a number of advantages over standard H-pattern modules including a higher power output, compatibility with very thin cells and high throughput, high yield manufacturing. For a conductive back-sheet based module the most cost critical components are the conductive back-sheet and the conductive adhesives used to make the contact between the cells and the conductive back-sheet. In this paper a number of methods for reducing the module materials cost will be presented. Climate chamber testing of low cost foils without isolation coating and without silver contacts demonstrated that this type of foil is reliable in damp-heat, reaching 2000 hours at 85%RH and 85{sup o}C with a loss in fill-factor of less than 2%.

  12. Central sensitization in chronic low back pain: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare

    2016-11-21

    Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.

  13. [Rehabilitation for the patients with low-back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirado, Osamu; Watanabe, Yasuyuki; Kawase, Masafumi

    2005-03-01

    The first choice for the treatment of low-back pain should be physical therapy, or rehabilitation. These are mainly divided into two modalities; passive and active modality. The former includes bed rest, hot pack, massage, and brace. The latter includes therapeutic exercise. The modality used should be dependent of the stages in each patient. Bed rest is indicated in the acute stage within a week after the occurrence low-back pain. The rest longer than a week is basically contraindicated, because of disuse syndrome such as muscle weakness, osteoporosis, and soft tissue contracture. Therapeutic exercise is the mainstay in the chronic stage. It includes trunk muscles strengthening exercise and stretching. Lumbar stabilization exercise has currently drawn attention for the treatment of low-back pain. Patient education such as back-school also plays an important role to manage low-back pain.

  14. Improved interoceptive awareness in chronic low back pain: a comparison of Back school versus Feldenkrais method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Zangrando, Federico; Iosa, Marco; De Angelis, Simona; Marzoli, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2017-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Feldenkrais method for relieving pain in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and the improvement of interoceptive awareness. This study was designed as a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-three patients with a diagnosis of CLBP for at least 3 months were randomly allocated to the Feldenkrais (mean age 61.21 ± 11.53 years) or Back School group (mean age 60.70 ± 11.72 years). Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), disability was evaluated with the Waddel Disability Index, quality of life was measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and mind-body interactions were studied using the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness Questionnaire (MAIA). Data were collected at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at the 3-month follow-up. The two groups were matched at baseline for all the computed parameters. At the end of treatment (Tend), there were no significant differences between groups regarding chronic pain reduction (p = 0.290); VAS and MAIA-N sub scores correlated at Tend (R = 0.296, p = 0.037). By the Friedman analysis, both groups experienced significant changes in pain (p Back School in CLBP. Implications for rehabilitation The Feldenkrais method is a mind-body therapy that is based on awareness through movement lessons, which are verbally guided explorations of movement that are conducted by a physiotherapist who is experienced and trained in this method. It aims to increase self-awareness, expand a person's repertoire of movements, and to promote increased functioning in contexts in which the entire body cooperates in the execution of movements. Interoceptive awareness, which improves with rehabilitation, has a complex function in the perception of chronic pain and should be investigated further in future research. The efficacy of the Feldenkrais method is comparable with that of BS for nonspecific chronic

  15. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. el Barzouhi (Abdelilah); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); G.J.L.A. Nijeholt (Geert J. Lycklama A); B.F.W. van der Kallen (Bas); W.B. van den Hout (Wilbert); B.W. Koes (Bart); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. Methods: The study population

  16. Do illness perceptions of people with chronic low back pain differ from people without chronic low back pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; van Ittersum, Miriam W.; Kaptein, Ad A.

    Objectives To determine why some people develop chronic low back pain, and whether illness perceptions are an important risk factor in the transition from acute to chronic low back pain. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Four hundred and two members of the general Dutch population, with and

  17. Non-Linear Back-propagation: Doing Back-Propagation withoutDerivatives of the Activation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, John; Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Lautrup, Benny

    1997-01-01

    The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back...

  18. Harmonic models of a back-to-back converter in large offshore wind farms compared with measurement data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Hjerrild, Jesper; Bak, Claus Leth

    2009-01-01

    The offshore wind farm with installed back-to-back power converter in wind turbines is studied. As an example the Burbo Bank offshore wind farm with Siemens Wind Power wind turbines is taken into consideration. The wind farm is simulated in DIgSILENT Power Factory software in order to determine...

  19. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Avoidance Test-Back Pain (BAT-Back) for Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Sebastian; Riecke, Jenny; Rief, Winfried; Schneider, Jessica; Glombiewski, Julia A

    2016-11-01

    Pain-related fear and avoidance of physical activities are central elements of the fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain. Pain-related fear has typically been measured by self-report instruments. In this study, we developed and validated a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT) for chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with the aim of assessing pain-related avoidance behavior by direct observation. The BAT-Back was administered to a group of CLBP patients (N=97) and pain-free controls (N=31). Furthermore, pain, pain-related fear, disability, catastrophizing, and avoidance behavior were measured using self-report instruments. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach α. Validity was assessed by examining correlation and regression analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the BAT-Back avoidance score was r=0.76. Internal consistency was α=0.95. CLBP patients and controls differed significantly on BAT-Back avoidance scores as well as self-report measures. BAT-Back avoidance scores were significantly correlated with scores on each of the self-report measures (rs=0.27 to 0.54). They were not significantly correlated with general anxiety and depression, age, body mass index, and pain duration. The BAT-Back avoidance score was able to capture unique variance in disability after controlling for other variables (eg, pain intensity and pain-related fear). Results indicate that the BAT-Back is a reliable and valid measure of pain-related avoidance behavior. It may be useful for clinicians in tailoring treatments for chronic pain as well as an outcome measure for exposure treatments.

  20. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakian, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions. (authors)

  1. Back-to-back heavy quark pair production in semi-inclusive DIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Peng

    2017-11-01

    The one-loop correction to heavy quark pair back-to-back production in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is given in this work in the framework of transverse momentum dependent(TMD) factorization. Both unpolarized and linearly polarized TMD gluon distribution functions are taken into account. A subtraction method based on diagram expansion is used to get finite hard coefficients. It is found the soft and collinear divergences of one-loop amplitude is proportional to tree level ones and can be expressed through several basic scalar triangle and bubble integrals. The subtraction of these divergences is spin independent. Beyond tree level an additional soft factor related to final heavy quark pair must be added into the factorization formula. This soft factor affects the azimuthal angle distribution of virtual photon in a nonperturbative way. Integrating over virtual photon azimuthal angle we construct three weighted cross sections, which depend on only three additional integrated soft factors. These weighted cross sections can be used to extract linearly polarized gluon distribution function. In addition, lepton azimuthal angle is unintegrated in this work, which provides more observables. All hard coefficients relevant to lepton and virtual photon azimuthal angle distributions are given at one-loop level.

  2. Nonlinear Control of Back-to-Back VSC-HVDC System via Command-Filter Backstepping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a command-filtered backstepping controller to improve the dynamic performance of back-to-back voltage-source-converter high voltage direct current (BTB VSC-HVDC. First, the principle and model of BTB VSC-HVDC in abc and d-q frame are described. Then, backstepping method is applied to design a controller to maintain the voltage balance and realize coordinated control of active and reactive power. Meanwhile, command filter is introduced to deal with the problem of input saturation and explosion of complexity in conventional backstepping, and a filter compensation signal is designed to diminish the adverse effects caused by the command filter. Next, the stability and convergence of the whole system are proved via the Lyapunov theorem of asymptotic stability. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate that proposed controller has a better dynamic performance and stronger robustness compared to the traditional PID algorithm, which also proves the effectiveness and possibility of the designed controller.

  3. Analysis of the market for diesel PEM fuel cell auxiliary power units onboard long-haul trucks and of its implications for the large-scale adoption of PEM FCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contestabile, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM FCs) offer a promising alternative to internal combustion engines in road transport. During the last decade PEM FC research, development and demonstration (RD and D) activities have been steadily increasing worldwide, and targets have been set to begin their commercialisation in road transport by 2015-2020. However, there still is considerable uncertainty on whether these targets will actually be met. The picture is complex and market and technology issues are closely interlinked; investment in RD and D projects is essential but not sufficient; the development of suitable early markets is also necessary and policy is set to play an important role. Auxiliary power units (APUs) are generally regarded as one important early market for FCs in transport. This paper analyses the possible future market for diesel PEM FC APUs onboard long-haul trucks and its implications for the development of PEM FCs in general. The analysis, part of the project HyTRAN (EC Contract no. 502577), is aided by the use of a dynamic simulation model of technology and markets developed by the author. Results suggest that an interesting window of opportunity for diesel PEM FC APUs exists but this is subject to additional research particularly targeted at the rapid development of fuel processors.

  4. Predictors of Persistent Disability and Back Pain in Older Adults with a New Episode of Care for Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Sean D; Sherman, Karen J; Heagerty, Patrick J; Mock, Charles N; Dettori, Nathan J; Comstock, Bryan A; Avins, Andrew L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-06-01

     To identify predictors of persistent disability and back pain in older adults.  Prospective cohort study.  Back pain outcomes using longitudinal data registry.  Five thousand two hundred twenty adults age 65 years and older with a new primary care visit for back pain.  Baseline measurements included: demographics, health, and back pain characteristics. We abstracted imaging findings from 348 radiology reports. The primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and back pain intensity. We defined persistent disability as RMDQ of 4/24 or higher at both six and 12 months and persistent back pain as pain 3/10 or higher at both six and 12 months.  There were 2,498 of 4,143 (60.3%) participants with persistent disability, and 2,099 of 4,144 (50.7%) had persistent back pain. Adjusted analyses showed the following characteristics most strongly predictive of persistent disability and persistent back pain: sex, race, worse baseline clinical characteristics of back pain, leg pain, back-related disability and duration of symptoms, smoking, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, a history of falls, greater number of comorbidities, knee osteoarthritis, wide-spread pain syndromes, and an index diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Within the imaging data subset, central spinal stenosis was not associated with disability or pain.  We found that many predictors in older adults were similar to those for younger populations. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Numerical simulation of transitions between back discharge regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansky, Jaroslav; Lemont, Florent; Bessieres, Delphine; Paillol, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents numerical simulations of transitions between back discharge regimes. Back discharge refers to any discharge initiated at or near a dielectric layer covering a passive electrode. In this work, a pinhole in a dielectric layer on a plane anode serves as a model for back discharge activity. We have studied transitions between back discharge regimes by varying the surface charge density on the dielectric layer and the electric field in front of the pinhole. From the variation of these two independent parameters, the back discharge regimes have been depicted as a mode diagram inspired by the experimental study of Masuda and Mizuno. The resulting diagram includes the different discharge regimes that are commonly observed in experiments. The propagation of a positive ionizing wave inside the pinhole toward its edge, and the resulting formation of a plasma zone at its exit constitute the onset stage of back discharge. From this stage, the transitions to volume discharge or surface discharge can occur. The volume discharge regime consists of the propagation of a discharge in space toward the cathode which can be superimposed with the propagation of a discharge above the dielectric layer surface. The diagram reveals the conditions for transitions between back discharge regimes. (authors)

  7. Persian Back Channel Responses in Formal versus Informal Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utterances like /xob/ (okay, /doroste/ (right, /hmm/, /ee/, /?re/ (yeah, occur frequently in Persian conversations, but have thus far escaped from the systematic studies. Good listeners generally produce these short utterances, called "back channel responses", in appropriate times to show their participation in the conversation, but the rules governing back channeling vary from one context to another. The usage of back channel responses is different in various contexts, due to politeness or formality. This paper studies the types and functions of the back channel responses in both formal and informal settings and provides a comparison of the usage of these responses in these two kinds of contexts. The results show /bale/ (yes and /doroste/ (right are used with formal or polite verbal form, while /xob/ (okay is used with the informal style of speech and less polite verbal form. With respect to the function of back channels, signaling the understanding is the main function of back channels in informal contexts. Also, back channels signaling agreement are more frequent in formal contexts, where emotional function is less likely.

  8. Herbal medicine for low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Hanna; Robbins, Chris; van Tulder, Maurits W; Berman, Brian M; Bombardier, Claire; Gagnier, Joel J

    2014-12-23

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP. We searched the following electronic databases up to September 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Clinical Trials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Portal and PubMed; checked reference lists in review articles, guidelines and retrieved trials; and personally contacted individuals with expertise in this area. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining adults (over 18 years of age) suffering from acute, sub-acute, or chronic non-specific LBP. The interventions were herbal medicines which we defined as plants used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. A library scientist with the Cochrane Back Review Group conducted the database searches. One review author contacted content experts and acquired relevant citations. We downloaded full references and abstracts of the identified studies and retrieved a hard copy of each study for final inclusion decisions. Two review authors assessed risk of bias, GRADE criteria (GRADE 2004), and CONSORT compliance and a random subset were compared to assessments by a third individual. Two review authors assessed clinical relevance and resolved any disagreements by consensus. We included 14 RCTs (2050 participants) in this review. One trial on Solidago chilensis M. (Brazilian arnica) (20 participants) found very low quality evidence of reduction in perception of pain and improved flexibility with application of Brazilian arnica-containing gel twice daily as compared

  9. Comet Tempel 1 Went Back to Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Astronomers Having Used ESO Telescopes Start Analysing Unique Dataset on the Comet Following the Deep Impact Mission Ten days after part of the Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface, astronomers are back in the ESO Offices in Santiago, after more than a week of observing at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. In this unprecedented observing campaign - among the most ambitious ever conducted by a single observatory - the astronomers have collected a large amount of invaluable data on this comet. The astronomers have now started the lengthy process of data reduction and analysis. Being all together in a single place, and in close contacts with the space mission' scientific team, they will try to assemble a clear picture of the comet and of the impact. The ESO observations were part of a worldwide campaign to observe this unique experiment. During the campaign, ESO was connected by phone, email, and videoconference with colleagues in all major observatories worldwide, and data were freely exchanged between the different groups. This unique collaborative spirit provides astronomers with data taken almost around the clock during several days and this, with the largest variety of instruments, making the Deep Impact observing campaign one of the most successful of its kind, and thereby, ensuring the greatest scientific outcome. From the current analysis, it appears most likely that the impactor did not create a large new zone of activity and may have failed to liberate a large quantity of pristine material from beneath the surface. ESO PR Photo 22/05 ESO PR Photo 22/05 Evolution of Comet Tempel 1 (FORS2/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 701 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1401 pix - 357k] ESO PR Photo 22/05 Animated Gif Caption: ESO PR Photo 22/05 shows the evolution of Comet Tempel 1 as observed with the FORS2 instrument on Antu (VLT). The images obtained at the VLT show that

  10. Patients' interpretations of a counselling intervention for low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Sanne; Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Birgitte Krøis

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain often becomes a chronic condition and causes physical, psychological, social, and occupational impairment. Despite huge allocations of resources into the healthcare system and the labour market for treating and preventing low back pain, problems related to low back pain...... the intervention. If participants managed to change their health behaviour, it assisted them in transforming from being passive victims of pain into becoming active and in control. Participants who did not feel that they were sufficiently able to adhere to the treatment plan felt increasingly stigmatised, because...

  11. Limitations associated with managing chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Paul

    2016-04-20

    Non-specific chronic low back pain is an occupational hazard for nurses. It may result in persistent and disabling pain for some people. There are many techniques for investigating, assessing and treating chronic low back pain. However, research to support some of these interventions and the assumptions that underlie them is limited. Interventions that may be beneficial are not always available to those who need them. Changes to service provision are required to rectify this situation and provide effective treatment for patients with non-specific chronic low back pain.

  12. PREVALENCE OF LOW BACK PAIN AND BACK ERGONOMICS AWARENESS AMONG TEACHERS OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KANO METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Garba Sumaila

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP is regarded as the commonest musculoskeletal problem in the world which affects people across various strata of the society from lay men on the street to teachers as well as health care providers in health institutions. Therefore the purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of low back pain and back education awareness among secondary school teachers in Kano Metropolis. Methodos: 200 questionnaires were distributed and only 157 were retrieved, one out of which 4 were invalid because of incomplete data so that only 153 were relevant and used for analysis giving a return rate of 76.5%. The study revealed that 96 out of 153 respondents have low back pain implying 62.7% prevalence. The level of back ergonomic awareness on the other hand was found to be moderate (43.1%. Results: Based on the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that there is a high prevalence of low back pain among secondary school teachers in Kano metropolis. However, the level of back ergonomic awareness is moderate. Conclusion: Therefore proper intervention to prevent exposure to LBP among school teachers should be enhanced and teachers should be well educated on the importance of ergonomic intervention in their working environments.

  13. Efficacy of transverse tripolar spinal cord stimulator for the relief of chronic low back pain from failed back surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvanendran, Asokumar; Lubenow, Timothy J

    2008-01-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome is a common clinical entity for which spinal cord stimulation has been found to be an effective mode of analgesia, but with variable success rates. To determine if focal stimulation of the dorsal columns with a transverse tripolar lead might achieve deeper penetration of the electrical stimulus into the spinal cord and therefore provide greater analgesia to the back. Case report. We describe a 42-year-old female with failed back surgery syndrome that had greater back pain than leg pain. The tripolar lead configuration was achieved by placing percutaneously an octapolar lead in the spinal midline followed by 2 adjacent quadripolar leads, advanced to the T7-T10 vertebral bodies. Tripolar stimulation pattern resulted in more than 70% pain relief in this patient during the screening trial, while stimulation of one or 2 electrodes only provided 20% pain relief. After implantation of a permanent tripolar electrode system with a single rechargeable battery, the pain relief was maintained for one year. This is case report describing a case of a patient with chronic low back pain with a diagnosis of failed back surgery syndrome in which transverse tripolar stimulation using an octapolar and 2 quadripolar leads appeared to be beneficial. The transverse tripolar system consists of a central cathode surrounded by anodes, using 3 leads. This arrangement may contribute to maximum dorsal column stimulation with minimal dorsal root stimulation and provide analgesia to the lower back.

  14. Predictive Validity of the STarT Back Tool for Risk of Persistent Disabling Back Pain in a U.S Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Delaney, Kristin; Rundell, Sean D; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2018-04-03

    To examine the predictive validity of the Subgrouping for Targeted Treatment (STarT Back) tool for classifying people with back pain into categories of low, medium, and high risk of persistent disabling back pain in U.S. primary care. Secondary analysis of data from participants receiving usual care in a randomized clinical trial. Primary care clinics. Adults (N = 1109) ≥18 years of age with back pain. Those with specific causes of back pain (pregnancy, disc herniation, vertebral fracture, spinal stenosis) and work-related injuries were not included. Not applicable. The original 9-item version of the STarT Back tool, administered at baseline, stratified patients by their risk (low, medium, high) of persistent disabling back pain (STarT Back risk group). Persistent disabling back pain was defined as Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores of ≥7 at 6-month follow-up. The STarT Back risk group was a significant predictor of persistent disabling back pain (PSTarT Back risk groups successfully separated people with back pain into distinct categories of risk for persistent disabling back pain at 6-month follow-up in U.S. primary care. These results were very similar to those in the original STarT Back validation study. This validation study is a necessary first step toward identifying whether the entire STarT Back approach, including matched/targeted treatment, can be effectively used for primary care in the United States. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF BACK EXTENSION TRAINING ON BACK MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SPINAL RANGE OF MOTION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yaprak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 10-week dynamic back extension training programme and its effects on back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and spinal range of motion (ROM for healthy young females. Seventy-three young females (age: 19.32±1.80 years, height: 158.89±4.71 cm, body weight: 55.67±6.30 kg volunteered for the study. Prior to the training period, all participants completed anthropometric measurements, back muscle strength and endurance test, lateral bending and spinal ROM measurements. After measurements, the participants were divided into two groups. The exercise group (N:35 performed the dynamic back extension exercise 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The control group (N:38 did not participate in any type of exercise. The mixed design ANOVA (group x time was used to determine the difference in pre- and post-training values. The present findings show that there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training values for back muscle strength and spinal ROM in the exercise group. Following the dynamic strength training programme, back muscle strength and spine ROM values except flexion of the lumbar 5-sacrum 1 (L5-S1 segment of the exercise group showed a significant increase when compared with the pre test values. The control group did not show any significant changes when compared with the pre-training values. The results demonstrate that the 10-week dynamic strength training programme was effective for spinal extension ROM and back muscle strength, but there was no change in back muscle endurance. In this context, this programme could potentially be used to prevent the decrease of spinal ROM as well as provide an increase in the fitness parameters of healthy individuals.

  16. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dull and achy or sharp and stabbing, back pain can make it hard to concentrate on your job. Unfortunately, many occupations — such as nursing, construction and factory work — can place significant demands ...

  17. Prediction of tides using back-propagation neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    Prediction of tides is very much essential for human activities and to reduce the construction cost in marine environment. This paper presents an application of the artificial neural network with back-propagation procedures for accurate prediction...

  18. Meningoradiculitis due to borreliosis presenting as low back pain only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Crevits, I.; Baert, A.L.; Casteels-Van Daele, M.

    1998-01-01

    We report a child with Borrelia burgdorferi meningoradiculitis. This entity, also known as Bannwarth syndrome, is rare and its presentation with low back pain only is even more unusual. The MRI findings can suggest the diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Back-to-School Health Tips: Exercise and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up the same times each day. Keep room temperature on the cool side. A TV or computer in the bedroom can be a distraction. Read More "Back-to-School" Articles Health Tips: Immunizations / Health Tips: Exercise and ...

  20. RFI mitigating receiver back end for radiometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal requests support for Alphacore, Inc. to design and a low power application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) RFI mitigating receiver back...

  1. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn

    2013-01-01

    in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly......Evaporation is the most commonly used deposition method in the processing of back electrodes in polymer solar cells used in scientifi c studies. However, vacuum-based methods such as evaporation are uneconomical in the upscaling of polymer solar cells as they are throughput limiting steps...... employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...

  2. Rubbia proposes a speedier voyage to Mars and back

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    Carlo Rubbia has designed a propulsion engine that uses fission fragments of americium to directly heat a propulsion gas. He estimates it would allow a manned trip to Mars and back in around a year (8 paragraphs).

  3. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  4. Back translation reliability of TEOSQ in team game, individual game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back translation reliability of TEOSQ in team game, individual game and gender category. ... team and individual game with a specific focus to the dispositional approach on the athlete's performance in task and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Meta-analysis: exercise therapy for nonspecific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Jill A; van Tulder, Maurits W; Malmivaara, Antti V; Koes, Bart W

    2005-05-03

    Exercise therapy is widely used as an intervention in low back pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise therapy in adult nonspecific acute, subacute, and chronic low back pain versus no treatment and other conservative treatments. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library databases to October 2004; citation searches and bibliographic reviews of previous systematic reviews. Randomized, controlled trials evaluating exercise therapy for adult nonspecific low back pain and measuring pain, function, return to work or absenteeism, and global improvement outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected studies and extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and outcomes at short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-up. 61 randomized, controlled trials (6390 participants) met inclusion criteria: acute (11 trials), subacute (6 trials), and chronic (43 trials) low back pain (1 trial was unclear). Evidence suggests that exercise therapy is effective in chronic back pain relative to comparisons at all follow-up periods. Pooled mean improvement (of 100 points) was 7.3 points (95% CI, 3.7 to 10.9 points) for pain and 2.5 points (CI, 1.0 to 3.9 points) for function at earliest follow-up. In studies investigating patients (people seeking care for back pain), mean improvement was 13.3 points (CI, 5.5 to 21.1 points) for pain and 6.9 points (CI, 2.2 to 11.7 points) for function, compared with studies where some participants had been recruited from a general population (for example, with advertisements). Some evidence suggests effectiveness of a graded-activity exercise program in subacute low back pain in occupational settings, although the evidence for other types of exercise therapy in other populations is inconsistent. In acute low back pain, exercise therapy and other programs were equally effective (pain, 0.03 point [CI, -1.3 to 1.4 points]). Limitations of the literature, including low-quality studies with heterogeneous outcome measures inconsistent

  6. Semaphorin 3A: A Potential Target for Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Pengbin; Lv, Houchen; Zhang, Lihai; Zhang, Licheng; Tang, Peifu

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a common disorder. Pathological innervation and intervertebral disc degeneration are two major factors associated with this disease. Semaphorin 3A, originally known for its potent inhibiting effect on axonal outgrowth, is recently found to correlate with disease activity and histological features in some skeletal disorders. Based on its effects on innervation and vascularization, as well as enzyme secretion, we presume that semaphorin 3A may act as a potential target for low back pain.

  7. Semaphorin 3A, A Potential Target for Low Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengbin eYin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain is a common disorder. Pathological innervation and intervertebral disc degeneration are two major factors associated with this disease. Semaphorin 3A, originally known for its potent inhibiting effect on axonal outgrowth, is recently found to correlate with disease activity and histological features in some skeletal disorders. Based on its effects on innervation and vascularization, as well as enzyme secretion, we presume that semaphorin 3A may act as a potential target for low back pain.

  8. Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranski, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    Time effects of water drainage from deposited back-fill in mine excavations are considered. The time dependence of drainage from the deposited material was determined from ''in situ'' measurements with the aid of radioisotope gauges. The measurements were performed for given drainage conditions and practically constant grain size composition. It was found that in a few hours after the end of the back-filling operation the mechanical properties of the deposited material are practically constant. (author)

  9. SOLA-LOOP analysis of a back pressure check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The SOLA-LOOP computer code for transient, nonequilibrium, two-phase flows in networks has been coupled with a simple valve model to analyze a feedwater pipe breakage with a back-pressure check valve. Three tests from the Superheated Steam Reactor Safety Program Project (PHDR) at Kahl, West Germany, are analyzed, and the calculated transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamics effects are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured data

  10. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  11. Drain Back Systems in Laboratory and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    in the collector loop to have a safe reliable operation. The components should also be designed and marked so that only one correct mounting option is possible, like forward and return pipes to/from the collector of slightly different sizes or color. Adapted installer education and training is a very important...... step to have success with drain back systems. Practices used in glycol systems may give serious failures. Key-words: Drain Back, Low Flow, Solar Combi System, ETC collectors....

  12. The generalized back projection theorem for cone beam reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrin, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The use of cone beam scanners raises the problem of three dimensional reconstruction from divergent projections. After a survey on bidimensional analytical reconstruction methods we examine their application to the 3D problem. Finally, it is shown that the back projection theorem can be generalized to cone beam projections. This allows to state a new inversion formula suitable for both the 4 π parallel and divergent geometries. It leads to the generalization of the ''rho-filtered back projection'' algorithm which is outlined

  13. Feedback control using only quantum back-action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    The traditional approach to feedback control is to apply deterministic forces to a system by modifying the Hamiltonian. Here we show that finite-dimensional quantum systems can be controlled purely by exploiting the random quantum back-action of a continuous weak measurement. We demonstrate that, quite remarkably, the quantum back-action of such an adaptive measurement is just as effective at controlling quantum systems as traditional feedback.

  14. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine mo....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  15. Back muscle strength, lifting, and stooped working postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, E; Jørgensen, K

    1971-09-01

    When lifting loads and working in a forward stooped position, the muscles of the back rather than the ligaments and bony structures of the spine should overcome the gravitational forces. Formulae, based on measurements of back muscle strength, for prediction of maximal loads to be lifted, and for the ability to sustain work in a stooped position, have been worked out and tested in practical situations. From tests with 50 male and female subjects the simplest prediction formulae for maximum loads were: max. load = 1.10 x isometric back muscle strength for men; and max. load = 0.95 x isometric back muscle strength - 8 kg for women. Some standard values for maximum lifts and permissible single and repeated lifts have been calculated for men and women separately and are given in Table 1. From tests with 65 rehabilitees it was found that the maximum isometric strength of the back muscles measured at shoulder height should exceed 2/3 of the body weight, if fatigue and/or pain in the back muscles is to be avoided during work in a standing stooped position.

  16. Low back pain during pregnancy and Kinesio tape application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhan, Aycan Çakmak; Dereli, Elif Elçin; Çolak, Tuğba Kuru

    2017-01-01

    Low back pain is a common problem during pregnancy. Although the pain usually occurs in the third trimester, it might be seen in the first trimester, too. There are various types of applications for the treatment of low back pain during pregnancy. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of each method. If there is not an obvious deficit, bed rest, exercise, conventional physiotherapy, using protective principles for the lumbar area are recommended, since the main and the only complaint is low back pain. It is aimed in the current review to investigate the use of Kinesio tape in the low back pain seen during pregnancy and to review the literature related to this subject. There are only a few studies investigating the effect of Kinesio tape during pregnancy in the literature and they mostly did not aim to study the low back pain, further evidence and studies are needed to investigate the use of Kinesio tape for the low back pain seen during pregnancy as there is not evidence strong enough. Kinesiotape application aims to increase circulation and mobility, and regarding these gains decreased pain and increased performance are expected.

  17. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  18. Investigation of back surface fields effect on bifacial solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeai, Suhaila; Sulaiman, M. Y.; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2012-11-01

    A bifacial solar cell, in contrast with a conventional monofacial solar cell, produces photo-generated current from both front and back sides. Bifacial solar cell is an attractive candidate for enhancing photovoltaic (PV) market competitiveness as well as supporting the current efforts to increase efficiency and lower material costs. This paper reports on the fabrication of bifacial solar cells using phosphorus-oxytrichloride (POCl3) emitter formation on p-type, nanotextured silicon (Si) wafer. Backside surface field was formed through Al-diffusion using conventional screen-printing process. Bifacial solar cells with a structure of n+pp+ with and without back surface field (BSF) were fabricated in which silicon nitride (SiN) anti reflection and passivation films were coated on both sides, followed by screen printing of Argentum (Ag) and Argentum/Aluminum (Ag/Al) on front and back contacts, respectively. Bifacial solar cells without BSF exhibited open circuit voltage (VOC) of 535 mV for front and 480 mV for back surface. With Al-alloyed BSF bifacial solar cells, the VOC improved to 580 mV for the front surface and 560 mV for the back surface. Simulation of bifacial solar cells using PC1D and AFORS software demonstrated good agreement with experimental results. Simulations showed that best bifacial solar cells are achieved through a combination of high lifetime wafer, low recombination back surface field, reduced contact resistance, and superior surface passivation.

  19. Back transport: exploration of parents' feelings regarding the transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnly, J E; Freston, M S

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore parents' perceptions and the concepts involved in their preterm infant's back transport from a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit to their home community hospital. A convenience sample of fourteen parents were interviewed five to seven days after the back transport. Following data collection, the analysis of the parents' perceptions regarding the back transport of their premature infant identified a crisis theme that was influenced by several concepts. The subject's positive or negative meaning of the back transport during the pre-crisis phase defined the extent of the crisis during a three day transition period which led to an acceptance of events in the resolution phase. The subjects' perceptions of the previous events of hospitalization and communication of information regarding back transport influenced the meaning of the back transport for them. The extent of crisis during the transition phase was influenced by subjects' perceptions of medical complications, caretaking practice changes, environmental changes, feelings of powerlessness or empowerment, personal coping resources, and support systems available. Resolution in all cases occurred with an acceptance of events. Implications for practice and future research can be identified such as developing and testing education programs to prepare parents for the transition and strengthening the relationship between tertiary and community hospitals.

  20. Lower back pain and absenteeism among professional public transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Drivers in public transport are subjected to lower back pain. The reason for the pain is associated with the characteristics of the physical position imposed on the worker while performing the job. Lower back pain is the main cause of absenteeism among drivers. The present study includes 145 public transport drivers employed as professional drivers for an average of 14.14 years. Analysis of the data obtained in the study includes the basic descriptive statistics, χ(2) test and multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the incidence of lower back pain showed that the majority of our sample population suffered from pain in the lower back. We found that there are no statistically significant differences between the groups formed by the length of service as a professional driver and incidence of lower back pain; we were also interested in whether or not the risk factors of lower back pain affects the absenteeism of city bus drivers. Analysis of the data has shown that the risk factors of pain in the lower part of the spine do affect the absenteeism of city bus drivers.

  1. Control and simulation of fault and change effect in a back to back system of high voltage direct current network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsen, Kalantar; Mehdi, Rashidi; Mehdi, Rashidi; Tabatabaei, Naser M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : The primary knowledge of human being from electrical energy was in the form of statistic electricity and the first transmission line was DC. But because of primary problems in transmitting electrical power in DC form with average and low voltage levels and because of the higher efficiency of AC machines in comparison with DC machines and presence of AC transistors in different capacitance, have caused the electrical power to be transmitted in AC form. But with the avancement of electrical engineering technology in the 20th century, the transition systems were used in HVDC form, and from that time the HDVC technology passed its improvement process so fast. In this paper in addition to discussing the advantage of HDVC systems and back to back instruction, the fault and change effect in a back to back system is discussed

  2. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J; Van der Kallen, Bas F; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-01-01

    Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. The study population contained patients with sciatica who underwent a baseline MRI to assess eligibility for a randomized trial designed to compare the efficacy of early surgery with prolonged conservative care for sciatica. Two neuroradiologists and one neurosurgeon independently evaluated all MR images. The MRI readers were blinded to symptom status. The MRI findings were compared between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. The presence of disabling back pain at baseline was correlated with perceived recovery at one year. Of 379 included sciatica patients, 158 (42%) had disabling back pain. Of the patients with both sciatica and disabling back pain 68% did reveal a herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI, compared to 88% of patients with predominantly sciatica (Psciatica at baseline was negatively associated with perceived recovery at one year (Odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% Confidence Interval 0.18-0.56, PSciatica patients with disabling back pain in absence of nerve root compression on MRI at baseline reported less perceived recovery at one year compared to those with predominantly sciatica and nerve root compression on MRI (50% vs 91%, PSciatica patients with disabling low back pain reported an unfavorable outcome at one-year follow-up compared to those with predominantly sciatica. If additionally a clear herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI was absent, the results were even worse.

  3. Work and back pain: a prospective study of psychological, social and mechanical predictors of back pain severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J O; Knardahl, S

    2012-07-01

    Studies relating occupational psychological and social factors to back pain have traditionally investigated a small number of exposure factors. The current study explored longitudinally a comprehensive set of specific psychological/social and mechanical work factors as predictors of back pain severity (defined as the product of back pain intensity and duration). Employees from 28 organizations in Norway, representing a wide variety of occupations, were surveyed with a follow-up period of 2 years. Several designs were tested: (1) cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up; (2) prospective analyses with baseline exposure; (3) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2]; and (4) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2. A total of 2808 employees responded at both time points. Fourteen psychological/social and two mechanical exposures were measured. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed by ordinal logistic regressions. Several psychological/social factors predicted back pain severity. After adjustment for age, sex, skill level, back pain severity at T1 and other exposure factors estimated to be potential confounders, the most consistent predictors of back pain were the protective factors decision control [lowest OR 0.68; 99% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.95], empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.59; 99% CI: 0.38-0.91) and fair leadership (lowest OR 0.54; 99% CI: 0.34-0.87). Some of the most important predictors included in this study were factors that have previously received little attention in back pain research. This emphasizes the importance of extending the list of factors possibly contributing to back pain. © 2011 National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway European Journal of Pain © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  4. A method of Modelling and Simulating the Back-to-Back Modular Multilevel Converter HVDC Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Fan, Youping; Zhang, Dai; Ge, Mengxin; Zou, Xianbin; Li, Jingjiao

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a method to simulate a back-to-back modular multilevel converter (MMC) HVDC transmission system. In this paper we utilize an equivalent networks to simulate the dynamic power system. Moreover, to account for the performance of converter station, core components of model of the converter station gives a basic model of simulation. The proposed method is applied to an equivalent real power system.

  5. [Roof folding and rotary pushing for the treatment of back to back fractures of distal radius and ulna in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Dong, Xiao-jun; Lu, Zhou-tong; Wang, Gongjun; Zhang, Han-qing; Chen, Xuan-ning; Li, Dong

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the technique and the clinical effect of folding roof and rotary pushing in treatment of children with distal radius and ulna fracture of "back to back". From January 2012 to February 2014,38 children with distal radius and ulna fracture of "back to back" were treated by using the technique of folding roof and rotary pushing to reset and splint fixation including 23 males and 15 females with an average age of 9.5 years old ranging from 6 to 14 years old. Injury time was from 45 min to 3 days (averaged 1.3 days). All cases was unilateral closed fracture without symptoms of nerve injury occurred. The wrist joint anteroposterior and lateral radiographs showed double fracture of radius and ulna, and the broken end of radius was typical "back to back" displacement. The quality of reduction was assessed according to Dienst recommendation on the combination of Aro measurement, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated using standard of Anderson function. All patients were followed up from 3 to 13 months with an average of 6 months. There were no iatrogenic nerve injury. Thirty cases were treated successfully for the first time, 8 cases were again reset successfully; 28 cases were anatomical reduction, 7 cases were near anatomic reduction, 3 cases were functional reduction. At the second day 7 cases with hand and finger swelling appeared in multiple reset patients. Quality results of reduction were excellent in 33 cases, good in 5 cases. According to the standard of Anderson function evaluation, 35 cases were excellent, 3 cases were good. All fractures were healed with of deformity of wrist. Using the technique of folding roof and rotary pushing in treatment of children with distal radius and ulna fracture of "back to back" is very successful, the patient's limb function recovered well, the whole operation process is simple.

  6. Back pain in ophthalmology: National survey of Indian ophthalmologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim is to assess the prevalence, severity, and associations of back pain among Indian ophthalmologists. Methods: A self-reporting questionnaire was sent to ophthalmologists with valid e-mail addresses registered with the All India Ophthalmological Society. The survey was open for responses for 2 months. Results: A total of 651 (5.96% responses were obtained; 394 (61% males and 257 (39% females. Half (50% of responses were obtained from doctors belonging to 31–40 years' age group. Two hundred and thirty (35% of the ophthalmologists had height ranging from 161 to 170 cm and 443 (68% had weight ranging from 51 to 75 kg. Four hundred and eighty-one (73.8% of the respondents had <15 years of ophthalmic experience. Cataract (346; 53.1% and general ophthalmology (342; 52.5% were commonly practised by the ophthalmologists. Time spent in the outpatient department (OPD was 39.37 ± 16.32 h/week and in the operating theater 13.64 ± 9.89 h/week, respectively. Self-reported prevalence of back pain was 70.5%. Fully 49% of respondents had low back pain, followed by neck pain (33% and upper extremity symptoms (16%. Age <50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4485, female gender (OR = 2.0265, long working hours in OPD (OR = 1.6524, and performing retinal lasers and indirect ophthalmoscopy (OR = 3.3251 showed positive association with back pain. The intolerable back pain was noted in <7% of the respondents. Around 398 (61% respondents felt that their back pain was exacerbated while doing work and 86.6% felt that up to 5 h/week was lost due to persistent backache. Yoga and some form of exercise (74.3% was practised to alleviate back pain. Conclusion: Back pain symptoms appear to be common among ophthalmologists. Awkward posture and prolonged working hours are responsible for developing back pain among ophthalmologists. Performing yoga and regular exercises, modifications in instrumentation and creating a larger workforce of eye care practitioners are needed

  7. Modified adjustable suture hang-back recession: Description of technique and comparison with conventional adjustable hang-back recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to describe and compare modified hang-back recession with the conventional hang-back recession in large angle comitant exotropia (XT. Methods: A prospective, interventional, double-blinded, randomized study on adult patients (>18 years undergoing single eye recession-resection for large angle (>30 prism diopters constant comitant XT was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients in Group A underwent modified hang-back lateral rectus recession with adjustable knot while in Group B underwent conventional hang-back recession with an adjustable knot. Outcome parameters studied were readjustment rate, change in deviation at 6 weeks, complications and need for resurgery at 6 months. Results: The groups were comparable in terms of age and preoperative deviation. The patients with the modified hang back (Group A fared significantly better (P < 0.05 than those with conventional hang back (Group B in terms of lesser need for adjustment, greater correction in deviation at 6 weeks and lesser need for resurgery at 6 months. Conclusion: This modification offers several advantages, significantly reduces resurgery requirement and has no added complications.

  8. Element nodes of sports equipment double back flip factions and double back flip hunched performed gymnast in floor exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Potop

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the node elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. To compare the two types of nodes for double somersault. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts (age 12 - 14 years. All finalists in the competition floor exercise - reserve team Romania. The method of video - computer research and method of postural orientation movements. Results : identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. In the preparatory phase of motor actions - launcher body posture for reaching is repulsive to flip. In the phase of basic motor action - animation body postures (double back somersault tuck and bent (bent double back flip. Exercises are performed on the ascending and descending parts of the flight path of the demonstration of individual maximum lift height common center of mass. In the final phase of motor actions - final body posture - steady landing. Conclusions : indicators of key elements of sports equipment acrobatic exercises contain new scientific facts kinematic and dynamic structures of motor actions. They are necessary for the development of modern training programs acrobatic exercises in step specialized base preparation.

  9. Developmental trajectories in primary schoolchildren using n-back task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica eLópez-Vicente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neuropsychological instruments to assess cognitive trajectories during childhood in epidemiological studies are needed. This would improve neurodevelopment characterization in order to identify its potential determinants. We aimed to study whether repeated measures of n-back, a working memory task, detect developmental trajectories in schoolchildren during a one-year follow-up.Methods: We administered the n-back task to 2,897 healthy children aged 7-11 years old from 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain. The task consisted of 2 levels of complexity or loads (2- and 3-back and 2 different stimuli (numbers and words. Participants performed the task four times from January 2012 to March 2013. To study the trajectories during the follow-up, we performed linear mixed-effects models including school, individual and age as random effects.Results: We observed improvements related to age in n-back outcomes d’, HRT and accuracy, as well as reduced cognitive growth at older ages in d’ and HRT. Greater improvements in performance were observed at younger ages, in 2-back, in verbal rather than numerical stimuli and in girls compared to boys. Boys responded faster at baseline, while girls showed increased growth in 2-back numbers. Children with ADHD (Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms (15% of boys and 6% of girls had a lower working memory at baseline, but they showed similar cognitive growth trajectories in numbers variants of the task, as compared to children without ADHD symptoms. However, the age-related improvement in response speed was not observed in children with ADHD symptoms. Conclusions: Changes in n-back outcomes reflected developmental trajectories in one-year follow-up. The present results suggest that the repeated administration of this task can be used to study the factors that may alter the cognitive development during childhood.

  10. Psychogenic Low-Back Pain and Hysterical Paralysis in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Hidenori; Imajo, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Nishida, Norihiro; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2017-10-01

    A retrospective review. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes in adolescents diagnosed with psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis and to evaluate the efficacy of differential diagnosis methods. The incidence of low-back pain in adolescence is similar to that in adults, but the causes of low-back pain are difficult to determine in most cases. For these patients, a definitive diagnosis of psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis as well as adequate treatment are clinically important to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment. Eleven patients (3 males and 8 females; mean age, 16.5 years; range, 13-19 y) diagnosed with psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis were followed up for 2-10.25 years (mean, 4.67 y). Nonorganic signs were observed in almost all patients. For the purpose of excluding organic disorders, the thiopentone pain study was used in patients who complained mainly of pain, and motor evoked potentials using transcranial magnetic stimulation were measured in patients experiencing primarily muscle weakness. The psychiatric diagnosis was neurosis in 9 patients, whereas it was psychosomatic disorder in 2 patients. Conservative treatment, such as physiotherapy, was performed, and at the final follow-up evaluation, outcomes were regarded as excellent in 7 patients and good in 4 patients. The prognosis of psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis in adolescence is relatively good. However, it is important to understand the characteristics of psychogenic low-back pain and hysterical paralysis in childhood and young adulthood and to perform accurate diagnosis by screening for nonorganic signs and excluding organic disorders by using the thiopentone pain study and motor evoked potentials obtained using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  11. Rising prevalence of back pain in Austria: considering regional disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is the most common form of musculoskeletal conditions and leads to high health care costs. Information about geographic variations in highly prevalent diseases/disorders represents important implications for public health planning to face structural challenges. The present study aims to investigate regional trends in the prevalence of back pain and the role of obesity and social inequalities among Austrian adults. A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1973-2007) was carried out (N = 178,818). Back pain was measured as self-reported presence. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) was adjusted for self-report bias. For the regional analyses, Austria was divided into Western, Central and Eastern Austria. A relative index of inequality (RII) was computed to quantify the extent of social inequality. A continuous rise in back pain prevalence was observed in the three regions and among all investigated subgroups. In 2007 the age-standardised prevalence was similar in Central (36.9 %), Western (35.2 %) and Eastern Austria (34.3 %). The absolute change in back pain prevalence was highest among obese subjects in Central Austria (women: + 29.8 %, men: + 32.5 %). RIIs were unstable during the study period and in 2007 highest in Eastern Austria. Variation and trends in back pain are not attributable to geographic variation in Austria: an assumed East-West gradient in Austria has not been confirmed. Nevertheless our study confirms that back pain dramatically increased in all Austrian regions and investigated subgroups. This worrying trend should be further monitored and public health interventions should be implemented increasingly, especially among obese women and men.

  12. Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lardon, Arnaud; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back pain is a common condition during childhood and adolescence. The causes of back pain are largely unknown but it seems plausible that some physical factors such as back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and aerobic capacity may play a role in its development, in particular...... aerobic capacity and back pain is not clear. CONCLUSIONS: High back muscle endurance in extension appears protective of back pain in youngsters, but the roles of high back muscle strength in extension and aerobic capacity are less clear....

  13. Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters. Concept, implementation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R A.A.

    2010-05-26

    The objective of the research project is to investigate the use of a multi back-to-back converter to support the transition to active distribution networks. The investigation must explicitly not focus on finding the optimal power electronics topology, but rather on defining the role that such a device can play in a power distribution system and on the proof of principle. The possible tasks of this device are to actively control power flow and to maintain power quality and stability, both during normal operation and during fault conditions in medium voltage networks with distributed generation. The combination of this versatile converter system and the control and protection systems that define its functionality are in this thesis denoted as the Intelligent Node (IN). Research questions are: (1) Which are the main benefits of multi back-to-back converter devices in distribution systems?; (2) How and under which conditions can these benefits be achieved? What controls should be adopted?; (3) Which are the specific aspects that distinguish the application of the multi back-to-back devices in distribution systems from similar applications in transmission systems?; (4) Can this be demonstrated on a laboratory-scale set-up?Chapter 2 Distribution systems The relevant aspects of distribution systems are discussed. This includes power quality considerations, redundancy aspects, and voltage control methods. Chapter 3 (FACTS in distribution systems) describes power flow control principles. Also an overview is given of the state-of-the-art of power electronic applications for power flow control in electrical power systems. Chapter 4 (Functional concept of the Intelligent Node) gives the proposed functional concept for the application of a multi back-to-back converter device as IN (Intelligent Node). The applications are developed on a functional level, with the device at a black-box level. To satisfy the resulting requirements several technology options are analyzed, ending

  14. Back pain online: a cross-sectional survey of the quality of web-based information on low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Laura; Foster, Nadine E

    2003-02-15

    A cross section of Web sites accessible to the general public was surveyed. To evaluate the quality of information on low back pain and its treatment that a "typical" patient user might access on the Internet. Individuals with back pain have a desire to learn about their condition, what to expect, and what they can do about it. Web sites play a potentially useful role in providing information to help people learn about their low back pain and select the most appropriate methods of management. A general search using popular search engines located 60 Web sites about back pain for review. A list of criteria for evaluating and scoring back pain Web sites was established using available literature and current clinical guidelines for the management of acute low back pain. The total quality score (maximum score, 38) was composed of two separate scores: one for general quality of the site (maximum score, 14) and one for site content specific to low back pain (maximum score, 24). Statistical tests, as appropriate, were used to investigate the relation between general indicators of Web site quality and total scores obtained. The quality of the Web sites surveyed was poor, most of them (n = 58, 97%) scoring less than half the maximum available score. The mean total score was 7.4 (range, 2-25). The mean score was 4.9 (range, 1-12) for general Web site quality and 2.4 (range, 1-13) for content specific to low back pain. Web sites providing references, sites created more recently, and sites not created for advertising purposes tended to be of better quality. This study highlighted the poor quality of information, particularly information about low back pain, available to "typical" patient users on the Internet. Health care professionals must have a role in evaluating existing information and in developing good-quality evidence-based Web sites. Patients with back pain should be discouraged from using the Internet as a source of information unless the Web sites they access have

  15. Rehabilitation of low back pain patients. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, M

    1995-01-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for the rehabilitation of low back pain patients, including spinal flexion and extension exercises, lumbar spine locking in an intermediate position, enhancement of spinal and pelvic proprioceptive sensibility, swimming pool therapy, back schools, and functional restoration. Each seeks to achieve a goal assumed to be central to the prevention of a first or recurrent episode of low back pain. Goals include short-term pain relief, an improved ability to achieve self-sedation, abdominal and lumbar muscle strengthening, increased hip and lumbar spine mobility, improved lumbar and pelvic proprioceptive sensibility, intervertebral joint stabilization, lumbar posture modification and improved general fitness. Less than 30 studies meeting widely accepted validity and applicability criteria for therapeutic trials have addressed the clinical efficacy of rehabilitation in low back pain patients. Most studies of the back school approach have found no benefit. Spinal flexion and extension exercise programs have yielded short-lived improvements, with no differences across methods. There is evidence that functional restoration programs based on graded activity may provide long-term benefits including better social and occupational outcomes. We have evaluated the physical therapy methods most commonly taught to and used by physical therapists in France.

  16. Balneotherapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesiktas, Nur; Karakas, Sinem; Gun, Kerem; Gun, Nuran; Murat, Sadiye; Uludag, Murat

    2012-10-01

    A large number of treatments were used for patients with chronic low back pain. Frequent episodes have been reported very high. Although balneotherapy was found effective in this disease, there are not well-designed studies. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of balneotherapy versus physical therapy in patients with chronic low back pain. Exercise was added to both treatment programs. Sixty patients with chronic low back pain were randomly divided into two groups. Physical modalities plus exercise were applied to group 1, and group 2 was received balneotherapy plus exercise for ten sessions. The following parameters were measured: visual analogue scale at rest and movement for pain, paracetamol dose, manual muscle test for lumber muscles, modified Schoeber' test, Oswestry disability index, and Short-Form 36 at the beginning and end of the therapies and at the 3 months follow-up. The statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 10.0 program. Both groups achieved significant improvements within themselves. But balneotherapy groups were improved at back extensor muscle test (P Balneotherapy combined with exercise therapy had advantages than therapy with physical modalities plus exercise in improving quality of life and flexibility of patients with chronic low back pain.

  17. [Managment of acute low back pain without trauma - an algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Carolin; Wegener, Bernd; Jansson, Volkmar; Mutschler, Wolf; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Birkenmaier, Christof

    2018-05-14

    Low back pain is a common problem for primary care providers, outpatient clinics and A&E departments. The predominant symptoms are those of so-called "unspecific back pain", but serious pathologies can be concealed by the clinical signs. Especially less experienced colleagues have problems in treating these patients, as - despite the multitude of recommendations and guidelines - there is no generally accepted algorithm. After a literature search (Medline/Cochrane), 158 articles were selected from 15,000 papers and classified according to their level of evidence. These were attuned to the clinical guidelines of the orthopaedic and pain-physician associations in Europe, North America and overseas and the experience of specialists at LMU Munich, in order to achieve consistency with literature recommendations, as well as feasibility in everyday clinical work and optimised with practical relevance. An algorithm was formed to provide the crucial differential diagnosis of lumbar back pain according to its clinical relevance and to provide a plan of action offering reasonable diagnostic and therapeutic steps. As a consequence of distinct binary decisions, low back patients should be treated at any given time according to the guidelines, with emergencies detected, unnecessary diagnostic testing and interventions averted and reasonable treatment initiated pursuant to the underlying pathology. In the context of the available evidence, a clinical algorithm has been developed that translates the complex diagnostic testing of acute low back pain into a transparent, structured and systematic guideline. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Core strength training for patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Lin, Hung-Yu; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] Through core strength training, patients with chronic low back pain can strengthen their deep trunk muscles. However, independent training remains challenging, despite the existence of numerous core strength training strategies. Currently, no standardized system has been established analyzing and comparing the results of core strength training and typical resistance training. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the results of previous studies to explore the effectiveness of various core strength training strategies for patients with chronic low back pain. [Methods] We searched for relevant studies using electronic databases. Subsequently, we evaluated their quality by analyzing the reported data. [Results] We compared four methods of evaluating core strength training: trunk balance, stabilization, segmental stabilization, and motor control exercises. According to the results of various scales and evaluation instruments, core strength training is more effective than typical resistance training for alleviating chronic low back pain. [Conclusion] All of the core strength training strategies examined in this study assist in the alleviation of chronic low back pain; however, we recommend focusing on training the deep trunk muscles to alleviate chronic low back pain.

  19. Prevalence and causes of back pain syndromes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of literature devoted to epidemiology, and the nosological and syndromal structure of back pain in children. The data of our own study of school-aged children with back pain are presented. The structure of back pain syndromes in 105 children has been analyzed using the medical aid appealability data. The results of a comprehensive clinical and instrumental study demonstrated that the children mostly had lumbosacral pain (52.4% of cases; neck pain was observed in 29.5% of cases; while thoracic pain syndromes were observed in 18.1% of cases. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was diagnosed in 16.19% of children; congenital abnormalities of the spine, in 15.2%; scoliosis (idiopathic and secondary, in 8.6%; and Scheuermann-Mau's disease, in 5.71%. The conclusion has been made about the high prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren. Muscular tonic syndromes were prevailing in the clinical structure in children; radicular syndromes were less frequent. Musculoskeletal disorders were the main causes of back pain. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was often observed, which was revealed as functional instability of the vertebral motor segment, spondylolisthesis due to weak ligaments, and disc protrusions. Congenital abnormalities of the spine, scoliosis, and Scheuermann-Mau' disease were observed less often. 

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Japanese Version of the STarT Back Tool in Patients with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Haga, Yuri; Sawada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    The STarT Back Tool uses prognostic indicators to classify patients with low back pain into three risk groups to guide early secondary prevention in primary care. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the tool (STarT-J). An online survey was conducted among Japanese patients with low back pain aged 20-64 years. Reliability was assessed by examining the internal consistency of the overall and psychosocial subscales using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the concurrent validity between the STarT-J total score/psychosocial subscore and standard reference questionnaires. Discriminant validity was evaluated by calculating the area under the curves (AUCs) for the total and psychosocial subscale scores against standard reference cases. Known-groups validity was assessed by examining the relationship between low back pain-related disability and STarT-J scores. The analysis included data for 2000 Japanese patients with low back pain; the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 47.7 (9.3) years, and 54.1% were male. The mean (SD) STarT-J score was 2.2 (2.1). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.75 for the overall scale and 0.66 for the psychosocial subscale. Spearman's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.30 to 0.59, demonstrating moderate to strong concurrent validity. The AUCs for the total score ranged from 0.65 to 0.83, mostly demonstrating acceptable discriminative ability. For known-groups validity, participants with more somatic symptoms had higher total scores. Those in higher STarT-J risk groups had experienced more low back pain-related absences. The overall STarT-J scale was internally consistent and had acceptable concurrent, discriminant, and known-groups validity. The STarT-J can be used with Japanese patients with low back pain.

  1. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L. [Centre Hospitalier Vaudois, Service de Rhumatologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  2. Low back pain post partum - A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-23

    Sacral stress fracture is an unusual source of low back pain and can be easily confused with a number of other clinical conditions seen in physiotherapy clinics. The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a patient presenting with low back pain post partum illustrating pertinent aspects of differential diagnosis and issues of management. A 31 year old female presented complaining of low back pain since the birth of her second child 11 months earlier. Subjective and objective examination led the Therapist to consider a diagnosis of sacral stress fracture. This diagnosis was confirmed by MRI. Three months after presenting to physiotherapy the patient was pain free and had returned to all aspects of her daily life without any difficulties. Clinicians must be aware of the less common pathologies in any hypotheses development. A careful history and physical examination and broad hypotheses generation will ensure that patients are accurately diagnosed and receive appropriate and effective treatments.

  3. Low Back Pain - Management Perspective Of A commonly Encountered Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parharaj S S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Back pain is a very common symptom affecting the general population, incurring a huge annual societal cost. In spite of this, it remains very commonly misdiagnosed and maltreated. The majority of benign chronic low back pain patients suffer from a combination of myofascial frozen back syndrome with or without an overly of psychosocioeconomic factors. Neural compression causes are less frequent. A though evaluation of the patient to select the most rational therapeutic approach is necessary. In majority of the patients, a well planned out rehabilitation programme is useful. Surgery is indicated in a minority with neural compression or spinal instability, motivation is essential as rehabilitation and surgery have a high failure rate in inadequately motivated patients with psychosocioeconomic dysfunction.

  4. The nuclear regulatory challenge of judging safety back fits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The economic pressures of electricity market competition have led nuclear power plant operators to seek ways to increase electricity production and to reduce operating costs at their plants. Corresponding pressures on the regulatory bodies include operator demand to reduce regulatory burdens perceived as unnecessary and general resistance to consider safety back-fits sought by the regulator. The purpose of this report is to describe potential situations giving rise to safety back-fit questions and to discuss regulatory approaches for judging the back-fits. The intended audience for this report is primarily nuclear regulators, although the information and ideas may also be of interest to nuclear operating organisations, other industry organisations and the general public. (author)

  5. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  6. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  7. Low back pain: an assessment using positional MRI and MDT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Karen; Alexander, Lyndsay A; Cooper, Kay; Hancock, Elizabeth; Ross, Jenny; Smith, Francis W

    2013-04-01

    Current guidelines advise against the use of routine imaging for low back pain. Positional MRI can provide enhanced assessment of the lumbar spine in functionally loaded positions which are often relevant to the presenting clinical symptoms. The purpose of this case report is to highlight the use of positional MRI in the assessment and classification of a subject with low back pain. A low back pain subject underwent a Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) assessment and positional MRI scan of the lumbar spine. The MDT assessment classified the subject as "other" since the subjective history indicated a possible posterior derangement whilst the objective assessment indicated a possible anterior derangement. Positional MRI scanning in flexed, upright and extended sitting postures confirmed the MDT assessment findings to reveal a dynamic spinal stenosis which reduced in flexion and increased in extension. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. BACK and DRAW activities for improving writing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Lukman Syafii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This present paper addresses the issue of writing as an important aspect of EFL instruction. Writing as one of the four basic language skills plays a pivotal role in the context of English teaching as a foreign language in Indonesia. Considering these problems, it is important to modify the writing process in such a way to cope the writing. The process of writing the writer means is BACK and DRAW activities. What the writer termed as BACK and DRAW is a set of writing activities involving students’ active participation in the process, their intense learning experience in producing a required text, as well as their interactive work with peers and the teacher. BACK and DRAW stands for Brainstorming, Attaching, Correcting, Keeping, Developing, Revising, Arranging, and Wow! Or Wonderful! Or Well done!. These activities are good ways to improve the writing Ability.

  9. Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Tulder, M W; Jellema, P; van Poppel, M N

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lumbar supports are used in the treatment of low back pain patients to make the impairment and disability vanish or decrease. Lumbar supports are also used to prevent the onset of low back pain (primary prevention) or to prevent recurrences of a low back pain episode (secondary...... 1999, and the Embase database up to September 1998. We also screened references given in relevant reviews and identified controlled trials, and used Science Citation Index to identify additional controlled trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Controlled clinical trials that reported on any type of lumbar...... types of treatment or no intervention. No evidence was found on the effectiveness of lumbar supports for secondary prevention. The systematic review of therapeutic trials showed that there is limited evidence that lumbar supports are more effective than no treatment, while it is still unclear if lumbar...

  10. Reporting outcomes of back pain trials: a modified Delphi study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froud, R.; Eldridge, S.; Kovacs, F.

    2011-01-01

    trials. METHODS: We presented experts with clinicians' views on different reporting methods and asked them to rate and comment on the suitability reporting methods for inclusion in a standardized set. Panellists developed a statement of recommendation over three online rounds. We used a modified Delphi......BACKGROUND: Low back pain is a common and expensive health complaint. Many low back pain trials have been conducted, but these are reported in a variety of ways and are often difficult to interpret. AIM: To facilitate consensus on a statement recommending reporting methods for future low back pain...... process and the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method as a formal framework for establishing appropriateness and quantifying panel disagreement. RESULTS: A group of 63 experts from 14 countries participated. Consensus was reached on a statement recommending that the continuous patient-reported outcomes...

  11. Back reaction and the local cosmological expansion rate

    CERN Document Server

    Geshnizjani, G

    2002-01-01

    We calculate the back reaction of cosmological perturbations on a general relativistic variable which measures the local expansion rate of the Universe. Specifically, we consider a cosmological model in which matter is described by a single field. We analyze back reaction both in a matter-dominated Universe and in a phase of scalar field-driven chaotic inflation. In both cases, we find that the leading infrared terms contributing to the back reaction vanish when the local expansion rate is measured at a fixed value of the matter field which is used as a clock, whereas they do not appear to vanish if the expansion rate is evaluated at a fixed value of the background time. We discuss possible implications for more realistic models with a more complicated matter sector.

  12. Carbon Back Sputter Modeling for Hall Thruster Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.; Burt, Jonathan M.; Yim, John T.

    2016-01-01

    In support of wear testing for the Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) program, the back sputter from a Hall effect thruster plume has been modeled for the NASA Glenn Research Centers Vacuum Facility 5. The predicted wear at a near-worst case condition of 600 V, 12.5 kW was found to be on the order of 3 4 mkhour in a fully carbon-lined chamber. A more detailed numerical monte carlo code was also modified to estimate back sputter for a detailed facility and pumping configuration. This code demonstrated similar back sputter rate distributions, but is not yet accurately modeling the magnitudes. The modeling has been benchmarked to recent HERMeS wear testing, using multiple microbalance measurements. These recent measurements have yielded values, on the order of 1.5- 2 microns/khour.

  13. Disrupted Self-Perception in People With Chronic Low Back Pain. Further Evaluation of the Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Benedict Martin; Catley, Mark Jon; Rabey, Martin Ian; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; O'Connell, Neil Edward; Smith, Anne Julia

    2016-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that body perception is altered in people with chronic back pain. Maladaptive perceptual awareness of the back might contribute to the pain experience as well as serve as a target for treatment. The Fremantle Back Awareness Questionnaire (FreBAQ) is a simple questionnaire recently developed to assess back-specific altered self-perception. The aims of this study were to present the outcomes of a comprehensive evaluation of the questionnaire's psychometric properties and explore the potential relationships between body perception, nociceptive sensitivity, distress, and beliefs about back pain and the contribution these factors might play in explaining pain and disability. Two hundred fifty-one people with chronic back pain completed the questionnaire as well as a battery of clinical tests. The Rasch model was used to explore the questionnaires' psychometric properties and correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were used to explore the relationship between altered body perception and clinical status. The FreBAQ appears unidimensional with no redundant items, has minimal ceiling and floor effects, acceptable internal consistency, was functional on the category rating scale, and was not biased by demographic or clinical variables. FreBAQ scores were correlated with sensitivity, distress, and beliefs and were uniquely associated with pain and disability. Several lines of evidence suggest that body perception might be disturbed in people with chronic low back pain, possibly contributing to the condition and offering a potential target for treatment. The FreBAQ was developed as a quick and simple way of measuring back-specific body perception in people with chronic low back pain. The questionnaire appears to be a psychometrically sound way of assessing altered self-perception. The level of altered self-perception is positively correlated with pain intensity and disability as well as showing associations with psychological

  14. Investigation of Back-Projection Uncertainties with M6 Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Shearer, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate possible biasing effects of inaccurate timing corrections on teleseismic P-wave back-projection imaging of large earthquake ruptures. These errors occur because empirically-estimated time shifts based on aligning P-wave first arrivals are exact only at the hypocenter and provide approximate corrections for other parts of the rupture. Using the Japan subduction zone as a test region, we analyze 46 M6-7 earthquakes over a ten-year period, including many aftershocks of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquake, performing waveform cross-correlation of their initial P-wave arrivals to obtain hypocenter timing corrections to global seismic stations. We then compare back-projection images for each earthquake using its own timing corrections with those obtained using the time corrections for other earthquakes. This provides a measure of how well sub-events can be resolved with back-projection of a large rupture as a function of distance from the hypocenter. Our results show that back-projection is generally very robust and that sub-event location errors average about 20 km across the entire study region ( 700 km). The back-projection coherence loss and location errors do not noticeably converge to zero even when the event pairs are very close (<20 km). This indicates that most of the timing differences are due to 3D structure close to each of the hypocenter regions, which limits the effectiveness of attempts to refine back-projection images using aftershock calibration, at least in this region.

  15. System influences on work disability due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartys, Serena; Frederiksen, Pernille; Bendix, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Work disability due to low back pain is a significant global health concern. Current policy and practice aimed at tackling this problem is largely informed by the biopsychosocial model. Resultant interventions have demonstrated some small-scale success, but they have not created a widespread...... and disability benefits), healthcare and family systems (spouse/partner/close others) can act as obstacles to work participation for those with low back pain. Systematic searches of several scientific and grey literature sources were conducted, resulting in 1762 records. Following a systematic exclusion process...

  16. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1991-07-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN-SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  17. Laminated photovoltaic modules using back-contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James M.; Garrett, Stephen E.; Morgan, William P.; Worobey, Walter

    1999-09-14

    Photovoltaic modules which comprise back-contact solar cells, such as back-contact crystalline silicon solar cells, positioned atop electrically conductive circuit elements affixed to a planar support so that a circuit capable of generating electric power is created. The modules are encapsulated using encapsulant materials such as EVA which are commonly used in photovoltaic module manufacture. The module designs allow multiple cells to be electrically connected in a single encapsulation step rather than by sequential soldering which characterizes the currently used commercial practices.

  18. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  19. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T.M. Enthoven (Wendy); P.D.D.M. Roelofs (Pepijn); R.A. Deyo (Richard); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chronic back pain is an important health problem. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat people with low back pain, especially people with acute back pain. Short term NSAID use is also recommended for pain relief in people with chronic back

  20. Chronic Widespread Back Pain is Distinct From Chronic Local Back Pain: Evidence From Quantitative Sensory Testing, Pain Drawings, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Janke, Susanne; Leisner, Sabine; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Whether chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP) have different mechanisms or to what extent they overlap in their pathophysiology is controversial. The study compared quantitative sensory testing profiles of nonspecific chronic back pain patients with CLP (n=48) and CWP (n=29) with and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (n=90) and pain-free controls (n = 40). The quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain" was used to measure evoked pain on the painful area in the lower back and the pain-free hand (thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, vibration threshold, pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli). Ongoing pain and psychometrics were captured with pain drawings and questionnaires. CLP patients did not differ from pain-free controls, except for lower pressure pain threshold (PPT) on the back. CWP and FMS patients showed lower heat pain threshold and higher wind-up ratio on the back and lower heat pain threshold and cold pain threshold on the hand. FMS showed lower PPT on back and hand, and higher comorbidity of anxiety and depression and more functional impairment than all other groups. Even after long duration CLP presents with a local hypersensitivity for PPT, suggesting a somatotopically specific sensitization of nociceptive processing. However, CWP patients show widespread ongoing pain and hyperalgesia for different stimuli that is generalized in space, suggesting the involvement of descending control systems, as also suggested for FMS patients. Because mechanisms in nonspecific chronic back pain with CLP and CWP differ, these patients should be distinguished in future research and allocated to different treatments.

  1. A search for back-to-back e+e- pairs in the spontaneous-fission disintegration of 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, T.; Nakamura, S.; Orito, S.; Minowa, M.

    1995-01-01

    A back-to-back electron-positron pair is searched for in spontaneous-fission disintegration of 252 Cf. The emission of such a pair, if observed, might be a manifestation of production and prompt decay of a heretofore unknown neutral particle. The emission rate of such a pair is found to be less than (2.5-5.5) . 10 -10 per fission at the 95% confidence level depending on the mass of the hypothetical particle which is between 40 and 200 MeV/c 2 . (orig.)

  2. Correlations of hip mobility with degree of back pain and lumbar spinal mobility in chronic low-back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellin, G

    1988-06-01

    Mobility of hips and lumbar spine were measured in 301 men and 175 women who were in employment but suffered from chronic or recurrent low-back pain. The degree of low-back pain (LBP) was assessed with a questionnaire. Hip flexion, extension, internal rotation, and hamstring flexibility in the men, and hip flexion and extension in the women had statistically significant negative correlations with LBP. Among the correlations between hip and lumbar spinal mobility, hip flexion and extension with lumbar rotation were strongest.

  3. Capacitance Estimation for DC-link Capacitors in a Back-to-Back Converter Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of the aforementioned challenges and shortcomings. In this paper, a pure software condition monitoring method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is proposed. The implemented ANN estimates the capacitance of the dc-link capacitor in a back-to-back converter. The error analysis of the estimated results......The reliability of dc-link capacitors in power electronic converters is one of the critical aspects to be considered in modern power converter design. The observation of their ageing process and the estimation of their health status have been an attractive subject for the industrial field and hence...

  4. Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation for subacute low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Teresa J; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma L.; Couban, Rachel; Koes, Bart W; Malmivaara, Antti; van Tulder, Maurits W; Kamper, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is associated with enormous personal and societal burdens, especially when it reaches the chronic stage of the disorder (pain for a duration of more than three months). Indeed, individuals who reach the chronic stage tend to show a more persistent course, and they

  5. Back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Current strategies of the back-end nuclear fuel cycles are: (1) direct-disposal of spent fuel (Open Cycle), and (2) reprocessing of the spent fuel and recycling of the recovered nuclear materials (Closed Cycle). The selection of these strategies is country-specific, and factors affecting selection of strategy are identified and discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Rock Mechanics Aspects of Stoping Without Back-area Support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    King, RG

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The report describes an experiment carried out at Hartebeesfontein Gold Mine, No. 6 Shaft, 77 N 25 Stope between October 1985 and November 1986, which involved mining two panels without back-area support and with different support resistances...

  7. Erratum: Back reaction, emission spectrum and entropy spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qing-Quan; Cai, Xu

    2012-06-01

    In our paper [Qing-Quan Jiang and Xu Cai, Back reaction, emission spectrum and entropy spectroscopy, JHEP 11 (2010) 066], there was an error in using the first law of black hole thermodynamic and the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule. In this erratum, we attempt to rectify them.

  8. Observations of White-backed Vultures eating plant material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    small quantities of the green leaves and eagerly feed on dried leaves after the first winter frost without obvious negative effects (H. Stehn, pers. obs.). On being informed of the incident, NT was intrigued, as he had never heard of vultures eating plant material and as White-backed. Vultures eat primarily soft body parts and do ...

  9. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, I.; Widyahehening, I.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Blomberg, S.E.I.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Brønfort, G.; Bouter, L.M.; van der Heijden, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Traction has been used to treat low-back pain (LBP), often in combination with other treatments. We included both manual and machine-delivered traction in this review. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1995, and previously updated in 2006. Objectives To assess the

  10. Traction for low-back pain with or without sciatica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clarke, J.A.; van Tulder, M.W.; Blomberg, S.E.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Heijden, G.J.; Bronfort, G.; Bouter, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Traction is used to treat low-back pain (LBP), often with other treatments. Objectives: To determine traction's effectiveness, compared to reference treatments, placebo, sham traction or no treatment for LBP. Search strategy: We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2006, issue 4),

  11. Trekking Back to Mainstream for Inclusive Education, Is It There?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenga, Rosemary Chimbala; Fourie, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the ecosystemic management strategies for inclusive schools due to challenges faced by the schools in the mainstream school where learners from the specialised institutions are referred back to mainstream for inclusive education. Ecosystemic perspective on inclusive education, ecological theories and systems theories underpin…

  12. Complementary and alternative therapies for low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tulder, M.; Furlan, A.D.; Gagnier, J.J.

    2005-01-01

    /subacute and chronic non-specific low back pain (LBP). Results from Cochrane reviews on acupuncture, botanical medicine, massage, neuroreflexotherapy, and spinal manipulation have been used. The results showed that acupuncture is more effective than no treatment or sham treatment for chronic LBP...

  13. Bear at the back door | Prinsloo | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bear at the back door. C Prinsloo ...

  14. Project Puffin: How We Brought Puffins Back to Egg Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Stephen W.; Salmansohn, Pete

    This book describes Project Puffin, a project which aimed to bring puffins that have been threatened with local extinction back to the coast of Maine. The book describes puffins, how they adapted to their ocean environment, how they catch fish, socialize, nest in burrows, and raise their young. (JRH)

  15. Vocational outcome of intervention for low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weide, W. E.; Verbeek, J. H.; van Tulder, M. W.

    1997-01-01

    Practical management guidelines for occupational health physicians are needed for the individual support of employees with low-back pain. In this study the level of evidence regarding the efficacy of intervention with vocational outcome parameters was assessed. In a systematic literature search, 40

  16. Aetiology of low back pain in Mulago Hospital, Uganda | Galukande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence was 20%. The mean age was 47 years 10 months. The majority, 62.3% of patients had mechanical or simple back pain with no definable patho-anatomic causative factor (non-specific). 19.1% had nerve root compression due to prolapsed intervertebral discs. 17.2% had serious spinal pathology due ...

  17. Lumbar bone mass predicts low back pain in males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2012-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN.: Longitudinal study of lumbar bone mass as predictor of low back pain (LBP). OBJECTIVE.: To investigate whether low bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) values at the age of 36 years are associated with the prevalence of LBP at the age of 42 years among the study

  18. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya. Amar Agarwal, K K Agarwal, R Bali, Chandra Prakash and Gaurav Joshi. Supplementary data. Table S1. AMS data, representing mean of values from cores (N) collected from each site ...

  19. Back-transformation of treatment differences - an approximate method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Transformation of outcomes is frequently used in the analysis of studies in clinical nutrition. However, back-transformation of estimated treatment means and differences is complicated by the nonlinear nature of the transformations. It is not straightforward to obtain an est...... publication, 11 December 2013; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2013.259....

  20. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)

    2014-01-01

    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of