WorldWideScience

Sample records for back haul

  1. Comparing selectivity of a standard and turned mesh T90 codend during towing and haul-back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Herrmann, Bent; Frandsen, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    the sequential selection during towing and haul back. This model takes into account the parameter Ctow, which can be interpreted as the proportion of fish that comes into contact with the codend meshes during towing and, thereby, has a chance of escape. Compared to the standard codend, the T90 codend retained......In this study, we compared the size selectivity of a T90 codend (netting turned by 90 degrees) with that of a standard codend made of similar netting. Sea trials were conducted in a Norway lobster directed fishery in the Kattegat- Skagerrak area, where there is a need for improved selectivity......), the retention was slightly but significantly higher for the T90 codend compared to the standard codend. A model developed for both codends showed that not all plaice are able to attempt escapement during the towing process. For cod, the results indicated an increased L50 (the length at which 50% of this species...

  2. Post-Haul Mortality - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  3. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  4. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  5. Oxygen Uptake - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  6. Dissolved Oxygen - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  7. 30 CFR 57.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 57.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 57.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability of...

  8. 30 CFR 56.9202 - Loading and hauling large rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading and hauling large rocks. 56.9202..., Hauling, and Dumping Transportation of Persons and Materials § 56.9202 Loading and hauling large rocks. Large rocks shall be broken before loading if they could endanger persons or affect the stability of...

  9. Mitigating seabird bycatch during hauling by pelagic longline vessels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Gilman

    Full Text Available Bycatch in longline fisheries threatens the viability of some seabird populations. The Hawaii longline swordfish fishery reduced seabird captures by an order of magnitude primarily through mitigating bycatch during setting. Now, 75% of captures occur during hauling. We fit observer data to a generalized additive regression model with mixed effects to determine the significance of the effect of various factors on the standardized seabird haul catch rate. Density of albatrosses attending vessels during hauling, leader length and year had largest model effects. The standardized haul catch rate significantly increased with increased albatross density during hauling. The standardized catch rate was significantly higher the longer the leader: shorter leaders place weighted swivels closer to hooks, reducing the likelihood of baited hooks becoming available to surface-scavenging albatrosses. There was a significant linear increasing temporal trend in the standardized catch rate, possibly partly due to an observed increasing temporal trend in the local abundance of albatrosses attending vessels during hauling. Swivel weight, Beaufort scale and season were also significant but smaller model effects. Most (81% haul captures were on branchlines actively being retrieved. Future haul mitigation research should therefore focus on reducing bird access to hooks as crew coil branchlines, including methods identified here of shorter leaders and heavier swivels, and other potentially effective methods, including faster branchline coiling and shielding the area where hooks becomes accessible. The proportion of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis captures that occurred during hauling was significantly, 1.6 times, higher than for black-footed albatrosses (P. nigripes, perhaps due to differences in the time of day of foraging and in daytime scavenging competitiveness; mitigating haul bycatch would therefore be a larger benefit to Laysans. Locally, findings

  10. Long-Haul TCP vs. Cascaded TCP

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2006-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the bandwidth and transfer time of long-haul TCP versus cascaded TCP [5]. First, we discuss the models for TCP throughput. For TCP flows in support of bulk data transfer (i.e., long-lived TCP flows), the TCP throughput models have been derived [2, 3]. These models rely on the congestion-avoidance algorithm of TCP. Though these models cannot be applied with short-lived TCP connections, our interest relative to logistical networking is in longer-li...

  11. TRADISI PERINGATAN HAUL DALAM PENDEKATAN SOSIOLOGI PENGETAHUAN PETER L. BERGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulloh Hanif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Haul is a tradition typical of Muslims in Indonesia. Although as a term, can be likened to haul in the tradition of pilgrimage of Muslims in general, but in Indonesia haul have different shapes and implementation in practice with the pilgrimage. This can be seen clearly as an institutionalized social activity. Meaning of pilgrimage as a reminder of death eventually not be the main objective in the implementation of the haul, although religious motives still underlie the practice. However haul relfeksi has become a kind of history, not just in view of the transience of human life, but rather the development of the vision and mission of human life further they get from the reflection of history celebrated figures. Making of history eventually become important to observe. History is not just a stretch of the past, present, and future, but, in the context of haul, history is closely related to building public awareness about the celebrated figures, either directly or through stories or media. Building awareness is what allows every individual who commemorate haul will internalize the objects of consciousness different from the historical reflection, although figures are presented objectively observed through individuals close to and understand objectively as himself. It is at least able to prove that religion is very closely linked to community activities. Keywords: Haul, Peter L. Berger, Sosiologi Pengetahuan dan Refleksi Sejarah.

  12. 29 CFR 1915.115 - Hoisting and hauling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Equipment for Rigging and Materials Handling § 1915.115 Hoisting and hauling equipment. The provisions of... on wingwalls of floating drydocks, and are used to transfer materials or equipment from or to a... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting and hauling equipment. 1915.115 Section 1915.115...

  13. Economics of modern long-haul cargo airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The economic characteristics and historical trends of long-haul air transportation are discussed. Various published estimates of modern airship direct operating costs are presented and comparatively analyzed. The large discrepancies in these estimates are in large measure explained, allowing airship direct operating costs to be estimated with some confidence. Indirect costs are also briefly discussed. Projected airship operating costs are compared with actual costs of competing modes such as airplanes, trucks, rail, and pipelines, and it is concluded that airships cannot economically compete with other long-haul modes. Thus attention is drawn to short-haul applications of the airship; and because short-haul missions lead to vehicle requirements that are considerably different from those for long-haul missions, it is concluded that the civil airship of the future is likely to bear little resemblance to those of the past.

  14. Collision avoidance for mine haul trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Glynn; Jim Slade; John Marston [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia). Control Technologies International

    2007-03-15

    A suite of new collision avoidance systems (CAS) is presented for use in heavy vehicles whose structure and size necessarily impede driver visibility is introduced. The main goal of the project was to determine the appropriate use of each of the commercially available technologies and, where possible, produce a low cost variant suitable for use in proximity detection on large mining industry haul trucks. CAS variants produced were subjected to a field demonstration and, linked to the output from the earlier CAS 1 project. The CAS 2 system used low cost Doppler continuous wave radar antennae coupled to the CAS 1 monitor to indicate the presence of an object moving at any speed above 3 Km/h relative to the antennae. The novelty of the CAS 3 system lies in the design of 3 interconnected, modules. CAS 4 expanded on the research in CAS 3 the Doppler radar antennae functionality was increased to allow object detection discrimination. This reduced the high bandwidth required by and essentially only informed the driver when an object was detected. The radar antennae modules and the system as a whole are described together with the empirical tests conducted and results obtained. The tests, drawing on Monte-Carlo simulation techniques, demonstrate both the 'correctness' of the implementations and the effectiveness of the system. The results of the testing of the final prototype unit were highly successful both as a computer simulation level and in practical tests on light vehicles. Chapter 9 reports on CAS 4 with the new microcontroller based fast Fourier transforms of the returned Doppler signals to give multiple object detection, speed and distance. A prototype of this system was installed on a Caterpillar 737D haul truck at the BMA Goonyella mine and tested for object detection and general robustness of the CAS 4 system.

  15. Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  16. Un-ionized Ammonia (UIA) - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  17. Collection and hauling of cereal grain chaff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reding, B.; Leduc, P. [Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute, Humboldt, Saskatchewan (Canada); Stumborg, M. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Cereal grain chaff has been identified by Energy Mines and Resources, Canada, and Agriculture Canada, as a suitable feedstock for ethanol production. Canada produces 13,300,000 t (14,600,000 ton) of cereal grain chaff annually; mainly in the prairie region. Work conducted at the Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI), Humboldt, Saskatchewan, has determined that the collection of chaff for centralized processing is a problem due to low bulk density in its natural state. This problem can be overcome by densification using either compression or size reduction. Either method will be economical in a chaff shed radius of 140 km (87 mi) when chaff is densified to 160 kg/m{sup 3} (10 lb/ft{sup 3}). The size reduction method of densification may be economical to hauling distances exceeding 166 km (103 mi), particularly if size reduction is a required part of ethanol processing. Further work is under way to develop the required equipment modifications to allow existing farm equipment to be used for this purpose.

  18. The relative importance of factors that determine log-hauling costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin; A. Jeff Martin

    1971-01-01

    Hauling costs are a major expense to lumbermen, but little is known about which factors affect hauling costs the most. A recent Forest Service study of hauling costs on 34 logging operations sheds light on whmich factors of cost are important and which might require less attention. These results should help lumbermen adopt a cost accounting procedure and help them with...

  19. 76 FR 61138 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... (NAFTA) cross-border long-haul trucking provisions. This pilot program would allow Mexico-domiciled motor...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... implementation of its United States-Mexico cross- border long-haul trucking pilot program. FMCSA received five...

  20. Problems and issues for short-haul air transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittek, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of developing an efficient short-haul air system are not primarily technical, but economic and political. The key issues are whether the community will accept new and expanded air facilities, what standards of service the passengers will demand and how the system will evolve. The solutions recommended are national in scope and require the federal government to take a leading role.

  1. Application of flywheel energy storage for heavy haul locomotives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiryagin, Maksym; Wolfs, Peter; Szanto, Frank; Sun, Yan Quan; Cole, Colin; Nielsen, Dwayne

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design for heavy haul locomotive equipped with a flywheel energy storage system is proposed. • The integrated intelligent traction control system was developed. • A flywheel energy storage system has been tested through a simulation process. • The developed hybrid system was verified using an existing heavy haul railway route. • Fuel efficiency analysis confirms advantages of the hybrid design. - Abstract: At the present time, trains in heavy haul operations are typically hauled by several diesel-electric locomotives coupled in a multiple unit. This paper studies the case of a typical consist of three Co–Co diesel-electric locomotives, and considers replacing one unit with an alternative version, with the same design parameters, except that the diesel-electric plant is replaced with flywheel energy storage equipment. The intelligent traction and energy control system installed in this unit is integrated into the multiple-unit control to allow redistribution of the power between all units. In order to verify the proposed design, a three-stage investigation has been performed as described in this paper. The initial stage studies a possible configuration of the flywheel energy storage system by detailed modelling of the proposed intelligent traction and energy control system. The second stage includes the investigation and estimation of possible energy flows using a longitudinal train dynamics simulation. The final stage compares the conventional and the proposed locomotive configurations considering two parameters: fuel efficiency and emissions reduction.

  2. CFD Investigation on Long-Haul Passenger Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. F.; Tee, B. T.; Law, H. C.; Lim, T. L.

    2015-09-01

    Air flow distribution is one of the important factors that will influence the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel. Poor air flow distribution not only cause discomfort to the bus passenger but also influence their travel mode as well. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the air flow performance of the bus air-conditioning system through CFD simulation approach. A 3D CAD model of air ducts was drawn and hence analysed by using CFD software, namely ANSYS Fluent, to determine the airflow rate for every outlets of the air-conditioning system. The simulated result was then validated with experimental data obtained from prototype model of air duct. Based on the findings, new design concepts is proposed with the aim to meet the industry requirement as well as to improve the bus passenger comfort during long haul travel.

  3. Coupler dynamic performance analysis of heavy haul locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weihua; Luo, Shihui; Song, Rongrong

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a train dynamic model was developed to study the dynamic performance of heavy haul locomotives, taking into account the use of different coupler and buffer systems under conditions of severe longitudinal coupler compressive forces. The model consists of four locomotives each having 38 independent degrees of freedom and one dummy freight vehicle connected to each other by couplers and buffers. Simulation results showed that the longitudinal coupler compressive forces withstood by large rotation angle couplers with coupler shoulders were larger than those withstood by small rotation angle couplers. The results obtained for the large rotation angle coupler model showed that it had higher safety curve negotiation speeds. Due to the smaller static impedance, it was found that large capacity elastic clay (or cement) buffers cannot satisfy the requirement of heavy haul locomotives during cycle braking in long heavy downgraded tracks; the use of friction clay buffers can solve this problem.

  4. Locomotive Schedule Optimization for Da-qin Heavy Haul Railway

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ruiye; Zhou, Leishan; Tang, Jinjin

    2015-01-01

    The main difference between locomotive schedule of heavy haul railways and that of regular rail transportation is the number of locomotives utilized for one train. One heavy-loaded train usually has more than one locomotive, but a regular train only has one. This paper develops an optimization model for the multilocomotive scheduling problem (MLSP) through analyzing the current locomotive schedule of Da-qin Railway. The objective function of our paper is to minimize the total number of utiliz...

  5. Vibration Monitoring of a Large Scale Heavy Haul Railway Viaduct

    OpenAIRE

    Busatta Fulvio; Moyo Pilate

    2015-01-01

    In South Africa, heavy haul railway transport was introduced in the mid-1970s for the Iron Ore and the Coal Export lines. In recent decades, the expansion of existing mines, new markets and the competition of iron ore- and coal-exporting countries have led owners and operators to progressively increase the capacity of the export lines. On the one hand, operational efficiencies have been improved; on the other hand, a significant increase of the rail traffic has been experienced. Thus, bridges...

  6. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed May 29, 2015. Adult acute and subacute low back pain. Bloomington, Minn.: Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement. http://www.icsi.org/low_back_pain/adult_low_back_pain__8.html. Accessed June ...

  7. Long-Haul Truck Idling Burns Up Profits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-12

    Long-haul truck drivers perform a vitally important service. In the course of their work, they must take rest periods as required by federal law. Most drivers remain in their trucks, which they keep running to provide power for heating, cooling, and other necessities. Such idling, however, comes at a cost; it is an expensive and polluting way to keep drivers safe and comfortable. Increasingly affordable alternatives to idling not only save money and reduce pollution, but also help drivers get a better night's rest.

  8. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 02: log hauling cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Knowing the cost of fuel reduction treatments and associated activities, such as hauling cut trees, is essential for fire and fuels planning. This fact sheet explores the main factors that determine the cost of hauling cut trees and points the user to an interactive tool that can help plan for those and other expenses.

  9. 76 FR 40980 - Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ...-0097] Pilot Program on NAFTA Long-Haul Trucking Provisions AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... resulting from the implementation of its United States-Mexico cross- border long-haul trucking pilot program. This pilot program is part of FMCSA's implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA...

  10. National Survey of US Long-Haul Truck Driver Health and Injury: health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, Jan; Sieber, W Karl; Chen, Guang X; Hitchcock, Edward M; Lincoln, Jennifer E; Nakata, Akinori; Robinson, Cynthia F; Sweeney, Marie H

    2015-02-01

    To compare selected health behaviors and body mass index (modifiable risk factors) of US long-haul truck drivers to the US working population by sex. The National Survey of US Long-Haul Truck Driver Health and Injury interviewed a nationally representative sample of long-haul truck drivers (n = 1265) at truck stops. Age-adjusted results were compared with national health surveys. Compared with US workers, drivers had significantly higher body mass index, current cigarette use, and pack-years of smoking; lower prevalence of annual influenza vaccination; and generally lower alcohol consumption. Physical activity level was low for most drivers, and 25% had never had their cholesterol levels tested. Working conditions common to long-haul trucking may create significant barriers to certain healthy behaviors; thus, transportation and health professionals should address the unique work environment when developing interventions for long-haul drivers.

  11. Workplace violence in long haul trucking: occupational health nursing update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra Gay

    2004-01-01

    Almost 2 million workdays and millions of dollars are lost annually because of non-fatal assaults suffered at the workplace (NIOSH, 1996). Twenty workers, on average, are murdered each week in the United States and an estimated 18,000 workers per week are victims of non-fatal assault (NIOSH, 2001). Violence and stress are two interrelated issues that affect the work force. In-depth studies of these issues have not been conducted with long haul truckers in general, or with women in non-traditional, male dominated fields such as the long haul trucking industry. Epidemiological data related to violence and stress experienced by these under-studied populations are needed to plan effective interventions to reduce occupational risks. Studies employing both qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to articulate risk and protective factors related to violence against workers (Runyan, 2001). Occupational health nurses are qualified to participate in the development and implementation of research and intervention studies to improve worker safety related to violence at the workplace for men and women in both traditional and non-traditional occupational roles.

  12. Experimental log hauling through a traditional caribou wintering area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold G. Cumming

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year field experiment (fall 1990-spring 1993 showed that woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou altered their dispersion when logs were hauled through their traditional wintering area. Unlike observations in control years 1 and 3, radio-collared caribou that had returned to the study area before the road was plowed on January 6 of the experimental year 2, moved away 8-60 km after logging activities began. Seasonal migration to Lake Nipigon islands usually peaked in April, but by February 22 of year 2, 4 of the 6 had returned. The islands provide summer refuge from predation, but not when the lake is frozen. Tracks in snow showed that some caribou remained but changed locations. They used areas near the road preferentially in year 1, early year 2, and year 3, but moved away 2-5 km after the road was plowed in year 2. In a nearby undisturbed control area, no such changes occurred. Caribou and moose partitioned habitat on a small scale; tracks showed gray wolf (Canis lupus remote from caribou but close to moose tracks. No predation on caribou was observed within the wintering area; 2 kills were found outside it. Due to the possibility of displacing caribou from winter refugia to places with higher predation risk, log hauling through important caribou winter habitat should be minimized.

  13. Coupler rotation behaviour and its effect on heavy haul trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z. Q.; Ma, W. H.; Wu, Q.; Luo, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    When a locomotive coupler rotates at an angle, the lateral component of the coupler force has an adverse effect on the locomotive's safety, particularly in heavy haul trains. In this paper, a model of a head-mid configuration, a 20,000-t heavy haul train is developed to analyse the rotation behaviour of the locomotive's coupler system and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of such a train's middle locomotive when operating on tangent and curved tracks. The train model includes detailed coupler and draft gear with which to consider the hysteretic characteristics of the rubber draft gear model, the friction characteristics of the coupler knuckles, and the alignment-control characteristics of the coupler shoulder. The results indicate that the coupler's rotation behaviour differs between the tangent and curved tracks, significantly affecting the locomotive's running performance under the braking condition. A larger coupler rotation angle generates a larger lateral component, which increases the wheelset's lateral force and the derailment coefficient. Decreasing the maximum coupler free angle can improve the locomotive's operational performance and safety. Based on these results, the recommended maximum coupler free angle is 4°.

  14. An analysis of short haul air passenger demand, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, T. P.; Swan, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    Several demand models for short haul air travel are proposed and calibrated on pooled data. The models are designed to predict demand and analyze some of the motivating phenomena behind demand generation. In particular, an attempt is made to include the effects of competing modes and of alternate destinations. The results support three conclusions: (1) the auto mode is the air mode's major competitor; (2) trip time is an overriding factor in intermodal competition, with air fare at its present level appearing unimportant to the typical short haul air traveler; and (3) distance appears to underly several demand generating phenomena, and therefore, must be considered very carefully to any intercity demand model. It may be the cause of the wide range of fare elasticities reported by researchers over the past 15 years. A behavioral demand model is proposed and calibrated. It combines the travel generating effects of income and population, the effects of modal split, the sensitivity of travel to price and time, and the effect of alternative destinations satisfying the trip purpose.

  15. Bimodal Winter Haul-Out Patterns of Adult Weddell Seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Southern Weddell Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Lars; Baker, Amy; Fedak, Mike; Årthun, Marius; Nicholls, Keith; Robinson, Patrick; Costa, Dan; Biuw, Martin; Photopoulou, Theoni

    2016-01-01

    Hauling out is an essential component of pinniped life-history. Haul-out behaviour may be affected by biological (e.g. sex, age and condition) and physical factors (e.g. food availability and environmental conditions), and identifying these factors may help explain the spatio-temporal distribution and habitat use of pinnipeds. The aim of this study is to describe observed winter haul-out patterns of adult Weddell seals in the Weddell Sea and investigate the role of potential predictors to gain insight into the way these animals interact with the physical environment in this region. We examined the haul-out behaviour in relation to available biological (i.e., diving effort, sex) and physical information (i.e., sun angle). Thirty-three satellite telemetry tags were deployed on adult Weddell seals in the southern Weddell Sea during February 2007, 2009 and 2011, following their annual moult recording information on the behavioural mode of the animal: at surface, hauled out or diving. At the end of the austral summer Weddell seals spent, on average, more than 40% of their time hauled out on the ice. Under constant light conditions, it appears that physiological factors drive sex differences in the timing and duration of haul-out behaviour, with females spending on average more time hauled out than males during daylight hours. This time spent hauled-out declined to around 15% in both sexes by the beginning of autumn and remained at this level with a clear nocturnal haul-out pattern during the winter. The time spent diving increased during this period, indicating an increase in foraging effort during the winter months, and led to a common haul-out pattern in both sexes over winter. We found a positive relationship between haul-out duration and the percentage of time spent diving prior to a haul-out in both sexes, with the exception of female daytime haul-outs early in the year.

  16. Fault-tolerant control of heavy-haul trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuan, Xiangtao; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-06-01

    The fault-tolerant control (FTC) of heavy-haul trains is discussed on the basis of the speed regulation proposed in previous works. The fault modes of trains are assumed and the corresponding fault detection and isolation (FDI) are studied. The FDI of sensor faults is based on a geometric approach for residual generators. The FDI of a braking system is based on the observation of the steady-state speed. From the difference of the steady-state speeds between the fault system and the faultless system, one can get fault information. Simulation tests were conducted on the suitability of the FDIs and the redesigned speed regulators. It is shown that the proposed FTC does not explicitly worsen the performance of the speed regulator in the case of a faultless system, while it obviously improves the performance of the speed regulator in the case of a faulty system.

  17. Occurrence of finfish communities in trawl hauls of Atlantic Ocean in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of finfish communities in trawl hauls of Atlantic Ocean in Badagry coast, Nigeria. EF Myade, MO Oyebanji, EO Oluwajoba, AB Williams, BC Mbawuike, N Ajuonu, GW Olakunle, OO Adegbile, AY Gadzekpo, MU Umunnakwe, MA Abass ...

  18. Study of quiet turbofan STOL aircraft for short-haul transportation. Volume 4: Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    A marketing study to determine the acceptance and utilization of a STOL aircraft short-haul air transportation system was conducted. The relationship between STOL characteristics and the economic and social viability of STOL as a short-haul reliever system was examined. A study flow chart was prepared to show the city pair and traffic split analysis. The national demand for STOL aircraft, as well as the foreign and military markets, were analyzed.

  19. Sleep on Long Haul Layovers and Pilot Fatigue at the Start of the Next Duty Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrave, Jan; Wu, Lora J; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H

    2018-01-01

    Layovers are critical for pilot recovery between flights and minimum layover durations are required by regulation. However, research on the factors affecting layover sleep and safety performance indicators (SPIs) before subsequent flights is relatively sparse. The present project combined data from 6 studies, including 8 long-range and 5 ultra-long range out-and-back trips across a range of different layover destinations (299 pilots in 4-person crews, 410 layovers, 1-3 d layover duration). Sleep was monitored via actigraphy from 3 d pre-trip to at least 3 d post-trip. Pilots rated their sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS) and fatigue (Samn-Perelli scale, SP) at duty start for the inbound flight. Mixed model ANOVAs identified independent associations between fatigue and sleepiness SPIs and operational factors (domicile time of duty start for the inbound flight in six 4-h bins, layover duration, and total sleep time (TST) in the 24 h prior to inbound duty start). TST was greatest on layovers ending between 1200-1559 domicile time (time in the city from which the outbound flight departed) and TST was a significant predictor of both KSS and SP ratings at duty start for the inbound flight. TST in the 24 h prior to the inbound flight was greatest when duty start time allowed for the inclusion of a full domicile night time period. In this dataset, circadian end-time of layovers is a key determinant of pilot fatigue status at the beginning of the inbound duty period.Cosgrove J, Wu LJ, van den Berg M, Signal TL, Gander PH. Sleep on long haul layovers and pilot fatigue at the start of the next duty period. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):19-25.

  20. Locomotive Schedule Optimization for Da-qin Heavy Haul Railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiye Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main difference between locomotive schedule of heavy haul railways and that of regular rail transportation is the number of locomotives utilized for one train. One heavy-loaded train usually has more than one locomotive, but a regular train only has one. This paper develops an optimization model for the multilocomotive scheduling problem (MLSP through analyzing the current locomotive schedule of Da-qin Railway. The objective function of our paper is to minimize the total number of utilized locomotives. The MLSP is nondeterministic polynomial (NP hard. Therefore, we convert the multilocomotive traction problem into a single-locomotive traction problem. Then, the single-locomotive traction problem (SLTP can be converted into an assignment problem. The Hungarian algorithm is applied to solve the model and obtain the optimal locomotive schedule. We use the variance of detention time of locomotives at stations to evaluate the stability of locomotive schedule. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization model, case studies for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains on Da-qin Railway are both conducted. Compared to the current schedules, the optimal schedules from the proposed models can save 62 and 47 locomotives for 20 kt and 30 kt heavy-loaded combined trains, respectively. Therefore, the effectiveness of the proposed model and its solution algorithm are both valid.

  1. Vibration Monitoring of a Large Scale Heavy Haul Railway Viaduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatta Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, heavy haul railway transport was introduced in the mid-1970s for the Iron Ore and the Coal Export lines. In recent decades, the expansion of existing mines, new markets and the competition of iron ore- and coal-exporting countries have led owners and operators to progressively increase the capacity of the export lines. On the one hand, operational efficiencies have been improved; on the other hand, a significant increase of the rail traffic has been experienced. Thus, bridges along the export lines are now crossed by heavier and longer trains with more frequent train passages than in the past. Increasing train loading might lead to significant consequences on structures such as dynamic amplifications and reduction of service life due to fatigue. Hence dynamic assessment and monitoring of the structural condition of bridges under actual train loading are becoming more relevant to support decision making processes. The paper presents the investigations carried out on the Olifants River Viaduct, a critical structure along the Iron Ore Export Line, in order to implement a state-of-the-art vibration monitoring system.

  2. Haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in Hood Canal, Washington.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh M London

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to model haul-out behavior of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina in the Hood Canal region of Washington State with respect to changes in physiological, environmental, and temporal covariates. Previous research has provided a solid understanding of seal haul-out behavior. Here, we expand on that work using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM with temporal autocorrelation and a large dataset. Our dataset included behavioral haul-out records from archival and VHF radio tag deployments on 25 individual seals representing 61,430 seal hours. A novel application for increased computational efficiency allowed us to examine this large dataset with a GLMM that appropriately accounts for temporal autocorellation. We found significant relationships with the covariates hour of day, day of year, minutes from high tide and year. Additionally, there was a significant effect of the interaction term hour of day : day of year. This interaction term demonstrated that seals are more likely to haul out during nighttime hours in August and September, but then switch to predominantly daylight haul-out patterns in October and November. We attribute this change in behavior to an effect of human disturbance levels. This study also examined a unique ecological event to determine the role of increased killer whale (Orcinus orca predation on haul-out behavior. In 2003 and 2005 these harbor seals were exposed to unprecedented levels of killer whale predation and results show an overall increase in haul-out probability after exposure to killer whales. The outcome of this study will be integral to understanding any changes in population abundance as a result of increased killer whale predation.

  3. Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... addition, there doesn't appear to be one type of mattress that's best for people with back pain. It's probably a ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  4. Work, sleep, and cholesterol levels of U.S. long-haul truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Michael K; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hege, Adam; Wideman, Laurie; Sönmez, Sevil

    2017-04-07

    Long-haul truck drivers in the United States experience elevated cardiovascular health risks, possibly due to hypercholesterolemia. The current study has two objectives: 1) to generate a cholesterol profile for U.S. long-haul truck drivers; and 2) to determine the influence of work organization characteristics and sleep quality and duration on cholesterol levels of long-haul truck drivers. Survey and biometric data were collected from 262 long-haul truck drivers. Descriptive analyses were performed for demographic, work organization, sleep, and cholesterol measures. Linear regression and ordinal logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine for possible predictive relationships between demographic, work organization, and sleep variables, and cholesterol outcomes. The majority (66.4%) of drivers had a low HDL (risk total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio. Sleep quality was associated with HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol, and daily work hours were associated with LDL cholesterol. Workday sleep duration was associated with non-HDL cholesterol, and driving experience and sleep quality were associated with cholesterol ratio. Long-haul truck drivers have a high risk cholesterol profile, and sleep quality and work organization factors may induce these cholesterol outcomes. Targeted worksite health promotion programs are needed to curb these atherosclerotic risks.

  5. An analysis of long and medium-haul air passenger demand, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    A basic model was developed which is a two equation pair econometric system in which air passenger demand and airline level-of-service are the endogenous variables. The model aims to identify the relationship between each of these two variables and its determining factors, and to identify the interaction of demand and level-of-service with each other. The selected variable for the measure of air passenger traffic activity in a given pair market is defined as the number of passengers in a given time that originate in one region and fly to the other region for purposes other than to make a connection to a third region. For medium and long haul markets, the model seems to perform better for larger markets. This is due to a specification problem regarding the route structure variable. In larger markets, a greater percentage of nonlocal passengers are accounted for by this variable. Comparing the estimated fare elasticities of long and medium haul markets, it appears that air transportation demand is more price elastic in longer haul markets. Long haul markets demand will saturate with a fewer number of departures than will demand in medium haul markets.

  6. Seat Capacity Selection for an Advanced Short-Haul Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marien, Ty V.

    2016-01-01

    A study was performed to determine the target seat capacity for a proposed advanced short-haul aircraft concept projected to enter the fleet by 2030. This analysis projected the potential demand in the U.S. for a short-haul aircraft using a transportation theory approach, rather than selecting a target seat capacity based on recent industry trends or current market demand. A transportation systems model was used to create a point-to-point network of short-haul trips and then predict the number of annual origin-destination trips on this network. Aircraft of varying seat capacities were used to meet the demand on this network, assuming a single aircraft type for the entire short-haul fleet. For each aircraft size, the ticket revenue and operational costs were used to calculate a total market profitability metric for all feasible flights. The different aircraft sizes were compared, based on this market profitability metric and also the total number of annual round trips and markets served. Sensitivity studies were also performed to determine the effect of changing the aircraft cruise speed and maximum trip length. Using this analysis, the advanced short-haul aircraft design team was able to select a target seat capacity for their design.

  7. Dynamic performances of an innovative coupler used in heavy haul trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Hongjun

    2014-10-01

    An innovative structure for a heavy haul coupler with an arc surface contact and restoring bumpstop is proposed. This coupler has a small lateral force at a small yaw angle and a limitable yaw angle to ensure an allowable coupler lateral force under intense compressive force. The main structural characteristic of the combined contact coupler is a lateral movable follower with an appropriate friction coefficient of 0.06-0.08 and a slide block with a single freedom of longitudinal movement. In order to verify and simulate the performances, a multi-body dynamics model with four heavy haul locomotives and three detailed couplers was established to simulate the process of emergency braking. In addition, the coupler yaw instability and wheel set lateral forces were tested in order to investigate the effect of relevant parameters on the coupler performances. The combined contact coupler is suitable for heavy haul train for a good dynamic performance.

  8. 49 CFR 1242.76 - Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail substitute service; loading...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... haul, and rail substitute service; loading, unloading and local marine; protective services; freight... SEPARATION OF COMMON OPERATING EXPENSES BETWEEN FREIGHT SERVICE AND PASSENGER SERVICE FOR RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.76 Administration; pickup and delivery, marine line haul, and rail...

  9. The application of QCSEE technology to V/STOL. [Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W. S.; Genever-Watling, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    While at this point in time no particular propulsion system configuration has been chosen for the V/STOL Type A, many combinations of number of fans, gas generators, and methods of power interconnection have been investigated. Low pressure systems under consideration include variable pitch and variable inlet guide vanes for thrust modulation, geared and direct turbine drive, and shaft and gas power transfer systems. Several of these features are being studied in the Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul, Experimental Engine (QCSEE) program, which is developing the technology needed for future short-haul passenger aircraft. Test status and key characteristics of QCSEE engines and their components are discussed in detail.

  10. A neural network driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train

    OpenAIRE

    Youneng Huang; Litian Tan; Lei Chen; Tao Tang

    2016-01-01

    The heavy-haul train has a series of characteristics, such as the locomotive traction properties, the longer length of train, and the nonlinear train pipe pressure during train braking. When the train is running on a continuous long and steep downgrade railway line, the safety of the train is ensured by cycle braking, which puts high demands on the driving skills of the driver. In this article, a driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train based on a neural network is proposed. F...

  11. Alertness management in two-person long-haul flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, M. R.; Gander, P. H.

    1992-01-01

    Long-haul flight operations involve cumulative sleep loss, circadian disruption, and extended and irregular duty schedules. These factors reduce pilot alertness and performance on the flightdeck. Conceptually and operationally, alertness management in flight operations can be divided into preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. Preventive strategies are utilized prior to a duty period to mitigate or reduce the effects of sleep loss, circadian disruption and fatigue during subsequent flight operations. Operational countermeasures are used during operations as acute techniques for maintaining performance and alertness. Results from previous NASA Ames field studies document the sleep loss and circadian disruption in three-person long-haul flying and illustrate the application of preventive strategies and operational countermeasures. One strategy that can be used in both a preventive and operational manner is strategic napping. The application and effectiveness of strategic napping in long-haul operations will be discussed. Finally, long-haul flying in two-person highly automated aircraft capable of extended range operations will create new challenges to maintaining pilot alertness and performance. Alertness management issues in this flight environment will be explored.

  12. Consistent haul road condition monitoring by means of vehicle response normalisation with Gaussian processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heyns, T

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available -1 Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence December 2012/ Vol. 25(8) Consistent haul road condition monitoring by means of vehicle response normalisation with Gaussian processes T. Heyns a,b,n , J.P. de Villiers a,b , P.S. Heyns c a...

  13. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  14. Commodification of Religious Tradition: Critical Study on Religious Tradition Tourism Haul at Pasar Kliwon Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ferri Setiawan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The policy on tourism development program of Surakarta especially on the calendar of the event takes advantage from religious tradition as tourism commodity. The purpose of this study is to describe the religious tradition haul, the programs by the tourism department of Surakarta, and how commodification through a well implemented marketing communications process, messaging, and other media, as well as responses from the audience regarding the marketing of haul tradition in general toward creating a leading tourism object. Haul which is a tradition for commemorating the death of clerics (ulama who are followed by some local communities in Surakarta, especially those in Pasar Kliwon Regency, is utilized in tourism. Through critical study, the cultural values that are supposed to be preserved, changed into marketing values to attract visitors. The used media are the advertisement and the calendar of events. The local community gain advantages economically from this policy, but they object to it socio-culturally. Meanwhile, the tourists are generally interested in haul tradition.

  15. Determinants of Safe and Productive Truck Driving: Empirical Evidence from Long-haul Cargo Transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; de Koster, R.; Rijsdijk, S.; Roy, D.

    2017-01-01

    Using GPS data of 370 long-haul trips in India, survey data of 49 truck drivers, and ERP data, this study examines the role of driver personality characteristics in predicting risky and productive driving. The results show that more conscientious drivers display more risky driving behavior. More

  16. Passenger thermal perceptions, thermal comfort requirements, and adaptations in short- and long-haul vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Huang, Kuo-Tsang; Sun, Chen-Yi; Huang, Ying-Che

    2010-05-01

    While thermal comfort in mass transportation vehicles is relevant to service quality and energy consumption, benchmarks for such comfort that reflect the thermal adaptations of passengers are currently lacking. This study reports a field experiment involving simultaneous physical measurements and a questionnaire survey, collecting data from 2,129 respondents, that evaluated thermal comfort in short- and long-haul buses and trains. Experimental results indicate that high air temperature, strong solar radiation, and low air movement explain why passengers feel thermally uncomfortable. The overall insulation of clothing worn by passengers and thermal adaptive behaviour in vehicles differ from those in their living and working spaces. Passengers in short-haul vehicles habitually adjust the air outlets to increase thermal comfort, while passengers in long-haul vehicles prefer to draw the drapes to reduce discomfort from extended exposure to solar radiation. The neutral temperatures for short- and long-haul vehicles are 26.2 degrees C and 27.4 degrees C, while the comfort zones are 22.4-28.9 degrees C and 22.4-30.1 degrees C, respectively. The results of this study provide a valuable reference for practitioners involved in determining the adequate control and management of in-vehicle thermal environments, as well as facilitating design of buses and trains, ultimately contributing to efforts to achieve a balance between the thermal comfort satisfaction of passengers and energy conserving measures for air-conditioning in mass transportation vehicles.

  17. Modelling the Volatility in Short and Long Haul Japanese Tourist Arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C. Lim (Christine)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional

  18. Modelling the volatility in short and long haul Japanese tourist arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); C. Lim (Christine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional

  19. Short communication: Microbial quality of raw milk following commercial long-distance hauling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darchuk, Emily M; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy

    2015-12-01

    Hauling is a critical part of the commercial milk supply chain, yet very few studies have aimed to understand its effect on raw milk quality. This study focused on the effect of extended-duration tanker use during hauling on raw milk quality at a commercial facility. Standard tanker use [cleaned-in-place (CIP) once per 24h] served as a control and an incremental between-load water rinse with sanitizer treatment (RS) was evaluated to mitigate any effect from extended duration hauling. During this study, 1 commercial truck with 2 trailers was monitored for 10d. The truck collected milk at a large dairy farm, transported the milk to a manufacturing facility, and then returned to the same farm for a second load. Each round-trip journey took between 10 and 12h, allowing for 2 loads per 24-h use period. Following the second delivery, the truck was cleaned by CIP treatment starting a new treatment day. Producer samples were collected from the raw milk bulk tank on the farm before loading milk into the tanker. The same milk was sampled directly out of the tanker truck before unloading at the manufacturer. Effect on individual bacteria count, thermophilic spore count, and preliminary incubation count was quantified through common industry tests. Surface sponge swabs were also used to monitor tanker sanitation and the efficacy of cleaning treatments. Results did not identify a negative effect on raw milk quality due to extended duration hauling. Whereas the addition of RS did not provide any measurable quality benefits for the microbial milk quality, swab results demonstrated that the RS treatment was able to reduce surface bacteria in the tanker, although not to the same level as the full CIP treatment. Based on this study, current CIP practices for long distance milk hauling appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Back Pain During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Back Pain During Pregnancy Patient Education FAQs Back Pain During Pregnancy Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Back Pain During Pregnancy FAQ115, January ...

  1. The use of cell phone network data in traffic data collection and long-haul truckshed (geographic extent) tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzed the potential of cell phone positioning techniques in freight truck data collection and long-haul : truckshed (geographic extent) tracking. Freight truck identification and tracking algorithms were developed by means of : cell pho...

  2. Prevent Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and prevent back pain: Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises at least 2 or 3 times a week. ... risk of back pain. Do back-strengthening and stretching exercises [PDF - 244 KB] at least 2 or 3 ...

  3. Optical strain measurement for fault detection in haul-truck tires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotchon, A; Nobes, D S; Lipsett, M G

    2012-01-01

    Tire condition is integral to the safe operation of heavy machinery, such as ultra-class haul trucks. A new approach to haul truck tire monitoring is being investigated based on optical strain measurement, which has the advantage of providing quantitative information from sensors that do not contact the tire. A laboratory-scale apparatus has been constructed to monitor a tire as it is subjected to various loads and pressures. Digital image correlation is used to calculate the deformation in the tire. Using this method, damage resulting from a horizontal and vertical cut created on the tire surface could be detected. A three-dimensional surface reconstruction of the tire was created to assist in the characterization of more complex damage types such as wear and fatigue. In addition to providing information for a possible industrial scale damage detection system, this apparatus will also further the understanding of damage mechanisms in tires.

  4. Projection-based circular constrained state estimation and fusion over long-haul links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a scenario where sensors are deployed over a large geographical area for tracking a target with circular nonlinear constraints on its motion dynamics. The sensor state estimates are sent over long-haul networks to a remote fusion center for fusion. We are interested in different ways to incorporate the constraints into the estimation and fusion process in the presence of communication loss. In particular, we consider closed-form projection-based solutions, including rules for fusing the estimates and for incorporating the constraints, which jointly can guarantee timely fusion often required in realtime systems. We test the performance of these methods in the long-haul tracking environment using a simple example.

  5. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Core engine noise measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, H. D.; Coward, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    Noise measurements were taken on a turbofan engine which uses the same core, with minor modifications, employed on the quiet clean short-haul experimental engine (QCSEE) propulsion systems. Both nearfield and farfield noise measurements were taken in order to determine the core internally generated noise levels. The resulting noise measurements were compared to predicted combustor and turbine noise levels, to verify or improve the predicted QCSEE combustor and turbine noise levels.

  6. Performance comparison of MSK and QPSK optical long haul DWDM transmission with coherent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmeister, A; Nölle, M; Molle, L; Freund, R; Rohde, M

    2012-02-13

    We performed long-haul WDM transmission experiments to compare 10 Gbit/s MSK and QPSK modulation with a channel grid of 12.5 GHz. A standard link setup with inline dispersion compensation was applied in combination with coherent detection and following offline signal processing. Both modulation formats showed nearly equal performance bridging about 4000 km at a BER of 10(-3).

  7. Seabird bycatch in pelagic longline fisheries is grossly underestimated when using only haul data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Brothers

    Full Text Available Hundreds of thousands of seabirds are killed each year as bycatch in longline fisheries. Seabirds are predominantly caught during line setting but bycatch is generally recorded during line hauling, many hours after birds are caught. Bird loss during this interval may lead to inaccurate bycatch information. In this 15 year study, seabird bycatch was recorded during both line setting and line hauling from four fishing regions: Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, Coral Sea and central Pacific Ocean. Over 43,000 albatrosses, petrels and skuas representing over 25 species were counted during line setting of which almost 6,000 seabirds attempted to take the bait. Bait-taking interactions were placed into one of four categories. (i The majority (57% of bait-taking attempts were "unsuccessful" involving seabirds that did not take the bait nor get caught or hooked. (ii One-third of attempts were "successful" with seabirds removing the bait while not getting caught. (iii One-hundred and seventy-six seabirds (3% of attempts were observed being "caught" during line setting, with three albatross species - Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis, black-footed (P. nigripes and black-browed (Thalassarche melanophrys- dominating this category. However, of these, only 85 (48% seabird carcasses were retrieved during line hauling. Most caught seabirds were hooked through the bill. (iv The remainder of seabird-bait interactions (7% was not clearly observed, but likely involved more "caught" seabirds. Bait taking attempts and percentage outcome (e.g. successful, caught varied between seabird species and was not always related to species abundance around fishing vessels. Using only haul data to calculate seabird bycatch grossly underestimates actual bycatch levels, with the level of seabird bycatch from pelagic longline fishing possibly double what was previously thought.

  8. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  9. Modelling the Volatility in Short and Long Haul Japanese Tourist Arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Christine Lim

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand, respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional volatility models that are commonly used in financial econometrics, namely the GARCH (1,1), GJR (1,1) and EGARCH (1,1) models. The data series are for the period January 1997 to December 2007. The volat...

  10. "Modelling Short and Long Haul Volatility in Japanese Tourist Arrivals to New Zealand and Taiwan"

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Christine Lim

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of short and long haul volatility (or risk) in monthly Japanese tourist arrivals to Taiwan and New Zealand , respectively. In order to model appropriately the volatilities of international tourist arrivals, we use symmetric and asymmetric conditional volatility models that are commonly used in financial econometrics, namely the GARCH (1,1), GJR (1,1) and EGARCH (1,1) models. The data series are for the period January 1997 to December 2007. The volatility estim...

  11. A neural network driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youneng Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy-haul train has a series of characteristics, such as the locomotive traction properties, the longer length of train, and the nonlinear train pipe pressure during train braking. When the train is running on a continuous long and steep downgrade railway line, the safety of the train is ensured by cycle braking, which puts high demands on the driving skills of the driver. In this article, a driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train based on a neural network is proposed. First, in order to describe the nonlinear characteristics of train braking, the neural network model is constructed and trained by practical driving data. In the neural network model, various nonlinear neurons are interconnected to work for information processing and transmission. The target value of train braking pressure reduction and release time is achieved by modeling the braking process. The equation of train motion is computed to obtain the driving curve. Finally, in four typical operation scenarios, comparing the curve data generated by the method with corresponding practical data of the Shuohuang heavy-haul railway line, the results show that the method is effective.

  12. Short communication: Snapshot of industry milk hauling practices in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eva; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2018-03-01

    The Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) mandates milk hauling sanitation and operational practices; however, the use of vague language (i.e., "as needed") and gaps in processes lead to variability in industry practices. Our aim was to characterize industry milk hauling practices and identify areas that may be an unexplained source of contamination in the dairy processing continuum, and communicate this information with industry to cultivate best practices. The objectives of this study were to (1) survey industry hauling sanitation and operation practices in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, and (2) quantify microbial populations [aerobic plate count (APC), lactic acid bacteria, coliforms] on the internal surfaces of transfer hoses (tanker and receiving bay) to determine their potential contribution to the microbiological quality of raw milk. Eleven facilities (78% response rate) participated in our survey. All facilities surveyed were compliant with the PMO; however, overall milk reception layout, sanitation practices, and routine maintenance greatly varied between facilities. Farm hose samples (n = 115) had significantly higher microbial loads (APC: mean 4.7 log cfu/100 cm 2 ; median 5.1 log cfu/cm 2 ) than receiving hose samples (n = 57; APC: mean: 2.1 log cfu/100 cm 2 ; median 1.9 log cfu/100 cm 2 ). Microbial populations on transfer hose surfaces did not correlate with time since last cleaning for either tanker or receiving bay hoses. Microbial content of farm hoses is likely to reflect the microbial quality of the previous milk transferred through the hose, making on-farm management practices the primary consideration to maintain low microbiological counts downstream. Upon arrival at the processor, 10% of farm hoses were missing caps. Although this did not correlate with elevated microbiological counts, uncapped farm hoses are exposed to the farm environment, provide opportunity for contamination, and are in violation of the PMO. Through

  13. Factors Affecting Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) in Tidewater Glacier Inlets in Alaska: Can Tourism Vessels and Seals Coexist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Gail M; Pendleton, Grey W

    2015-01-01

    Large numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) use habitat in tidewater glaciers in Alaska for pupping, breeding, and molting. Glacial fjords are also popular tourist destinations; however, visitation by numerous vessels can result in disturbance of seals during critical life-history phases. We explored factors affecting haul-out behavior of harbor seals at a glacial site frequented by tourism vessels. In 2008-10, we deployed VHF transmitters on 107 seals in Endicott Arm, Alaska. We remotely monitored presence and haul-out behavior of tagged seals and documented vessel presence with time-lapse cameras. We evaluated the influence of environmental and physical factors on the probability of being hauled out, duration of haul-out bouts, and as factors associated with the start and end of a haulout. Location, season, hour, and interactions of location by year, season, hour, and sex significantly influenced haul-out probability, as did ice, weather, and vessels. Seals were more likely to be hauled out with greater ice availability during the middle of the day, and less likely to be hauled out if vessels were present. Cruise ships had the strongest negative effect; however, most vessel types negatively affected haul-out probability. Haul-out duration was longest in association with starting on incoming tides, clear skies, no precipitation, occurring in the middle of the day, and ending in the late afternoon or evening. End of haulouts was associated with increasing cloud cover, low ice availability, and vessel presence; large-sized tourism vessels or all-vessel-types combined were significant predictors of ending a haul-out bout. Probability of being hauled out was highest in June, during pupping season. Potential disturbances of harbor seals could be reduced, enabling longer resting times for seals and fewer interruptions for nursing pups, if vessels focused the majority of visits to glacial habitat to before or after the hours of 08:00-17:00 or, less optimally, 09:00-16:00.

  14. Stabilizing mechanism and running behavior of couplers on heavy haul trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziqiang; Wu, Qing; Luo, Shihui; Ma, Weihua; Dong, Xiaoqing

    2014-11-01

    Published studies in regard to coupler systems have been mainly focused on the manufacturing process or coupler strength issues. With the ever increasing of tonnage and length of heavy haul trains, lateral in-train forces generated by longitudinal in-train forces and coupler rotations have become a more and more significant safety issue for heavy haul train operations. Derailments caused by excessive lateral in-train forces are frequently reported. This article studies two typical coupler systems used on heavy haul locomotives. Their structures and stabilizing mechanism are analyzed before the corresponding models are developed. Coupler systems models are featured by two distinct stabilizing mechanism models and draft gear models with hysteresis considered. A model set which consists of four locomotives and three coupler systems is developed to study the rotational behavior of different coupler systems and their implications for locomotive dynamics. Simulated results indicate that when the locomotives are equipped with the type B coupler system, locomotives can meet the dynamics standard on tangent tracks; while the dynamics performance on curved tracks is very poor. The maximum longitudinal in-train force for locomotives equipped with the type B coupler system is 2000 kN. Simulations revealed a distinct trend for the type A coupler system. Locomotive dynamics are poorer for the type A case when locomotives are running on tangent tracks, while the dynamics are better for the type A case when locomotives are running on curved tracks. Theoretical studies and simulations carried out in this article suggest that a combination of the two types of stabilizing mechanism can result in a good design which can significantly decrease the relevant derailments.

  15. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Double-annular clean combustor technology development report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, D. W.; Burrus, D. L.; Sabla, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A sector combustor technology development program was conducted to define an advanced double annular dome combustor sized for use in the quiet clean short haul experimental engine (QCSEE). A design which meets the emission goals, and combustor performance goals of the QCSEE engine program was developed. Key design features were identified which resulted in substantial reduction in carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emission levels at ground idle operating conditions, in addition to very low nitric oxide emission levels at high power operating conditions. Their significant results are reported.

  16. Rubber Pad Intensity and Track Stiffness of Double Slip Turnout in Heavy Haul Railway

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Chen; Ping Wang; Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    Double slip turnout is common in heavy haul railway and due to its complex structure, its maintenance is difficult as well as important. Focusing on No.12 double slip turnout (75 kg/m rail), this study analyzed the intensity of the different slotted rubber pad under iron plate and track stiffness of turnout zone based on the finite element method with a purpose of improving the performance of the double slip turnout. Results show that: the depth of groove on rubber pad and groove center dista...

  17. Back pain and low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotta, H.; Niethard, F.U.

    1983-01-01

    In patients with back pain there is only a poor correlation between clinical and radiological symptoms. Therefore the interpretation of radiological findings is only possible with respect to the natural history of the disease. Indication for radiological examination is given for early diagnosis and treatment of malinformation of the spine; diagnosis and treatment of functional disturbances of the spine with back- and low back pain and diagnosis and treatment of diseases which affect the stability of the vertebrae. (orig.)

  18. 2050 Scenarios for Long-Haul Tourism in the Evolving Global Climate Change Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jako Volschenk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism and its “midwife”, aviation, are transnational sectors exposed to global uncertainties. This scenario-building exercise considers a specific subset of these uncertainties, namely the impact of the evolving global climate change regime on long-haul tourism (LHT, with a 2050 horizon. The basic problematique is that unconstrained growth in aviation emissions will not be compatible with 2050 climate stabilisation goals, and that the stringency and timing of public policy interventions could have far-reaching impacts — either on the market for future growth of LHT, or the natural ecosystem on which tourism depends. Following an intuitive-logic approach to scenario-building, three meta-level scenarios that can be regarded as “possible” futures for the evolution of LHT are described. Two of these, i.e., the “grim reaper” and the “fallen angel” scenarios, are undesirable. The “green lantern” scenario represents the desired future. Long-haul tourist destinations should heed the early warning signals identified in the scenario narratives, and contribute towards realising the desired future. They should further guard against being passive victims if the feared scenarios materialise, by adapting, repositioning early upon reading the signposts, hedging against risks, and seizing new opportunities.

  19. The Effect of Corporate Influence in the Short Haul Business Travel Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Keith J.

    1999-01-01

    The importance of corporate involvement in the decision making process for business related air travel is being increasingly recognised in the literature. Business travellers consume air services (i.e. they take airline flights), however; they may not be the principal decision-maker in the purchase. Also it is the organization that employs the traveller that incurs die cost for air travel. Consequently this research addresses the relationship between the traveller and the employing organisation in the purchase of air travel. In this paper traveller opinions on their corporate travel policy are evaluated using a Likert summated rating scale. The benefits sought, by the traveller, from the air service are also investigated and these benefits are used to segment the short haul business air travel market in the EU. Changes in the market for short haul business travel since the full liberalisation of the aviation market in-the EU are evaluated by comparing the data to an earlier study of similar travellers in 1992.

  20. Performance Deterioration of Heavy-Haul Railway Bridges under Fatigue Loading Monitored by a Multisensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-haul railway bridges play an increasingly essential role in the transportation in China due to the increasing transport volume. The performance deterioration of the scale models of a typical heavy-haul railway bridge under fatigue loading is monitored in this work, based on a multisensor system including the fiber-reinforced polymer optical fiber Bragg grating and electrical resistance strain gauges, linear variable displacement transducer, and accelerometer. Specifically, by monitoring/observing on the failure mode, fatigue life, load-midspan deflection response, material strain development, and so forth, this work develops an S-N model by comparing the relationship between fatigue life and rebar stress range with that between fatigue life and load level and proposes a damage evolution model considering the coupling of the stiffness degradation and inelastic deformation of specimens. It is found that the fatigue life of specimens is determined by the fatigue life of the rebar at the bottom and it may be lower than 2.0 million cycles with a 30-ton axle weight when environmental factors are taken into account. The predictions of the models agree well with experimental results. Therefore, this work furthers the understanding of the fatigue performance deterioration of the bridges by using a multisensor system.

  1. Compressed stability analysis of the coupler and buffer system of heavy-haul locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichao; Li, Gu; Chu, Gaofeng; Zu, Honglin; Kennedy, David

    2015-06-01

    This paper develops a locomotive dynamic model to study the coupler compressed stability and locomotive running safety under severe longitudinal compressive forces, taking into account a new model of the flattened pin coupler and buffer system employed by heavy-haul locomotives. In this new model, the arc surface contact friction element is built up for the first time to simulate the compressed contact friction process between the arc surfaces of the coupler tail and the following plate. An improved nonlinear mathematical model of buffers and a coupler rotation angle stop element are also included. After validating the presented locomotive dynamic model by comparing its calculated results with test data, simulations are carried out to analyse the influences of the coupler-tail arc surface and locomotive secondary suspension parameters on the coupler compressed stability and locomotive running safety. Results indicate that the friction coefficient and the arc radius of the coupler-tail arc surfaces have a remarkable influence, and that the locomotive secondary lateral stop and lateral stiffness also have a significant effect. Optimising these parameters could significantly improve the coupler compressed stability and locomotive running safety. Finally, a real example of Chinese heavy-haul trains is shown to confirm the importance of the coupler-tail contact friction action.

  2. Air crew exposure on board of long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, F.; Poffijn, A.

    2000-01-01

    New European radiation protection recommendations state that measures need to be taken for flight crew members whose annual radiation exposure exceeds 1 mSv. This will be the case for flight crew members who accumulate most of their flying hours on long-haul flights. The Recommendations for the Implementation of the Basic Safety Standards Directive states that for annual exposure levels between 1 and 6 mSv individual dose estimates should be obtained, whereas for annual exposures exceeding 6 mSv, which might rarely occur, record keeping with appropriate medical surveillance is recommended. To establish the exposure level of Belgian air crews, radiation measurements were performed on board of a total of 44 long-haul flights of the Belgian airlines. The contribution of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation (photons, electrons, protons) was assessed by using TLD-700H detectors. The exposure to high-LET radiation (mostly neutrons) was measured with bubble detectors. Results were compared to calculations with an adapted version of the computer code CARI. For the low-LET radiation the calculations were found to be in good agreement with the measurements. The measurements of the neutron dose were consistently lower than the calculations. With the current flight schedules used by the Belgian airlines, air crew members are unlikely to receive annual doses exceeding 4 mSv. (author)

  3. Iteratively Decodable Codes on m Flats for WDM High-Speed Long-Haul Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sundararajan; Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Vasic, Bane

    2005-11-01

    In an earlier paper, we reported that the low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes from finite planes outperform any other known forward error-correction (FEC) scheme for optical communications. However, the number of different LDPC codes of code rate above 0.8 is rather small. As a natural extension of the prior work, in this paper, we consider LDPC codes on m flats derived from projective and affine geometries, which outperform codes from finite planes. The codes on m flats also provide a greater selection of structured LDPC codes of rate 0.8 or higher. The performance of the codes in a long-haul optical-communication system was assessed using an advanced simulator able to capture all important transmission impairments. Specifically, they achieve a coding gain of 10 dB at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-9, outperforming, therefore, the best turbo product codes proposed for optical communications. In addition, the simulator implements a fixed-point (FP) iterative decoder that allows control of the precision of the soft information used in the decoder. Such quantization is required to facilitate hardware implementations of the iterative decoder, and the high-speed operations for long-haul optical transmission systems. The loss in performance due to reduced precision of the soft information can be as low as 0.2 dB.

  4. Reduction of the safety and health risk associated with the generation of dust on strip coal mine haul roads.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thompson, RJ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available mine haul roads. This would be used to identify suitable spray-on or mix-in surface treatments to reduce the generation of dust, within the constraints of cost effectiveness and maintainability, through consideration of wearing course material type...

  5. Establishment and verification of three-dimensional dynamic model for heavy-haul train-track coupled system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zhai, Wanming; Wang, Kaiyun

    2016-11-01

    For the long heavy-haul train, the basic principles of the inter-vehicle interaction and train-track dynamic interaction are analysed firstly. Based on the theories of train longitudinal dynamics and vehicle-track coupled dynamics, a three-dimensional (3-D) dynamic model of the heavy-haul train-track coupled system is established through a modularised method. Specifically, this model includes the subsystems such as the train control, the vehicle, the wheel-rail relation and the line geometries. And for the calculation of the wheel-rail interaction force under the driving or braking conditions, the large creep phenomenon that may occur within the wheel-rail contact patch is considered. For the coupler and draft gear system, the coupler forces in three directions and the coupler lateral tilt angles in curves are calculated. Then, according to the characteristics of the long heavy-haul train, an efficient solving method is developed to improve the computational efficiency for such a large system. Some basic principles which should be followed in order to meet the requirement of calculation accuracy are determined. Finally, the 3-D train-track coupled model is verified by comparing the calculated results with the running test results. It is indicated that the proposed dynamic model could simulate the dynamic performance of the heavy-haul train well.

  6. Using an operating cost model to analyse the selection of aircraft type on short-haul routes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ssamula, B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available operating cost model to analyse suitable aircraft choices, for short haul routes, in terms of cost-related parameters, for aircraft commonly used within Africa. In this paper all the parameters that are crucial in analysing a transport service are addressed...

  7. Effect of hypobaric hypoxia, simulating conditions during long-haul air travel, on coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet function, and endothelial activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toff, William D.; Jones, Chris I.; Ford, Isobel; Pearse, Robert J.; Watson, Henry G.; Watt, Stephen J.; Ross, John A. S.; Gradwell, David P.; Batchelor, Anthony J.; Abrams, Keith R.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; Goodall, Alison H.; Greaves, Michael

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: The link between long-haul air travel and venous thromboembolism is the subject of continuing debate. It remains unclear whether the reduced cabin pressure and oxygen tension in the airplane cabin create an increased risk compared with seated immobility at ground level. OBJECTIVE: To

  8. Responses of Lower-Body Power and Match Running Demands Following Long-Haul Travel in International Rugby Sevens Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, John A; Pumpa, Kate L; Pyne, David B

    2017-03-01

    Mitchell, JA, Pumpa, KL, and Pyne, DB. Responses of lowerbody power and match running demands after long-haul travel in international rugby sevens players. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 686-695, 2017-This study determined the effect of long-haul (>5 hours) travel on lower-body power and match running demands in international rugby sevens players. Lower-body power was assessed in 22 male international rugby sevens players (age 21.7 ± 2.7 years, mass 89.0 ± 6.7 kg, stature 180.5 ± 6.2 cm; mean ± SD) monitored over 17 rugby sevens tournaments. A countermovement jump was used to monitor lower-body power (peak and mean power) over repeated three week travel and competition periods (pretravel, posttravel, and posttournament). Small decreases were evident in peak power after both short and long-haul travel (-4.0%, ±3.2%; mean, ±90% confidence limits) with further reductions in peak and mean power posttournament (-4.5%, ±2.3% and -3.8%, ±1.5%) culminating in a moderate decrease in peak power overall (-7.4%, ±4.0%). A subset of 12 players (completing a minimum of 8 tournaments) had the effects of match running demands assessed with lower-body power. In this subset, long-haul travel elicited a large decrease in lower-body peak (-9.4%, ±3.5%) and mean power (-5.6%, ±2.9%) over the monitoring period, with a small decrease (-4.3%, ±3.0% and -2.2%, ±1.7%) posttravel and moderate decrease (-5.4%, ±2.5% and -3.5%, ±1.9%) posttournament, respectively. Match running demands were monitored through global positioning system. In long-haul tournaments, the 12 players covered ∼13%, ±13% greater total distance (meter) and ∼11%, ±10% higher average game meters >5 m·s when compared with short-haul (rugby sevens tournaments after long-haul travel.

  9. Environmental Survey Report for the ETTP: Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) Haul Road Corridor, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.

    2005-12-20

    This report summarizes the results of environmental surveys conducted within the corridor of a temporary haul road (''Haul Road'') to be constructed from East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) to the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) located just west of the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Environmental surveys were conducted by natural resource experts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory who routinely assess the significance of various project activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). ORNL assistance to the Haul Road Project included environmental assessments necessary to determine the best route for minimizing impacts to sensitive resources such as wetlands or rare plants. Once the final route was chosen, environmental surveys were conducted within the corridor to evaluate the impacts to sensitive resources that could not be avoided. The final Haul Road route follows established roads and a power-line corridor to the extent possible (Fig. 1). Detailed explanation regarding the purpose of the Haul Road and the regulatory context associated with its construction is provided in at least two major documents and consequently is not presented here: (1) Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January 2005, DOE/OR/01-2194&D2), and (2) Environmental Monitoring Plan for The ETTP to EMWMF Haul Road for the Disposal of Oak Ridge Reservation Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 Waste, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (April 2005, BJC/OR-2152). The focus of this report is a description of the sensitive resources to be impacted by Haul Road construction. Following a short description of the methods used for the environmental surveys, results and observations are presented in the following subsections: (1) General description

  10. Back Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back Health and Safety - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Exercises for Your Back - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin ...

  11. Low back pain - chronic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007422.htm Low back pain - chronic To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Low back pain refers to pain that you feel in your ...

  12. Catch of pelagic hauls in Mediterranean acoustic surveys: Is it the same between day and night?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Machias

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish sampling is a critical aspect of acoustic surveys, because it is directly related to the “transformation” of echo into species biomass and subsequently affects the accuracy of acoustic estimates. In the present study, we investigated the differences between day and night sampling in a the catch composition through certain diversity indices and b the length frequency distribution of anchovy and sardine using catch data of pelagic hauls collected from four different regions of the European Mediterranean waters. In addition, the possible bias in trawl efficiency due to sampling time and the possible error introduced in acoustic estimates were investigated. No statistically significant differences were found between day and night in any of the parameters examined. The results showed that a more flexible strategy can be adopted to reduce the duration and the cost of acoustic sampling for small pelagic species. The advantages and disadvantages of the two sampling strategies are discussed.

  13. Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engines /QCSEE/ - A technology development program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, W. S.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's QCSEE Program (Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine) performed by the General Electric Company covers a wide range of advanced propulsion technology features applicable to future subsonic engine concepts. These technology features are combined into two engine and nacelle configurations for demonstration of program goals. This paper presents descriptions of two engine/nacelle configurations and shows the flow of technology developed in component programs into the configurations. The under-the-wing (UTW) configuration, featuring major innovative and advanced components, such as a large variable pitch fan and a composite material integrated engine and nacelle structure, has been tested at General Electric's Peebles, Ohio test facility. The key characteristics of the engine as observed from the initial test series are presented.

  14. US long-haul truck driver work organization and the association with cardiometabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Adam; Lemke, Michael Kenneth; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Perko, Mike; Sönmez, Sevil; Strack, Robert

    2017-09-03

    Work organization, including long working hours, irregular work schedules, and job stress, has been associated with increased cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk for numerous working populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between work hours, work schedules, job stress, and CMD risk for a sample of US long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs). A nonexperimental, descriptive, cross-sectional design was employed to collect survey and anthropometric data from 260 US LHTDs at a major truck stop. The mean BMI was 33.40 kg/m 2 and mean waist circumference was 114.77 cm. Using logistic regression, researchers found longer work hours, especially greater than 11 hours daily, were associated with increased odds for an extremely high risk of CMD. Results support comprehensive and integrated approaches that address work organization, and in particular long working hours, to reduce drivers' CMD risk.

  15. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory; Adelman, Steve; Yeakel, Skip; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-03-24

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  16. Long-Haul Truck Sleeper Heating Load Reduction Package for Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, Jason Aaron; Kekelia, Bidzina; Tomerlin, Jeff; Kreutzer, Cory J.; Yeakel, Skip; Adelman, Steven; Luo, Zhiming; Zehme, John

    2016-04-05

    Annual fuel use for sleeper cab truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States, or 6.8% of long-haul truck fuel use. Truck idling during a rest period represents zero freight efficiency and is largely done to supply accessory power for climate conditioning of the cab. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck thermal management systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In addition, if the fuel savings provide a one- to three-year payback period, fleet owners will be economically motivated to incorporate them. For candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented by original equipment manufacturers and fleets, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, several promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. Load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, conductive pathways, and efficient equipment. Technologies in each of these focus areas were investigated in collaboration with industry partners. The most promising of these technologies were then combined with the goal of exceeding a 30% reduction in HVAC loads. These technologies included 'ultra-white' paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtain design. Previous testing showed more than a 35.7% reduction in air conditioning loads. This paper describes the overall heat transfer coefficient testing of this advanced load reduction technology package that showed more than a 43% reduction in heating load. Adding an additional layer of advanced insulation

  17. Factors Affecting Haul-Out Behavior of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina in Tidewater Glacier Inlets in Alaska: Can Tourism Vessels and Seals Coexist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail M Blundell

    Full Text Available Large numbers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina use habitat in tidewater glaciers in Alaska for pupping, breeding, and molting. Glacial fjords are also popular tourist destinations; however, visitation by numerous vessels can result in disturbance of seals during critical life-history phases. We explored factors affecting haul-out behavior of harbor seals at a glacial site frequented by tourism vessels. In 2008-10, we deployed VHF transmitters on 107 seals in Endicott Arm, Alaska. We remotely monitored presence and haul-out behavior of tagged seals and documented vessel presence with time-lapse cameras. We evaluated the influence of environmental and physical factors on the probability of being hauled out, duration of haul-out bouts, and as factors associated with the start and end of a haulout. Location, season, hour, and interactions of location by year, season, hour, and sex significantly influenced haul-out probability, as did ice, weather, and vessels. Seals were more likely to be hauled out with greater ice availability during the middle of the day, and less likely to be hauled out if vessels were present. Cruise ships had the strongest negative effect; however, most vessel types negatively affected haul-out probability. Haul-out duration was longest in association with starting on incoming tides, clear skies, no precipitation, occurring in the middle of the day, and ending in the late afternoon or evening. End of haulouts was associated with increasing cloud cover, low ice availability, and vessel presence; large-sized tourism vessels or all-vessel-types combined were significant predictors of ending a haul-out bout. Probability of being hauled out was highest in June, during pupping season. Potential disturbances of harbor seals could be reduced, enabling longer resting times for seals and fewer interruptions for nursing pups, if vessels focused the majority of visits to glacial habitat to before or after the hours of 08:00-17:00 or, less

  18. Back pain - returning to work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonspecific back pain - work; Backache - work; Lumbar pain - work; Pain - back - chronic; Low back pain - work; Lumbago - work ... Exercise helps to prevent future back pain: Exercise a little ... keep your heart healthy and your muscles strong. If walking is ...

  19. Back Pain and Modic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus; Jordan, Alan; Mikkelsen, Connie

    a significant step forward with the advent of the new back pain diagnosis, ”Modic changes”. During the coming years, thousands of back pain patients will now be given a precise diagnosis as well as a useful treatment in cases where we previously we unable to provide either a diagnosis or a useful treatment......Long awaited breakthrough Approximately 25 years ago a few researchers managed to publish an article in the renowned medical journal, The Lancet. The article demonstrated that intensive exercise was most useful for patients with chronic back pain. Many of our colleagues found this difficult...... to accept, nonetheless, intensive exercise has for chronic back pain has spread across the world and has become – in different forms – the most commonly prescribed treatment for back pain patients. Since that time, there has not been much research based progress in back science, however, we have taken...

  20. Development of an Effective Transport Media for Juvenile Spring Chinook Salmon to Mitigate Stress and Improve Smolt Survival During Columbia River Fish Hauling Operations, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1985-02-01

    Selected transport media consisting of mineral salt additions (Na/sup +/, Cl/sup -/, Ca/sup + +/, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, and Mg/sup + +/), mineral salts plus tranquilizing concentrations of tricaine methane sulfonate (MS-222), or MS-222 alone were tested for their ability to mitigate stress and increase smolt survival during single and mixed species hauling of Columbia River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). Successful stress mitigation was afforded by several formulations as indicated by protection against life-threatening osmoregulatory and other physiological dysfunctions, and against immediate and delayed hauling mortality. Effects on the seawater survival and growth of smolts hauled in transport media were used as the overall criterion of success. Of the fourteen chemical formulations tested, 10 ppM MS-222 emerged as top-rated in terms of ability to mitigate physiological stress during single and mixed species transport of juvenile spring chinook salmon at hauling densities of 0.5 or 1.0 lb/gallon. Immediate and delayed mortalities from hauling stress were also reduced, but benefits to early marine growth and survival were limited to about the first month in seawater. The two physical factors tested (reduced light intensity and water temperature) were generally less effective than mineral salt additions in mitigating hauling stress, but the degree of protection afforded by reduced light intensity was nevertheless judged to be physiologically beneficial. 36 refs., 1 fig., 19 tabs.

  1. Sleep, Travel, and Recovery Responses of National Footballers During and After Long-Haul International Air Travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; White, David; Bloomfield, Jonathan; Kölling, Sarah; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the sleep, travel, and recovery responses of elite footballers during and after long-haul international air travel, with a further description of these responses over the ensuing competitive tour (including 2 matches). In an observational design, 15 elite male football players undertook 18 h of predominantly westward international air travel from the United Kingdom to South America (-4-h time-zone shift) for a 10-d tour. Objective sleep parameters, external and internal training loads, subjective player match performance, technical match data, and perceptual jet-lag and recovery measures were collected. Significant differences were evident between outbound travel and recovery night 1 (night of arrival; P sleep duration. Sleep efficiency was also significantly reduced during outbound travel compared with recovery nights 1 (P = .001) and 2 (P = .004). Furthermore, both match nights (5 and 10), showed significantly less sleep than nonmatch nights 2 to 4 and 7 to 9 (all P .05), although large effects were evident for jet-lag on d 2 (2 d after arrival). Sleep duration is truncated during long-haul international travel with a 4-h time-zone delay and after night matches in elite footballers. However, this lost sleep appeared to have a limited effect on perceptual recovery, which may be explained by a westbound flight and a relatively small change in time zones, in addition to the significant increase in sleep duration on the night of arrival after the long-haul flight.

  2. Fall Back Equilibrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleppe, J.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hendrickx, R.L.P.

    2008-01-01

    Fall back equilibrium is a refinement of the Nash equilibrium concept. In the underly- ing thought experiment each player faces the possibility that, after all players decided on their action, his chosen action turns out to be blocked. Therefore, each player has to decide beforehand on a back-up

  3. Hauled liquid waste as a pollutant of soils and waters in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczmarczyk Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hauled liquid waste as a pollutant of soils and waters in Poland. Improperly maintained holding tanks are often underestimated source of contamination of soil, groundwater and surface water. As a rule, wastewater stored in holding tanks, should be transported and treated in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. There are 2,257,000 holding tanks in Poland, located mainly in rural areas. The article presents the results of analysis of wastewater management in 20 rural and urban-rural communes, which were chosen at random from the total number of 2,174 communes in Poland. The only criterion of commune selection was total or partial lack of sewerage system. Analysis of the collected data showed that on average only 27% of liquid waste from holding tanks ended at the WWTPs. The median is even lower and amounts to 17.5%. More than 4,000 Mg of P and 26,000 Mg of N is dispersed in the environment in uncontrolled manner. Those diffuse point sources of pollution may be one of the reasons in the difficulty of achieving of good ecological status of rivers and affect the quality of the Baltic Sea.

  4. Performance Comparison of SDN Solutions for Switching Dedicated Long-Haul Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    We consider scenarios with two sites connected over a dedicated, long-haul connection that must quickly fail-over in response to degradations in host-to-host application performance. We present two methods for path fail-over using OpenFlowenabled switches: (a) a light-weight method that utilizes host scripts to monitor the application performance and dpctl API for switching, and (b) a generic method that uses two OpenDaylight (ODL) controllers and REST interfaces. The restoration dynamics of the application contain significant statistical variations due to the controllers, north interfaces and switches; in addition, the variety of vendor implementations further complicates the choice between different solutions. We present the impulse-response method to estimate the regressions of performance parameters, which enables a rigorous and objective comparison of different solutions. We describe testing results of the two methods, using TCP throughput and connection rtt as main parameters, over a testbed consisting of HP and Cisco switches connected over longhaul connections emulated in hardware by ANUE devices. The combination of analytical and experimental results demonstrates that dpctl method responds seconds faster than ODL method on average, while both methods restore TCP throughput.

  5. Unintentional stoppages of trucks hauling high-level nuclear waste in Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glickman, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    Any unintentional stoppage of trucks hauling high-level nuclear waste in Nevada could intensify public concerns about the negative impacts of the Yucca Mountain Project. This paper provides estimates of the expected number and frequency of such stoppages under several alternative scenarios for the routing and volume of the anticipated truck shipments. At least twice as many truck stoppages are expected to occur on freeways as on non-freeways, and at least twice as many are expected to occur in rural areas as in other areas. The expected frequency of such stoppages in the state is estimated to range from about 3 per year to one every 3 1/2 years. About one in every 4 of the stoppages is expected to take place in Las Vegas and 3 out of every 4 are expected to be non-accidents such as mechanical disablements. The minimum duration of the stoppages is expected to be on the order of half an hour for disablements and an hour for accidents

  6. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  7. Development of ergonomics audits for bagging, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Patrick G; Pollard, Jonisha; Porter, William L; Mayton, Alan; Heberger, John R; Gallagher, Sean; Reardon, Leanna; Drury, Colin G

    2017-12-01

    The development and testing of ergonomics and safety audits for small and bulk bag filling, haul truck and maintenance and repair operations in coal preparation and mineral processing plants found at surface mine sites is described. The content for the audits was derived from diverse sources of information on ergonomics and safety deficiencies including: analysis of injury, illness and fatality data and reports; task analysis; empirical laboratory studies of particular tasks; field studies and observations at mine sites; and maintenance records. These diverse sources of information were utilised to establish construct validity of the modular audits that were developed for use by mine safety personnel. User and interrater reliability testing was carried out prior to finalising the audits. The audits can be implemented using downloadable paper versions or with a free mobile NIOSH-developed Android application called ErgoMine. Practitioner Summary: The methodology used to develop ergonomics audits for three types of mining operations is described. Various sources of audit content are compared and contrasted to serve as a guide for developing ergonomics audits for other occupational contexts.

  8. Climate change and the long-term viability of the World's busiest heavy haul ice road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Donal; Swindles, Graeme; Patterson, Tim; Galloway, Jennifer; Macumber, Andrew; Falck, Hendrik; Crossley, Laura; Chen, Jie; Pisaric, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Climate models project that the northern high latitudes will warm at a rate in excess of the global mean. This will pose severe problems for Arctic and sub-Arctic infrastructure dependent on maintaining low temperatures for structural integrity. This is the case for the economically important Tibbitt to Contwoyto Winter Road (TCWR)—the world's busiest heavy haul ice road, spanning 400 km across mostly frozen lakes within the Northwest Territories of Canada. In this study, future climate scenarios are developed for the region using statistical downscaling methods. In addition, changes in lake ice thickness are projected based on historical relationships between measured ice thickness and air temperatures. These projections are used to infer the theoretical operational dates of the TCWR based on weight limits for trucks on the ice. Results across three climate models driven by four RCPs reveal a considerable warming trend over the coming decades. Projected changes in ice thickness reveal a trend towards thinner lake ice and a reduced time window when lake ice is at sufficient thickness to support trucks on the ice road, driven by increasing future temperatures. Given the uncertainties inherent in climate modelling and the resultant projections, caution should be exercised in interpreting the magnitude of these scenarios. More certain is the direction of change, with a clear trend towards winter warming that will reduce the operation time window of the TCWR. This illustrates the need for planners and policymakers to consider future changes in climate when planning annual haulage along the TCWR.

  9. The impact of long-haul air travel on variables of the athlete's biological passport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Y O; Klodt, F; Nonis, D; Pottgiesser, T; Alsayrafi, M; Bourdon, P C; Voss, S C

    2012-12-01

    Dehydration, fluid shifts or changes in coagulation occurring during air travel can trigger distinct reactions in the haematological system. Athletes are concerned that these effects might impair sporting performance, increase the risk of thrombosis or cause abnormalities in blood values that might be mistaken for doping in the 'Athlete's biological passport' (ABP) a longitudinal monitoring of haematological variables in antidoping. The aim of the study was to investigate key variables of the ABP before and after a long-haul flight in athletes. Fifteen endurance athletes were submitted to ABP blood samples in the morning before and after arrival of an 8 h flight. Two additional samples were obtained in the morning and the evening 3 days after the travel. Twelve nontravelling subjects served as controls. Haemoglobin concentration was higher before than after travel in athletes (+0.5 g/dL, P = 0.038), a similar pattern was observed 3 days after the travel. No difference was observed in the control group. Reticulocyte% did not show any significant changes in neither of the groups. The observed changes are in line with normal diurnal variations. There is no indication that travel will affect haematological variables in way that might be mistaken for blood doping. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; van Tulder, Maurits; Öberg, Birgitta

    2018-01-01

    Low back pain is the leading worldwide cause of years lost to disability and its burden is growing alongside the increasing and ageing population.1 Because these population shifts are more rapid in low-income and middle-income countries, where adequate resources to address the problem might...... not exist, the effects will probably be more extreme in these regions. Most low back pain is unrelated to specific identifiable spinal abnormalities, and our Viewpoint, the third paper in this Lancet Series,2,3 is a call for action on this global problem of low back pain....

  11. Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an X-ray, computerized tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tests help to diagnose the ... posture when you are sitting, standing, sleeping, or lifting. Severe cases of low back pain may require ...

  12. Epidural injections for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  13. MRI and low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Back pain and sciatica are common health complaints. Almost everyone has back ... Back Pain Read more MRI Scans Read more Sciatica Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  14. Changes in timber haul emissions in the context of shifting forest management and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Sean P; Blackard, Jock A; Morgan, Todd A; Loeffler, Dan; Jones, Greg; Songster, Jon; Brandt, Jason P; Moisen, Gretchen G; DeBlander, Larry T

    2009-01-01

    Background Although significant amounts of carbon may be stored in harvested wood products, the extraction of that carbon from the forest generally entails combustion of fossil fuels. The transport of timber from the forest to primary milling facilities may in particular create emissions that reduce the net sequestration value of product carbon storage. However, attempts to quantify the effects of transport on the net effects of forest management typically use relatively sparse survey data to determine transportation emission factors. We developed an approach for systematically determining transport emissions using: 1) -remotely sensed maps to estimate the spatial distribution of harvests, and 2) - industry data to determine landscape-level harvest volumes as well as the location and processing totals of individual mills. These data support spatial network analysis that can produce estimates of fossil carbon released in timber transport. Results Transport-related emissions, evaluated as a fraction of transported wood carbon at 4 points in time on a landscape in western Montana (USA), rose from 0.5% in 1988 to 1.7% in 2004 as local mills closed and spatial patterns of harvest shifted due to decreased logging on federal lands. Conclusion The apparent sensitivity of transport emissions to harvest and infrastructure patterns suggests that timber haul is a dynamic component of forest carbon management that bears further study both across regions and over time. The monitoring approach used here, which draws only from widely available monitoring data, could readily be adapted to provide current and historical estimates of transport emissions in a consistent way across large areas. PMID:19874619

  15. Changes in timber haul emissions in the context of shifting forest management and infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandt Jason P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although significant amounts of carbon may be stored in harvested wood products, the extraction of that carbon from the forest generally entails combustion of fossil fuels. The transport of timber from the forest to primary milling facilities may in particular create emissions that reduce the net sequestration value of product carbon storage. However, attempts to quantify the effects of transport on the net effects of forest management typically use relatively sparse survey data to determine transportation emission factors. We developed an approach for systematically determining transport emissions using: 1 -remotely sensed maps to estimate the spatial distribution of harvests, and 2 - industry data to determine landscape-level harvest volumes as well as the location and processing totals of individual mills. These data support spatial network analysis that can produce estimates of fossil carbon released in timber transport. Results Transport-related emissions, evaluated as a fraction of transported wood carbon at 4 points in time on a landscape in western Montana (USA, rose from 0.5% in 1988 to 1.7% in 2004 as local mills closed and spatial patterns of harvest shifted due to decreased logging on federal lands. Conclusion The apparent sensitivity of transport emissions to harvest and infrastructure patterns suggests that timber haul is a dynamic component of forest carbon management that bears further study both across regions and over time. The monitoring approach used here, which draws only from widely available monitoring data, could readily be adapted to provide current and historical estimates of transport emissions in a consistent way across large areas.

  16. Mortality of live export cattle on long-haul voyages: pathologic changes and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; Barnes, Anne; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2014-03-01

    The cause of death in 215 cattle on 20 long-haul live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East, Russia, and China was investigated between 2010 and 2012 using gross, histologic, and/or molecular pathology techniques. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was used to detect nucleic acids from viruses and bacteria known to be associated with respiratory disease in cattle: Bovine coronavirus (Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2, Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Bovine parainfluenza virus 3, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. The most commonly diagnosed cause of death was respiratory disease (107/180, 59.4%), followed by lameness (n = 22, 12.2%), ketosis (n = 12, 6.7%), septicemia (n = 11, 6.1%), and enteric disease (n = 10, 5.6%). Two thirds (130/195) of animals from which lung samples were collected had histologic changes and/or positive qRT-PCR results indicative of infectious lung disease: 93 out of 130 (72%) had evidence of bacterial infection, 4 (3%) had viral infection, and 29 (22%) had mixed bacterial and viral infections, and for 4 (3%) the causative organism could not be identified. Bovine coronavirus was detected in up to 13% of cattle tested, and this finding is likely to have important implications for the management and treatment of respiratory disease in live export cattle. Results from the current study indicate that although overall mortality during live export voyages is low, further research into risk factors for developing respiratory disease is required.

  17. Sleep quality in long haul truck drivers: A study on Iranian national data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh; Kazemifar, Amir-Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    Iran has a high rate of road traffic accidents. Poor quality of sleep brings about loss of attention, which is an important cause of road traffic accidents particularly in monotonous roads. The causes of poor quality of sleep in occupational drivers are multifactorial. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of poor sleep quality among occupational drivers with rotating work schedules and analyze its different risk factors. 2200 professional long-haul truck drivers who had been referred to the Occupational Health Clinic for routine education course were invited. We obtained data from eight provinces from various parts of Iran during 2012-2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including questions about demographic and job characteristics. Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess drivers' sleep quality. Mean working (driving) time was (9.3±2.5) hours daily and (55.5 ± 18.29) hours weekly. About 23.5% of the drivers reported history of smoking, 14.5% had low job satisfaction and 60% had irregular work schedule. 16.4% of drivers had an accidents leading to injury during the past five years. The mean PSQI score was 4.2 ± 2.7; 54% had a PSQI>5 (poor quality of sleep). Multivariate logistic regression showed that smoking, job satisfaction, history of accidents, shift work and work hours per day were the most important risk factors for poor sleep quality. Results obtained from the current study showed a high prevalence of poor quality of sleep among professional drivers. It warrants more attention to this significant problem using some measures to improve working conditions in professional drivers, as well as health promotion interventions.

  18. Genome response to ionizing radiation exposure in a sample of long haul pilots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Stefano, G.F.; Fuciarelli, M.; Piacentini, S.; Romano, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In 1990 ICPR accepted definitively that on average flying-crew personnel and pilots are exposed per year, for professional reasons, to ionizing radiation doses 5 to 10 times over that of people at ground level. Although these values are below the level stated by the ICPR as upper risk limit (20 mSv/y), because a number of epidemiological studies evidenced an increase of some specific tumors (among them: melanomas, breast cancer and leukemia) among pilots of different national companies, suspect arises on that these pathologies were a consequence of the over-amount of radiation absorbed for professional reasons. In order to give an answer to this question several studies have been developed in the last two decades, using the analysis of the frequency distribution of the chromosomal aberrations (mainly: dicentric and ring chromosomes and chromatic aberrations) as the most sensitive method to detect the long tern radio-biological damage (bio-dosimetric method). As the result reported in the previous literature are contradictory and thus largely questionable, a new study was performed taking into account some limits of the previous researches and treating to overcome the consequent criticisms. This paper is devoted to report the results obtained in such a study and refers on the cytogenetic and molecular analyses performed in our laboratories on a sample of 32 pilots employed in the national civil airline on long haul routes from at least 7 years. For comparison, a sample of 29 healthy males' donors of comparable age has been taken into account. New evidences on the increase of chromosomal translocations are presented and widely discussed. Furthermore, results obtained in an unusual attempt to study the association between the frequency and the 'category' of the chromosomal aberrations and the presence or absence of specific polymorphisms of genes encoding for some detoxifying enzymes (GSTs family) are also presented and discussed. (author)

  19. INFLUENCE ANALYSIS OF ELASTIC DEFORMATIONS OF THE TRACK CABLE ON EFFORTS IN THE HAULING ROPE OF AERIAL ROPEWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Raksha

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate influence of elastic deformations of the track cable arising at movement of cars, on effort in a hauling rope of the aerial ropeway. Methodology. The method of consecutive approaches was used for research influence of elastic deformations of a track cable on effort in a hauling rope. Thus, definition of a tension of a track cable was carried out with use of the technique based on principles of modular configuration, the essence of which consists in formation of mathematical model by a combination of blocks of the formulas describing balance of the track cable on supports. Findings. The research has shown that influence of elastic deformations of a track cable on effort in a hauling rope was insignificant (less than 1 %. That points to possibility not to consider change of the track cable length, caused by its elastic properties, when modeling loading of elements of system «drive – traction rope – tension device». Also it has been found that use of the tension device of a track cable increased influence of its elastic properties on loading of rope system elements. At the same time the elastic component of the track cable tension in the test flight does not depend on a car position in the adjacent span, but only determines by the parameters of the rope system. Originality. The possibility of excluding the changes of track cable length caused by its elastic properties, when modeling loading of elements of system «drive – traction rope – tension device» was proved. Practical value. The use of these techniques and the results will simplify the mathematical model of loading of elements of the cable system and the system «drive – traction rope – tension device» as a whole.

  20. Duty periods with early start times restrict the amount of sleep obtained by short-haul airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Darwent, David; Dawson, Drew

    2012-03-01

    Most of the research related to human fatigue in the aviation industry has focussed on long-haul pilots, but short-haul pilots also experience elevated levels of fatigue. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of early start times on the amount of sleep obtained prior to duty and on fatigue levels at the start of duty. Seventy short-haul pilots collected data regarding their duty schedule and sleep/wake behaviour for at least two weeks. Data were collected using self-report duty/sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors. Mixed-effects regression analyses were used to examine the effects of duty start time (04:00-10:00 h) on (i) the total amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to the start of duty and (ii) self-rated fatigue level at the start of duty. Both analyses indicated significant main effects of duty start time. In particular, the amount of sleep obtained in the 12h prior to duty was lowest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h (i.e. 5.4h), and greatest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h (i.e. 6.6h). These data indicate that approximately 15 min of sleep is lost for every hour that the start of duty is advanced prior to 09:00 h. In addition, self-rated fatigue at the start of duty was highest for duty periods that commenced between 04:00 and 05:00 h, and lowest for duty periods that commenced between 09:00 and 10:00 h. Airlines should implement a fatigue risk management system (FRMS) for short-haul pilots required to work early-morning shifts. One component of the FRMS should be focussed on the production of 'fatigue-friendly' rosters. A second component of the FRMS should be focussed on training pilots to optimise sleep opportunities, to identify circumstances where the likelihood of fatigue is elevated, and to manage the risks associated with fatigue-related impairment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Cost Effective Method for Determining the Position of Mine Haul Road Defects from the Road Edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Sokolic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple method for estimating haul road defect positions from alongside roads. It is a method that is cheap and easy to implement, needing only a minimal amount of field equipment and training. Observers are required to estimate the bearing and distance to a defect, and to record their location using a GPS receiver. All further processing is automated and can be done entirely within a spatially-enabled database management system such as Microsoft SQL Server or PostgreSQL.

  2. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup Jørgensen, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    , Silkeborg Regional Hospital, Regional Hospital Central Jutland, Silkeborg, Denmark 2. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 3. University of Southern Denmark & Vejle Sygehus, Vejle, Denmark keywords:Back Patient, Narrative, Biomedical, Marginalisation, Self-Identity, Ethical......#296 Acknowledging The Back Patient. A Thematic Synthesis Of Qualitative Research. A Systematic Literature Review. Janne Brammer Damsgaard1, Lene Bastrup Jørgensen1, Annelise Norlyk2, Regner Birkelund3 1. Health, Section for Nursing, Aarhus University & Research Unit, Elective Surgery Centre....... Therefore, telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. But selfhood cannot be reduced to narrative identity since the identity of the self is only fully revealed the moment we include the ethical dimension including certain norms...

  3. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like to be a b......Introduction: A thorough review of qualitative studies has revealed that telling about experiences and perceptions is important for back patients in order to feel accepted and acknowledged. Thus, it has been the aim of this qualitative literature review to investigate what it feels like...... the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment....

  4. Bringing "indigenous" ownership back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    African economies are currently experiencing an upsurge in foreign ownership of key parts of their economies. This, however, is not new, and in the wake of independence several African countries pursued indigenisation policies to bring ownership back to their own citizens. Now indigenisation...... understanding of how processes of exclusion interact with domestic politics in Zambia. It argues that the Citizens Economic Empowerment Commission, a new institution to bring ownership back to Zambians, builds on a long tradition of nationalist policies in Zambia, while its actual work is strictly related...

  5. NIOSH national survey of long-haul truck drivers: Injury and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang X.; Sieber, W. Karl; Lincoln, Jennifer E.; Birdsey, Jan; Hitchcock, Edward M.; Nakata, Akinori; Robinson, Cynthia F.; Collins, James W.; Sweeney, Marie H.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1,701,500 people were employed as heavy and tractor-trailer truck drivers in the United States in 2012. The majority of them were long-haul truck drivers (LHTDs). There are limited data on occupational injury and safety in LHTDs, which prompted a targeted national survey. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health conducted a nationally representative survey of 1265 LHTDs at 32 truck stops across the contiguous United States in 2010. Data were collected on truck crashes, near misses, moving violations, work-related injuries, work environment, safety climate, driver training, job satisfaction, and driving behaviors. Results suggested that an estimated 2.6% of LHTDs reported a truck crash in 2010, 35% reported at least one crash while working as an LHTD, 24% reported at least one near miss in the previous 7 days, 17% reported at least one moving violation ticket and 4.7% reported a non-crash injury involving days away from work in the previous 12 months. The majority (68%) of non-crash injuries among company drivers were not reported to employers. An estimate of 73% of LHTDs (16% often and 58% sometimes) perceived their delivery schedules unrealistically tight; 24% often continued driving despite fatigue, bad weather, or heavy traffic because they needed to deliver or pick up a load at a given time; 4.5% often drove 10 miles per hours or more over the speed limit; 6.0% never wore a seatbelt; 36% were often frustrated by other drivers on the road; 35% often had to wait for access to a loading dock; 37% reported being noncompliant with hours-of-service rules (10% often and 27% sometimes); 38% of LHTDs perceived their entry-level training inadequate; and 15% did not feel that safety of workers was a high priority with their management. This survey brings to light a number of important safety issues for further research and interventions, e.g., high prevalence of truck crashes, injury underreporting, unrealistically tight delivery schedules

  6. There and Back Again

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Goldberg, Mayer

    2002-01-01

    We present a programming pattern where a recursive function traverses a data structure---typically a list---at return time. The idea is that the recursive calls get us there (typically to a base case) and the returns get us back again while traversing the data structure. We name this programming ...

  7. Back to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The economic downturn hit working America particularly hard, as agricultural, automotive, manufacturing, and retail jobs in many corners of the country all but evaporated. Consumers continue to cut back, and jobless rates in many states have eclipsed levels not seen in decades. Out of work and under pressure, many Americans are turning to the…

  8. Hardware-efficient signal generation of layered/enhanced ACO-OFDM for short-haul fiber-optic links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qibing; Song, Binhuang; Corcoran, Bill; Boland, David; Zhu, Chen; Zhuang, Leimeng; Lowery, Arthur J

    2017-06-12

    Layered/enhanced ACO-OFDM is a promising candidate for intensity modulation and direct-detection based short-haul fiber-optic links due to its both power and spectral efficiency. In this paper, we firstly demonstrate a hardware-efficient real-time 9.375 Gb/s QPSK-encoded layered/enhanced asymmetrical clipped optical OFDM (L/E-ACO-OFDM) transmitter using a Virtex-6 FPGA. This L/E-ACO-OFDM signal is successfully transmitted over 20-km uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (S-SMF) using a directly modulated laser. Several methods are explored to reduce the FPGA's logic resource utilization by taking advantage of the L/E-ACO-OFDM's signal characteristics. We show that the logic resource occupation of L/E-ACO-OFDM transmitter is almost the same as that of DC-biased OFDM transmitter when they achieve the same spectral efficiency, proving its great potential to be used in a real-time short-haul optical transmission link.

  9. Saltwater nectotizing fasciitis following coral reef laceration possibly exacerbated by a long-haul flight: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Ann-Maria

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Necrotising fasciits is a rapidly progressive disease characterised by extensive necrosis of the fascia, skin, and subcutaneous tissue, with relative sparing of the underlying muscle. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 24-year old Irish male student who sustained a laceration to his right shin from contact with a coral reef while swimming in the Phuket region, off the west coast of Thailand. The following day, he returned to Ireland and presented with an aggressive and destructive variant of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal necrotising fasciitis originating at the site of the coral reef injury, and exacerbated by the long-haul flight. He was successfully treated with aggressive surgical debridement, vacuum-assisted dressings, split skin grafting and broad spectrum antibiotics. CONCLUSION: Necrotising fasciitis can progress rapidly to systemic toxicity and even death without expedient diagnosis and aggressive treatment. Long-haul flights induce significant fluid accumulation in the lower extremity. These physiological fluid shifts may have contributed to the severity of our patient\\'s necrotizing condition following his flight from Thailand.

  10. Backed up and gone...

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Remember how easy it is to lose your passwords for web applications (“Don’t let Chrome expose your passwords”)? This time we go bigger and discuss how easy it is to lose the passwords for every wireless access point you’ve visited. You just need to be running Android on your smartphone…   Apparently, Google was already capturing wireless access points during its Streetview campaign but was forced to stop this after complaints from data protection advocates. It was done “mistakenly”. With Google’s Android now dominating the smartphone market, they’re back to their old tricks. As a useful feature, Android (version 2.2 and higher) stores the identifiers (“SSIDs”) of wireless access points and credentials by default, so that you do not have to reissue them on every connection. The interesting part happens when the smartphone is automatically backed up to Google'...

  11. Back to School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Osmond

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Back to School of the title refers to post- school or second chance education in America. Mike Rose’s focus is on adult remedial (sic and occupational education.  However, although he writes about America, it is hard not to read this little book without a constant alternative reading of second chance learning or Technical and Further Education in the Australian context.

  12. Acknowledging the back patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Bastrup, Lene; Norlyk, Annelise

    the back patient the narrative must be complemented by a different perspective that includes the issue of ethical responsibility. It is therefore also a question of adopting certain norms as binding; to be bound by obligation or loyalty. Thus, the literature review argues for a more process......-oriented patient approach that incorporates patients' narratives as an integral and ethical part of the care and treatment....

  13. Influence of skid trails and haul roads on understory plant richness and composition in managed forest landscapes in Upper Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Buckley; Thomas R. Crow; Elizabeth A. Nauertz; Kurt E. Schulz

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated impacts of disturbance in interior haul roads and skid trails on understory vegetation by documenting the areal extent of these features and plant composition along 10 m x 100 m belt transects. Ten belt transects were sampled in each of three comparable northern hardwood forests under even-aged management. These forests were approximately 80 years old and...

  14. Long-Haul Dense Space Division Multiplexed Transmission over Low-Crosstalk Heterogeneous 32-Core Transmission Line Using Partial Recirculating Loop System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizuno, Takayuki; Shibahara, Kohki; Ye, Feihong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present long-haul 32-core dense space division multiplexed (DSDM) unidirectional transmission over a single-mode multicore transmission line. We developed a low-crosstalk heterogeneous 32-core fiber with a square lattice arrangement, and a novel partial recirculating loop system...

  15. Trends in spatial patterns of heavy metal deposition on national park service lands along the Red Dog Mine haul road, Alaska, 2001-2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter N Neitlich

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of Zn, Pb and Cd deposition in Cape Krusenstern National Monument (CAKR, Alaska, adjacent to the Red Dog Mine haul road, were characterized in 2001 and 2006 using Hylocomium moss tissue as a biomonitor. Elevated concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn in moss tissue decreased logarithmically away from the haul road and the marine port. The metals concentrations in the two years were compared using Bayesian posterior predictions on a new sampling grid to which both data sets were fit. Posterior predictions were simulated 200 times both on a coarse grid of 2,357 points and by distance-based strata including subsets of these points. Compared to 2001, Zn and Pb concentrations in 2006 were 31 to 54% lower in the 3 sampling strata closest to the haul road (0-100, 100-2000 and 2000-4000 m. Pb decreased by 40% in the stratum 4,000-5,000 m from the haul road. Cd decreased significantly by 38% immediately adjacent to the road (0-100m, had an 89% probability of a small decrease 100-2000 m from the road, and showed moderate probabilities (56-71% for increase at greater distances. There was no significant change over time (with probabilities all ≤ 85% for any of the 3 elements in more distant reference areas (40-60 km. As in 2001, elemental concentrations in 2006 were higher on the north side of the road. Reductions in deposition have followed a large investment in infrastructure to control fugitive dust escapement at the mine and port sites, operational controls, and road dust mitigation. Fugitive dust escapement, while much reduced, is still resulting in elevated concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd out to 5,000 m from the haul road. Zn and Pb levels were slightly above arctic baseline values in southern CAKR reference areas.

  16. Handout on Health: Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the disks in your back if you smoke. Smoker’s cough may also cause back pain. People who smoke are slow to heal, so back pain may last longer. Race. Black women are two to three times more likely than white women to have part of the lower spine ...

  17. Analysis on the Synergy Evolutionary Development of the Collecting, Distributing, and Transporting System of Railway Heavy Haul Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenling Feng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A synergy evolutionary model of the collecting, distributing, and transporting system of railway heavy haul transportation is built by introducing synergy-related concepts and applying synergy evolutionary theory. Then spline interpolation method, numerical differential five-point formula, and method of least squares are used to solve synergistic coefficient, while fourth-order Rugge-kutta method and fourth-order Adams linear implicit formula method are used to solve coevolutionary curve of the system. Finally, the heavy load transportation of Daqin Railway is an example of the empirical analysis. The research result shows that the degree of order of the system and its three subsystems—collecting, transporting, and distributing—increases as the synergetic coefficient of the subsystems increases; otherwise, the degree of the order will decrease. It also shows that this model can better analyze the coevolutionary process of the heavy load collecting, distributing, and transporting system of Daqin Railway, with its rationality and applicability verified.

  18. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  19. Modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel and the consequent energy impacts. [Intercity travel under 500 miles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the impacts of strategies to effect modal shifts in short-haul passenger travel (defined herein as intercity travel under 500 miles) from energy-intensive modes to those modes that are less energy-intensive. A series of individual strategies, ranging from incentives to the less energy-intensive modes (bus, rail) to penalties to the more energy-intensive modes (auto, air) was examined to determine energy saved and policy implications relative to strategy implementation. The most effective of the individual strategies were then combined in all permutations, and the analysis was repeated. As part of the analytical process, effects of factors other than energy (user cost and time, emissions, government subsidy, and travel fatailities) were examined in a benefit/cost analysis. Finally, energy savings, benefit/cost impacts, implementation considerations, and policy implications were evaluated to arrive at conclusions as to the effectiveness of the more-influential strategies and to the overall effectiveness of induced modal shifts. The principal conclusion of the study is that the maximum 1980 energy saving that might be realized by modal shifts, discounting the concurrent effects of demand suppression and improvement of mode efficiency, is approximately 83 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (46,500 bbl gasoline per day), 3.8% of the total projected 1980 energy consumption in the short-haul transportation sector and 0.23% of the total US petroleum use. It was also concluded that strategies to achieve these small savings by modal shifts would result in significant economic, social, and business disruptions.

  20. Roll back malaria update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    This article presents the activities under WHO's Roll Back Malaria (RBM) program in Asia, particularly in Nepal, Indonesia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. In India, the RBM program will start in 5 districts with a major malaria problem. A national committee has been formed by researchers, which will be able to provide operational and strategic support and research expertise in relation to malaria. In Bangladesh, the RBM program was initiated in the sparsely populated hill tract areas of Banderban and Chittagong where access to health care is very poor. At the district level, effective partnerships with private practitioners, politicians, community leaders, school teachers, the press and district Ministry of Health officials are operating to plan for rolling back malaria. In Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Yunnan province of China, Vietnam, and Thailand, the focus of the RBM program was to move health care closer to the malaria-infected communities. WHO¿s Global Health Leadership Fellowship Programme, supported by the UN Foundation and Rockefeller Foundation, enables potential leaders to experience the work of UN agencies and contribute to the work of the organization for 2 years. Three out of four persons appointed to the RBM program received prestigious awards: Dr. Paola Marchesini of Brazil; Dr. Tieman Diarra of Mali; and Dr. Bob Taylor of the UK.

  1. Back from Sestriere

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Jean-Yves Le Meur during the Special Slalom at the Paralympic Winter Games on 19 March. (Photo credit: G. Place and B. Loyseau) CERN's Olympian, Jean-Yves Le Meur (IT Department), is back from Sestriere after competing in the Paralympic Winter Games in the sitting skiing competition. Ranked 14th after his first run in the Special Slalom, Jean-Yves had an excellent second run which brought him right up the field. He eventually finished ninth, 11 seconds off the gold medal place. In the Giant Slalom, he unfortunately fell in the final gates of his second run, having reached 10th position in his first run. With about 50 top athletes from all the competing nations contesting each event, the competition was stiff, and our warmest congratulations go to Jean-Yves for his participation and great performance!

  2. Trajectories of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axén, Iben; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain is not a self-limiting problem, but rather a recurrent and sometimes persistent disorder. To understand the course over time, detailed investigation, preferably using repeated measurements over extended periods of time, is needed. New knowledge concerning short-term trajectories...... indicates that the low back pain 'episode' is short lived, at least in the primary care setting, with most patients improving. Nevertheless, in the long term, low back pain often runs a persistent course with around two-thirds of patients estimated to be in pain after 12 months. Some individuals never have...... low back pain, but most have it on and off or persistently. Thus, the low back pain 'condition' is usually a lifelong experience. However, subgroups of patients with different back pain trajectories have been identified and linked to clinical parameters. Further investigation is warranted...

  3. Low back pain during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Maria Emília Coelho Costa; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; Terceiro, Cristovam Alves de Lira; Pinto, Deyvid Ravy Lacerda; Silva, Marcelo Neves; Cozer, Gustavo Araújo; Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It is estimated that about 50% of pregnant women complain of some form of back pain at some point in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of low back pain during pregnancy and its characteristics. Methods: Cross-sectional study with low-risk pregnant women. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee and receiving written informed consent, we incl...

  4. Photo-identification, site fidelity, and movement of female gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) between haul-outs in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Olle; Hiby, Lex; Lundberg, Torkel; Jüssi, Mart; Jüssi, Ivar; Helander, Björn

    2005-12-01

    The growing gray seal population in the Baltic Sea has led to increased conflicts with fisheries. Despite limited data on gray seal ecology, management measures, such as culling, have been implemented recently. We studied movements and site fidelity of Baltic gray seals using mark-recapture analysis based on photographic identification of individuals (photo-id). Seals were photographed at the major summer haul-out sites. Profile photographs of the head and neck were matched using purpose-written software to generate a database of capture histories from 1995-2000. The haul-outs were grouped into seven areas. Darroch's method (20) for a two-sample capture-recapture census was adapted to estimate rates of movement between the areas. The majority of seals were estimated to remain within the same area, suggesting that Baltic gray seals exhibit a high degree of site fidelity during the summer, and that fidelity to a site lasts for more than one season.

  5. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland FJ Popp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074 and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059. Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092. The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  6. Impact of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers: Results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Roland Fj; Maier, Stefanie; Rothe, Siegfried; Zulley, Jürgen; Crönlein, Tatjana; Wetter, Thomas C; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of traffic noise along the motorway on sleep quality, sleepiness, and vigilant attention in long-haul truck drivers. This was a randomized, crossover, within-subject controlled study. Healthy long-haul truck drivers spent 6 consecutive nights in a real truck berth with full sleep laboratory equipment. During 3 nights, subjects were exposed to replayed traffic noise alongside motorways, whereas the other 3 nights were without traffic noise. Polysomnography was recorded during the nights and numerous sleepiness tests and vigilance examinations were performed during the following standardized working day. Outcome measures were compared between noisy and silent nights using the paired Wilcoxon test. Ten healthy long-haul truck drivers with a mean age of 36.3 ± 7.3 years completed the study as planned. On noisy nights, subjects had greater latencies to the rapid eye movement (REM) phase (90 ± 32 min vs 69 ± 16 min, P = 0.074) and higher percentages of sleep stage 1 (13.7 ± 5.5% vs 11.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.059). Subjects also rated their sleep quality as having been better during nights without noise (28.1 ± 3.7 vs 30.3 ± 6.2, P = 0.092). The impact of these differences on daytime sleepiness and vigilance was rather low; however, mean Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) scores measured during the course of the following day were higher on six out of eight occasions after noisy nights. The effects of overnight traffic noise on sleep quality are detectable but unlikely to have any major impact on the vigilant attention and driving performance of long haul-truck drivers with low nocturnal noise sensitivity. This might not be true for subgroups prone to sleeping disorders.

  7. Conceptual design studies of candidate V/STOL lift fan commercial short haul transport for 1980 - 1985 V/STOL lift fan study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, W. M.; Ferrell, J. A.; Mckee, J. W.; Wayne, J. E., Jr.; Zabinsky, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of V/STOL lift fan commercial short haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The engine concepts included both integral and remote fans. The scope of the study included definition of the hover control concept for each propulsion system, aircraft design, aircraft mass properties, cruise performance, noise and ride qualities evaluation. Economic evaluating was also studied on a basis of direct operating costs and route structure.

  8. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE under-the-wing fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a variable pitch 1.34 pressure ratio fan for the under the wing (UTW) engine are included. The UTW fan was designed to permit rotation of the 18 composite fan blades into the reverse thrust mode of operation through both flat pitch and stall pitch directions.

  9. [Low back pain during gestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Flavia Silva; Shimo, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes

    2006-01-01

    This research qualitatively analyzed the contents of national and international scientific publications, indexed in the period from 1999 to 2005, about low back pain in gestation. Around 50 % of pregnant women complain about low back pain. The physiologic modifications that occur happen in pregnancy alter the posture of pregnant women and the largest incidence of low back pain usually happens in the last three months. Specific causes remain unknown. However, treatment involves analgesics, antiphlogistics, exercises and physiotherapy. Low back pain during gestation is a symptom that causes great discomfort and, depending on the level of pain, it generates motor disability and impairs daily activities, besides causing problems to take care of the baby after birth. Some discomfort of low back pain can continue for a period of up to three years after childbirth. We see a great need for further research in this subject area, in order to provide a better quality of life for pregnant women.

  10. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  11. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  12. Bring back the Glory!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Q. Whitman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper, drafted in response to Dr. Kiesow’s question, »Wozu Rechtsgeschichte?«, begins with a backward glance at the nineteenth century, when legal history played a leading role in the intellectual life of the western world. Since those great days, when legal history attracted figures like Karl Marx and Max Weber, the field has fallen on hard times. This is in large part the inevitable consequence of the declining prestige of law itself, which no longer seems to matter in the way that it did in the nineteenth century. Nevertheless, the paper pleads for something of a Return of Grand Theory in legal history. It is true that we can never bring back the glory years. But we can be figures of importance in the public debates of our time if we remain mindful of what it is that gives law itself its enduring social importance. Law reflects, in an unsystematic but telling way, some of the basic value commitments of society-commitments such as the contemporary American commitment to the free market, or the contemporary European commitment to »human dignity«. Law also reflects stylized histories of a given society’s past-histories like that of the American triumph over race slavery, or the European triumph over Nazism. These value commitments and stylized histories are the natural territory of legal historians, who can best claim a role for themselves in public debate if they think of themselves as historians of values, rather than as historians of social realities.

  13. Impact of short- compared to long-haul international travel on the sleep and wellbeing of national wheelchair basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Miller, Joanna; Taylor, Lee; Sargent, Charli; Lastella, Michele; Fowler, Peter M

    2018-07-01

    Currently, very little is known about the impact of short- or long-haul air travel on the sleep and wellbeing of wheelchair basketball athletes. Eleven national wheelchair basketball athletes wore actigraphy monitors prior, during, and after air travel to the United Kingdom. Upon arrival, participants rated their subjective jet-lag, fatigue, and vigor. Individuals traveled to the United Kingdom from different locations in Australia, the United States, and Europe and were categorised according to travel length [LONG (up to 30.2 h) or SHORT (up to 6.5 h)]. Linear mixed models determined effects of travel length on sleep and subjective ratings of jet-lag, fatigue, and vigor. During competition, subjective fatigue and jet-lag were substantially higher (ES = 0.73; ±0.77) and (ES = 0.57; ±0.60), subjective vigor was lower (ES = 1.94; ±0.72), and get-up time was earlier (ES = 0.57; ±0.60) for LONG when compared to SHORT. Travelling greater distances by airplane had a larger effect on subjective ratings of jet-lag, fatigue and vigor, rather than sleep. Irrespective of travel group, sleep and subjective responses were compromised, reflecting the travel requirements, competition-mediated influences, and/or due to a change in environment.

  14. Analysis of spontaneous and bleomycin-induced chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes of long-haul aircrew members from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzan, Alejandro D.; Bianchi, Martha S.; Gimenez, Esteban M.; Flaque, Maria C. Diaz; Ciancio, Vicente R.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous and bleomycin (BLM)-induced chromosomal aberrations in G0 and G2 stages of the cell cycle have been analyzed in peripheral lymphocytes of 21 long-haul aircrew members from Argentina in order to assess BLM-induced clastogenesis as a first approach to determine the DNA repair capacity and thereby the susceptibility to environmental cancers in aircrew. The possibility that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation can induce an adaptive response in their peripheral lymphocytes that can be detected by a subsequent in vitro treatment with BLM was also investigated. For comparison, aberrations were also scored in the lymphocytes of 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, health, sex, drinking and smoking habits to the flight personnel group. Aircrew exhibited a higher frequency of spontaneous dicentrics and ring chromosomes than the control population (p 0.05). However, the aircrew sampled population was almost two times more sensitive to BLM G0 clastogenic effects than controls (p < 0.05). Therefore, our data suggest that chronic exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation increases the in vitro chromosomal sensitivity of their peripheral lymphocytes to BLM (at least in the G0 stage of the cell cycle), and that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation does not induce an adaptive response to this radiomimetic compound. Our results justify further studies aimed at determine if those aircrew members hypersensitive to BLM are more prone to develop environmental cancer than BLM-insensitive individuals

  15. Going back to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchfield, R

    1985-01-01

    decline in the death rate, especially in infant mortality, and an increase in life expectancy have meant a rise in annual overall growth back to the present 1.9-2.2%. Despite the present disappointment, Indonesia's government-sponsored family planning campaigns have shown how village culture can be harnessed to promote change.

  16. Chiropractic care for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000416.htm Chiropractic care for back pain To use the sharing ... discussed in your first session. What Conditions Does Chiropractic Treat Best? Chiropractic treatment is most effective for: ...

  17. Imaging in mechanical back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem...... to expect such procedures to be undertaken. However, the majority of conventional imaging techniques do not have adequate precision to identify the primary source of pain. Not only can this be frustrating to both clinicians and patients, but importantly, inadequate correlation between imaging findings...... and symptoms hampers the ability of clinicians to devise a specific treatment plan for the patient. Therefore, there is mounting interest in new imaging techniques of the lumbar spine that may increase the clinical correlation in low back pain. In this review, we will discuss the value and limitations...

  18. [Low back pain during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Emília Coelho Costa; Lima, Luciana Cavalcanti; de Lira Terceiro, Cristovam Alves; Pinto, Deyvid Ravy Lacerda; Silva, Marcelo Neves; Cozer, Gustavo Araújo; Couceiro, Tania Cursino de Menezes

    Low back pain is a common complaint among pregnant women. It is estimated that about 50% of pregnant women complain of some form of back pain at some point in pregnancy or during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of low back pain during pregnancy and its characteristics. Cross-sectional study with low-risk pregnant women. After approval by the Human Research Ethics Committee and receiving written informed consent, we included pregnant women over 18 years of age and excluded those with psychiatric disorders, previous lumbar pathologies, and receiving treatment for low back pain. We interviewed 97 pregnant women. The frequency of low back pain was 68%. The mean age was 26.2 years and the median gestational age was 30 weeks. Fifty-eight pregnant women declared themselves as brown (58%). Most (88.6%) were married or living in common-law marriage, fifty-six (57.7%) worked outside the home, and 71 (73.2%) had completed high school. Low back pain was more frequent during the second trimester of pregnancy (43.9%), referred to as a "burning" sensation in 37.8% of patients, with intermittent frequency in 96.9% of the women. The symptoms got worse at night (71.2%). Resting reduced low back pain in 43.9% of pregnant women, while the standing position for a long time worsened it in 27.2% of patients. Low back pain is common in pregnant women, has specific characteristics, and is more frequent in the second trimester of pregnancy. This indicates the need for prevention strategies that enable better quality of life for pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. An optimization model for collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal of infectious medical waste: Application to a Greek region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzaras, Gerasimos; Voudrias, Evangelos A

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an optimization model to minimize the cost of a collection, haul, transfer, treatment and disposal system for infectious medical waste (IMW). The model calculates the optimum locations of the treatment facilities and transfer stations, their design capacities (t/d), the number and capacities of all waste collection, transport and transfer vehicles and their optimum transport path and the minimum IMW management system cost. Waste production nodes (hospitals, healthcare centers, peripheral health offices, private clinics and physicians in private practice) and their IMW production rates were specified and used as model inputs. The candidate locations of the treatment facilities, transfer stations and sanitary landfills were designated, using a GIS-based methodology. Specifically, Mapinfo software with exclusion criteria for non-appropriate areas was used for siting candidate locations for the construction of the treatment plant and calculating the distance and travel time of all possible vehicle routes. The objective function was a non-linear equation, which minimized the total collection, transport, treatment and disposal cost. Total cost comprised capital and operation costs for: (1) treatment plant, (2) waste transfer stations, (3) waste transport and transfer vehicles and (4) waste collection bins and hospital boxes. Binary variables were used to decide whether a treatment plant and/or a transfer station should be constructed and whether a collection route between two or more nodes should be followed. Microsoft excel software was used as installation platform of the optimization model. For the execution of the optimization routine, two completely different software were used and the results were compared, thus, resulting in higher reliability and validity of the results. The first software was Evolver, which is based on the use of genetic algorithms. The second one was Crystal Ball, which is based on Monte Carlo

  20. Idling Reduction for Long-Haul Trucks: An Economic Comparison of On-Board and Wayside Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, Linda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weikersheimer, Patricia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Reducing the idling of long-haul heavy-duty trucks has long been recognized as a particularly low-hanging fruit of fuel efficiency and emissions reduction. The displacement of about 10 hours of diesel idling every day, for most days of the year, for as many as a million long-haul trucks has very clear benefits. This report considers the costs and return on investment (ROI) for idling reduction (IR) equipment for both truck owners and electrified parking space (EPS) equipment owners. For the truck owners, the key variables examined are idling hours to be displaced (generally 1,000 to 2,000 hours per year) and the price of fuel ($0 to $5/gal). The ideal IR option would provide complete services in varied climates in any location and offer the best ROI on trucks that log many idling hours. For trucks that have fewer idling hours, options with a fixed cost per hour (i.e., EPS) might be most attractive if they were available to all, or even most, truck drivers. EPS, however, is particularly cost effective for trucks on prescribed routes with a need for regular, extended stops at terminals. (EPS is also called truck stop electrification, or TSE.) The analysis shows that all IR options save money when fuel costs more than $2/gal. For trucks requiring bunk heat, a simple heater (plug-in or diesel) is almost always the most costeffective way to provide heat, even if the truck is equipped with an auxiliary power unit (APU) or is parked at a single-system EPS location. For trucks requiring bunk air-conditioning, the use of single-system EPS is most cost effective for those logging fewer idling hours. Even for trucks with higher idling hours, the cost of EPS may be about the same as that for on-board air-conditioning. Clearly, trucks’ locations and seasonal factors—and the availability of EPS— are significant in the choice of “best fit” IR equipment for truck owners. This report also considers costs and payback for owners of EPS infrastructure. An industry that 5

  1. Dispersion-optimized optical fiber for high-speed long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jindong; Chen, Liuhua; Li, Qingguo; Wu, Wenwen; Sun, Keyuan; Wu, Xingkun

    2011-07-01

    Four non-zero-dispersion-shifted fibers with almost the same large effective area (Aeff) and optimized dispersion properties are realized by novel index profile designing and modified vapor axial deposition and modified chemical vapor deposition processes. An Aeff of greater than 71 μm2 is obtained for the designed fibers. Three of the developed fibers with positive dispersion are improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.072ps/nm2/km to 0.063ps/nm2/km or 0.05ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from 4.972ps/nm/km to 5.679ps/nm/km or 7.776ps/nm/km, and shifting the zero-dispersion wavelength from 1500nm to 1450nm. One of these fibers is in good agreement with G655D and G.656 fibers simultaneously, and another one with G655E and G.656 fibers; both fibers are beneficial to high-bit long-haul dense wavelength division multiplexing systems over S-, C-, and L-bands. The fourth developed fiber with negative dispersion is also improved by reducing the 1550nm dispersion slope from 0.12ps/nm2/km to 0.085ps/nm2/km, increasing the 1550nm dispersion from -4ps/nm/km to -6.016ps/nm/km, providing facilities for a submarine transmission system. Experimental measurements indicate that the developed fibers all have excellent optical transmission and good macrobending and splice performances.

  2. Analysis of spontaneous and bleomycin-induced chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes of long-haul aircrew members from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzan, Alejandro D. [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Miembro de la Carrera del Investigador Cientifico del CONICET (Argentina)], E-mail: abolzan@imbice.org.ar; Bianchi, Martha S. [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Miembro de la Carrera del Investigador Cientifico del CONICET (Argentina); Gimenez, Esteban M.; Flaque, Maria C. Diaz [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ciancio, Vicente R. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, 120 y 60, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2008-03-01

    Spontaneous and bleomycin (BLM)-induced chromosomal aberrations in G0 and G2 stages of the cell cycle have been analyzed in peripheral lymphocytes of 21 long-haul aircrew members from Argentina in order to assess BLM-induced clastogenesis as a first approach to determine the DNA repair capacity and thereby the susceptibility to environmental cancers in aircrew. The possibility that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation can induce an adaptive response in their peripheral lymphocytes that can be detected by a subsequent in vitro treatment with BLM was also investigated. For comparison, aberrations were also scored in the lymphocytes of 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, health, sex, drinking and smoking habits to the flight personnel group. Aircrew exhibited a higher frequency of spontaneous dicentrics and ring chromosomes than the control population (p < 0.05). BLM sensitivity test showed that aircrew and controls are equally sensitive to BLM G2 clastogenic effects, since both groups exhibited a similar frequency of chromatid breaks per cell (p > 0.05). However, the aircrew sampled population was almost two times more sensitive to BLM G0 clastogenic effects than controls (p < 0.05). Therefore, our data suggest that chronic exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation increases the in vitro chromosomal sensitivity of their peripheral lymphocytes to BLM (at least in the G0 stage of the cell cycle), and that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation does not induce an adaptive response to this radiomimetic compound. Our results justify further studies aimed at determine if those aircrew members hypersensitive to BLM are more prone to develop environmental cancer than BLM-insensitive individuals.

  3. Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) System for Long-Haul Rail Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Justin Jeff

    Freight movement of goods is the artery for America's economic health. Long-haul rail is the premier mode of transport on a ton-mile basis. Concerns regarding greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, however, have motivated the creation of annually increasing locomotive emissions standards. Health issues from diesel particulate matter, especially near rail yards, have also been on the rise. These factors and the potential to raise conventional diesel-electric locomotive performance warrants the investigation of using future fuels in a more efficient system for locomotive application. This research evaluates the dynamic performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine (SOFC-GT) Hybrid system operating on hydrogen fuel to power a locomotive over a rail path starting from the Port of Los Angeles and ending in the City of Barstow. Physical constraints, representative locomotive operation logic, and basic design are used from a previous feasibility study and simulations are performed in the MATLAB Simulink environment. In-house controls are adapted to and expanded upon. Results indicate high fuel-to-electricity efficiencies of at least 54% compared to a conventional diesel-electric locomotive efficiency of 35%. Incorporation of properly calibrated feedback and feed-forward controls enables substantial load following of difficult transients that result from train kinematics while maintaining turbomachinery operating requirements and suppressing thermal stresses in the fuel cell stack. The power split between the SOFC and gas turbine is deduced to be a deterministic factor in the balance between capital and operational costs. Using hydrogen results in no emissions if renewable and offers a potential of 24.2% fuel energy savings for the rail industry.

  4. Linear Back-Drive Differentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waydo, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Linear back-drive differentials have been proposed as alternatives to conventional gear differentials for applications in which there is only limited rotational motion (e.g., oscillation). The finite nature of the rotation makes it possible to optimize a linear back-drive differential in ways that would not be possible for gear differentials or other differentials that are required to be capable of unlimited rotation. As a result, relative to gear differentials, linear back-drive differentials could be more compact and less massive, could contain fewer complex parts, and could be less sensitive to variations in the viscosities of lubricants. Linear back-drive differentials would operate according to established principles of power ball screws and linear-motion drives, but would utilize these principles in an innovative way. One major characteristic of such mechanisms that would be exploited in linear back-drive differentials is the possibility of designing them to drive or back-drive with similar efficiency and energy input: in other words, such a mechanism can be designed so that a rotating screw can drive a nut linearly or the linear motion of the nut can cause the screw to rotate. A linear back-drive differential (see figure) would include two collinear shafts connected to two parts that are intended to engage in limited opposing rotations. The linear back-drive differential would also include a nut that would be free to translate along its axis but not to rotate. The inner surface of the nut would be right-hand threaded at one end and left-hand threaded at the opposite end to engage corresponding right- and left-handed threads on the shafts. A rotation and torque introduced into the system via one shaft would drive the nut in linear motion. The nut, in turn, would back-drive the other shaft, creating a reaction torque. Balls would reduce friction, making it possible for the shaft/nut coupling on each side to operate with 90 percent efficiency.

  5. Back Pain with Leg Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulfsons, Simon; Bar, Negev; Eisenberg, Elon

    2017-07-01

    The clinical diagnostic dilemma of low back pain that is associated with lower limb pain is very common. In relation to back pain that radiates to the leg, the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) states: "Pain in the lower limb should be described specifically as either referred pain or radicular pain. In cases of doubt no implication should be made and the pain should be described as pain in the lower limb." Bogduks' editorial in the journal PAIN (2009) helps us to differentiate and define the terms somatic referred pain, radicular pain, and radiculopathy. In addition, there are other pathologies distal to the nerve root that could be relevant to patients with back pain and leg pain such as plexus and peripheral nerve involvement. Hence, the diagnosis of back pain with leg pain can still be challenging. In this article, we present a patient with back and leg pain. The patient appears to have a radicular pain syndrome, but has no neurological impairment and shows signs of myofascial involvement. Is there a single diagnosis or indeed two overlapping syndromes? The scope of our article encompasses the common diagnostic possibilities for this type of patient. A discussion of treatment is beyond the scope of this article and depends on the final diagnosis/diagnoses made.

  6. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: An analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  7. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: an analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrastek, D.A.

    1976-05-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  8. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  9. Back surgery: Modern medical pitfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jc

    2002-01-01

    Medical iatrogenesis is at an all-time high with increasing deaths, disability, and costs compounded by unnecessary and ineffective surgeries despite the warnings from WHO, the US Public Health Service, and the Institute of Medicine. One area in particular, failed back surgeries, has drawn increasing attention by researchers due to disproved medical theories and surgical treatments. Paradoxically, while spinal manipulative therapy has been shown to achieve better results for this epidemic of low back pain in particular, medical and insurance programs often limit or boycott this inexpensive and effective treatment, indicating the solution to lowering medical costs and iatrogenesis now rests with political and economic factors primarily.

  10. Back Schools for chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parreira, Patrícia; Heymans, Martijn W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Esmail, Rosmin; Koes, Bart W; Poquet, Nolwenn; Lin, Chung-Wei Christine; Maher, Christopher G

    2017-08-03

    Many people with low back pain (LBP) become frequent users of healthcare services in their attempt to find treatments that minimise the severity of their symptoms. Back School consists of a therapeutic programme given to groups of people that includes both education and exercise. However, the content of Back School has changed over time and appears to vary widely today. This review is an update of a Cochrane review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiveness of Back School. We split the Cochrane review into two reviews, one focusing on acute and subacute LBP, and one on chronic LBP. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of Back School on pain and disability for adults with chronic non-specific LBP; we included adverse events as a secondary outcome. In trials that solely recruited workers, we also examined the effect on work status. We searched for trials in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, two other databases and two trials registers to 15 November 2016. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and consulted experts in the field of LBP management to identify any potentially relevant studies we may have missed. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We included only RCTs and quasi-RCTs evaluating pain, disability, and/or work status as outcomes. The primary outcomes for this update were pain and disability, and the secondary outcomes were work status and adverse events. Two review authors independently performed the 'Risk of bias' assessment of the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We summarised the results for the short-, intermediate-, and long-term follow-ups. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. For the outcome pain, at short-term follow-up, we found very low-quality evidence that Back School is more effective than no

  11. Back-to-School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Planning For A Healthy School Year Back-to-School Health Past Issues / Fall 2015 Table of Contents ... improve eating and physical habits for a healthier school year. Talk about being healthy Take the time ...

  12. Pilates for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, T.P.; Maher, C.G.; Saragiotto, B.T.; Hancock, M.J.; Ostelo, R.W.J.G.; Cabral, C.M.N.; Menezes Costa, L.C.; Costa, L.O.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical

  13. Pilates for low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamato, Tiê P.; Maher, Christopher G.; Saragiotto, Bruno T.; Hancock, Mark J.; Ostelo, Raymond W.J.G.; Cabral, Cristina M.N.; Menezes Costa, Luciola C.; Costa, Leonardo O.P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical

  14. Coping with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindig, L. E.; Mrvos, S. R.

    Guidelines are offered for the prevention and relief of lower back pain. The structure of the spine is described, and the functions and composition of spinal disks are explained. A list is included of common causes of abnormalities of the spinal column, and injuries which may cause the fracture of the vertebrae are described. Factors causing low…

  15. Sociology Back to the Publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a reading of the `new sociology' that is mainly identified with the works of C. Wright Mills and Alvin Gouldner. Its main argument is that during the past 40 years the new sociology gave back a public face to sociology. This distinguishes it from the `old sociology' that had not been

  16. BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR. Deur generaal sir Walter Walker KCB, CBE,. D80. 8andton. Uitgegee deur Valiant Publis- hers. Verskyningsdatum Julie 1978. Prys R10.) Hierdie boek is 'n uitstekende aktuele geskrif ook. Suidelike Afrika se politieke en militere aspekte wat deur 'n a/gehele buitestaander nl 'n Britse. Generaal ...

  17. Approach to lower back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    an approach to this common symptom and how to distinguish the benign, mechanical type of back pain from the more sinister, but less frequently encountered ... Approach to management. Therapy or management of chronic LBP involves a multidisciplinary approach. The aim is to prevent a chronic vicious cycle by means of ...

  18. Low back pain and yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Supreet

    2014-12-01

    ABSTRACT Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is chronic low back pain, one of the most common reasons to visit one's primary care doctor. Complementary approaches, including yoga, will be addressed.

  19. New Method For Modeling and Design Optical SDM Transmission System Using Long Haul FMF with PDM/DWDM Techniques Enabling QPSK Modulation Format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and design of ultra high capacity Space Division Multiplexing (SDM transmission system. Polarization Division Multiplexing (PDM and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM techniques are also proposed in this system to increase total system data rate. For the ultra-high capacity need of SDM, Few Mode Fiber (FMF was proposed as SDM best technology for obtaining ultra-high bit rates with long haul transmission. The description and design of 8-DWDM channels over 7 modes SDM/PDM system was explored as future of ultra-high capacity optical network. A long-haul transmission of 1080 Km recorded for 8-WDM channels-7modes-SDM/PDM system by using QPSK modulation format. The total bit rate achieved by our designed system is 4.48 Tb/s at 40Gb/s. Channel estimation techniques were proposed to enable the transmitter pre-shaping design for the linear effects mitigation by using different DSP algorithms. The presence of linear and nonlinear losses limits the acceptable range of input power that produce the required BER for our proposed system from -4dBm to 4dBm.

  20. Correlations in back-to-back hadron production in SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pisano, Silvia [National Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Frascati (Italy). National Lab. of Frascati (INFN-LNF)

    2016-08-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong in- teractions. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first stud- ies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides ac- cess to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the CLAS detector at Jef- ferson Lab, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back (b2b) in the current and target fragmentation regions, provides a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions

  1. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...... where Lars von Trier seeks to elaborate on his particular fondness of the values that this pop duo seems to represent for him; simplicity, popularity (in Danish “folkelighed”), and irony. In this sense, by promoting the Laid Back single by means of a music video, von Trier’s contribution leads us rather......; an interest which historically both evokes ideas of pop music and pop culture, the role of the artist in a national, social-democratic context, and the role of the avant-garde artist after the completion of such projects as situationism and the American neo-avant-garde. In this manner, the paper finally seeks...

  2. Laid Back Avant-Garde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    2010-01-01

    skydiving music videos (e.g. Boards of Canada) and to von Trier’s work (e.g. Element of Crime) will be discussed by means of a perspective. The paper will draw on a collection of press material concerning von Triers life and work collected by the author until ca. the mid1990ies....... controversial. Whereas Laid Back has been one of the largest commercial successes of the Danish music industry due to the success of a handful of pop hits (in Germany, mainly), the duo has never been recognized for its artistic contribution. A few years after his public statement, von Trier directed...... the official music video for Laid Back’s Bakerman single, where the duo and a backing group dressed up as bakers is seen performing while skydiving. Rather than approaching this video as an illustration of the song, the paper suggests that the Bakerman video should be seen as the result of a curatorial act...

  3. Counts of Alaska Steller sea lion adult and juvenile (non-pup) conducted on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and others from 1904-01-01 to 2015-07-18 (NCEI Accession 0128190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains counts of adult and juvenile (non-pup) Steller sea lions on rookeries and haul-outs in Alaska made between 1904 and 2015. Non-pup counts have...

  4. Returning to sports after a back injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...

  5. Placing piggy back: An easy way out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of piggy back nickel-titanium (NiTi archwire with stainless steel base archwire is often a part of an orthodontic treatment mechanics. Here is an innovative method for securing the piggy back.

  6. Assessment of back pain in horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauvin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Back pain is common in horses yet, in many cases, a definitive diagnosis remains elusive. The aim of this article is to present a systematic approach to the patient with a suspected back problem. For the present purposes, back pain is defined as pain arising from the thoracolumbar or sacral spine and associated soft tissues. Examination of the pelvis is also included

  7. Low back pain across the life course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dunn, Kate M; Hestbæk, Lise; Cassidy, J David

    2013-01-01

    Back pain episodes are traditionally regarded as individual events, but this model is currently being challenged in favour of treating back pain as a long-term or lifelong condition. Back pain can be present throughout life, from childhood to older age, and evidence is mounting that pain experien...

  8. Improvement of the chromatic dispersion tolerance in coherent optical OFDM systems using shifted DFT windows for ultra-long-haul optical transmission systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Minkyu; Kim, Hoon; Lee, Jaehoon; Jeong, Jichai

    2014-09-22

    In a high-capacity ultra-long-haul optical coherent orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) system, the dispersion tolerance is determined by the length of cyclic extension (CE). In this paper, we propose a novel scheme to substantially improve the dispersion tolerance of CO-OFDM systems without increasing the CE length. Multiple time-shifted discrete Fourier transform (DFT) windows are exploited at the receiver, each demodulating only a part of the subcarriers. Effectively, the proposed scheme reduces the bandwidth of the OFDM signals under demodulation. Numerical simulations are performed to show the improved dispersion tolerance of the proposed scheme in comparison with the conventional CO-OFDM system. We show that the dispersion tolerance improves by a factor equal to the number of DFT windows. The tradeoff between the improved dispersion tolerance and increased receiver complexity is also presented.

  9. Effects of long-haul transmeridian travel on player preparedness: Case study of a national team at the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; McCall, Alan; Jones, Mark; Duffield, Rob

    2017-04-01

    Describe the effects of eastward long-haul transmeridian air travel on subjective jet-lag, sleep and wellness in professional football (soccer) players prior to the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil. Single cohort involving twenty-two male professional football players representing a national football team. Data was collected from players prior to and following international travel from Sydney, Australia to Vitoria, Brazil. In total there were three flights, 19-h and 14,695km of travel east across 11 time-zones. Training load and wellness measures were obtained in the week prior to and following travel, whilst sleep and jet-lag measures were collected on the day prior to travel (Pre), the day of arrival and for five days following travel (Post 1-5). Compared to Pre, perceived jet-lag was significantly increased on Post 1 to 4, with significantly greater levels on Post 1 compared to Post 5 (p<0.05). Self-reported sleep duration during travel was 5.9 (4.8-7.0) h, which was significantly lower than all other nights (p˂0.01), except for the night of arrival, where time in bed and sleep duration were significantly reduced compared to Post 1-4 (p˂0.01). Lastly, compared to the week prior to travel, mean wellness was significantly reduced during the week following travel (p˂0.01). Self-reported sleep disruption during and following eastward long-haul transmeridian air travel, together with exacerbated jet-lag symptoms may result in reduced player wellness. Consequently, player preparedness for subsequent training and competition may be impeded, though physical performance data is lacking. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. LHC Report: Back in operation

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    With the machine back in their hands since Friday, 4 March, the LHC operators are now performing the powering tests on the magnets. This is a crucial step before receiving the first beams and restarting Run 2 for physics.   A Distribution Feed-Box (DFB) brings power to the LHC magnets and maintains the stability of the current in the superconducting circuits. The LHC was the last machine to be handed back to operators after the completion of maintenance work carried out during the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS) that had started on 14 December 2015. During the eleven weeks of scheduled maintenance activities, several operations took place in all the accelerators and beam lines. They included the maintenance in several points of the cryogenic system, the replacement of 18 magnets in the Super Proton Synchrotron; an extensive campaign to identify and remove thousands of obsolete cables; the replacement of the LHC beam absorbers for injection (TDIs) that are used to absorb the SPS b...

  11. Alternative Packaging for Back-Illuminated Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Bedabrata

    2009-01-01

    An alternative scheme has been conceived for packaging of silicon-based back-illuminated, back-side-thinned complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) and charge-coupled-device image-detector integrated circuits, including an associated fabrication process. This scheme and process are complementary to those described in "Making a Back-Illuminated Imager With Back-Side Connections" (NPO-42839), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 7 (July 2008), page 38. To avoid misunderstanding, it should be noted that in the terminology of imaging integrated circuits, "front side" or "back side" does not necessarily refer to the side that, during operation, faces toward or away from a source of light or other object to be imaged. Instead, "front side" signifies that side of a semiconductor substrate upon which the pixel pattern and the associated semiconductor devices and metal conductor lines are initially formed during fabrication, and "back side" signifies the opposite side. If the imager is of the type called "back-illuminated," then the back side is the one that faces an object to be imaged. Initially, a back-illuminated, back-side-thinned image-detector is fabricated with its back side bonded to a silicon handle wafer. At a subsequent stage of fabrication, the front side is bonded to a glass wafer (for mechanical support) and the silicon handle wafer is etched away to expose the back side. The frontside integrated circuitry includes metal input/output contact pads, which are rendered inaccessible by the bonding of the front side to the glass wafer. Hence, one of the main problems is to make the input/output contact pads accessible from the back side, which is ultimately to be the side accessible to the external world. The present combination of an alternative packaging scheme and associated fabrication process constitute a solution of the problem.

  12. Looking Back at 'Purgatory Dune'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The wheels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity dug more than 10 centimeters (4 inches) deep into the soft, sandy material of a wind-shaped ripple in Mars' Meridiani Planum region during the rover's 446th martian day, or sol (April 26, 2005). Getting the rover out of the ripple, dubbed 'Purgatory Dune,' required more than five weeks of planning, testing, and carefully monitored driving. Opportunity used its navigation camera to capture this look back at the ripple during sol 491 (June 11, 2005), a week after the rover drove safely onto firmer ground. The ripple that became a sand trap is about one-third meter (one foot) tall and 2.5 meters (8 feet) wide.

  13. Back to the 80s

    CERN Document Server

    Fitness Club

    2010-01-01

    The fitness club is organizing a “Back to the 80s Party” in aid of the Haiti earthquake appeal on Saturday 26.06.2010 in the Pump Room.   There’s an 80s theme, so our pro DJ will be spinning 80s tunes (all tastes catered for), Morpho will be powering the visuals and the car club will be cooking-up a bbq in case you’re peckish. Fancy dress 1980s style is welcome, though not obligatory and it kicks off just after 'music on the lawn' finishes at 20.30. Its open to anyone working at CERN, friends and family. There’s a limited number of tickets and it’s entrance by ticket only, we are selling them on Thurs lunchtimes in R1 12.15 – 13.30 for 5CHF. For more information contact fitness.club@cern.ch.

  14. Back-contacted back-junction silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangersnes, Krister

    2010-10-15

    Conventional silicon solar cells have a front-side contacted emitter. Back-contacted back-junction (BC-BJ) silicon solar cells, on the other hand, have both the complete metallization and the active diffused regions of both polarities on the backside. World-record efficiencies have already been demonstrated for this type of cell design in production, both on cell and module level. However, the production of these cells is both complex and costly, and a further cost reduction in fabrication is needed to make electricity from BC-BJ silicon solar cells cost-competitive with electricity on the grid ('grid-parity'). During the work with this thesis, we have investigated several important issues regarding BC-BJ silicon solar cells. The aim has been to reduce production cost and complexity while at the same time maintaining, or increasing, the already high conversion efficiencies demonstrated elsewhere. This has been pursued through experimental work as well as through numerical simulations and modeling. Six papers are appended to this thesis, two of which are still under review in scientific journals. In addition, two patents have been filed based on the work presented herein. Experimentally, we have focused on investigating and optimizing single, central processing steps. A laser has been the key processing tool during most of the work. We have used the same laser both to structure the backside of the cell and to make holes in a double-layer of passivating amorphous silicon and silicon oxide, where the holes were opened with the aim of making local contact to the underlying silicon. The processes developed have the possibility of using a relatively cheap and industrially proven laser and obtain results better than most state-of-the-art laser technologies. During the work with the laser, we also developed a thermodynamic model that was able to predict the outcome from laser interaction with amorphous and crystalline silicon. Alongside the experimental work, we

  15. The effect of chronic low back pain on tactile suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Stefaan; Van Hulle, Lore; Danneels, Lieven; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether tactile suppression, the phenomenon whereby tactile perception is suppressed during movement, would occur in the context of back movements. Of particular interest, it was investigated if tactile suppression in the back would be attenuated in those suffering from chronic low back pain. Individuals with chronic low back pain (N = 30) and a matched control group (N = 24) detected tactile stimuli on three possible locations (back, arm, chest) while performing a back or arm movement, or no movement. We hypothesized that the movements would induce tactile suppression, and that this effect would be largest for low-intense stimuli on the moving body part. We further hypothesized that, during back movements, tactile suppression on the back would be less pronounced in the chronic low back pain group than in the control group. The results showed the expected general tactile suppression effects. The hypothesis of back-specific attenuation of tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was not supported. However, back-specific tactile suppression in the chronic low back pain group was less pronounced in those who performed the back movements more slowly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MANAGEMENT OF PATIENT WITH LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doroteja Drobnič-Kovač

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low back pain is one of the most frequent reasons for consulting general practitioner. Little is known about etiology and pathogenesis of low back pain. General practitioner use different methods for the treatment of patients with low back pain. The choice of kind of therapy is not related with the used diagnostic method. A large variety of therapeutic interventions is available for the treatment of low back pain, but the effectiveness of most of them has not been demonstrated. The treatment of low back pain is mainly conservative and symptomatic.Conclusions. In the article are reviewed and critically evaluated different diagnostic and therapeutic methods used by physicians for the treatment of patients with low back pain. Results of existing studies suggest that applied therapeutic treatments mainly do not base on scientific based results.

  17. The Practical Realities of Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton Bree Wesner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider practical ways of giving back to the communities in which they conduct research. Each author discusses their evolving thoughts on how to give back in these practical ways. Some of these authors discuss giving back by giving money, food, rides, parties, and water bottles. In other cases, authors discuss giving back by creating jobs in the short or long term, grant writing, advocacy, and education. Story-telling is also a theme that many of the authors in this section discuss. For some authors, non-material forms of giving back are critical—simply maintaining social ties to the communities in which they worked, or sharing humor. The authors consider the utility of their attempts at giving back, and in some cases present their personal philosophy or guidelines on the subject.

  18. Negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with persistent high intensity low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sin Ki; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Fitzgibbon, Bernadette; Urquhart, Donna M

    2017-08-01

    While previous cross-sectional studies have found that negative beliefs about low back pain are associated with pain intensity, the relationship between back beliefs and persistent low back pain is not well understood. This cohort study aimed to examine the role of back beliefs in persistent low back pain in community-based individuals. A hundred and ninety-two participants from a previous musculoskeletal health study were invited to take part in a two-year follow-up study. Beliefs about back pain were assessed by the Back Beliefs Questionnaire (BBQ) at baseline and low back pain intensity was measured by the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Of the 150 respondents (78.1%), 16 (10.7%) reported persistent high intensity low back pain, 12 (8.0%) developed high intensity low back pain, in 16 (10.7%) their high intensity low back pain resolved and 106 (70.7%) experienced no high intensity low back pain. While participants were generally positive about low back pain (BBQ mean (SD) = 30.2 (6.4)), those with persistent high intensity pain reported greater negativity (BBQ mean (SD) = 22.6 (4.9)). Negative beliefs about back pain were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain after adjusting for confounders (M (SE) = 23.5 (1.6) vs. >30.1 (1.7), p back beliefs were associated with persistent high intensity low back pain over 2 years in community-based individuals. While further longitudinal studies are required, these findings suggest that targeting beliefs in programs designed to treat and prevent persistent high intensity low back pain may be important.

  19. Pilates for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, Tiê P; Maher, Christopher G; Saragiotto, Bruno T; Hancock, Mark J; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Costa, Luciola C Menezes; Costa, Leonardo O P

    2016-01-01

    Non-specific low back pain is a major health problem worldwide. Interventions based on exercises have been the most commonly used treatments for patients with this condition. Over the past few years, the Pilates method has been one of the most popular exercise programmes used in clinical practice. To determine the effects of the Pilates method for patients with non-specific acute, subacute or chronic low back pain. We conducted the searches in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and SPORTDiscus from the date of their inception to March 2014. We updated the search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers as well as six trial registry websites. We placed no limitations on language or date of publication. We only included randomized controlled trials that examined the effectiveness of Pilates intervention in adults with acute, subacute or chronic non-specific low back pain. The primary outcomes considered were pain, disability, global impression of recovery and quality of life. Two independent raters performed the assessment of risk of bias in the included studies using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We also assessed clinical relevance by scoring five questions related to this domain as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. We evaluated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach and for effect sizes we used three levels: small (mean difference (MD) 20% of the scale). We converted outcome measures to a common 0 to 100 scale when different scales were used. The search retrieved 126 trials; 10 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and we included them in the review (a total sample of 510 participants). Seven studies were considered to have low risk of bias, and three were considered as high risk of bias.A total of six trials compared Pilates to minimal intervention. There is low quality evidence that Pilates reduces pain compared with minimal

  20. [Body image and low back pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenig, C G; Hasenbring, M I; Kleinert, J; Kellmann, M

    2016-10-01

    Many factors seem to be causal for non-specific low back pain and are sometimes controversially discussed. Some years ago the concept of subjective body image attracted attention but due to the inconsistent use of terms and concepts it is difficult to classify publications in the literature. Studies confirmed a difference between the body images of patients with low back pain and healthy controls so that an inclusion of body image concepts could be relevant for causation and therapy. This article presents an overview of the current state of research on the association between body image and low back pain and with respect to the allocation of body image in psychosocial concepts of low back pain. Relevant studies on body image and low back pain were reviewed and are discussed with respect to the different use of terms and concepts of body image. Moreover, an approach for integration of the body image into current psychosocial concepts and therapy of low back pain is presented. Finally, it is discussed whether consideration of the body image could be of value in the therapy of low back pain. Studies have shown that low back pain patients have a more negative body image compared to healthy controls. There is a lack of studies on clinical evidence for the application and effectiveness of interventions that influence the body image in low back pain. Further studies are necessary which include body image concepts as a possible psychosocial risk factor, in particular studies on the mechanism of body image procedures.

  1. Low back pain in competitive rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupisti, A; D'Alessandro, C; Evangelisti, I; Piazza, M; Galetta, F; Morelli, E

    2004-03-01

    It has been reported that rhythmic gymnasts are at risk of suffering from low back injuries, because of repetitive lumbar hyperextensions. On the other hand, this sport requires features of leanness, muscular strength and flexibility that should represent protective factors for back pain. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of low back pain in 67 club-level competitive rhythmic gymnasts aged 13-19 years. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate back-pain symptoms. Anthropometric measurements, time spent in physical activity, psychological testing results, smoking habits and age of menarche were recorded. One hundred and four age-matched general females served as control group. Low back pain complaints were reported by 7 rhythmic gymnasts and by 27 controls (10.4% vs 26.0%, pgymnasts and central in controls. Gymnasts had lower body weight, body mass index, fat body mass and delayed menarche. The females with low-back pain displayed higher body weight, body mass index, fat body mass, age, a greater smoking habit and more anxious/depressive behaviour, both in the gymnast and in the control group. Competitive, club-level rhythmic gymnasts show a reduced prevalence of low back-pain. Being younger in age, having greater leanness, not smoking, displaying less anxious/depressive behaviour, and developing increased muscle strength and flexibility, all can represent preventive factors for low back pain. This study suggests that rhythmic gymnastics is not a discipline at increased risk of low back pain.

  2. Neural network construction via back-propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burwick, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    A method is presented that combines back-propagation with multi-layer neural network construction. Back-propagation is used not only to adjust the weights but also the signal functions. Going from one network to an equivalent one that has additional linear units, the non-linearity of these units and thus their effective presence is then introduced via back-propagation (weight-splitting). The back-propagated error causes the network to include new units in order to minimize the error function. We also show how this formalism allows to escape local minima

  3. Paracetamol for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragiotto, Bruno T; Machado, Gustavo C; Ferreira, Manuela L; Pinheiro, Marina B; Abdel Shaheed, Christina; Maher, Christopher G

    2016-06-07

    Analgesic medication is the most frequently prescribed treatment for low back pain (LBP), of which paracetamol (acetaminophen) is recommended as the first choice medication. However, there is uncertainty about the efficacy of paracetamol for LBP. To investigate the efficacy and safety of paracetamol for non-specific LBP. We conducted searches on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, which includes the Back and Neck Review Group trials register), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, LILACS, and IPA from their inception to 7 August 2015. We also searched the reference lists of eligible papers and trial registry websites (WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov). We only considered randomised trials comparing the efficacy of paracetamol with placebo for non-specific LBP. The primary outcomes were pain and disability. We also investigated quality of life, function, adverse effects, global impression of recovery, sleep quality, patient adherence, and use of rescue medication as secondary outcomes. Two review authors independently performed the data extraction and assessed risk of bias in the included studies. We also evaluated the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We converted scales for pain intensity to a common 0 to 100 scale. We quantified treatment effects using mean difference for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes. We used effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals as a measure of treatment effect for the primary outcomes. When the treatment effects were smaller than 9 points on a 0 to 100 scale, we considered the effect as small and not clinically important. Our searches retrieved 4449 records, of which three trials were included in the review (n = 1825 participants), and two trials were included in the meta-analysis. For acute LBP, there is high-quality evidence for no difference between paracetamol (4 g per day) and placebo at 1 week (immediate term), 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks (short term) for

  4. Chinese energy demand falls back

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smil, V.

    1977-10-01

    China's growth in energy demand and production declined in 1976, partly because of difficulty of sustaining a rapid 5.4 percent growth and partly because of the disruptions caused by a major earthquake and the deaths of Mao Tse-Tung and Chou En-Lai. The earthquake, which damaged all mines, the power station, refineries, and transportation lines in the Tangshan area, has had serious economic consequences. The failure to back up a growing coal industry with adequate investments and mechanization was recognized in 1975 and prompted a 10-year modernization program. Progress has been made with new mine shafts, pulverizing equipment, and the use of small mines for local industries. Oil and gas production increased after the discovery of new fields and the use of new technology in the hydrocarbon industries. Ports and terminal facilities to handle large tankers will increase China's oil export traffic. Electricity generation increased with new power facilities, although China's dependence on human and animal power is still a major factor. Changes in energy consumption patterns are developing, but industry still represents 50 percent and transportation less than 10 percent. (DCK)

  5. A bad back needs help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gotway MB

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Case Presentation History of Present Illness A 61-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 2 month complaint of atraumatic back pain, worsening over the previous two weeks. The patient described his pain as sharp, 10/10 in intensity, radiating to his ribs, right hip, and right groin, and aggravated by coughing, weight lifting, and movement. His pain was worse in the supine and prone positions, with some relief provided by sitting, and relieved with high doses of pain medications, topical lidocaine, menthol-containing skin ointments, and chiropractic adjustments. Over the 2 days prior to admission, the patient became increasingly desperate as a result of his pain, and drank several pints of vodka.Past Medical and Social HistoryThe patient is a retired machinist whose medical history includes fibromyalgia and binge drinking. He smokes three-quarters of a pack of cigarettes per day.Physical ExaminationPhysical examination showed normal vital signs and …

  6. Back to school at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The Education Group is expanding its courses for teachers: over 700 secondary school teachers will be going back to school at CERN this year. Thirty-seven teachers from various countries participated in the High School Teachers at CERN programme, with Rolf Landua, the head of the Education Group, Mick Storr, the Education Group’s programme coordinator and Robert Aymar, the CERN Director-General.From 3 to 8 July, CERN hosted the runners-up from the finals of the British Physics Olympiad, the prize for the winners being a trip to the International Physics Olympiad in Iran. The five students were invited to visit CERN to attend the summer student programme for three days. "This gives us an opportunity to study new subjects that are not necessarily part of the school curriculum. Even though I’ve heard about the various types of research, it is a real plus to be able to attend these lectures", explains Oliver Mac Farlane, a young stu...

  7. Predicting the effect of seine rope layout pattern and haul-in procedure on the effectiveness of demersal seine fishing: A Computer simulation-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Nina A H; Aarsæther, Karl G; Herrmann, Bent

    2017-01-01

    Demersal Seining is an active fishing method applying two long seine ropes and a seine net. Demersal seining relies on fish responding to the seine rope as it moves during the fishing process. The seine ropes and net are deployed in a specific pattern encircling an area on the seabed. In some variants of demersal seining the haul-in procedure includes a towing phase where the fishing vessel moves forward before starting to winch in the seine ropes. The initial seine rope encircled area, the gradual change in it during the haul-in process and the fish's reaction to the moving seine ropes play an important role in the catch performance of demersal seine fishing. The current study investigates this subject by applying computer simulation models for demersal seine fishing. The demersal seine fishing is dynamic in nature and therefore a dynamic model, SeineSolver is applied for simulating the physical behaviour of the seine ropes during the fishing process. Information about the seine rope behaviour is used as input to another simulation tool, SeineFish that predicts the catch performance of the demersal seine fishing process. SeineFish implements a simple model for how fish at the seabed reacts to an approaching seine rope. Here, the SeineSolver and SeineFish tools are applied to investigate catching performance for a Norwegian demersal seine fishery targeting cod (Gadus morhua) in the coastal zone. The effect of seine rope layout pattern and the duration of the towing phase are investigated. Among the four different layout patterns investigated, the square layout pattern was predicted to perform best; catching 69%-86% more fish than would be obtained with the rectangular layout pattern. Inclusion of a towing phase in the fishing process was found to increase the catch performance for all layout patterns. For the square layout pattern, inclusion of a towing phase of 15 or 35 minutes increased the catch performance by respectively 37% and 48% compared to fishing without

  8. Back Facts: A Training Workbook to Prevent Back Injuries in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people over age 85 as we have today. 5 More old people means more nursing homes. ... are high Prevention of back injuries is smart business. Management can save lots of money. Individual back ...

  9. Back care education on peasant farmers suffering from chronic mechanical low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Olusola Ayanniyi; Olusoji G. Ige

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem that cuts across various occupations. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of back care education on farmers suffering from chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Male peasant farmers suffering from chronic LBP were purposively recruited and randomly assigned to back care education group (BG) and control group (CG). The participants in the BG were trained in back care education five times within eight weeks while parti...

  10. Prevention: The Best Treatment for Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the top reasons for doctor visits. Back pain has many causes, including bad posture, excessive weight, poor workstation setup, lack of exercise and limited flexibility. Fortunately, many of them are preventable and ... can help prevent back pain. Depending on the cause, the pain can occur ...

  11. 33 CFR 117.523 - Back River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Back River. 117.523 Section 117.523 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maine § 117.523 Back River. The draw of the Maine Department of...

  12. Drain Back, Low Flow Solar Combi Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU and 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...

  13. Backing warning sensors for tow plows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Backup warning system devices were evaluated to determine if they would alert winter maintenance snow : plow drivers to obstacles directly behind the trailer and out of view of the driver when a unit is backed up. : When the sensors on the back of th...

  14. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Specificity of a back muscle exercise machine in healthy and low back pain subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; DA Silva, Rubens A; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Nadeau, Sylvie; Plamondon, André; Vadeboncoeur, Roger

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether dynamic back muscle endurance exercises in a semisitting position induce more fatigue in back muscles than that in hip extensors in healthy controls as well as in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Sixteen healthy volunteers and 18 volunteers with nonspecific chronic low back pain performed trunk flexion-extension cycles until exhaustion at 60% of their strength in a machine designed for back exercise in a semisitting position with knees' angle at 135 degrees . The number of cycles and perceived muscle fatigue (Borg CR-10 scale) at five areas (upper and lower back, gluteus, hamstrings, and quadriceps) were used as fatigue criteria. EMG signals were recorded bilaterally on four back muscles, two hip extensors (gluteus maximus and biceps femoris), and the vastus medialis. The slope values of the instantaneous median frequency values computed over time were retained as EMG indices of fatigue. The number of cycles was equivalent in healthy controls (n = 23 +/- 13) and patients with back pain (n = 27 +/- 16). EMG indices of fatigue disclosed evidence of muscle fatigue in all the back muscles and the vastus medialis, contrary to hip extensors. EMG revealed significantly more muscle fatigue of lower back muscles, which was further corroborated by the Borg scale assessment. No between-group difference was obtained in any EMG comparison. These results showed that this type of exercise machine can specifically train the back muscles, and this as much in subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain as in healthy controls. This has implications for the training of back muscle endurance, especially in patients with back pain for whom poor back muscle endurance is sometimes of concern.

  16. Crew factors in flight operations 9: Effects of planned cockpit rest on crew performance and alertness in long-haul operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Dinges, David F.; Connell, Linda J.; Rountree, Michael S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Gillen, Kelly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a planned cockpit rest period to improve alertness and performance in long-haul flight operations. The Rest Group (12 crew members) was allowed a planned 40 minute rest period during the low workload, cruise portion of the flight, while the No-Rest Group (9 crew members) had a 40 minute planned control period when they maintained usual flight activities. Measures used in the study included continuous ambulatory recordings of brain wave and eye movement activity, a reaction time/vigilance task, a wrist activity monitor, in-flight fatigue and alertness ratings, a daily log for noting sleep periods, meals, exercise, flight and duty periods, and the NASA Background Questionnaire. The Rest Group pilots slept on 93 percent of the opportunities, falling asleep in 5.6 minutes and sleeping for 25.8 minutes. This nap was associated with improved physiological alertness and performance compared to the No-Rest Group. The benefits of the nap were observed through the critical descent and landing phases of flight. The nap did not affect layover sleep or the cumulative sleep debt. The nap procedures were implemented with minimal disruption to usual flight operations and there were no reported or identified concerns regarding safety.

  17. [Which rehabilitation for which low back pain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiraudeau, S; Lefèvre-Colau, M M; Mayoux-Benhamou, M A; Revel, M

    2000-10-15

    Many rehabilitation technics for low back pain are available. Their aims are short time pain decrease, muscular strengthening in flexion or extension, increased hip and lumbar spine mobility, improved lumbar and pelvic proprioceptive sensibility, improved general fitness. During the past ten years, studies meeting widely accepted validity and applicability for therapeutic trials have addressed the clinical efficacy of rehabilitation in low back pain patients. Most studies assessing the back school approach have found no benefit. Spinal extension and flexion programs have yielded short-time improvements, without difference between the two methods. There is now strong evidence that functional restoration programs provide long-term benefits including better social and occupational outcomes.

  18. Interaction analysis of back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Benmebarek

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Back-to-back mechanically stabilized earth walls (BBMSEWs are encountered in bridge approaches, ramp ways, rockfall protection systems, earth dams, levees and noise barriers. However, available design guidelines for BBMSEWs are limited and not applicable to numerical modeling when back-to-back walls interact with each other. The objective of this paper is to investigate, using PLAXIS code, the effects of the reduction in the distance between BBMSEW, the reinforcement length, the quality of backfill material and the connection of reinforcements in the middle, when the back-to-back walls are close. The results indicate that each of the BBMSEWs behaves independently if the width of the embankment between mechanically stabilized earth walls is greater than that of the active zone. This is in good agreement with the result of FHWA design guideline. However, the results show that the FHWA design guideline underestimates the lateral earth pressure when back-to-back walls interact with each other. Moreover, for closer BBMSEWs, FHWA design guideline strongly overestimates the maximum tensile force in the reinforcement. The investigation of the quality of backfill material shows that the minor increase in embankment cohesion can lead to significant reductions in both the lateral earth pressure and the maximum tensile force in geosynthetic. When the distance between the two earth walls is close to zero, the connection of reinforcement between back-to-back walls significantly improves the factor of safety.

  19. Back to Back: A Focus on Reducing the Logistics Costs and Tax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério João Lunkes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade, which enables reduction of logistics costs and taxes. The operation of Back to Back is an excellent opportunity to increase foreign exchange gain and offer greater flexibility to commercial operations that the business requires. The methodology used in preparing this study was qualitative research according to the characteristics and nature of the problem. From the use of descriptive research study aims to demonstrate the main theoretical aspects underlying the subject in reference. This study aimed to identify the main aspects related to the operation of Back to Back set out in international trade and tax effects in an organization and logistics of industrial electronics segment of the State of Santa Catarina. The study demonstrated that the benefits of the operation of Back to Back is of paramount importance for companies having a positive impact in financial terms by reducing the need for tax payments and logistics costs which affect the processes of import and export. The results presented showed that the company studied the operation of Back to Back is essential for international negotiations.

  20. Core strengthening exercises for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerga-Varela, Luis; Abréu Ramos, Antonio M

    2006-01-01

    Core strengthening concepts have gained increased popularity in low back rehabilitation. Traditional low back pain rehabilitation is based on a static spine stability model and is composed mostly of modalities, stretching and strengthening exercises. More recent theories, however, include newer concepts of dynamic spinal stability, coordination and neuromuscular control. Core strengthening exercises incorporate these new concepts. Although more research is necessary, the best available evidence suggests that a core strengthening program may be beneficial in reducing pain scores, functional disability and recurrences of acute low back pain episodes. This article reviews "core" anatomy, physiologic models of spinal stability, effects, of low back pain on spinal stability, evidence-based reasoning behind core strengthening and the basic concepts involved in designing a core strengthening program.

  1. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam ... Keywords. Embryonic stem cells; pluripotency; reprogramming; differentiation; Nobel Prize 2012. ... National Centre for Cell Science University of Pune Campus Ganeshkhind Pune 411 007, India.

  2. The pharmacotherapy of low back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern imaging techniques have contributed significantly to getting to the correct diagnosis. The following conditions may cause lower back pain: Cancer, Cauda Equina Syndrome, Herniated intervertebral disc, severe or progressive neurological deficits, spinal stenosis, vertebral compression fracture or vertebral infection.

  3. Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000415.htm Cognitive behavioral therapy for back pain To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can help many people deal with chronic ...

  4. Generalized Back Propagation for Training Pattern Derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří

    1994-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (1994), s. 91-98 ISSN 1210-0552 Grant - others:ALTEC(XE) IC-1000 Keywords : back propagation * smoothness constraints * multi-layered network * expert system * explicite kulle * trainning pattern derivatives * generalization

  5. Back Labor: Childbirth Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Although not widely used, some research suggests that shallow injections of sterile water to the lower back ... shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo ...

  6. Cellular Reprogramming–Turning the Clock Back

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 6. Cellular Reprogramming - Turning the Clock Back - Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2012. Deepa Subramanyam. General Article Volume 18 Issue 6 June 2013 pp 514-521 ...

  7. Acne, vulgaris on the back (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acne frequently occurs on the back. Here, there are 2 to 6 millimeter wide erythematous (red) pustules ... Permanent scarring may follow a severe case of acne. Men are more often affected on their shoulders ...

  8. Dual-polarization multi-band optical OFDM transmission and transceiver limitations for up to 500 Gb/s uncompensated long-haul links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoumidis, E; Jarajreh, M A; Sygletos, S; Le, S T; Farjady, F; Tsokanos, A; Hamié, A; Pincemin, E; Jaouën, Y; Ellis, A D; Doran, N J

    2014-05-05

    A number of critical issues for dual-polarization single- and multi-band optical orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (DP-SB/MB-OFDM) signals are analyzed in dispersion compensation fiber (DCF)-free long-haul links. For the first time, different DP crosstalk removal techniques are compared, the maximum transmission-reach is investigated, and the impact of subcarrier number and high-level modulation formats are explored thoroughly. It is shown, for a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10(-3), 2000 km of quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) DP-MB-OFDM transmission is feasible. At high launched optical powers (LOP), maximum-likelihood decoding can extend the LOP of 40 Gb/s QPSK DP-SB-OFDM at 2000 km by 1.5 dB compared to zero-forcing. For a 100 Gb/s DP-MB-OFDM system, a high number of subcarriers contribute to improved BER but at the cost of digital signal processing computational complexity, whilst by adapting the cyclic prefix length the BER can be improved for a low number of subcarriers. In addition, when 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) is employed the digital-to-analogue/analogue-to-digital converter (DAC/ADC) bandwidth is relaxed with a degraded BER; while the 'circular' 8QAM is slightly superior to its 'rectangular' form. Finally, the transmission of wavelength-division multiplexing DP-MB-OFDM and single-carrier DP-QPSK is experimentally compared for up to 500 Gb/s showing great potential and similar performance at 1000 km DCF-free G.652 line.

  9. A correlation linking the predicted mean vote and the mean thermal vote based on an investigation on the human thermal comfort in short-haul domestic flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaconia, Carlo; Orioli, Aldo; Di Gangi, Alessandra

    2015-05-01

    The results of an experimental investigation on the human thermal comfort inside the cabin of some Airbus A319 aircrafts during 14 short-haul domestic flights, linking various Italian cities, are presented and used to define a correlation among the predicted mean vote (PMV), a procedure which is commonly used to assess the thermal comfort in inhabited environments, and the equivalent temperature and mean thermal vote (MTV), which are the parameters suggested by the European Standard EN ISO 14505-2 for the evaluation of the thermal environment in vehicles. The measurements of the radiant temperature, air temperature and relative humidity during flights were performed. The air temperature varied between 22.2 °C and 26.0 °C; the relative humidity ranged from 8.7% to 59.2%. The calculated values of the PMV varied from -0.16 to 0.90 and were confirmed by the answers of the passengers. The equivalent temperature was evaluated using the equations of Fanger or on the basis of the values of the skin temperature measured on some volunteers. The correlation linking the thermal sensation scales and zones used by the PMV and the MTV resulted quite accurate because the minimum value of the absolute difference between such environmental indexes equalled 0.0073 and the maximum difference did not exceed the value of 0.0589. Even though the equivalent temperature and the MTV were specifically proposed to evaluate the thermal sensation in vehicles, their use may be effectively extended to the assessment of the thermal comfort in airplanes or other occupied places. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Long-Haul Transmeridian Travel on Subjective Jet-Lag and Self-Reported Sleep and Upper Respiratory Symptoms in Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter M; Duffield, Rob; Lu, Donna; Hickmans, Jeremy A; Scott, Tannath J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the effects of 24-h travel west across 11 time zones on subjective jet-lag and wellness responses together with self-reported sleep and upper respiratory symptoms in 18 professional rugby league players. Measures were obtained 1 or 2 d before (pretravel) and 2, 6, and 8 d after travel (post-2, post-6, and post-8) from Australia to the United Kingdom (UK) for the 2015 World Club Series. Compared with pretravel, subjective jet-lag remained significantly elevated on post-8 (3.1 ± 2.3, P 0.90), although it was greatest on post-2 (4.1 ± 1.4). Self-reported sleep-onset times were significantly earlier on post-2 than at all other time points (P 0.90), and large effect sizes suggested that wake times were earlier on post-2 than on post-6 and post-8 (d > 0.90). Although significantly more upper respiratory symptoms were reported on post-6 than at pretravel (P incidence of injury and negligible changes in wellness and muscle strength and range of motion (P > .05, d professional rugby league players. Of note, the increase in self-reported upper respiratory symptoms is a reminder that the demands of long-haul travel may be an additional concern in jet-lag for traveling athletes. However, due to the lack of sport-specific performance measures, it is still unclear whether international travel interferes with training to the extent that subsequent competition performance is impaired.

  11. Effects of northbound long-haul international air travel on sleep quantity and subjective jet lag and wellness in professional Australian soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Peter; Duffield, Rob; Howle, Kieran; Waterson, Adam; Vaile, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined the effects of 10-h northbound air travel across 1 time zone on sleep quantity, together with subjective jet lag and wellness ratings, in 16 male professional Australian football (soccer) players. Player wellness was measured throughout the week before (home training week) and the week of (away travel week) travel from Australia to Japan for a preseason tour. Sleep quantity and subjective jet lag were measured 2 d before (Pre 1 and 2), the day of, and for 5 d after travel (Post 1-5). Sleep duration was significantly reduced during the night before travel (Pre 1; 4.9 [4.2-5.6] h) and night of competition (Post 2; 4.2 [3.7-4.7] h) compared with every other night (P0.90). Moreover, compared with the day before travel, subjective jet lag was significantly greater for the 5 d after travel (P0.90), and player wellness was significantly lower 1 d post-match (Post 3) than at all other time points (P0.90). Results from the current study suggest that sleep disruption, as a result of an early travel departure time (8 PM) and evening match (7:30 PM), and fatigue induced by competition had a greater effect on wellness ratings than long-haul air travel with a minimal time-zone change. Furthermore, subjective jet lag may have been misinterpreted as fatigue from sleep disruption and competition, especially by the less experienced players. Therefore, northbound air travel across 1 time zone from Australia to Asia appears to have negligible effects on player preparedness for subsequent training and competition.

  12. Low back pain in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M R

    1999-11-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport that blends the athleticism of a gymnast with the grace of a ballerina. The sport demands both the coordination of handling various apparatus and the flexibility to attain positions not seen in any other sport. To attain perfection and reproducibility of their routines, the athletes must practice and repeat the basic elements of their routines thousands of times. In so doing, the athlete places herself at risk of a myriad of overuse injuries, the most common being low back pain. To document the presence and severity of low back pain in elite rhythmic gymnasts, a prospective study of seven national team members was undertaken that documented injuries and complaints with daily medical reports over a 7-wk period. These findings were correlated with a retrospective review of 11 elite level gymnasts followed over a 10-month period whose complaints ultimately required evaluation by a physician. Eighty-six percent of the gymnasts in the prospective study complained of back pain at some point over the course of the study. The only injury recorded that required a time loss from sport was a low back injury. The most common complaint requiring a physician's evaluation was low back pain with the diagnoses varying from muscle strains to bony stress reaction or complete fracture of the pars inter-articularis (spondylolysis). No athlete had a spondylolisthesis or ruptured disk. Two had mild scolioses which did not appear to be associated with their low back pain. It would appear that rhythmic gymnasts are at relative increased risk of suffering low back complaints secondary to their sport.

  13. Predicting fruit and vegetable consumption in long-haul heavy goods vehicle drivers: Application of a multi-theory, dual-phase model and the contribution of past behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D J; Hagger, M S; Morrissey, S; Hamilton, K

    2018-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake is insufficient in industrialized nations and long-haul heavy goods vehicle (HGV) drivers are considered a particularly at-risk group. The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of a multi-theory, dual-phase model to predict fruit and vegetable consumption in Australian long-haul HGV drivers. A secondary aim was to examine the effect of past fruit and vegetable consumption on model paths. A prospective design with two waves of data collection spaced one week apart was adopted. Long-haul HGV drivers (N = 212) completed an initial survey containing theory-based measures of motivation (autonomous motivation, intention), social cognition (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control), and volition (action planning, coping planning) for fruit and vegetable consumption. One week later, participants (n = 84) completed a self-report measure of fruit and vegetable intake over the previous week. A structural equation model revealed that autonomous motivation predicted intentions, mediated through attitudes and perceived behavioural control. It further revealed that perceived behavioural control, action planning, and intentions predicted fruit and vegetable intake, whereby the intention-behaviour relationship was moderated by coping planning. Inclusion of past behaviour attenuated the effects of these variables. The model identified the relative contribution of motivation, social cognition, and volitional components in predicting fruit and vegetable intake of HGV drivers. Consistent with previous research, inclusion of past fruit and vegetable consumption led to an attenuation of model effects, particularly the intention-behaviour relationship. Further investigation is needed to determine which elements of past behaviour exert most influence on future action. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low back pain recurrence in occupational environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marras, William S; Ferguson, Sue A; Burr, Deborah; Schabo, Pete; Maronitis, Anthony

    2007-10-01

    Prospective assessment of return to work after low back pain. To determine which factors or combination of factors best predict recurrence of low back pain (defined 4 different ways) when returning to full-duty work. Recurrent back pain is one of the more costly health problems facing industry today. Few systematic evaluations of the various factors suspected of exacerbating low back pain have been reported in the literature. A total of 206 workers who reported low back pain were evaluated as they returned to full-duty work. Five types of assessments were performed including: 1) a low back kinematic functional assessments, 2) evaluation of job physical demands, 3) psychosocial assessment of the job environment, 4) self-reported impairment including perception of symptoms and psychological measures, and 5) personal (individual) factors. One year after return to full duty workers were interviewed to assess who had a recurrence of low back pain according to 4 different definitions of low back pain (symptom reports, medical visits, self-reported lost days, and employer-reported lost days due to back pain). Multiple logistic regression models were developed to assess the best combinations of predictors. The most liberal definition of recurrence, recurrent symptoms, had a significantly greater recurrence rate at 58% than all other outcome measures (P = 0.0001). The medical visit recurrence rate of 36% was significantly greater than the more conservative lost time measures (P = 0.0001). The recurrence rate for self-reported lost time was 15%, whereas the more conservative employer confirmed lost time measure was significantly lower at 10% (P = 0.0077). Multivariate predictive models associated with the various recurrence definitions yielded sensitivities varying between 78% and 80% and specificity between 73% and 80%. Recurrence is greatly dependent on how one defines recurrence with symptom reporting yielding 5.5 times as many recurrences compared with employer confirmed

  15. Physical deconditioning in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Ivan; Parra, José-Hernán; Duvallet, Alain

    2009-03-01

    To establish the level of cardiorespiratory fitness and the rate of decrease in maximal aerobic capacity according to age in patients with chronic low back pain and compare these with normative data. Prospective case series with historical controls. Seventy patients with chronic low back pain. A maximal cycle ergometer protocol was used to measure VO2max, heart rate, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate levels. Seventy patients achieved absolute and normalized for weight VO2max values of 2.17 (standard deviation (SD) 0.65) l/min and 30.79 (SD 7.77) ml/kg/min, respectively. Absolute VO2max was poorly related to age in both men and women with chronic low back pain (r = -0.22 and r = -0.28, respectively). VO2max normalized for weight was also inversely related to age in both men and women (r = -0.36 and r = -0.42, respectively). The rate of VO2max decline between 20 and 59 years was -3.3 ml/kg/min/decade for the entire population and -1.2 and -5.4 ml/kg/min/decade in men and women, respectively. The level of physical fitness of patients with chronic low back pain is comparable to the physical fitness of healthy, but poorly conditioned subjects. Patients with chronic low back pain show a VO2max decline with ageing that is slower than of active subjects.

  16. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  17. Acknowledging the patient with back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Janne Brammer; Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Rationale and aims: Research shows that back patients’ illness experiences affect their interaction with the healthcare system. It is important to examine the exact nature of these experiences in order to shed valuable light on how back patients perceive their illness and hospitalisation. The aim....... The body can never be understood merely as a biological entity, and therefore illness is far more than having symptoms, diagnoses, and treatment. The synthesis thus proposes an acknowledgment of this and a more holistic approach....... of this literature review is to gain a better understanding of back patients’ illness experiences and to identify, systematise and integrate the findings of different qualitative studies that may elucidate barriers, consequences or focal points in connection with the care and treatment. Methods: The methodology...

  18. Optimal back-to-front airplane boarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmat, Eitan; Khachaturov, Vassilii; Kuperman, Ran

    2013-06-01

    The problem of finding an optimal back-to-front airplane boarding policy is explored, using a mathematical model that is related to the 1+1 polynuclear growth model with concave boundary conditions and to causal sets in gravity. We study all airplane configurations and boarding group sizes. Optimal boarding policies for various airplane configurations are presented. Detailed calculations are provided along with simulations that support the main conclusions of the theory. We show that the effectiveness of back-to-front policies undergoes a phase transition when passing from lightly congested airplanes to heavily congested airplanes. The phase transition also affects the nature of the optimal or near-optimal policies. Under what we consider to be realistic conditions, optimal back-to-front policies lead to a modest 8-12% improvement in boarding time over random (no policy) boarding, using two boarding groups. Having more than two groups is not effective.

  19. Clinical classification in low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Tom; Laslett, Mark; Juhl, Carsten Bogh

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical examination findings are used in primary care to give an initial diagnosis to patients with low back pain and related leg symptoms. The purpose of this study was to develop best evidence Clinical Diagnostic Rules (CDR] for the identification of the most common patho...... searching and citation tracking to identify eligible studies. Criteria for inclusion were: persons with low back pain with or without related leg symptoms, history or physical examination findings suitable for use in primary care, comparison with acceptable reference standards, and statistical reporting...

  20. Uncertainty Analyses for Back Projection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, H.; Wei, S.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    So far few comprehensive error analyses for back projection methods have been conducted, although it is evident that high frequency seismic waves can be easily affected by earthquake depth, focal mechanisms and the Earth's 3D structures. Here we perform 1D and 3D synthetic tests for two back projection methods, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (Meng et al., 2011) and Compressive Sensing (CS) (Yao et al., 2011). We generate synthetics for both point sources and finite rupture sources with different depths, focal mechanisms, as well as 1D and 3D structures in the source region. The 3D synthetics are generated through a hybrid scheme of Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element Method. Then we back project the synthetic data using MUSIC and CS. The synthetic tests show that the depth phases can be back projected as artificial sources both in space and time. For instance, for a source depth of 10km, back projection gives a strong signal 8km away from the true source. Such bias increases with depth, e.g., the error of horizontal location could be larger than 20km for a depth of 40km. If the array is located around the nodal direction of direct P-waves the teleseismic P-waves are dominated by the depth phases. Therefore, back projections are actually imaging the reflection points of depth phases more than the rupture front. Besides depth phases, the strong and long lasted coda waves due to 3D effects near trench can lead to additional complexities tested here. The strength contrast of different frequency contents in the rupture models also produces some variations to the back projection results. In the synthetic tests, MUSIC and CS derive consistent results. While MUSIC is more computationally efficient, CS works better for sparse arrays. In summary, our analyses indicate that the impact of various factors mentioned above should be taken into consideration when interpreting back projection images, before we can use them to infer the earthquake rupture physics.

  1. Predictors of isokinetic back muscle strength in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A; Johansen, J G; Hellesnes, J; Brox, J I

    1999-02-01

    Testing for trunk muscle strength was performed on 105 patients with chronic low back pain. To investigate prediction of isokinetic back muscle strength in patients with low back pain. The clinical evaluation of patients with chronic low back pain often in difficult because of discrepancy between disability and impairment. The isokinetic trunk device was developed as a tool for objective assessment of back muscle strength. However, the performance of patients depends on radiologic abnormalities of the spine, conditions of the back muscles, and various psychosocial factors. Studies are warranted that address how these variables influence back muscle strength. The patients with chronic low back pain were tested by an isokinetic trunk muscle strength test (Cybex TEF, Ronkonkoma, NY). In addition, the following variables were recorded: gender, age, body mass index, emotional distress, pain on exertion, self-efficacy for pain, degenerative changes of the lumbar spine, cross-sectional area, and density of the erector spinae muscles. The three latter variables were estimated by computed tomography scans. The sum of the total work performed during isokinetic extension strength test was the dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis, and anthropometric, demographic, psychological, and radiologic factors were independent variables. Gender, cross-sectional muscle area, and pain on exertion were the most powerful predictors of isokinetic back muscle strength. The final regression model, which included these variables, could account for approximately 40% of the variability in back muscle strength. For assessing the results of an isokinetic trunk muscle strength test, cross-sectional muscle area, gender, and pain on exertion should be taken into account.

  2. Low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipton, E A

    1989-07-01

    Back pain is one of the most common disorders seen in general practice. Patients with chronic low back pain form a large proportion of the work of any pain relief unit. The aetiology of low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome are briefly presented and treatment of the 'failed back surgery patient' and the patient with arachnoiditis are discussed.

  3. Lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duijvenbode, I. C. D.; Jellema, P.; van Poppel, M. N. M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar supports are used in the treatment of low-back pain patients, to prevent the onset of low-back pain (primary prevention) or to prevent recurrences of a low-back pain episode (secondary prevention). To assess the effects of lumbar supports for prevention and treatment of non-specific low-back

  4. In Shackleton's trails: Central and local thermoadaptive modifications to cold and hypoxia after a man-hauling expedition on the Antarctic Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramidas, Michail E; Kölegård, Roger; Eiken, Ola

    2018-04-01

    Cold and hypoxia constitute the main environmental stressors encountered on the Antarctic Plateau. Hence, we examined whether central and/or peripheral acclimatisation to the combined stressors of cold and hypoxia would be developed in four men following an 11-day man-hauling expedition on this polar region. Before and after the journey, participants performed a static whole-body immersion in 21 °C water, during which they were breathing a hypoxic gas (partial pressure of inspired O 2 : ~97 mmHg). To evaluate their local responses to cold, participants also immersed the hand into 8 °C water for 30 min, while they were whole-body immersed and mildly hypothermic [i.e. 0.5 °C fall in rectal temperature (T rec ) from individual pre-immersion values]. T rec and skin temperature (T sk ), skin blood flux, and oxygen uptake (reflecting shivering thermogenesis) were monitored throughout. The polar expedition accelerated by ~14 min the drop in T rec [final mean (95% confidence interval) changes in T rec : Before = -0.94 (0.15) °C, After: - 1.17 (0.23) °C]. The shivering onset threshold [Before: 19 (22) min, After: 25 (19) min] and gain [Before: - 4.19 (3.95) mL min -1 kg -1 , After: - 1.70 (1.21) mL min -1 kg -1 ] were suppressed by the expedition. T sk did not differ between trials. The development of a greater post-expedition hypothermic state did not compromise finger circulation during the hand-cooling phase. Present findings indicate therefore that a hypothermic pattern of cold acclimatisation, as investigated in hypoxia, was developed following a short-term expedition on the South Polar Plateau; an adaptive response that is characterised mainly by suppressed shivering thermogenesis, and partly by blunted cutaneous vasoconstriction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vigilance on the civil flight deck: incidence of sleepiness and sleep during long-haul flights and associated changes in physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; McGown, A

    2001-01-15

    The study investigated sleepiness and sleep in aircrew during long-haul flights. The objectives were to identify loss of alertness and to recommend a practical approach to the design of an alerting system to be used by aircrew to prevent involuntary sleep. The flights were between London and Miami, covering both day- and night-time sectors, each with a duration of approximately 9 h. The subjects were 12 British Airways pilots. Various physiological variables were measured that could potentially be used to indicate the presence of drowsiness and involuntary sleep: brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram, EEG), eye movements via the electro-oculogram (EOG), wrist activity, head movements and galvanic skin resistance. The EEG and EOG identified sleepiness and sleep, as well as being potential measures on which to base an alarm system. Ten pilots either slept or showed evidence of sleepiness as assessed by the EEG and EOG. Many of the episodes of sleepiness lasted sleep, although only the EEG and EOG were modified by sleepiness. During sleep, skin resistance was increased, and wrist activity and head movements were absent for long periods. The study indicated that the measurement of eye movements (either alone or in combination with the EEG), wrist activity or head movement may be used as the basis of an alarm system to prevent involuntary sleep. Skin resistance is considered to be unsuitable, however, being related in a more general way to fatigue rather than to sleep episodes. The optimal way to monitor the onset of sleep would be to measure eye movements; however, this is not feasible in the flight deck environment at the present time due to the intrusive nature of the recording methodology. Wrist activity is therefore recommended as the basis of an alertness alarm. Such a device would alert the pilot after approximately 4-5 min of wrist inactivity, since this duration has been shown by the present study to be associated with sleep. The possibility that

  6. Transmission system for distribution of video over long-haul optical point-to-point links using a microwave photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01-10 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaldívar Huerta, Ignacio E.; Pérez Montaña, Diego F.; Nava, Pablo Hernández; Juárez, Alejandro García; Asomoza, Jorge Rodríguez; Leal Cruz, Ana L.

    2013-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of an electro-optical transmission system for distribution of video over long-haul optical point-to-point links using a microwave photonic filter in the frequency range of 0.01-10 GHz. The frequency response of the microwave photonic filter consists of four band-pass windows centered at frequencies that can be tailored to the function of the spectral free range of the optical source, the chromatic dispersion parameter of the optical fiber used, as well as the length of the optical link. In particular, filtering effect is obtained by the interaction of an externally modulated multimode laser diode emitting at 1.5 μm associated to the length of a dispersive optical fiber. Filtered microwave signals are used as electrical carriers to transmit TV-signal over long-haul optical links point-to-point. Transmission of TV-signal coded on the microwave band-pass windows located at 4.62, 6.86, 4.0 and 6.0 GHz are achieved over optical links of 25.25 km and 28.25 km, respectively. Practical applications for this approach lie in the field of the FTTH access network for distribution of services as video, voice, and data.

  7. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Altered postural control has been observed in low back pain (LBP) patients. They seem to be more dependent on vision when standing. The objective of the study was to determine concurrent and predictive validity of measures of postural stability in LBP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  8. Low back pain (non-specific).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krismer, M.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is defined as pain localised between the 12th rib and the inferior gluteal folds, with or without leg pain. Most cases are non-specific, but in about 10% of cases a specific cause is identified. Red flags are typical signs or symptoms that are frequently associated with specific

  9. Paschen-Back effect in dyonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1987-01-01

    A formulation of the Pashen-Back effect in dyonium is discussed to explain the recent evidence for a magnetic monopole of mass 2397 MeV and Dirac charge g = (137/2)e. The masses for isospin I = 0 mesons are estimated and compared with experiment

  10. Teaching Communication: Back to the 60s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This piece, a preface to a reprinted 1971 article on communication practice, focuses on the need for real communication in the language classroom. In this article, the author drifts back to inspiring times in the 1960s and reflects on some events that prompted him to write the article in the first place.

  11. Imaging in mechanical back pain: Anything new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke Brandt; Hansen, Philip; Carrino, John A; Fournier, Gilles; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-08-01

    Low back pain is common and relates to a variety of overlapping pathologies. Within the last few decades, almost every medical imaging modality has been applied in the evaluation of low back pain. Imaging of the spine has a high priority in the assessment of patients with low back pain, who seem to expect such procedures to be undertaken. However, the majority of conventional imaging techniques do not have adequate precision to identify the primary source of pain. Not only can this be frustrating to both clinicians and patients, but importantly, inadequate correlation between imaging findings and symptoms hampers the ability of clinicians to devise a specific treatment plan for the patient. Therefore, there is mounting interest in new imaging techniques of the lumbar spine that may increase the clinical correlation in low back pain. In this review, we will discuss the value and limitations of various lumbar spine imaging techniques with focus on new emerging technologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar cell with back side contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Clews, Peggy J

    2013-12-24

    A III-V solar cell is described herein that includes all back side contacts. Additionally, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact compoud semiconductor layers of the solar cell other than the absorbing layer of the solar cell. That is, the positive and negative electrical contacts contact passivating layers of the solar cell.

  13. Mediastinal bronchogenic cyst with back pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [11]. Conclusion. A case of a 31-year-old man with congenital bronchogenic cyst associated with severe back pain has been presented. The diagnosis made by chest radiograph and chest CT was confirmed by pathology. The clinical presentation, radiologic features and treatment of bronchogenic cyst have been discussed.

  14. Brook Trout Back in Aaron Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following a series of acid mine drainage (AMD) projects funded largely by EPA’s Clean Water Act Section 319 non-point source program, the pH level in Aaron Run is meeting Maryland’s water quality standard – and the brook trout are back.

  15. Herbal medicine for low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oltean, H.; Robbins, C.S.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.M.; Bombardier, C.; Gagnier, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines

  16. Non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Chris; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2017-02-18

    Non-specific low back pain affects people of all ages and is a leading contributor to disease burden worldwide. Management guidelines endorse triage to identify the rare cases of low back pain that are caused by medically serious pathology, and so require diagnostic work-up or specialist referral, or both. Because non-specific low back pain does not have a known pathoanatomical cause, treatment focuses on reducing pain and its consequences. Management consists of education and reassurance, analgesic medicines, non-pharmacological therapies, and timely review. The clinical course of low back pain is often favourable, thus many patients require little if any formal medical care. Two treatment strategies are currently used, a stepped approach beginning with more simple care that is progressed if the patient does not respond, and the use of simple risk prediction methods to individualise the amount and type of care provided. The overuse of imaging, opioids, and surgery remains a widespread problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Peralta's "Operation Call Back": Demonstrating People Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Thomas W., Jr.; Mitchell, Beverly

    1975-01-01

    To avoid declining enrollments, Peralta identified 50,000 former students and launched a massive campaign to contact and re-recruit them. This, combined with the mailing of a brochure to all 190,000 local households, posters mounted on the backs of 50 local buses, and other advertising methods led to a second semester enrollment increase of over…

  18. The natural course of low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemeunier, Nadège; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Gagey, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Most patients in the secondary care sector consulting for low back pain (LBP) seem to have a more or less constant course of pain during the ensuing year. Fewer patients with LBP in the primary care sector report continual pain over a one-year period. However, not much is known about the long...

  19. Looking back on 10 RESIM workshops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk

    This year sees the 10th RESIM workshop, which is a good moment to look back on this series of workshops. Partially, this will be a "trip down memory lane": remembering all the meetings and venues. Partially, it will be more serious. Can we see any trends in the topics discussed in the workshops? Are

  20. Taking care of your back at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical therapist says it is OK: Jogging Contact sports Racquet sports Golf Dancing Weight lifting Leg lifts when lying ... Chou R, Loeser JD, Owens DK, et al. Interventional therapies, surgery, and ... for low back pain: an evidence-based clinical practice ...

  1. Augmented Reality: Simulasi Terapi Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmi Khalida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini telah berkembang ilmu layanan kesehatan yang dilakukan dari jarak jauh atau telemedicine. Telemedicine adalah praktek kesehatan dengan memakai komunikasi audio, visual dan data. termasuk perawatan, diagnosis, konsultasi dan pengobatan serta pertukaran data medis dan diskusi ilmiah jarak jauh dengan melibatkan dokter, pasien dan pihak-pihak lain. Augmented Reality merupakan pemodelan simulasi virtual, Augmented Reality adalah teknologi yang menggabungkan antara dunia nyata dengan virtual. Teknologi Augmented Reality dapat diterapkan pada telemedicine, Secara sederhana, telemedicine sesungguhnya telah diaplikasikan ketika terjadi simulasi model virtual pada sebuah tindakan operasi. Pada penelitian ini akan dibahas mengenai media Augmented Reality yang diterapkan pada bidang kesehatan yaitu pada penyakit low back pain dan penyembuhannya melalui terapi mandiri. Penyalit low back pain mempunyai prevalensi yang tinggi namun penyakit ini dapat sembuh dengan sendirinya. Tahapan pengerjaan dalam penelitian ini dimulai identifikasi kandidat prototype, lalu rancang bangun prototype. Tahap yang ketiga yaitu rancang bangun prototype yaitu proses pembuatan model 3D dan interface flash, proses rendering, dan integrasi antara model dan Augmented Reality. Tahap yang keempat adalah uji coba prototype yaitu Teknologi Augmented Reality yang diterapkan pada terapi low back pain. Tahap yang terakhir adalah evaluasi dan diharapkan berhasil mencapai sasaran, maka peningkatan derajat kesehatan masyarakat dapat dipercepat. Implementasi aplikasi simulasi terapi Low Back Pain dengan metode Augmented Reality menunjukan dapat digunakan oleh seluruh masyarakat karena penggunaa merasa mudah mengoperasikannya, desain aplikasi menarik, dan mudah disebar-luaskan.

  2. Putting the Critical Back in Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    CRITICAL BACK IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE by Bradford C. Mason December 2015 Thesis Advisor: Rudolph P. Darken Second Reader: Thomas Mackin...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December 2015 Approved by: Rudolph P. Darken Thesis Advisor Thomas Mackin, California Polytechnic State...critical infrastructure resilience CIRGP Critical Infrastructure Resilience Grant Program CMI Consequences Measurement Index COAG Council of Australian

  3. Back pain as a lifestyle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Koszela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency in which back pain is diagnosed and treated has markedly increased in the recent years. At present, back pain and dysfunction syndrome is becoming a lifestyle disease, along with hypertension and diabetes. It affects more and more people. Low back pain is currently one of the most common complaints with which patients report to the doctor, including a primary care physician. Depending on the affected part of the spinal motion segment, we can distinguish: discogenic pain, radicular pain, facet joint pain and muscle pain. Unambiguous determination of its aetiology is generally difficult since, usually, several overlapping pathologies are involved. The aim of this paper is to draw attention to the problems associated with back pain and the complexity of its pathomechanism as treatment is adjusted to the site of pathology. This article is based on data from international, broadly cited literature on spinal dysfunctions. Back pain is not usually a very severe condition and can be treated conservatively in most cases. Despite this, it affects a vast number of people and constitutes a considerable financial burden for the state budget. This is associated with costs of medical procedures, but most of all, with absence at work and early opinions of incapacity for work.

  4. The bra-line back lift: a simple approach to correcting severe back rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunstad, Joseph P; Khan, Phillip D

    2014-10-01

    Anatomic sequelae of the upper back that occur with age or weight loss have been somewhat underserved in the plastic surgery literature. Zones of adherence in the upper posterior trunk create overhanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue, which are disturbing to the patient both functionally and cosmetically. These adherence points prove challenging in that they prevent contouring of the upper back with procedures such as traditional abdominoplasty or lower body lift. The bra line back lift provides a reliable and consistent method of addressing these issues by eliminating excess redundant skin and adiposity from the region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  6. The development and exploratory analysis of the Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, Ben; Perry, Meredith; Mathieson, Fiona; Stanley, James; Melloh, Markus; Marsh, Reginald; Baxter, G David; Dowell, Anthony

    2014-05-23

    To develop an instrument to assess attitudes and underlying beliefs about back pain, and subsequently investigate its internal consistency and underlying structures. The instrument was developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians and researchers based on analysis of qualitative interviews with people experiencing acute and chronic back pain. Exploratory analysis was conducted using data from a population-based cross-sectional survey. Qualitative interviews with community-based participants and subsequent postal survey. Instrument development informed by interviews with 12 participants with acute back pain and 11 participants with chronic back pain. Data for exploratory analysis collected from New Zealand residents and citizens aged 18 years and above. 1000 participants were randomly selected from the New Zealand Electoral Roll. 602 valid responses were received. The 34-item Back Pain Attitudes Questionnaire (Back-PAQ) was developed. Internal consistency was evaluated by the Cronbach α coefficient. Exploratory analysis investigated the structure of the data using Principal Component Analysis. The 34-item long form of the scale had acceptable internal consistency (α=0.70; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.73). Exploratory analysis identified five two-item principal components which accounted for 74% of the variance in the reduced data set: 'vulnerability of the back'; 'relationship between back pain and injury'; 'activity participation while experiencing back pain'; 'prognosis of back pain' and 'psychological influences on recovery'. Internal consistency was acceptable for the reduced 10-item scale (α=0.61; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.66) and the identified components (α between 0.50 and 0.78). The 34-item long form of the scale may be appropriate for use in future cross-sectional studies. The 10-item short form may be appropriate for use as a screening tool, or an outcome assessment instrument. Further testing of the 10-item Back-PAQ's construct validity, reliability

  7. Analysis of Back-to-Back MMC for Medium Voltage Applications under Faulted Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, Anurag; Martins, Joäo Pedro Rodrigues; Chaudhary, Sanjay K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes a 10MW medium voltage Back-to-Back (BTB) Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) without a DC-Link capacitor with halfbridge submodules. It focusses on the system behavior under single-line-to-ground (SLG) fault when there is no capacitor on the DC-Link.The fault current is computed...... to prevent DC overvoltages in the sub-modules during faults....

  8. Nuclear nonproliferation: The long haul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The policy of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency rests upon the recognition that nuclear proliferation would profoundly threaten international stability and global order. Suspicions among traditional rivals would be exacerbated, regional disputes made more complex, and the possibility of local conflict increased. The security and well-being of the United Sttes and its close friends and allies, but also the security and well-being of the countries acquiring these weapons, would be threatened. Indeed, the greatest chance of use of nuclear weapons stems not from the US-Soviet strategic balance but from the possible emergence of small, unstable nuclear arsenals in many regions of the world characterized by crises and periodic military conflict

  9. The effect of sex and chronic low back pain on back muscle reflex responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; Forget, Robert; Vadeboncoeur, Roger; Bilodeau, Martin; Mecheri, Hakim

    2010-07-01

    Different back muscle reflex assessment protocols have shown abnormally longer reflex latency responses of back muscles in chronic low back pain (CLBP). However, many confounding variables are difficult to control, such as the load magnitude and the preactivation of trunk muscles. The aims of this study were to evaluate, in 30 subjects with CLBP and 30 healthy controls, the activation levels of back muscles during pre-loading and their reflex responses to sudden loading. After subjected to six practice perturbations, 20 sudden and unexpected forward perturbations of the trunk were applied in 30 CLBP subjects (14 women) and 31 controls (17 women), while attempting to minimize the confounding effect of preactivation level and perturbation amplitude. Reflex latency and amplitudes were computed from the surface EMG signals of four back muscles (bilaterally at L5, L3, L1, T10 vertebral levels). EMG was also collected from abdominal muscles. Subjects with CLBP significantly increased the preactivation of back muscles (abdominal preactivation the same) relative to controls while no sex effect was observed. While adjusting statistically for these differences, reflex amplitude was significantly higher in subjects with CLBP and men, compared to healthy controls and women, respectively. Interestingly, contrary to most of the literature available, no between-group effects were detected for reflex latency, which could potentially be explained by an appropriate control of confounding variables, but this remains to be clarified in future research.

  10. Back pain and body posture evaluation instrument (BackPEI): development, content validation and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Matias; Tarragô Candotti, Cláudia; Vieira, Adriane; Fagundes Loss, Jefferson

    2013-08-01

    Following a search conducted in several databases, no instrument was found that jointly evaluates the prevalence of back pain and its associated demographic, social-economic, hereditary, behavioral and postural risk factors. Thus, the present study aims to develop the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument (BackPEI) for school-age children and verify its validity and reproducibility. Twenty-one questions were elaborated to compose the BackPEI instrument, eight experts checked the content validity, and its reproducibility was tested by applying the questionnaire to 260 primary schoolchildren, at two different times with a 7-day interval. The reproducibility data for the first 20 questions, analyzed using the kappa (k) coefficient, were classified as "very good" (k > 0.8) or "good" (0.6 pain intensity question, analyzed using the Wilcoxon test and the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), demonstrated that there was no difference between the averages (p = 0.251) and the responses were highly correlated (ICC = 0.937) for these two tests. The BackPEI constitutes a valid and reproducible instrument which is relevant for the evaluation of back pain and its associated risk factors.

  11. ["Round back" in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoflid, N; Fragnière, B; Dutoit, M

    2000-10-01

    The hyper-kyphosis or "the postural round back" is one of the most common complaints in orthopedic practice. In the majority of cases, the thoracic kyphosis are painless and flexible. The vertebral bodies are normal on radiograms. This is "the kyphotic attitude" or postural round-back. A medical treatment is not the necessary rule. Life hygiene, sports and simple supervision are needed. Nevertheless, there are still pathological fixed kyphosis, induced in the majority of cases by Scheuermann's disease. The other possible etiologies (congenital, paralytic, post-traumatic, Pott's disease, postradiation, or metabolic origin) are a lot rare ones and will be excluded by clinical examination and imaging studies. The structural hyper-kyphosis require treatment. We will approach successively steps of the diagnosis and treatment of the hyper-kyphosis of the adolescent.

  12. The Cernettes are back at the Hardronic!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN MusiClub

    2017-01-01

    Five years after their last epic performance, at the Hardronic Festival 2012, “Les Horribles Cernettes” (the rockin’ LHC) will be singing and dancing again on the planks of the CERN Festival on July 15th. The band’s comeback is a real challenge, since the four singers are scattered as far as Washington DC and Mauritius, passing through Glasgow and Montecarlo. The backing musicians too, live in Tenerife, Mauritius, London. So to make their comeback this summer, CERN’s favourite High Energy Band needs to raise funds for travel. The good news is, we’re half way there, and if you click on the donate button on their website, you can help make every fan’s dream come true. Get the Cernettes back at CERN!                      www.cernettes.com #cernettescomeback

  13. Being back home after intermediate care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Norlyk, Annelise

    2015-01-01

    Older people may face many challenges and experience insecurity after discharge from hospital to home. To bridge the potential gap between general hospital and home, the concept ‘Intermediate Care’ (IC) was developed at the beginning of 2000. IC aims to safeguard older people from being discharged...... to their home before they have sufficiently recovered, but knowledge within this area is sparse. In particular the experience of older people is yet to be explored. The aim of this study was to explore older people’s experiences of being back home after a stay in an IC unit. Data were drawn from 12 interviews....... Transcripts were analysed using a phenomenological approach. The essential meaning of being back home after a stay in an IC unit was characterised by ‘uncertainty’. Four constituents emerged: ‘in a state of shock about coming home’, ‘dependence on informal helpers’, ‘a sense of isolation’, and ‘fear of losing...

  14. Cholelithiasis presented as chronic right back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobé-Armant, Francesc; Buil-Arasanz, Maria Eugenia; Trubat-Muñoz, Griselda; Llor-Vilà, Carles; Vicente-Guillen, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chronic right back pain is a symptom in both biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Ten percent of the population in the world suffers from biliary lithiasis. Only 20% are symptomatic. The first diagnostic test of choice is an abdominal ultrasound. When a suggestive clinical sign of biliary colic with negative abdominal ultrasound is identified, we should consider the option of carrying out an endoscopic ultrasound in order to rule out microlithiasis. The case discussed in the report presented with chronic right back pain, which is an atypical manifestation of biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. It is important to know about the atypical manifestations of the prevalent illnesses as well as the limits of the diagnostic tests, in order to avoid diagnostic delays which may cause complications that could worsen a patient's prognosis. This case should contribute to the medical knowledge and must have educational value or highlight the need for a change in clinical practice, especially in primary care.

  15. Management of patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debarle, Michel; Aigron, Rémi; Depernet, Laure

    2014-01-01

    strategies were identified for each scenario. Appropriateness of the chosen management strategy was assessed using predetermined "best practice" for each scenario. Consensus was arbitrarily defined as "moderate" when 50- 69% of respondents agreed on the same management choice for a scenario, and "excellent......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the level of consensus within the French chiropractic profession regarding management of clinical issues. A previous Swedish study showed that chiropractors agreed relatively well on the management strategy for nine low back pain scenarios. We wished to investigate...... whether those findings could be reproduced among French chiropractors.Objectives: 1. To assess the level of consensus among French chiropractors regarding management strategies for nine different scenarios of low back pain. 2. To assess whether the management choices of the French chiropractors appeared...

  16. Nordic walking and chronic low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsø, Lars; Hartvigsen, Jan; Puggaard, Lis

    2006-01-01

    activity provide similar benefits. Nordic Walking is a popular and fast growing type of exercise in Northern Europe. Initial studies have demonstrated that persons performing Nordic Walking are able to exercise longer and harder compared to normal walking thereby increasing their cardiovascular metabolism....... Until now no studies have been performed to investigate whether Nordic Walking has beneficial effects in relation to low back pain. The primary aim of this study is to investigate whether supervised Nordic Walking can reduce pain and improve function in a population of chronic low back pain patients...... when compared to unsupervised Nordic Walking and advice to stay active. In addition we investigate whether there is an increase in the cardiovascular metabolism in persons performing supervised Nordic Walking compared to persons who are advised to stay active. Finally, we investigate whether...

  17. Back extrusion of vocadlo-type fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    David, Jiří; Filip, Petr; Kharlamov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), , 45366-1-45366-8 ISSN 1430-6395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/09/2066 Institutional support: RVO:67985874 Keywords : viscosity * back extrusion * annular pumping * vocadlo model * Robertson-stiff model Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.592, year: 2013 http://www.ar.ethz.ch/TMPPDF/23840225602.368/ApplRheol_23_45366.pdf

  18. Low back pain and degenerative disc disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jandrić Slavica; Antić Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Pathophysiology. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accept...

  19. BackTrack testing wireless network security

    CERN Document Server

    Cardwell, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Written in an easy-to-follow step-by-step format, you will be able to get started in next to no time with minimal effort and zero fuss.BackTrack: Testing Wireless Network Security is for anyone who has an interest in security and who wants to know more about wireless networks.All you need is some experience with networks and computers and you will be ready to go.

  20. Body posture and syndromes of back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Janusz; Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Brzęk, Anna; Kowalczyk, Anna; Czupryna, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    The effects of faulty postures include disturbances of the symmetric distribution of compressive and tensile forces acting on both sides of the body axis and the emergence of harmful shear forces. The torques of antigravity muscles also change unfavourably. This may lead to the development of a repetitive strain syndrome, stenosis of intervertebral foramina, compression of nerve roots and back pain. The development of back pain syndromes is significantly affected by the performance of various work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between back pain syndromes and the quality of body posture, especially in the context of work ergonomics. The study enrolled 125 persons: 39 adults with a childhood history of scoliosis, 39 midwives, and 47 physiotherapists. Body posture was assessed in all participants. In midwives and physiotherapists, body position during the performance of work-related tasks was also evaluated. The frequency and severity of pain was assessed with the Jackson-Moskowitz measure. The study revealed that over 80% of the participants suffered from spinal pain. In most cases, the pain was intermittent and was felt in the lumbar spine. The occurrence of pain among midwives and physiotherapists was not directly dependent on the predominant type of abnormal spinal position assumed during the performance of occupational tasks or the quality of body posture. The complaint was also reported by ca. 85% of persons with a history of scoliosis. An incorrect body posture (especially scoliosis) and performance of work-related tasks in non-ergonomic positions increase the probability of back pain.

  1. MRI in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    MRI in LBP patients: good or bad? Background: The routine use of radiology is presently discouraged in patients with low back pain (LBP). MRI provides clinicians and patients with detailed knowledge of the spinal structures and has no known physical side effects. It is possible that detailed insi......, the management strategy of performing an MRI already at the start of the treatment did reduce the duration of treatment and number of contacts with clinicians, thus saving both time and money....

  2. Cholelithiasis Presented as Chronic Right Back Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Bob?-Armant, Francesc; Buil-Arasanz, Maria Eugenia; Trubat-Mu?oz, Griselda; Llor-Vil?, Carles; Vicente-Guillen, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Chronic right back pain is a symptom in both biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Ten percent of the population in the world suffers from biliary lithiasis. Only 20% are symptomatic. The first diagnostic test of choice is an abdominal ultrasound. When a suggestive clinical sign of biliary colic with negative abdominal ultrasound is identified, we should consider the option of carrying out an endoscopic ultrasound in order to rule out microlithiasis. The case discussed in the report pr...

  3. Lombalgia ocupacional Occupational low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Helfenstein Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A lombalgia ocupacional apresenta etiologia multifatorial, elevada prevalência e incidência. Caracterizada por quadro de dor de variada duração e intensidade, a dor lombar pode levar à incapacidade laborativa e à invalidez. A lombalgia acarreta sofrimento aos trabalhadores, custos às empresas, aos sistemas previdenciário e assistencial de saúde. Os autores, pela relevância do tema, elaboraram este artigo de revisão bibliográfica dando ênfase ao embasamento teorico-conceitual e à experiência de especialistas.The occupational low back pain presents multifactorial aetiology, important prevalence and incidence. Characterized by pain of varying duration and intensity, low back pain may lead to disability. Low back pain causes suffering to workers, implies costs to companies, to the social security and health assistance system. Because of the theme's relevance, the authors have elaborated this review of literature with emphasis on a theoretical and conceptual basis, as well as experience of experts.

  4. PROTOCOL OF TREATMENT IN LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Guimbala dos Santos Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain can be considered as one of the main factors that lead to decreased functional capacity of the human being. Being a frequent dysfunction in people, causing a decrease in quality of life, productivity and functional disability and is associated with important social and economic impact. Therefore the objective of the research was to assess the treatment protocols in low back pain. The study is characterized by being a literature of scientific articles, based on data published in PubMed, SciELO, BIREME and Cochrane from 2000 to 2012. We found eight scientific articles that addressed physical therapy methods in the treatment of low back pain, including a literature review. Related Articles show variation from one to 55 patients in groups, with a total of 185 patients studied. It was concluded then that it hasn’t met a specific treatment that is placed as the most effective for this pathology, although all include electrotherapy, manual therapy, exercise and RPG they show significant results in pain relief, quality of life thereby increasing functionality.

  5. Back to work for the PS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    On 22 June, the PS's rotating machine started turning again for the first time since its enforced shutdown one month ago (see Bulletin No. 23-24/2006) - and the PS was back in operation the very next day! A team from Siemens worked their socks off, 6 days a week for one month (including public holidays), to repair the electrical power supply in collaboration with the AB/PO Group's Main Power Converters (MPC) Section. The generator's faulty rotor was dismantled and replaced by the renovated spare rotor. The multitude of electrical and mechanical connections together with the sheer weight of the rotor (80 tonnes) made this an extremely complex job. The AB/PO Group used the shutdown to test a back-up solution for the PS power supply. The accelerator was directly wired up to the 18 kV electrical network via a 13 MVA transformer, installed at the end of the 1970s but never used. This solution succeeded in bringing the PS back into operation but at limited energy and frequency. Just 14 GeV could be achieved, whic...

  6. Prevalence of low back pain in alpine ski instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Nola; Walker, James A; Fogg, Reed; Dudley, Kurt

    2005-02-01

    Mailed survey to random sample of a specific population. To examine the lifetime and point prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors. The lifetime prevalence for back pain is up to 60% among some athletes. Published literature documents back pain among athletes participating in many sports. However, the prevalence of low back pain among alpine ski instructors has not been established. Surveys were mailed to 500 randomly selected members of the Professional Ski Instructors of America. The lifetime and point prevalence were determined by respondents' report regarding history of low back pain and current back pain. Two hundred four (75% of the 272 respondents) reported a history of low back pain. Eighty-five of those who responded (31%) reported current back pain. Over 9% of respondents missed 10 or more days of work because of back pain. The lifetime prevalence of back pain among respondents was similar to the general population. The respondents reported more lifetime prevalence of back pain than athletes of many other sports. The high prevalence of back pain among ski instructors may increase cost and decrease revenue for the employer. Prevention training in this population may decrease the prevalence of back pain and lessen costs to the employer and the alpine ski instructor.

  7. Exercise and arthritis. Exercise and the back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, W

    1990-11-01

    Some of the positive benefits from participating in aerobic activity have already been addressed. However, an individual's ability to participate in many aerobic activities may be contingent on the ability to maintain a neutral or a stabilized spine. For example, the individual for whom jogging has been painful may be able to jog after he or she has learned trunk stabilization and is able to keep the spine in his or her pain-free position. Although Williams contended that jogging was an inappropriate activity for the individual with a low-back problem, contrary to this notion, White believes that jogging is more apt to protect a person from low-back pain than to cause it. Although no association was found between mileage run and osteoarthritis, jogging is not for all individuals who present with LBP or related arthritic conditions. Moreover, poor biomechanics in running can exacerbate existing low-back problems as well as bring about new ones as compensatory adaptations are made. For example, poor running technique might include excessive forward lean; this must be counterbalanced by contraction of the back extensors, which then may become overly tired or produce high intersegmental forces on the discs. We advocate an upright posture with minimal forward lean. The biomechanics of running also are most important from the perspective of shock absorption. Factors to consider in addition to running within the neutral spine excursion include cushioning footstrike by "giving" at the ankle, knee, and hip joints. In addition to good biomechanics, it would also be important to use an excellent quality training shoe and to run on a soft track as opposed to harder surfaces; hills should probably be avoided for most symptomatic individuals until they become strong. Nachemson indicates that in addition to recommending jogging for LBP, he most commonly recommends backstroke swimming, brisk walking, and stairclimbing. Bicycle riding (stationary or actual) would be another good

  8. Prolotherapy: An Effective Treatment for Low Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain? Is prolotherapy an effective treatment for chronic low back pain? Answers from Brent A. Bauer, M.D. Prolotherapy is ... reduced pain. Studies of prolotherapy in people with low back pain have had mixed results. A combination of prolotherapy ...

  9. Lower Back Tattoo: OK to Have an Epidural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and delivery, postpartum care Could a lower back tattoo keep me from having an epidural during labor? ... Yvonne Butler Tobah, M.D. A lower back tattoo won't necessarily prevent you from having an ...

  10. The course of low back pain from adolescence to adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbaek, Lise; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study with 8-year follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of low back pain from adolescence into adulthood. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: High prevalence rates of low back pain among children and adolescents have been demonstrated in several studies, and it has been...... questionnaires in 1994 and again in 2002. The questionnaires dealt with various aspects of general health, including the prevalence of low back pain, classified according to number of days affected (0, 1-7, 8-30, >30). RESULTS: Low back pain in adolescence was found to be a significant risk factor for low back...... than 30 days with low back pain during the follow-up year. This was true for only 9% of the rest of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly demonstrates correlations between low back pain in childhood/adolescence and low back pain in adulthood. This should lead to a change in focus from the adult...

  11. Low back pain among patients attending rheumatology clinic in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally, causes of back pain include osteoarthritis (spondylosis), disc degeneration, osteoporotic fracture, and non-specific low back pain. Objective: To determine the pattern of low back pain among the people living in the South West Nigeria. Design: Prospective study. Methods: All the patients that presented with low ...

  12. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated

  13. Exercise therapy for chronic nonspecific low-back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middelkoop, Marienke; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Verhagen, Arianne P; Ostelo, Raymond W; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W

    Exercise therapy is the most widely used type of conservative treatment for low back pain. Systematic reviews have shown that exercise therapy is effective for chronic but not for acute low back pain. During the past 5 years, many additional trials have been published on chronic low back pain. This

  14. Occupational low back load assessment using a video analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bonger, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been performed on associations of physical exposures (e.g. lifting, trunk flexion or body vibrations) with low back pain (LBP). However, information on the effect of doses (e.g. spinal force or low back moments) on LBP is lacking. Cumulative low back load is significantly

  15. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory fitness of Nigerians with Low back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to compare Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of Nigerians with low back pain (LBP) and apparently healthy counterparts. A total of Seventy (70) subjects participated in the study; 35 of them were low back pain patients, while the remaining 35 were apparently healthy adults. For low back pain ...

  16. Acute non-specific low back pain in primary care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disability and absenteeism from work. Routine imaging is not required when making a diagnosis of non-specific or simple low back pain. A comprehensive history and physical examination usually suffice. This contrasts with back pain associated with radiculopathy or spinal stenosis, or back pain associated with serious ...

  17. Open-Switch Fault Detection Method of a Back-to-Back Converter Using NPC Topology for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo_Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, a back-to-back converter with a neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used because this topology has more advantages than a conventional two-level topology, particularly when operating at high power. There are 12 switches in the NPC topology....... An open-switch fault in the NPC rectifier of the back-to-back converter leads to the distortion of the input current and torque vibration in the system. Additionally, an open-switch fault in the NPC inverter of the back-to-back converter causes the distortion of the output current. Furthermore, the WTG...... system can break down in the worst case scenario. To improve the reliability of WTG systems, an open-switch fault detection method for back-to-back converters using the NPC topology is required. This study analyzes effects of inner and outer open-switch faults of the NPC rectifier and inverter...

  18. Effects of back warming in cocoon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnison, J.R.; Williams, I.P.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that dust shells frequently surround young stars, and attempts have been made to determine some of the properties of these shells. It is probable that the dust absorbs the outgoing radiation from the star and re-emits it in the infrared. If the dust shell does absorb radiation both its inner and outer surfaces will re-emit a certain proportion and some radiation will return to the central star, causing what amounts to 'warming of its own back'. It is interesting to consider how such a star evolves, compared with evolution of a normal pre-main-sequence star. A model for a contracting star that is receiving radiation from an external source has been developed by the authors in connection with the evolution of Jupiter within the radiation field of the Sun (Astrophys. Space Sci., 29:387 (1974)), and this model is here applied to the situation just described. It is emphasised that the discussion is concerned only with the evolution of the central star, the dust being regarded merely as a means of redirecting radiation back on to the surface of this star. Amongst conclusions reached is that a thin shell will cause no significant change in the structure and evolution of the central star, whilst the presence of a thick shell has a substantial effect on the star, slowing down is evolution. Whilst a dust shell is present the star cannot be seen, but only the dust shell emitting in the infrared, but once the dust shell clears the star is seen in a position and with an age that differs considerably from what it would have had if it had evolved without 'back warming' from the dust shell. (U.K.)

  19. A new fabrication technique for back-to-back varactor diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Peter; Choudhury, Debabani; Martin, Suzanne; Frerking, Margaret A.; Liu, John K.; Grunthaner, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    A new varactor diode process has been developed in which much of the processing is done from the back of an extremely thin semiconductor wafer laminated to a low-dielectric substrate. Back-to-back BNN diodes were fabricated with this technique; excellent DC and low-frequency capacitance measurements were obtained. Advantages of the new technique relative to other techniques include greatly reduced frontside wafer damage from exposure to process chemicals, improved capability to integrate devices (e.g. for antenna patterns, transmission lines, or wafer-scale grids), and higher line yield. BNN diodes fabricated with this technique exhibit approximately the expected capacitance-voltage characteristics while showing leakage currents under 10 mA at voltages three times that needed to deplete the varactor. This leakage is many orders of magnitude better than comparable Schottky diodes.

  20. The discriminative value of inflammatory back pain in patients with persistent low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, B.; Hendricks, O.; Horslev-Petersen, K.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of inflammatory back pain (IBP) characteristics and analyse the discriminative value of IBP relative to axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria. METHOD: Patients who had low back pain...... the pain characteristics included in the Calin, Berlin, and ASAS IBP definitions. RESULTS: Of the 759 included patients, 99% [95% confidence interval (CI) 98-100] had at least one IBP characteristic. The prevalence of the single IBP characteristics ranged from 10% (95% CI 7-12) for 'pain worst...... value was low, as IBP could not differentiate patients with SpA according to ASAS criteria from patients with other causes of back pain....

  1. Automated back titration method to measure phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, J.; Tehrani, M.; Avdeef, A.; Ross, J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphate was measured in soda drinks and as an additive in flour, by a back titration method in which phosphate was precipitated with lanthanum, and the excess lanthanum was titrated with fluoride. All measurements were performed using the Orion fluoride electrode and the Orion 960 Autochemistry System. In most commercial automatic titrators, the inflection point of the titration curve, calculated from the first derivative of the curve, is used to find the equivalence polar of the titration. The inflection technique is compared with a technique based on Gran functions, which uses data collected after the end point and predicts the equivalence point accordingly

  2. Hybrid emitter all back contact solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Rim, Seung

    2016-04-12

    An all back contact solar cell has a hybrid emitter design. The solar cell has a thin dielectric layer formed on a backside surface of a single crystalline silicon substrate. One emitter of the solar cell is made of doped polycrystalline silicon that is formed on the thin dielectric layer. The other emitter of the solar cell is formed in the single crystalline silicon substrate and is made of doped single crystalline silicon. The solar cell includes contact holes that allow metal contacts to connect to corresponding emitters.

  3. Einstein wrote back my life in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Moffat, John W

    2012-01-01

    John W. Moffat was a poor student of math and science. That is, until he read Einstein's famous paper on general relativity. Realizing instantly that he had an unusual and unexplained aptitude for understanding the complex physics described in the paper, Moffat wrote a letter to Einstein that would change the course of his life. Einstein Wrote Back tells the story of Moffat's unusual entry into the world of academia and documents his career at the frontlines of twentieth-century physics as he worked and associated with some of the greatest minds in scientific history, including Niels Bohr,

  4. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  5. Back to the Future of Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Our students are like beacons, a bright light on the horizon, but with some way to go. Our educational methods that bring them safely into harbour have seen the test of time, but do we allow them enough freedom and creativity to sail their boats in the climate change of the digital era? Our students are chosen because they are smart and capable and we hope will bring credit to our institutions, but do we maximize their potential educationally? We need to go back to the future to begin to consider this. PMID:27688345

  6. [Low back pain and degenerative disc disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandrić, Slavica; Antić, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    Various clinical conditions can cause low back pain, and in most cases it is of a degenerative origin. Degenerative disc disease is a common condition which affects young to middle-aged men and women equally. Changes in the mechanical properties of the disc lead to degenerative arthritis in the intervertebral joints, osteophytes, and narrowing the intervertebral foramen or the spinal canal. Degenerative cascade, described by Kirkaldy-Willis, is the widely accepted pathophysiologic model describing the degenerative process as it affects the lumbar spine in 3 phases. There are two forms of low back pain secondary to degenerative disc disease: a) lumbalgia and b) lumbar radiculopathy. Limitation of movement, problems with balance, pain, loss of reflexes in the extremities, muscle weakness, loss of sensation or other signs of neurological damage can be found on physical examination. For accurate diagnosis, it is often necessary to combine clinical examination and sophisticated technology. Coservative treatment consists of rest, physical therapy, pharmacological therapy and injection therapy. Physical rehabilitation with active patient participation is a key approach to treatment of patients with discogenic pain. Physical therapy, occupational therapy and kinesitherapy are important for improving muscle strength, endurance, and flexibility. Disc surgery is performed if surgical intervention is required.

  7. LS1 Report: PS beams are back!

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony & Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in over 15 months, there are beams back in the PS. Making their first tour of the accelerator today, 20 June, their injection marks the end of weeks of cold checkouts and hardware commissioning in the PS.   The CERN Control Centre (CCC) is back in business: people gather to restart the LHC injectors, today the PS. Since hardware commissioning was wrapped up on 23 May, the Operations Group (BE-OP) has been conducting cold checkouts on the PS. This involves switching on all of the machine's systems, verifying that they respond to commands by OP and ensuring they are calibrated to beam timings. "These verifications were done, in part, during the hardware commissioning dry runs," says Rende Steerenberg, PS section leader. "But the cold checkouts are on a much larger scale, as we act as if there is beam in the whole machine. We placed a full load on the controls system, cooling, networks, etc. in order to setup the accelerator in the most realis...

  8. Cholelithiasis presented as chronic right back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Bobé-Armant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic right back pain is a symptom in both biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. Ten percent of the population in the world suffers from biliary lithiasis. Only 20% are symptomatic. The first diagnostic test of choice is an abdominal ultrasound. When a suggestive clinical sign of biliary colic with negative abdominal ultrasound is identified, we should consider the option of carrying out an endoscopic ultrasound in order to rule out microlithiasis. The case discussed in the report presented with chronic right back pain, which is an atypical manifestation of biliary lithiasis and chronic cholecystitis. It is important to know about the atypical manifestations of the prevalent illnesses as well as the limits of the diagnostic tests, in order to avoid diagnostic delays which may cause complications that could worsen a patient′s prognosis. This case should contribute to the medical knowledge and must have educational value or highlight the need for a change in clinical practice, especially in primary care.

  9. Low-back pain in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Christopher M

    2004-02-01

    While most occurrences of low-back pain in athletes are self-limited sprains or strains, persistent, chronic, or recurrent symptoms are frequently associated with degenerative lumbar disc disease or spondylolytic stress lesions. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of disc degeneration is higher in athletes than it is in nonathletes; however, it remains unclear whether this correlates with a higher rate of back pain. Although there is little peer-reviewed clinical information on the subject, it is possible that chronic pain from degenerative disc disease that is recalcitrant after intensive and continuous nonoperative care can be successfully treated with interbody fusion in selected athletes. In general, the prevalence of spondylolysis is not higher in athletes than it is in nonathletes, although participation in sports involving repetitive hyperextension maneuvers, such as gymnastics, wrestling, and diving, appears to be associated with disproportionately higher rates of spondylolysis. Nonoperative treatment of spondylolysis results in successful pain relief in approximately 80% of athletes, independent of radiographic evidence of defect healing. In recalcitrant cases, direct surgical repair of the pars interarticularis with internal fixation and bone-grafting can yield high rates of pain relief in competitive athletes and allow a high percentage to return to play. Sacral stress fractures occur almost exclusively in individuals participating in high-level running sports, such as track or marathon. Treatment includes a brief period of limited weight-bearing followed by progressive mobilization, physical therapy, and return to sports in one to two months, when the pain has resolved.

  10. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braidot, A A; Brusa, M H; Lestussi, F E; Parera, G P

    2007-01-01

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture

  11. Biomechanics of front and back squat exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braidot, A A [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Brusa, M H [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Lestussi, F E [Laboratorio de Biomecanica FI-UNER. Ruta 11 Km 10 Oro Verde Entre Rios (Argentina); Parera, G P [Licenciatura en KinesiologIa y FisiatrIa Universidad Abierta Interamericana. Sede Regional Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Squat constitutes one of the most popular exercises to strengthen the muscles of the lower limbs. It is considered one of the most widely spread exercises for muscle sport training and is part of the competition movements comprised within olympic weight-lifting. In physical rehabilitation, squats are used for muscular recovery after different injuries of the lower limbs, especially the knee. In previous anterior cruciate ligament injuries, the mini-squats are generally used, in a knee flexion motion range from 0 deg. to 50 deg. because in this range the shear forces, the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral compression forces decrease related to greater flexion angles. The aim of this work is to make a comparative bidimensional study of the kinematic and dynamic variables of the excecution of the parallel squat exercise with the front and back bar. It is observed in the knee a better development of energy with the front bar, allowing a better muscular exercise with the same load. The mean power absorbed by the hip with the back bar is considerably greater, associated to the speed of the gesture.

  12. Space Adaptation Back Pain: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Astronaut back pain is frequently reported in the early phase of space flight as they adapt to microgravity. The epidemiology of space adaptation back pain (SABP) has not been well established. This presentation seeks to determine the exact incidence of SABP among astronauts, develop a case definition of SABP, delineate the nature and pattern of SABP, review available treatments and their effectiveness in relieving SABP; and identify any operational impact of SABP. A retrospective review of all available mission medical records of astronauts in the U.S. space program was performed. It was revealed that the incidence of SABP has been determined to be 53% among astronauts in the U.S. space program; most cases of SABP are mild, self-limited, or respond to available treatment; there are no currently accepted preventive measures for SABP; it is difficult to predict who will develop SABP; the precise mechanism and spinal structures responsible for SABP are uncertain; there was no documented evidence of direction operational mission impact related to SABP; and, that there was the potential for mission impact related to uncontrolled pain, sleep disturbance, or the adverse side effects pf anti-inflammatory medications

  13. Scintillation investigation of the straight back syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebaid, M.; Serro Azul, L.G.; Kedor, H-H.; Papaleo Netto, M.; Mignone, C.A.; Carvalho, N. de

    1976-01-01

    Scintigraphic study of the lungs was undertaken in 17 patients with the straight back syndrome divided in three groups: I. mild form; II. moderate form and III. severe form. The results showed that: a) there is a decreased flow through the pulmonary arteries; b) bilateral morphological alterations are most common (64.6%); c) the compression of the chest cause an increased cardiac silhouette in groups II (22.2%) and III (50%) besides widening of the mediastinum in all groups (25%, 44.4% and 75%, respectively); d. functional restriction is moderate in 61.5% and severe in 38.4% of the patients in the first two groups; in group III, moderate restriction is observed in 75% of the patients and severe restriction in 25%. Results indicate that the alterations observed in the scintigraphic study of the strainght back syndrome are caused by the effects of the deformed chest on the arterial perfusion of the lung. However, the severity of the anomaly and the decrease in the pulmonary circulation could not be correlated statistically [pt

  14. Low back pain and everyday activities : the influence of axial rotation on low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L.J.M. van Deursen (Leo)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractLow back pain (LBP) is a major problem in the industrialized world. The aetiology of LBP is multicausal: heavy physical workload, sedentary work, whole body vibration, smoking, as well as minimal influence over work conditions, poor social relations and psychological factors all play

  15. Effect of Togu-exercise on Lumbar Back Strength of Women with Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Hyun; Park, Gi Duck

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] The present study analyzed the effect of the Togu exercise program on the lumbar back strength of middle-aged women who did not perform regular exercise, and presents an effective exercise method for middle-aged women with chronic low back pain symptom. [Subjects] The subjects were 16 women with chronic low back pain attending N University, Chungcheong-do, Korea. [Methods] Height, weight, body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were measured using a body composition analyzer (Inbody 720, Biospace, Korea), which utilizes bioelectrical impedance analysis. Using isokinetic lumbar muscle strength measurement equipment [Isomed 2000, Back system, (Germany)], peak torque/body weight, total work and average power of flexion and extension of the lumbar region were measured. For lumbar stabilization exercises, an air cushion (Germany), jumper (Germany), and aero step (Germany) were employed. First, warm-up exercise was conducted for 10 minutes, followed by 10 sets of the 3 main exercises using the above tools with 10-second rest intervals. The main exercise was done for 40 minutes in total. [Results] The paired sample t-test showed significant in the Togu exercise group peak torque of flexion, peak torque of extension, total work of flexion, total work of extension, average power of flexion, average power of extension, after the exercise showed a significant difference in the Togu exercise group. [Conclusion] The trunk muscle actiation program for middle-aged women had a significant effect on muscle strength and low back pain. Therefore the trunk muscle activation program is effective at increasing muscular strength of middle-aged women, and the results suggest improve muscle strength is effectively stabilizaties the lumbar region.

  16. A COMPARITIVE STUDY TO KNOW THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRONE BACK EXTENSION EXRECISES AND SWISS BALL EXERCISES ON BACK EXTENSOR MUSCLES PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Subhanjan Das; C. K. Senthil Kumar; Abhijit Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endurance of the back muscles is important for stability of the trunk and therefore essential for normal functioning of an individual. Prone back extension exercises are traditional measures to improve back endurance. More recently Swiss ball exercises have become popular as a means to improve back endurance. Purpose of this study is to compare Prone back extension exercises with back extension exercise on Swiss ball on the improvement of the back extensor muscles performance, and...

  17. Surface electromyography assessment of back muscle intrinsic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière, Christian; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Gravel, Denis; Gagnon, Denis; Loisel, Patrick

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the reliability and (2) the sensitivity to low back pain status and gender of different EMG indices developed for the assessment of back muscle weakness, muscle fiber composition and fatigability. Healthy subjects (men and women) and chronic low back pain patients (men only) performed, in a static dynamometer, maximal and submaximal static trunk extension tasks (short and long duration) to assess weakness, fiber composition and fatigue. Surface EMG signals were recorded from four (bilateral) pairs of back muscles and three pairs of abdominal muscles. To assess reliability of the different EMG parameters, 40 male volunteers (20 controls and 20 chronic low back pain patients) were assessed on three occasions. Reliable EMG indices were achieved for both healthy and chronic low back pain subjects when specific measurement strategies were applied. The EMG parameters used to quantify weakness and fiber composition were insensitive to low back status and gender. The EMG fatigue parameters did not detect differences between genders but unexpectedly, healthy men showed higher fatigability than back pain patients. This result was attributed to the smaller absolute load that was attributed to the patients, a load that was defined relative to their maximal strength, a problematic measure with this population. An attempt was made to predict maximal back strength from anthropometric measurements but this prediction was prone to errors. The main difficulties and some potential solutions related to the assessment of back muscle intrinsic properties were discussed.

  18. [Low back pain during pregnancy. Multidisciplinary approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Padilla, D; Gallo-Padilla, C; Gallo-Vallejo, F J; Gallo-Vallejo, J L

    2016-09-01

    After explaining that low back pain is considered the most common pregnancy complication, its pathogenesis, risk factors and the clinical characteristics of the very painful symptoms of this condition are described. As for its approach, it is stressed that it must be multidisciplinary, introducing very important preventive measures, including proper postural hygiene. For its treatment, the methods may be based on non-surgical or pharmacological interventions of a conservative non-invasive nature. Thus, physiotherapy, osteopathic manipulation, multimodal intervention (exercise and education), exercises performed in water environment, acupuncture, etc., have proven to be effective. Finally, it is emphasised that given the significant impact on their quality of life, different health professionals must be proactive and treat the lumbar disease in pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Postural balance in low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Jensen, Lone Donbæk

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients have poorer postural control compared to healthy controls, and the importance of assessing and addressing balance is a matter of debate. In the clinic, balance is often tested by means of the one leg stand test (OLST) while research often employs center of pressure (CoP...... Ratio) might be of clinical interest. This study aimed to assess postural balance in LBP patients by analyzing intra-session reliability of CoP parameters on a portable force platform, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST. Furthermore, we aimed to determine whether CoP parameters and OLST measure identical...... aspects of postural stability. We examined 49 LBP patients and found acceptable reliability of the CoP parameters' trace length and velocity, whereas reliability regarding C90 area, the Romberg Ratio, and the OLST was poor. Correlations between the CoP parameters and OLST were insignificant. Reliability...

  20. From vaccines to memory and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallusto, Federica; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Araki, Koichi; Ahmed, Rafi

    2010-10-29

    Vaccines work by eliciting an immune response and consequent immunological memory that mediates protection from infection or disease. Recently, new methods have been developed to dissect the immune response in experimental animals and humans, which have led to increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control differentiation and maintenance of memory T and B cells. In this review we will provide an overview of the cellular organization of immune memory and underline some of the outstanding questions on immunological memory and how they pertain to vaccination strategies. Finally we will discuss how we can learn about antigen design from the interrogation of our memory T and B cells-a journey from vaccines to memory and back. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Getting Context Back in Engineering Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Bucciarelli, Louis

    2013-01-01

    and it is in fact counterproductive to let tight disciplinary framings- and strict 'object world' perspectives - be the only avenue to 'problem solving'. By introducing cases from engineering and scientific practice we will illustrate how the perspectives of the Humanities and Social Sciences can be brought to bear......History reveals a number academically inclined engineers and others who have found engineering education lacking. The critics support their claim with diverse arguments and propose different reform initiatives (Buch 2012). Though the motivation varies the critics seems to agree on broadening...... engineering education. In this paper we will discuss issues of curriculum, pedagogics and - most importantly learning - in engineering education. We tend to agree with the critics that there is a need to broaden engineering education. We also suggest that this broadening of the curriculum should be backed up...

  2. Psychological Distress in Acute Low Back Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, William S; Hartvigsen, Jan; Woiszwillo, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the measurement scales and levels of psychological distress reported among published studies of acute low back pain (LBP) in the scientific literature. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed scientific literature found in 8 citation index search engines (CINAHL, Embase, MANTIS, Psyc......INFO, PubMed, Web of Science, AMED, and Academic Search Premier) for the period from January 1, 1966, to April 30, 2015, in English, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish languages. STUDY SELECTION: Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort, or randomized controlled trials assessing psychological distress....... CONCLUSIONS: Based on the high consistency across studies using valid measures with a low to moderate risk of bias, there is strong evidence that psychological distress is elevated in acute LBP....

  3. Turned Back: Mad Men as Intermedial Melodrama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Rooney

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay draws on definitions of gesture (Giorgio Agamben and Peter Brooks and catachresis (Peter Brooks, Jacques Derrida to examine the primacy of non-verbal signifiers as communicators of meaning in AMC’s Mad Men. Beginning with an analysis of Mad Men’s credit sequence, it draws attention to Mad Men’s use of gesture and catachresis in relation to melodrama’s privileging of non-verbal and naturalistic expression and its persistence as an intermedial mode that has moved back and forth between various media (theatre, novel, cinema, television and now digital formats. It argues that Mad Men’s melodramatic aesthetic is one that obliquely, and via a gestural and rhetorical ‘turned back’, communicates its relation to the past and the present.

  4. Low Back Pain in Primary Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbæk, Lise; Munck, Anders; Hartvigsen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Study Design. Baseline description of a multicenter cohort study. Objective. To describe patients with low back pain (LBP) in both chiropractic and general practice in Denmark. Background. To optimize standards of care in the primary healthcare sector, detailed knowledge of the patient populations...... in different settings is needed. In Denmark, most LBP-patients access primary healthcare through chiropractic or general practice. Methods. Chiropractors and general practitioners recruited adult patients seeking care for LBP. Extensive baseline questionnaires were obtained and descriptive analyses presented...... separately for general and chiropractic practice patients, Mann-Whitney rank sum test and Pearson's chi-square test, were used to test for differences between the two populations. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 934 patients in chiropractic practice and 319 patients from general practice. Four out...

  5. Procedure and apparatus for back projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    (1) The procedure is for back projection in the form of a tomographic picture of a member, characterised in that the strip pictures are written onto the signal plate by a conversion pick-up unit; and that to the address inputs of the pick-up unit voltages are applied that represent a rotating coordinate system. (2) Procedure following claim 1 characterised by the fact that the voltages are respectively applied as sawtooth waveform horizontal and vertical television deflections. (3) Procedure following claims 1 and 2, characterised that in order to correct the television deflection voltages for the effect of a fan shaped radiation beam, first one and then the other of the amplitudes is modulated. (G.C.)

  6. Recommended protocol for failed back surgery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabaei SA

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS is many a times an intractable problem confronted in patients with surgical disease of lumbar spine and at the same time is a pressing problem for the physicians as well. This clinical entity is defined as continuation of pain in the lumbar region and lower extremities following surgery of the lumbar spine. Knowledge of the etiological factors and their prevention is the best line of treatment to overcome the evolution of this syndrome. During this study, which was conducted in Imam Khomeini hospital Tehran from the year 1989 till 1990, 43 out of 114 patients developed "FBSS". 23 cases responded to conservative treatment and psychotherapy whereas medical treatment failed to achieve fruitful results in the rest. The latter underwent extensive radiological investigations and repeat surgery. According to this study, we recommend that in the initial management of these patients. The surgeon should observe the dictum of "5-mis" to overcome and minimize the "FBSS" entity

  7. Method to reduce damage to backing plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a method for penetrating a workpiece using an ultra-short pulse laser beam without causing damage to subsequent surfaces facing the laser. Several embodiments are shown which place holes in fuel injectors without damaging the back surface of the sack in which the fuel is ejected. In one embodiment, pulses from an ultra short pulse laser remove about 10 nm to 1000 nm of material per pulse. In one embodiment, a plasma source is attached to the fuel injector and initiated by common methods such as microwave energy. In another embodiment of the invention, the sack void is filled with a solid. In one other embodiment, a high viscosity liquid is placed within the sack. In general, high-viscosity liquids preferably used in this invention should have a high damage threshold and have a diffusing property.

  8. Patient transfers and risk of back injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Madeleine, Pascal; Jakobsen, Markus Due

    2017-01-01

    which type of assistive devices most efficiently prevent LBP, exposure assessments using technological advancements allow for quantification of muscle load and body positions during common work tasks. OBJECTIVE: The main objectives of this study are (1) to quantify low back and neck/shoulder muscle load...... in Danish nurses during patient transfers performed with different types of assistive devices, and (2) to combine the exposure profile for each type of assistive device with fortnightly questionnaires to identify the importance of muscle load (intensity and frequency of transfers) and body position (degree...... will be comprised of surface electromyography and accelerometers, with the aim of quantifying muscle load and body positions during various patient transfers, including different types of assistive devices throughout a workday. The study will thereby gather measurements during real-life working conditions...

  9. Topical tar: Back to the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paghdal, K.V.; Schwartz, R.A. [University of Medicine & Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The use of medicinal tar for dermatologic disorders dates back to the ancient times. Although coal tar is utilized more frequently in modern dermatology, wood tars have also been widely employed. Tar is used mainly in the treatment of chronic stable plaque psoriasis, scalp psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis, either alone or in combination therapy with other medications, phototherapy, or both. Many modifications have been made to tar preparations to increase their acceptability, as some dislike its odor, messy application, and staining of clothing. One should consider a tried and true treatment with tar that has led to clearing of lesions and prolonged remission times. Occupational studies have demonstrated the carcinogenicity of tar; however, epidemiologic studies do not confirm similar outcomes when used topically. This article will review the pharmacology, formulations, efficacy, and adverse effects of crude coal tar and other tars in the treatment of selected dermatologic conditions.

  10. The hyperfine Paschen–Back Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zentile, Mark A; Andrews, Rebecca; Weller, Lee; Adams, Charles S; Hughes, Ifan G; Knappe, Svenja

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally and theoretically the Faraday effect in an atomic medium in the hyperfine Paschen–Back regime, where the Zeeman interaction is larger than the hyperfine splitting. We use a small permanent magnet and a micro-fabricated vapour cell, giving magnetic fields of the order of a tesla. We show that for low absorption and small rotation angles, the refractive index is well approximated by the Faraday rotation signal, giving a simple way to measure the atomic refractive index. Fitting to the atomic spectra, we achieve magnetic field sensitivity at the 10 −4 level. Finally we note that the Faraday signal shows zero crossings which can be used as temperature insensitive error signals for laser frequency stabilization at large detuning. The theoretical sensitivity for 87 Rb is found to be ∼40 kHz °C −1 . (paper)

  11. CERN firefighters have got your back covered

    CERN Document Server

    The Fire Brigade

    2011-01-01

    There’s not much room in the centre of a detector. Ensuring the safety of technicians who have to work on components close to the collision point is an absolute priority. With this firmly in mind, the Fire Brigade has recently acquired a back immobilisation device known as a spine splint.   CERN firefighters show off their new spine splint. Conscious of the potential safety hazards for personnel working on ALICE’s inner detectors, the collaboration’s GLIMOS, Fernando Pedrosa, asked the Fire Brigade to organise an exercise in March to simulate the emergency evacuation of a person from the centre of the detector. Despite the exceptionally limited space available in the centre of ALICE, the Fire Brigade successfully met the challenge. However, although specially designed for emergency evacuations, the cumbersome dimensions of the stretcher used in this first exercise caused many problems.   Following the exercise, the Fire Brigade therefore inves...

  12. Why and how back pain interventions work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansell, Gemma; Kamper, Steven J; Kent, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Mediation analysis is a useful research method that potentially allows identification of the mechanisms through which treatments affect patient outcomes. This chapter reviews the theoretical framework, research designs and statistical approaches used in mediation analysis. It describes what can...... be learnt from previous mediation research, much of which has investigated mediating factors of psychosocial interventions in other health conditions. It also summarises the few treatment-mediation studies of psychosocial interventions conducted in back pain. This chapter shows that there is emerging...... evidence about the role of some psychological factors as potential treatment mediators, such as self-efficacy and catastrophising. Mediation analysis can equally be applied to non-psychological factors. Pre-planned and appropriately conducted mediation analysis in adequately powered clinical trials would...

  13. Expectation of recovery from low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Vach, Werner; Axø, Marie

    2014-01-01

    participants completed questionnaires at their first consultation due to LBP and 78% were followed for 3 months. At baseline, recovery expectations were measured on a 0-10 scale. Outcome measures were LBP intensity and Global Perceived Effect (GPE). Associations were tested in regression models......Study Design. A prospective cohort study conducted in general practice (GP) and chiropractic practice (CP).Objectives. To explore which patient characteristics were associated with recovery expectations in low back pain (LBP) patients, whether expectations predicted 3-month outcome, and to what...... extent expectations were associated with empirical prognostic factors.Summary of Background Data. Patients' recovery expectations have been associated with prognosis, but it is largely unknown why patients expect what they do, and how expectations relate to other prognostic factors.Methods. 1169...

  14. Verification of aspheric contact lens back surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Holger H; Cox, Michael J; Douthwaite, William A

    2003-08-01

    To suggest a tolerance level for the degree of asphericity of aspheric rigid gas-permeable contact lenses and to find a simple method for its verification. Using existing tolerances for the vertex radius, tolerance limits for eccentricity and p values and were calculated. A keratometer-based method and a method based on sag measurements were used to measure the vertex radius and eccentricity of eight concave progressively aspheric surfaces and six concave ellipsoidal surfaces. The results were compared with a gold standard measurement made using a high-precision mechanical instrument (Form Talysurf). The suggested tolerance for eccentricity and p value and is +/-0.05. The keratometer method was very accurate and precise at measuring the vertex radius (mean deviation +/- SD from Talysurf results, -0.002 +/- 0.008 mm). The keratometer was more precise than and similar in accuracy to the sag method for measurement of asphericity (mean deviation of keratometer method results from Talysurf results, 0.017 +/- 0.018; mean deviation of sag method results from Talysurf results using five semichords, -0.016 +/- 0.032). Neither method was precise enough to verify the asphericity within the suggested tolerance. The keratometer can be efficiently used to verify the back vertex radius within its International Organization for Standardization tolerance and the back surface asphericity within an eccentricity/p value tolerance of +/-0.1. The method is poor for progressive aspheres with large edge blending zones. Deriving the eccentricity from sag measurements is a potential alternative if the mathematical description of the surface is known. The limiting factor of this method is the accuracy and precision of individual sag measurements.

  15. Combination of taping with Back School in patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Tana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 70-85% of the general population suffers from back pain. Back School programs have being effective in the treatment of chronic low back pain. Taping may be useful in reducing pain and normalizing muscle function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of taping with Back School at short- and long-term. Methods: Randomized controlled clinical trial. The experimental group used tape and made Back Scholl and the control group only made Back School. At the beginning and the end of treatment, pain was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, the flexibility determined with the Modified Finger Tip-to-Floor Test and functionality was calculated with the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. Depression was recorded with the Depression Beck Inventory just at the beginning. Results: 220 patients were enrolled, only 42 in the experimental group and 33 in the control group completed the treatment. The variation of pain between the first and the fifth session showed no differences between groups regardless of time (p = 0.329. There were no differences between groups in functionality (p = 0.75, flexibility (p = 0.20 and depression. Conclusion: The combination of taping and Back School compared with only Back School was not more effective in reducing pain, increasing functionality and flexibility in patients with chronic low back pain. Key words: Taping; chronic low back pain; spine school; therapy exercises; flexibility; depression.

  16. Compound Half-Backed Weave Design For Digital Jacquard Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Jiu

    2017-12-01

    Based on layered-combination design mode and compound structure, this paper presents a design method, named compound half-backed weave in order to achieve innovating weave structure and surface effect of fabric. This design method includes primary weaves chosen, half-backed technical points set up and half-backed weave databases established. The fabric produced using compound half-backed weave designed by this method can exhibit a unique half-backed effect that only half of the threads on the fabric surface remain in a state of being covered by adjacent wefts. Compound half-backed weave can not only meets the design need of jacquard fabric with different digital images and effectively improves the efficiency of structural design, but also puts forward new theory and method for innovative design of digital jacquard fabric.

  17. Low back pain in an urban population in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, Folashade O

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for low back pain in an urban community. A house-to-house enquiry was conducted using a questionnaire administered by trained interviewers. Four hundred and seventy-four respondents, 271 men (57%) and 203 women (43%) participated in the study. The 12-month prevalence of low back pain was 44%, while the point prevalence was 39%. Back pain was more prevalent among men (49%) than women (39%). It was also associated with a history of trauma and low educational status. The prevalence of back pain was highest among farmers (85%) and lowest among housewives (32%). The prevalence of low back pain in this community is comparable to levels recorded in industrialized countries. However, in this study low back pain did not feature as a main cause of morbidity, accounting for a mean of 3 days off work per person per year.

  18. [Descriptive epidemiology of low-back pain in Algiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzaoucha, A

    1992-02-01

    A survey by polling of households was undertaken in Algiers with the aim of measuring the incidence of ordinary low back pain and to assess its consequences from the standpoint of the handicap caused. 1,301 households were polled, i.e. 6,956 individuals aged 15 and over in whom the existence of low back pain was sought by questioning. The overall incidence rate of low back pain was 90.9 per thousand. The incidence of low back pain increased markedly with age, exceeding 250 per thousand in women aged 50 to 59. There was no significant difference in incidence between different socio-occupational groups. Almost 45% of cases of low back pain had been present for more than 5 years. More than 90% of low back pain sufferers were totally independent. The proportion of severe handicaps, partially possibly due to the advanced age of the individuals concerned, was relatively low.

  19. The Areva Group back-end division - challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This document presents the Areva Group back-end division challenges and prospects. Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, analyzes in this document, the high-profile mix of complementary activities of the nuclear energy industry, concerning the back-end division the full range of services for the end of the fuel cycle, the fuel cycle back-end markets, the economic and financial associated considerations. (A.L.B.)

  20. The Scope of Back Pain in Navy Helicopter Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Stigma on Pilots with Back and/or Neck Pain ....... 36  6.  Include Chiropractic Care and Message Therapy for Pilots...provides their suggestions regarding flight gear. 5. Reduce Stigma on Pilots with Back and/or Neck Pain Reduce the stigma of pilots going to see the...that the back pain just usually fatigues both myself and my co-pilot more quickly and that is what usually causes the break down in SA. I had to abort

  1. Advanced Control Strategy of Back-to-Back PWM Converters in PMSG Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Luong Van

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a control scheme of back-to-back PWM converters for the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG wind turbine system. The DC-link voltage can be controlled at the machine-side converter (MSC, while the grid-side converter (GSC controls the grid active power for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT. At the grid fault condition, the DC-link voltage controller is designed using a feedback linearization (FL theory. For the MPPT, a proportional control loop is added to the torque control to reduce the influence of the inertia moment in the wind turbines, which can improve its dynamic performance. The validity of this control algorithm has been verified by the simulation of the 2-MW PMSG wind turbine system.

  2. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakian, Harut [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions.

  3. Assessment of postural load on the back in occupational epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Burdorf, Alex

    1992-01-01

    textabstractLow-back pain is a common symptom among workers, nearly everyone will be affected by low-back pain at some point in life. This opening line may sound deceptive since low-back pain is usually a self-limiting condition, where recovery without a physician's consultation can be demonstrated in the vast majority of all episodes. Yet, there is ample evidence that the symptom of back pain is recurrent, with one-year recurrence rates reported of more than 60%. In many industrial populatio...

  4. Physical activity associate low back pain and intervention program: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhamad Aizat Mat; Hasbollah, Hasif Rafidee; Ibrahim, Mohd Asrul Hery; Marican, Nor Dalila; Halim, Muhd Hafzal Abdul; Rashid, Ahmad Faezi Ab.; Yasin, Nurul Hafizah Mohd

    2017-10-01

    The person who have low back pain often report impaired disability to performance daily activities which passive movement of daily life. The effects of low back pain on daily function of patients can describe as a patients level of disability or reduction in physical function it interferes with the movement of patients for running a daily lives. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a review to examine the relationship between physical activity and low back pain. Besides that, the suggestion prevention program to patient who has low back pain. This systematic review study was used internet to find databases and search engines. Data were collected using Wiley online library, Bioline International, SAGE, Science Direct, NCBI, ProQuest, Biomed central, American Diabetes Association, PLOS One and Springer. The search was performed using keywords of "physical activity", "low back pain", "back pain", "activity level" and "intervention". The study was reviewed the resources and the results were classified in different section The results were classified based on several sections including years of reporting, who were reporting, the origins of articles and their health criteria about physical activity and low back pain. There are positive associate physical activity and low back pain from the systematic review. Future intervention treatment can reduce associate physical activity to low back pain.

  5. Fluorinated tin oxide back contact for AZTSSe photovoltaic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, Talia S.; Gunawan, Oki; Haight, Richard A.; Lee, Yun Seog

    2017-03-28

    A photovoltaic device includes a substrate, a back contact comprising a stable low-work function material, a photovoltaic absorber material layer comprising Ag.sub.2ZnSn(S,Se).sub.4 (AZTSSe) on a side of the back contact opposite the substrate, wherein the back contact forms an Ohmic contact with the photovoltaic absorber material layer, a buffer layer or Schottky contact layer on a side of the absorber layer opposite the back contact, and a top electrode on a side of the buffer layer opposite the absorber layer.

  6. Low back pain in women before and after menopause

    OpenAIRE

    Kozinoga, Mateusz; Majchrzycki, Marian; Piotrowska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a massive problem in modern population, both in social and economic terms. It affects large numbers of women, especially those aged 45-60. Going through a perimenopausal period is associated with many symptoms, including low back pain. This paper is a review of published research on the association between the perimenopausal age and low back pain. PubMed databases were investigated. After the search was narrowed to “menopausal status, back pain”, 35 studies were found. Se...

  7. Diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in patients with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, K

    1994-01-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain can present a treatment dilemma for the family physician. Low back pain is one of the most common symptoms bringing patients to physicians. Despite its high prevalence, low back pain is often difficult to treat. In most patients, the pain cannot be pinpointed at a specific anatomic lesion, and plain radiographs, computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance imaging studies are not useful. While most people with low back pain improve regardless of the type of intervention, some evidence shows that McKenzie exercises, manipulation and injection therapy are helpful for patients who do not recover spontaneously.

  8. Predicting low back pain outcome following rehabilitation for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew J; Dew, Angela; Bridger, Robert; Etherington, John; Kilminster, Shaun

    2015-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are known to play a key role in determining the progress of back pain patients. However, it is not known whether these factors are applicable to military personnel, who tend to be fitter than the general population. The aim was to identify physical and psychological predictors in a prospective study of the outcome of back pain rehabilitation over 6 months and a longer follow-up time of between 15 and 32 months. Two hundred and fifty military personnel reporting for a residential rehabilitation programme completed a battery of physical and psychological tests. The physical tests included 800 m run time and the Biering-Sorensen test. The psychological/psychosocial measures included items on fear avoidance, self efficacy, anxiety and depression and occupational psychosocial factors such as job satisfaction. Self efficacy and 800 m run time predicted self-reported functional ability at 6 months and medical discharge/return to full fitness at 15–32 months. Patients with 800 m run times of more than 3 minutes 31 seconds had a four times greater chance of medical discharge from the Armed forces. Eight hundred metre run time and self-efficacy were independent predictors of both self-reported functional ability at 6 months and return to full fitness/medical discharge at 15–32 months. Self-efficacy also predicted 40% of the variance in the intensity of back pain and 10% of other non-back pain. Rehabilitation should include greater emphasis on physical fitness and on improving self-efficacy.

  9. Vertebroplasty in the treatment of back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Mario; Muto, Emanuale; Izzo, Roberto; Diano, Alvaro Antonio; Lavagna, Arcangelo; Di Furia, Ugo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to show the utility of vertebroplasty in the treatment of some types of back pain. Vertebroplasty is a venous embolisation of the vertebral body performed under computed tomography (CT) or fluoroscopy guidance with transpedicular, anterolateral, intercostovertebral or posterolateral approach with acrylic element. Materials and methods: We report our experience in 85 patients suffering from low back and thoracic pain and treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty owing to osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures, vertebral haemangiomas or secondary lytic lesions of the spine. Patient selection was performed on the basis of physical examination, magnetic resonance or less frequently, with bone scan. CT has a minor role in selected cases to evaluate the integrity of the posterior wall. We treated 55 patients affected by acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, 10 patients with vertebral haemangioma and 20 patients with metastatic lesions. The patients were placed in the prone position and the procedure was performed under fluoroscopy guidance in 80 patients and under CT guidance in 5 patients affected by metastatic lesions. In no case was phlebography performed before the treatment. The approach adopted was bilateral in 45 patients and unilateral in the remaining 30 cases. Injection with a low viscosity cement was performed under fluoroscopy guidance with extreme precision in all cases. The amount of cement injected ranged from 4 ml (thoracic level) up to 12 ml (lumbar level). Results: The results were better for osteoporotic cases (95%) and patients with vertebral haemangioma (90%) than with metastatic lesions (77%), with improvement within 24-72 hours after the treatment. We noted asymptomatic cement leakage in 39 cases but only in 2 cases was there an acute radiculopathy due to epidural cement leakage, which was treated and resolved medically in 1 month. At follow-up no cases were noted of fractures of vertebral bodies

  10. Disaster: would your community bounce back?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sims, Benjamin H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-12

    What makes some communities or organizations able to quickly bounce back from a disaster, while others take a long time to recover? This question has become very important for emergency planners in federal, state, and local government - particularly since the 9/11 attacks and Hurricane Katrina, which nearly destroyed New Orleans five years ago. These events have made people aware that we can't always prevent disasters, but might be able to improve the ability of communities and regions to respond to and bounce back from major disruptions. Social scientists have found that most communities are, in fact, quite resilient to most disasters. People tend to work together, overcome divisions, identify problems, and develop improvised solutions. This often leads to a greater sense of community and a sense of personal accomplishment. Long-term recovery can be harder, but rebuilding can create jobs and stimulate economies. Communities may even end up better than they were before. But there are some disturbing exceptions to this trend, including Hurricane Katrina. The hurricane killed many people, the federal and local emergency response was not effective, people who could not evacuate were housed in the Superdome and Convention Center in terrible conditions, crime was prevalent, and local government did not appear to have control over the situation. A significant portion of the population was eventually evacuated to other cities. Even five years later, many people have not returned, and large parts of the city have not been rebuilt. Clearly, New Orleans lacked sufficient resilience to overcome a disaster of the magnitude of Katrina. There are four factors that social scientists are beginning to agree are important for community resilience: (1) A strong, diverse economy - Stable jobs, good incomes, diversity of industries, personal savings; (2) Robust social networks - Community members know each other, help each other, and have connections outside the community; (3

  11. Glide back booster wind tunnel model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricop, M. V.; Cojocaru, M. G.; Stoica, C. I.; Niculescu, M. L.; Neculaescu, A. M.; Persinaru, A. G.; Boscoianu, M.

    2017-07-01

    Affordable space access requires partial or ideally full launch vehicle reuse, which is in line with clean environment requirement. Although the idea is old, the practical use is difficult, requiring very large technology investment for qualification. Rocket gliders like Space Shuttle have been successfullyoperated but the price and correspondingly the energy footprint were found not sustainable. For medium launchers, finally there is a very promising platform as Falcon 9. For very small launchers the situation is more complex, because the performance index (payload to start mass) is already small, versus medium and heavy launchers. For partial reusable micro launchers this index is even smaller. However the challenge has to be taken because it is likely that in a multiyear effort, technology is going to enable the performance recovery to make such a system economically and environmentally feasible. The current paper is devoted to a small unitary glide back booster which is foreseen to be assembled in a number of possible configurations. Although the level of analysis is not deep, the solution is analyzed from the aerodynamic point of view. A wind tunnel model is designed, with an active canard, to enablea more efficient wind tunnel campaign, as a national level premiere.

  12. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  13. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  14. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni; Nano, Giovanni; Marcia, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  15. LHC Report: Back to record performance

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC Team

    2012-01-01

    The technical issues that caused a rocky re-start after the technical stop and a relatively low performance of the machine have been tackled and resolved in the past days. The LHC is back to record collision rates and matching the 2011 data set now seems within reach for the summer conferences.   The technical stop at the end of April was followed by a period in which increased beam losses were observed before the beams were brought into collision, causing reduced peak luminosities. This issue was tackled by optimising the beams in the injector chain, making a fine adjustment of the orbit during the energy ramp-up and ensuring precise bunch collisions in ATLAS and CMS. These measures brought the peak luminosity at the beginning of a fill up to record levels of 6 x1033 cm-2s-1, but the fills were short as there were still sudden losses of some bunches that triggered the beam dump. The lost bunches were identified as bunches that only collide in LHCb. These bunches see fewer collisions, so the &am...

  16. Stress and back pain: who can escape?

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    On 28 April each year, the International Labour Organization and the World Health Organization organise a World Day for Safety and Health at Work.   For the third consecutive year, CERN will be celebrating the World Day through events and initiatives coordinated by the BE Safety Unit, the HSE Unit, the CERN Medical Service and finally the Fire Brigade. Two main themes that will be highlighted this year are: work stress and musculoskeletal disorders. These two frightening items actually refer to situations that we may all be experiencing. On the day of the event, you will be given information and tips on how to reduce daily stress. You will also be invited to follow a “back pain” course that will bring to light all the activities you can try out in order to fight this affliction and reduce its consequences. The Fire Brigade will also be present to show you how to use the “portoire” chair. Don’t know what a “portoire” chair ...

  17. Biomechanical aspects of nonspecific back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Harrianto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Low back pain (LBP is a common problem in adult life, since despite its benign nature it is commonly associated with incapacity, productivity loss due to sick leave, and correspondingly high costs to the individual worker. Psychosocial and lifestyle factors and work-place exposures have been implicated in the onset of symptoms. Heavy physical work, static work postures, frequent bending and twisting, lifting and postural movements, repetitive work, and whole body vibrations are occupational factors associated with LBP. The usual classification of LBP is related to the duration of the complaints (acute, subacute, and chronic. However, these terms fail to take into account several clinically important aspects of the course of LBP, which is frequently recurrent and thus neither acute nor chronic. More realistically, LBP should be classified as specific and nonspecific. Approximately 90% of LBP cases have no identifiable cause and is designated nonspecific LBP. However, despite its high prevalence, the etiology and nature of nonspecific LBP are not yet well understood. Its pathophysiology remains complex and multifaceted. Multiple anatomic structures and elements of the lumbar spine (e.g. bones, ligaments, tendons, discs, and muscles are all suspected of playing a role. Many of these components of the lumbar spine have sensory innervations that can generate nociceptive signals in response to tissue-damaging stimuli. Other causes could be neuropathic (e.g. sciatica. Some cases of LBP most likely involve mixed nociceptive and neuropathic etiologies.

  18. Back end of an enduring fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    An enduring nuclear fuel cycle is an essential part of sustainable consumption, the process whereby world's riches are consumed in a responsible manner so that future generations can continue to enjoy at least some of them. In many countries, the goal of sustainable development has focused attention on the benefits of nuclear technologies. However, sustenance of the nuclear fuel cycle is dependent on sensible management of all the resources of the fuel cycle, including energy, spent fuels, and all of its side streams. The nuclear fuel cycle for energy production has suffered many traumas since the mid seventies. The common basis of technologies producing nuclear explosives and consumable nuclear energy has been a preoccupation for some, predicament for others, and a perception problem for many. It is essential to reestablish a reliable back end of the nuclear fuel cycle that can sustain the resource requirements of an enduring full cycle. This paper identifies some pragmatic steps necessary to reverse the trend and to maintain a necessary fuel cycle option for the future

  19. Evaluating Low Back Pain Patients for Prolapsed Interverbral Disc in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of low back pain for prolapsed intervertebral disk (PID) is based on history, physical findings and im- aging examination such as Computerized Tomography. (CT) scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In pa- tients with recurrent low back pain, reflex sciatica, strik- ing tenderness on spinal processes or ...

  20. Evaluating Low Back Pain Patients for Prolapsed Interverbral Disc in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Accurate evaluation of low back pain is essential for its rational management. The extent of use of clinical and imaging findings in identification of prolapsed intervertebral disk varies between centers. In Kenya, the diagnostic procedure is obscure. Objective To assess the evaluation of low back pain patients for ...

  1. UBC researcher's back-pain studies focus on space travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, M

    1996-01-01

    Researchers at the University of British Columbia have been studying back pain that develops in astronauts in space. Their findings not only may help astronauts cope with future space travel, but also lead to new treatments for Earth-bound patients who experience back pain.

  2. Atypical back pain in a child: subcutaneous lumbar abscess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weight-bear because of back pain and the left arm had become cellulitic from the elbow to the wrist. There was no evidence of a collection on admission, and the child was treated for systemic malaise secondary to chickenpox. Broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics failed to resolve the child's pyrexia, and his lower back ...

  3. Back Pain at Work: Preventing Pain and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a desk job can contribute to back pain, especially if you have poor posture or sit all day in a chair with ... can take steps to avoid and prevent back pain and injuries at work. For example: Pay attention to posture. When standing, balance your weight evenly on your ...

  4. Frequency Selective Surfaces for extended Bandwidth backing reflector functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasian, M.; Neto, A.; Monni, S.; Ettorre, M.; Gerini, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of Frequency Selective Surfaces (FSS) to increase the Efficiency × Bandwidth product in Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) antenna arrays whose efficiency is limited by the front-to-back ratio. If the backing reflector is realized in one metal plane solution its location will be

  5. Students' Use of "Look Back" Strategies in Multiple Solution Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between both 9th-grade and 1st-year undergraduate students' use of "look back" strategies and problem solving performance in multiple solution methods, the difference in their use of look back strategies and problem solving performance in multiple solution methods, and the…

  6. Disability associated with low back pain in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    204 patients with mechanical back pain were enrolled in the study, after screening all consecutive new adult patients referred with low back pain as the major complaint. A validated modified Oswestry instrument was used to collect data. Nine daily activities: sleep, sex, lifting, traveling, social and recreational activities, ...

  7. Atypical back pain in a child: subcutaneous lumbar abscess ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... potentially life-threatening musculoskeletal complications. We discuss the extremely unusual case of a child with an extensive subcutaneous lumbar abcess who presented with severe back pain associated with active chickenpox infection. Keywords: abscess, back pain, chickenpox, group A β-haemolytic streptococcus, ...

  8. Frobenius Pull Backs of Vector Bundles in Higher Dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove that for a smooth projective variety of arbitrary dimension and for a vector bundle over , the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of ...

  9. Frobenius pull backs of vector bundles in higher dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... of a Frobenius pull back of is a refinement of the Frobenius pull back of the Harder–Narasimhan filtration of , provided there is a lower bound on the characteristic (in terms of rank of and the slope of the destabilizing sheaf of the cotangent bundle of ). We also recall some examples, due to Raynaud and Monsky, ...

  10. Ethics and Epistemology: Giving Back in the Klamath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reid Sarna-Wojcicki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research note is part of the thematic section, Giving Back Through Collaboration in Practice, in the special issue titled “Giving Back in Field Research,” published as Volume 10, Issue 2 in the Journal of Research Practice.

  11. Antidepressants for non-specific low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urquhart, D. M.; Hoving, J. L.; Assendelft, W. W. J. J.; Roland, M.; van Tulder, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are commonly used in the management of low-back pain. However, their use is controversial. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to determine whether antidepressants are more effective than placebo for the treatment of non-specific low-back pain. SEARCH STRATEGY:

  12. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang

    1986-01-01

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  13. CONTROL AND ECOLOGY OF THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONTROL AND ECOLOGY OF THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL. CANIS MESOMELAS IN THE TRANSVAAL. J. DU ~. BOTHMA. • Transvaal Nature Conservation Division. INTRODUCTION. The black-backed jackal Canis mesomelas is the most important problem animal in sheep- farming areas of the Transvaal (Van ...

  14. Solidification with back-diffusion of irregular eutectics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska-Łent

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The definition of the α - parameter back-diffusion has been introduced in the work. The alternative models of solidification were describedtaking into consideration back-diffusion process. The possibility of using those models for eutectic alloys solidification is worthyof interest.

  15. Back pain during different sequential treatment regimens of teriparatide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyritis, George; Marin, Fernando; Barker, Clare

    2010-01-01

    To investigate changes in back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis who received teriparatide for 24 months or switched at 12 months to raloxifene or no active treatment.......To investigate changes in back pain in postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis who received teriparatide for 24 months or switched at 12 months to raloxifene or no active treatment....

  16. Nursery function of tropical back-reef systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, A.J.; Dahlgren, C.P.; Kellison, G.T.; Kendall, M.S.; Layman, C.A.; Ley, J.A.; Nagelkerken, I.; Serafy, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Similar to nearshore systems in temperate latitudes, the nursery paradigm for tropical back-reef systems is that they provide a habitat for juveniles of species that subsequently make ontogenetic shifts to adult populations on coral reefs (we refer to this as the nursery function of back-reef

  17. Herbal medicine for low back pain: a Cochrane review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gagnier, J.J.; van Tulder, M.W.; Berman, B.; Bombardier, C.

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. OBJECTIVES. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine compared with placebo, no intervention, or "standard/accepted/conventional treatments" for nonspecific low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. Low back pain is a common

  18. Observations of White-backed Vultures eating plant material in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    diet, known to include refuse and human excrement. However, with two Namibian reports of White- backed Vultures exhibiting this behaviour, it is possibly more likely the Cape Griffon, which has a diet similar to that of the White- backed Vulture. Anderson (1997), sceptical of the reports of vultures eating plant material ...

  19. Back School: The Development of A Nigerian Urban Model | Odebiyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first part of the video documentary provides information on the epidemiology and causes of back pain, structures and functions of the back while the second and third parts consist of demonstrations of wrong and correct resting and working postures assumed during everyday life activities and simple exercises for the ...

  20. Feldenkrais method empowers adults with chronic back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Judith Dianne; Williams, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological approach was used to explore the experiences of 11 adults attending Awareness Through Movement lessons in the Feldenkrais Method to manage chronic-episodic back pain. Semistructured interviews were analyzed. The results suggest improving self-efficacy through somatic education and awareness potentially offers a way forward given the back pain epidemic.

  1. Aetiology of low back pain in Mulago Hospital, Uganda | Galukande ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain exists in epidemic proportions in the western world and is on the increase. Its cause is mostly nonspecific. Not much is known about it in the developing world because the data is scanty. This study was set out to investigate the possible causes of low back pain and prevalence. Objective: To ...

  2. Disability associated with low back pain in Mulago Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low back pain is sufficiently disabling and a common cause of disability particularly during the productive middle years of adult life. Disability implies interference with daily activities. Objective: To assess and document the disability associated with low back pain in terms of sick leave days, interference with ...

  3. Management for failed back surgery syndrome: three-in-one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management for failed back surgery syndrome: three-in-one procedure versus percutaneous spinal fixation alone .... unchanged; Fair: definite relief of some preoperative symptoms, while other symptoms were either .... spinal fixation procedure alone for management of pain and handicap after failed back spinal surgery ...

  4. Lumbar CT findings of patients with low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Kyun Sang [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-04-15

    Low back pain is probably the second most common disease entity to upper respiratory infection in developed country. We were missing at least 50% of the pathologic conditions by using conventional diagnostic modalities in low back pain. They did tell us nothing or little about facet abnormalities, lateral recesses, vertebral canal and soft tissue surrounding lumbar spines. High resolutional CT has been the biggest turning point in the diagnosis and management of low back pain. CT make a contribution to reducing the morbidity and probably the cost of evaluating patients with low back pain, and to increasing diagnostic accuracy. We observed 100 cases of lumbar CT using TCT 80A scanner for the evaluation of low back pain during the period from Apr. 1985 to Sept. 1985 at Chung-Ang University Hospital. Lumbar CT scan reveals high-positive findings (98%) in low back pain patients. Common low back disorders in CT are disc bulging (53%), herniated nucleus pulposus (32%), degenerative arthritis in posterior facet joints (27%), spinal stenosis (20%) and postoperative spines (15%). Uncommon low back disorders in CT are compression fracture of vertebral bodies, spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis, tropism, transitional vertebra, Scheueman's disease, limbic fracture, transverse process or articular process fracture, sacroiliac joint subluxation, conjoined nerve root and meningocele.

  5. Effects of backing board materials on wood combustion performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew J. Hagge; Kenneth M. Bryden; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2004-01-01

    Cone calorimeter tests show that backing board materials do not affect the ignition time, initial heat release rate, or the total heat released of combustion for redwood slabs. However, it has been observed that backing board materials alter combustion performance by altering the secondary heat release peak observed when the pyrolysis reaction front nears the unheated...

  6. Research Data Management - Back-up, Storage and Sharing presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Anna

    2013-01-01

    This short (8 slide) presentation "Back-up, Storage and Sharing - Helping you out in practice what you know you ought to be doing" is aimed at researchers and covers information about and tips for backing up as well as cloud based storage and encryption. Created under a CC-BY-NC_SA in March 2013 it is still highly relevant

  7. Adolescent low back pain among secondary school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: Adolescent low back pain (ALBP) can be considered a signal or precursor of a serious organic disease or tell- tale sign of future incidence of low back pain in adulthood. Published articles on ALBP in Nigeria are not readily available. Objectives: The study's objectives were to investigate the ...

  8. The effect of back school integrated with core strengthening in patients with chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun Joo; Park, Won-Beom; Shin, Hyung-Ik; Lim, Jae-Young

    2010-09-01

    To assess the effect of back school integrated with core-strengthening exercises on back-specific disability and pain-coping strategies and to examine how reactions to pain affect the outcomes of back school in patients with chronic low back pain. A single-center prospective trial was conducted with 142 participants with chronic low-back pain (38 men and 104 women) who completed a back school program at the spine center of a university hospital. The subjects participated in a 4-wk program integrated with core-strengthening exercises. Back-specific disabilities were measured as a primary outcome before and after the program. Secondary outcomes were pain, Chronic Pain Coping Inventory, general health status assessed by the SF-36, and quantitative functional evaluations of factors, such as trunk muscle strength, endurance, and the back performance scale. A subgroup of 28 subjects (12 men and 16 women) of the total sample of 142 subjects was used to analyze the longitudinal association between coping strategies and the primary outcome in a long-term follow-up study. These participants were divided into three groups (much improved, slightly improved, and unimproved) based on changes in back-specific disability scores. Participants improved significantly in terms of back-specific disability, pain, general health, and quantitative functional tests according to the short-term evaluation. They used more relaxation and exercise/stretching techniques as coping strategies. Of the groups participating in the longer-term follow-up (T3), the much-improved group showed significant improvement between T1 (before back school) and T2 (after back school) in scores for relaxation (1.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.1), task persistence (2.9 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.7 +/- 1.2), and exercise (3.3 +/- 1.1 vs. 5.2 +/- 1.9), but the coping strategies of those in the slightly improved and unimproved groups did not change significantly at T2. Our back school program may help patients with chronic low back pain

  9. Inkjet Printing of Back Electrodes for Inverted Polymer Solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Sweelssen, Jorgen; Andriessen, Ronn

    2013-01-01

    employed method in the ambient processing of back electrode, is demonstrated and discussed. Both inkjet printing and screen printing of back electrodes are studied for their impact on the photovoltaic properties of the polymer solar cells measured under 1000 Wm−2 AM1.5. Each ambient processing technique...... in an otherwise fast roll-to-roll production line. In this paper, the applicability of inkjet printing in the ambient processing of back electrodes in inverted polymer solar cells with the structure ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/ Ag is investigated. Furthermore, the limitation of screen printing, the commonly...... is compared with evaporation in the processing of back electrode. Laser beam induced current (LBIC) imaging is used to investigate the impact of the processing techniques on the current collection in the devices. We report that inkjet printing of back electrode delivers devices having photovoltaic performance...

  10. Central sensitization in chronic low back pain: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzarello, Ilaria; Merlini, Luciano; Rosa, Michele Attilio; Perrone, Mariada; Frugiuele, Jacopo; Borghi, Raffaele; Faldini, Cesare

    2016-11-21

    Low back pain is one of the four most common disorders in all regions, and the greatest contributor to disability worldwide, adding 10.7% of total years lost due to this health state. The etiology of chronic low back pain is, in most of the cases (up to 85%), unknown or nonspecific, while the specific causes (specific spinal pathology and neuropathic/radicular disorders) are uncommon. Central sensitization has been recently recognized as a potential pathophysiological mechanism underlying a group of chronic pain conditions, and may be a contributory factor for a sub-group of patients with chronic low back pain. The purposes of this narrative review are twofold. First, to describe central sensitization and its symptoms and signs in patients with chronic pain disorders in order to allow its recognition in patients with nonspecific low back pain. Second, to provide general treatment principles of chronic low back pain with particular emphasis on pharmacotherapy targeting central sensitization.

  11. The effects of shiatsu on lower back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, L H; Henry, K; Luth, J F; Casper-Bruett, K K

    2001-03-01

    Shiatsu, a specific type of massage, was used as an intervention in this study of 66 individuals complaining of lower back pain. Each individual was measured on state/trait anxiety and pain level before and after four shiatsu treatments. Each subject was then called 2 days following each treatment and asked to quantify the level of pain. Both pain and anxiety decreased significantly over time. Extraneous variables such as gender, age, gender of therapist, length of history with lower back pain, and medications taken for lower back pain did not alter the significant results. These subjects would recommend shiatsu massage for others suffering from lower back pain and indicated the treatments decreased the major inconveniences they experienced with their lower back pain.

  12. Back pain prevalence in adolescent athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, J; Müller, S; Stoll, J; Fröhlich, K; Otto, C; Mayer, F

    2017-04-01

    The research aimed to investigate back pain (BP) prevalence in a large cohort of young athletes with respect to age, gender, and sport discipline. BP (within the last 7 days) was assessed with a face scale (face 1-2 = no pain; face 3-5 = pain) in 2116 athletes (m/f 61%/39%; 13.3 ± 1.7 years; 163.0 ± 11.8 cm; 52.6 ± 13.9 kg; 4.9 ± 2.7 training years; 8.4 ± 5.7 training h/week). Four different sports categories were devised (a: combat sports, b: game sports; c: explosive strength sport; d: endurance sport). Analysis was described descriptively, regarding age, gender, and sport. In addition, 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. About 168 (8%) athletes were allocated into the BP group. About 9% of females and 7% of males reported BP. Athletes, 11-13 years, showed a prevalence of 2-4%; while prevalence increased to 12-20% in 14- to 17-year olds. Considering sport discipline, prevalence ranged from 3% (soccer) to 14% (canoeing). Prevalences in weight lifting, judo, wrestling, rowing, and shooting were ≥10%; in boxing, soccer, handball, cycling, and horse riding, ≤6%. 95% CI ranged between 0.08-0.11. BP exists in adolescent athletes, but is uncommon and shows no gender differences. A prevalence increase after age 14 is obvious. Differentiated prevention programs in daily training routines might address sport discipline-specific BP prevalence. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Imaging studies for failed back surgery syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, G.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Soulie, D.

    1995-01-01

    In patients with failed back surgery syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be the best first-line imaging study because it simplifies the diagnosis. This update is based on over 600 cases. MRI shows the scar tissue at the surgical site, persistent evidence of disk herniation for several weeks after surgery, and evidence of local and regional edema in one-fourth of cases. The edema is most marked between two months and two years after the operation and can misleadingly suggest discitis. MRI is the best investigation for detecting recurrent herniation at the same vertebral level or another level. Herniated disk material is seen as a mass that does not enhance after gadolinium, in contrast to the vascularized scar tissue. Free fragments are often clearly visible within the scar tissue. Fragments that migrate to the epidural space can give rise to granulomatous reactions. Scar tissue can be seen in the epidural space and within the disk; it can show enhancement after gadolinium for several years. The scar can be atrophic or hypertrophic and can encase or impinge on the dural sac and nerve roots. Pathological fibrosis cannot be differentiated from ordinary scar tissue. Arachnoiditis causing adherence of the nerve roots to the dura mater or to each other occurs in 5 % to 10 % of cases. Nerve root enhancement after gadolinium is seen in three-fourths of cases. Bone lesions are common, especially some time after surgery; they are usually accompanied with other lesions. Hematomas are seen in less than 10 % of cases. Infections are similarly rare (0.25 % each for discitis and epiduritis). The diagnosis of discitis is difficult and requires percutaneous biopsy of the disk, especially when MRI shows fluid within the disk, with decreased signal intensity on T2 images, and non enhancement after intravenous gadolinium. (authors). 19 refs., 7 figs

  14. Low back pain among Irish farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Cunningham, Caitriona; Blake, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Despite farming being regarded as a high-risk activity for low back pain (LBP), little LBP research exists for this work sector. To establish LBP prevalence, beliefs regarding LBP, perceived LBP risk factors, related health service utilization, awareness and participation in manual-handling training among farmers in Ireland. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was distributed to 200 farmers in Ireland via five Irish veterinary practices. Data were entered onto the Statistical package for the Social Sciences (version 12.0.1) and analysed using descriptive statistics while qualitative data were coded and analysed for common themes. The response rate was 52% (n = 104). Lifetime, annual and point prevalence of LBP was 74% (n = 77), 54% (n = 56) and 27% (n = 28), respectively. Of respondents with a history of LBP, 72% (n = 55) stated that farming had contributed to their problem. Sixty-three per cent (n = 31) identified lifting as a contributory factor to their LBP. The majority of respondents (86%, n = 66) with LBP sought some form of treatment, with 73% (n = 56) of these having attended a general practitioner (GP). Few respondents (13%, n = 14) had ever attended a manual-handling course. A high prevalence of LBP was found among farmers, with lifting being reported as the major contributing factor. GPs were the most commonly utilized healthcare practitioner for LBP. Farmers do not commonly attend manual-handling courses with many noting they were not widely accessible or adequately publicized. There is a need for high-quality studies to examine the effectiveness of different interventions to prevent LBP among the Irish farming population.

  15. Feed-Back Regulation of Haemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.

    1968-01-01

    Studies ate reported on the feed-back regulation of erythropoiesis by means of the intrasplenic cloning system of haemopoietic cells. Polycythaemia, produced by passive transfusion of synzeneic, allogeneic or xenogeneic red blood cells, inhibited the formation of bone-marrow derived erythroid clones. Polycythaemia also inhibited the formation of erythroid clones of endogenous stem cells. Oxygen overloading was found to be a necessary factor in the suppression of erythroid clone formation: no suppression of erythroid colonies was observed when polycythaemic animals were kept under hypoxic conditions. Erythropoietin, either of exogenous or of endogenous origin, elicited a reformation of erythroid clones in 'suppressed' animals. Studies on the kinetics of reformation of erythroid clones after the administration of erythropoietin suggested that the colony-forming stem cell can replicate a few times in the absence of erythropoietin and the cell progeny thus formed are the target cells for erythropoietin action. If, indeed, the colony-forming cell replicates in the absence of the specific inducer, then the cells thus formed should themselves be stem cells. This was substantiated by demonstrating that the cloning efficiency of spleens of polycythaemic recipients was higher than that of non-polycythaemic animals. Experiments indicating that erythroid clones produced by erythropoietin in polycythaemic animals disappeared after the discontinuance of erythropoietin application demonstrated the distinction between the 'mitogenic' and the 'morphogenetic' effects of erythropoietin. The latter seemed to be operated by an early transcription of RNA for proteins necessary for the complete maturation of the red blood cell, Erythroid clones produced by foetal haemopoietic stem cells seemed to be regulated by a different mechanism from that which controls the formation of bone-marrow derived clones. Clones produced by foetal cells were only partially suppressed in the polycythaemic

  16. Back school programs. The young patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, J P; Drye, C D

    1992-01-01

    CC's treatment goals were all met with the exception of eliminating the AMNT sign. Slump-sit right knee extension (-15 degrees), right SLR (80 degrees coupled with dorsiflexion), and lumbar flexion (85% coupled with neck flexion) all continued to reproduce right buttock cramping and pain. Currently he is playing basketball without restriction, performing an individualized exercise program that emphasizes lower extremity muscle stretching, AMNT stretching, and advanced truncal stabilization exercises. He has a very good understanding of body mechanics and an awareness of safe SFP during activities of daily living and on the basketball court. His motivation, along with the motivation of parents, coaches, athletic trainer, and physical therapist, greatly assisted CC in returning to competitive basketball. CC is intermittently evaluated to monitor the AMNT sign and the effectiveness of the home exercise program. Currently CC's AMNT appears to regress if he is not monitored on a monthly basis; thus he warrants intermittent treatment. Monitoring of the patient is an integral aspect of long-term management of chronic discogenic disease that is often neglected. It can be hypothesized that monitoring may prevent serious complications in the future for many patients. CC is a patient who needed specific therapeutic intervention beyond rest, general instructions about body mechanics and exercise, modalities, and traditional back school. The history of this patient's problem revealed that rest and general exercises had failed, thus necessitating specific therapeutic treatment. This patient is an excellent example of how physical therapy in the form of manual therapy, specific therapeutic exercise, education through repetition of functional tasks, and the team approach to patient care can lead to a successful treatment outcome.

  17. Is your client's back pain "rapidly reversible"? Improving low back care at its foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelson, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    To convey a valuable and greatly misunderstood paradigm for evaluating and treating low back pain (LBP) and its extensive scientific evidence. Low back pain is a highly prevalent and very expensive health dilemma. But by using a paradigm called Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (a.k.a. McKenzie methods), it is now possible to identify a very large LBP subgroup whose pain is rapidly reversible, meaning that it can often be eliminated quickly, with return to full function using a single, patient-specific direction of simple, yet precise, end-range low back exercises and some posture modifications. This interesting subgroup includes patients with both acute and chronic LBP as well as both LBP-only and sciatica with neural deficits. This special form of clinical assessment can detect which patients are in this large, rapidly reversible subgroup and which ones are not. Of the numerous studies targeting Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT), three have focused on patients whose persisting pain had led to recommendations of disc surgery where 50% were then found to still have a rapidly reversible disc problem with high rates of nonsurgical rapid recovery. If patients are never assessed in this way, this reversibility remains undiscovered and these patients commonly undergo potentially unnecessary surgery. Armed with knowledge of this subgroup, how to identify it, the considerable supportive scientific evidence and strongly beneficial implications of utilizing this MDT paradigm, case managers are positioned to have an immensely positive impact on the care of LBP. Tremendous cost savings and greatly improved clinical outcomes are available by utilizing this form of evidence-based MDT care.

  18. Improved interoceptive awareness in chronic low back pain: a comparison of Back school versus Feldenkrais method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Teresa; Zangrando, Federico; Iosa, Marco; De Angelis, Simona; Marzoli, Caterina; Piccinini, Giulia; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2017-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of the Feldenkrais method for relieving pain in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and the improvement of interoceptive awareness. This study was designed as a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Fifty-three patients with a diagnosis of CLBP for at least 3 months were randomly allocated to the Feldenkrais (mean age 61.21 ± 11.53 years) or Back School group (mean age 60.70 ± 11.72 years). Pain was assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), disability was evaluated with the Waddel Disability Index, quality of life was measured with the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36), and mind-body interactions were studied using the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness Questionnaire (MAIA). Data were collected at baseline, at the end of treatment, and at the 3-month follow-up. The two groups were matched at baseline for all the computed parameters. At the end of treatment (Tend), there were no significant differences between groups regarding chronic pain reduction (p = 0.290); VAS and MAIA-N sub scores correlated at Tend (R = 0.296, p = 0.037). By the Friedman analysis, both groups experienced significant changes in pain (p Feldenkrais method has comparable efficacy as Back School in CLBP. Implications for rehabilitation The Feldenkrais method is a mind-body therapy that is based on awareness through movement lessons, which are verbally guided explorations of movement that are conducted by a physiotherapist who is experienced and trained in this method. It aims to increase self-awareness, expand a person's repertoire of movements, and to promote increased functioning in contexts in which the entire body cooperates in the execution of movements. Interoceptive awareness, which improves with rehabilitation, has a complex function in the perception of chronic pain and should be investigated further in future research. The efficacy of the Feldenkrais method is

  19. Back strength predicts walking improvement in obese, older adults with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Vincent, Kevin R; Seay, Amanda N; Conrad, Bryan P; Hurley, Robert W; George, Steven Z

    2014-05-01

    To compare the effects of 4 months of isolated lumbar resistance exercise and total body resistance exercise on walking performance in obese, older adults with chronic low back pain. A secondary analysis examined whether responsiveness to training modulated walking improvement. Randomized, controlled trial. Research laboratory affiliated with tertiary care facility. Participants (N = 49; 60-85 years) were randomized into a 4-month resistance exercise intervention (TOTRX), lumbar extensor exercise intervention (LEXT), or a control group (CON). Walking performance, maximal low back strength and leg strength, and average resting and low back pain severity score (from an 11-point numerical pain rating scale; NRSpain) were collected at baseline and month 4. The TOTRX and LEXT improved lumbar extensor strength relative to CON, and the TOTRX (P vs 3.7 ± 2.6 points and 4.6 ± 2.4 points; P strength gains that achieved ≥20% greater than baseline values. Although the TOTRX demonstrated the greatest improvement in walking endurance among the intervention groups, this did not reach significance (10.1 ± 12.2% improvement in TOTRX vs 7.4 ± 30.0% LEXT and -1.7 ± 17.4% CON; P = .11). Gait speed increased most in the TOTRX (9.0 ± 13.5%) compared with the LEXT and CON groups (P strength explained 10.6% of the variance of the regression model for the change in walking endurance (P = .024). The use of LEXT and TOTRX produced similar modest improvements in patients' walking endurance. Lumbar extensor strength gain compared with leg strength gain is a moderate but important contributor to walking endurance in obese older adults with chronic low back pain. Responders to resistance exercise programs (event those with only lumbar extension exercise) who make at least a 20% improvement in strength can expect better improvement in walking endurance than those who do not achieve this strength improvement. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and

  20. Analysis of the market for diesel PEM fuel cell auxiliary power units onboard long-haul trucks and of its implications for the large-scale adoption of PEM FCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contestabile, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM FCs) offer a promising alternative to internal combustion engines in road transport. During the last decade PEM FC research, development and demonstration (RD and D) activities have been steadily increasing worldwide, and targets have been set to begin their commercialisation in road transport by 2015-2020. However, there still is considerable uncertainty on whether these targets will actually be met. The picture is complex and market and technology issues are closely interlinked; investment in RD and D projects is essential but not sufficient; the development of suitable early markets is also necessary and policy is set to play an important role. Auxiliary power units (APUs) are generally regarded as one important early market for FCs in transport. This paper analyses the possible future market for diesel PEM FC APUs onboard long-haul trucks and its implications for the development of PEM FCs in general. The analysis, part of the project HyTRAN (EC Contract no. 502577), is aided by the use of a dynamic simulation model of technology and markets developed by the author. Results suggest that an interesting window of opportunity for diesel PEM FC APUs exists but this is subject to additional research particularly targeted at the rapid development of fuel processors.

  1. Do illness perceptions of people with chronic low back pain differ from people without chronic low back pain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C. Paul; van Ittersum, Miriam W.; Kaptein, Ad A.

    Objectives To determine why some people develop chronic low back pain, and whether illness perceptions are an important risk factor in the transition from acute to chronic low back pain. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Four hundred and two members of the general Dutch population, with and

  2. Cumulative Low Back Load at Work as a Risk Factor of Low Back Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Much research has been performed on physical exposures during work (e.g. lifting, trunk flexion or body vibrations) as risk factors for low back pain (LBP), however results are inconsistent. Information on the effect of doses (e.g. spinal force or low back moments) on LBP may be more

  3. Electrophysiological assessment of piano players’ back extensor muscles on a regular piano bench and chair with back rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Kavan; Minaskanian, Rafael; Maboudi, Seyed Ebrahim; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists’ back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed similar tasks for 5 hours in two sessions: one session sitting on a regular piano bench and the other sitting on a chair with back rest. In each session, muscular activity was assessed in 3 ways: 1) recording surface electromyography of the back-extensor muscles at the beginning and end of each session, 2) isometric back extension test, and 3) musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire. [Results] There were significantly lesser muscular activity, more ability to perform isometric back extension and better personal comfort while sitting on a chair with back rest. [Conclusion] Decreased muscular activity and perhaps fatigue during prolonged piano playing on a chair with back rest may reduce acquired musculoskeletal disorders amongst professional pianists. PMID:29410569

  4. Electrophysiological assessment of piano players' back extensor muscles on a regular piano bench and chair with back rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarmand, Kavan; Minaskanian, Rafael; Maboudi, Seyed Ebrahim; Oskouei, Ali E

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists' back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed similar tasks for 5 hours in two sessions: one session sitting on a regular piano bench and the other sitting on a chair with back rest. In each session, muscular activity was assessed in 3 ways: 1) recording surface electromyography of the back-extensor muscles at the beginning and end of each session, 2) isometric back extension test, and 3) musculoskeletal discomfort questionnaire. [Results] There were significantly lesser muscular activity, more ability to perform isometric back extension and better personal comfort while sitting on a chair with back rest. [Conclusion] Decreased muscular activity and perhaps fatigue during prolonged piano playing on a chair with back rest may reduce acquired musculoskeletal disorders amongst professional pianists.

  5. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. el Barzouhi (Abdelilah); C.L.A.M. Vleggeert-Lankamp (Carmen); G.J.L.A. Nijeholt (Geert J. Lycklama A); B.F.W. van der Kallen (Bas); W.B. van den Hout (Wilbert); B.W. Koes (Bart); W.C. Peul (Wilco)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. Methods: The study population

  6. Prevalence of Neck and Back Pain amongst Aircrew at the Extremes of Anthropometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    severe enough to require epidural, two required opiates, four required muscle relaxants, ten used non- steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and...exercises Back Stay fit (working out in the gym ) Neck and back Motrin Exercise Neck and back Push less pallets 40 Back or neck...Back Sleeping, driving Neck and Back Sleep, drive, run, and workouts at gym . Neck and Back Reduces ability to do certain activities/ need extra

  7. Effect of back school protocol on the referral rate of patients with low back pain to an industrial physiotherapy clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Odebiyi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Back schools are educational programmes originally developed in a work place (Volvo factory in Sweden for patients with back pain, to enable them to manage their own back problems better. ‘Back school’ was originally aimed at modifying the behaviours of patients with low back pain (LBP, with the view to prevent relapses. In an effort to encourage and stimulate the use of ‘back school’ among health workers in Nigeria, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a back school protocol in a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria. One hundred and ten (110 workers of a Soap Making Industry in Lagos, Nigeria,  participated in this study. A pre-test, post-test experimental design was employed. The participants were divided into two groups - office workers and factory workers for the purpose of the training in the content of the back school protocol. The ‘back school’ consisted of classroom teaching and the use of two videotapes titled “lifting technique” and “back pain”. Data on demographic information, knowledge of back structures and back care were collected using a questionnaire with closed ended questions, which was completed before, immediately after and 8 weeks after the administrations of the contents of the back school protocol (Akinpelu and Odebiyi, 2004. The records of the factory’s clinic were also reviewed for the 12-months before and 12 months after the study. The mean values of the participants’ age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI were 36.60 ± 9.10 years, 1.65 ± 0.10 m,69.13 ± 7.70 kg and 25.40 ± 3.30 kg/m2 respectively. The results showed that the 12-months prevalence of low back pain (LBP among the workers was 71%. The result also showed that over 50% of the participants never had any  information or lesson on back care, and those that had some form of information obtained it by chance. There was 23% reduction in referral for care of back pain 12 months after the administration of the back

  8. Non-Linear Back-propagation: Doing Back-Propagation withoutDerivatives of the Activation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, John; Krogh, Anders Stærmose; Lautrup, Benny

    1997-01-01

    The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back-propagatio......-propagation algorithms in the framework of recurrent back-propagation and present some numerical simulations of feed-forward networks on the NetTalk problem. A discussion of implementation in analog VLSI electronics concludes the paper.......The conventional linear back-propagation algorithm is replaced by a non-linear version, which avoids the necessity for calculating the derivative of the activation function. This may be exploited in hardware realizations of neural processors. In this paper we derive the non-linear back...

  9. Development and Validation of the Behavioral Avoidance Test-Back Pain (BAT-Back) for Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, Sebastian; Riecke, Jenny; Rief, Winfried; Schneider, Jessica; Glombiewski, Julia A

    2016-11-01

    Pain-related fear and avoidance of physical activities are central elements of the fear-avoidance model of musculoskeletal pain. Pain-related fear has typically been measured by self-report instruments. In this study, we developed and validated a Behavioral Avoidance Test (BAT) for chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients with the aim of assessing pain-related avoidance behavior by direct observation. The BAT-Back was administered to a group of CLBP patients (N=97) and pain-free controls (N=31). Furthermore, pain, pain-related fear, disability, catastrophizing, and avoidance behavior were measured using self-report instruments. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach α. Validity was assessed by examining correlation and regression analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the BAT-Back avoidance score was r=0.76. Internal consistency was α=0.95. CLBP patients and controls differed significantly on BAT-Back avoidance scores as well as self-report measures. BAT-Back avoidance scores were significantly correlated with scores on each of the self-report measures (rs=0.27 to 0.54). They were not significantly correlated with general anxiety and depression, age, body mass index, and pain duration. The BAT-Back avoidance score was able to capture unique variance in disability after controlling for other variables (eg, pain intensity and pain-related fear). Results indicate that the BAT-Back is a reliable and valid measure of pain-related avoidance behavior. It may be useful for clinicians in tailoring treatments for chronic pain as well as an outcome measure for exposure treatments.

  10. Predictors of Persistent Disability and Back Pain in Older Adults with a New Episode of Care for Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Sean D; Sherman, Karen J; Heagerty, Patrick J; Mock, Charles N; Dettori, Nathan J; Comstock, Bryan A; Avins, Andrew L; Nedeljkovic, Srdjan S; Nerenz, David R; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-06-01

     To identify predictors of persistent disability and back pain in older adults.  Prospective cohort study.  Back pain outcomes using longitudinal data registry.  Five thousand two hundred twenty adults age 65 years and older with a new primary care visit for back pain.  Baseline measurements included: demographics, health, and back pain characteristics. We abstracted imaging findings from 348 radiology reports. The primary outcomes were the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and back pain intensity. We defined persistent disability as RMDQ of 4/24 or higher at both six and 12 months and persistent back pain as pain 3/10 or higher at both six and 12 months.  There were 2,498 of 4,143 (60.3%) participants with persistent disability, and 2,099 of 4,144 (50.7%) had persistent back pain. Adjusted analyses showed the following characteristics most strongly predictive of persistent disability and persistent back pain: sex, race, worse baseline clinical characteristics of back pain, leg pain, back-related disability and duration of symptoms, smoking, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, a history of falls, greater number of comorbidities, knee osteoarthritis, wide-spread pain syndromes, and an index diagnosis of lumbar spinal stenosis. Within the imaging data subset, central spinal stenosis was not associated with disability or pain.  We found that many predictors in older adults were similar to those for younger populations. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Studies of the nucleon structure in back-to-back SIDIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avakian, H.

    2016-01-01

    The Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) proved to be a great tool in testing of the theory of strong interactions, which was a major focus in last decades. Semi-Inclusive DIS (SIDIS), with detection of an additional hadron allowed first studies of 3D structure of the nucleon, moving the main focus from testing the QCD to understanding of strong interactions and quark gluon dynamics to address a number of puzzles accumulated in recent years. Detection of two hadrons in SIDIS, which is even more complicated, provides access to details of quark gluon interactions inaccessible in single-hadron SIDIS, providing a new avenue to study the complex nucleon structure. Large acceptance of the Electron Ion Collider, allowing detection of two hadrons, produced back-to-back in the current and target fragmentation regions, combined with clear separation of two regions, would provide a unique possibility to study the nucleon structure in target fragmentation region, and correlations of target and current fragmentation regions. (authors)

  12. Back-to-back heavy quark pair production in semi-inclusive DIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guang-Peng

    2017-11-01

    The one-loop correction to heavy quark pair back-to-back production in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering is given in this work in the framework of transverse momentum dependent(TMD) factorization. Both unpolarized and linearly polarized TMD gluon distribution functions are taken into account. A subtraction method based on diagram expansion is used to get finite hard coefficients. It is found the soft and collinear divergences of one-loop amplitude is proportional to tree level ones and can be expressed through several basic scalar triangle and bubble integrals. The subtraction of these divergences is spin independent. Beyond tree level an additional soft factor related to final heavy quark pair must be added into the factorization formula. This soft factor affects the azimuthal angle distribution of virtual photon in a nonperturbative way. Integrating over virtual photon azimuthal angle we construct three weighted cross sections, which depend on only three additional integrated soft factors. These weighted cross sections can be used to extract linearly polarized gluon distribution function. In addition, lepton azimuthal angle is unintegrated in this work, which provides more observables. All hard coefficients relevant to lepton and virtual photon azimuthal angle distributions are given at one-loop level.

  13. Nonlinear Control of Back-to-Back VSC-HVDC System via Command-Filter Backstepping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a command-filtered backstepping controller to improve the dynamic performance of back-to-back voltage-source-converter high voltage direct current (BTB VSC-HVDC. First, the principle and model of BTB VSC-HVDC in abc and d-q frame are described. Then, backstepping method is applied to design a controller to maintain the voltage balance and realize coordinated control of active and reactive power. Meanwhile, command filter is introduced to deal with the problem of input saturation and explosion of complexity in conventional backstepping, and a filter compensation signal is designed to diminish the adverse effects caused by the command filter. Next, the stability and convergence of the whole system are proved via the Lyapunov theorem of asymptotic stability. Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate that proposed controller has a better dynamic performance and stronger robustness compared to the traditional PID algorithm, which also proves the effectiveness and possibility of the designed controller.

  14. Persian Back Channel Responses in Formal versus Informal Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Sharifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Utterances like /xob/ (okay, /doroste/ (right, /hmm/, /ee/, /?re/ (yeah, occur frequently in Persian conversations, but have thus far escaped from the systematic studies. Good listeners generally produce these short utterances, called "back channel responses", in appropriate times to show their participation in the conversation, but the rules governing back channeling vary from one context to another. The usage of back channel responses is different in various contexts, due to politeness or formality. This paper studies the types and functions of the back channel responses in both formal and informal settings and provides a comparison of the usage of these responses in these two kinds of contexts. The results show /bale/ (yes and /doroste/ (right are used with formal or polite verbal form, while /xob/ (okay is used with the informal style of speech and less polite verbal form. With respect to the function of back channels, signaling the understanding is the main function of back channels in informal contexts. Also, back channels signaling agreement are more frequent in formal contexts, where emotional function is less likely.

  15. Text mining a self-report back-translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, Angel; Aluja, Anton

    2016-06-01

    There are several recommendations about the routine to undertake when back translating self-report instruments in cross-cultural research. However, text mining methods have been generally ignored within this field. This work describes a text mining innovative application useful to adapt a personality questionnaire to 12 different languages. The method is divided in 3 different stages, a descriptive analysis of the available back-translated instrument versions, a dissimilarity assessment between the source language instrument and the 12 back-translations, and an item assessment of item meaning equivalence. The suggested method contributes to improve the back-translation process of self-report instruments for cross-cultural research in 2 significant intertwined ways. First, it defines a systematic approach to the back translation issue, allowing for a more orderly and informed evaluation concerning the equivalence of different versions of the same instrument in different languages. Second, it provides more accurate instrument back-translations, which has direct implications for the reliability and validity of the instrument's test scores when used in different cultures/languages. In addition, this procedure can be extended to the back-translation of self-reports measuring psychological constructs in clinical assessment. Future research works could refine the suggested methodology and use additional available text mining tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. [Nonspecific low back pain in young adults: associated risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Rita Neli Vilar; Ribeiro, Luiza Helena; Abdo, Bruno de Arruda; Descio, Fernanda Justo; Martucci, Celso Eduardo; Serruya, Débora Coutinho

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk factors related to low back pain in the daily routines of two sets of youths: individuals complaining of chronic low back pain and a control group. The sample consisted of 198 university-age students (male and female) aged between 18 and 29. In accordance with back pain diagnoses, they were separated into two groups: with or without nonspecific chronic low back pain. Both groups were evaluated by a "blinded" observer with no knowledge to the presence or otherwise of lower back pain. Questionnaires concerning clinical-demographic characteristics, life style, quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire), pain visual analogical scales (VAS), and physical examination were applied. A univariate analysis showed a statistically significant association (P<0.05) with the presence of low back pain and some factors. There was a negative association between low back pain and the following variables: BMI, health self-assessment, VAS and some SF-36 domains (physical functioning, body pain, general health, vitality, social functioning). There was a positive correlation with the following variables: global pain by VAS, presence of diffuse pain and number of tender points. However, the multivariate analysis showed statistically significant correlations (P<0.05) between low back pain and few variables: global pain VAS and number of tender points. Some variables related to chronic diffuse pain and lower quality of life might be associated to chronic low back pain in young adults. However, longitudinal studies are necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Low back pain and musculoskeletal symptoms among Kansas farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosecrance, John; Rodgers, Gina; Merlino, Linda

    2006-07-01

    Farming continues to rank as one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of low back pain and other musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among the farmers and to examine the factors associated with occupational back pain. Farmers in a predominately corn and soybean growing region of Kansas served as the study sample. Questionnaires were mailed out to 499 active farmers of a Farmers' Cooperative in Southeast Kansas. The self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of back pain and other MSDs and to determine the strength of associations between back pain and work factors. The participation rate was 57.2%. The low back was the anatomical area with the highest prevalence of self-reported work-related pain (37.5%), followed by the shoulders (25.9%), knees (23.6%), and neck (22.4%). Close to 60% of the farmers reported that they experienced farm work-related MSD symptoms in at least one of the nine body areas in the previous year. Nearly one quarter of the farmers reported seeing a physician for their low back symptoms, and one in five farmers had to modify their work habits due to low back symptoms during the previous year. Low back pain and other musculoskeletal conditions are a significant problem for Kansas farmers. This group of Kansas farmers experienced low back pain at a much higher rate than the general working population and higher than other groups of farmers previously studied. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Looking Forwards and Looking Back (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the seventh volume of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice. This is my first issue in my new role of Editor-in-Chief, and I’m honoured and delighted to take over the position. As many of you may know, I’ve been involved with the journal almost since its inception, primarily as Associate Editor (Articles. During that time, I’ve sincerely enjoyed working with the supportive EBLIP team, as well as many authors throughout the world, and I’m looking forward to continuing that work in my new role.Spring is traditionally a time of new growth and change, and the EBLIP journal is no different. In the last issue, Denise Koufogiannakis reflected on how the journal had grown and developed during its first 6 years, and I look forward to contributing to its continued success. There have been a number of changes in the editorial team. I welcome Wayne Jones from Carleton University, Canada, who has taken over as Associate Editor (Articles and brings a wealth of editorial experience. Heather Pretty has taken over as lead copyeditor and is joining our editorial meetings to help ensure the continued quality and consistency of the journal. As part of quality assurance and development, the editorial team is examining and revising our journal guidelines, so look for those in forthcoming months. Our former Editor-in-Chief, Denise Koufogiannakis, is developing a new role as Associate Editor (Reviews. As a keen advocate of reviews for providing evidence, developing skills for research and evidence based practice, and documenting and establishing an evidence base for our profession, I’m looking forward to the first review which is likely to be published in the next issue. Too much change can be disruptive, so I’m pleased that both Lorie Kloda and Jonathan Eldredge are maintaining their positions as Associate Editors for Evidence Summaries and Classics, respectively.When starting something new, it is often useful to look back (to build on

  19. Herbal medicine for low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Hanna; Robbins, Chris; van Tulder, Maurits W; Berman, Brian M; Bombardier, Claire; Gagnier, Joel J

    2014-12-23

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a common condition and imposes a substantial economic burden upon people living in industrialized societies. A large proportion of people with chronic LBP use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), visit CAM practitioners, or both. Several herbal medicines have been purported for use in treating people with LBP. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006. To determine the effectiveness of herbal medicine for non-specific LBP. We searched the following electronic databases up to September 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Clinical Trials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Portal and PubMed; checked reference lists in review articles, guidelines and retrieved trials; and personally contacted individuals with expertise in this area. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining adults (over 18 years of age) suffering from acute, sub-acute, or chronic non-specific LBP. The interventions were herbal medicines which we defined as plants used for medicinal purposes in any form. Primary outcome measures were pain and function. A library scientist with the Cochrane Back Review Group conducted the database searches. One review author contacted content experts and acquired relevant citations. We downloaded full references and abstracts of the identified studies and retrieved a hard copy of each study for final inclusion decisions. Two review authors assessed risk of bias, GRADE criteria (GRADE 2004), and CONSORT compliance and a random subset were compared to assessments by a third individual. Two review authors assessed clinical relevance and resolved any disagreements by consensus. We included 14 RCTs (2050 participants) in this review. One trial on Solidago chilensis M. (Brazilian arnica) (20 participants) found very low quality evidence of reduction in perception of pain and improved flexibility with application of Brazilian arnica-containing gel twice daily as compared

  20. Comet Tempel 1 Went Back to Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Astronomers Having Used ESO Telescopes Start Analysing Unique Dataset on the Comet Following the Deep Impact Mission Ten days after part of the Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface, astronomers are back in the ESO Offices in Santiago, after more than a week of observing at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. In this unprecedented observing campaign - among the most ambitious ever conducted by a single observatory - the astronomers have collected a large amount of invaluable data on this comet. The astronomers have now started the lengthy process of data reduction and analysis. Being all together in a single place, and in close contacts with the space mission' scientific team, they will try to assemble a clear picture of the comet and of the impact. The ESO observations were part of a worldwide campaign to observe this unique experiment. During the campaign, ESO was connected by phone, email, and videoconference with colleagues in all major observatories worldwide, and data were freely exchanged between the different groups. This unique collaborative spirit provides astronomers with data taken almost around the clock during several days and this, with the largest variety of instruments, making the Deep Impact observing campaign one of the most successful of its kind, and thereby, ensuring the greatest scientific outcome. From the current analysis, it appears most likely that the impactor did not create a large new zone of activity and may have failed to liberate a large quantity of pristine material from beneath the surface. ESO PR Photo 22/05 ESO PR Photo 22/05 Evolution of Comet Tempel 1 (FORS2/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 701 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1401 pix - 357k] ESO PR Photo 22/05 Animated Gif Caption: ESO PR Photo 22/05 shows the evolution of Comet Tempel 1 as observed with the FORS2 instrument on Antu (VLT). The images obtained at the VLT show that

  1. Back to the basics: Birmingham, Alabama, measurement and scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L.R.; Lockwood, C.M.; Handley, N.

    2005-01-01

    Back to the Basics: Birmingham, Alabama is the fourth in a series of workshops that focus on teaching foundational map reading and spatial differentiation skills. It is the second published exercise from the Back to the Basics series developed by the Wetland Education through Maps and Aerial Photography (WETMAAP) Program (see Journal of Geography 103, 5: 226-230). Like its predecessor, the current exercise is modified from the Birmingham Back to the Basics workshop offered during the annual National Council for Geographic Education meeting. The focus of this exercise is on scale and measurement, foundational skills for spatial thinking and analysis. ?? 2005 National Council for Geographic Education.

  2. Patterns of Low Back Pain in children/adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Per; Wedderkopp, Niels; Korsholm, Lars

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that low back pain (LBP) is a common condition already in childhood. However, not many studies have looked at the way LBP tracks over age and how common it is until early adulthood. Purposes: The purposes of this presentation are to show the prevalence...... as having had reported pain in the lower back within the past month. The prevalence estimates and the various patterns of LBP reporting over time are presented as percentages. Results: Of the 771 children sampled, 62%, 57%, and 58% participated in the three back surveys. The three prevalence estimates...

  3. Prepayment and the Valuation of Danish Mortgage-Backed Bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Svend

    Ph.D. thesis on prepayment modelling and valuation of Danish mortgage backed bonds. The thesis discusses several aspects of mortgage backed bonds including after-tax valuation, the special Danish delivery option, rational prepayment behavior, transaction costs and heterogenous borrowers. The thesis...... proposes a so-called required gain model with heterogenous borrowers, who differ with respect to the present value gain required for prepayment. The thesis shows how to perform arbitrage-free valuation of mortgage-backed bonds using a prepayment function estimated from Danish prepayment data. The thesis...

  4. Induction of die-back resistant mutation in mulberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Koitsu; Wada, Minoru; Nakajima, Kenji; Hazama, Kazuo; Fujita, Haruhiko.

    1980-01-01

    Two kinds of work for the induction of die-back resistant mutation were conducted. The first is mutation induction by chronic gamma irradiation using four varieties. Four resistant mutants were obtained from variety Kenmochi through the screening test for die-back resistance in heavy snowfall region. The second is mutation induction by colchicine treatments with variety Kenmochi. The mutants showing tetraploidy in inner layers, such as 2-4-4-4 and 4-4-4-4, were resistant as compared with those tetraploidy only in the outest layer. Gamma-rays and colchicine considered to be useful tools for induction of die-back resistant mulberry mutations. (author)

  5. Space Vector Modulation for DC-Link Current Ripple Reduction in Back-To-Back Current Source Converters for Microgrid Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xiaoqiang; Xu, David; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    Back-to-back converters have been typically used to interconnect the microgrids. For a back-to-back current source converter, the dc-link current ripple is one of the important parameters. A large ripple will cause the electromagnetic interference, undesirable high-frequency losses, and system...

  6. Predictive Validity of the STarT Back Tool for Risk of Persistent Disabling Back Pain in a United States Primary Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Pradeep; Delaney, Kristin; Rundell, Sean D; Cherkin, Daniel C

    2018-04-03

    To examine the predictive validity of the STarT Back tool for classifying people with back pain into categories of low, medium, and high risk of persistent disabling back pain, in US primary care. Secondary analysis of data from participants receiving usual care in a randomized clinical trial. Primary care clinics. 1109 adults with back pain ≥18 years of age. Those with specific causes of back pain (pregnancy, disc herniation, vertebral fracture, spinal stenosis) and work-related injuries were not included. N/A MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The original 9-item version of the STarT Back tool, administered at baseline, stratified patients by their risk (low, medium, high) of persistent disabling back pain ('STarT Back risk group'). Persistent disabling back pain was defined as Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire scores of ≥7 at 6-month follow-up. STarT Back risk group was a significant predictor of persistent disabling back pain (pSTarT Back risk groups successfully separated people with back pain into distinct categories of risk for persistent disabling back pain at 6-month follow-up in US primary care. These results were very similar to those seen in the original STarT Back validation study. This validation study is a necessary first step towards identifying whether the entire STarT Back approach, including matched/targeted treatment, can be effectively used for primary care in the US. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah el Barzouhi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. METHODS: The study population contained patients with sciatica who underwent a baseline MRI to assess eligibility for a randomized trial designed to compare the efficacy of early surgery with prolonged conservative care for sciatica. Two neuroradiologists and one neurosurgeon independently evaluated all MR images. The MRI readers were blinded to symptom status. The MRI findings were compared between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. The presence of disabling back pain at baseline was correlated with perceived recovery at one year. RESULTS: Of 379 included sciatica patients, 158 (42% had disabling back pain. Of the patients with both sciatica and disabling back pain 68% did reveal a herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI, compared to 88% of patients with predominantly sciatica (P<0.001. The existence of disabling back pain in sciatica at baseline was negatively associated with perceived recovery at one year (Odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% Confidence Interval 0.18-0.56, P<0.001. Sciatica patients with disabling back pain in absence of nerve root compression on MRI at baseline reported less perceived recovery at one year compared to those with predominantly sciatica and nerve root compression on MRI (50% vs 91%, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Sciatica patients with disabling low back pain reported an unfavorable outcome at one-year follow-up compared to those with predominantly sciatica. If additionally a clear herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI was absent, the results were even worse.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF BACK EXTENSION TRAINING ON BACK MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SPINAL RANGE OF MOTION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldız Yaprak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a 10-week dynamic back extension training programme and its effects on back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and spinal range of motion (ROM for healthy young females. Seventy-three young females (age: 19.32±1.80 years, height: 158.89±4.71 cm, body weight: 55.67±6.30 kg volunteered for the study. Prior to the training period, all participants completed anthropometric measurements, back muscle strength and endurance test, lateral bending and spinal ROM measurements. After measurements, the participants were divided into two groups. The exercise group (N:35 performed the dynamic back extension exercise 3 days per week for 10 weeks. The control group (N:38 did not participate in any type of exercise. The mixed design ANOVA (group x time was used to determine the difference in pre- and post-training values. The present findings show that there were significant differences between pre-training and post-training values for back muscle strength and spinal ROM in the exercise group. Following the dynamic strength training programme, back muscle strength and spine ROM values except flexion of the lumbar 5-sacrum 1 (L5-S1 segment of the exercise group showed a significant increase when compared with the pre test values. The control group did not show any significant changes when compared with the pre-training values. The results demonstrate that the 10-week dynamic strength training programme was effective for spinal extension ROM and back muscle strength, but there was no change in back muscle endurance. In this context, this programme could potentially be used to prevent the decrease of spinal ROM as well as provide an increase in the fitness parameters of healthy individuals.

  9. Massage for low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Andrea D; Giraldo, Mario; Baskwill, Amanda; Irvin, Emma; Imamura, Marta

    2015-09-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) is one of the most common and costly musculoskeletal problems in modern society. It is experienced by 70% to 80% of adults at some time in their lives. Massage therapy has the potential to minimize pain and speed return to normal function. To assess the effects of massage therapy for people with non-specific LBP. We searched PubMed to August 2014, and the following databases to July 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, LILACS, Index to Chiropractic Literature, and Proquest Dissertation Abstracts. We also checked reference lists. There were no language restrictions used. We included only randomized controlled trials of adults with non-specific LBP classified as acute, sub-acute or chronic. Massage was defined as soft-tissue manipulation using the hands or a mechanical device. We grouped the comparison groups into two types: inactive controls (sham therapy, waiting list, or no treatment), and active controls (manipulation, mobilization, TENS, acupuncture, traction, relaxation, physical therapy, exercises or self-care education). We used standard Cochrane methodological procedures and followed CBN guidelines. Two independent authors performed article selection, data extraction and critical appraisal. In total we included 25 trials (3096 participants) in this review update. The majority was funded by not-for-profit organizations. One trial included participants with acute LBP, and the remaining trials included people with sub-acute or chronic LBP (CLBP). In three trials massage was done with a mechanical device, and the remaining trials used only the hands. The most common type of bias in these studies was performance and measurement bias because it is difficult to blind participants, massage therapists and the measuring outcomes. We judged the quality of the evidence to be "low" to "very low", and the main reasons for downgrading the evidence were risk of bias and imprecision. There was no suggestion of publication bias. For acute LBP, massage

  10. Physical characteristics of the back are not predictive of low back pain in healthy workers: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masschelein Raphael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the working population, back disorders are an important reason for sick leave and permanent work inability. In the context of fitting the job to the worker, one of the primary tasks of the occupational health physician is to evaluate the balance between work-related and individual variables. Since this evaluation of work capacity often consists of a physical examination of the back, the objective of this study was to investigate whether a physical examination of the low back, which is routinely performed in occupational medicine, predicts the development of low back pain (LBP. Methods This study is part of the Belgian Low Back Cohort (BelCoBack Study, a prospective study to identify risk factors for the development of low back disorders in occupational settings. The study population for this paper were 692 young healthcare or distribution workers (mean age of 26 years with no or limited back antecedents in the year before inclusion. At baseline, these workers underwent a standardised physical examination of the low back. One year later, they completed a questionnaire on the occurrence of LBP and some of its characteristics. To study the respective role of predictors at baseline on the occurrence of LBP, we opted for Cox regression with a constant risk period. Analyses were performed separately for workers without any back antecedents in the year before inclusion ('asymptomatic' workers and for workers with limited back antecedents in the year before inclusion ('mildly symptomatic' workers. Results In the group of 'asymptomatic' workers, obese workers showed a more than twofold-increased risk on the development of LBP as compared to non-obese colleagues (RR 2.57, 95%CI: 1.09 – 6.09. In the group of 'mildly symptomatic' workers, the self-reports of pain before the examination turned out to be most predictive (RR 3.89, 95%CI: 1.20 – 12.64. Conclusion This study showed that, in a population of young workers wh no or

  11. Physical characteristics of the back are not predictive of low back pain in healthy workers: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Crombez, Geert; Burdorf, Alex; Verbeke, Geert; Masschelein, Raphael; Moens, Guido; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2009-01-05

    In the working population, back disorders are an important reason for sick leave and permanent work inability. In the context of fitting the job to the worker, one of the primary tasks of the occupational health physician is to evaluate the balance between work-related and individual variables. Since this evaluation of work capacity often consists of a physical examination of the back, the objective of this study was to investigate whether a physical examination of the low back, which is routinely performed in occupational medicine, predicts the development of low back pain (LBP). This study is part of the Belgian Low Back Cohort (BelCoBack) Study, a prospective study to identify risk factors for the development of low back disorders in occupational settings. The study population for this paper were 692 young healthcare or distribution workers (mean age of 26 years) with no or limited back antecedents in the year before inclusion. At baseline, these workers underwent a standardised physical examination of the low back. One year later, they completed a questionnaire on the occurrence of LBP and some of its characteristics. To study the respective role of predictors at baseline on the occurrence of LBP, we opted for Cox regression with a constant risk period. Analyses were performed separately for workers without any back antecedents in the year before inclusion ('asymptomatic' workers) and for workers with limited back antecedents in the year before inclusion ('mildly symptomatic' workers). In the group of 'asymptomatic' workers, obese workers showed a more than twofold-increased risk on the development of LBP as compared to non-obese colleagues (RR 2.57, 95%CI: 1.09 - 6.09). In the group of 'mildly symptomatic' workers, the self-reports of pain before the examination turned out to be most predictive (RR 3.89, 95%CI: 1.20 - 12.64). This study showed that, in a population of young workers wh no or limited antecedents of LBP at baseline, physical examinations, as

  12. LOW BACK PAINS –THE ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEON'S ENIGMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    outcome and success rates. The none surgical modalities available include medications, injections preolytic. LOW BACK PAINS –THE ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEON'S ENIGMA enzymes, laser therapy, radiofrequency denervation, intradiscal electro thermal therapy, percutaneous intradiscal radiofrequency thermoregulation ...

  13. Interrelations of risk factors and low back pain in scaffolders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Burdorf (Alex); L.A.M. Elders (Leo)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To assess with a cross sectional study the interrelations between physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors and different end points of low back pain. METHODS: In total, 229 scaffolders and 59 supervisors completed a questionnaire about manual

  14. RFI mitigating receiver back end for radiometers, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal requests support for Alphacore, Inc. to design and a low power application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) RFI mitigating receiver back...

  15. Meningoradiculitis due to borreliosis presenting as low back pain only

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demaerel, P.; Crevits, I.; Baert, A.L.; Casteels-Van Daele, M.

    1998-01-01

    We report a child with Borrelia burgdorferi meningoradiculitis. This entity, also known as Bannwarth syndrome, is rare and its presentation with low back pain only is even more unusual. The MRI findings can suggest the diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Back-to-School Health Tips: Exercise and Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feature: Back-to-School Health Tips: Exercise and Sleep Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents 6 " ... healthy weight Build sturdy muscles, bones, and joints Sleep better at night More time in front of ...

  17. Picosecond supercontinuum generation with back seeding of different spectral parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moselund, Peter Morten; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Thomsen, C.L.

    2008-01-01

    We study supercontinuum generation with picosecond pumping and the spectrum obtained when coupling back the part of the output around 1200-1700 nanometres or the part around 700-900 nanometres with a variable time delay....

  18. The Effects of Spiral Taping Treatment on Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jae-Ok

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of spiral taping treatment on low back pain. Methods : 420 low back pain patients were treated with spiral taping or spiral taping plus herbal medicine, and no other treatments such as acupuncture, herbal acupuncture, and chiropractic therapy were added. We evaluated the improvement by physical examination and pain. Results : 364 patients felt no pain or inconvenience of daily life and 43 patients showed improvement of pain or symptom after 1 month of treatment. 13 patients showed same pain with before treatment. Conclusions : These results suggest spiral taping treatments contribute to the improvement of low back pain. Further study is needed for the confirmation of this effect of spiral taping treatments on low back pain.

  19. When you are drinking too much - tips for cutting back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol - drinking too much; Alcohol use disorder - drinking too much; Alcohol abuse - drinking too much; Risky drinking - cutting back ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...

  20. Moda opjat vernulas v Tallinn - Fashion Is Back In Tallinn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Moeüritus Fashion is Back in Tallinn (FIBIT) Viru Keskuses Tallinnas. Gala-etendusel "Sinine, Must ja Valge" esitletud Anu Samarüütel-Longi, Tanel Veenre ja Arne Niidu moekollektsioonidest. Lisaks värvilised fotod

  1. Prediction of tides using back-propagation neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.

    Prediction of tides is very much essential for human activities and to reduce the construction cost in marine environment. This paper presents an application of the artificial neural network with back-propagation procedures for accurate prediction...

  2. Rubbia proposes a speedier voyage to Mars and back

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1999-01-01

    Carlo Rubbia has designed a propulsion engine that uses fission fragments of americium to directly heat a propulsion gas. He estimates it would allow a manned trip to Mars and back in around a year (8 paragraphs).

  3. Prevalence of low back pain in former rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, M; Di Cagno, A; Cupisti, A; Panicucci, E; Santoro, G

    2009-09-01

    It is still debated as to whether rhythmic gymnastics is a discipline at risk of low back pain, because the concern for the extreme and repetitive hyperextension of the column may be counteracted by protective factors which are distinctive of rhythmic gymnasts, namely: leanness, lumbar flexibility and muscle strength. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of low back pain in a cohort of former elite-level rhythmic gymnasts of the Rhythmic Gymnastics National Team. The Study Group included 60 adult females who were former rhythmic gymnasts of the Italian National Team. The Control Group included 60 adult females comparable for age, who were never involved in high level sport competitions. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate low back-pain symptoms. Low back pain complaints were reported by 22 former rhythmic gymnasts and by 28 controls (36.6% vs. 46.6%, p: n.s.); in the ex-gymnasts the age of onset of pain was earlier than in controls. The former rhythmic gymnasts complaining low back pain reported a higher prevalence of symptoms also during the time of competitions, and retired earlier than those without pain. Former elite rhythmic gymnasts reported a prevalence of low back-pain similar to sex and age matched general population. However, the rhythmic gymnasts who complained back pain during the sport activity are at risk of an early onset of symptoms after the retire from competitions. This study suggests that rhythmic gymnastics is not associated with increased risk of low back pain in the adult age.

  4. LOW BACK PAIN IN A COMPETITIVE CRICKET ATHLETE

    OpenAIRE

    Merlino, Justin; Perisa, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Physical therapists treating adolescent and young adult athletes with low back pain complaints should have a high level of clinical suspicion of the possibility for spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, or developing stress reactions of the pars interarticularis. This case outlines the use of conventional radiography, computerized tomography, and Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the differential diagnosis for an adolescent cricket athlete with low back pain.

  5. Exchange interpretation of anomalous back angle heavy ion elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1977-10-01

    Anomalous back angle oscillations in the angular distributions obtained in the elastic scattering of 16 O + 28 Si and 12 C + 28 Si have been interpreted in terms of an elastic cluster transfer comparable to that observed in other heavy ion reactions. The calculations appear to at least qualitatively explain the data with respect to the existence and phase of the back angle oscillations. The results indicate that an exchange mechanism may play an important role in the oscillations

  6. $1000 Cash Back: Asymmetric Information in Auto Manufaturer Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Meghan Busse; Florian Zettelmeyer; Jorge Silva-Risso

    2004-01-01

    Automobile manufacturers make frequent use of promotions that give cash-back payments. Two common types of cash-back promotions are rebates to customers, which are widely publicized to potential customers, and discounts to dealers, which are not publicized. While the payments nominally go entirely to one party or the other, the real division of the manufacturer-supplied surplus between dealer and customer depends on what price the two parties negotiate. These two types of promotions thus form...

  7. SOLA-LOOP analysis of a back pressure check valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The SOLA-LOOP computer code for transient, nonequilibrium, two-phase flows in networks has been coupled with a simple valve model to analyze a feedwater pipe breakage with a back-pressure check valve. Three tests from the Superheated Steam Reactor Safety Program Project (PHDR) at Kahl, West Germany, are analyzed, and the calculated transient back-pressure check valve behavior and fluid dynamics effects are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimentally measured data

  8. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  9. Inspiratory muscle training affects proprioceptive use and low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Lotte; McConnell, Alison K; Pijnenburg, Madelon; Claeys, Kurt; Goossens, Nina; Lysens, Roeland; Troosters, Thierry; Brumagne, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We have shown that individuals with recurrent nonspecific low back pain (LBP) and healthy individuals breathing against an inspiratory load decrease their reliance on back proprioceptive signals in upright standing. Because individuals with LBP show greater susceptibility to diaphragm fatigue, it is reasonable to hypothesize that LBP, diaphragm dysfunction, and proprioceptive use may be interrelated. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) affects proprioceptive use during postural control in individuals with LBP. Twenty-eight individuals with LBP were assigned randomly into a high-intensity IMT group (high IMT) and low-intensity IMT group (low IMT). The use of proprioception in upright standing was evaluated by measuring center of pressure displacement during local muscle vibration (ankle, back, and ankle-back). Secondary outcomes were inspiratory muscle strength, severity of LBP, and disability. After high IMT, individuals showed smaller responses to ankle muscle vibration, larger responses to back muscle vibration, higher inspiratory muscle strength, and reduced LBP severity (P 0.05). No changes in disability were observed in either group (P > 0.05). After 8 wk of high IMT, individuals with LBP showed an increased reliance on back proprioceptive signals during postural control and improved inspiratory muscle strength and severity of LBP, not seen after low IMT. Hence, IMT may facilitate the proprioceptive involvement of the trunk in postural control in individuals with LBP and thus might be a useful rehabilitation tool for these patients.

  10. Mediators of Yoga and Stretching for Chronic Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although yoga is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for its benefits. In a trial comparing yoga to intensive stretching and self-care, we explored whether physical (hours of back exercise/week, cognitive (fear avoidance, body awareness, and self-efficacy, affective (psychological distress, perceived stress, positive states of mind, and sleep, and physiological factors (cortisol, DHEA mediated the effects of yoga or stretching on back-related dysfunction (Roland-Morris Disability Scale (RDQ. For yoga, 36% of the effect on 12-week RDQ was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 18% by sleep disturbance, 9% by hours of back exercise, and 61% by the best combination of all possible mediators (6 mediators. For stretching, 23% of the effect was mediated by increased self-efficacy, 14% by days of back exercise, and 50% by the best combination of all possible mediators (7 mediators. In open-ended questions, ≥20% of participants noted the following treatment benefits: learning new exercises (both groups, relaxation, increased awareness, and the benefits of breathing (yoga, benefits of regular practice (stretching. Although both self-efficacy and hours of back exercise were the strongest mediators for each intervention, compared to self-care, qualitative data suggest that they may exert their benefits through partially distinct mechanisms.

  11. [Low back pain: when and what to do].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illés, S Tamás

    2015-08-16

    The low back pain has become one of the greatest public health problems worldwide. The author based on the current international standards summarizes the knowledge necessary for every day treatment of low back pain. In acute low back pain the author underlines the necessity of the rapid, accurate diagnosis and separation for specific and non-specific low back pain. In specific acute low back pain the treatment should focus on to eliminate the root causes. In non-specific cases pain killing treatment and early active mobilization is the choice for the therapeutic process. Beside analgesia, the primary goal of the treatment is to prevent becoming chronic the symptomatology. Objectives of the management of chronic low back pain are effective pain reduction, continuous maintainance of physical activity, prevention of permanent disability, and restoration of working ability. Analgesics, non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle relaxants reduce pain, while multidisciplinary management programs, personalized and guided physiotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, as well as short training programs will help to restore function. Surgical treatment is only indicated in degenerative cases and only after the failure of conservative therapy.

  12. Low back pain during pregnancy and Kinesio tape application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyhan, Aycan Çakmak; Dereli, Elif Elçin; Çolak, Tuğba Kuru

    2017-01-01

    Low back pain is a common problem during pregnancy. Although the pain usually occurs in the third trimester, it might be seen in the first trimester, too. There are various types of applications for the treatment of low back pain during pregnancy. However, there is a lack of evidence for the effectiveness of each method. If there is not an obvious deficit, bed rest, exercise, conventional physiotherapy, using protective principles for the lumbar area are recommended, since the main and the only complaint is low back pain. It is aimed in the current review to investigate the use of Kinesio tape in the low back pain seen during pregnancy and to review the literature related to this subject. There are only a few studies investigating the effect of Kinesio tape during pregnancy in the literature and they mostly did not aim to study the low back pain, further evidence and studies are needed to investigate the use of Kinesio tape for the low back pain seen during pregnancy as there is not evidence strong enough. Kinesiotape application aims to increase circulation and mobility, and regarding these gains decreased pain and increased performance are expected.

  13. Lower back pain and absenteeism among professional public transport drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresal, Friderika; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Drivers in public transport are subjected to lower back pain. The reason for the pain is associated with the characteristics of the physical position imposed on the worker while performing the job. Lower back pain is the main cause of absenteeism among drivers. The present study includes 145 public transport drivers employed as professional drivers for an average of 14.14 years. Analysis of the data obtained in the study includes the basic descriptive statistics, χ(2) test and multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the incidence of lower back pain showed that the majority of our sample population suffered from pain in the lower back. We found that there are no statistically significant differences between the groups formed by the length of service as a professional driver and incidence of lower back pain; we were also interested in whether or not the risk factors of lower back pain affects the absenteeism of city bus drivers. Analysis of the data has shown that the risk factors of pain in the lower part of the spine do affect the absenteeism of city bus drivers.

  14. Physical characteristics of the back are not predictive of low back pain in healthy workers: A prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuyse, An; Crombez, Geert; Burdorf, Alex; Verbeke, Geert; Masschelein, Raphael; Moens, Guido; Mairiaux, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In the working population, back disorders are an important reason for sick leave and permanent work inability. In the context of fitting the job to the worker, one of the primary tasks of the occupational health physician is to evaluate the balance between work-related and individual variables. Since this evaluation of work capacity often consists of a physical examination of the back, the objective of this study was to investigate whether a physical examination of the low...

  15. Patients' Attitudes Toward Nonphysician Screening of Low Back and Low Back Related Leg Pain Complaints Referred for Surgical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, Joshua; Busse, Jason W; Drew, Brian; Reddy, Kesava; Cenic, Aleksa; Kachur, Edward; Murty, Naresh; Candelaria, Henry; Moore, Ainsley E; Riva, John J

    2017-03-01

    A questionnaire survey. The aim of this study was to explore patient attitudes toward screening to assess suitability for low back surgery by nonphysician health care providers. Canadian spine surgeons have shown support for nonphysician screening to assess and triage patients with low back pain and low back related leg pain. However, patients' attitudes toward this proposed model are largely unknown. We administered a 19-item cross-sectional survey to adults with low back and/or low back related leg pain who were referred for elective surgical assessment at one of five spine surgeons' clinics in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The survey inquired about demographics, expectations regarding wait time for surgical consultation, as well as willingness to pay, travel, and be screened by nonphysician health care providers. Eighty low back patients completed our survey, for a response rate of 86.0% (80 of 93). Most respondents (72.5%; 58 of 80) expected to be seen by a surgeon within 3 months of referral, and 88.8% (71 of 80) indicated willingness to undergo screening with a nonphysician health care provider to establish whether they were potentially a surgical candidate. Half of respondents (40 of 80) were willing to travel >50 km for assessment by a nonphysician health care provider, and 46.2% were willing to pay out-of-pocket (25.6% were unsure). However, most respondents (70.0%; 56 of 80) would still want to see a surgeon if they were ruled out as a surgical candidate, and written comments from respondents revealed concern regarding agreement between surgeons' and nonphysicians' determination of surgical candidates. Patients referred for surgical consultation for low back or low back related leg pain are largely willing to accept screening by nonphysician health care providers. Future research should explore the concordance of screening results between surgeon and nonphysician health care providers. 3.

  16. Work and back pain: a prospective study of psychological, social and mechanical predictors of back pain severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, J O; Knardahl, S

    2012-07-01

    Studies relating occupational psychological and social factors to back pain have traditionally investigated a small number of exposure factors. The current study explored longitudinally a comprehensive set of specific psychological/social and mechanical work factors as predictors of back pain severity (defined as the product of back pain intensity and duration). Employees from 28 organizations in Norway, representing a wide variety of occupations, were surveyed with a follow-up period of 2 years. Several designs were tested: (1) cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up; (2) prospective analyses with baseline exposure; (3) prospective analyses with average exposure over time [(T1+T2)/2]; and (4) prospective analyses with measures of change in exposure from T1 to T2. A total of 2808 employees responded at both time points. Fourteen psychological/social and two mechanical exposures were measured. Odds ratios (ORs) were computed by ordinal logistic regressions. Several psychological/social factors predicted back pain severity. After adjustment for age, sex, skill level, back pain severity at T1 and other exposure factors estimated to be potential confounders, the most consistent predictors of back pain were the protective factors decision control [lowest OR 0.68; 99% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.95], empowering leadership (lowest OR 0.59; 99% CI: 0.38-0.91) and fair leadership (lowest OR 0.54; 99% CI: 0.34-0.87). Some of the most important predictors included in this study were factors that have previously received little attention in back pain research. This emphasizes the importance of extending the list of factors possibly contributing to back pain. © 2011 National Institute of Occupational Health, Norway European Journal of Pain © 2011 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  17. Electrophysiological assessment of piano players’ back extensor muscles on a regular piano bench and chair with back rest

    OpenAIRE

    Honarmand, Kavan; Minaskanian, Rafael; Maboudi, Seyed Ebrahim; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sitting position is the dominant position for a professional pianist. There are many static and dynamic forces which affect musculoskeletal system during sitting. In prolonged sitting, these forces are harmful. The aim of this study was to compare pianists’ back extensor muscles activity during playing piano while sitting on a regular piano bench and a chair with back rest. [Subjects and Methods] Ten professional piano players (mean age 25.4 ± 5.28, 60% male, 40% female) performed s...

  18. Influence of low back pain and prognostic value of MRI in sciatica patients in relation to back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Lycklama à Nijeholt, Geert J; Van der Kallen, Bas F; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-01-01

    Patients with sciatica frequently complain about associated back pain. It is not known whether there are prognostic relevant differences in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) findings between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. The study population contained patients with sciatica who underwent a baseline MRI to assess eligibility for a randomized trial designed to compare the efficacy of early surgery with prolonged conservative care for sciatica. Two neuroradiologists and one neurosurgeon independently evaluated all MR images. The MRI readers were blinded to symptom status. The MRI findings were compared between sciatica patients with and without disabling back pain. The presence of disabling back pain at baseline was correlated with perceived recovery at one year. Of 379 included sciatica patients, 158 (42%) had disabling back pain. Of the patients with both sciatica and disabling back pain 68% did reveal a herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI, compared to 88% of patients with predominantly sciatica (Psciatica at baseline was negatively associated with perceived recovery at one year (Odds ratio [OR] 0.32, 95% Confidence Interval 0.18-0.56, PSciatica patients with disabling back pain in absence of nerve root compression on MRI at baseline reported less perceived recovery at one year compared to those with predominantly sciatica and nerve root compression on MRI (50% vs 91%, PSciatica patients with disabling low back pain reported an unfavorable outcome at one-year follow-up compared to those with predominantly sciatica. If additionally a clear herniated disc with nerve root compression on MRI was absent, the results were even worse.

  19. PELATIHAN LARI SAMBUNG BACK TO BACK 20 METER ENAM REPETISI EMPAT SET DAN LARI SAMBUNG BACK TO BACK 30 METER EMPAT REPETISI EMPAT SET MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 80 METER SISWA PUTRA SMP DHARMA PRAJA BADUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimbar Adiputra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Type of 80 meters ran is one of the numbers on athletics competed in early age of child. In early age, the physical condition and mind can still be developed continuously and systematically. The exercise in early age should be an element of play and competition, thus this exercise is attempted to develop the speed by two types of exercise: back to back relay run of 20 meters six reps four sets and back to back relay run of 30 meters four reps four sets. The aim of research is to know the increasing of 80 meters speed of run. The exercise was conducted for six weeks with a frequency of three times a week with the aim to increasing the speed. The numbered of sample was 24 people selected randomly from junior high school students of Dharma Praja Badung that meets the requirements of inclusion and exclusion. The numbered of each group consists of twelve people. Each group was given a different treatment i.e. group I was treated by back to back relay run of 20 meters six reps and four sets and group II treated by back to back relay run of 30 meters four reps four sets. Data derived from the duration time of 80 meters ran before and after exercise, with t paired test to determine the difference average speed of duration time before and after exercise in each group. The t Unpaired test for the difference average of increased speed between two groups with significance limit of 0.05. The differences of speed in 80 meters ran after exercise in both groups showed significant differences, i.e. p = 0.000 (p <0.05. The average of duration time of 80 meters ran in Group I before exercise was 13.51 sec and after exercise was 12.31 sec by difference of 1.16 seconds show significant differences, while Group 2 the average of duration time in 80 meters ran before exercise and after exercise was 13.66 and after 12, 67 by a difference of 0.98 seconds showed significant differences due to differences in distance and number of repetitions between Group I and Group II

  20. Back pain in ophthalmology: National survey of Indian ophthalmologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim is to assess the prevalence, severity, and associations of back pain among Indian ophthalmologists. Methods: A self-reporting questionnaire was sent to ophthalmologists with valid e-mail addresses registered with the All India Ophthalmological Society. The survey was open for responses for 2 months. Results: A total of 651 (5.96% responses were obtained; 394 (61% males and 257 (39% females. Half (50% of responses were obtained from doctors belonging to 31–40 years' age group. Two hundred and thirty (35% of the ophthalmologists had height ranging from 161 to 170 cm and 443 (68% had weight ranging from 51 to 75 kg. Four hundred and eighty-one (73.8% of the respondents had <15 years of ophthalmic experience. Cataract (346; 53.1% and general ophthalmology (342; 52.5% were commonly practised by the ophthalmologists. Time spent in the outpatient department (OPD was 39.37 ± 16.32 h/week and in the operating theater 13.64 ± 9.89 h/week, respectively. Self-reported prevalence of back pain was 70.5%. Fully 49% of respondents had low back pain, followed by neck pain (33% and upper extremity symptoms (16%. Age <50 years (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4485, female gender (OR = 2.0265, long working hours in OPD (OR = 1.6524, and performing retinal lasers and indirect ophthalmoscopy (OR = 3.3251 showed positive association with back pain. The intolerable back pain was noted in <7% of the respondents. Around 398 (61% respondents felt that their back pain was exacerbated while doing work and 86.6% felt that up to 5 h/week was lost due to persistent backache. Yoga and some form of exercise (74.3% was practised to alleviate back pain. Conclusion: Back pain symptoms appear to be common among ophthalmologists. Awkward posture and prolonged working hours are responsible for developing back pain among ophthalmologists. Performing yoga and regular exercises, modifications in instrumentation and creating a larger workforce of eye care practitioners are needed

  1. Back muscle strength and fatigue in healthy and chronic low back pain subjects: a comparative study of 3 assessment protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rubens A; Arsenault, A Bertrand; Gravel, Denis; Larivière, Christian; de Oliveira, Eros

    2005-04-01

    To compare the sensitivity of 3 different back test protocols in measuring differences in strength and fatigue between subjects with and without chronic low back pain (CLBP). Descriptive study using a repeated-measures design. A research laboratory within a rehabilitation center. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 subjects with CLBP were assessed in a single session to compare the 3 protocols. The protocols were an upright position test (UPP), a semicrouched lifting test (LIF), and the Sorensen fatigue test. Not applicable. Moments of force and surface electromyography were recorded bilaterally from 4 homologous back muscles while the subjects performed static trunk extension efforts for each protocol. Fatigue was quantified by the slopes of the linear regression of electromyography time-series. The back muscle fatigue and strength scores did not differ significantly for the 2 subject groups for any of the 3 protocols. The electromyography fatigue indices revealed that the Sorensen fatigue test and UPP produced more fatigue in the back muscles than the LIF. It was impossible to specify which protocol is more sensitive to low back status because no between-group difference was observed for any of the 3 tests.

  2. Modified adjustable suture hang-back recession: Description of technique and comparison with conventional adjustable hang-back recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to describe and compare modified hang-back recession with the conventional hang-back recession in large angle comitant exotropia (XT. Methods: A prospective, interventional, double-blinded, randomized study on adult patients (>18 years undergoing single eye recession-resection for large angle (>30 prism diopters constant comitant XT was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients in Group A underwent modified hang-back lateral rectus recession with adjustable knot while in Group B underwent conventional hang-back recession with an adjustable knot. Outcome parameters studied were readjustment rate, change in deviation at 6 weeks, complications and need for resurgery at 6 months. Results: The groups were comparable in terms of age and preoperative deviation. The patients with the modified hang back (Group A fared significantly better (P < 0.05 than those with conventional hang back (Group B in terms of lesser need for adjustment, greater correction in deviation at 6 weeks and lesser need for resurgery at 6 months. Conclusion: This modification offers several advantages, significantly reduces resurgery requirement and has no added complications.

  3. Element nodes of sports equipment double back flip factions and double back flip hunched performed gymnast in floor exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Potop

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the node elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. To compare the two types of nodes for double somersault. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts (age 12 - 14 years. All finalists in the competition floor exercise - reserve team Romania. The method of video - computer research and method of postural orientation movements. Results : identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. In the preparatory phase of motor actions - launcher body posture for reaching is repulsive to flip. In the phase of basic motor action - animation body postures (double back somersault tuck and bent (bent double back flip. Exercises are performed on the ascending and descending parts of the flight path of the demonstration of individual maximum lift height common center of mass. In the final phase of motor actions - final body posture - steady landing. Conclusions : indicators of key elements of sports equipment acrobatic exercises contain new scientific facts kinematic and dynamic structures of motor actions. They are necessary for the development of modern training programs acrobatic exercises in step specialized base preparation.

  4. Psychosocial risks for disability in children with chronic back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Anne M; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Goldschneider, Kenneth R; Jones, Benjamin A

    2006-04-01

    Psychosocial factors related to disability in adults with chronic back pain have been well studied, but little is known about factors associated with functional impairment in pediatric patients with chronic back pain. The purpose of this study was to examine whether 2 potential risk factors-use of catastrophizing as a coping technique and presence of a familial pain history-were associated with disability in pediatric back pain patients. Participants were 65 patients (ages 8-18) with chronic back pain seen at a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Patients completed measures of pain (visual analog scales), disability (Functional Disability Inventory), and catastrophizing (Internalizing/Catastrophizing subscale of the Pain Coping Questionnaire). Parents provided demographic information and familial pain history. Patients reported that chronic back pain caused disruptions in their daily functioning and they missed, on average, 2.5 days of school every month. Catastrophizing and familial chronic pain history both were significantly associated with greater disability, with use of catastrophizing being the stronger predictor of disability. This study presents important findings on potential psychosocial risk factors of functional disability in children and adolescents with chronic back pain. Future research might clarify mechanisms by which such coping styles are developed and explore how familial communication about pain might influence a child's coping ability. Pediatric patients seeking treatment for chronic back pain often present with substantial functional impairment that is not well explained by disease variables or pain intensity. Two important psychosocial variables (catastrophizing and familial pain history) may provide a context for a better understanding of pain-related disability in children.

  5. Temporal relationships between job strain and low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Madsen, Ida Eh; Rugulies, Reiner; Peristera, Paraskevi; Westerlund, Hugo; Descatha, Alexis

    2017-09-01

    Objectives Psychosocial working conditions are suggested risk factors for low-back pain, but it is unclear whether these associations are causal. The present study examined whether there are lagged and bidirectional associations between job strain and low-back pain and further controlled for unmeasured time-invariant confounding. Methods The study was based on four biennial waves of data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), including 3084 men and women. Cross-lagged analyses using structural equation modeling (SEM) were conducted on job strain, a combination of high job demands and low control, and any as well as low-back pain severity (how much any problems affected the respondents life). Analogous SEM (dynamic panel) models with fixed effects were also fitted to remove confounding from time-invariant factors (such as non-observed individual and environmental factors, eg, genetics, childhood conditions, personality). Results The SEM models indicated bidirectional associations between job strain and any back pain over a 2-year time lag (β=0.21 and 0.19, Plow-back pain severity and vice versa. However, the SEM models with fixed-effects showed no statistically significant lagged relationships between job strain and any or low-back pain severity (β=-0.05 and β=0.00, respectively). Conclusions This study suggests that associations between job strain and low-back pain with a lag of years may be due to residual confounding by time invariant characteristics. Further studies are, however, needed to elucidate short-term relationships.

  6. Rising prevalence of back pain in Austria: considering regional disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großschädl, Franziska; Stolz, Erwin; Mayerl, Hannes; Rásky, Éva; Freidl, Wolfgang; Stronegger, Willibald J

    2016-01-01

    Back pain is the most common form of musculoskeletal conditions and leads to high health care costs. Information about geographic variations in highly prevalent diseases/disorders represents important implications for public health planning to face structural challenges. The present study aims to investigate regional trends in the prevalence of back pain and the role of obesity and social inequalities among Austrian adults. A secondary data analysis based on five nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1973-2007) was carried out (N = 178,818). Back pain was measured as self-reported presence. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²) was adjusted for self-report bias. For the regional analyses, Austria was divided into Western, Central and Eastern Austria. A relative index of inequality (RII) was computed to quantify the extent of social inequality. A continuous rise in back pain prevalence was observed in the three regions and among all investigated subgroups. In 2007 the age-standardised prevalence was similar in Central (36.9 %), Western (35.2 %) and Eastern Austria (34.3 %). The absolute change in back pain prevalence was highest among obese subjects in Central Austria (women: + 29.8 %, men: + 32.5 %). RIIs were unstable during the study period and in 2007 highest in Eastern Austria. Variation and trends in back pain are not attributable to geographic variation in Austria: an assumed East-West gradient in Austria has not been confirmed. Nevertheless our study confirms that back pain dramatically increased in all Austrian regions and investigated subgroups. This worrying trend should be further monitored and public health interventions should be implemented increasingly, especially among obese women and men.

  7. Flexible distribution systems through the application of multi back-to-back converters. Concept, implementation and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Graaff, R.A.A.

    2010-05-26

    The objective of the research project is to investigate the use of a multi back-to-back converter to support the transition to active distribution networks. The investigation must explicitly not focus on finding the optimal power electronics topology, but rather on defining the role that such a device can play in a power distribution system and on the proof of principle. The possible tasks of this device are to actively control power flow and to maintain power quality and stability, both during normal operation and during fault conditions in medium voltage networks with distributed generation. The combination of this versatile converter system and the control and protection systems that define its functionality are in this thesis denoted as the Intelligent Node (IN). Research questions are: (1) Which are the main benefits of multi back-to-back converter devices in distribution systems?; (2) How and under which conditions can these benefits be achieved? What controls should be adopted?; (3) Which are the specific aspects that distinguish the application of the multi back-to-back devices in distribution systems from similar applications in transmission systems?; (4) Can this be demonstrated on a laboratory-scale set-up?Chapter 2 Distribution systems The relevant aspects of distribution systems are discussed. This includes power quality considerations, redundancy aspects, and voltage control methods. Chapter 3 (FACTS in distribution systems) describes power flow control principles. Also an overview is given of the state-of-the-art of power electronic applications for power flow control in electrical power systems. Chapter 4 (Functional concept of the Intelligent Node) gives the proposed functional concept for the application of a multi back-to-back converter device as IN (Intelligent Node). The applications are developed on a functional level, with the device at a black-box level. To satisfy the resulting requirements several technology options are analyzed, ending

  8. WITHDRAWN: Spinal manipulative therapy for low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assendelft, Willem Jj; Morton, Sally C; Yu, Emily I; Suttorp, Marika J; Shekelle, Paul G

    2013-01-31

    Low-back pain is a costly illness for which spinal manipulative therapy is commonly recommended. Previous systematic reviews and practice guidelines have reached discordant results on the effectiveness of this therapy for low-back pain. To resolve the discrepancies related to the use of spinal manipulative therapy and to update previous estimates of effectiveness, by comparing spinal manipulative therapy with other therapies and then incorporating data from recent high-quality randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) into the analysis. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were electronically searched from their respective beginning to January 2000, using the Back Group search strategy; references from previous systematic reviews were also screened. Randomized, controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated spinal manipulative therapy for patients with low-back pain, with at least one day of follow-up, and at least one clinically-relevant outcome measure. Two authors, who served as the authors for all stages of the meta-analysis, independently extracted data from unmasked articles. Comparison treatments were classified into the following seven categories: sham, conventional general practitioner care, analgesics, physical therapy, exercises, back school, or a collection of therapies judged to be ineffective or even harmful (traction, corset, bed rest, home care, topical gel, no treatment, diathermy, and minimal massage). Thirty-nine RCTs were identified. Meta-regression models were developed for acute or chronic pain and short-term and long-term pain and function. For patients with acute low-back pain, spinal manipulative therapy was superior only to sham therapy (10-mm difference [95% CI, 2 to 17 mm] on a 100-mm visual analogue scale) or therapies judged to be ineffective or even harmful. Spinal manipulative therapy had no statistically or clinically significant advantage over general practitioner care, analgesics, physical therapy

  9. Hyper Mobility and Low Back Pain in the Athletic Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsun Nodehi moghadam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is important to recognize any risk factors for the development of injuries in the athletic population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between joint hyper mobility and low back pain in Iranian hyper mobile and non-hyper mobile athletes. Methods: 50 athletic patients with low back pain (age=23.20±12.79 years and 51 healthy athletes (age=24.28±13.70 from Iranian athletic teams were screened for hyper mobility using the Beighton score (0-9, with higher scores indicating increasing hyper mobility. The athletes’ profiles, medical histories and chosen sport were collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: The mean (SD Beighton score in females with low back pain and healthy subjects were 5.07±2.30 and 4.93±1.79 respectively. However, no significant difference was found between the two groups (P=0.54. The mean (SD Beighton score in males with low back pain was also higher (5.11±1.72 than in healthy subjects (4.36±1.82. However, the result of an independent t test showed no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.07. Discussion: Further studies are needed to determine the effects of hyper mobility on low back kinematics and injuries in different sport types.

  10. Titanium Alloy Strong Back for IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron, Glenn P.; Kai-Wang, Chan

    2011-01-01

    A titanium-alloy mirror-holding fixture called a strong back allows the temporary and permanent bonding of a 50 degree D263 glass x-ray mirror (IXO here stands for International X-ray Observatory). The strong back is used to hold and position a mirror segment so that mounting tabs may be bonded to the mirror with ultra-low distortion of the optical surface. Ti-15%Mo alloy was the material of choice for the strong back and tabs because the coefficient of thermal expansion closely matches that of the D263 glass and the material is relatively easy to machine. This invention has the ability to transfer bonded mounting points from a temporary location on the strong back to a permanent location on the strong back with minimal distortion. Secondly, it converts a single mirror segment into a rigid body with an acceptable amount of distortion of the mirror, and then maneuvers that rigid body into optical alignment such that the mirror segment can be bonded into a housing simulator or mirror module. Key problems are that the mirrors are 0.4-mm thick and have a very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because the mirrors are so thin, they are very flexible and are easily distorted. When permanently bonding the mirror, the goal is to achieve a less than 1-micron distortion. Temperature deviations in the lab, which have been measured to be around 1 C, have caused significant distortions in the mirror segment.

  11. Prevalence and causes of back pain syndromes in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of literature devoted to epidemiology, and the nosological and syndromal structure of back pain in children. The data of our own study of school-aged children with back pain are presented. The structure of back pain syndromes in 105 children has been analyzed using the medical aid appealability data. The results of a comprehensive clinical and instrumental study demonstrated that the children mostly had lumbosacral pain (52.4% of cases; neck pain was observed in 29.5% of cases; while thoracic pain syndromes were observed in 18.1% of cases. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was diagnosed in 16.19% of children; congenital abnormalities of the spine, in 15.2%; scoliosis (idiopathic and secondary, in 8.6%; and Scheuermann-Mau's disease, in 5.71%. The conclusion has been made about the high prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren. Muscular tonic syndromes were prevailing in the clinical structure in children; radicular syndromes were less frequent. Musculoskeletal disorders were the main causes of back pain. Congenital defect of the connective tissue was often observed, which was revealed as functional instability of the vertebral motor segment, spondylolisthesis due to weak ligaments, and disc protrusions. Congenital abnormalities of the spine, scoliosis, and Scheuermann-Mau' disease were observed less often. 

  12. Acupuncture therapy for chronic lower back pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigkilidas, Dionysios

    2010-10-01

    Chronic low back pain is a common condition affecting a significant proportion of the population and has large economic implications on the society. Acupuncture has grown in popularity as an alternative therapy for chronic low back pain. Recent National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on low back pain offer a course of acupuncture as a baseline treatment option according to patient preference. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate if this treatment option is justified in view of recent evidence available on the efficacy of acupuncture. Studies included were identified by a PubMed search for relevant, randomised, controlled trials on the 23 July 2009. A systematic review was performed. Fifteen randomised controlled trials were identified. Of these, four met the eligibility criteria and were critically appraised. These trials suggest acupuncture can be superior to usual care in treating chronic low back pain, especially, when patients have positive expectations about acupuncture. NICE guidelines of a course of acupuncture, offered according to patient preference as a treatment option for chronic low back pain, are justified.

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Japanese Version of the STarT Back Tool in Patients with Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Haga, Yuri; Sawada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2016-01-01

    The STarT Back Tool uses prognostic indicators to classify patients with low back pain into three risk groups to guide early secondary prevention in primary care. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the tool (STarT-J). An online survey was conducted among Japanese patients with low back pain aged 20-64 years. Reliability was assessed by examining the internal consistency of the overall and psychosocial subscales using Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the concurrent validity between the STarT-J total score/psychosocial subscore and standard reference questionnaires. Discriminant validity was evaluated by calculating the area under the curves (AUCs) for the total and psychosocial subscale scores against standard reference cases. Known-groups validity was assessed by examining the relationship between low back pain-related disability and STarT-J scores. The analysis included data for 2000 Japanese patients with low back pain; the mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 47.7 (9.3) years, and 54.1% were male. The mean (SD) STarT-J score was 2.2 (2.1). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.75 for the overall scale and 0.66 for the psychosocial subscale. Spearman's correlation coefficients ranged from 0.30 to 0.59, demonstrating moderate to strong concurrent validity. The AUCs for the total score ranged from 0.65 to 0.83, mostly demonstrating acceptable discriminative ability. For known-groups validity, participants with more somatic symptoms had higher total scores. Those in higher STarT-J risk groups had experienced more low back pain-related absences. The overall STarT-J scale was internally consistent and had acceptable concurrent, discriminant, and known-groups validity. The STarT-J can be used with Japanese patients with low back pain.

  14. Migration of red-backed shrikes from the Iberian Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P.; Pedersen, Lykke; Onrubia, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    e current Northern Hemisphere migration systems are believed to have arisen since the last glaciation. In many cases, birds do not migrate strait from breeding to non-breeding areas but fly via a detour. All western European populations of red-backed shrikes Lanius collurio are assumed to reach...... their southern African wintering grounds detouring via southeast Europe. Based on theoretical considerations under an optimality framework this detour is apparently optimal. Here, we use individual geolocator data on red-backed shrikes breeding in Spain to show that these birds do indeed detour via southeast...... Europe en route to southern Africa where they join other European populations of red-backed shrikes and return via a similar route in spring. Disregarding potential wind assistance, the routes taken for the tracked birds in autumn were not optimal compared to crossing the barrier directly. For spring...

  15. Recurrent acute low back pain secondary to lumbar epidural calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziade, M.; Zufferey, P.; So, A.K.L. [Centre Hospitalier Vaudois, Service de Rhumatologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    Epidural calcification is a rare cause of back pain, and spontaneous epidural calcification has not been reported previously. We describe a patient with acute low back pain and signs of lumbar nerve root compression due to epidural calcification, as demonstrated by CT-scan and MRI. Radiological signs of spondylodiscitis led to a search for an infectious cause, which was negative, and her symptoms responded rapidly to NSAID treatment alone. Her symptoms recurred 18 months later, and further imaging studies again revealed epidural calcification, but with a changed distribution. Her symptoms were relieved once more by NSAID treatment alone. We propose that epidural calcification secondary to aseptic spondylodiscitis is the main cause of acute back pain in this patient. A possible mechanism may be the pro-inflammatory effects of calcium pyrophosphate or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition within the epidural space. (orig.)

  16. Quality of primary care guidelines for acute low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Tulder, Maurits W.; Tuut, Mariska; Pennick, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review of clinical guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To assess the methodologic quality of existing guidelines for the management of acute low back pain. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Guidelines are playing an increasingly important role in evidence-based practice. After publication...... of the Quebec Task Force in Canada in 1987 and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines in the United States in 1994, guidelines for acute low back pain were developed in many other countries. However, little is known about the methodologic quality of these guidelines. METHODS: Guidelines were...... selected by electronically searching MEDLINE and the Internet and through personal communication with experts in the field of low back pain research in primary care. The methodologic quality of the guidelines was assessed by two authors independently using the AGREE instrument. RESULTS: A total of 17...

  17. BACK and DRAW activities for improving writing skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Lukman Syafii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This present paper addresses the issue of writing as an important aspect of EFL instruction. Writing as one of the four basic language skills plays a pivotal role in the context of English teaching as a foreign language in Indonesia. Considering these problems, it is important to modify the writing process in such a way to cope the writing. The process of writing the writer means is BACK and DRAW activities. What the writer termed as BACK and DRAW is a set of writing activities involving students’ active participation in the process, their intense learning experience in producing a required text, as well as their interactive work with peers and the teacher. BACK and DRAW stands for Brainstorming, Attaching, Correcting, Keeping, Developing, Revising, Arranging, and Wow! Or Wonderful! Or Well done!. These activities are good ways to improve the writing Ability.

  18. Hartford's gun buy-back program: are we on target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Laura W; Thaker, Shefali; Borrup, Kevin; Shapiro, David S; Bentley, George C; Saleheen, Hassan; Lapidus, Garry; Campbell, Brendan T

    2013-09-01

    Gunbuy-backprograms have been proposed as away to remove unwanted firearms from circulation, but remain controversial because their ability to prevent firearm injuries remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to describe the demographics of individuals participating in Connecticut's gun buy-backprogram in the context of annual gun sales and the epidemiology of firearm violence in the state. Over four years the buy-back program collected 464 firearms, including 232 handguns. In contrast, 91,602 firearms were sold in Connecticut during 2009 alone. The incidence of gun-related deaths was unchanged in the two years following the inception of the buy-back program. Suicide was associated with older age (mean = 51 +/- 18years) and Caucasian race (n = 539, 90%). Homicide was associated with younger age (mean = 30 +/- 12 years) and minority race (n = 425, 81%). A gun buy-back program alone is not likely to produce a measurable decrease in firearm injuries and deaths.

  19. A rare presentation of sarcoidosis, back pain and spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, S S; Aslam, M B; Mukkanna, K S; Ampat, G

    2008-02-01

    A 48-year old man presented with back pain that was resistant to treatment. An MR scan showed spondylolisthesis at L4-5 and narrowing of the exit foraminae. He had a posterior fusion which did not relieve his symptoms. He continued to have back pain and developed subcutaneous nodules in both forearms. Biopsy from the skin revealed cutaneous sarcoidosis, and one from the lumbar spine showed sarcoidosis granuloma between the bone trabeculae. A CT scan of the abdomen and chest revealed axillary lymphadenopathy, mediastinal enlarged nodes, apical nodular nodes and splenomegaly. The patient was started on large doses of methotrexate and steroids. His angiotensin-converting enzyme and calcium levels returned to normal and the back pain resolved.

  20. Low back pain post partum - A case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-23

    Sacral stress fracture is an unusual source of low back pain and can be easily confused with a number of other clinical conditions seen in physiotherapy clinics. The purpose of this case report is to describe the case of a patient presenting with low back pain post partum illustrating pertinent aspects of differential diagnosis and issues of management. A 31 year old female presented complaining of low back pain since the birth of her second child 11 months earlier. Subjective and objective examination led the Therapist to consider a diagnosis of sacral stress fracture. This diagnosis was confirmed by MRI. Three months after presenting to physiotherapy the patient was pain free and had returned to all aspects of her daily life without any difficulties. Clinicians must be aware of the less common pathologies in any hypotheses development. A careful history and physical examination and broad hypotheses generation will ensure that patients are accurately diagnosed and receive appropriate and effective treatments.

  1. Drain Back Systems in Laboratory and in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Drain Back systems with ETC collectors are tested and analyzed in a Danish - Chinese cooperation project. Experiences from early work at DTU, with drain back, low flow systems, was used to design two systems: 1) One laboratory system at DTU. 2) One demonstration system in a single family house...... in Sorö Denmark. Detailed monitoring and modelling/validation of the system in the DTU lab is done, to be able to generalize the results, to other climates and loads by simulation and to make design optimizations. The advantage with drain back, low flow systems, is that the system can be made more simple...... in the collector loop to have a safe reliable operation. The components should also be designed and marked so that only one correct mounting option is possible, like forward and return pipes to/from the collector of slightly different sizes or color. Adapted installer education and training is a very important...

  2. Is it all about a pain in the back?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, Jan; Natvig, Bard; Ferreira, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    functional status, a poorer prognosis and respond less favourably to treatment. Evidence also suggests that the more pain sites a patient reports, the more reduced their physical and mental function will be regardless of location of pain. At the same time, evidence suggests that strategies for diagnosis...... propose a conceptual framework for a common stepwise approach to the diagnosis and management of back and musculoskeletal pain.......Multisite musculoskeletal pain is common among people suffering from low back pain. Although the mechanisms behind co-occurrence of multiple somatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain are still unknown, patients with co-morbidities and co-occurring musculoskeletal symptoms tend to have worse...

  3. Intercalibration of the ZEUS high resolution and backing calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Czyrkowski, H.; Derlicki, A.; Krzyzanowski, M.; Kudla, I.; Kusmierz, W.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Rajca, A.; Stopczynski, A.; Walczak, R.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the combined performance of two calorimeters, the high resolution uranium-scintillator prototype of the ZEUS forward calorimeter (FCAL), followed by a prototype of the coarser ZEUS backing calorimeter (BAC), made out of thick iron plates interleaved with planes of aluminium proportional chambers. The test results, obtained in an exposure of the calorimeter system to a hadron test beam at the CERN SPS, show that the backing calorimeter does fulfil its role of recognizing the energy leaking out of the FCAL calorimeter. The measurement of this energy is feasible, if an appropriate calibration of the BAC calorimeter is performed. (orig.)

  4. Low back pain in young athletes. A practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J; Tanner, S

    1991-12-01

    Lumbar spine pain accounts for 5 to 8% of athletic injuries. Although back pain is not the most common injury, it is one of the most challenging for the sports physician to diagnose and treat. Factors predisposing the young athlete to back injury include the growth spurt, abrupt increases in training intensity or frequency, improper technique, unsuitable sports equipment, and leg-length inequality. Poor strength of the back extensor and abdominal musculature, and inflexibility of the lumbar spine, hamstrings and hip flexor muscles may contribute to chronic low back pain. Excessive lifting and twisting may produce sprains and strains, the most common cause of low back pain in adolescents. Blows to the spine may create contusions or fractures. Fractures in adolescents from severe trauma include compression fracture, comminuted fracture, fracture of the growth plate at the vertebral end plate, lumbar transverse process fracture, and a fracture of the spinous process. Athletes who participate in sports involving repeated and forceful hyperextension of the spine may suffer from lumbar facet syndrome, spondylolysis, or spondylolisthesis. The large sacroiliac joint is also prone to irritation. The signs and symptoms of disc herniation in adolescents may be more subtle than in adults. Disorders simulating athletic injury include tumours and inflammatory connective tissue disease. Often, however, a specific diagnosis cannot be made in the young athlete with a low back injury due to the lack of pain localisation and the anatomic complexity of the lumbar spine. A thorough history and physical examination are usually more productive in determining a diagnosis and guiding treatment than imaging techniques. Diagnostic tests may be considered, though, for the adolescent athlete whose back pain is severe, was caused by acute trauma, or fails to improve with conservative therapy after several weeks. Radiographs, bone scanning, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging may

  5. Low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome | Shipton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back pain is one of the most common disorders seen in general practice. Patients with chronic low back pain form a large proportion of the work of any pain relief unit. The aetiology of low back pain and the post-laminectomy pain syndrome are briefly presented and treatment of the 'failed back surgery patient' and the ...

  6. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T.M. Enthoven (Wendy); P.D.D.M. Roelofs (Pepijn); R.A. Deyo (Richard); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chronic back pain is an important health problem. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat people with low back pain, especially people with acute back pain. Short term NSAID use is also recommended for pain relief in people with chronic back

  7. Chronic Widespread Back Pain is Distinct From Chronic Local Back Pain: Evidence From Quantitative Sensory Testing, Pain Drawings, and Psychometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Eich, Wolfgang; Janke, Susanne; Leisner, Sabine; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Tesarz, Jonas

    2016-07-01

    Whether chronic localized pain (CLP) and chronic widespread pain (CWP) have different mechanisms or to what extent they overlap in their pathophysiology is controversial. The study compared quantitative sensory testing profiles of nonspecific chronic back pain patients with CLP (n=48) and CWP (n=29) with and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients (n=90) and pain-free controls (n = 40). The quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German-Research-Network-on-Neuropathic-Pain" was used to measure evoked pain on the painful area in the lower back and the pain-free hand (thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, vibration threshold, pain sensitivity to sharp and blunt mechanical stimuli). Ongoing pain and psychometrics were captured with pain drawings and questionnaires. CLP patients did not differ from pain-free controls, except for lower pressure pain threshold (PPT) on the back. CWP and FMS patients showed lower heat pain threshold and higher wind-up ratio on the back and lower heat pain threshold and cold pain threshold on the hand. FMS showed lower PPT on back and hand, and higher comorbidity of anxiety and depression and more functional impairment than all other groups. Even after long duration CLP presents with a local hypersensitivity for PPT, suggesting a somatotopically specific sensitization of nociceptive processing. However, CWP patients show widespread ongoing pain and hyperalgesia for different stimuli that is generalized in space, suggesting the involvement of descending control systems, as also suggested for FMS patients. Because mechanisms in nonspecific chronic back pain with CLP and CWP differ, these patients should be distinguished in future research and allocated to different treatments.

  8. The Japanese version of the STarT Back Tool predicts 6-month clinical outcomes of low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Oka, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Norimasa; Haga, Yuri; Sawada, Takayuki; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-03-01

    The STarT Back Tool classifies patients into low-, medium-, or high-risk groups according to risk for chronic low back pain. The Japanese version of the STarT Back Tool (STarT-J) has been translated and psychometrically validated. The present analysis investigated the predictive ability of the STarT-J. Baseline data were collected through an online survey conducted with Japanese patients with low back pain. Long-term outcomes were assessed in a 6-month follow-up survey. Clinical outcomes at 6 months were evaluated with a pain numerical rating scale, the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, and the EuroQol 5 Dimension. Differences in these scores among the three STarT-J risk groups were analyzed. Participants' perceived changes in low back pain and overall health status were examined to determine associations between the chronicity of low back pain at 6 months and STarT-J risk groups. Data of 1228 volunteers who responded to the baseline and follow-up surveys were included in this analysis. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) scores for the pain numerical rating scale and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire were highest in the high-risk group (5.6 ± 1.9 and 9.6 ± 7.5) and lowest in the low-risk group (3.9 ± 1.6 and 2.1 ± 3.5). Mean ± SD EuroQol 5 Dimension index scores were lowest in the high-risk group (0.66 ± 0.20) and highest in the low-risk group (0.86 ± 0.14). A small percentage of high-risk patients (5.3%) perceived improvement in low back pain at the 6-month follow-up. The STarT-J predicted 6-month pain and disability outcomes. The STarT-J is an easy-to-use tool to screen for patients who are more likely to have chronic low back pain, and may be useful to initiate stratified care in primary care settings. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Capacitance Estimation for DC-link Capacitors in a Back-to-Back Converter Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    The reliability of dc-link capacitors in power electronic converters is one of the critical aspects to be considered in modern power converter design. The observation of their ageing process and the estimation of their health status have been an attractive subject for the industrial field and hence...... of the aforementioned challenges and shortcomings. In this paper, a pure software condition monitoring method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is proposed. The implemented ANN estimates the capacitance of the dc-link capacitor in a back-to-back converter. The error analysis of the estimated results...

  10. Relationship between STarT Back Screening Tool and prognosis for low back pain patients receiving spinal manipulative therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Jonathan; Newell, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Low back pain (LBP) is common and costly and few treatments have been shown to be markedly superior to any other. Effort has been focused on stratifying patients to better target treatment. Recently the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT) has been developed for use in primary care to enable sub grouping of patients based on modifiable baseline characteristics and has been shown to be associated with differential outcomes. In the UK the SBT is being recommended to assist in car...

  11. Study of a Back-To-Back (BTB) System Using Modular Multilevel Cascade Converters for Power Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    KHAMPHAKDI, PRACHA; KHAMPHAKDI, PRACHA

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation describes a modular multilevel cascade converter based on double-star chopper-cells (MMCC-DSCC). It is used to form a BTB (Back-To-Back) system installed between two 6.6-kV power distribution feeders with many distributed power generators. It is also referred to as the so-called “loop power flow controller.” A conventional BTB system employs bulky line-frequency transformers and dc-link capacitors, whereas this DSCC-based BTB system does not require either of them, thereby r...

  12. Does magnetic resonance imaging predict future low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffens, D; Hancock, M J; Maher, C G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to identify pathology responsible for low back pain (LBP). However, the importance of findings on MRI remains controversial. We aimed to systematically review whether MRI findings of the lumbar spine predict future LBP in different samples with a...

  13. Salmon tracing: Genotyping to trace back escapees from salmon aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blonk, R.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of the project is to assign an escaped salmon back to the farm responsible for the escape with near 100% accuracy. In this report, the potential of a set of genetic markers to assign an escaped salmon was determined for a set of 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers, provided

  14. Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus and African White-backed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic ecological information is still lacking for many species of African vultures. The Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus is known as a rare breeding resident in north-eastern South Africa. This study set out to monitor the nests of Hooded Vultures and, secondarily, White-backed Vultures Gyps africanus in the Olifants ...

  15. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)

    2014-01-01

    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of

  16. Prevalence of Low Back Pain among Adolescent Students in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oyewoleye

    SUMMARY. This school-based survey was aimed at determining the prevalence of low-back pain (LBP) among adolescent students of selected secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. Nine hundred secondary schools students, comprising 415 boys and 485 girls, with age range 12-17 years were surveyed. They were ...

  17. Rock Mechanics Aspects of Stoping Without Back-area Support

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    King, RG

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available The report describes an experiment carried out at Hartebeesfontein Gold Mine, No. 6 Shaft, 77 N 25 Stope between October 1985 and November 1986, which involved mining two panels without back-area support and with different support resistances...

  18. Prevalence of low back pain among filling stations attendants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low back pain has been found to be common among workers of some certain industries and occupation, however little is known about its prevalence among filling stations attendants who are perceived to belong to the group that are exposed to high occupational risk. This study was designed to determine the prevalence ...

  19. Objective Measures for Pregnancy Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Groot (Mirthe)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractPain in the lumbar spine and pelvic region is a frequent complication of pregnancy and delivery. The prevalence of pregnancy related low back and pelvic pain (PLBP) varies between 14.2 and 56%. In 6 to 15% the pain is so severe that it impedes daily life activities. The symptoms of

  20. Bear at the back door | Prinsloo | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bear at the back door. C Prinsloo ...