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Sample records for bacitracin

  1. Bacitracin zinc overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmic Bacitracin zinc may also be added to animal food. Other products may also contain bacitracin zinc. ... electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Treatment may include: Activated charcoal Breathing support Intravenous fluids (given through a vein) ...

  2. 21 CFR 558.78 - Bacitracin zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bacitracin zinc. 558.78 Section 558.78 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.78 Bacitracin zinc. (a) Specifications. Type A medicated articles containing bacitracin zinc equivalent to 10, 25, 40, or 50 grams per pound bacitracin. (b) Approvals. See No. 046573 in...

  3. Enhanced production of bacitracin by a mutant strain bacillus licheniformis UV-MN-HN-8 (enhanced bacitracin production by mutagenesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftab, M.N.; Ikram-ul-Haq; Baig, S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is focused on the improvement of Bacillus licheniformis through random mutagenesis to obtain mutant having enhanced production of bacitracin. Many isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were isolated and the isolate GP-40 produced maximum bacitracin production (16 +- 0.72 IU/mL). Treatment of Bacillus licheniformis GP-40 with ultraviolet (UV) radiations increased bacitracin production to 29 +- 0.69 IU/mL. Similarly, treatment of vegetative cells of GP-40 with chemicals like N-methyl N'-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) and Nitrous acid (HNO/sub 2/) increased bacitracin production to 35 +- 1.35 IU/mL and 29 +- 0.89 IU/mL respectively. Studies regarding the combined effect of UV and chemical treatment on parental cells exhibited significantly higher titers of bacitracin with maximum bacitracin production reached to 47.6 +- 0.92 IU/mL. An increase of 2.97 fold production of bacitracin in comparison to wild type was observed. Mutant strain was highly stable and produced consistent yield of bacitracin even after 15 generations. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably mu (h-/sup 1/)max, Yp/x, qp, Qp and Qx mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-MN-HN-8 was found to be a hyper producer of bacitracin. (author)

  4. Identification of Bacitracin Produced by Local Isolate of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from soil of different house gardens. Diagnosis was performed according to Gram stain, motility, shape forming, aerobic condition and other tests. Bacitracin was primary identified after its activity was tested against some species of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Identification ...

  5. Untangling the transcription regulatory network of the bacitracin synthase operon in Bacillus licheniformis DW2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Qin; Qiu, Yimin; Nomura, Christopher T; Li, Junhui; Chen, Shouwen

    The bacitracin synthetase gene cluster in Bacillus licheniformis DW2 is composed of the bacABC operon encoding a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and bacT encoding a thioesterase. Although the bacitracin gene cluster has been well studied, little is known about how this gene cluster is regulated. This study provides insight into how the transcription factors Spo0A and AbrB regulate bacitracin biosynthesis. Deletion of spo0A resulted in drastically reduced expression of bacA and bacT, and subsequently bacitracin production. On the other hand, the expression of bacA and bacT increased significantly in B. licheniformis DW2ΔabrB and DW2Δ0AΔabrB compared to the wild-type strain DW2. The bacitracin yields on cell numbers (U/CFU) in DW2ΔabrB and DW2Δ0A/pHY300-0A-sad67 were 17.5% and 14.9% higher than that of the wild-type strain. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) further confirmed that AbrB could directly bind to the promoter regions of bacA and bacT. These results indicate that AbrB acts as a repressor of bacitracin biosynthesis by inhibiting bacA and bacT expression, while Spo0A indirectly promotes bacitracin biosynthesis by repressing abrB expression. Copyright © 2017 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Studies on the excretion of Zn-Bacitracin from organism of animals by means of radioactive labelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, H.; Noweta, W.; Spychalski, E.; Maziarz, Z.; Niedworok, J.

    1980-01-01

    The results of studies on the excretion of Zinc-Bacitracin by means of labelling with radioactive chromium 51 are presented. The studies were performed on Wistar rats. Radioactivity of faeces and urine was determined for 10 days after the application of Zinc-Bacitracin once or for three consecutive days. (author)

  7. RECOVERY OF MURINE MYELOPOIESIS AFTER CYTOSTATIC REDUCTION BY ARA-C - EFFECT OF BACITRACIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE INTESTINAL MICROFLORA AND INFLUENCE OF TIMING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DAENEN, S; GORIS, H; DEBOER, F; HALIE, MR; VANDERWAAIJ, D

    1991-01-01

    The influence of intestinal flora modulation by oral bacitracin on the recovery of myelopoiesis after Ara-C was studied in C3H/Law mice. Bacitracin resulted in a 3-5 log increase of Gram-negative bacteria and a 10-fold increase of the intestinal endotoxin concentration. Initiation of bacitracin

  8. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, R. M.; Hedemann, M.S.; Leser, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    were killed, and the contents of gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and rectum were separately collected and pooled. In all intestinal segments, the pH and the concentration of lactic acid were measured, and the numbers of anaerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, lactobacilli....... Zinc bacitracin significantly reduced the number of coliform bacteria in the ileum and increased the activities of amylase and lipase in pancreas homogenates. Supplementation with salinomycin and zinc bacitracin, alone or in combination, resulted in significantly lower counts of C. perfringens as well...

  9. Systematic mutagenesis method for enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis mutant strain UV-MN-HN-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nauman Aftab

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was intended to obtain the enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis through random mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters. Several isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were isolated from local habitat and isolate designated as GP-35 produced maximum bacitracin production (14±0.72 IU ml-1. Bacitracin production of Bacillus licheniformis GP-35 was increased to 23±0.69 IU ml-1 after treatment with ultraviolet (UV radiations. Similarly, treatment of vegetative cells of GP-35 with chemicals like N-methyl N'-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG and Nitrous acid (HNO2 increased the bacitracin production to a level of 31±1.35 IU ml-1 and 27±0.89 IU ml-1 respectively. Treatment of isolate GP-35 with combined effect of UV and chemical treatment yield significantly higher titers of bacitracin with maximum bacitracin production of 41.6±0.92 IU ml-1. Production of bacitracin was further enhanced (59.1±1.35 IU ml-1 by optimization of different parameters like phosphate sources, organic acids as well as temperature and pH. An increase of 4.22 fold in the production of bacitracin after mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters was achieved in comparison to wild type. Mutant strain was highly stable and produced consistent yield of bacitracin even after 15 generations. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Yp/s (IU/g substrate, Yp/x (IU/g cells, Yx/s (g/g, Yp/s, mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-MN-HN-6 was found to be a hyperproducer of bacitracin.

  10. Glucose-sucrose-potassium tellurite-bacitracin agar, an alternative to mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar for enumeration of Streptococcus mutans.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzer, J M; Börjesson, A C; Laskowski, L; Kurasz, A B; Testa, M

    1984-01-01

    An agar medium for selective recovery and enumeration of Streptococcus mutans was developed as an alternative to mitis salivarius-bacitracin (MSB) agar. Combinations of dyes, antibiotics, and tellurite were added to a nonselective medium which, because of its sucrose content, allowed easy recognition of S. mutans colonies. Candle jar incubation for 2 days, by comparison with anaerobic incubation, reduced background flora but did not diminish S. mutans recoveries from clinical samples. Quantit...

  11. In vitro effects of bacitracin and monensin on ovine rumen fermentatium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Fievez, V.; Mbanzamihigo, L.; Demeyer, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2002), s. 59-62 ISSN 0582-2343 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0668; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : rumen fermentation * bacitracin * monensin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Glucose-sucrose-potassium tellurite-bacitracin agar, an alternative to mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar for enumeration of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M; Börjesson, A C; Laskowski, L; Kurasz, A B; Testa, M

    1984-10-01

    An agar medium for selective recovery and enumeration of Streptococcus mutans was developed as an alternative to mitis salivarius-bacitracin (MSB) agar. Combinations of dyes, antibiotics, and tellurite were added to a nonselective medium which, because of its sucrose content, allowed easy recognition of S. mutans colonies. Candle jar incubation for 2 days, by comparison with anaerobic incubation, reduced background flora but did not diminish S. mutans recoveries from clinical samples. Quantitative comparisons were made of the simultaneous recoveries of a number of authentic S. mutans serotype representatives and fresh clinical isolates, using various glucose-sucrose-potassium tellurite-bacitracin (GSTB) formulations and mitis salivarius, MSB, and blood agars. Mitis salivarius counts were not detectably different from blood counts, but counts on MSB were distinctly lower. A formulation of the new medium containing 5% glucose 5% sucrose, 0.001% potassium tellurite, 0.3 U of bacitracin per ml (hence GSTB), and 2% agar gave recoveries nearly equal to those on mitis salivarius agar and much greater than those on MSB. The medium yielded readily recognized S. mutans colonies and facilitated detection of intracellular polysaccharide formers upon flooding with I2 reagent. Freshly isolated serotype c, E, and f colonies could often be distinguished from serotype d and g colonies, a distinction made reliable by testing for intracellular polysaccharide. A study of 300 salivary samples revealed GSTB to give significantly higher recoveries than MSB. About 72% of all samples were substantially underestimated for S. mutans with MSB, and 6.7% of samples were falsely negative for S. mutans with MSB. Recovery of background flora on GSTB was as low or lower than on MSB, and both types of agar could be stored for at least 9 weeks without notable change of selectivity. Thus, GSTB agar appears to be simple and reliable to use and requires no anaerobic incubation. Caution is voiced about

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Primary Starters for African Traditional Bread Production and Characterization of the Bacitracin Operon and Bacitracin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kim I.; Thorsen, Line; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Derkx, Patrick M. F.; Jespersen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are widely used as feed additives and probiotics. However, there is limited information on their resistance to various antibiotics, and there is a growing concern over the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. The MIC for 8 antibiotics was determined for 85 Bacillus species strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (n = 29), Bacillus licheniformis (n = 38), and Bacillus sonorensis (n = 18), all of which were isolated from starters for Sudanese bread production. All the strains were sensitive to tetracycline (8.0 mg/liter), vancomycin (4.0 mg/liter), and gentamicin (4.0 mg/liter) but resistant to streptomycin. Sensitivity to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin was species specific. The erythromycin resistance genes ermD and ermK were detected by PCR in all of the erythromycin-resistant (MIC, ≥16.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strains and one erythromycin-sensitive (MIC, 4.0 mg/liter) B. licheniformis strain. Several amino acid changes were present in the translated ermD and ermK nucleotide sequences of the erythromycin-sensitive strain, which could indicate ErmD and ErmK protein functionalities different from those of the resistance strains. The ermD and ermK genes were localized on an 11.4-kbp plasmid. All of the B. sonorensis strains harbored the bacitracin synthetase gene, bacA, and the transporter gene bcrA, which correlated with their observed resistance to bacitracin. Bacitracin was produced by all the investigated species strains (28%), as determined by ultra-high-definition quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHD-QTOF LC/MS). The present study has revealed species-specific variations in the antimicrobial susceptibilities of Bacillus spp. and provides new information on MIC values, as well as the occurrence of resistance genes in Bacillus spp., including the newly described species B. sonorensis. PMID:22941078

  14. Continuous betadine-bacitracin irrigation for vascular graft infections: A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strider, David V; Ratliff, Catherine R; Cherry, Kenneth J; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to conduct a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent betadine/bacitracin continuous irrigation (BBCI) for vascular graft infections (VGIs) to review its use as a treatment option. A retrospective chart review from 2013 to 2017 was conducted of patients with VGIs that were treated with BBCI postremoval of the infected graft. The BBCI is a continuous infusion of 0.25% betadine in normal saline at 0.3 mL/kg/h for 48 hours then followed by bacitracin infusion with a concentration of 50,000 units bacitracin/per liter normal saline at 0.3 mL/kg/h for 72 hours. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the sample. The nine adult patients who received postoperative BBCI had an age range of 30-81 years, with average age of 58.8 years. Five of the subjects were females with four males. A total of nine patients with groin infections were identified, with two aortobifemoral bypasses, two axillofemoral bypasses, three femoral-femoral bypasses, one femoral artery pseudoaneurysm repair with Dacron patch, and one common femoral endarterectomy with Dacron patch. VGIs were identified from 10 days up to 72 months from the original vascular procedure. Six patients had negative wound cultures, while two had wound cultures positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and one patient had positive culture for Escherichia coli. The length of time of BBCI ranged from 48 to 84 hours with average of 57.6 hours (standard deviation [SD] = 12.7 hours). The length of time of the bacitracin irrigation ranged from 30 to 72 hours with average of 48.4 hours (SD = 14.9 hours). All patients healed their groin wounds except for an 81-year-old patient with aortobifemoral bypass graft who developed ischemic bowel and expired. Patients received at least 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics followed by oral antibiotic suppression therapy for life. VGIs are a devastating complication associated with a high morbidity. BBCI provides an option

  15. Self-assembly of bacitracin-gold nanoparticles and their toxicity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Zi; Li, Yanji; Bian, Kexin; Yin, Tian; Gao, Dawei

    2018-01-01

    As the widely use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in drug delivery, the precise control on the size and morphology of the AuNPs is urgently required. In this scenario, traditional synthesis methods cannot meet current requirement because of their inherent defects. We have depicted here a novel method for fabricating monodispersed large size gold nanoparticles, based on the self-assembly of bacitracin. The AuNPs could be facilely, low-cost, and green synthesized with repeatability and controllability in this method. The Bac gold nanoparticles (Bac-AuNPs), composed by bacitracin core and gold shell, exhibited a spherical morphology in TEM and a face-centered cubic crystal structure in X-Ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction. The mean diameter of the Bac-AuNPs was 89nm. The nanoparticles were mono-dispersed and the zeta potential of the nanoparticles was 4.1±0.64mV. Notably, in cell viability assay, the Bac-AuNPs showed less toxicity to HepG2 cells and HEK293 cells compared to small size AuNPs. Collectively, the size, rheological characteristic and the biocompatibility supported the use of the gold nanoparticles as intracellular delivery vehicles for drug delivery, especially for tumor therapy. And this study could provide a maneuverable, controllable and green strategy for the synthesis of AuNPs, which would be applied in disease diagnosis and therapy with biosafety. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Inhibition of resistance plasmid transfer in Escherichia coli by ionophores, chlortetracycline, bacitracin, and ionophore/antimicrobial combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathers, Jeremy J; Clark, Steven R; Hausmann, Denny; Tillman, Paul; Benning, Valerie R; Gordon, Shelly K

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal feed additives bacitracin, chlortetracycline (CTC), laidlomycin, lasalocid, and salinomycin inhibited the transfer of multiresistance-conferring plasmid pBR325 (Tet(r) Amp(r) Cp(r), 6.0 kb) into selected gram-negative strains with the use of an in vitro model. High concentrations of ampicillin-sensitive competence-pretreated Escherichia coli HB 101 cells were exposed to 10% (v/v) of 1:10 dimethyl sulfoxide/agent : water containing test mixtures for 0.5 hr prior to plasmid addition and transforming conditions. Transformation was inhibited for all antimicrobials and showed a positive association wich higher concentration. Additional testing of ionophore compounds separately and in combination with bacitracin, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, roxarsone, tylosin, and virginiamycin at representative feed concentrations demonstrated 80.6% to >99.9% inhibition (P < 0.001) of resistance transfer. Bacitracin alone inhibited transformation within the range of 50-500 ppm. No increase in resistance transfer was observed when poultry-derived and reference gram-negative isolates having low or no transformation efficiency were additionally tested. The results suggest that these compounds, at relevant concentrations used in animal feed, may interfere with cell envelope-associated DNA uptake channels or other transformation competence mechanisms. Through these mechanisms, ionophores and cell membrane-interactive feed agents such as CTC and bacitracin may act to inhibit resistance transfer mechanisms within poultry and livestock.

  17. Mutans streptococci enumeration and genotype selection using different bacitracin-containing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Stephanie S; Patrick, Paul; Wiener, Howard W; Cutter, Gary R; Ruby, John D; Cheon, Kyounga; Whiddon, Jennifer; Moser, Stephen A; Childers, Noel K

    2014-08-01

    The primary etiological agents associated with dental caries include the mutans streptococci (MS) comprised of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. The effective cultivation and isolation of MS are necessary for the study of MS, including their proper clinical assessment in the epidemiological study of dental caries. Several selective media have been developed for the isolation, enumeration, and characterization of MS. However, inhibition of MS may occur, reducing counts and perhaps limiting selection of some strains. The purpose of this study was to compare five culture media containing bacitracin recommended for the isolation of MS. Five commonly used bacitracin-containing media (MSB, MSKB, GTSB, TYS20B, and TYCSB) used for MS isolation were quantitatively evaluated. Standard plate counts were performed in duplicate for 2 prototype MS strains (S. mutans UA159 and S. sobrinus 6715) and for MS isolates from clinical saliva samples obtained from 16 children (approximate age 5years) to determine total plate counts, and total S. mutans counts. Selected isolates (n=249) from all five media for 5 saliva samples were further confirmed as S. mutans with real-time PCR then subsequently evaluated qualitatively with rep-PCR for genotype determination. All media resulted in variable enumeration with no significant difference in MS counts. MS prototype strains grew well on all five media; clinical isolates demonstrated more variability in counts but no overall significant differences were found. MSB demonstrated comparable ability to grow S. mutans but allowed for more non-S. mutans growth. All 5 media identified a consistent predominant genotype by rep-PCR. Recovery of minor genotypes was not inhibited by media type. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-Hofstad, I.; Lankveld, van W.D.M.; Tomassen, M.J.H.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.

    2008-01-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172

  19. Further studies on the reliability of the bacitracin inhibition test for the presumptive identification of Lancefield group A streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, D J; McGhie, D; Tebbutt, G M

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of the bacitracin inhibition test to differentiate between 125 Lancefield group A and 122 non-group A beta-haemolytic streptococci was studied. Bacitracin discs containing 0-02, 0-04, or 0-1 international units and the conditions recommended by both the Association of Clinical Pathologists and the Federal Drug Administration for routine sensitivity testing were used. The results suggest that the presence or absence of a zone of inhibition around a 0-04 unit disc can be used routinely for the presumptive identification of group A streptococci and that a specific zone size can be used for reading the test only with a 0-1 unit disc. PMID:325019

  20. The two-component signal transduction system YvcPQ regulates the bacterial resistance to bacitracin in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumeng; Li, Xinfeng; Wang, Xun; Li, Zhou; He, Jin

    2016-10-01

    YvcPQ is one of the two-component signal transduction systems that respond to specific stimuli and enable cells to adjust multiple cellular functions. It consists of a histidine kinase YvcQ and a response regulator YvcP. In this study, through searching the consensus sequence recognized by YvcP, we found four YvcP-binding motifs in the promoter regions of genes yvcR (BMB171_C4100), BMB171_C4385, kapD (BMB171_C4525) and BMB171_C4835 in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 which is a representative of Bacillus cereus group, and confirmed that these genes are regulated by YvcP. We compared the sequence of yvcPQ and its downstream genes in genus Bacillus, and found two different kinds of yvc locus, one was the yvcPQ-RS in B. subtilis species and the other was the yvcPQ-R-S1S2 in B. cereus group. Furthermore, we found that YvcP activates the transcription of yvcS1S2 (downstream of yvcR) to promote bacterial resistance to bacitracin and deletion of either yvcPQ operon or yvcS1S2 operon renders the bacterial cells more sensitive to bacitracin. This study enriched our understanding of both the YvcPQ's function and the mechanism of bacterial resistance to bacitracin.

  1. Bioreactor studies on the production of bacitracin by mutant strain of bacillus licheniformis BLS-NTTG 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabeen, M.; Arif, R.; Saleem, M.; Ghouri, S.M.; Baig, S.; Syed, Q.

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with the production of antibiotic bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis using submerged fermentation technique in stirred fermenter. Altogether 15 samples were isolated from local habitat such as Government College Lahore. Of all the culture tested BLS 13 gave maximum titer (81 plus minus li. Micro /ml) in the fermentation broth. To develop the process for the production of antibiotic bacitracin agro industrial wastes used as a sole source of carbon in different fermentation medias (M1-M10). The culture of Bacillus licheniformis BLS 13 was improved by UV irradiation by exposing the cells of BLS-UV 16 mutated for 60 minutes gave the maximum production i.e. 129.1 plus minus 0.7 i. Micro/ml. The parental strain (i.e. BLS 13 was also improved by using chemical mutagen NTTG which enhance the antibiotic activity, and the mutated strain number i.e. BLS-NTTG 4 gave the maximum production 143.0 plus minus 1.0 i. Micro/ml. In stirred fermenter chemically mutated strain was used to check the productivity of bacitracin in stirred fermenter was increased up to 156 plus minus 1 i. micro /ml. (author)

  2. Mitis salivarius-bacitracin 10% sacarose agar for oral streptococci and Streptococcus mutans counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez de Annan, S; Ruíz de Valladares, R E; Benito de Cárdenas, I L

    1997-01-01

    The MSB Agar (mitis salivarius-bacitracin) 20% sacarose medium is frequently used for the isolation and count of total streptococci and Streptococcus mutans. Although it is considered a selective culture medium for this micro-organism, S. mutans recovery in this medium is much lower than in this Mitis Salivarius Agar (MSA). Because the number of S. mutans in saliva is used for estimating caries risk and activity from a microbiological stand point, the aim of this work was to find a modification of the MSB 20% sacarose medium so that it would offer not only selectivity in the isolation but also maximum recovery. This would detect people at risk more efficiency and would evaluate the preventive odontological treatments more accurately. The results show that: 1) the greatest recovery of total streptococci and S. mutans is obtained in the MSB 10% sacarose medium, 2) S. mutans must be incubated in aerobiosis and the total streptococci in a candle jar (10% CO2). MSB 10% sacarose medium is proposed as a choice medium for the microbiological estimation of cariogenic risk and activity, to detect infection levels and evaluate preventive odontological treatments.

  3. Identification of non-mutans streptococci organisms in dental plaques recovering on mitis-salivarius bacitracin agar medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, So Young; Kim, Pyung Sik; Hwang, Ho-Keel; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Choe, Son-Jin; Min, Byung-Moo; Kook, Joong-Ki

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to both isolate and identify non-mutans streptococci organisms (non-MSO) from dental plaques recovered on mitis-salivarius sucrose bacitracin agar (MSB) plates. The dental plaque samples, which had been collected from 63 human subjects, were diluted and plated on MSB. The bacteria growing on the MSB plates were then identified with biochemical tests, as well as with 16S rDNA cloning and sequencing techniques. Our data indicated that bacteria from 30 subjects had been recovered on the MSB plates. Among the 21 typical colonies selected from the 30 subjects, 12 colonies, derived from 10 subjects, were identified as non-MSO. These 12 colonies were determined to be Streptococcus anginosus (8 colonies), S. sanguinis (1 colony), and Pantoea agglomerans (3 colonies). These results strongly suggest that a new selective medium will be required for the reliable isolation of mutans streptococci.

  4. Optimized antimicrobial peptide (Bacitracin) production by immobilized and free cells and of Bacillus Spp GU215 using Wood chips and silicon polymer beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Ahmad, Taufeeq

    2013-11-01

    The immobilization of bacillus spp. GU215 on silicon polymer beads, wood chips was performed and antibiotic peptide (bacitracin) production, optimization of parameters were investigated. The immobilized cells presented elevated levels of activity than free cells. The silicon polymer based cells showed widest zones of inhibitions (18mm) in 72 hours and 4% concentration of glucose, PH 8 and 30°C, whereas a marginal decrease in the activity (14mm) was noticed in case of wood chips based immobilization systems and least stable immobilization in 72 hours incubation time, 4% glucose concentration, PH 8 and 30°C. This study illustrates that the silicon polymer based beads facilitate a strong interactions with bacitracin producing cells and render them suitable for excessive and long time production of antibiotic.

  5. Synthesis, construction, and evaluation of self-assembled nano-bacitracin A as an efficient antibacterial agent in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong W

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wei Hong,1 Xiang Gao,1 Peng Qiu,1 Jie Yang,1 Mingxi Qiao,2 Hong Shi,3 Dexian Zhang,1 Chunlian Tian,1 Shengli Niu,1 Mingchun Liu1 1Key Laboratory of Zoonosis of Liaoning Province, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenhe, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Jiangning, Nanjing, 3Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Bacitracin A (BA is an excellent polypeptide antibiotic that is active against gram-positive bacteria without triggering multidrug resistance. However, BA is inactive against gram-negative bacteria because of its inability to cross the outer membrane of these cells, and it has strong nephrotoxicity, thus limiting its clinical applications. Nanoantibiotics can effectively localize antibiotics to the periplasmic space of bacteria while decreasing the adverse effects of antibiotics. In this study, biodegradable hydrophobic copolymers of poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA were attached to the N-termini of BA to design a novel class of self-assembled nano-bacitracin A (nano-BAs, and their potential as antibacterial agents was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Nano-BAs had a core-shell structure with a mean diameter <150 nm. Impressively, nano-BAs had strong antibacterial properties against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and the distribution of antibacterial activity as a function of PLGA block length was skewed toward longer PLGA chains. No cytotoxicity against HK-2 cells or human red blood cells (hRBCs was observed in vitro, suggesting good biocompatibility. A high local density of BA mass on the surface promoted endocytotic cellular uptake, and hydrophobic interactions between the PLGA block and lipopolysaccharide (LPS facilitated the uptake of nano-BAs, thereby leading to

  6. PEGylated Self-Assembled Nano-Bacitracin A: Probing the Antibacterial Mechanism and Real-Time Tracing of Target Delivery in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhao, Yining; Guo, Yuru; Huang, Chengcheng; Qiu, Peng; Zhu, Jia; Chu, Chun; Shi, Hong; Liu, Mingchun

    2018-04-04

    Although nano-self-assemblies of hydrophobic-modified bacitracin A with poly(d,l-lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (nano-BA PLGA ) have demonstrated promising antibacterial activities, the application of nano-BA PLGA was severely compromised by low water solubility. In this study, a series of PEGylated PLGA copolymers were selected to conjugate with the N-terminus of bacitracin A to construct PEGylated self-assembled nano-BAs and to further develop nano-self-assemblies of bacitracin A with strong antibacterial potency and high solubility. Compared with nano-BA PLGA , all PEGylated nano-BAs, except nano-BA 5k , exhibited strong antibacterial efficiency against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by inducing loss of cytoplasmic membrane potential, membrane permeabilization, and leakage of calcein from artificial cell membranes. Studies elucidating the underlying mechanism of PEGylated nano-BAs against Gram-negative bacteria indicated that the strong hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions between PLGA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could bind, neutralize, and disassociate LPS, facilitating cellular uptake of the nanoparticles, which could destabilize the membrane, resulting in cell death. Moreover, PEGylated nano-BAs (nano-BA 12k ) with a longer PLGA block were expected to occupy a higher local density of BA mass on the surface and result in stronger hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions with LPS, which were responsible for the enhanced antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and emerging antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. In vivo imaging verified that PEGylated nano-BAs exhibited higher inflammatory tissue distribution and longer circulation time than nano-BA PLGA . Therefore, although PEGylation did not affect antibacterial activity, it is necessary for target delivery and resistance to clearance of the observed PEGylated nano-BAs. In vivo, nano-BA 12k also showed the highest therapeutic index against infection

  7. Alteration of gut microbiota by vancomycin and bacitracin improves insulin resistance via glucagon-like peptide 1 in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Injae; Park, Yoon Jeong; Kim, Yeon-Ran; Kim, Yo Na; Ka, Sojeong; Lee, Ho Young; Seong, Je Kyung; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Jae Bum

    2015-06-01

    Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, 2 major phyla of gut microbiota, are involved in lipid and bile acid metabolism to maintain systemic energy homeostasis in host. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that dietary changes promptly induce the alteration of abundance of both Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in obesity and its related metabolic diseases. Nevertheless, the metabolic roles of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes on such disease states remain unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of antibiotic-induced depletion of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes on dysregulation of energy homeostasis in obesity. Treatment of C57BL/6J mice with the antibiotics (vancomycin [V] and bacitracin [B]), in the drinking water, before diet-induced obesity (DIO) greatly decreased both Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in the gut as revealed by pyrosequencing of the microbial 16S rRNA gene. Concomitantly, systemic glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance in DIO were ameliorated via augmentation of GLP-1 secretion (active form; 2.03-fold, total form; 5.09-fold) independently of obesity as compared with untreated DIO controls. Furthermore, there were increases in metabolically beneficial metabolites derived from the gut. Together, our data suggest that Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes potentially mediate insulin resistance through modulation of GLP-1 secretion in obesity. © FASEB.

  8. Bacitracin Resistance of Streptococcus mutans Regulated by Two Component System

    OpenAIRE

    北河, 憲雄

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus mutansは、主要なう蝕の原因細菌であり、バシトラシンに耐性を持つことが知られている。本研究では、この耐性メカニズムを解明するため、バシトラシン存在下で顕著に発現誘導される遺伝子をマイクロアレイを用いて探索した。4 倍以上発現誘導されていた8 つの遺伝子のうち、耐性に主に関与していたのは ABC トランスポーターをコードすると推定される 2 つの遺伝子、mbrA、mbrB であった。以前の研究から、mbrABCD 遺伝子群はバシトラシン耐性に関与することが分かっているが mbrABCD 遺伝子群による耐性のメカニズムの詳細は判明していない。アミノ酸配列のホモロジーより mbrCD は 二成分制御系 (TCS) の遺伝子と推測されており、mbrC、mbrD それぞれの欠損株を作製して検討したところ、推測通り、 mbrCD が mbrA の発現を制御していた。また、ゲルシフトアッセイにより MbrC はmbrA の発現調節領域と推定される部位と特異的に結合すること、及びリン酸化部位と予測される 54 番目のアスパラギン酸をアスパラギンに置換した変異 Mb...

  9. 21 CFR 558.76 - Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption to provide 10 milligrams per pound of body weight per day Swine; for increased rate of weight gain...; increased rate of weight gain and improved feed efficiency 1 046573 (ii) 5 to 20 Quail not over 5 weeks of age; increased rate of weight gain and improved feed efficiency 1 046573 (iii) 10 to 25 Chickens; for...

  10. 21 CFR 524.154 - Bacitracin or bacitracin zinc-neomycin sulfate-polymyxin B sulfate ophthalmic ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND... milligrams of neomycin, and 10,000 units of polymyxin B sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. Dogs and Cats—(1... superficial bacterial infections of the eyelid and conjunctiva of dogs and cats when due to susceptible...

  11. 75 FR 7555 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Bacitracin Zinc; Nicarbazin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... February 22, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John K. Harshman, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV... environmental impact statement is required. This rule does not meet the definition of ``rule'' in 5 U.S.C. 804(3... Commissioner of Food and Drugs and redelegated to the Center for Veterinary Medicine, 21 CFR part 558 is...

  12. 76 FR 53050 - New Animal Drugs; Ampicillin Trihydrate, Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate, Flunixin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... trihydrate. * * * * * (d) * * * (2) * * * (iii) Limitations. Do not treat cattle for more than 7 days. Milk... last treatment. Cattle must not be slaughtered for food during treatment and for 144 hours (6 days... exceed a total of 5 consecutive days. * * * * * (3) Limitations. Withdraw medication from cattle 10 days...

  13. Final Rule: Extremely Hazardous Substances List (deletion of bacitracin and 3 substances)

    Science.gov (United States)

    These substances were delisted because they did not meet the Agency's criteria for acute toxicity, based on a study of long-term toxic effects. So these chemicals are no longer subject to emergency planning and notification requirements under this Act.

  14. Effect of zinc bacitracin and salinomycin on intestinal microflora and performance of broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, R. M.; Hedemann, M.S.; Leser, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    were killed, and the contents of gizzard, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, ceca, and rectum were separately collected and pooled. In all intestinal segments, the pH and the concentration of lactic acid were measured, and the numbers of anaerobic bacteria, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria, lactobacilli...... as Lactobacillus salivarius, which was a dominant lactic acid bacterium found in broiler intestinal contents. High numbers of these lactobacilli may play a role in broiler growth depression related to competition in nutrient uptake or impaired fat absorption due to bile acid deconjugation....

  15. 21 CFR 524.155 - Bacitracin zinc-polymyxin B sulfate-neomycin sulfate-hydrocortisone or hydrocortisone acetate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... initial treatment of corneal ulcers. They should not be used until the infection is under control and corneal regeneration is well underway. Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a...

  16. Dgroup: DG01579 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3047 ... Bacitracin methylene disalicylate (USP) ... D03048 ... Bacitracin zinc (USP) D02927 ... Amphomycin (USAN) D10380 ... Surotomycin (USAN/INN) Antibacterial ... Antibiotics ...

  17. Effect of All-lac xcl 5x, Acid-pak 2x, Bio-mos® and Zinc Bacitracin on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ayanda

    Digestion of feedstuffs must be completed before reaching the ileo-caecal junction and the nutrients must be absorbed across the villi to satisfy the nutritional needs of the animal. Any undigested feed residue passing into the colon will be used as a substrate by the microflora (Bedford, 2000; Hong, 2002). This will decrease ...

  18. [The effect of Solcoseryl eye gel in combination with neomycin and bacitracin on the healing of corneal lesions after foreign body removal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, P

    1983-09-01

    The effect of Solcoseryl on the healing rate of corneal lesions after foreign body removal was assessed in a double-blind study. Solcoseryl is a protein-free hemodialysate which is widely used to stimulate tissue repair processes. The healing rate was determined by means of photodocumentation which was complete in 82 out of 92 cases. The Solcoseryl group showed in significantly faster healing rate and a lower tendency to development of corneal opacities than the control group. No side-effects were observed which could be attributed to either of the drugs used in the study.

  19. Effects of an Ionophore Coccidiostat (Monensin or Salinomycin, Sodium or Potassium Bicarbonate, or Both, and Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate in Broiler Chicken Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooge DM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Peterson x Arbor Acres chicks were grown on used litter to 45 or 46 days of age in three pen trials. Coccidial inoculations were given by water at 14 days of age. Sodium bicarbonate (SBC; 0.20% or potassium bicarbonate (PBC; 0.14% was added to broiler chicken diets containing monensin (MON; 110 mg/kg or salinomycin (SAL; 66 mg/kg in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, using SAL (55 mg/kg, three dietary bicarbonate treatments (SBC, 0.20%; PBC, 0.20%; or SBC + PBC 0.10% each were tested with or without BMD R (55 mg/kg. Diets differing in SAL, BMD R, and SBC levels were evaluated in Experiment 3. Beneficial interaction was found between ionophores and bicarbonates for mortality (lower when SBC or PBC and MON in Experiment 1. For main effects, in Experiment 1 PBC with MON or SAL improved body weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality. SAL improved weight, feed conversion ratio and mortality compared to MON. In Experiment 2, PBC with SAL improved weight, coccidial lesion score, feed conversion ratio and mortality across two levels of BMD R. The PBC and SBC were equally effective in Experiment 1, but PBC was about 0 to 40% as effective as SBC, depending on parameter in Experiment 2. Half levels of SBC plus PBC generally gave intermediate results between control and SBC. SBC with MON or SAL lowered mortalities, coccidial lesion scores, and feed conversion ratios (Experiments 1 and 2, and increased body weight (Experiment 2. In Experiment 3, BMD R in all feeds improved body weight and feed conversion versus in starter feed only, and SBC with SAL and BMD R improved all performance parameters.

  20. 21 CFR 558.366 - Nicarbazin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containing narasin. Ingestion of narasin by these species has been fatal. Do not feed to laying hens. Narasin... susceptible to bacitracin. Feed continuously as sole ration. Do not feed to laying hens. Withdraw 5 days... persist, then reduce bacitracin to prevention level (50 g/ton). Do not feed to laying hens. Withdraw 5...

  1. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Topical Polysporin Triple Compound Versus Topical Mupirocin for the Eradication of Colonization with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Complex Continuing Care Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O’Grady

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intranasal mupirocin or Polysporin Triple (PT ointment (polymyxin B, bacitracin, gramicidin, in combination with chlorhexidine body washes, have been used for eradicating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, but no comparative studies have been done.

  2. 77 FR 35691 - Notice of Withdrawal of Certain Unapproved Abbreviated New Drug Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... name 60881 Tetracycline hydrochloride. 60913 Dicloxacillin sodium. 60919 Neomycin sulfate; bacitracin... sodium succinate. 61433 Chloramphenicol sodium succinate. 61440 Tetracycline hydrochloride. 61442.... 61604 Ampicillin sodium. 61608 Tetracycline hydrochloride. 61629 Penicillin g benzathine. 61630...

  3. Antibacterial Activity of Some Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from an Algerian Dairy Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezaini, A.; Bouras, A.D.; Mezaini, A.; Chihib, N.; Nedjar-Arroume, N.; Hornez, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the antibacterial effect of 20 lactic acid bacteria isolates from a traditional cheese was investigated. 6 isolates showed antibacterial effect against Gram positive bacteria. Streptococcus thermophilus T2 strain showed the wide inhibitory spectrum against the Gram positive bacteria. Growth and bacitracin production profiles showed that the maximal bacitracin production, by S. thermophilus T2 cells, was measured by the end of the late-log phase (90 AU ml -1 ) with a bacterio cine production rate of 9.3 (AU ml -1 ) h -1 . In addition, our findings showed that the bacitracin, produced by S. thermophilus T2, was stable over a wide ph range (4-8); this indicates that such bacitracin may be useful in acidic as well as non acidic food. This preliminarily work shows the potential application of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria to improve safety of traditional fermented food.

  4. Field Applicable Method to Reduce Dental Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-31

    In this technique one ml of saliva will be serially diluted and plated on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, for S. mutans counts; and blood agar for...Krasse and plated on Mitis Sal Ivarlus agar supplemented with 0.001% potassium tel lurite and 200 g/ml of streptomycin. After incubation in candle Jars...of S. mutans, a selective medium consisting of Mitls- Salivarius agar containing 0.2 units/mil Bacitracin was used. After spotting, the agar plates

  5. Analyzing AbrB-Knockout Effects through Genome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Bacillus licheniformis DW2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Cheng-Cheng; Wang, Dong; Guo, Jing; Song, Jia-Ming; Chen, Shou-Wen; Chen, Ling-Ling; Gao, Jun-Xiang

    2018-01-01

    As an industrial bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis DW2 produces bacitracin which is an important antibiotic for many pathogenic microorganisms. Our previous study showed AbrB-knockout could significantly increase the production of bacitracin. Accordingly, it was meaningful to understand its genome features, expression differences between wild and AbrB-knockout (ΔAbrB) strains, and the regulation of bacitracin biosynthesis. Here, we sequenced, de novo assembled and annotated its genome, and also sequenced the transcriptomes in three growth phases. The genome of DW2 contained a DNA molecule of 4,468,952 bp with 45.93% GC content and 4,717 protein coding genes. The transcriptome reads were mapped to the assembled genome, and obtained 4,102∼4,536 expressed genes from different samples. We investigated transcription changes in B. licheniformis DW2 and showed that ΔAbrB caused hundreds of genes up-regulation and down-regulation in different growth phases. We identified a complete bacitracin synthetase gene cluster, including the location and length of bacABC, bcrABC, and bacT, as well as their arrangement. The gene cluster bcrABC were significantly up-regulated in ΔAbrB strain, which supported the hypothesis in previous study of bcrABC transporting bacitracin out of the cell to avoid self-intoxication, and was consistent with the previous experimental result that ΔAbrB could yield more bacitracin. This study provided a high quality reference genome for B. licheniformis DW2, and the transcriptome data depicted global alterations across two strains and three phases offered an understanding of AbrB regulation and bacitracin biosynthesis through gene expression. PMID:29599755

  6. Effects of disinfectants and antibiotics on the anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poels, J.; Van Assche, P.; Verstraete, W.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of disinfectants and antibiotics on the anaerobic digestion of piggery waste were investigated. The disinfectants Tego 51, Dettol, NaOCl and Creolin, and the antibiotics, chlortetracyclin, tylosin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, bacitracin and virginiamycin were tested at different concentrations. At concentrations normally used in practice, no inhibitory effect on methanisation process was detected. However, higher concentrations of the antimicrobial agents, Dettol, Creolin, bacitracin and virginiamycin, markedly inhibited biogas production. In order to minimize possible digester failures, farmers are advised to respect the normal recommended dose and to use low-toxicity antimicrobial agents. (Refs. 8).

  7. Influence d'une supplémentation en antibiotiques sur les performances de poulets en croissance au Zaïre : comparaison avec l'effet dans les pays à climat tempéré

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decuypere, E.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of antibiotic supplementation on growth performances in chickens in Zaire comparison with effects in temperate areas. The influence of different antibiotics, bacitracine (50 mg per kg, virginiamycine (20 mg per kg and avoparcine (15 mg per kg was tested on growth and feed conversion of chickens from a double purpose line under warm wet tropical conditions. In general, the beneficial effect of additives was much more pronounced in this experiment compared to data with identical doses of bacitracine and viriginiamycine in temperate areas. However this was hardly the case for avoparcine, indicating an interaction between the environment and the nature of antibiotic agent.

  8. Arctic Cold Weather Medicine and Accidental Hypothermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Zippers may need a very light coating of paraffin wax to keep them working smoothly in the cold. Putting too much paraffin wax on a zipper, filling in...tetrohydrozoline. 0.05% 4 Sulfacetamide ophthalmic oint., 10% 2 Erythromycin ophthalmic oint. 2 Tobramycin . 0.3% ophthalmic soln 2 Bacitracin ophthalmic

  9. 21 CFR 558.515 - Robenidine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... prevention level (50 g/ton). Do not feed to laying hens. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. 046573 Bacitracin... continuously as the sole ration. Do not feed to laying hens. Withdraw 5 days before slaughter. 000009... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs...

  10. Translations on USSR Science and Technology, Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, Number 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-17

    Agricultur Romania. "Receptura de fabricatie nutret urilor combinate ,"" Bucharest, 1972. 6. Sorensen, E. and Havskov, P., "Basic Principles Involved in...antibiotics - - bacitracin, kormogrizein, hygromycin, flavomycin, virginiamycin, tylosin ; growth stimulants - — dimetridazol, karbadox...Czechoslovakia of a scientific research laboratory on the problem of lysine technology for purposes of combining the efforts of interested CEMA

  11. Isolation and characterization of hemolytic bacteria Fish disc and Neon Rainbow
    Isolamento e caracterização de bactérias hemolíticas de Acará Disco e Neon Arco-Íris

    OpenAIRE

    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño; Felipe do Nascimento Vieira; Bruno Correa Silva; Adolfo Jatobá; Walter Quadros Seiffert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the ability of potential pathogenic bacteria hemolytic mite Disco (Symphysodon discus) and Neon Rainbow (Melanotaenia praecox), and define which of the antibiotic Trimethoprim, Florfenicol, Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin, Bacitracin, Enrofloxacin, Tetracycline, and Furazolidone Clindamycin has better inhibitory effect in vitro, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Ery...

  12. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans strains by different mitis-salivarius agar preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staat, R H

    1976-03-01

    Several Streptococcus mutans strains were markedly inhibited by mitis-salivarius agar manufactured by Baltimore Biological Laboratories, but little, if any, inhibition was noted using Difco Laboratories' mitis-salivarius agar. Supplementation of the basic medium with sucrose and bacitracin for specific selection of S. mutans resulted in suppression of representative S. mutans type a strains regardless of manufacturer.

  13. The effect of dietary inclusion of Mansonia altissima on feed intake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... in growth rate of conventional chicks and other animals fed antibiotic supplemented diets. Forbes and Park. (1959) also reported similar increases. Griffin (1979) reported that penicillin, zinc bacitracin and nitrovin, produced consistent improvement in body weight gain and feed conversion. Taylor (1988) ...

  14. Use of high-gradient magnetic fishing for reducing proteolysis during fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maury, Trine Lütken; Ottow, Kim Ekelund; Brask, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    . Bacitracin-linked magnetic affinity adsorbents were employed directly in a fermenter during Bacillus licheniformis cultivation to remove trace amounts of unwanted proteases. The constructed magnetic adsorbents had excellent, highly specific binding characteristics in the fermentation broth (K(d) = 1...

  15. Intestinal morphology, digestive organ size and digesta pH of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The intestinal morphology and pH of digesta of broiler chickens at 35 days old were studied. Birds were reared on these dietary treatments (T). T1, positive control, contained 668 g salinomycin and 500 g zinc bacitracin per kg of feed. Treatments, T2, T3 and T4, contained graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) ...

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1, an Excellent Producer of Microbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yumei; Li, Qiang; Li, Yamei; Gao, Juan; Fan, Xiangyu

    2016-08-04

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1, which exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity. It encodes the synthase of bacitracin, kalimantacin, bacillomycin, iturin, fusaricidin, tridecaptin, and pelgipeptin and biosynthetic pathways of antiviral curldan and levan polysaccharides. Also, a novel prophage is involved in this genome that contains endolysin-encoding genes. Copyright © 2016 Li et al.

  17. The cereal type in feed influences gut wall morphology and intestinal immune cell infiltration in broiler chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teirlynck, Emma; Friis-Holm, Lotte Bjerrum; Eeckhaut, Venessa

    2009-01-01

    and gut integrity) and gut microbiota composition were studied In addition, the effects of low-dose Zn-bacitracin supplementation were examined Broilers given a wheat/rye-based diet showed more villus fusion, a thinner tunica muscularis, more T-lymphocyte infiltration, higher amount of immune cell...

  18. Ofori-Kwakye et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    interrelated processes of inflammation, cell proliferation and collagen lattice contraction (Bodeker and Hughes, 1998). Wound healing seeks to replace damaged tissue with ... of bacitracin zinc, 2 mg of L- cysteine, 10 mg of glycine, and 1 mg of dl-threonine, was used as a standard wound healing agent. Test microorganism.

  19. Identification of Streptococcus pyogenes - Phenotypic Tests vs Molecular Assay (spy1258PCR): A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Tintu; Sistla, Sujatha

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally Group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) is differentiated from other beta haemolytic streptococci (BHS) by certain presumptive tests such as bacitracin sensitivity and production of Pyrollidonyl Aryl Sulfatase (PYR). The phenotypic and genotypic confirmatory tests are Lancefield grouping for cell wall carbohydrate antigen and PCR for spy1258 gene respectively. Reliance on presumptive tests alone may lead to misidentification of isolates. To compare the predictive values of routine phenotypic tests with spy1258 PCR for the identification of Streptococcus pyogenes. This comparative analytical study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology, JIPMER, Puducherry, over a period of 18 months (1(st) November 2013 to 30(th) April 2015). Two hundred and six consecutive BHS isolates from various clinical samples were subjected to phenotypic tests such as bacitracin sensitivity, PYR test and Lancefield grouping. The results were compared with spy1258 PCR which was considered 95 the confirmatory test for identification. The sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic tests were as follows; Susceptibility to bacitracin - 95.42%, 70.96%, PYR test - 95.42%, 77.41%, Lancefield grouping- 97.71%, 80.64%. Clinical laboratories should not depend on bacitracin sensitivity as a single presumptive test for the routine identification of GAS but should use supplemental tests such as PYR test or latex agglutination test and for best results use spy1258 PCR.

  20. Rapid slide agglutination test for Lancefield grouping of streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damask, L J; Montoya, O; Axelrod, J L

    1979-08-01

    A rapid slide agglutination test (the Phadebact [PB] Streptococcus test) was compared with the standard autoclave extraction method of Lancefield and presumptive clinical laboratory tests for grouping of streptococci (bacitracin disk sensitivity for group A and sodium hippurate hydrolysis for group B). Identification of group A streptococci by the PB kit was statistically as accurate as by the Lancefield method, whereas bacitracin grouping was significantly less accurate than the Lancefield method (P = less than .02). With regard to group B, there was no statistically significant difference between the PB test and the sodium hippurate test. The PB test correctly identified all group C and G streptococci. The PB kit provides a rapid and reliable method for Lancefield grouping of streptococci.

  1. Production by Streptococcus sanguis of Bacteriocin-like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS) with Activity Against Streptococcus rattus

    OpenAIRE

    Skilton, C. J.; Tagg, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    A collection of 340 Streptoccus sanguis strains from 19 plaque specimens was isolated from cultures on tryptone, yeast extract, cystine (TYC) agar supplemented with sucrose (20 per cent) plus bacitracin (0.05 units/ml). By application of a deferred antagonism test procedure it was shown that 183 (53.8 per cent) of these relatively sucrose- and bacitracinresistant S. sanguis strains produced bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLIS) having activity against strains of S. rattus, but apparcn...

  2. Biofilm formation of Clostridium perfringens and its exposure to low-dose antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey eCharlebois

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause food poisoning in humans and various enterotoxemia in animal species. Very little is known on the biofilm of C. perfringens and its exposure to subminimal inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials. This study was undertaken to address these issues. Most of the C. perfringens human and animal isolates tested in this study were able to form biofilm (230/277. Porcine clinical isolates formed significantly more biofilm than the porcine commensal isolates. A subgroup of clinical and commensal C. perfringens isolates was randomly selected for further characterization. Biofilm was found to protect C. perfringens bacterial cells from exposure to high concentrations of tested antimicrobials. Exposure to low doses of some of these antimicrobials tended to lead to a diminution of the biofilm formed. However, a few isolates showed an increase in biofilm formation when exposed to low doses of tylosin, bacitracin, virginiamycin and monensin. Six isolates were randomly selected for biofilm analysis using scanning laser confocal microscopy. Of those, four produced more biofilm in presence of low doses of bacitracin whereas biofilms formed without bacitracin were thinner and less elevated. An increase in the area occupied by bacteria in the biofilm following exposure to low doses of bacitracin was also observed in the majority of isolates. Morphology examination revealed flat biofilms with the exception of one isolate that demonstrated a mushroom-like biofilm. Matrix composition analysis showed the presence of proteins, beta 1-4 linked polysaccharides and extracellular DNA, but no poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PNAG. This study brings new information on the biofilm produced by C. perfringens and its exposure to low doses of antimicrobials.

  3. Assessment of Antibiotic Resistant Commensal Bacteria in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    ban the application of certain antimicrobial agents ( tylosin , spiramycin, bacitracin, and virginiamycin) as growth promoters in food animal...by homogenization and centrifugation. The supernatant aliquots from two extracts were combined (total of 1.3 ml) and the total DNA was precipitated...accomplished the time necessary to screen for specific genes could be greatly reduced. The key would be to find the proper combination of primers

  4. Culture of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae from the nasopharynx: Not all media are equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tegan M; Rumaseb, Angela; Beissbarth, Jemima; Barzi, Federica; Leach, Amanda J; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C

    2017-06-01

    The efficacy of chocolate agar, versus bacitracin, vancomycin, clindamycin, chocolate agar (BVCCA) for the isolation of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) from nasopharyngeal swabs was determined. BVCCA cultured NTHi from 97.3% of NTHi-positive swabs, compared to 87.1% for chocolate agar. To maximise culture sensitivity, the use of both media is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Two-Component System ChtRS Contributes to Chlorhexidine Tolerance in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán Prieto, Ana M; Wijngaarden, Jessica; Braat, Johanna C; Rogers, Malbert R C; Majoor, Eline; Brouwer, Ellen C; Zhang, Xinglin; Bayjanov, Jumamurat R; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; van Schaik, Willem

    2017-05-01

    Enterococcus faecium is one of the primary causes of nosocomial infections. Disinfectants are commonly used to prevent infections with multidrug-resistant E. faecium in hospitals. Worryingly, E. faecium strains that exhibit tolerance to disinfectants have already been described. We aimed to identify and characterize E. faecium genes that contribute to tolerance to the disinfectant chlorhexidine (CHX). We used a transposon mutant library, constructed in a multidrug-resistant E. faecium bloodstream isolate, to perform a genome-wide screen to identify genetic determinants involved in tolerance to CHX. We identified a putative two-component system (2CS), composed of a putative sensor histidine kinase (ChtS) and a cognate DNA-binding response regulator (ChtR), which contributed to CHX tolerance in E. faecium Targeted chtR and chtS deletion mutants exhibited compromised growth in the presence of CHX. Growth of the chtR and chtS mutants was also affected in the presence of the antibiotic bacitracin. The CHX- and bacitracin-tolerant phenotype of E. faecium E1162 was linked to a unique, nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in chtR Transmission electron microscopy showed that upon challenge with CHX, the Δ chtR and Δ chtS mutants failed to divide properly and formed long chains. Normal growth and cell morphology were restored when the mutations were complemented in trans Morphological abnormalities were also observed upon exposure of the Δ chtR and Δ chtS mutants to bacitracin. The tolerance to both chlorhexidine and bacitracin provided by ChtRS in E. faecium highlights the overlap between responses to disinfectants and antibiotics and the potential for the development of cross-tolerance for these classes of antimicrobials. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Analysis of a viridans group strain reveals a case of bacteremia due to lancefield group G alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in a patient with pyomyositis and reactive arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, JLL; Woo, PCY; Lam, KC; Yuen, KY; Wong, KL; Leung, KW; Lum, PNL; Li, KW; Lau, SKP

    2003-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is classified by a combination of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics into Lancefield group C alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and Lancefield group C, group G, and group L beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. In this study, we report the isolation of a catalase-negative, alpha-hemolytic, optochin- and bacitracin-resistant viridans group strain, which does not grow in 10 or 40% bile, on MacConkey agar or bil...

  7. Investigation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus licheniformis Strains Isolated from Retail Powdered Infant Milk Formulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Begley, Máire; Clifford, Tanya; Deasy, Thérèse; Considine, Kiera; O'Connor, Paula; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the potential antimicrobial activity of ten Bacillus licheniformis strains isolated from retail infant milk formulae against a range of indicator (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Listeria innocua) and clinically relevant (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli) microorganisms. Deferred antagonism assays confirmed that all B. licheniformis isolates show antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive target organisms. PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses indicated that four of the B. licheniformis isolates produce the bacteriocin lichenicidin. The remaining six isolates demonstrated a higher antimicrobial potency than lichenicidin-producing strains. Further analyses identified a peptide of ~1,422 Da as the most likely bioactive responsible for the antibacterial activity of these six isolates. N-terminal sequencing of the ~1,422 Da peptide from one strain identified it as ILPEITXIFHD. This peptide shows a high homology to the non-ribosomal peptides bacitracin and subpeptin, known to be produced by Bacillus spp. Subsequent PCR analyses demonstrated that the six B. licheniformis isolates may harbor the genetic machinery needed for the synthesis of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase similar to those involved in production of subpeptin and bacitracin, which suggests that the ~1,422 Da peptide might be a variant of subpeptin and bacitracin.

  8. The cell wall-targeting antibiotic stimulon of Enterococcus faecalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Abranches

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that is highly resistant to a variety of environmental insults, including an intrinsic tolerance to antimicrobials that target the cell wall (CW. With the goal of determining the CW-stress stimulon of E. faecalis, the global transcriptional profile of E. faecalis OG1RF exposed to ampicillin, bacitracin, cephalotin or vancomycin was obtained via microarrays. Exposure to the β-lactams ampicillin and cephalotin resulted in the fewest transcriptional changes with 50 and 192 genes differentially expressed 60 min after treatment, respectively. On the other hand, treatment with bacitracin or vancomycin for 60 min affected the expression of, respectively, 377 and 297 genes. Despite the differences in the total number of genes affected, all antibiotics induced a very similar gene expression pattern with an overrepresentation of genes encoding hypothetical proteins, followed by genes encoding proteins associated with cell envelope metabolism as well as transport and binding proteins. In particular, all drug treatments, most notably bacitracin and vancomycin, resulted in an apparent metabolic downshift based on the repression of genes involved in translation, energy metabolism, transport and binding. Only 19 genes were up-regulated by all conditions at both the 30 and 60 min time points. Among those 19 genes, 4 genes encoding hypothetical proteins (EF0026, EF0797, EF1533 and EF3245 were inactivated and the respective mutant strains characterized in relation to antibiotic tolerance and virulence in the Galleria mellonella model. The phenotypes obtained for two of these mutants, ΔEF1533 and ΔEF3245, support further characterization of these genes as potential candidates for the development of novel preventive or therapeutic approaches.

  9. Effect of citral and carvacrol on the susceptibility of Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, S F; Silva-Angulo, A B; Rosenthal, A; Rodrigo, D; Martínez, A

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of Listeria innocua (L. innocua) and Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) cells in the presence of citral and carvacrol at sublethal concentrations in an agar medium. The presence of terpenes in the L. monocytogenes and L. innocua culture medium provided a reduction in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of all the antibiotics tested. These effects were dependent on the concentration of terpenes present in the culture medium. The combination of citral and carvacrol potentiated antibiotic activity by reducing the MIC values of bacitracin and colistin from 32.0 and 128.0 μg ml⁻¹ to 1.0 and 2.0 μg ml⁻¹, respectively. Thus, both Listeria species became more susceptible to these drugs. In this way, the colistin and bacitracin resistance of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua was reversed in the presence of terpenes. Results obtained in this study show that the phytochemicals citral and carvacrol potentiate antibiotic activity, reducing the MIC values of cultured L. monocytogenes and L. innocua. Phytochemicals citral and carvacrol potentiate antibiotic activity of erythromycin, bacitracin and colistin by reducing the MIC values of cultured Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. This effect in reducing the MIC values of the antibiotics tested in both micro-organisms was increased when natural antimicrobials were combined. This finding indicated that the combination among terpenes and antibiotic may contribute in reducing the required dosage of antibiotics due to the possible effect of terpenes on permeation barrier of the micro-organism cell membrane. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Streptococcus pyogenes as the cause of vulvovaginitis and balanitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randjelovic, Gordana; Otasevic, Suzana; Mladenovic-Antic, Snezana; Mladenovic, Vesna; Radovanovic-Velickovic, Radmila; Randjelovic, Marina; Bogdanovic, Dragan

    2017-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) is the etiological agent of perineal infection in children, consisting of perianal infection, vulvovaginitis and balanitis. If it is not properly diagnosed and treated, it can persist for many months and can cause severe complications. Furthermore, treatment with penicillin can be followed by failures and recurrences. We report here the prevalence of S. pyogenes isolates in genital tract specimens from girls (n = 1692) with symptoms of vulvovaginitis and from boys (n = 52) with balanitis in the municipality of Nis, Southeast-Serbia (the Western Balkans) in a 10 year period, and the seasonal distribution, patient age and sensitivity to bacitracin and antimicrobial drugs used in the treatment of streptococcal infection. Streptococcal vulvovaginitis was diagnosed in 2.30% of examinees. Of those cases, 64.10% were detected from April to September, and it was most common (71.79%) in girls aged 3-7 years. Streptococcal balanitis was diagnosed in two instances: in a 4-year-old boy and in a 7-year-old boy. S. pyogenes strains resistant to bacitracin were identified in five girls. Two isolates with M phenotype and five isolates with cMLS B phenotype were identified. Streptococcal vulvovaginitis was diagnosed less often in the present study, but it was still far more common than streptococcal balanitis in childhood. Bacitracin resistance of S. pyogenes strains should be taken into account in routine microbiological identification, and the detection of S. pyogenes isolates resistant to erythromycin requires surveillance in the present geographical territory. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  11. In Vitro activity of novel glycopolymer against clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Vidya P; Giatpaiboon, Scott A; Uhrig, John; Orwin, Paul; Wiesmann, William; Baker, Shenda M; Townsend, Stacy M

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), is a serious threat to public health. Progress in developing new therapeutics is being outpaced by antibiotic resistance development, and alternative agents that rapidly permeabilize bacteria hold tremendous potential for treating MDR infections. A new class of glycopolymers includes polycationic poly-N (acetyl, arginyl) glucosamine (PAAG) is under development as an alternative to traditional antibiotic strategies to treat MRSA infections. This study demonstrates the antibacterial activity of PAAG against clinical isolates of methicillin and mupirocin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Multidrug-resistant S. aureus was rapidly killed by PAAG, which completely eradicated 88% (15/17) of all tested strains (6-log reduction in CFU) in ≤ 12-hours at doses that are non-toxic to mammalian cells. PAAG also sensitized all the clinical MRSA strains (17/17) to oxacillin as demonstrated by the observed reduction in the oxacillin MIC to below the antibiotic resistance breakpoint. The effect of PAAG and standard antibiotics including vancomycin, oxacillin, mupirocin and bacitracin on MRSA permeability was studied by measuring propidium iodide (PI) uptake by bacterial cells. Antimicrobial resistance studies showed that S. aureus developed resistance to PAAG at a rate slower than to mupirocin but similar to bacitracin. PAAG was observed to resensitize drug-resistant S. aureus strains sampled from passage 13 and 20 of the multi-passage resistance study, reducing MICs of mupirocin and bacitracin below their clinical sensitivity breakpoints. This class of bacterial permeabilizing glycopolymers may provide a new tool in the battle against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

  12. Antimicrobial Consumption in Medicated Feeds in Vietnamese Pig and Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cuong, Nguyen; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Nghia, Nguyen Huu; Mai Hoa, Nguyen Thi; Trung, Nguyen Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Carrique-Mas, Juan

    2016-09-01

    Antimicrobials are extensively used as growth promoters in animal feeds worldwide, but reliable estimates are lacking. We conducted an internet-based survey of commercial chicken and pig feed products officially approved for sale in Vietnam over the period March-June 2015. Information on the antimicrobial contents in feed products, alongside animal production data, was used to estimate in-feed antimicrobial consumption to produce one kilogram of live animal (chicken, pig), as well as to estimate country-wide antimicrobial consumption through animal feeds. A total of 1462 commercial feed formulations were examined. The survey-adjusted estimated antimicrobial contents were 25.7 and 62.3 mg/kg in chicken and pig feeds, respectively. Overall, it was estimated that 77.4 mg [95% CI 48.1-106.8] and 286.6 mg [95% CI 191.6-418.3] of in-feed antimicrobials were used to raise 1 kg of live chicken and pig, respectively. Bacitracin (15.5% feeds), chlortetracycline (11.4%), and enramycin (10.8%) were the most common antimicrobials present in chicken feed formulations, whereas bacitracin (24.8%), chlortetracycline (23.9%), and florfenicol (17.4%) were the most common in pig feed formulations. Overall, 57% of the total quantitative usage consisted of antimicrobials regarded by WHO of importance for human medicine, including amoxicillin, colistin, tetracyclines, neomycin, lincomycin, and bacitracin. These figures confirm a very high magnitude of in-feed consumption of antimicrobials, especially in pig production. Results from this study should encourage further monitoring of antimicrobials used in animal production, and foster discussion about existing policies on inclusion of antimicrobials in animal feed rations.

  13. Use of high-gradient magnetic fishing for reducing proteolysis during fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maury, Trine Lütken; Ottow, Kim Ekelund; Brask, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Proteolysis during fermentation may have a severe impact on the yield and quality of a secreted product. In the current study, we demonstrate the use of high-gradient magnetic fishing (HGMF) as an efficient alternative to the more conventional methods of preventing proteolytic degradation....... Bacitracin-linked magnetic affinity adsorbents were employed directly in a fermenter during Bacillus licheniformis cultivation to remove trace amounts of unwanted proteases. The constructed magnetic adsorbents had excellent, highly specific binding characteristics in the fermentation broth (K(d) = 1...

  14. Research Abstracts of 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    0.45p Millipore membrane filter. The filters were placed on Mitis - Salivarius -bacitracin media to which 0.02 pCi/ml of [glucose-U- 14C]- sucrose had been...washed cells of S. salivarius , S. sanquis 10556, S. mutans 10449, A. viscosus, and L. casei, using each strain in place of the sediments in the assay...In contrast, the other strains showed very slight pH-rise reponses. The pH profiles of the S. mutans and S. salivarius strains dropped sharply

  15. In Situ Magnetic Separation for Extracellular Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappler, T.; Cerff, Martin; Ottow, Kim Ekelund

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for in situ product removal from bioreactors is presented in which high-gradient magnetic separation is used. This separation process was used for the adsorptive removal of proteases secreted by Bacillus licheniformis. Small, non-porous bacitracin linked magnetic adsorbents were...... employed directly in the broth during the fermentation, followed by in situ magnetic separation, Proof of the concept was first demonstrated in shake flask culture, then scaled up and applied during a fed batch cultivation ill a 3.7 L bioreactor. It could be demonstrated that growth of B. licheniformis...

  16. Comparison of antimicrobial resistance patterns in enterococci from intensive and free range chickens in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeng, Akua Serwaah; Rickard, Heather; Ndi, Olasumbo; Sexton, Margaret; Barton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Resistance to antimicrobials in enterococci from poultry has been found throughout the world and is generally recognized as associated with antimicrobial use. This study was conducted to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic profile of enterococcal isolates of intensive (indoor) and free range chickens from 2008/09 and 2000 in order to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance associated with different management systems. The minimum inhibitory concentrations in faecal enterococci isolates were determined by agar dilution. Resistance to bacitracin, ceftiofur, erythromycin, lincomycin, tylosin and tetracycline was more common among meat chickens (free range and intensive) than free range egg layers (Pfree range meat chickens.

  17. Effects of antibiotics and ultraviolet radiation on the halophilic blue-green alga

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yopp, J.H.; Albright, G.; Miller, D.M.; Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale

    1979-01-01

    The effects of a variety of antibiotics, ultraviolet radiation and N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) on the survival and mutability of the halophilic blue-green alga, Aphanothece halophytica, were determined. The halophile was found extremely sensitive to penicillin G and bacitracin; moderately sensitive to novobiocin, amino acid analogs, chloramphenicol and streptomycin; and tolerant to actidione and hydroxyurea. Ultraviolet and NTG killing curves and photoreactivation capabilities were seimilar to those reported for other members of the Chroococcales. Three stable morphological mutants were obtained by ultraviolet and NTG treatment, the latter being much more efficient in the production of mutants. (orig.)

  18. Treatment of Streptococcal Pharyngitis. II. In vitro studies of antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M I; Rabinovitch, M; MacKenzie, R; Brazeau, M

    1973-05-19

    One hundred and forty isolates of beta-hemolytic streptococcus cultured from patients with clinical pharyngitis were studied by disc diffusion for antibiotic sensitivity to lincomycin, erythromycin, cephalexin and penicillin and by agar dilution to cephalexin and penicillin. All isolates were sensitive to group A betahemolytic streptococcus was resistant to erythromycin by disc diffusion. When compared to Lancefield grouping 18% of strains were incorrectly identified as group A by the bacitracin-disc test. Cephalexin was uniformly effective in vitro in inhibiting beta-hemolytic streptococci and the 30 mug. cephalexin disc was reliable in predicting these sensitivities.

  19. Rapid extraction method with pronase B for grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ederer, G M; Herrmann, M M; Bruce, R; Matsen, J M; Chapman, S S

    1972-02-01

    The enzyme, Pronase B, was used to extract the C carbohydrates of betahemolytic streptococci for serological grouping. Reference strains of streptococci, groups A through N, were accurately grouped by using this extraction method. Of the beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated from patients' cultures, 1,197 were classified as either group A or not group A by this method. There was 100% correlation with the reference Lancefield method. In contrast, false reactions occurred with the presumptive bacitracin disc method in 4.1% of the group A and 12.7% of the non-group A cultures. The Pronase method proved simple, accurate, and readily adaptable to the clinical laboratory routine.

  20. FDA-approved drugs that protect mammalian neurons from glucose toxicity slow aging dependent on cbp and protect against proteotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lublin, Alex; Isoda, Fumiko; Patel, Harshil; Yen, Kelvin; Nguyen, Linda; Hajje, Daher; Schwartz, Marc; Mobbs, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Screening a library of drugs with known safety profiles in humans yielded 30 drugs that reliably protected mammalian neurons against glucose toxicity. Subsequent screening demonstrated that 6 of these 30 drugs increase lifespan in C. elegans: caffeine, ciclopirox olamine, tannic acid, acetaminophen, bacitracin, and baicalein. Every drug significantly reduced the age-dependent acceleration of mortality rate. These protective effects were blocked by RNAi inhibition of cbp-1 in adults only, which also blocks protective effects of dietary restriction. Only 2 drugs, caffeine and tannic acid, exhibited a similar dependency on DAF-16. Caffeine, tannic acid, and bacitracin also reduced pathology in a transgenic model of proteotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease. These results further support a key role for glucose toxicity in driving age-related pathologies and for CBP-1 in protection against age-related pathologies. These results also provide novel lead compounds with known safety profiles in human for treatment of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetic complications.

  1. Role of two-component systems in the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibacterial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada-Matsuo, Miki; Yoshida, Yuuma; Nakamura, Norifumi; Komatsuzawa, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    Two-component systems (TCSs) play important roles in the adaptation of bacteria to environmental changes and the regulation of virulence factor expression. In addition, the association of TCSs with susceptibility to antibacterial agents has been demonstrated in some bacterial species. Staphylococcus aureus, a major human pathogen that can cause serious problems due to nosocomial infections, possesses 16 TCSs. Here we report a TCS, designated BceRS (MW2 gene ID: MW2545-44), which is related to bacitracin susceptibility. We found that BceRS regulates the expression of two transporters that determine susceptibility to bacitracin. One of these, BceAB (MW2543-42), is located downstream of BceRS, while the other, VraDE (MW2620-21), is more distant. With regard to other TCSs, VraRS and Aps/GraRS are reportedly associated with susceptibility to cell wall synthesis inhibitors and cationic antibacterial agents, respectively. Therefore, S. aureus possesses at least three TCSs that are involved in mediating its resistance to antibacterial agents.

  2. FDA-approved drugs that protect mammalian neurons from glucose toxicity slow aging dependent on cbp and protect against proteotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lublin

    Full Text Available Screening a library of drugs with known safety profiles in humans yielded 30 drugs that reliably protected mammalian neurons against glucose toxicity. Subsequent screening demonstrated that 6 of these 30 drugs increase lifespan in C. elegans: caffeine, ciclopirox olamine, tannic acid, acetaminophen, bacitracin, and baicalein. Every drug significantly reduced the age-dependent acceleration of mortality rate. These protective effects were blocked by RNAi inhibition of cbp-1 in adults only, which also blocks protective effects of dietary restriction. Only 2 drugs, caffeine and tannic acid, exhibited a similar dependency on DAF-16. Caffeine, tannic acid, and bacitracin also reduced pathology in a transgenic model of proteotoxicity associated with Alzheimer's disease. These results further support a key role for glucose toxicity in driving age-related pathologies and for CBP-1 in protection against age-related pathologies. These results also provide novel lead compounds with known safety profiles in human for treatment of age-related diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and diabetic complications.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from chickens with colibacillosis in and around Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Bamusi; Mafirakureva, Prettimore; Mbanga, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Colibacillosis, a disease caused by avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), can lead to great economic losses in the poultry industry. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic resistance patterns in APEC in Zimbabwe. From 503 chickens diagnosed with colibacillosis, 103 E. coli isolates were obtained. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using microscopy and biochemical tests. The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates to 8 commercial antibiotics. Many isolates exhibited resistance to more than one antibiotic. Antibiogram profiles indicated maximum resistance to tetracycline (100%), bacitracin (100%), and cloxacillin (100%) and a high prevalence of resistance to ampicillin (94.1%). However; there were high prevalences of sensitivity to ciprofloxacin (100%) and gentamycin (97.1%). The isolates showed moderate rates of sensitivity to chloramphenicol and neomycin. All isolates in this study showed multidrug resistance because they were all resistant to 3 or more antibiotics. Seven multidrug resistance patterns were observed. The most common pattern (resistance to ampicillin, bacitracin, cloxacillin, and tetracycline) was exhibited by 30 isolates. Our findings show that there is emerging drug resistance in APEC associated with colibacillosis in Zimbabwe. The observed high level of multidrug resistance could hamper the treatment of colibacillosis in Zimbabwe.

  4. A modified mitis salivarius medium for a caries diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, L; Tinanoff, N

    1991-10-01

    A new medium, MSKB, composed of mitis salivarius agar base, sorbitol, kanamycin sulfate and bacitracin, has been developed that is more selective for recovery of mutans streptococci (mutans) than the so called mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) medium. MSB and MSKB were compared for recovery and selectivity of mutans by plating saliva samples as well as pure cultures on both media. Sixty saliva samples were plated and counted for mutans and non-mutans colonies. Thirty-six samples had greater numbers of non-mutans on MSB than on MSKB, and 14 of the 36 had non-mutans colonies that could be visually confused with mutants. The recovery of mutans on MSKB was approximately 13% less than on MSB. The selectivity and recovery of MSB and MSKB were evaluated over 1-5 months of storage at 4 degrees C. Streptococcus anginosus grew on MSB after 1 month, but not on MSKB. Streptococcus milleri type 2 grew on both media after 4 months.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Plectasin NZ2114 in Combination with Cell Wall Targeting Antibiotics Against VanA-Type Enterococcus faecalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenstein, Elena B M; Courvalin, Patrice; Meziane-Cherif, Djalal

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptide plectasin targeting bacterial cell wall precursor Lipid II has been reported to be active against benzylpenicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae but less potent against vancomycin-resistant enterococci than their susceptible counterparts. The aim of this work was to test plectasin NZ2114 in combination with cell wall targeting antibiotics on vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis. The activity of antibiotic combinations was evaluated against VanA-type vancomycin-resistant E. faecalis strain BM4110/pIP816-1 by disk agar-induction, double-disk assay, determination of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index, and time-kill curve. The results indicated that plectasin NZ2114 was synergistic in combination with teicoplanin, moenomycin, and dalbavancin but not with vancomycin, telavancin, penicillin G, bacitracin, ramoplanin, daptomycin, and fosfomycin. To gain an insight into the synergism, we tested other cell wall antibiotic combinations. Interestingly, synergy was observed between teicoplanin or moenomycin and the majority of the antibiotics tested; however, vancomycin was only synergistic with penicillin G. Other cell wall active antibiotics such as ramoplanin, bacitracin, and fosfomycin did not synergize. It appeared that most of the synergies observed involved inhibition of the transglycosylation step in peptidoglycan synthesis. These results suggest that teicoplanin, dalbavancin, vancomycin, and telavancin, although they all bind to the C-terminal D-Ala-D-Ala of Lipid II, might act on different stages of cell wall synthesis.

  6. Effect of volume of solution per cylinder on estimation of antibiotic potency in diffusion assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, H S

    1988-01-01

    The volume of antibiotic solutions in cylinders used for diffusion assays is assumed to have no significant effect on estimation of potency. The size of zones of inhibition from cylinders containing 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 mL of sample solution was compared with zones of inhibition from cylinders containing 0.20 mL of standard solutions. For zinc bacitracin, chlortetracycline.HCl, oxytetracycline, lincomycin.HCl, monensin Na, neomycin sulfate, K penicillin, streptomycin sulfate, and tylosin, the percent recovery (95-102) was optimum when both standard and sample cylinders contained the same volume (0.20 mL/cylinder). At 0.30 mL/cylinder for sample and 0.20 mL for standard solutions, there was a positive bias in potency of about 50%. At 0.10 mL/cylinder, there was a negative bias of approximately 25% except for neomycin, monensin, and bacitracin. For these antibiotics, the bias was about -50%. For hygromycin B, variation in volume of solution per cylinder has little effect on assay results. Experiments on commercial feeds and premixes gave essentially the same results as for the standard solutions experiments.

  7. Requirement of the CroRS Two-Component System for Resistance to Cell Wall-Targeting Antimicrobials in Enterococcus faecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Stephanie L; Little, Jaime L; Hoff, Jessica S; Kristich, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin. As in E. faecalis , exposure to bacitracin and vancomycin stimulates signaling through the CroRS system in E. faecium Moreover, the CroRS system is critical in E. faecium for enhanced beta-lactam resistance mediated by overexpression of Pbp5. Expression of a Pbp5 variant that confers enhanced beta-lactam resistance cannot overcome the requirement for CroRS function. Thus, the CroRS system is a conserved signaling system that responds to cell wall stress to promote intrinsic resistance to important cell wall-targeting antibiotics in clinically relevant enterococci. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Comparison of irrigation solutions and devices in a contaminated musculoskeletal wound survival model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Brett D; White, Daniel W; Wenke, Joseph C

    2009-01-01

    There is much to learn about the effectiveness of different methods currently used for the irrigation of open wounds. The purpose of this study was to compare various approaches in a survival animal model. We used an established goat model involving the creation of a reproducible complex musculoskeletal wound followed by inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (lux) bacteria. This genetically altered luminescent bacterium provides the ability for quantitative analysis with a photon-counting camera system. For Study 1, wound irrigation was performed six hours after the injury and inoculation; the goats were assigned to four treatment groups: normal saline solution, bacitracin solution, castile soap, and benzalkonium chloride. All wounds received sharp débridement and irrigation with use of a pulsatile lavage device (19 psi). Images and photon counts were obtained prior to irrigation, after irrigation, and forty-eight hours after injury and inoculation. For Study 2, we used the same animal model and compared bulb syringe and pulsatile lavage irrigation with saline solution. In Study 1, the irrigation treatment lowered the bacterial counts in all treatment groups. The greatest reduction was seen with castile soap, which lowered the photon count to 13% of the pretreatment level. This was followed by benzalkonium chloride, bacitracin, and saline solution at 18%, 22%, and 29%, respectively. At forty-eight hours, imaging showed a rebound in bacterial counts in every group. The highest rebound was measured in the castile soap group, which rebounded to 120% of the pretreatment level. The benzalkonium chloride group experienced a rebound to 94% of the pretreatment level. These were followed by bacitracin solution (89%) and normal saline solution (68%). In Study 2, both treatment methods were effective in removing 75% of the bacteria initially. At forty-eight hours, the bacterial levels in the pulsed lavage group rebounded to 94% of the original levels (compared with 48% in

  9. Epidemiological studies of potent environment pathogen streptococcus pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brohi, N.A.; Tunio, S.A.

    2016-01-01

    A general survey for six months was undertaken for the prevalence of environmental bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae among the different age groups (3-65 years) including both sexes from various hospitals of Hyderabad city. Laboratory examinations revealed S. pneumoniae as most potent environmental pathogen from the sputum and throat swabs of old aged patients and children respectively. During observations, 39 specimens were growth positive; the biochemistry of isolates revealed that they were coagulase, catalase and oxidase negative, TSI, gel hydrolysis positive and were able to ferment glucose, lactose, maltose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and raffinose. The results of antimicrobial activity showed that pneumococci were resistant to the cefspan, septran, cravit, pipemetic acid, azomax, bacitracin, and penicillin and a clear zone of inhibition was observed on clithromycin, optochin, cefizox, genatamycin, minocyclin, levoflaxacin, and vancomycin. There were intermediate zone of inhibition found on claforan, nalidixic acid, amoxycillin, fosfomycin, fortum, and erythromycin on Mueller Hinton's agar after 24 hours incubation. (author)

  10. [Phenotypic characterization of equine Dermatophilus congolensis field isolates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, B; Siesenop, U; Böhm, K H

    1998-10-01

    In 1993 and 1994 a highly increased occurrence of equine dermatophilosis was observed, and a study was initiated to determine phenotypic heterogeneity among 120 clinical isolates using biochemistry, antibiotic resistance profiles, membrane protein profiles and Western blotting. The biochemical examinations contained 1% equine serum in medium. Moreover, the API ZYM-test from bioMérieux was used. The biochemical reactions were suited to identify Dermatophilus congolensis but did not allow a differentiation among the various isolates. Antibiotic resistance in one or more isolates was observed against polymyxin B, enrofloxacin, oxacillin, neomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazol. All isolates were sensitive penicillin G, ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, lincomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, bacitracin and ceftiofur. The evaluation of silver-stained and immuno-stained membrane protein profiles showed minor differences among several isolates. In total, all isolates appeared to be closely related and the minor differences observed did not correlate with the geographic origin of the respective isolates.

  11. Characterization of the integration and modular excision of the integrative conjugative element PAISt in Streptomyces turgidiscabies Car8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C Huguet-Tapia

    Full Text Available PAISt is a large genomic island located in the chromosome of the plant pathogen Streptomyces turgidiscabies Car8. The island carries clustered virulence genes, transfers to other Streptomyces species, and integrates by site-specific recombination at the 8 bp palindrome TTCATGAA. The palindrome is located at the 3' end of the bacitracin resistance gene (bacA. We demonstrate that PAISt is able to excise in modules by recombination of one internal and two flanking palindromic direct repeats. The gene intSt located at the 3( end of PAISt encodes a tyrosine recombinase. Site-specific recombination activity of intSt was tested and confirmed by heterologous expression in Streptomyces coelicolor. Comparative analysis of PAISt homologues in Streptomyces scabies 87-22 and Streptomyces acidiscabies 84-104 indicates that these islands have been fixed by sequence erosion of intSt and the recombination sites.

  12. Tylosin and chlorotetracycline decrease the duration of fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornick, Nancy A

    2010-07-14

    Previously we have shown that experimentally infected swine, fed an antibiotic-free diet, can become colonized and shed Escherichia coli O157:H7 for at least 2 months. However, in epidemiological studies this organism is only rarely recovered from domestic swine and the basis for this discrepancy is not clear. In this report we demonstrate that significantly fewer pigs fed diets containing subtherapeutic levels of either tylosin or chlorotetracycline shed E. coli O157:H7 for longer than 2 weeks compared to those fed an antibiotic-free diet. In contrast to tylosin and chlorotetracycline, the addition of bacitracin methylene disalicylate to the diet did not influence the recovery of E. coli O157:H7. These results suggest that some antibiotics may alter the gastrointestinal tract flora in ways that create a less favorable environment for E. coli O157:H7 in swine. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. First Detection and Characterization of Streptococcus dentapri from Caries Active Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Hamzah Abdulrahman; Kumar, R Senthil; Babu, N Chaitanya; Imran, Khalid

    2017-07-01

    Mutans streptococci (MS) are a group of oral bacteria generally regarded as the principal agents in the pathogenesis of dental caries. The study aimed was characterize S. dentapri based on phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic methods from Caries Active Subject. While sequencing MS species which were isolated from 65 caries active subjects, one strain of S. dentapri was detected. Dental plaque samples were processed and cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. S. dentapri was characterized using phylogenetic analysis, colony morphology characterization and biotyping. Among the study population, one strain designated as H14 was identified as S. dentapri by 16S rDNA sequencing. Morphologically, S. dentapri could not differentiate from other species of MS. S. dentapri H14 demonstrated biotype II biochemical characteristics of MS. The phylogenetic analysis showed S. dentapri is closely related to S. macacae . The study concludes that S. dentapri can inhabit the human oral cavity and therefore further investigations are warranted to determine its role in caries.

  14. Purification and characterization of a serine protease and chitinases from Paecilomyces lilacinus and detection of chitinase activity on 2D gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Alamgir; Williams, Keith; Molloy, Mark P; Nevalainen, Helena

    2003-12-01

    The filamentous fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus is currently developed as a biocontrol agent against plant parasitic nematodes. Nematode eggs and cuticles are the infection sites for biocontrol agents that penetrate by the production of lytic enzymes. P. lilacinus was cultured in liquid media and proteases and chitinases were induced by the introduction of egg yolk and chitin, respectively. A serine protease was purified from a culture medium using Sepharose-bacitracin affinity column. The protease occurred in three forms, two of which were C-terminally truncated. Chitinase activity was also observed in the culture supernatant, and after separation by isoelectric focusing six proteins were detected that showed activity. Chitinase activity was further confirmed on non-denaturing one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) gels using a sandwich assay with glycol chitin as a substrate. Two of the proteins had similarities with endochitinases as shown by their N-terminal amino acid sequences.

  15. Isolation and Identification of The Causative Organisms of Conjunctivitis in Healthy Subject and Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation concerning the isolation of bacterial flora from healthy and patient eyes was carried out. Micrococcus lylae and Moraxella lacunata represent the normal strains while Acinetobacter baumanni, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella cuniculi, M. ovis, Neisseria lactamica and Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated from infected eyes only. NaCl of concentration 7.5% (w/v) can inhibit the growth of all isolated strains. The action of UV on population of bacteria was varied according to the species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant to rifampcin, erythromycin, fucidin and bacitracin. Some bacterial strains have a capsule containing carbohydrate and many have carbohydrate and amino acids containing capsules. The detected predominant chemical subunits in capsule structure were glucose in Moraxella ovis, and fructose and mannose in M. cuniculi.

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility and antibiotic resistance profiles of cultivable lactic acid bacteria from intestinal tract of domestic chickens collected in Adjara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia L. Amiranashvili

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Elaboration and introduction of safe, effective probiotic preparations as alternatives to antibiotics are being actively conducted throughout the world. 66 LAB isolates were isolated from ileal, cecal and rectal samples collected from domestic chickens collected in different districts of Adjara, Georgia. Their resistance to 17 antibiotics and antibacterial activity were studied using the agar diffusion method. Among the isolates, widespread resistance was found to metronidazole and nystatin, sensitivity – to ampicillin, tylosin, rifampicin and bacitracin. Most of isolates have intermediate susceptibility to the majority of the antibiotics. 3 LAB isolates were selected by antibacterial action against the several bacterial indicator strains that makes them effective remedy to control antibiotic-independent pathogen through competitive exclusion and promotion of good protective microbiota and perspective probiotic additives for chicken food. Future investigations, proving the safety of the strains and their antimicrobial compounds will enable to apply in vivo probiotic properties on poultry production.

  17. Production of peptide antibiotics by Bacillus sp: GU 057 indigenously isolated from saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Amin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 112 soil samples were taken from differents areas of district D.I.Khan and Kohat (KPK Pakistan and screened for production of antibiotics against the Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. Widest zone of inhibition (18mm was produced by microorganism isolated from saline soil. The strain was later identified as Bacillus GU057 by standard biochemical assays. Maximum activity (18mm inhibition zone was observed against Staphylococcus aureus after 48 hours of incubation at pH 8 and 4% concentration of glucose. The antibiotic was identified by autobiography as bacitracin. The Bacillus strain GU057 was confirmed as good peptide antibiotic producer and can effectively be indulged as biocontrol agent.

  18. Treatment with Antibiotics that Interfere with Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis Inhibits Chloroplast Division in the Desmid Closterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroko; Takechi, Katsuaki; Sato, Hiroshi; Takio, Susumu; Takano, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Charophytes is a green algal group closely related to land plants. We investigated the effects of antibiotics that interfere with peptidoglycan biosynthesis on chloroplast division in the desmid Closterium peracerosum–strigosum–littorale complex. To detect cells just after division, we used colchicine, which inhibits Closterium cell elongation after division. Although normal Closterium cells had two chloroplasts before and after cell division, cells treated with ampicillin, D-cycloserine, or fosfomycin had only one chloroplast after cell division, suggesting that the cells divided without chloroplast division. The antibiotics bacitracin and vancomycin showed no obvious effect. Electron microscopic observation showed that irregular-shaped chloroplasts existed in ampicillin-treated Closterium cells. Because antibiotic treatments resulted in the appearance of long cells with irregular chloroplasts and cell death, we counted cell types in the culture. The results suggested that cells with one chloroplast appeared first and then a huge chloroplast was generated that inhibited cell division, causing elongation followed by cell death. PMID:22815801

  19. Comparative evaluation Of Topical Antimicrobial Agents In Healing Lacerated Wounds In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parhate S.M

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Various topical anti-microbial agents are used for lacerated wounds. The reports on the efficacy of these agents in healing the wounds are not comprehensive. This study reviews the results of seven topical antimicrobial agents applied under sterile occlusive dressing of superficial lacerated wounds in children. All the patients were given P.O. amplicillin for five days. Healing rate of 100% was achieved with framycetin, gention violet paint, mercurochrome paint and povidone iodine with 4-6 days of treatment; whereas only 56.25%, 66.66% and 54.55% wound healing were observed with nitrofurazone, polymixin + neomycin + bacitracin and silver sulphadiazine respectively. The nonheating wounds in the latter group when subjected to an application of the agents that showed 100% healing, heated in another 5-6 days.

  20. Insight into Two ABC Transporter Families Involved in Lantibiotic Resistance

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    Rebecca Clemens

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides, which contain (methyl-lanthionine-rings are called lantibiotics. They are produced by several Gram-positive bacteria and are mainly active against these bacteria. Although these are highly potent antimicrobials, some human pathogenic bacteria express specific ABC transporters that confer resistance and counteract their antimicrobial activity. Two distinct ABC transporter families are known to be involved in this process. These are the Cpr- and Bce-type ABC transporter families, named after their involvement in cationic peptide resistance in Clostridium difficile, and bacitracin efflux in Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Both resistance systems differentiate to each other in terms of the proteins involved. Here, we summarize the current knowledge and describe the divergence as well as the common features present in both the systems to confer lantibiotic resistance.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance among Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group isolated from Danish agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Baloda, S.; Boye, Mette

    2001-01-01

    From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural soil...... on selection of resistance among soil bacteria. No variations in resistance levels were observed between farms; but when the four differently treated soils were compared, resistance was seen for carbadox, chloramphenicol, nalidixan (nalidixic acid), nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline for Pseudomonas...... spp., and for bacitracin, erythromycin, penicillin and streptomycin for the B. cereus group. Variations in resistance levels were observed when soil before and after spread of animal waste was compared, indicating an effect from spread of animal waste....

  2. Evaluation of the Bacti-Lab streptococci culture systems for selective recovery and identification of group A streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, P W; Buckingham, J M

    1976-04-01

    Twenty-nine lots of Bacti-Lab streptococci culture plates containing nalidixic acid, neomycin, and amphotericin B were inoculated with 25 strains of group A, B, C, F, and G strepotocci, 13 strains of nonstrepotcoccal organisms representative of the throat flora, and 198 fresh clinical thorat specimens to determine the accuracy of the plates in identifying group A streptococci. With the Bacti-Lab test plates 98.87% of the beta-hemolytic streptococcal strains tested produced growth 95.51% yielding more than 50 colonies. Of the nonstreptococcal beta-hemolytic and non-beta-hemolytic organism tested, 79.54% were inhibited by the selective media. When bacitracin disks were used for presumptive identification group A streptococci from clinical thorat specimens, 12.00% false positive and 0.00% false negative results were obtained as measured by the direct flourescent-antibody and Lancefield grouping methods.

  3. Antibiotic content of selective culture media for isolation of Capnocytophaga species from oral polymicrobial samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, E; Jolivet-Gougeon, A; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Fosse, T

    2013-10-01

    In oral microbiome, because of the abundance of commensal competitive flora, selective media with antibiotics are necessary for the recovery of fastidious Capnocytophaga species. The performances of six culture media (blood agar, chocolate blood agar, VCAT medium, CAPE medium, bacitracin chocolate blood agar and VK medium) were compared with literature data concerning five other media (FAA, LB, TSBV, CapR and TBBP media). To understand variable growth on selective media, the MICs of each antimicrobial agent contained in this different media (colistin, kanamycin, trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin, aztreonam and bacitracin) were determined for all Capnocytophaga species. Overall, VCAT medium (Columbia, 10% cooked horse blood, polyvitaminic supplement, 3·75 mg l(-1) of colistin, 1·5 mg l(-1) of trimethoprim, 1 mg l(-1) of vancomycin and 0·5 mg l(-1) of amphotericin B, Oxoid, France) was the more efficient selective medium, with regard to the detection of Capnocytophaga species from oral samples (P culture, a simple blood agar allowed the growth of all Capnocytophaga species. Nonetheless, in oral samples, because of the abundance of commensal competitive flora, selective media with antibiotics are necessary for the recovery of Capnocytophaga species. The demonstrated superiority of VCAT medium made its use essential for the optimal detection of this bacterial genus. This work showed that extreme caution should be exercised when reporting the isolation of Capnocytophaga species from oral polymicrobial samples, because the culture medium is a determining factor. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Genome-wide dynamics of a bacterial response to antibiotics that target the cell envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background A decline in the discovery of new antibacterial drugs, coupled with a persistent rise in the occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria, has highlighted antibiotics as a diminishing resource. The future development of new drugs with novel antibacterial activities requires a detailed understanding of adaptive responses to existing compounds. This study uses Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) as a model system to determine the genome-wide transcriptional response following exposure to three antibiotics (vancomycin, moenomycin A and bacitracin) that target distinct stages of cell wall biosynthesis. Results A generalised response to all three antibiotics was identified which involves activation of transcription of the cell envelope stress sigma factor σE, together with elements of the stringent response, and of the heat, osmotic and oxidative stress regulons. Attenuation of this system by deletion of genes encoding the osmotic stress sigma factor σB or the ppGpp synthetase RelA reduced resistance to both vancomycin and bacitracin. Many antibiotic-specific transcriptional changes were identified, representing cellular processes potentially important for tolerance to each antibiotic. Sensitivity studies using mutants constructed on the basis of the transcriptome profiling confirmed a role for several such genes in antibiotic resistance, validating the usefulness of the approach. Conclusions Antibiotic inhibition of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis induces both common and compound-specific transcriptional responses. Both can be exploited to increase antibiotic susceptibility. Regulatory networks known to govern responses to environmental and nutritional stresses are also at the core of the common antibiotic response, and likely help cells survive until any specific resistance mechanisms are fully functional. PMID:21569315

  5. Genome-wide dynamics of a bacterial response to antibiotics that target the cell envelope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngat

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A decline in the discovery of new antibacterial drugs, coupled with a persistent rise in the occurrence of drug-resistant bacteria, has highlighted antibiotics as a diminishing resource. The future development of new drugs with novel antibacterial activities requires a detailed understanding of adaptive responses to existing compounds. This study uses Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2 as a model system to determine the genome-wide transcriptional response following exposure to three antibiotics (vancomycin, moenomycin A and bacitracin that target distinct stages of cell wall biosynthesis. Results A generalised response to all three antibiotics was identified which involves activation of transcription of the cell envelope stress sigma factor σE, together with elements of the stringent response, and of the heat, osmotic and oxidative stress regulons. Attenuation of this system by deletion of genes encoding the osmotic stress sigma factor σB or the ppGpp synthetase RelA reduced resistance to both vancomycin and bacitracin. Many antibiotic-specific transcriptional changes were identified, representing cellular processes potentially important for tolerance to each antibiotic. Sensitivity studies using mutants constructed on the basis of the transcriptome profiling confirmed a role for several such genes in antibiotic resistance, validating the usefulness of the approach. Conclusions Antibiotic inhibition of bacterial cell wall biosynthesis induces both common and compound-specific transcriptional responses. Both can be exploited to increase antibiotic susceptibility. Regulatory networks known to govern responses to environmental and nutritional stresses are also at the core of the common antibiotic response, and likely help cells survive until any specific resistance mechanisms are fully functional.

  6. Different antibiotic growth promoters induce specific changes in the cecal microbiota membership of broiler chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio C Costa

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials are sometimes given to food animals at low doses in order to promote faster growth. However, the mechanisms by which those drugs improve performance are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the impact of zinc bacitracin (55g/ton, enramycin (10g/ton; halquinol® (30g/ton; virginiamycin (16,5g/ton and avilamycin (10g/ton on the cecal microbiota of broiler chicken, compared to a control group. Six hundred and twenty four chicks (Cobb 500 arriving to an experimental unit were randomly assigned into each treatment with four repetitions per treatment. The cecal content of 16 animals per treatment (n = 96 was used for DNA extraction and sequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using Illumina technology. The use of antimicrobials induced significant changes in membership but not in structure of the cecal microbiota compared to the control group, suggesting a greater impact on the less abundant species of bacteria present in that environment. Halquinol was the only drug that did not affect microbial membership. Firmicutes comprised the major bacterial phylum present in the cecum of all groups. There was no statistical difference in relative abundances of the main phyla between treated animals and the control group (all P>0.05. Treatment with enramycin was associated with decreased richness and with lower relative abundance of unclassified Firmicutes, Clostridium XI, unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae (all P<0.001 and greater abundance of Clostridium XIVb (P = 0.004 and Anaerosporobacter spp. (P = 0.015, and treatment with bacitracin with greater relative abundance of Bilophila spp. (P = 0.004. Several bacterial genera were identified as representative of usage of each drug. This study used high throughput sequencing to characterize the impact of several antimicrobials in broiler chicken under controlled conditions and add new insights to the current knowledge on how AGPs affect the cecal microbiota of chicken.

  7. Gonadoliberin (GnRH) and its copper complex (Cu-GnRH) enzymatic degradation in hypothalamic and pituitary tissue in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, A; Kozlowski, H; Czauderna, M; Kochman, K; Kulon, K; Gajewska, A

    2012-02-01

    The amount of decapeptide decapeptide gonadoliberin (GnRH) that reaches pituitary gland depends not only on transcriptional, translational and posttranslatonal processes but also on the extent of degradation exerted by specific proteolytic enzymes. The copper-gonadoliberin (Cu-GnRH) complex preserves the native GnRH amino acid sequence but contains Cu(2+) ion bound to the nitrogen atom at the imidazole ring of the His(2). The aim of this study was to determine whether GnRH and Cu-GnRH molecules differ in their susceptibility to proteolysis in male rat hypothalamic and pituitary tissue in vitro. RIA was applied for a time-dependent study based on 0-90 min incubations at 30°C of exogenous peptide (2.5 μg GnRH or Cu-GnRH) in respective hypothalamic/pituitary supernatant and pellet fractions. To compare the protective effect of bacitracin, a competitive PEP inhibitor, incubations were made with (125 μg/sample) or without an inhibitor. In the second experiment 100 μg of GnRH or Cu-GnRH were incubated for 5 h at 37°C in hypothalamic and pituitary tissue in vitro and then HPLC analysis was applied both to characterize the elution pattern of GnRH and Cu-GnRH degradation products as well as to determine their AA composition. In both tissues, Cu-GnRH remained more resistant to enzymatic degradation and fully protected in the presence of bacitracin. In conclusion, the obtained data suggest that copper ion changed GnRH conformation and significantly modified its physiological properties due to a hindered endopeptidases access to specific AA bonds. Therefore, the Cu-GnRH complex might be considered as GnRH analog potentially able to prolong the occupation of a GnRH receptor at the gonadotrope cells.

  8. Comparison of culture media and chairside assays for enumerating mutans streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, G.H.; Bretz, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study compared several traditional culture-based media and chairside cultural assays for ability to recover mutans streptococci (MS) from pure cultures and from saliva samples. Methods and Results When pure cultures were used with traditional culture-based media, mitis-salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar demonstrated less support for bacterial recovery than trypticase-yeast extract-cysteine sucrose-bacitracin (TYCSB) agar and the modified medium of Ritz (HLR-S). One species of MS, Streptococcus ferus (c), was not recovered on MSB medium. Chairside cultural tests displayed considerable disparity between tests in recovering bacteria from pure cultures. On the glass adherence assay (Mucount®), S. ferus was not detected and Streptococcus criceti was not detected on the dipslide assay (Carie-screen SM®) or on the plastic adherence assay (Dentocult SM Strip mutans®). The frequency of isolation of pure strains of bacteria other than MS was common. From saliva samples, the frequency of isolation of MS on HLR-S and TYCSB media and the glass adherence assay was 91–97%. The frequency of isolation on MSB medium and on the dip-slide and plastic adherence assays was significantly decreased (37, 47 and 69%, respectively). Recovery scores varied considerably among the culture methods studied and tended to be highest on the HLR-S medium and on the glass adherence assay. Conclusions Growth and recovery profiles of pure bacterial cultures and of saliva samples for the MS varied according to different media. Significance and Impact of the Study Caution should be exercised in comparing results between studies that employ different cultural methods for MS enumeration. PMID:16696682

  9. Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal, a positive control (Zn-bacitracin and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS, and acidifier. Two holding times included (a immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED and (b access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD. Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE, whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05 proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05 IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05. All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05. The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05. The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05. It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics.

  10. In vitro activity of retapamulin against linezolid and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, F J; Morales, G; Picazo, J J

    2011-09-01

    To determine the in vitro activity of retapamulin and other topical antibiotics (mupirocin, bacitracin, and fusidic acid) usually employed for nasal decolonization, against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and linezolid and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined on Mueller-Hinton agar according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and of the European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Presence of the cfr gene in linezolid and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates was detected using polymerase chain reaction. Retapamulin inhibited all the isolates of MSSA and MRSA at 0.125 mg/L, but the 18 linezolid-resistant-MRSA strains proved resistant, with MICs over 32 mg/L. Most MSSA isolates (9/10) were susceptible to mupirocin with MICs under 0.19 mg/L, although this value decreased to half against MRSA, and almost all linezolid-resistant MRSA (17/18) strains were resistant to mupirocin with an MIC range of between 8 mg/L and 28 mg/L. The MIC of fusidic acid increased substantially against linezolid-resistant MRSA, whereas that of bacitracin showed no differences. Retapamulin demonstrated excellent in vitro activity against MSSA and MRSA strains, but not against MRSA isolates harbouring the cfr gene. The results of this in vitro study support cut-off values for retapamulin of ≤ 0.5, 1, and ≥ 2 mg/L for susceptible, intermediate, and resistant strains, respectively.

  11. Drug use and antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates from chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulianne, Martine; Arsenault, Julie; Daignault, Danielle; Archambault, Marie; Letellier, Ann; Dutil, Lucie

    2016-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of chicken and turkey flocks slaughtered at federal processing plants in the province of Quebec, Canada. The objectives were to estimate prevalence of drug use at hatchery and on farm and to identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in cecal Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolates and factors associated with AMR. Eighty-two chicken flocks and 59 turkey flocks were sampled. At the hatchery, the most used antimicrobial was ceftiofur in chickens (76% of flocks) and spectinomycin in turkeys (42% of flocks). Virginiamycin was the antimicrobial most frequently added to the feed in both chicken and turkey flocks. At least 1 E. coli isolate resistant to third-generation cephalosporins was present in all chicken flocks and in a third of turkey flocks. Resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfisoxazole was detected in > 90% of flocks for E. coli isolates. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) was observed to bacitracin, erythromycin, lincomycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tetracycline in both chicken and turkey flocks for Enterococcus spp. isolates. No resistance to vancomycin was observed. The use of ceftiofur at hatchery was significantly associated with the proportion of ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates in chicken flocks. In turkey flocks, ceftiofur resistance was more frequent when turkeys were placed on litter previously used by chickens. Associations between drug use and resistance were observed with tetracycline (turkey) in E. coli isolates and with bacitracin (chicken and turkey), gentamicin (turkey), and tylosin (chicken) in Enterococcus spp. isolates. Further studies are needed to provide producers and veterinarians with alternative management practices and tools in order to reduce the use of antimicrobial feed additives in poultry.

  12. Antimicrobial use surveillance in broiler chicken flocks in Canada, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunos, Agnes; Léger, David F; Carson, Carolee A; Gow, Sheryl P; Bosman, Angelina; Irwin, Rebecca J; Reid-Smith, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    There is a paucity of data on the reason for and the quantity of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens in Canada. To address this, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) implemented surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in broiler chicken flocks in 2013. Shortly after this (2014), the poultry industry banned the preventive use of ceftiofur in broiler chickens. The objectives of this analysis were to describe antimicrobial use (AMU) in Canadian broiler chickens between 2013 and 2015 (n = 378 flocks), compare these results to other animal species in Canada, to highlight the utility of farm surveillance data to evaluate the impact of a policy change, and to explore how different antimicrobial use metrics might affect data interpretation and communication. The surveillance data indicated that the poultry industry policy resulted in lower antimicrobial use and resistance, and they successfully captured information on when, where, why, and how much antimicrobials were being used. The majority of antimicrobials were administered via the feed (95%). The relative frequency of antimicrobial classes used in broiler chickens differed from those used in swine or in food animal production in general. Coccidiostats were the most frequently used antimicrobial classes (53% of total kg). Excluding coccidiostats, the top three most frequently used antimicrobial classes were bacitracin (53% of flocks), virginiamycin (25%) and avilamycin (21%), mainly used for the prevention of necrotic enteritis. Depending on the AMU metric utilized, the relative rankings of the top antimicrobials changed; hence the choice of the AMU metric is an important consideration for any AMU reporting. When using milligrams/Population Correction Unit (mg/PCU) the top three antimicrobial classes used were bacitracins (76 mg/PCU), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (24 mg/PCU), and penicillins (15 mg/PCU), whereas when using a number of

  13. Antimicrobial use surveillance in broiler chicken flocks in Canada, 2013-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Agunos

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data on the reason for and the quantity of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens in Canada. To address this, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS implemented surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU and antimicrobial resistance (AMR in broiler chicken flocks in 2013. Shortly after this (2014, the poultry industry banned the preventive use of ceftiofur in broiler chickens. The objectives of this analysis were to describe antimicrobial use (AMU in Canadian broiler chickens between 2013 and 2015 (n = 378 flocks, compare these results to other animal species in Canada, to highlight the utility of farm surveillance data to evaluate the impact of a policy change, and to explore how different antimicrobial use metrics might affect data interpretation and communication. The surveillance data indicated that the poultry industry policy resulted in lower antimicrobial use and resistance, and they successfully captured information on when, where, why, and how much antimicrobials were being used. The majority of antimicrobials were administered via the feed (95%. The relative frequency of antimicrobial classes used in broiler chickens differed from those used in swine or in food animal production in general. Coccidiostats were the most frequently used antimicrobial classes (53% of total kg. Excluding coccidiostats, the top three most frequently used antimicrobial classes were bacitracin (53% of flocks, virginiamycin (25% and avilamycin (21%, mainly used for the prevention of necrotic enteritis. Depending on the AMU metric utilized, the relative rankings of the top antimicrobials changed; hence the choice of the AMU metric is an important consideration for any AMU reporting. When using milligrams/Population Correction Unit (mg/PCU the top three antimicrobial classes used were bacitracins (76 mg/PCU, trimethoprim-sulfonamides (24 mg/PCU, and penicillins (15 mg/PCU, whereas when using a number

  14. Influence of Bacillus apiarius supplementation on the performance of layer chicken

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    Putu Kompiang

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment has been conducted to study the effect of replacing feed additive zinc-bacitracine with probiotic Bacillus apiarius on layer performance. One thousand two hundreds 22-weeks old layers used in this experiment, were divided into three group-treatments and it further divided into 4 subgroups (100 birds/subgroup as treatment replicates and distributed randomly. Layer in group I were fed basal diet + Growth promotant antibiotic (GPA-zinc bacitracin, group II were fed basal diet + B. apiarius culture and group III were fed basal diet + commercial probiotic. Feed and water were given ad libitum during the 16 weeks trial. The treatments had no effect (P>0.05 on feed intake. Percentage of hen-day production of group II (88.75 ± 0.88% was similar to group III (89.58 ± 1.14%, and both were very significantly (P<0.01 higher than group I (77.83 ± 6.21%. Total egg mass production of group II (5.82 ± 0.30 kg/head/16 weeks, was similar to group III (5.64 ± 0.51 kg/head/16 weeks and both were significantly (P<0.01 higher than group I (4.85 ± 0.45 kg/head/16 weeks. The FCR value of group II (2.48 ± 0.10 was similar to group III (2.43 ± 0.14 and both were very significantly (P<0.01 better than group I (2.86 ± 0.26. The treatments had no effect on egg weight and egg shell thickness. Yolk’s cholesterol content of the group I (4.58 ± 0,56 mg/100 g was significantly higher than group II (3.72 ± 0.34 mg/100 g or group III (3.41 ± 0.43 mg/ 100 g. From the present trial it could be concluded that B. apiarius has a potential as probiotic for layer, it even gave better performance and lower cholesterol content of the yolk.

  15. Effect of Dietary Antimicrobials on Immune Status in Broiler Chickens

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    K. W. Lee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of dietary anticoccidial drugs plus antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs on parameters of immunity in commercial broiler chickens. Day-old chicks were raised on used litter from a farm with endemic gangrenous dermatitis to simulate natural pathogen exposure and provided with diets containing decoquinate (DECX or monensin (COBN as anticoccidials plus bacitracin methylene disalicylate and roxarsone as AGPs. As a negative control, the chickens were fed with a non-supplemented diet. Immune parameters examined were concanavalin A (ConA-stimulated spleen cell proliferation, intestine intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL and spleen cell subpopulations, and cytokine/chemokine mRNA levels in IELs and spleen cells. ConA-induced proliferation was decreased at 14 d post-hatch in DECX-treated chickens, and increased at 25 and 43 d in COBN-treated animals, compared with untreated controls. In DECX-treated birds, increased percentages of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELS were detected at 14 d, but decreased percentages of these cells were seen at 43 d, compared with untreated controls, while increased TCR2+ IELs were evident at the latter time. Dietary COBN was associated with decreased fractions of MHC2+ and CD4+ IELs and reduced percentages of MHC2+, BU1+, and TCR1+ spleen cells compared with controls. The levels of transcripts for interleukin-4 (IL-4, IL-6, IL-17F, IL-13, CXCLi2, interferon-γ (IFN-γ, and transforming growth factorβ4 were elevated in IELs, and those for IL-13, IL-17D, CXCLi2, and IFN-γ were increased in spleen cells, of DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with untreated controls. By contrast, IL-2 and IL-12 mRNAs in IELs, and IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17F transcripts in spleen cells, were decreased in DECX- and/or COBN-treated chickens compared with controls. These results suggest that DECX or COBN, in combination with bacitracin and roxarsone, modulate the development of the chicken post-hatch immune system.

  16. The role of protein disulfide isomerase in the post-ligation phase of β3 integrin-dependent cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Avi; Mor-Cohen, Ronit; Ram, Ron; Sheptovitsky, Vera; Seligsohn, Uri; Rosenberg, Nurit; Lahav, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes disulfide bond exchange. It is crucial for integrin-mediated platelet adhesion and aggregation and disulfide bond exchange is necessary for αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 activation. However, the role of disulfide bond exchange and PDI in the post-ligation phase of αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 mediated cell adhesion has yet to be determined. To investigate a possible such role, we expressed wild type (WT) human αIIb and either WT human β3, or β3 harboring single or double cysteine to serine substitutions disrupting Cys473-Cys503 or Cys523-Cys544 bonds, in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, leading to expression of both human αIIbβ3 and a chimeric hamster/human αvβ3. Adhesion to fibrinogen-coated wells was studied in the presence or absence of bacitracin, a PDI inhibitor, with and without an αvβ3 blocker. Flow cytometry showed WT and mutant αIIbβ3 expression in BHK cells and indicated that mutated αIIbβ3 receptors were constitutively active while WT αIIbβ3 was inactive. Both αIIbβ3 and αvβ3 integrins, WT and mutants, mediated adhesion to fibrinogen as shown by reduced but still substantial adhesion following treatment with the αvβ3 blocker. Mutated αIIbβ3 integrins disrupted in the Cys523-Cys544 bond still depended on PDI for adhesion as shown by the inhibitory effect of bacitracin in the presence of the αvβ3 blocker. Mutated integrins disrupted in the Cys473-Cys503 bond showed a similar trend. PDI-mediated disulfide bond exchange plays a pivotal role in the post-ligation phase of αIIbβ3-mediated adhesion to fibrinogen, while this step in αvβ3-mediated adhesion is independent of disulfide exchange. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Decolonization in Prevention of Health Care-Associated Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Colonization with health care-associated pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, Gram-negative organisms, and Clostridium difficile is associated with increased risk of infection. Decolonization is an evidence-based intervention that can be used to prevent health care-associated infections (HAIs). This review evaluates agents used for nasal topical decolonization, topical (e.g., skin) decolonization, oral decolonization, and selective digestive or oropharyngeal decontamination. Although the majority of studies performed to date have focused on S. aureus decolonization, there is increasing interest in how to apply decolonization strategies to reduce infections due to Gram-negative organisms, especially those that are multidrug resistant. Nasal topical decolonization agents reviewed include mupirocin, bacitracin, retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, photodynamic therapy, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Mupirocin is still the gold standard agent for S. aureus nasal decolonization, but there is concern about mupirocin resistance, and alternative agents are needed. Of the other nasal decolonization agents, large clinical trials are still needed to evaluate the effectiveness of retapamulin, povidone-iodine, alcohol-based nasal antiseptic, tea tree oil, omiganan pentahydrochloride, and lysostaphin. Given inferior outcomes and increased risk of allergic dermatitis, the use of bacitracin-containing compounds cannot be recommended as a decolonization strategy. Topical decolonization agents reviewed included chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), hexachlorophane, povidone-iodine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. Of these, CHG is the skin decolonization agent that has the strongest evidence base, and sodium hypochlorite can also be recommended. CHG is associated with prevention of infections due to Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms as well as Candida. Conversely, triclosan use is discouraged, and

  18. Systematic review of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Deborah P; Epstein, Joel B; Elad, Sharon; Allemano, Justin; Bossi, Paolo; van de Wetering, Marianne D; Rao, Nikhil G; Potting, Carin; Cheng, Karis K; Freidank, Annette; Brennan, Michael T; Bowen, Joanne; Dennis, Kristopher; Lalla, Rajesh V

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this project was to develop clinical practice guidelines on the use of antimicrobials, mucosal coating agents, anesthetics, and analgesics for the prevention and management of oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients. A systematic review of the available literature was conducted. The body of evidence for the use of each agent, in each setting, was assigned a level of evidence. Based on the evidence level, one of the following three guideline determinations was possible: recommendation, suggestion, or no guideline possible. A recommendation was developed in favor of patient-controlled analgesia with morphine in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients. Suggestions were developed in favor of transdermal fentanyl in standard dose chemotherapy and HSCT patients and morphine mouth rinse and doxepin rinse in head and neck radiation therapy (H&N RT) patients. Recommendations were developed against the use of topical antimicrobial agents for the prevention of mucositis. These included recommendations against the use of iseganan for mucositis prevention in HSCT and H&N RT and against the use of antimicrobial lozenges (polymyxin-tobramycin-amphotericin B lozenges/paste and bacitracin-clotrimazole-gentamicin lozenges) for mucositis prevention in H&N RT. Recommendations were developed against the use of the mucosal coating agent sucralfate for the prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced or radiation-induced OM. No guidelines were possible for any other agent due to insufficient and/or conflicting evidence. Additional well-designed research is needed on prevention and management approaches for OM.

  19. DMFT index assessment, plaque pH, and microbiological analysis in children with special health care needs, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katge, Farhin; Rusawat, Bhavesh; Shitoot, Abhinav; Poojari, Manohar; Pammi, Thejokrishna; Patil, Devendra

    2015-01-01

    To assess the DMFT index of children with Special Health Care Needs (SHCN) in Navi Mumbai. To correlate the DMFT index with Streptococcus mutans count in the supragingival bacterial biofilm and with plaque pH. Dental examination of 158 patients aged 5-18 years was conducted to determine the DMFT/dmft index. Supragingival plaque samples were collected from the buccal surfaces of all teeth. The samples were inoculated in mitis salivarius bacitracin agar medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Supragingival plaque was collected from interproximal sites of the molar area (preferably mandibular) for conducting plaque pH test. Chi-square test and Pearson's correlation were used to find the significance of the study parameters on categorical scale between the two groups. The mean DMFT recorded was 4.90 ± 4.63 and the mean dmft recorded was 1.77 ± 3.14. Mean number of S. mutans colony-forming units found was 2.961 × 10(4). Mean plaque pH recorded was 6.2. No statistically significant correlation was found between the DMFT index with the number of S. mutans and plaque pH.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Brazilian Haemophilus parasuis field isolates

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    Michela Miani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease (GD, an ubiquitous infection of swine characterized by systemic fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in swine husbandries during the last years triggered the development of antibiotic resistances in bacterial pathogens. Thus, regular susceptibility testing is crucial to ensure efficacy of different antimicrobial agents to this porcine pathogen. In this study, 50 clinical isolates from South Brazilian pig herds were characterized and analyzed for their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotic. The identification and typing of clinical isolates was carried out by a modified indirect hemagglutination assay combined with a multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of each isolate was analyzed by broth microdilution method against a panel of 21 antimicrobial compounds. We found that field isolates are highly resistance to gentamycin, bacitracin, lincomycin and tiamulin, but sensitive to ampicillin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Furthermore, an individual susceptibility analysis indicated that enrofloxacin is effective to treat clinical isolates with the exception of those classified as serovar 1. The results presented here firstly demonstrate the susceptibility of Brazilian clinical isolates of H. parasuis to antimicrobials widely used by swine veterinary practitioners and strengthen the need to perform susceptibility test prior to antibiotic therapy during GD outbreaks. In addition, because only six antimicrobial drugs (28.6% were found effective against field isolates, a continuous surveillance of the susceptibility profile should be of major concern to the swine industry.

  1. The effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics on warfarin excretion and metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmel, R.P.; Elmer, G.W.

    1981-01-01

    The excretion and metabolism of 14 C-warfarin in rats was examined in a crossover experiment, the first phase consisting of treatment with normal saline, the second phase using the same animals given neomycin, bacitracin, and tetracycline orally. Urine and feces were collected every 24 hours for 72 hours and examined for warfarin and its metabolites, both unconjugated and conjugated. Significantly more radioactivity was eliminated in th feces of antibiotic-treated rats. The feces of antibiotic-treated rats contained only trace amounts of beta-glucuronidase activity. Urine contained a similar ratio of unconjugated to conjugated radioactivity in both treatment groups, but the antibiotic-treated animals had significantly larger amount of conjugates in their feces. Examination of metabolic profiles of conjugated and unconjugated fractions revealed significantly fewer hydroxylated metabolites in antibiotic-treated rats, especially in the feces. The lower amount of hydroxylative metabolism in attributed to a reduction in gut flora-medicated interohepatic recycling caused by the antibiotics

  2. The occurrence of antibiotics in an urban watershed: From wastewater to drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, A.J.; Murby, E.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Costanzo, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of 28 antibiotics in three hospital effluents, five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), six rivers and a drinking water storage catchment were investigated within watersheds of South–East Queensland, Australia. All antibiotics were detected at least once, with the exception of the polypeptide bacitracin which was not detected at all. Antibiotics were found in hospital effluent ranging from 0.01–14.5 μg L-1, dominated by the β-lactam, quinolone and sulphonamide groups. Antibiotics were found in WWTP influent up to 64 μg L-1, dominated by the β-lactam, quinolone and sulphonamide groups. Investigated WWTPs were highly effective in removing antibiotics from the water phase, with an average removal rate of greater than 80% for all targeted antibiotics. However, antibiotics were still detected in WWTP effluents in the low ng L-1 range up to a maximum of 3.4 μg L-1, with the macrolide, quinolone and sulphonamide antibiotics most prevalent. Similarly, antibiotics were detected quite frequently in the low ng L-1 range, up to 2 μg L-1 in the surface waters of six investigated rivers including freshwater, estuarine and marine samples. The total investigated antibiotic concentration (TIAC) within the Nerang River was significantly lower (p p antibiotics to streams. Despite the presence of antibiotics in surface waters used for drinking water extraction, no targeted antibiotics were detected in any drinking water samples.

  3. Effect of pomegranate and aloe vera extract on streptococcus mutans: An in vitro study

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    Priya Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effect of pomegranate and aloe vera extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts of pulp from both Punica granatum (pomegranate and Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera were prepared to concentrations of 5, 25, 50 and 100%. Pure sorbitol powder dissolved in distilled water was taken as the negative control. Streptococcus mutans (S mutans was isolated from saliva by inoculation on to Mitus Salivarius Bacitracin (MSB agar, which was then streaked onto agar plates containing Brain Heart Infusion. In each petridish, wells were prepared and using a sterile micropipette, 125μl of the specific concentration of the extract (pomegranate/ aloe vera/ sorbitol was deposited in each well. This was done in triplicate for each concentration of the extracts. The effect of different concentrations of the extracts on S mutans was observed and the data was subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Pomegranate extract showed significantly higher inhibitory effect on S mutans at all concentrations (P≤0.05. On comparison of all three extracts at different concentrations, a significant difference (P≤0.05 was observed only at 50 and 100% concentrations. The inhibitory effect of pomegranate extract was significantly different when compared to aloe vera and sorbitol extracts. (P≤0.01. Discussion: Pomegranate extract has a significant antibacterial effect on S mutans at all concentrations.

  4. Xerostomia, xerophthalmia, and plasmacytic infiltrates of the salivary glands (Sjögren's-like syndrome) in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canapp, S O; Cohn, L A; Maggs, D J; Miller, M A; Kerl, M E; O'Brien, D P

    2001-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of dysphagia and weight loss of 4 weeks' duration. MIld blepharospasm and conjunctival hyperemia were evident in both eyes, oral mucous membranes were tacky on palpation, and salivary glands were enlarged. Results of a Schirmer tear test were 0 mm/min for both eyes. Administration of atropine did not cause salivation or caused secretion fo thick rope-like saliva. Examination of biopsy specimens of salivary glands revealed a plasmacytic infiltrate. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) was diagnosed. Oral administration of prednisone was instituted but was discontinued after a minimal positive response was evident 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Palliative treatment with a 6% solution of pilocarpine 4 to 5 times/d, cyclosporine, hylan A, and neomycin-polymyxin-bacitracin ophthalmic ointment resulted in clinical improvement in the cat. Although reported rarely in animals, SS may be more common than currently is recognized. Most treatment regimens for SS are aimed at alleviating clinical signs.

  5. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Ajit K.; Meyer, Michael T.; Boxall, Alistair B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.

  6. Transepithelial transport of milk-derived angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptide with the RLSFNP sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuxing; Gan, Junai; Zhu, Qian; Zeng, Xiaoqun; Sun, Yangying; Wu, Zhen; Pan, Daodong

    2018-02-01

    To exert an antihypertensive effect after oral administration, angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory peptides must remain active after intestinal transport. The purpose of this article is to elucidate the transport permeability and route of ACE-inhibitory peptide Arg-Leu-Ser-Phe-Asn-Pro (RLSFNP) across the intestinal epithelium using Caco-2 cell monolayers. Intact RLSFNP and RLSFNP breakdown fragments F, FNP, SFNP and RLSF were found in RLSFNP transport solution across Caco-2 cell monolayers using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RLSFNP fragments FNP, SFNP and RLSF also contributed to ACE inhibitory effects. Protease inhibitors (bacitracin and leupeptin) and absorption enhancers (sodium glycocholate hydrate, sodium deoxycholate and Na 2 EDTA) improved the transport flux of RLSFNP. A transport inhibitor experiment showed that intact RLSFNP may be transported via the paracellular route. Intact RLSFNP can be transported across the Caco-2 cell monolayers via the paracellular route. Extensive hydrolysis was the chief reason for the low permeability of RLSFNP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Properties and antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from bovine mastitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasir, Rashad; Wang, Jianfang; Gao, Jian; Ali, Tariq; Zhang, Limei; Szenci, Ottó; Bajcsy, Árpád Csaba; Han, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Trueperella (T.) pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative diseases in domestic animals. In this work, the properties, pathogenesis and phenotypic diversity of T. pyogenes isolates from bovine mastitis were studied. Both pyolysin (plo) and collagen-binding protein (cbp) virulence factor genes were detected by PCR in all T. pyogenes isolates (n = 50). Using the tissue culture plate method, 90% of T. pyogenes isolates were able to form biofilms. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 13 antimicrobials against T. pyogenes isolates were determined. High susceptibility was observed to rifampin (96%), ampicillin (94%), ciprofloxacin (94%), and penicillin (92%), while low susceptibility was found to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (10%) and bacitracin (2%). The intracellular assay revealed that T. pyogenes isolates had different cytopathogenic effects on cells. The high percentage (28.6%) of T. pyogenes isolates suggests that this bacterium is an important contributor to mastitis. Moreover, the high occurrence of multidrug resistance, biofilm production, intracellular survival, and the temporal dynamics of T. pyogenes interactions are key factors for a better understanding of how immunity acts on infections with these bacteria and how they evade immune surveillance, thus highlighting the need for the prudent use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine.

  8. Stimulation of protein synthesis in stage IV Xenopus oocytes by microinjected insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of intracellular insulin on protein synthesis were examined in intact cells and isolated, undiluted cellular components. [35S]Methionine incorporation into protein was measured in Stage IV oocytes from Xenopus laevis maintained under paraffin oil. Radiolabel and insulin were introduced into the cytoplasm by microinjection. After a short delay (approximately 15 min), injected insulin stimulated the rate of methionine incorporation. Stimulation was dose-dependent, increasing with injected doses in the 7-50-fmol range. Neither proinsulin nor insulin-like growth factor 1 were as effective as insulin in stimulating protein synthesis; microinjected epidermal growth factor and the A and B chains of insulin were without effect. When oocyte surface membranes were removed under oil, the resulting cytoplasm-nucleus samples exhibited methionine incorporation rates that were comparable to those found in intact cells. Microinjection of insulin increased rates of methionine incorporation in cytoplasm-nucleus samples; the effects of external (prior to transfer to oil) and internal (microinjection in oil) insulin exposure were additive. Cytoplasm samples (nuclei and surface membranes removed under oil) also synthesized protein and responded to microinjected insulin. However, insulin responses were reduced relative to cells and to cytoplasm-nucleus samples. 125I-Insulin was degraded rapidly after microinjection into oocytes. Degradation occurred in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Degradation was delayed by injecting bacitracin into the cells and delaying degradation increased the effectiveness of a low dose of injected insulin

  9. Antimicrobial effects of herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans and normal oral streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is associated with dental caries. A cariogenic biofilm, in particular, has been studied extensively for its role in the formation of dental caries. Herbal extracts such as Cudrania tricuspidata, Sophora flavescens, Ginkgo biloba, and Betula Schmidtii have been used as a folk remedy for treating diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against normal oral streptococci, planktonic and biofilm of S. mutans. Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, and S. mutans were cultivated with brain heart infusion broth and susceptibility assay for the herbal extracts was performed according to the protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Also, S. mutans biofilm was formed on a polystyrene 12-well plate and 8-well chamber glass slip using BHI broth containing 2% sucrose and 1% mannose after conditioning the plate and the glass slip with unstimulated saliva. The biofilm was treated with the herbal extracts in various concentrations and inoculated on Mitis-Salivarius bacitracin agar plate for enumeration of viable S. mutans by counting colony forming units. Planktonic S. mutans showed susceptibility to all of the extracts and S. mutans biofilm exhibited the highest level of sensitivity for the extracts of S. flavescens. The normal oral streptococci exhibited a weak susceptibility in comparison to S. mutans. S. oralis, however, was resistant to all of the extracts. In conclusion, the extract of S. flavescens may be a potential candidate for prevention and management of dental caries.

  10. Effect of Probiotic Yogurt and Xylitol-Containing Chewing Gums on Salivary S Mutans Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Elnaz; Mazaheri, Romina; Tahmourespour, Arezoo

    In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10 5 colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.

  11. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Astiazarán-García

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia.

  12. Prevalence of Streptococcus mutans with different colonial morphologies in human plaque and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilson, C G

    1983-02-01

    Plaque and saliva samples were obtained twice from 58 children at an interval of 1 year and examined for the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans on Mitis salivarius (MS) and Mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar. Two types of S. mutans colonies with different colonial morphologies were seen on both media. They were serologically identified as serotypes c/e/f and d/g respectively. The first type, morphogroup c/e/f, had the typical "frosted-glass" appearance. It was the most prevalent and was found in 97% of the children. The second type, morphogroup d/g, had a creamy marzipan consistency with a dull, granular surface, gray to brown in color and often with some liquid around or on top of the colony. Group d/g was detected in 21 children (36%) and then together with colonies of group c/e/f. Children infected with single or multiple morphogroups of S. mutans generally harbored the same groups 1 year later. There was a significant positive correlation between the proportion of S. mutans in plaque and their numbers in saliva.

  13. Total bakteri asam laktat dan Coliform pada ileum dan sekum ayam broiler yang diberi Spirulina platensis dengan lama pemberian berbeda

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    Muhammad Irfan Sulfani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the amount of lactic acid bacteria and coliform inside the caecum and ileum of broilers. 240 days old chicks broiler (DOC with 42.015 ± 0.219 g average body weight were used in this research as an experimental objects. The chicks broiler were treated with 0.04% antibiotics and 1% Spirulina plantensis as a prebiotic under different interval ingestion. This experiment was constructed under completely random design (CRD with 4 treatments and 5 repetition. The treatment that was applied were T0 (Poultry feed + 0.04% Zinc bacitracin, T1 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 7 days, T2 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 21 days, and T4 (Poultry feed + 1% throughout 35 days. The parameter measurements conducted in the 32nd day with random sampling from each experiments. Total amount of lactic acid and coliform from each samples were observed and the variance was with 5% accuration. The result showed the total amout of Coliform in ileum was significantly different (P<0.05 in the other hand the total amount of Coliform and acid bacteria in caecum were not influenced (P<0.05. It can be inferred that the Spirulina platensis treatment for 3 weeks reduced the total amount of bacteria inside caecum and ileum.

  14. Tracking of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque of aggressive periodontitis patients

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    Supriya Kheur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is thought to be one of the etiological agents in aggressive periodontitis as well as indicated in various systemic diseases. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival plaque of aggressive periodontitis patients. Study Design: Initially, under the selective growth conditions, the isolates were picked from the plaques and their identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for A. actinomycetemcomitans subgingival plaque of 15 patients diagnosed clinically and on radiographic criteria as aggressive periodontitis was inoculated on the Tryptic Soy agar with Bacitracin and Vancomycin culture media for 3-5 days under microaerophilic conditions. The positive colonies were selected based on biochemical tests for further analysis using reported primers for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Results: The results showed that 66.67% of aggressive periodontitis patients and 6.67% of control group of normal patients showed evidence of presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival microflora. Conclusion: This is the first study of its kind in an Indian population whereby almost all aggressive periodontitis patients showed evidence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  15. Identification and antimicrobial suceptibility profile of bacteria causing bovine mastitis from dairy farms in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul

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    C. H. Freitas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mastitis is an inflammatory process of the udder tissue caused mainly by the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics fosters conditions that favor the selection of resistant microorganisms, suppressing at the same time susceptible forms, causing a serious problem in dairy cattle. Given the importance in performing an antibiogram to select the most adequate antimicrobial therapy, the aim of this study was to identify bacteria isolated from cow’s milk with mastitis, in dairy farms situated in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, and to determinate the susceptibility profile of these isolates against the antibiotics used to treat this illness. A total of 30 isolates of Staphylococcus spp., were selected from milk samples from the udder quarters with subclinical mastitis whose species were identified through the Vitek system. The susceptibility profile was performed by the disk diffusion assay, against: ampicillin, amoxicillin, bacitracin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, norfloxacin, penicillin G, tetracycline and trimethoprim. In the antibiogram, 100.0% of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim and 96.7% to tetracycline and neomycin, three strains of Staphylococcus spp., (10.0% presented resistance to the 12 antibiotics tested and 24 (80.0% to at least eight. These results showed the difficulty in treating mastitis, due to the pathogens’ resistance.

  16. Carcass percentage and quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics

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    Muhammad Daud

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics is a feed additive in the form of life microorganisms that balance microorganism population in the digestive tract. While prebiotics is a feed substance which is not digested, and selectively improves growth and activity of useful microbes in large intestine. The objectives of this research were to study the carcass percentage and carcass quality of broilers given a ration containing probiotics and prebiotics. Four hundred eighty day-old chicks of broiler Arbor Acres strain were divided into four dietary treatments and three replications (40 birds / replicate. Ration used was consisted of: R1 = basal ration + 0.01% antibiotics (Zinc bacitracin, R2 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics (Bacillus spp, R3 = basal ration + 0.2% probiotics + 0.5% prebiotics and R4 = basal ration + 0.5% prebiotics (katuk leaves. The variables observed were: carcass percentage, fat content in the abdomen, liver and carcass, cholesterol content in the liver, carcass and blood serum. The results showed that the carcass quality of broiler received probiotics and prebiotics either independently or the combination was significantly (P<0.05 different. The fat content of liver and thigh, and breast cholesterol of R3 was significantly (P<0.05 lower than that of the control (R1. It is concluded that combination of probiotics and prebiotics were able to decrease the carcass fat and cholesterol content at six week of age.

  17. Effect of laboratory-isolated Lactobacillus plantarum LGFCP4 from gastrointestinal tract of guinea fowl on growth performance, carcass traits, intestinal histomorphometry and gastrointestinal microflora population in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, P G; Tomar, S; Saxena, V K; Kapgate, M; Suvarna, A; Adil, K

    2017-10-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of feed supplements, viz Lactobacillus plantarum LGFCP4 (laboratory isolate from GIT of Guinea fowl), Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCDC, Karnal) and in-feed antibiotic bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD) on growth performance, FCR, carcass traits and immune organs weight, intestinal histomorphometry and gastrointestinal microflora population in broiler chickens. In a completely randomized design, CARIBRO-Dhanraja broiler chicks (n = 160) were used with four treatment groups. During the entire experimental duration of 35 days, treatment groups were provided with different dietary treatments (T1 - basal diet (negative control), T2 - antibiotic growth promoter BMD 20 g/100 kg feed (positive control), T3 - 1 × 10 8  cfu of L. acidophilus/gm-fermented feed +MOS 1 g/kg feed and T4 - 1 × 10 8  cfu of laboratory-isolated L. plantarum LGFCP4/gm-fermented feed+ MOS 1 g/kg feed. After 35 days of experimental period, no significant results have been observed in different growth performance traits among treatment groups. Cut-up parts and edible organs' weight remained unaffected by dietary supplementation, whereas weight of immune organs were significantly higher (p growth promoters in broiler diets by altering intestinal villi morphology and improving the gut health by reducing the pathogenic microbial load. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Effectiveness of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase in reducing Streptococcus mutans counts in dentinal caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Azenha, Giuliana Rodrigues; Araujo, Giovana Spagnolo Albamonte; Puppin Rontani, Regina Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the capacity of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) to that of a combination of lysozyme, lactoferrin, and lactoperoxidase (LLL) in root canal disinfectant for reducing the Streptococcus mutans counts from dentinal caries. Forty human permanent third molars were selected, and flat dentin surfaces were created. Carious lesions were induced using a microbiological model. The specimens were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20) according to the type of agent used: group 1, CPP-ACP; group 2, LLL. The S mutans counts were performed before application and after the first, second, and third applications of the agents. The duration of each application was 3 minutes. Carious dentin specimens were homogenized, diluted, and seeded onto mitis salivarius-bacitracin plates for viable counts of S mutans. Results showed that there was no significant reduction in the number of S mutans in group 1 after the applications of CPP-ACP (P > 0.05). In group 2, a significant reduction of S mutans was observed after the third application of LLL (P < 0.01). These results indicate that 3 applications of LLL enzymes can be used to reduce the number of S mutans in dentinal caries lesions.

  19. Antimicrobial capacity of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans strains in toothbrushes: an in vitro study

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    Patrícia Fernanda Roesler Bertolini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated in vitro the efficiency of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice on reducing the contamination of toothbrush bristles by a standard strain of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175; SM, after toothbrushing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen sterile toothbrushes were randomly divided into 5 toothbrushing groups: I (negative control: without dentifrice; II: with fluoridated dentifrice; III: with triclosan and gantrez dentifrice; IV (positive control: without dentifrice and irrigation with 10 mL of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate; V: with Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice. In each group, 1 sterile bovine tooth was brushed for 1 min, where the toothbrush bristles were contaminated with 25 µL of SM. After toothbrushing, the bristles were stored in individual test tubes with 3 mL of BHI under anaerobiosis of 37°C for 48 h. Then, they were seeded with sterile swab in triplicate in the Mitis salivarius - Bacitracin culture medium. The samples were kept under anaerobiosis of 37°C for 48 h. Scores were used to count the number of colony forming units (cfu. The results were submitted to the Mann-Whitney statistical test at 5% significance level. RESULTS: There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05 for the reduction of bristle contamination comparing groups II, III, IV and V to group I. CONCLUSIONS: It may be stated that after toothbrushing, the Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice reduced the contamination of toothbrush bristles by SM, without differentiation from the other chemical agents used.

  20. Recolonization of mutans Streptococci after application of chlorhexidine gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Glauber Campos; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel; Arthur, Rodrigo Alex; Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is specifically suppressed by intensive treatment with chlorhexidine gel, but the time for recolonization and the effect on other oral bacteria are not totally clear. In this study, recolonization of mutans streptococci was evaluated in nine healthy adult volunteers, who were highly colonized with this microorganism. Stimulated saliva was collected before (baseline) and at 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after application of 1% chlorhexidine gel on volunteers' teeth for two consecutive days. On each day, the gel was applied using disposable trays for 3 x 5 min with intervals of 5 min between each application. Saliva was plated on blood agar to determine total microorganisms (TM); on mitis salivarius agar to determine total streptococci (TS) and on mitis salivarius agar plus bacitracin to determine mutans streptococci (MS). Chlorhexidine was capable of reducing the counts of MS and the proportion of MS with regard to total microorganisms (%MS/TM) (p0.05) after 14 days for MS and 21 days for %MS/TM. The counts of TM and TS and the proportion of MS to total streptococci did not differ statistically from baseline (p>0.05) after chlorhexidine treatment. The results suggest that the effect of chlorhexidine gel treatment on suppression of mutans streptococci is limited to less than a month in highly colonized individuals.

  1. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila De Almeida B.; Simionato, Maria Regina L.; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P.; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A. A. C.

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm-2 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  2. Hemorrhagic tendency following whole-body irradiation of conventional and decontaminated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemeyer, V.; Hohage, R.

    1974-01-01

    Female SIV 50 rats were irradiated with 700 r, and the blood platelets were counted in blood obtained by aortal puncture. A significant decrease could be observed already after a few days. The ADP-induced platelet aggregation showed only a little increase of the aggregation amplitude and a prolongation of the desaggregation time in irradiated animals. The increase of the collagen-induced platelet aggregation might be due to a reduced release of endogenic ADP rather than to reduced sensitivity to ADP. In order to examine the question whether the haemorrhagic tendency of decontaminated animals is reduced after irradiation, female rats were orally given Bacitracin, Neomycin, and Streptomycin over a period of 10 days. Increasing anaemia could be observed from the 7th day p.t. on. In decontaminated animals, anaemia occurrence was not as high as in conventional ones. The erythrocyte count of the lymph in the conventional animals was remarkably higher than in decontaminated animals, which as also the case in the haemoglobin content in the lymph notes. This proves definitely that rats kept conventionally have a stronger tendency to bleeding than decontaminated rats. (MG) [de

  3. Performances of broiler supplemented with antibiotic and Morinda citrifolia waste as sources of bioactive compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.K Bintang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the use of Zinc bacitracin antibiotic (ZnB and dried Morinda citrifolia waste as feed additive in broiler ration was conducted. Two hundred and sixteen day old chicks (DOC was allocated into 4 treatments: control; control + 50 ppm ZnB, and control + M. citrifolia waste at 2 levels (5 and 10 g/kg ration with 9 replications. Each replicatation consist of 6 birds. The treatments were allocated in a completely randomized design. Variables measured were feed intake, live weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR, percentages of carcass and internal organs (liver, gizard, abdominal fat, and thickness of intestine. The results showed that feed intake of M. citrifolia waste was significantly (P0.05 from that of control. The use of M. citrifolia waste (5 and 10 g/kg gave significantly lower (P0.05, but was significantly lower (P0,05 than that of control, control + antibiotic ZnB and M. citrifolia waste 5g/kg. It is concluded that the supplementation of M. citrifolia waste (5 g/kg could substitute ZnB to improve feed eficiency in broiler ration.

  4. FAD oxidizes the ERO1-PDI electron transfer chain: The role of membrane integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, Eszter; Nardai, Gabor; Mandl, Jozsef; Banhegyi, Gabor; Csermely, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The molecular steps of the electron transfer in the endoplasmic reticulum from the secreted proteins during their oxidation are relatively unknown. We present here that flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is a powerful oxidizer of the oxidoreductase system, Ero1 and PDI, besides the proteins of rat liver microsomes and HepG2 hepatoma cells. Inhibition of FAD transport hindered the action of FAD. Microsomal membrane integrity was mandatory for all FAD-related oxidation steps downstream of Ero1. The PDI inhibitor bacitracin could inhibit FAD-mediated oxidation of microsomal proteins and PDI, but did not hinder the FAD-driven oxidation of Ero1. Our data demonstrated that Ero1 can utilize FAD as an electron acceptor and that FAD-driven protein oxidation goes through the Ero1-PDI pathway and requires the integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Our findings prompt further studies to elucidate the membrane-dependent steps of PDI oxidation and the role of FAD in redox folding

  5. Proteomics analysis of Bacillus licheniformis in response to oligosaccharides elicitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffatti, Patricia Fernanda; Roy, Ipsita; Odell, Mark; Keshavarz, Tajalli

    2014-01-01

    The role of oligosaccharides as biotic elicitors has been recognised in the enhanced production of antibiotics from fungal and bacterial cultures. The yield of bacitracin A in cultures of Bacillus licheniformis was increased after supplementation with oligoguluronate (OG), and mannan oligosaccharides (MO) and its mechanism at transcription level been established already. However, the elicitation mechanism at post transcriptional level has not been reported so far. In this paper we investigate changes in proteomics of B. licheniformis in presence of the oligosaccharide elicitors OG and MO. Differentially expressed proteins were examined using 2D-PAGE stained with colloidal Coomassie and were further identified by LC-MS/MS. We identified 19 differentially expressed proteins including those involved in carbon metabolism, energy generation, amino acid biosynthesis, oxidative and general stress response. The novel findings of this work, together with previous reports, contribute to the unravelling of the overall mechanism of elicitation in B. licheniformis cultures and reliability of the use of these elicitors for potential industrial application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasmid profiling and antibiotics resisitance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from Mytilus galloprovincialis and seawater

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    Cumhur Avşar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate plasmid DNA profiles and the antibiotic resistance of a total of 41 strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli isolated from seawater and mussel collected from 15 different sampling stations in Sinop, Turkey. Methods: Most probable number technique was used for detection of E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were determined by the disc diffusion method. Plasmid DNA of the strains was extracted by the alkaline lyses procedure. Results: According to morphological and physiological properties, it was determined that the isolates belonged to E. coli species. Antibiotic susceptibility of the strains was determined against seven standard drugs using disc diffusion method. All isolates were resistant to bacitracin (100%, novobiocin (100%, ampicillin (12.5%, tetracycline (7.5%, ceftazidime (5% and imipenem (2.5%, respectively, whereas the strains were susceptible to polymyxin B (100%. The multiple antibiotic resistance values for the strains were found in range from 0.28 to 0.57. In addition, plasmid DNA analyses results confirmed that 22 strains harbored a single or more than two plasmids sized approximately between 24.500 to 1.618 bp. The high-size plasmid (14.700 bp was observed as common in 21 of all strains. Conclusions: As a result, our study indicated that the presence of antibiotic resistant E. coli strains in seawater and mussel might be potential risk for public health issue.

  7. Current and Emerging Topical Antibacterials and Antiseptics: Agents, Action, and Resistance Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Deborah A; Carter, Glen P; Howden, Benjamin P

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial skin infections represent some of the most common infectious diseases globally. Prevention and treatment of skin infections can involve application of a topical antimicrobial, which may be an antibiotic (such as mupirocin or fusidic acid) or an antiseptic (such as chlorhexidine or alcohol). However, there is limited evidence to support the widespread prophylactic or therapeutic use of topical agents. Challenges involved in the use of topical antimicrobials include increasing rates of bacterial resistance, local hypersensitivity reactions (particularly to older agents, such as bacitracin), and concerns about the indiscriminate use of antiseptics potentially coselecting for antibiotic resistance. We review the evidence for the major clinical uses of topical antibiotics and antiseptics. In addition, we review the mechanisms of action of common topical agents and define the clinical and molecular epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in these agents. Moreover, we review the potential use of newer and emerging agents, such as retapamulin and ebselen, and discuss the role of antiseptic agents in preventing bacterial skin infections. A comprehensive understanding of the clinical efficacy and drivers of resistance to topical agents will inform the optimal use of these agents to preserve their activity in the future. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Neuropeptides as endogenous neuronal growth regulatory factors on serotonergic maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davila-Garcia, M.I.

    1989-01-01

    Products of the proopiomelanocortin molecule as well as leu- and met-enkephalin were tested for their effects on serotonergic neuronal maturation. High affinity uptake of ({sup 3}H)5-HT and morphometrics using immunocytochemistry specific for serotonergic neurons were used to monitor neuronal maturation. Cultured brainstem raphe neurons from 14 day fetuses, in the presence or absence of target tissue, were administered neuropeptides at various concentrations for 1,3 or 5 days in culture. ACTH peptides stimulate neurite length and, with the endorphins, the expression of ({sup 3}H)5-HT uptake by serotonergic fetal neurons cultured alone but had no effect when these neurons were cocultured with hippocampal target cells. A daily dose of leu-enkephalin to these cells inhibited neuronal uptake after 5 days of exposure and decreased neurite cell length in 24 hr cultures. In contrast, a single dose of leu-enkephalin at plating stimulated uptake after 5 days while co-administration of bacitracin inhibited uptake expression. Naloxone reversed the opioid effect and stimulated uptake when administered alone. Desulfated-CCK, which resembles leu-enkephalin, was equally potent as leu-enkephalin in inhibiting uptake.

  9. Efeito da pimenta rosa associada a diversas dosagens de antibióticos em frangos de corte Effect of Brazilian red pepper meal associated with different levels of antibiotics on broilers chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Gomes Gonçalves

    2012-08-01

    diet; T2: Positive Control (PC: basal diet with 1,2% BRPM; T3: PC+11ppm zinc bacitracin and 17ppm salinomycin, T4: PC + 22ppm zinc bacitracin and 34ppm salinomycin; T5: PC+33ppm zinc bacitracin and 51ppm salinomycin; T6: PC+45ppm zinc bacitracin and 67ppm salinomycin. BRPM contains tannins thus its use in animal feed needs to evaluate by liver function and animal performance. The dosage of the enzymes ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate aminotransferase and GGT (gamma glutamyltransferase is a tool in the diagnosis of liver damage. For this, were randomly collected blood samples from 10 animals per treatment between 21 and 41 days age. At 21 days of age it was observed elevated values of AST and decreased of ALT in broilers fed diet BRPM associated with higher levels of antibiotics compared to the others (P0.05. There was no effect (P>0.05 of treatments on broilers weight and relative liver weight at 43 days of age. The supplementation of Brazilian red pepper with or without antibiotics improved feed conversion at 43 days of age. It was concluded that the inclusion of 1.2% BRPM did not affect liver function but the addition of high levels of antibiotics associated with the BRPM resulted in alteration of hepatic enzymes.

  10. Expedient antibiotics production: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Byers, C.H.; Lee, D.D.

    1988-05-01

    The literature on the manufacture, separation and purification, and clinical uses of antibiotics was reviewed, and a bibliography of the pertinent material was completed. Five antimicrobial drugs, penicillin V and G, (and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid), Cephalexin (a cephalosporin), tetracycline and oxytetracycline, Bacitracin (topical), and sulfonamide (chemically produced) were identified for emergency production. Plants that manufacture antibiotics in the continental United States, Mexico, and Puerto Rico have been identified along with potential alternate sites such as those where SCP, enzyme, and fermentation ethanol are produced. Detailed process flow sheets and process descriptions have been derived from the literature and documented. This investigation revealed that a typical antibiotic-manufacturing facility is composed of two main sections: (1) a highly specialized, but generic, fermentation unit and (2) a multistep, complex separation and purification unit which is specific to a particular antibiotic product. The fermentation section requires specialized equipment for operation in a sterile environment which is not usually available in other industries. The emergency production of antibiotics under austere conditions will be feasible only if a substantial reduction in the complexity and degree of separation and purity normally required can be realized. Detailed instructions were developed to assist state and federal officials who would be directing the resumption of antibiotic production after a nuclear attack. 182 refs., 54 figs., 26 tabs.

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF ENTEROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM POULTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarkar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sixty two samples from different poultry farms of West Bengal, India were screened for the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and 109 (67.3% were found positive. Out of forty six faecal samples from ailing birds suffering from acute colibacillosis, thirty one i.e. 67.2% were positive whereas postmortem sample of intestines (62 and liver tissues (54 revealed approx 72.6% and 61.1% positivity for E. coli. Biochemical characteristic of the isolates were positive to indole, MR, nitrate and non-reactive to VP, citrate & urease test. In serotyping of the E. coli isolates mostly revealed O2, O8, O9, O19, O37, O47, O55, O69, O86, O101, O103, O109, O133, O151 and O173. The serotypes viz. O2, O8, O9, O55, O101 and O133 showed acute pathogenicity in swiss mice followed by O19, O37, O47, O69, O86, O103, O109, O151 and O173 as moderately pathogenic serotypes. Among the antimicrobial drugs tested, the sensitive drugs were cefixime (93.6%, enrofloxacin (91.8%, nitrofurantoin (88.1% and azithromycin (85.3%. The resistant drugs were tetracycline (100%, nalidixic acid (97.2%, metronidazole (92.6%, penicillin G (88.9%, gatifloxacin (77.9% and bacitracin (76.2% .

  12. Bullous Impetigo Rapid Diagnostic and Therapeutic Quiz: A Model for Assessing Basic Dermatology Knowledge of Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkin, Daren J; Grossberg, Anna L; Cohen, Bernard A

    2016-11-01

    Bullous impetigo (BI) is a common dermatologic condition, particularly in children, yet confusion regarding its diagnosis and treatment persists. This study measured pediatricians' ability to diagnose and appropriately treat BI and explored factors that might influence pediatricians' accuracy in managing BI. We administered an expert-validated survey to 64 pediatrics house staff and faculty at three Johns Hopkins Medicine facilities. The survey requested demographic information, diagnoses for five "unknown" cases, and preferred treatments for localized and widespread BI. Overall, BI was diagnosed correctly 31.9% of the time. There was little difference between house staff and faculty performance, although faculty 50 years of age and older demonstrated better diagnostic acumen. Regarding treatment of localized BI, 92% of faculty members and 84.6% of house staff listed mupirocin as first- or second-line treatment. The second most common medication listed for localized BI was bacitracin. Regarding treatment of widespread BI, faculty listed cephalexin or clindamycin as first- or second-line treatment 56.0% of the time and house staff listed one of these two medications 51.3% of the time. Results for faculty 50 years of age and older were comparable. Improved pediatrician proficiency in the diagnosis and treatment of BI is needed for safe, cost-effective management. Physician age and experience appear to have a limited effect on the accuracy of BI diagnosis and management. Future educational efforts must be directed at trainees and their instructors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Probiotics for future caries control: A short-term clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Chinnappa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare mutans streptococci levels in saliva, before and after consumption of probiotic ice-cream and curds. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free children in the age group of 12-14 years were selected and equally divided into four groups I, II, III, IV. Children in group I and II were given 100 ml probiotic ice-cream and plain ice cream respectively and group III and IV were given 100 ml probiotic curd and plain curd respectively for a period of 7 days. Saliva samples were assessed at baseline, 1 hour after consumption and after 7 days intervention period using Mitis salivarius Bacitracin agar. The number of colonies was counted and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The study revealed a reduction in salivary mutans streptococci (MS counts after 1 hour in all the groups. However after 7 days, probiotic ice-cream and curd showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001 reduction in MS counts as compared to the control ice cream and curd. The difference in the reduction of MS counts with probiotic ice-cream and probiotic curd at 1 hour and 7 days was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The use of probiotic products could be an alternative strategy of displacing pathogenic microorganisms by probiotic bacteria and can thus be exploited for the prevention of enamel demineralization.

  14. Mechanism of action of a novel recombinant peptide, MP1102, against Clostridium perfringens type C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lifen; Teng, Da; Wang, Xiumin; Mao, Ruoyu; Yang, Na; Hao, Ya; Wang, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    This work is the first to report the antibacterial characteristics and antibacterial mechanisms of MP1102, which is a variant of NZ2114, against pathogenic Clostridium perfringens. MP1102 exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against C. perfringens strains CVCC 61, CVCC 1163, and CVCC 2032 at a low minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.91 μM. MP1102 showed anti-C. perfringens activity over a wide pH range of 2.0 and 10.0, high thermal stability from 20 to 80 °C, and remarkable resistance to pepsin. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) indicated an additive or synergic effect between MP1102 and bacitracin zinc, nisin, vancomycin, virginiamycin, aureomycin, and ampicillin against C. perfringens (FICI = 0.3125-1.0). To further elucidate the antibacterial mechanism of MP1102, its effect on the C. perfringens CVCC 61 cell membrane and intracellular DNA was studied. Flow cytometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that MP1102 treatment resulted in the release of cellular contents by damaging the membrane. A DNA gel retardation and circular dichroism analysis demonstrated that MP1102 interacted with DNA and intercalated into the DNA base pairs. A cell cycle assay demonstrated that MP1102 affected cellular functions, such as DNA synthesis. These results suggested that MP1102 exhibited potential as a new antimicrobial agent against C. perfringens infections.

  15. The effectiveness of Aloe vera barbadensis bioactives on laying hens on commercial farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiurma Pasaribu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to study the effectiveness of dry gel Aloe vera (DG as a feed additive for laying hens in commercial farms. The trial was consisted of two treatments, one was control, commonly used farmer ration containing antibiotic of zinc bacitracin at 0.5 g/kg and the second feed containing DG equal to 1.0 g/kg. Every treatment had two replicates with 504 Loghman laying hens. The hen day production (% HD, egg weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR, egg quality comprising yolk colour, albumin and yolk weights, egg shell eight and thikness, and mortality were observed for 24 weeks. The results showed that feed consumption, % HD, egg weight, FCR, yolk colour, albumin weight, yolk weight, egg shell weight, and egg shell thickness were not significantly different (P>0.05 between the control and DG treatment, except for the Haugh unit (HU. Thus, it can be concluded that Aloe vera bioactives has the same effectiveness as antibiotic as a feed additive at the level of commercial farms.

  16. Crosstalk between Zinc Status and Giardia Infection: A New Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astiazarán-García, Humberto; Iñigo-Figueroa, Gemma; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Anduro-Corona, Iván

    2015-06-03

    Zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea; however, its anti-diarrheal effect remains only partially understood. There is now growing evidence that zinc can have pathogen-specific protective effects. Giardiasis is a common yet neglected cause of acute-chronic diarrheal illness worldwide which causes disturbances in zinc metabolism of infected children, representing a risk factor for zinc deficiency. How zinc metabolism is compromised by Giardia is not well understood; zinc status could be altered by intestinal malabsorption, organ redistribution or host-pathogen competition. The potential metal-binding properties of Giardia suggest unusual ways that the parasite may interact with its host. Zinc supplementation was recently found to reduce the rate of diarrhea caused by Giardia in children and to upregulate humoral immune response in Giardia-infected mice; in vitro and in vivo, zinc-salts enhanced the activity of bacitracin in a zinc-dose-dependent way, and this was not due to zinc toxicity. These findings reflect biological effect of zinc that may impact significantly public health in endemic areas of infection. In this paper, we shall explore one direction of this complex interaction, discussing recent information regarding zinc status and its possible contribution to the outcome of the encounter between the host and Giardia.

  17. Inhibition of serotonin release by bombesin-like peptides in rat hypothalamus in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saporito, M.S.; Warwick, R.O. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the activity of bombesin (BN), neuromedin-C (NM-C) and neuromedin-B (NM-B) on serotonin (5-HT) release and reuptake in rat hypothalamus (HYP) in vitro. BN and NM-C but not NM-B decreased K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release from superfused HYP slices by 25%. Bacitracin, a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of BN on K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Phosphoramidon (PAN, 10 /mu/M) an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effect of BN, but not NM-C, on K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release. The peptidyl dipeptidase A inhibitor enalaprilat (ENP, 10 /mu/M), enhanced both BN and NM-C inhibition of /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Bestatin (BST, 10 /mu/M) had no effect on BN or NM-C inhibitory activity on /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Neither BN, NM-C nor NM-B affected reuptake of /sup 3/H-5-HT into HYP synaptosomes alone or in combination with any of the peptidase inhibitors, nor did these peptides alter the ability of fluoxetine to inhibit /sup 3/H-5-HT uptake.

  18. [Outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta hemolytic group L streptococci (S. dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis) in an Austrian dairy herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martina; Giffinger, Friederike; Hoppe, Jan Christoph; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    This study is reporting an outbreak of subclinical mastitis due to beta-hemolytic group L streptococci in an Austrian dairy herd with a history of high somatic cell count. At the first survey 16 of 33 lactating cows (28 quarters of 132) were cultured positive for beta-hemolytic, CAMP and esculin negative cocci that grew on Columbia blood agar with small grey catalase negative colonies. With the commercial API 20 Strep system (bioMerieux, F) isolates were classified as members of streptococci group L. All tested strains (eight of 28) produced acid from ribose, lactose, trehalose, amidon and glycogen; they hydrolysed hippurate and showed beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase, leucinaminopeptidase and arginindehydrolase activity. Isolates were sensitive to bacitracin but resistant to tetracycline. Using phenotypic characterisation as well as sequence analysis of the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region of a representative strain, recovered isolates were identified as Streptococcus (S.) dysgalactiae ssp. equisimilis. Mastitis was characterized by normal milk secretions and absence of clinical abnormalities but high elevations of somatic cell count. Based on the characteristics of the strains and on the observations during the first herd survey, contagious transmission during milking as a result of poor milking hygiene was assumed. The mastitis was controlled through implementation of a strict hygiene protocol including use of single-use udder towels, post milking teat desinfection and cluster disinfection between milking cows in combination with antibiotic treatment of infected udders.

  19. Detection of pathogens from periodontal lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malheiros Veruska de João

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To comparatively detect A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum from periodontal and healthy sites. METHODS: Subgingival clinical samples from 50 periodontitis adult patients and 50 healthy subjects were analyzed. Both organisms were isolated using a trypticase soy agar-bacitracin-vancomycin (TSBV medium and detected by PCR. Conventional biochemical tests were used for bacteria identification. RESULTS: A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum were isolated in 18% and 20% of the patients, respectively, and in 2% and 24% of healthy subjects. Among A. actinomycetemcomitans isolates, biotype II was the most prevalent. Primer pair AA was 100% sensitive in the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans from both subject groups. Primers ASH and FU were also 100% sensitive to detect this organism in healthy subject samples. Primer pair FN5047 was more sensitive to detect F. nucleatum in patients or in healthy samples than primer 5059S. Primers ASH and 5059S were more specific in the detection of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum, respectively, in patients and in healthy subject samples. CONCLUSIONS: PCR is an effective tool for detecting periodontal pathogens in subgingival samples, providing a faster and safer diagnostic tool of periodontal diseases. The method's sensitivity and specificity is conditioned by the choice of the set of primers used.

  20. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus Species From Soil and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Properties

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    Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus species are the predominant soil bacteria because of their resistant-endospore formation and production of essential antibiotics such as bacitracin. Objectives The aim of this study was to isolate Bacillus spp. from riverside soil and investigate their antimicrobial characteristics against some pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods Fifty soil samples were collected from different sites of Bahmanshir riverside in Abadan city, Iran, and analyzed for the presence of Bacillus species. The media used in this research were nutrient broth and agar. Bacillus species were identified by their phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. The antimicrobial effects of Bacillus extract against the target bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Corynebacterium diphtheriae were examined. Results The identified Bacillus species included B. cereus (86.6%, B. subtilis (6.6%, B. thuringiensis (3.3%, and B. pumilus (3.3%. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the extracted compounds was carried out against five different bacteria. Antibiotic production tests indicated that two Bacillus strains belong to B. cereus, which showed antimicrobial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these compounds ranged between 8.34-33.34 mg/mL for the target bacteria. Conclusions This study indicated that some Bacillus species have the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds which can be used to control microbial infections.

  1. Isolation and Pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in Cultured Red Hybrid Tilapia in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, M; Ariff, M; Kahieshesfandiari, M; Daud, H M; Zamri-Saad, M; Sabri, M Y; Amal, M N A; Ina-Salwany, M Y

    2017-12-01

    This study describes the isolation and pathogenicity of Streptococcus iniae in cultured red hybrid tilapia (Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus × Mozambique Tilapia O. mossambicus) in Malaysia. The isolated gram-positive S. iniae appeared punctiform, transparently white, catalase and oxidase negative and produced complete β-hemolysis on blood agar, while a PCR assay resulted in the amplification of the 16 S rRNA gene and lactate oxidase encoded genes. The isolate was sensitive to tetracycline, vancomycin, and bacitracin but was resistant to streptomycin, ampicillin, penicillin, and erythromycin. Pathogenicity trials conducted in local red hybrid tilapia (mean ± SE = 20.00 ± 0.45 g) showed 90.0, 96.7, and 100.0% mortality within 14 d postinfection following intraperitoneal exposure to 10 4 , 10 6 , and 10 8 CFU/mL of the pathogen, respectively. The clinical signs included erratic swimming, lethargy, and inappetance at 6 h postinfection, while mortality was recorded at less than 24 h postinfection in all infected groups. The LD 50-336 h of S. iniae against the red hybrid tilapia was 10 2 CFU/mL. The post mortem examinations revealed congested livers, kidneys, and spleens of the infected fish. This is the first report of S. iniae experimental infection in cultured red hybrid tilapia in Malaysia. Received January 20, 2017; accepted July 16, 2017.

  2. Protein disulfide isomerases: Impact of thapsigargin treatment on their expression in melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Zélia; Veríssimo, Teresa; Videira, Paula A; Novo, Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Anti-cancer treatments usually elevate the content of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here we aimed to get insights into the relation between sensitivity of melanoma cell lines to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin (THG) and the genetic expression of protein disulfide isomerase family members (PDIs). The expression of PDIs was analysed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. The results showed that SK-MEL-30, the less THG sensitive cell line, displays higher basal PDIs' expression levels and the sensitivity is increased by the PDIs inhibitor bacitracin. While SK-MEL-30 PDIs' expression is not THG dose-dependent, an increase in glucose related protein 78 (GRP78), PDIA5, PDIA6, and thioredoxin-related-transmembrane proteins' (TMX3 and TMX4) expression, in response to higher drug concentrations, was observed in MNT-1. The differences in PDIs' gene expression in MNT-1 suggest a different response to ER stress compared to the other cell lines and highlight the importance of understanding the diversity among cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical use of photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy for the treatment of deep carious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, Camila de Almeida B; Simionato, Maria Regina L; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Imparato, José Carlos P; Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz; Luz, Maria A A C

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) via irradiation, using a low power laser associated with a photosensitization dye, as an alternative to remove cariogenic microorganisms by drilling. Remaining dentinal samples in deep carious lesions on permanent molars (n = 26) were treated with 0.01% methylene blue dye and irradiated with a low power laser (InGaAIP - indium gallium aluminum phosphide; λ = 660 nm; 100 mW; 320 Jcm(-2); 90 s; 9J). Samples of dentin from the pulpal wall region were collected with a micropunch before and immediately after PACT and kept in a transport medium for microbiological analysis. Samples were cultured in plates of Brucella blood agar, Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Rogosa SL agar to determine the total viable bacteria, mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus spp. counts, respectively. After incubation, colony-forming units were counted and microbial reduction was calculated for each group of bacteria. PACT led to statistically significant reductions in mutans streptococci (1.38 log), Lactobacillus spp. (0.93 log), and total viable bacteria (0.91 log). This therapy may be an appropriate approach for the treatment of deep carious lesions using minimally invasive procedures.

  4. Incidence and outcome of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal bacteremia following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, D; Dorsky, D; Feingold, J M; Bona, R D; Edwards, R L; Aslanzadeh, J; Tutschka, P J; Bilgrami, S

    2000-01-01

    A retrospective evaluation of 321 consecutive recipients of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) was conducted to ascertain the incidence and outcome of vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteremia. Ten patients developed VRE bacteremia at a median of 6 days following PBSCT. Nine isolates were Enterococcus faecium and one was E. faecalis. The median duration of bacteremia was 5 days. The central venous catheter was removed in seven individuals. Nine patients were treated with a variety of antimicrobial agents including quinupristin-dalfopristin, chloramphenicol, doxycycline, oral bacitracin, co-trimoxazole, and nitrofurantoin. Bacteremia resolved without adverse sequelae in seven patients. Two individuals who died of other causes had persistent or relapsed bacteremia at the time of death. An additional patient suffered multiple relapses of VRE bacteremia and died as a result of VRE endocarditis 605 days following PBSCT. Mortality as a direct result of VRE bacteremia was 10% in this series. The optimal type and duration of treatment of VRE bacteremia has not been clearly defined. Therefore, we perform weekly stool surveillance cultures for VRE in our hospitalized transplant population and apply strict barrier precautions in those individuals in whom stool colonization has been identified. Furthermore, the empiric use of vancomycin has been restricted. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 147-152.

  5. The decreased of Streptococcus Mutans growth after topical application of phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Faradina Araf

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate (CPP-ACP paste is a topical application substance that consisted of a series of milk derivative peptide as a result of phosphorylation and has an antibacterial activity. The objective of this research was to find out the difference of Streptococcus mutans growth before and after CPP-ACP paste given topically to child's teeth. The method of the research was a quasi-experiment. Research samples were 10 students of MI Al Falah Islamic Boarding School, Jatinangor, West Jawa Indonesia and collected with purposive sampling technique. This research used dental plaque from child's teeth before and after applicated by CPP-ACP paste. The plaque was cultivated in selective media Tryptone Yeast Cysteine Sucrose Bacitracin (TYCSB with repeated twice. Streptococcus mutans colony in TYCSB were counted by Stuart colony counter and statistically analyzed based on paired t-test. The results showed the average of Streptococcus mutans growth before applicated CPP-ACP paste was 57.05, whereas after applicated CPP-ACP paste for 1 days was 9.4; for 3 days was 2.85, and for 14 days was 1.7 colony. The research concluded that there was a decrease of Streptococcus mutans growth in isolate plaque after CPP-ACP paste topically given to child's teeth.

  6. Phytobiotic Utilization as Feed Additive in Feed for Pancreatic Enzyme Activity of Broiler Chicken

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    Sri Purwanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of turmeric water extract, garlic and combination turmeric and garlic as a feed additive in the broiler diet on pancreatic enzyme activity of broiler chicken. Effectivity of treatments was assessed by addition of phytobiotic (control, 015% zinc bacitracin, 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE, 2.5% TGE which were arranged Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications. The variables measured were pancreatic enzyme activity(amylase enzyme activity, protease enzyme activity  and lipase enzyme activity.The results showed that enzyme protein activity content of 2.5% TE supplementation is also high at 82.02 U/ml, then supplemented 2.5% TGE, 2.0% GE, negative control and positive control respectively 75.98 ; 72.02; 68.74; and 66.57 U/ml. The lipase enzyme activity whereas the negative control and a positive control differ significantly higher (P<0.05 to treatment with the addition of 2.5% TE, 2.0% GE and 2.5% TGE phytobiotic. The research concluded that the incorporation of 2.5% TE, 2% GE and combined 2.5% TGE as feed additive enhanced pancreatic enzyme activity.

  7. Glycoprotein biosynthesis by human normal platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Bello, O.; Apitz-Castro, R.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporation of radioactive Man, Gal, Fuc, Glc-N, and NANA into washed human normal platelets and endogenous glycoproteins has been found. Both parameters were time dependent. Analysis of hydrolyzed labeled glycoproteins by paper chromatography revealed that the radioactive monosaccharide incubated with the platelets had not been converted into other sugars. Acid hydrolysis demonstrates the presence of a glycosidic linkage. All the effort directed to the demonstration of the existence of a lipid-sugar intermediate in intact human platelets yielded negative results for Man and Glc-N used as precursors. The incorporation of these sugars into glycoproteins is insensitive to bacitracin, suggesting no involvement of lipid-linked saccharides in the synthesis of glycoproteins in human blood platelets. The absence of inhibition of the glycosylation process in the presence of cycloheximide suggests that the sugars are added to proteins present in the intact platelets. These results support the contention that glycoprotein biosynthesis in human blood platelets observed under our experimental conditions is effected through direct sugar nucleotide glycosylation

  8. Biogenic nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity and their synergistic effect with broad spectrum antibiotics: Emerging strategy to combat drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Baker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study emphasizes on synthesis of bimetallic silver–gold nanoparticles from cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii strain AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated techniques with UV–Visible spectra ascertained absorbance peak between 400 and 800 nm. Possible interaction of biomolecules in mediating and stabilization of nanoparticles was depicted with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. X-ray diffraction (XRD displayed Bragg’s peak conferring the 100, 111, 200, and 220 facets of the face centered cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. Size and shape of the nanoparticles were determined using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM microgram with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm forming myriad shapes. Antibacterial activity of nanoparticles against significant human pathogens was conferred with well diffusion assay and its synergistic effect with standard antibiotics revealed 87.5% fold increased activity with antibiotic “bacitracin” against bacitracin resistant strains Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by kanamycin with 18.5%, gentamicin with 11.15%, streptomycin with 10%, erythromycin with 9.7% and chloramphenicol with 9.4%. Thus the study concludes with biogenic and ecofriendly route for synthesizing nanoparticles with antibacterial activity against drug resistant pathogens and attributes growing interest on endophytes as an emerging source for synthesis of nanoparticles.

  9. Microbiology of keribo fermentation: an Ethiopian traditional fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawari, Rashid Abafita

    2013-10-15

    Keribo is an indigenous traditional fermented beverage and is being served on holidays, wedding ceremony and also used as sources of income of many households in Jimma zone. The aim of this study was to document the microbiology of the product and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of LAB. Samples of Keribo were collected from Jimma town and four of its districts. Keribo was fermented in the laboratory following the traditional techniques for microbial succession monitored at 6 h intervals. Finally, dominant LAB was evaluated for their antibiotic susceptibility patterns against eight antibiotics. Samples of Keribo from open markets and households in Jimma zone showed average Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Aerobic Mesophilic Bacteria (AMB), Aerobic Spore-formers (ASF) and yeasts with mean counts of (log CFU mL(-1)) 2.70 +/- 2.07, 2.34 +/- 2.37, 4.96 +/- 2.80 and 2.01 +/- 0.60, respectively. The mean counts of Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci and moulds were below detectable levels. The early stage was dominated by AMB and ASF. However, the mean counts of LAB increased exponentially for the first 30 h and remain constant thereafter. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, identified as the most dominant LAB, were found to be susceptible to penicillin G, gentamicin, ampicilin, chloramphenicol, amikacin, bacitracin and norfloxacin but resistant to vancomycin.

  10. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIBIOTICS WHICH INHIBIT SYNTHESIS OF BACTERIAL CELL WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mujezinović

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell possess a cell wall, which is a main difference from mammalian cells. Its basic function is to provide the strength of bacteria, keeps its shape and provides an unusually high internal osmotic pressure. Synthesis of (construction of bacterial cell wall occurs in at least three phases. All of these three phases can be influence by a variety of antibiotics in way to inhibit its synthesis. The most important drugs that act in this manner are ß-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins and other ß-lactams. They interfere with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. After attachment to penicillin binding proteins (PBP on bacteria, they inhibit the transpeptidation enzyme that cross-links the peptide chain attached to the backbone of the peptidoglycan. The final bactericidal event is the inactivation of an inhibitor of autolytic enzymes in the cell wall, wich leads to lysis of the bacteria. Vancomycin inhibits the release of the building block unit from the carrier, thus preventing its addition to the growing end of the peptidoglycan. Cycloserine, which is a structural analogue of D-alanine, prevents the addition of the two terminal alanine residue to the initial tripeptide side-chain on N-acetylmuramic acid by competitive inhibition. Bacitracin interferes with the regeneration of the lipid carrier by blocking its dephosphorylation. Key words: bacterial cell wall, paptidoglycan, antibiotics, ß-lactams

  11. Simultaneous determination of eight cyclopolypeptide antibiotics in feed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporation light scattering detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xuqin; Xie, Jingmeng; Zhang, Meiyu; Zhang, Yingxia; Li, Jiufeng; Huang, Qiwen; He, Limin

    2018-02-15

    A high throughput, reliable and reproducible analysis strategy based on high performance liquid chromatography combined to evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for simultaneous determination of eight cyclopolypeptide antibiotics including vancomycin, polymyxin B (polymyxin B1 and polymyxin B2), polymyxin E (colistin A and colistin B), teicoplanin, bacitracin A, daptomycin and virginiamycin M1 in animal Feed. Feed samples were extracted with methanol-2% formic acid aqueous solution, followed by a solid-phase extraction step using a HLB cartridge. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions and ELSD parameters, target compounds were separated well on a short column filled with biphenyl stationary phase. The method was developed in accordance with pig complete feed and then extended to detect polypeptide antibiotics in piglet premix, pig feed additive, poultry complete feed and fattening pig premix. The results showed that logarithmic calibration curves of eight analytes were linear (r 2  > 0.99) within the concentration range of 5-200 mg mL -1 . The developed method provided good accuracy and precision for quantification of eight polypeptides in five kinds of feeds with recoveries ranging from 72.0% to 105.4% with relative standard deviations <9.5%. The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 5 mg kg -1 . Finally, the method was successfully applied to analyze polypeptide antibiotics in commercial feed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Conserved Hydrolase Responsible for the Cleavage of Aminoacylphosphatidylglycerol in the Membrane of Enterococcus faecium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angela M.; Harrison, Jesse S.; Sprague, Kevin M.; Roy, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Aminoacylphosphatidylglycerol synthases (aaPGSs) are enzymes that transfer amino acids from aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs) to phosphatidylglycerol (PG) to form aa-PG in the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. aa-PGs provide bacteria with resistance to a range of antimicrobial compounds and stress conditions. Enterococcus faecium encodes a triple-specific aaPGS (RakPGS) that utilizes arginine, alanine, and lysine as substrates. Here we identify a novel hydrolase (AhyD), encoded immediately adjacent to rakPGS in E. faecium, which is responsible for the hydrolysis of aa-PG. The genetic synteny of aaPGS and ahyD is conserved in >60 different bacterial species. Deletion of ahyD in E. faecium resulted in increased formation of Ala-PG and Lys-PG and increased sensitivity to bacitracin. Our results suggest that AhyD and RakPGS act together to maintain optimal levels of aa-PG in the bacterial membrane to confer resistance to certain antimicrobial compounds and stress conditions. PMID:23793054

  13. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials on gene acquisition events in Yersinia, Proteus, Shigella, and Salmonella recipient organisms in isolated ligated intestinal loops of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Anderson, Kristi L; Carlson, Steve A

    2013-08-01

    To assess antimicrobial resistance and transfer of virulence genes facilitated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials in swine intestines. 20 anesthetized pigs experimentally inoculated with donor and recipient bacteria. 4 recipient pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, or Proteus mirabilis) were incubated with donor bacteria in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of 1 of 16 antimicrobials in isolated ligated intestinal loops in swine. Donor Escherichia coli contained transferrable antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes. After coincubations, intestinal contents were removed and assessed for pathogens that acquired new antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes following exposure to the subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. 3 antimicrobials (apramycin, lincomycin, and neomycin) enhanced transfer of an antimicrobial resistance plasmid from commensal E coli organisms to Yersinia and Proteus organisms, whereas 7 antimicrobials (florfenicol, hygromycin, penicillin G, roxarsone, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, and tylosin) exacerbated transfer of an integron (Salmonella genomic island 1) from Salmonella organisms to Yersinia organisms. Sulfamethazine induced the transfer of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 from pathogenic to nonpathogenic Salmonella organisms. Six antimicrobials (bacitracin, carbadox, erythromycin, sulfathiazole, tiamulin, and virginiamycin) did not mediate any transfer events. Sulfamethazine was the only antimicrobial implicated in 2 types of transfer events. 10 of 16 antimicrobials at subinhibitory or subtherapeutic concentrations augmented specific antimicrobial resistance or transfer of virulence genes into pathogenic bacteria in isolated intestinal loops in swine. Use of subtherapeutic antimicrobials in animal feed may be associated with unwanted collateral effects.

  14. Fate and transport of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Stacey R; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

    2013-01-01

    Due to the use of antimicrobials in livestock production, residual antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) could enter the environment following the land application of animal wastes and could further contaminate surface and groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various manure land application methods on the fate and transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry. Swine manure slurries were obtained from facilities housing pigs that were fed chlortetracyline, tylosin or bacitracin and were land applied via broadcast, incorporation, and injection methods. Three rainfall simulation tests were then performed on amended and control plots. Results show that land application methods had no statistically significant effect on the aqueous concentrations of antimicrobials in runoff. However, among the three application methods tested broadcast resulted in the highest total mass loading of antimicrobials in runoff from the three rainfall simulation tests. The aqueous concentrations of chlortetracyline and tylosin in runoff decreased in consecutive rainfall events, although the trend was only statistically significant for tylosin. For ARGs, broadcast resulted in significantly higher erm genes in runoff than did incorporation and injection methods. In soil, the effects of land application methods on the fate of antimicrobials in top soil were compound specific. No clear trend was observed in the ARG levels in soil, likely because different host cells may respond differently to the soil environments created by various land application methods.

  15. Characterization of extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolated from a peacock (Pavo cristatus) with colisepticemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Tejkowski, Thiago Moreira; de Oliveira, Aline Luisa; de Brito, Benito Guimarães; Horn, Fabiana

    2012-06-01

    Extraintestinal infections by avian pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (APEC) are commonly reported in poultry, but there is little information on infections by APEC in other bird species. Here we report on the characterization of extraintestinal E. coli isolated from a domesticated peacock, from the south of Brazil, that died of colisepticemia. Necropsy examination revealed congested liver, hypertrophied kidneys, peritonitis, severe typhlitis suggestive of coligranuloma, pneumonia, and airsacculitis--typical signs of colisepticemia. The isolates from lungs, kidney, heart, intestine, liver, and bone marrow all harbored the same virulence-associated factors (iucD, colV, iss, mat, fimC, ompA, traT crl, csgA vgrG, and hcp), yielded the same band pattern in amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis, and were allocated to the Escherichia coli Reference Collection group B1. The isolates were resistant to bacitracin, trimethoprim, and tetracycline, but displayed slight differences in their resistance to other antimicrobials. The isolates also differed in their virulence in 1-day-old chickens, but none displayed high virulence in vivo. We conclude that the peacock died of colisepticemia after it was infected with an extraintestinal E. coli strain of low virulence that nevertheless harbored virulence factors generally associated with APEC. This study represents the first characterization of an APEC isolated from a nonpoultry bird species.

  16. Immunoreactive insulin and insulin-degrading activity in rat fecal extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillion, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The insulin-degrading activity and insulin content of aqueous extracts of rat fecal material isolated from the proximal colon were measured by radioimmunoassay in the presence and absence of various inhibitors of proteolysis. In the absence of protease inhibitors, up to 40% of the [ 125 I]-insulin present in radioimmunoassay tubes was degraded to a form that was not precipitated by trichloroacetic acid. In the presence of bacitracin, EDTA or a mixture of protease inhibitors, insulin degradation was diminished to 125 I]-insulin by the aqueous fecal extract was time- and temperature-dependent. Fecal samples obtained from streptozotocin-diabetic rats contained reduced amounts of insulin, suggesting that the fecal insulin was produced partially, but not exclusively, in the pancreas. These results indicate that fecal material in the rat proximal colon contains small amounts of insulin, as well as a rich supply of insulinase activity, and that insulin receptors located on the mucosal surface of proximal colon epithelial cells may be exposed to insulin in vivo

  17. .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseli Alves Ferreira Zanato

    2008-01-01

    for growing rabbits. Twenty 50-day-old rabbits were used. A completely randomized experimental design, with fi ve treatments and four replicates each, was used. The applied treatments (T were the following: T1 = negative control diet (no growth promoter; T2 = diet with antibiotic, positive control (0.05% zinc bacitracin; T3 = diet with probiotic (0.15% Bacillus subtillis at a concentration of 109 UFC/g; T4 = diet with prebiotic (0.15% phosphorylated mananoligossaccharide at 30%; and T5 = diet with symbiotic (probiotic + prebiotic. The experimental period lasted 12 days, seven for adaptation to the experimental diets and to the cages, and fi ve days of feces collection. The apparent digestibility coeffi cients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fi ber, acid detergent fi ber, mineral matter, and ether extract were calculated. The addition of a probiotic and of a symbiotic to the rabbit diet resulted indigestibility similar to that of animals fed diets containing antibiotics or no additive at all. The best digestibility results were obtained with the prebiotic.

  18. Digestibility of diets containing an antibiotic, a probiotic and a prebiotic in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a probiotic and/or prebiotic additive on the nutrient digestibility of diets for growing rabbits. Twenty 50-day-old rabbits were used. A completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments and four replicates each, was used. The applied treatments (T were the following: T1 = negative control diet (no growth promoter; T2 = diet with antibiotic, positive control (0.05% zinc bacitracin; T3 = diet with probiotic (0.15% Bacillus subtillis at a concentration of 109 UFC/g; T4 = diet with prebiotic (0.15% phosphorylated mananoligossaccharide at 30%; and T5 = diet with symbiotic (probiotic + prebiotic. The experimental period lasted 12 days, seven for adaptation to the experimental diets and to the cages, and five days of feces collection. The apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter, and ether extract were calculated. The addition of a probiotic and of a symbiotic to the rabbit diet resulted in digestibility similar to that of animals fed diets containing antibiotics or no additive at all. The best digestibility results were obtained with the prebiotic.

  19. Pattern of Infection and Antibiotic Activity among Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from Adults in Mashhad, Iran

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    Masoumeh Malek-Jafarian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the main causes of sexually transmitted diseases is group B β- hemolytic streptococci (GBS multiplying in the genital tracts. Penicillin is the most common drug for the treatment of infections caused by these bacteria, but in patients suffering from Penicillin allergy, Erythromycin and Clindamycin are used as alternative therapeutic drugs against GBS. Recently, resistance to these drugs has been reported more often. In this study, efforts have been made to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of GBS. Methods: Modified Christie Atkins Munch-Petersen (CAMP test was conducted on over 2400 samples of urine and discharge taken from vagina, urethra and prostate. The drug sensitivity was performed by double disk sensitivity tests to Bacitracin, Trimethoprim, and Sulfamethoxazole and then the resistant samples were investigated by E-test to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs value. Results: Twenty-three vaginal and 10 urethral discharge, 27urine and 6 prostatic secretion samples were GBS positive. The most symbiotic microorganisms with GBS were strains of Enterococci (90%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25% and Candida albicans (6%. The disk diffusion method showed 18 cases with Penicillin resistance (MIC: 1.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: Taken together, GBS carriers’ rate in this study was found 20.65% (8.24% men and 12.4% women. Furthermore, findings showed high-level resistance to Erythromycin and Clindamycin.

  20. Effect of plant extracts derived from thyme on male broiler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Fahimeh; Hassanabadi, Ahmad; Golian, Abolghasem; Nassiri-Moghaddam, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    The effect of dietary thyme-oil extract (TOE) supplementation on immune functions of broilers were assessed by feeding graded levels (50, 100, 200, or 400 ppm) of TOE to male broiler chicks during a 42-d feeding trial compared with negative- or positive-control diets. Dietary control treatments included a negative-control diet with no feed-additive supplementation and 2 positive-control groups supplemented with either virginiamycin or zinc bacitracin. In total, 300 1-day-old Ross × Ross male broilers were randomly assigned to 6 dietary treatments that consisted of 5 replicates of 10 birds each. On d 21 and 42, 2 birds from each replicate were killed by cervical cutting to measure the relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius. At 25 d of age, chicks were injected with 0.5 mL of 10% SRBC suspension. Broilers fed with 200 ppm of TOE had heavier weights of bursa of Fabricius than those fed other dietary treatments at d 42 of age. Furthermore, dietary inclusion of 100 ppm of TOE resulted in higher (P < 0.05) total immunoglobulin response in primary antibody titer against sheep erythrocytes compared with other dietary treatments. On the other hand, diet modifications had no significant effect on blood leukocyte subpopulations and heterophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with TOE, especially at the level of 100 ppm, can improve immunological responses of broiler chicks. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Associations between off-label feed additives and farm size, veterinary consultant use, and animal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, C E; Cox, B D; Straw, B E; Bush, E J; Hurd, H S

    1997-07-01

    Data from the United States National Swine Survey collected by the National Animal Health Monitoring System were used to describe the use of feed additives in swine feeds. Data were collected from 710 farms. The concentration of feed additives expressed in grams per ton of complete feed was described by stage of production, and the use of feed additives above the labeled treatment levels (i.e. off-label) was identified. Of the 3328 feeds, about 79% contained feed additives used in the labeled manner. For all classes of pigs, the prevalence of labeled feed additive use was greater than 75%. Penicillin was used according to its label most often, followed by apramycin, bacitracin, tetracyclines, lincomycin, and tylosin. Carbadox had the highest prevalence of off-label use. Of the 699 feeds that included feed additives in an off-label manner, about 57% included additives at greater than the recommended concentrations or were fed to an incorrect class of pig. About 56% of the feeds had off-label combinations of additives. Small farms were more likely to use rations with no feed additives than intermediate or large farms (P consultant were 2.1 times more likely to use feeds with feed additives (P < 0.0001).

  2. A global perspective on the use, sales, exposure pathways, occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Ajit K; Meyer, Michael T; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2006-10-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are widely used in many countries worldwide to treat disease and protect the health of animals. They are also incorporated into animal feed to improve growth rate and feed efficiency. As antibiotics are poorly adsorbed in the gut of the animals, the majority is excreted unchanged in faeces and urine. Given that land application of animal waste as a supplement to fertilizer is often a common practice in many countries, there is a growing international concern about the potential impact of antibiotic residues on the environment. Frequent use of antibiotics has also raised concerns about increased antibiotic resistance of microorganisms. We have attempted in this paper to summarize the latest information available in the literature on the use, sales, exposure pathways, environmental occurrence, fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in animal agriculture. The review has focused on four important groups of antibiotics (tylosin, tetracycline, sulfonamides and, to a lesser extent, bacitracin) giving a background on their chemical nature, fate processes, occurrence, and effects on plants, soil organisms and bacterial community. Recognising the importance and the growing debate, the issue of antibiotic resistance due to the frequent use of antibiotics in food-producing animals is also briefly covered. The final section highlights some unresolved questions and presents a way forward on issues requiring urgent attention.

  3. Incidence and characterization of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus milleri and differentiation from S. pyogenes (group A), S. equisimilis (group C), and large-colony group G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J; Yajko, D M; Hadley, W K

    1985-01-01

    The biochemical characteristics of 172 clinical isolates of group A, C, F, or G or "nongroupable" beta-hemolytic streptococci were examined. Among these isolates, 91 were identified as beta-hemolytic strains of Streptococcus milleri. The remaining isolates included 20 Streptococcus pyogenes, 21 Streptococcus equisimilis, 37 large-colony group G streptococci, and 3 unidentified nongroupable isolates. A majority (84%) of the S. milleri strains possessed Lancefield group antigen (3 A, 27 C, 41 F, and 5 G), whereas 15 S. milleri strains (16%) were nongroupable. Serological tests did not differentiate S. milleri isolates with group A, C, or G antigen from S. pyogenes (group A), S. equisimilis (group C), or large-colony group G streptococci. Biochemical tests which were found useful for differentiation included the Voges-Proskauer test, hydrolysis of pyroglutamic acid and beta-D-glucuronide, bacitracin susceptibility, and acid production from ribose. S. milleri represented 56% of the group C, 100% of the group F, and 83% of the nongroupable beta-hemolytic streptococci isolated in our clinical laboratory, whereas the incidence of S. milleri among group A and group G streptococci was estimated to be low. The role of beta-hemolytic S. milleri as a cause of human infection remains obscured by the failure to routinely differentiate S. milleri from other beta-hemolytic streptococci. PMID:3902878

  4. Variable antibiotic susceptibility patterns among Streptomyces species causing actinomycetoma in man and animals

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    Hamid Mohamed E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug therapy is recommended in conjunction with surgery in treatment of actinomycetoma. The specific prescription depends on the type of bacteria (actinomycetoma or fungi (eumycetoma causing the disease and their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Objectives To investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility among isolates of Streptomyces spp. isolated from cases of actinomycetoma in man and animals in Sudan. Methods Streptomyces strains (n = 18 isolated from cases of actinomycetoma were tested in vitro against 15 commonly prescribed antibacterial agents using MIC agar dilution method as per standard guidelines. Results Streptomyces strains isolated from actinomycetoma fall into various phenotypic groups. All of the strains were inhibited by novobiocin (8 μg/mL, gentamycin (8, 32 μg/mL and doxycycline (32 μg/mL. Fusidic acid (64 μg/mL inhibited 94.4% of the strains; bacitracin, streptomycin, cephaloridine, clindamycin, ampicillin, rifampicin and tetracycline (64 μg/mL inhibited between 61.1 and 77.8% of the strains. All strains were found resistant to amphotericin B (64 μg/mL, penicillin (20 μg/mL and sulphamethoxazole (64 μg/mL. Conclusions Saprophytic Streptomyces spp. cause actinomycetoma in man and animal belong to separate phenotypes and have a wide range of susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents, which pose a lot of difficulties in selecting effective in vivo treatment for actinomycetoma.

  5. Efeito de antibiótico e probióticos sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte Effect of antibiotic and probiotic on the performance and carcass yield of broilers

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    G.S.S. Corrêa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 3.000 pintos de corte em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco repetições de 150 aves por unidade experimental para avaliar o efeito de promotores de crescimento sobre o consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar de frangos de corte. As dietas experimentais foram: 1- dieta inicial (20,2% de proteína bruta e 2931kcal de energia metabolizável de 1 a 20 dias de idade (DI e dieta final (18,5% de proteína bruta e 2993kcal de energia metabolizável de 21 a 40 dias de idade (DF; 2- DI mais 0,02% do probiótico Calsporin 10 para a fase inicial e DF mais 0,02% do probiótico Calsporin 10 para a fase final; 3- DI mais 2,0% de probiótico Estibion aves na fase inicial e DF mais 0,63% do probiótico Estibion aves para a fase final; 4- DI mais 0,013% do antibiótico bacitracina de zinco para a fase inicial e DF mais 0,013% do antibiótico bacitracina de zinco para a fase final. Na fase inicial os frangos alimentados com dietas contendo probióticos consumiram menos ração e tiveram melhor conversão alimentar. Os promotores de crescimento não tiveram efeito sobre as variáveis estudadas na fase final e no período total de criação. Observou-se maior peso de coxa para machos alimentados com dietas contendo o poliprobiótico.A completely randomized design with five replicates and 150 chicks per experimental unity were used to evaluate the effect of growth promoters on feed intake, weight gain and feed:weight gain ratio of broilers. The experimental diets were: 1- initial diet (20.2% of crude protein and 2931kcal of metabolizable energy from 1 to 20 days of age (ID and final diet (18.5% of crude protein and 2993kcal of metabolizable energy from 21 to 40 days of age (FD; 2- ID plus 0.02% of Calsporin10 probiotic and FD plus 0.02% of Calsporin10 probiotic; 3- ID plus 2.0% of probiotic Estibion and FD plus 0.63% of probiotic Estibion; 4- ID plus 0.013% of Zinc bacitracin and FD plus 0.013% of Zinc bacitracin. During

  6. Metagenomic and network analysis reveal wide distribution and co-occurrence of environmental antibiotic resistance genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Yang, Ying; Ma, Liping; Ju, Feng; Guo, Feng; Tiedje, James M; Zhang, Tong

    2015-11-01

    A metagenomic approach and network analysis was used to investigate the wide-spectrum profiles of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and their co-occurrence patterns in 50 samples from 10 typical environments. In total, 260 ARG subtypes belonging to 18 ARG types were detected with an abundance range of 5.4 × 10(-6)-2.2 × 10(-1) copy of ARG per copy of 16S-rRNA gene. The trend of the total ARG abundances in environments matched well with the levels of anthropogenic impacts on these environments. From the less impacted environments to the seriously impacted environments, the total ARG abundances increased up to three orders of magnitude, that is, from 3.2 × 10(-3) to 3.1 × 10(0) copy of ARG per copy of 16S-rRNA gene. The abundant ARGs were associated with aminoglycoside, bacitracin, β-lactam, chloramphenicol, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin, quinolone, sulphonamide and tetracycline, in agreement with the antibiotics extensively used in human medicine or veterinary medicine/promoters. The widespread occurrences and abundance variation trend of vancomycin resistance genes in different environments might imply the spread of vancomycin resistance genes because of the selective pressure resulting from vancomycin use. The simultaneous enrichment of 12 ARG types in adult chicken faeces suggests the coselection of multiple ARGs in this production system. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that samples belonging to the same environment generally possessed similar ARG compositions. Based on the co-occurrence pattern revealed by network analysis, tetM and aminoglycoside resistance protein, the hubs of the ARG network, are proposed to be indicators to quantitatively estimate the abundance of 23 other co-occurring ARG subtypes by power functions.

  7. Isolation and characterization of an insulin-degrading enzyme from Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.V.; Fenton, B.W.; Rosner, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    An insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) from the cytoplasm of Drosophila Kc cells has been purified and characterized. The purified enzyme is a monomer with an s value of 7.2 S, an apparent K/sub m/ for porcine insulin of 3 μM, and a specific activity of 3.3 nmol of porcine insulin degraded/(min x mg). N-Terminal sequence analysis of the gel-purified enzyme gave a single, serine-rich sequence. The Drosophila IDE shares a number of properties in common with its mammalian counterpart. The enzyme could be specifically affinity-labeled with [ 125 I]insulin, has a molecular weight of 110K, and has a pI of 5.3. Although Drosophila Kc cells grow at room temperature, the optimal enzyme activity assay conditions parallel those of the mammalian IDE: 37 0 C and a pH range of 7-8. The Drosophila IDE activity, like the mammalian enzymes, is inhibited by bacitracin and sulfhydryl-specific reagents. Similarly, the Drosophila IDE activity is insensitive to glutathione as well as protease inhibitors such as aprotinin and leupeptin. Insulin-like growth factor II, equine insulin, and porcine insulin compete for degradation of [ 125 I]insulin at comparable concentrations (approximately 10 -6 M), whereas insulin-like growth factor I and the individual A and B chains of insulin are less effective. The high degree of evolutionary conservation between the Drosophila and mammalian IDE suggest an important role for this enzyme in the metabolism of insulin and also provides further evidence for the existence of a complete insulin-like system in invertebrate organisms such as Drosophila

  8. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Cardoso, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; Akisue, Gokithi; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Santos Júnior, Paulo Villela

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  9. Microbial composition in different gut locations of weaning piglets receiving antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaifeng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to examine shifts in the composition of the bacterial population in the intestinal tracts (ITs of weaning piglets by antibiotic treatment using high-throughput sequencing. Methods Sixty 28-d-old weaning piglets were randomly divided into two treatment groups. The Control group was treated with a basal diet without antibiotics. The Antibiotic group’s basal diet contained colistin sulfate at a concentration of 20 g per ton and bacitracin zinc at a concentration of 40 g per ton. All of the pigs were fed for 28 days. Then, three pigs were killed, and the luminal contents of the jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon were collected for DNA extraction and high-throughput sequencing. Results The results showed that the average daily weight gain of the antibiotic group was significantly greater (p0.05, than the control group. A total of 812,607 valid reads were generated. Thirty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs that were found in all of the samples were defined as core OTUs. Twenty-one phyla were identified, and approximately 90% of the classifiable sequences belonged to the phylum Firmicutes. Forty-two classes were identified. Of the 232 genera identified, nine genera were identified as the core gut microbiome because they existed in all of the tracts. The proportion of the nine core bacteria varied at the different tract sites. A heat map was used to understand how the numbers of the abundant genera shifted between the two treatment groups. Conclusion At different tract sites the relative abundance of gut microbiota was different. Antibiotics could cause shifts in the microorganism composition and affect the composition of gut microbiota in the different tracts of weaning piglets.

  10. Alternative Growth Promoters Modulate Broiler Gut Microbiome and Enhance Body Weight Gain

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    Serajus Salaheen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs are frequently used to enhance weight-gain in poultry production. However, there has been increasing concern over the impact of AGP on the emergence of antibiotic resistance in zoonotic bacterial pathogens in the microbial community of the poultry gut. In this study, we adopted mass-spectrophotometric, phylogenetic, and shotgun-metagenomic approaches to evaluate bioactive phenolic extracts (BPE from blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum and blackberry (Rubus fruticosus pomaces as AGP alternatives in broilers. We conducted two trials with 100 Cobb-500 broiler chicks (in each trial in four equal groups that were provided water with no supplementation, supplemented with AGP (tylosin, neomycin sulfate, bacitracin, erythromycin, and oxytetracycline, or supplemented with 0.1 g Gallic acid equivalent (GAE/L or 1.0 g GAE/L (during the last 72 h before euthanasia of BPE for 6 weeks. When compared with the control group (water only, the chickens supplemented with AGP and 0.1 g GAE/L of BPE gained 9.5 and 5.8% more body weight, respectively. The microbiomes of both the AGP- and BPE-treated chickens had higher Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratios. AGP supplementation appeared to be associated with higher relative abundance of bacteriophages and unique cecal resistomes compared with BPE supplementation or control. Functional characterization of cecal microbiomes revealed significant animal-to-animal variation in the relative abundance of genes involved in energy and carbohydrate metabolism. These findings established a baseline upon which mechanisms of plant-based performance enhancers in regulation of animal growth can be investigated. In addition, the data will aid in designing alternate strategies to improve animal growth performance and consequently production.

  11. Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of mastitis in buffalo in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Elizabeth S; França, Chirles A; Krewer, Carina da C; Peixoto, Renata de M; de Souza, Aldo F; Cavalcante, Marielly B; da Costa, Mateus M; Mota, Rinaldo A

    2011-07-01

    Persistent buffalo mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. gives rise to economic losses and may be resistant to antimicrobial therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine resistance patterns and the presence of mecA, blaZ, and efflux pump in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cases of mastitis in Brazilian buffalo herds. Susceptibility to antimicrobials was determined by the disk diffusion test and detection of the mecA and blaZ genes by polymerase chain reaction. The efflux pump screening test was performed by growing samples in Muller-Hinton agar containing ethidium bromide. The percentages for resistance to the drugs tested were: 71.8% to penicillin, 49.2% to amoxicillin, 65.8% to oxacillin, 62.3% to cefquinome, 44.7% to cephalonium, 45.2% to ciprofloxacin, 32.6% to enrofloxacin, 58.7% to erythromycin, 42.7% to florfenicol, 34.6% to gentamicin, 35.1% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 8.5% to tetracycline + neomycin + bacitracin, 43.2% to cephalothin, 38.1% to streptomycin, 58.7% to tetracycline, 31.6% to norfloxacin, 45.2% to ceftriaxone, 43.2% to nitrofurantoin, 57.7% to doxycycline, and 53.7% to cephalexin. Simultaneous resistance to 4 or more antimicrobial drug groups was observed in 112 isolates, using the mecA (11) and blaZ (79) genes, and efflux pump (47). It is concluded that Staphylococcus spp. isolates from cases of mastitis in Brazilian buffalo show varying levels of resistance to antibiotics, and caution should be exercised in choosing therapeutics in order to minimize the risk to public health.

  12. Enterotoxin-Encoding Genes in Staphylococcus spp. from Food Handlers in a University Restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sabina Dos Santos Paulino; Cidral, Thiago André; Soares, Maria José dos Santos; de Melo, Maria Celeste Nunes

    2015-11-01

    Food handlers carrying enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus are a potential source of food poisoning. The aim of this study was to analyze genes encoding enterotoxins in coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CoPS) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) isolated from the anterior nostrils and hands of food handlers at a university restaurant in the city of Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirty food handlers were screened for the study. The isolates were subjected to Gram staining, a bacitracin sensitivity test, mannitol fermentation, and catalase and coagulase tests. CoNS and CoPS strains were subsequently identified by a Vitek 2 System (BioMerieux, France) and various biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect genes for enterotoxins A, B, C, D, E, G, H, and I (sea, seb, sec, sed, see, seg, seh, and sei) and a disc-diffusion method was used to determine susceptibility to several classes of antimicrobials. All food handlers presented staphylococci on their hands and/or noses. The study found 58 Staphylococcus spp., of which 20.7% were CoPS and 79.3% were CoNS. S. epidermidis was the most prevalent species. Twenty-nine staphylococci (50%) were positive for one or more enterotoxin genes, and the most prevalent genes were seg and sei, each with a frequency of 29.3%. Indeed, CoNS encoded a high percentage of enterotoxin genes (43.5%). However, S. aureus encoded even more enterotoxin genes (75%). Most isolates showed sensitivity to the antibiotics used for testing, except for penicillin (only 35% sensitive). The results from this study reinforce that coagulase-negative as well as coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from food handlers are capable of genotypic enterotoxigenicity.

  13. Organic trace mineral supplementation enhances local and systemic innate immune responses and modulates oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, H; Yitbarek, A; Munyaka, P; Alizadeh, M; Cleaver, A; Camelo-Jaimes, G; Wang, P; O, K; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C

    2016-03-01

    The effect of organic trace mineral supplementation on performance, intestinal morphology, immune organ weights (bursa of Fabricius and spleen), expression of innate immune response related genes, blood heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, chemical metabolic panel, natural antibodies (IgG), and oxidative stress of broiler chickens was studied. A total of 1,080 day-old male broilers were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments, which included basal diet with Monensin (control), control diet supplemented with bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), and BMD diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (OTM). No difference in feed conversion ratio was observed among treatments; ileum histomorphological analysis showed a lower crypt depth, higher villi height/crypt depth ratio, and lower villi width in the OTM treatment compared to control. Furthermore, OTM treatment resulted in higher uric acid and lower plasma malondehaldehyde (MDA), indicating lower oxidative stress. Gene expression analysis showed that OTM treatment resulted in up-regulations of TLR2 bin the ileum, and TLR2b, TLR4, and IL-12p35 in the bursa of Fabricius, and down-regulation of TLR2b and TLR4 in the cecal tonsils. In the spleen, OTM treatment resulted in up-regulation of IL-10. In conclusion, OTM supplementation to broiler diets may have beneficial effects on intestinal development, immune system status, and survival by improving ileum histomorphological parameters, modulation of Toll-like receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and decreasing level of MDA, which in conjunction could enhance health status. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Microbial diversity of a full-scale UASB reactor applied to poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment: integration of 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delforno, Tiago Palladino; Lacerda Júnior, Gileno Vieira; Noronha, Melline F; Sakamoto, Isabel K; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A; Oliveira, Valéria M

    2017-06-01

    The 16S rRNA gene amplicon and whole-genome shotgun metagenomic (WGSM) sequencing approaches were used to investigate wide-spectrum profiles of microbial composition and metabolic diversity from a full-scale UASB reactor applied to poultry slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. The data were generated by using MiSeq 2 × 250 bp and HiSeq 2 × 150 bp Illumina sequencing platforms for 16S amplicon and WGSM sequencing, respectively. Each approach revealed a distinct microbial community profile, with Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter as predominant genus for the WGSM dataset and Clostridium and Methanosaeta for the 16S rRNA gene amplicon dataset. The virome characterization revealed the presence of two viral families with Bacteria and Archaea as host, Myoviridae, and Siphoviridae. A wide functional diversity was found with predominance of genes involved in the metabolism of acetone, butanol, and ethanol synthesis; and one-carbon metabolism (e.g., methanogenesis). Genes related to the acetotrophic methanogenesis pathways were more abundant than methylotrophic and hydrogenotrophic, corroborating the taxonomic results that showed the prevalence of the acetotrophic genus Methanosaeta. Moreover, the dataset indicated a variety of metabolic genes involved in sulfur, nitrogen, iron, and phosphorus cycles, with many genera able to act in all cycles. BLAST analysis against Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database (ARDB) revealed that microbial community contained 43 different types of antibiotic resistance genes, some of them were associated with growth chicken promotion (e.g., bacitracin, tetracycline, and polymyxin). © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Prevalence of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and prophyromonas gingivalis in subgingival microflora of patients with aggressive periodontitis

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    Paknejad M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the best ways for treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis (AP is identification and elimination of etiologic factors specially two microorganisms Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg in patients harboring them. Purpose: This study determines the prevalence of Aa and Pg and its correlation with age, sex and the number of family members as well as probing pocket depth (PPD in active sites of AP patients, referred to department of periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional, descriptive study, 54 sites (PPD> 5mm in 15 patients were considered for culture. Marginal gingiva was dried and sampling performed by paperpoint (#30. The selective medium for Aa, was Trypticase Soy Agar-Bacitracin- Vancomycin (TSBV and for Pg was Brucella agar. Results were analyzed using Fisher and Chi-Square statistical tests. Results: Thirteen patients or 38 sites (70.4% were identified as Aa positive and 3 patients or 10 sites (18.4% were Pg positive. There was no significant relation between the presence of Aa and sex or age (P=0.086. Pg was more prevalent in men compared with women (P<0.0001 but with regard to age there was no statistical difference between men and women. Aa had a significant positive correlation with PPD (P=0.002, which was not true for Pg. In addition, the number of positive sites showed a significant negative correlation with the number of family members. Conclusion: Based on the present study, the prevalence of Aa in deep pockets in patients with AP is higher than Pg.

  16. Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to Fiber-Reinforced Filling Composite and Conventional Restorative Materials

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    Lassila, Lippo V.J; Garoushi, Sufyan; Tanner, Johanna; Vallittu, Pekka K; Söderling, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) to a short glass fibers reinforced semi-IPN polymer matrix composite resin. The effect of surface roughness on adhesion was also studied. For comparison, different commercial restorative materials were also evaluated. Materials and Methods. Experimental composite FC resin was prepared by mixing 22.5 wt% of short E-glass fibers, 22.5 wt% of IPN-resin and 55 wt% of silane treated silica fillers using high speed mixing machine. Three direct composite resins (Z250, Grandio and Nulite), resin-modified glass ionomers (Fuji II LC), amalgam (ANA 2000), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) (everStick and Ribbond), and pre-fabricated ceramic filling insert (Cerana class 1) were tested in this study. Enamel and dentin were used as controls. The specimens (n=3/group) with or without saliva were incubated in a suspension of S. mutans allowing initial adhesion to occur. For the enumeration of cells on the disc surfaces as colony forming units (CFU) the vials with the microbe samples were thoroughly Vortex-treated and after serial dilutions grown anaerobically for 2 days at +37°C on Mitis salivarius agars (Difco) containing bacitracin. Bacterial adhesion was also evaluated by using scanning electron microscopy. Surface roughness (Ra) of the materials was also determined using a surface profilometer. All results were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results. Composite FC resin and other commercial restorative materials showed similar adhesion of S. mutans, while adhesion to dentin and enamel was significantly higher (p<0.05). Surface roughness had no effect on bacterial adhesion. Saliva coating significantly decreased the adhesion for all materials (p<0.05). Composite FC resin had a significantly higher Ra value than control groups (p<0.05). Conclusions. Short fiber-reinforced composite with semi-IPN polymer matrix revealed similar S. mutans adhesion than

  17. PRESENCE OF Streptococcus Mutans IN SALIVA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DENTAL CARIES: ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE ISOLATES

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    Fredy Gamboa

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a localized, transmissible, pathological infectious process that ends up in the destruction of hard dental tissue. Streptococcus mutans is considered to be the main cause of dental caries. Indeed, numerous reports have shown the close relationship between salivary levels of S. mutans and dental caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 53 3 to 5-year-old children from the Diego Torres school in Turmequé (Boyacá, Colombia. Saliva samples were vortexed and serially diluted in 0.05 M phosphate buffer. Aliquots of 100 ul of the appropriate dilutions were cultured on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar medium for the selective isolation of S. mutans, and incubated anaerobically for two days at 37 o C. The minimal inhibitoryconcentrations of the S. mutans isolates were evaluated against penicillin, amoxicillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin by an agar dilution method. The dental caries experience in these children was 66% (35/53 and S. mutans was found in the saliva of 33 children (62%; 21 of them had dental caries and 12 did not. In the 20 children from whom S. mutans was not isolated, 14 (70% were found to have caries. There were no statistically significant differences in S. mutans counts between the group with dental caries and the caries-free group (p=0.21. All isolates were highly sensitive to penicillin, amoxycillin, cefazolin, erythromycin, clindamycin, imipenem and vancomycin; 50 and 90% of the strains from S. mutans were inhibited by concentrations of less than 0.12 and 0.5 ug/ml, respectively, for all antibiotics studied. In conclusion, not all of the children hosting this microorganism had caries, and the S. mutans strains were highly sensitive to the antibiotics tested.

  18. Reduced salivary flow and colonization by mutans streptococci in children with Down syndrome

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    Cristina Areias

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although individuals with Down syndrome have considerable oral disease, the prevalence of dental caries in this group is low. The present study aimed to compare known risk factors for dental caries development in children with Down syndrome and a matched population (siblings. In both populations, the number of acidogenic microorganisms, such as mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species, and the paraffin-stimulated pH, flow rate and IgA concentration in whole saliva were evaluated and compared. METHOD: Saliva was collected, and the caries index was evaluated in 45 sibling pairs aged between 6 and 18 years old. The salivary IgA concentration was determined by immunoturbidimetry. Salivary mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and Candida species were quantified on mitis salivarius agar containing bacitracin and 20% sucrose, rogosa agar supplemented with glacial acetic acid and sabouraud agar supplemented with chloramphenicol, respectively. RESULTS: Down syndrome children had a higher caries-free rate (p<0.05 and lower salivary mutans streptococci counts (p<0.03 compared to their siblings. Similar numbers of lactobacilli and Candida species were found in both groups. Salivary flow rates were 36% lower in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings (p<0.05. The salivary pH did not differ between Down syndrome children and controls. The Down syndrome children had an IgA secretion rate 29% lower than that of their siblings, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the lower number of mutans streptococci in the saliva may be one of the factors contributing to the lower caries rate observed in Down syndrome children, despite evidence of hyposalivation.

  19. Isolation and Typing of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from Caries-active Subjects.

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    Salman, Hamzah Abdulrahman; Senthilkumar, R; Imran, Khalid; Selvam, K Panneer

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are main etiological agents of dental caries. The aim of the study was to isolate, identify, characterize, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of S. mutans and S. sobrinus from caries-active subjects. Sixty-five plaque samples were collected from caries-active subjects aged between 35 and 44 years, processed and cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to morphotyping and the suspected colonies were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The S. mutans and S. sobrinus strains were characterized by biotyping and phylogenetic analysis. The MIC of ampicillin and erythromycin was determined by microtiter plate method. Of the study population, 41 isolates displayed typical colony morphologies of S. mutans and S. sobrinus . The 16S rDNA sequencing results revealed that 36 isolates were S. mutans and 5 isolates were S. sobrinus . The biotyping of these isolates demonstrated three biotypes, namely, biotype I ( n = 35), biotype III ( n = 1), and biotype IV ( n = 2). However, 3 isolates exhibited variant biotypes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the clinical strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus clustered independently along with respective reference strains. The average MIC of ampicillin and erythromycin against S. mutans and S. sobrinus was 0.047 μg/ml and 0.39 μg/ml, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequencing was an impeccable method for S. mutans and S. sobrinus identification when compared with morphotyping and biotyping methods. The study also suggested that nonspecific bacteria might be involved in caries formation.

  20. Establishment of Streptococcus mutans in infants induces decrease in the proportion of salivary α-haemolytic bacteria.

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    Kawaguchi, Mamoru; Hoshino, Tomonori; Ooshima, Takashi; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-03-01

    For paediatric dentists, an indicator to assess caries risk of infants is very important. Conventionally, the number and/or proportions of Streptococcus mutans have been employed as risk indicator; however, because such figures reflect the existing situation, they are not suitable for assessing caries risk of infants that have not yet been infected with S. mutans. Thus, we searched for an indicator for the establishment of S. mutans. To evaluate the changes caused by the establishment of S. mutans in the microbiota of the infant oral cavity, we monitored changes in the oral microbiota of two pre-dentate infants over a 3-year period and in a cross-sectional study of 40 nursery school-aged children by cultivation of saliva on nonselective blood agar, Mitis-Salivarius agar, and Mitis-Salivarius agar supplemented with bacitracin combined with identification of selected isolates. Two longitudinal observations suggested that the establishment of S. mutans would induce a decrease in α-haemolytic bacteria in the microbial population of the oral cavity. This suggestion was compensated with the results of cross-sectional study, and it was revealed that the establishment of 10(3)  CFU/mL of mutans streptococci in saliva might be predicted by a microbiota comprising less than approximately 55% of α-haemolytic. Decrease in the proportion of α-haemolytic bacteria in saliva of infant was found to be applicable as an indicator to predict the establishment of S. mutans and to assess dental caries risk as a background for planning of dental care and treatment in the infants before infection with S. mutans. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans

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    Fani M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Garlic ( Allium sativum extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans , extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6% isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4% were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4% and least resistance (0% to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 µg ml−1 and from 0.25 to 1 µg ml−1 , respectively ( P < 0.05. All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 mg ml−1 . Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  2. Antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan and chlorhexidine-cetrimide-modified glass ionomer cements.

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    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Manickam, Natesan

    2017-01-01

    To compare antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan (CH) modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) (10% v/v), chlorhexidine-cetrimide (CHX-CT) modified GIC (2.5/2.5% w/w) and conventional GIC. A total of fifty healthy children of age 7-12 years were selected and randomly assigned to class A and B for in vivo analysis. Slabs of CH modified GIC (Group II) along with slabs of conventional GIC (Group I, control) were cemented on buccal surfaces of maxillary molars (split-mouth technique) for class A children. Similarly, slabs of CHX-CT modified GIC (Group III) were cemented against control (Group I, control) in class B children. Slabs were assessed after 48 h for microbial load of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus (LB) on mitis salivarius-bacitracin and Man Rogosa Sharpe agar media, respectively. Agar diffusion test was done to access the antibacterial effect of each group against Streptococcus muatns and LB. Slabs and cylinders of GICs were made for in vitro evaluation of compressive and flexure strength in each group. Comparison was done by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test. Categorical groups were compared by Chi-square test. The increase in antibacterial activity (Group II > III > I) (P I > III) were observed. In the view of findings, it is concluded that CH modified GIC would be effective in inhibiting the bacteria associated with dental caries along with improved physical properties when compared with CHX-CT modified GIC and conventional GIC.

  3. Assessment of Streptococcus mutans in healthy versus gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sneha; Prabhu, Ashwin; Chaitra, K R; Desai, N C; Patil, Sudhir R; Rajeev, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are most common oral diseases. Streptococcus mutans are considered to be the major pathogens in initiation of dental caries. Evidence shows that periodontal disease and caries share a number of contributory factors. Thus in view of these findings it would be worthwhile to examine whether Streptococcus mutans persist within the saliva and subgingival environment of the periodontitis patients and to determine whether there is any association between Streptococcus mutans colonization, pH of saliva and sub-gingival plaque pH in periodontal diseases before therapy. The study comprises of 75 subjects aged between 20-70 years, reporting to department of Periodontology, KLEs Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore. Subjects were divided into 3 groups of 25 each. Group 1 - Healthy controls, Group 2 - Gingivitis Group, 3 - Chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile container and immediately pH was evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four deepest periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis and from first molars in healthy subjects using 4 sterile paper points. In gingivitis subjects samples were collected from areas showing maximum signs of inflammation. All paper points and saliva samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar culture media with bacitracin for quantification of the Streptococcus mutans colonies. Increased colonization of Streptococcus mutans was seen in chronic periodontitis subjects both in saliva and sub-gingival plaque samples. There was also a positive correlation seen with the periodontal parameters. More severe forms of periodontal disease may create different ecological niches for the proliferation of Streptococcus mutans .

  4. Comparative study on the microbial adhesion to preveneered and stainless steel crowns

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    Waleed M Bin AlShaibah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The extensive plaque formation on dental restorations may contribute to secondary caries or periodontal inflammation. Therefore, it is important to know how different types of dental restorations may prevent or promote the accumulation of microorganisms. Aims: The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to preveneered and stainless steel crowns (SSCs and to evaluate the effects of these restorations on the gingival health and oral hygiene. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (age 3-5 years were selected from the outpatient clinic of the pedodontics department, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University. The selected patients had (dmf index for primary dentition ≤4, including lower right and left first primary molars. Each tooth was pulpotomy-treated and restored with either type of crowns (split-mouth technique. Then, ten swabs from the buccal mucosa, preveneered crown, and SSC surfaces were taken from each patient. Also, the gingival index (GI and oral hygiene index (OHI-S were measured at different times during the study. Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar (MSBA was used as a selective medium for S. mutans growth. MSBA plates were taken in candle jar and incubated aerobically in 37°C for 48 h. Finally, bacteria were counted and expressed in colony forming unit (CFU. Results: After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, mucosa and crown swabs of preveneered crown showed statistically significant higher mean CFU counts than SSC. Through the whole study period, the two restorations revealed a statistically significant decrease in mean CFU counts. Also, there was a statistically significant positive (direct correlation between OHI-S, GI, and S. mutans counts on both restorations. Conclusions: The adhesion of S. mutans to preveneered crowns was higher than to SSC. Full mouth rehabilitation led to significant decrease in S. mutans count in the short term. An increase in S. mutans counts is associated with

  5. Effects of tongue cleaning on plaque and salivary mutans streptococci levels: A randomized controlled trial

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    Kochiyil Chacko Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tongue cleaning has been shown to be effective in preventing plaque formation and reducing oral mutans streptococci (MS when used in combination with other oral hygiene procedures. However, correlation between MS counts and plaque levels remains to be demonstrated. Aim: To evaluate the effect of tongue scraping and tongue brushing on salivary MS and plaque levels. Materials and Methods: A triple-blind three arm randomized controlled parallel-group trial was carried out among 54, 12–15-year-old boys in a residential school in Bengaluru city. The study participants were randomly allocated into Group A (toothbrushing and tongue scraping; n = 19, Group B (toothbrushing and tongue brushing; n = 18 and Group C (only toothbrushing; n = 17. The clinical procedure included a collection of saliva and recording of plaque index at baseline, 10th and 21st day. Salivary MS counts were determined using mitis salivarius bacitracin Agar media. ANOVA, Wilcoxon's signed-rank sum test, Mann–Whitney U-test and Spearman's correlation test were performed on log-transformed CFU/mL of MS. Results: The tongue scraping and tongue brushing groups showed statistically significant reductions in salivary MS counts after 10 days (4.76 ± 0.54 (4.79 ± 0.44 and 21 days (4.50 ± 0.44 (4.41 ± 0.57 respectively when performed along with toothbrushing. However, differences between the interventions were not statistically significant. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant reduction in plaque levels after 10 and 21 days. Conclusions: Tongue scraping and tongue brushing were equally effective in reducing salivary MS counts when used in combination with toothbrushing, however, their effect on reducing plaque levels was not significant. Hence, tongue cleaning is recommended as an adjunct to toothbrushing.

  6. Inhibition of streptococcal biofilm by hydrogen water.

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    Kim, Jinkyung; Lee, Heon-Jin; Hong, Su-Hyung

    2017-03-01

    The accumulation of oral bacterial biofilm is the main etiological factor of oral diseases. Recently, electrolyzed hydrogen-rich water (H-water) has been shown to act as an effective antioxidant by reducing oxidative stress. In addition to this general health benefit, H-water has antibacterial activity for disease-associated oral bacteria. However, little is known about the effect of H-water on oral bacterial biofilm. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of H-water on streptococcal biofilm formation. In vitro streptococcal biofilm was quantified using crystal violet staining after culture on a polystyrene plate. The effect of H-water on the expression of genes involved in insoluble glucan synthesis and glucan binding, which are critical steps for oral biofilm formation, was evaluated in MS. In addition, we compared the number of salivary streptococci after oral rinse with H-water and that with control tap water. Salivary streptococci were quantified by counting viable colonies on Mitis Salivarius agar-bacitracin. Our data showed that H-water caused a significant decrease in in vitro streptococcal biofilm formation. The expression level of the mRNA of glucosyltransferases (gtfB, gtfc, and gtfI) and glucan-binding proteins (gbpC, dblB) were decreased remarkably in MS after H-water exposure for 60s. Furthermore, oral rinse with H-water for 1 week led to significantly fewer salivary streptococci than did that with control tap water. Our data suggest that oral rinse with H-water would be helpful in treating dental biofilm-dependent diseases with ease and efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract on Streptococcus mutans Count: A Randomised Control Trial.

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    Yadav, Mona; Kaushik, Mamta; Roshni, Roshni; Reddy, Pallavi; Mehra, Neha; Jain, Vallari; Rana, Ritu

    2017-05-01

    Mouth rinses have been popularly used as a supplementary oral hygiene aid. A lot of commercially available mouth rinses possess few adverse effects, which has necessitated the search for alternative and herbal mouth rinses. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rinsing with green coffee bean extract in comparison with chlorhexidine mouthwash and sterile water on salivary Streptococcus mutans count. A randomized parallel controlled clinical trial was planned and 45 subjects aged between 18-22 years were selected. The subjects were divided into three groups (n=15 in each group): Group A: Study group: 2% Green coffee bean extract, Group B: Positive control: 0.2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), Group C: Negative control: Sterile water. Group A subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml of 2% Green coffee bean extract for one minute. Group B subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml 0.2% CHX mouthwash for one minute. Group C subjects rinsed mouth with 5 ml of Sterile water for one minute twice daily for two weeks. Baseline samples (Pre rinse) were collected on day 1 and post rinsing saliva samples were collected after 14 days. The samples were cultured using Mitis Salivarius Agar enriched with Bacitracin and colonies were counted using a hand held digital colony counter. The statistical analysis was done using paired t-test, One-way variance ANOVA and Post-Hoc tests. The Green coffee bean extract group showed a statistical significant reduction in Streptococcus mutans colony count before and after intervention which was comparable with CHX group. Green coffee bean extract as a mouthwash can be explored as a safe and effective alternative to CHX mouthwash.

  8. Antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan and chlorhexidine-cetrimide-modified glass ionomer cements

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    Apurva Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan (CH modified glass ionomer cement (GIC (10% v/v, chlorhexidine-cetrimide (CHX-CT modified GIC (2.5/2.5% w/w and conventional GIC. Materials and Methods: A total of fifty healthy children of age 7–12 years were selected and randomly assigned to class A and B for in vivo analysis. Slabs of CH modified GIC (Group II along with slabs of conventional GIC (Group I, control were cemented on buccal surfaces of maxillary molars (split-mouth technique for class A children. Similarly, slabs of CHX-CT modified GIC (Group III were cemented against control (Group I, control in class B children. Slabs were assessed after 48 h for microbial load of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus (LB on mitis salivarius-bacitracin and Man Rogosa Sharpe agar media, respectively. Agar diffusion test was done to access the antibacterial effect of each group against Streptococcus muatns and LB. Slabs and cylinders of GICs were made for in vitro evaluation of compressive and flexure strength in each group. Results: Comparison was done by nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis analysis followed by Dunn's multiple comparison test. Categorical groups were compared by Chi-square test. The increase in antibacterial activity (Group II > III > I (P I > III were observed. Conclusions: In the view of findings, it is concluded that CH modified GIC would be effective in inhibiting the bacteria associated with dental caries along with improved physical properties when compared with CHX-CT modified GIC and conventional GIC.

  9. Assessment of Streptococcus mutans in healthy versus gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: A clinico-microbiological study

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    Sneha Dani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are most common oral diseases. Streptococcus mutans are considered to be the major pathogens in initiation of dental caries. Evidence shows that periodontal disease and caries share a number of contributory factors. Thus in view of these findings it would be worthwhile to examine whether Streptococcus mutans persist within the saliva and subgingival environment of the periodontitis patients and to determine whether there is any association between Streptococcus mutans colonization, pH of saliva and sub-gingival plaque pH in periodontal diseases before therapy. Methods: The study comprises of 75 subjects aged between 20-70 years, reporting to department of Periodontology, KLEs Institute of Dental Sciences, Bangalore. Subjects were divided into 3 groups of 25 each. Group 1 – Healthy controls, Group 2 – Gingivitis Group, 3 – Chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected in sterile container and immediately pH was evaluated. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from four deepest periodontal pockets in chronic periodontitis and from first molars in healthy subjects using 4 sterile paper points. In gingivitis subjects samples were collected from areas showing maximum signs of inflammation. All paper points and saliva samples were cultured on mitis salivarius agar culture media with bacitracin for quantification of the Streptococcus mutans colonies. Results: Increased colonization of Streptococcus mutans was seen in chronic periodontitis subjects both in saliva and sub-gingival plaque samples. There was also a positive correlation seen with the periodontal parameters. Conclusion: More severe forms of periodontal disease may create different ecological niches for the proliferation of Streptococcus mutans.

  10. Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts by microbial and molecular (polymerase chain reaction) assay using saliva as microbial risk indicator.

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    Damle, S G; Loomba, Ashish; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Loomba, Ashu; Beniwal, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of quantitative salivary levels of mutans streptococci (MS) in children, aged 3-6 years and 12-15 years, exhibiting variable patterns of caries activity, and to compare the association of MS in saliva using microbial and molecular (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) assay. In this cross-sectional observational study, eighty children were included, forty children each in Group I (3-6 years) and Group II (12-15 years). Children were further divided into two subgroups (Group IC, INC and Group IIC, IINC) based on their dental caries status. Saliva samples were collected and plated onto Mitis Salivarius-Bacitracin agar plates. After detection of MS, DNA was isolated and purified, and MS were evaluated using the PCR and AP-PCR. Of the selected 80 children, 42 were male and 38 were female. In Group IC, the mean colony count was 2.27 ± 0.54 × 10 5 CFU/ml, and in Group INC, the mean colony was found to be 1.61 ± 0.54 × 10 5 CFU/ml. In Group II, where mean colony count of 3.31 ± 0.85 × 10 5 CFU/ml and 2.44 ± 0.54 × 10 5 CFU/ml was observed in Group IIC and Group IINC, respectively. The mean colony count increased with increasing age and was also more in children with dental caries. Based on the matrices generated by the PCR analysis using coefficient slipped-strand mispairing, wide range of genetic diversity was seen in cases of children with and without clinically detectable caries.

  11. A Comparison of Antibacterial Efficacy of 0.5% Sodium Fluoride Impregnated Miswak and Plain Miswak Sticks on Streprococcus mutans - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Raina, Romshi; Kumar, Vinod; Krishna, Madhusudan; Raina, Sakshi; Jaiswal, Ashish; Selvan, Arul; Patil, Chaitra; Kalgotra, Sneh

    2017-02-01

    Miswak (Salvadora persica) is a tooth cleaning stick made from the Salvodora Persica tree. It serves as a natural dentifrice with anti-bacterial, anti-plaque and anti-fungal properties. Fluoride, impregnated in chewing sticks will bestow comparable safety against dental caries as the fluoride containing dentifrice. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare the anti-bacterial effect of 0.5% sodium fluoride impregnated miswak and plain miswak sticks on Streptococcus mutans . A randomized controlled concurrent parallel triple blind clinical trial was conducted for a period of 8 days. The trial included 30 subjects aged 20-23 years, who were randomly allocated in 1:1 ratio to Group A [0.5% Sodium Fluoride (NaF) impregnated Miswak sticks) and Group B (Plain Miswak sticks) respectively. The participants were instructed to chew miswak sticks for 6 minutes in the morning before breakfast. Unstimulated saliva was collected at baseline and after chewing miswak sticks to estimate S. mutans count using Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar. Data was statistically analyzed using paired and unpaired t-test. A statistically significant reduction in S. mutans Colony Forming Units (CFU) count in saliva was observed after using fluoridated miswak sticks compared to the baseline count (p=0.001). There was no significant difference in anti-bacterial effect of fluoridated miswak sticks and plain miswak sticks on S. mutans count (p=0.58). The efficacy of miswak impregnated with 0.5% NaF and plain miskaw sticks in reducing S. mutans counts in saliva is analogous.

  12. Isolation and typing of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus from caries-active subjects

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    Hamzah Abdulrahman Salman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are main etiological agents of dental caries. Aim: The aim of the study was to isolate, identify, characterize, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of S. mutans and S. sobrinus from caries-active subjects. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five plaque samples were collected from caries-active subjects aged between 35 and 44 years, processed and cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin agar. All the bacterial isolates were subjected to morphotyping and the suspected colonies were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. The S. mutans and S. sobrinus strains were characterized by biotyping and phylogenetic analysis. The MIC of ampicillin and erythromycin was determined by microtiter plate method. Results: Of the study population, 41 isolates displayed typical colony morphologies of S. mutans and S. sobrinus. The 16S rDNA sequencing results revealed that 36 isolates were S. mutans and 5 isolates were S. sobrinus. The biotyping of these isolates demonstrated three biotypes, namely, biotype I (n = 35, biotype III (n = 1, and biotype IV (n = 2. However, 3 isolates exhibited variant biotypes. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the clinical strains of S. mutans and S. sobrinus clustered independently along with respective reference strains. The average MIC of ampicillin and erythromycin against S. mutans and S. sobrinus was 0.047 μg/ml and 0.39 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The 16S rDNA sequencing was an impeccable method for S. mutans and S. sobrinus identification when compared with morphotyping and biotyping methods. The study also suggested that nonspecific bacteria might be involved in caries formation.

  13. Performance and organ morphology of broilers fed microbial or antimicrobial additives and raised in batteries or floor pens

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    Pedroso AA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial or antimicrobial additives on the performance and organ morphology of broilers raised in batteries or in floor pens. The effect of microbial additives on the presence of oocysts in the litter was also studied. Experiments 1 and 2 consisted of four treatments (non-supplemented control diet or diet supplemented with avilamycin, bacitracin methylene disalicylate or enramycin and six repetitions in a randomized block design. In Experiment 1, 288 day-old chicks were housed in heated batteries in a environmentally controlled room, 12 chicks per cage; in Experiment 2, 1,200 day-old chicks were housed in a curtain-sided experimental house, with concrete floor and rice hulls as litter material, 50 chicks per pen. Experiments 3 and 4 were carried out similarly to Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, but the treatments consisted of microbial additives (non-supplemented control diet or Bacillus subtilis added to the feed plus Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus johnsonii added to the water, undefined microflora added to the water or live yeast added to the feed. The antibiotics did not affect the performance of birds raised in batteries, but improved feed conversion, weight gain and live weight when chickens were kept on the floor pens. Microbial additives did not affect bird performance in any environment; however, treatments affected liver weight. Microbial agents increased intestinal weight in floor-raised broilers. No relationship was seen between the use of microbial additives and the presence of oocysts in the litter.

  14. Draft genome comparison of representatives of the three dominant genotype groups of dairy Bacillus licheniformis strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Rajat; Seale, R Brent; Deeth, Hilton C; Craven, Heather; Turner, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    The spore-forming bacterium Bacillus licheniformis is a common contaminant of milk and milk products. Strains of this species isolated from dairy products can be differentiated into three major groups, namely, G, F1, and F2, using random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis; however, little is known about the genomic differences between these groups and the identity of the fragments that make up their RAPD profiles. In this work we obtained high-quality draft genomes of representative strains from each of the three RAPD groups (designated strain G-1, strain F1-1, and strain F2-1) and compared them to each other and to B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 and Bacillus subtilis 168. Whole-genome comparison and multilocus sequence typing revealed that strain G-1 contains significant sequence variability and belongs to a lineage distinct from the group F strains. Strain G-1 was found to contain genes coding for a type I restriction modification system, urease production, and bacitracin synthesis, as well as the 8-kbp plasmid pFL7, and these genes were not present in strains F1-1 and F2-1. In agreement with this, all isolates of group G, but no group F isolates, were found to possess urease activity and antimicrobial activity against Micrococcus. Identification of RAPD band sequences revealed that differences in the RAPD profiles were due to differences in gene lengths, 3' ends of predicted primer binding sites, or gene presence or absence. This work provides a greater understanding of the phylogenetic and phenotypic differences observed within the B. licheniformis species.

  15. Prebiotics modulate immune responses in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue of chickens.

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    Janardhana, Vijaya; Broadway, Mary M; Bruce, Matthew P; Lowenthal, John W; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Bean, Andrew G D

    2009-07-01

    The recent European Union ban on the prophylactic use of in-feed antibiotics has escalated the search for alternatives for use within the poultry industry. When evaluating the efficacy of potential antibiotic alternatives on bird health and productivity, it is important to analyze the competence of the immune cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), because it is routinely involved in the surveillance of colonizing microbes as well as in interacting with the ingested feed antigens. Therefore, we studied the effect of the prebiotics mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) on the phenotypic and functional competence of immune cells in cecal tonsil (CT), which is a major GALT. Day-old Cobb 500 male broilers were randomized to 4 groups. Control chickens were fed the basal diet only. Chickens in experimental groups received 0.05 g/kg zinc bacitracin or 5 g/kg of either FOS or MOS in addition to basal diet. At the end of 25 d, our comparison of the experimental groups with controls revealed that the addition of prebiotics to diet resulted in a significant reduction in the proportion of B cells and in mitogen responsiveness of lymphocytes in CT. Furthermore, FOS treatment significantly enhanced the IgM and IgG antibody titers in plasma. These findings emphasize the need for the analyses of the gut immune function following treatment with novel feed additives. The knowledge obtained from such analyses may aid in understanding the mechanisms underlying the immune competence of the birds, which needs consideration when selecting and optimizing new feed additives instead of antibiotics for poultry production.

  16. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study.

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    Eswar, Pranati; Devaraj, C G; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-03-01

    Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control was 25mm and no zone of inhibition was observed

  17. [Effects of topical application of immunoglobulin yolk on mutans streptococci in dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Zhou, Rujun; Tang, Zhen

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the inhibitory effects of topical application of specific immunoglobulin yolk antibodies (IgY) to mutans streptococci on composition of human dental plaque. A total of 24 healthy adult volunteers were selected and randomly distributed into three experimental groups. After a supragingival scaling, the subjects were treated with an application of IgY containing spray (test group, n = 9), a 0.15% chlorhexidine(CH) spray(positive control group, n = 9) or a placebo phosphate buffered saline(PBS) spray without any active ingredients(negative control group, n = 6) three times daily for three weeks. Pooled plaque samples from the smooth surfaces of teeth were collected for microbiologic analysis before administration (baseline, day 0), during treatment(days 7, 14 and 21) and after withdrawal of the agents(days 28, 42 and 56) and plaque index were recorded. Microbial cultivation were performed by serially diluting the samples with PBS solution an cultivating the aliquots on mitis salivarius agar(MS) and MS supplemented with bacitracin (MSB) for oral streptococci and mutans streptococci respectively. The number of colony-forming unit (CFU) per plate was counted and the percentage of mutans streptococci per oral streptococci in dental plaque were determined. The effect of IgY on colonization of mutans streptococci were analyzed by an analysis of variance (ANOVA). The plaque indexes remained unchanged, but mutans streptococci in dental plaque was suppressed significantly following a short term(three weeks) application of IgY, and low level of mutans streptococci persisted for at least 5 weeks after withdrawal of IgY. The results suggest that the immunization with specific immunoglobulin yolk against mutans streptococci could be useful for long term suppression of mutans streptococci colonization in human dental plaque.

  18. Inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans and mechanical properties of the chitosan containing composite resin

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    Ji-Sun Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study evaluated the antibacterial effect and mechanical properties of composite resins (LCR, MCR, HCR incorporating chitosan with three different molecular weights (L, Low; M, Medium; H, High. Materials and Methods Streptococcus (S. mutans 100 mL and each chitosan powder were inoculated in sterilized 10 mL Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI solution, and was centrifuged for 12 hr. Absorbance of the supernatent was measured at OD660 to estimate the antibacterial activities of chitosan. After S. mutans was inoculated in the disc shaped chitosan-containing composite resins, the disc was cleansed with BHI and diluted with serial dilution method. S. mutans was spread on Mitis-salivarius bacitracin agar. After then, colony forming unit (CFU was measured to verify the inhibitory effect on S. mutans biofilm. To ascertain the effect on the mechanical properties of composite resin, 3-point bending and Vickers hardness tests were done after 1 and 3 wk water storage, respectively. Using 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Scheffe test, statistical analysis was done with 95% significance level. Results All chitosan powder showed inhibition effect against S. mutans. CFU number in chitosan-containing composite resins was smaller than that of control resin without chitosan. The chitosan containing composite resins did not show any significant difference in flexural strength and Vickers hardness in comparison with the control resin. However, the composite resin, MCR showed a slightly decreased flexural strength and the maximum load than those of control and the other composite resins HCR and LCR. Conclusions LCR and HCR would be recommended as a feasible antibacterial restorative due to its antibacterial nature and mechanical properties.

  19. Cariogenic bacteria and dental health status in adolescents: the role of oral health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relvas, M; Coelho, C; Velazco Henriques, C; Ramos, E

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the association between dental health status and levels of cariogenic bacteria in teenagers and the influence of behaviours and socio-demographic background on levels of bacteria. Study design: A cross-sectional population-based sample of 13-year-old adolescents (112 females and 78 males, total 190) was examined. The number of decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS), plaque and hygiene index were recorded according to the WHO criteria. The saliva samples were collected in a sterile container and then analysed by culture on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin (MSB) agar for mutans Streptococci and on Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar for Lactobacilli. The levels of bacteria were expressed as the number of colonies forming units per millilitre of saliva (CFU/ml). Associations between levels of mutans Streptococci and Lactobacilli and dental health were estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using unconditional logistic regression. No mutans Streptococci were detected in 53.2% of the adolescents but 22.6% presented ≥ 10³ CFU/ml. For Lactobacilli, these values were, respectively 43.7% and 34.7%. After adjustment for gender and social class, the OR (95% CI) for DMFS >5 was 8.66 (3.57-21.02) if mutans Streptococci ≥ 10³ CFU and 2.11 (0.96-4.64) if Lactobacilli ≥ 10³ CFU. This data allow us to conclude that hygiene habits and dental visits are not associated with high levels of cariogenic bacteria, but high scores of DMFS were found in adolescents with high levels of mutans Streptococci and lower parents' education.

  20. The Crystal Structure of a Quercetin 2,3-Dioxygenase from Bacillus subtilis Suggests Modulation of Enzyme Activity by a Change in the Metal Ion at the Active Site(s)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, B.; Madan, Lalima L.; Betz, Stephen F.; Kossiakoff, Anthony A. (Indian); (UC); (GeneFormatics)

    2010-11-10

    Common structural motifs, such as the cupin domains, are found in enzymes performing different biochemical functions while retaining a similar active site configuration and structural scaffold. The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis has 20 cupin genes (0.5% of the total genome) with up to 14% of its genes in the form of doublets, thus making it an attractive system for studying the effects of gene duplication. There are four bicupins in B. subtilis encoded by the genes yvrK, yoaN, yxaG, and ywfC. The gene products of yvrK and yoaN function as oxalate decarboxylases with a manganese ion at the active site(s), whereas YwfC is a bacitracin synthetase. Here we present the crystal structure of YxaG, a novel iron-containing quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase with one active site in each cupin domain. Yxag is a dimer, both in solution and in the crystal. The crystal structure shows that the coordination geometry of the Fe ion is different in the two active sites of YxaG. Replacement of the iron at the active site with other metal ions suggests modulation of enzymatic activity in accordance with the Irving-Williams observation on the stability of metal ion complexes. This observation, along with a comparison with the crystal structure of YvrK determined recently, has allowed for a detailed structure-function analysis of the active site, providing clues to the diversification of function in the bicupin family of proteins.

  1. Effect of antibiotic, Lacto-lase and probiotic addition in chicken feed on protein and fat content of chicken meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Noor Amiza; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the effect of chicken feed additives (antibiotic, Lacto-lase® and probiotic) on protein and fat content of chicken meat. Chicken fed with control diet (corn-soy based diet) served as a control. The treated diets were added with zinc bacitracin (antibiotic), different amount of Lacto-lase® (a mixture of probiotic and enzyme) and probiotic. Chicken were slaughtered at the age of 43-48 days. Each chicken was divided into thigh, breast, drumstick, drumette and wing. Protein content in chicken meat was determined by using macro-Kjeldahl method meanwhile Soxhlet method was used to analyse fat content. The result of the study showed that the protein content of chicken breast was significantly higher (p≤0.05) while thigh had the lowest protein content (p≤0.05). Antibiotic fed chicken was found to have the highest protein content among the treated chickens but there was no significant different with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® fed chicken (p>0.05). All thighs were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in fat content except for drumette of control chicken while breast contained the lowest fat content compared to other chicken parts studied. The control chicken meat contained significantly higher (p≤0.05) amount of fat compared to the other treated chickens. Chicken fed with 2g/kg Lacto-lase® had the lowest (p≤0.05) fat content. The result of this study indicated that the addition of Lacto-lase® as a replacement of antibiotic in chicken feed will not affect the content of protein and fat of chicken meat.

  2. Effect of activated protein C in second intention healing of equine distal limb wounds: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, A S; Tsang, A S; Horadagoda, N; Dart, C M; Perkins, N R; Jeffcott, L B; Jackson, C J; Dart, A J

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of activated protein C (APC) on second intention healing of distal limb wounds in horses. In this experimental study of eight Standardbred geldings, six full-thickness skin wounds (2 × 1.5 cm) were created on one metacarpus (biopsy limb) and five similar wounds were created on the contralateral metacarpus (photographed limb). Three wounds on the biopsy limb were treated topically with 190 µg APC on days 1, 3, 6 and 9, while the remaining three wounds were untreated (control). One treated and one control wound were biopsied on days 4, 7 and 11 for histopathology. Wounds on the photographed limb were treated with either 66% Manuka honey gel, a commercial antibiotic ointment (bacitracin-neomycin-polymixin B ointment; BNP) or petrolatum daily throughout healing, treated on days 1,3,6 and 9 with 190 µg APC or left untreated. These wounds were digitally photographed and the wound area measured on day 1, then weekly until day 49. Overall time to healing was recorded. There was no effect of APC on wound size, the rate of healing or the overall time to heal. However, compared with control wounds, histological scoring demonstrated enhanced epithelialisation (day 4) and angiogenesis (day 11). Wound healing variables for wounds treated with APC, Manuka honey gel and control wounds were not different and the variables for wounds treated with BNP and petrolatum demonstrated delayed healing. The improvements in histological scores in APC-treated wounds suggest further study into the effect of APC on second intention wound healing in horses is warranted. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from a pigeon slaughterhouse in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losito, P; Vergara, A; Muscariello, l T; Ianieri, A

    2005-11-01

    No information is available concerning the antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from pigeon slaughterhouses. In the present study, 59 staphylococcal strains isolated from a pigeon slaughterhouse in central Italy were compared according to their antibiotic resistance. On the basis of cultural and biochemical properties, all isolates could be identified as S. aureus. The strains were checked for the productions of enterotoxins A, B, C, D by reversed passive latex agglutination. Resistance to 26 antibiotics was also determined paying particular attention to resistance to those antimicrobial agents frequently used in human medicine and in poultry breeding. Only one strain was positive for the production of enterotoxins type C and D. It was isolated from the evisceration tube after slaughtering. Enterotoxin B was produced by 2 strains isolated from the eyebrows and conjunctivas of the worker operating the crop rinsing tube. As to the susceptibility to antibiotics, all strains were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, bacitracin, cephalothin, fusidic acid, gentamicin, kanamycin, linezolid, oxacillin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, rifampicin, tobramycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, vancomycin. Some (15.2%) of the strains were resistant to ampicillin and to penicillin G; 6.8% were resistant to chloramphenicol, 20.3% to enrofloxacin, 16.9% to erythromycin and to ciprofloxacin, 8.5% to clindamycin, and 11.9% to lincomycin. The highest percentages of strains were resistant to tetracycline and oleandomicin (37.3 and 25.4% respectively). Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were also found (3.4%). Only one strain had a multiple antibiotic resistance index > 0.30. The results were statistically analyzed and clustered in 6 groups. This work provides the antibiotic resistance pattern of S. aureus strains isolated from a pigeon slaughtering plant and represents a study on a quite unknown field in meat production.

  4. Effect of dietary inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma on performance, some physiological and immunological response of broiler chickens challenged with Salmonella sofia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beski, S S M; Swick, R A; Iji, P A

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) in broiler chickens under Salmonella sofia disease challenge. The experiment comprised five starter diets: positive control (no supplement), diet supplemented with in-feed antibiotics (IFA; salinomycin 0.05% + zinc bacitracin 0.033%) and diets supplemented with SDPP at 10 or 20 g/kg diet. All four of these groups were challenged with S. sofia, while a fifth group was unchallenged and used as the negative control. The experimental diets were fed to 14 days; then, the birds were switched to commercial-type grower and finisher diets. Oral inoculation of the challenged groups with S. sofia occurred on day 8, 10 and 12. Body weight was significantly higher in the birds fed diets containing IFA and SDPP than in the challenged control group, but it was only significant in starter and grower phases. In general, there was an improvement in the weights of the immune-related organs, but it was only significant for the weight of the bursa of SDPP-fed birds at 13 days. At day 13, blood potassium content was lower and the concentrations of IgG and IgM tended to be lower in the birds fed on low-SDPP starter diets than those of the other groups. There were significant differences in the concentration of lactic acid in the ileum and acetic acid, formic acid, butyric acid and propionic acid in the caeca. Inclusion of SDPP to the starter diets of broiler chicks had positive effects on broiler performance, immunity and gut health during exposure to highly pathogenic conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from broiler chickens Sensibilidade antimicrobiana de estirpes de Clostridium perfringens isoladas de aves de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. O. S. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract of chickens as well as a potential pathogen that causes necrotic enteritis and colangio hepatitis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of seven different compounds used for therapy, growth promotion or prevention of coccidiosis was determined by agar dilution method for 55 C. perfringens strains isolated from the intestines of broiler chickens. All strains showed high susceptibility to penicillin, avilamycin, monensin and narasin. Only 7.3% of the strains showed an intermediated sensitivity to lincomycin, and 49 (89.1% were considered susceptible. For tetracycline and bacitracin, 41.8% and 47.3% of strains, respectively, were considered resistant.Clostridium perfringens é um habitante normal da microbiota intestinal de frangos, sendo um agente potencialmente patogênico, causador de enterite necrótica e colangio-hepatite. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM de sete drogas utilizadas na terapêutica, como agentes promotores de crescimento ou na prevenção de coccidiose foi determinada pelo método de diluição em ágar para 55 estirpes de C. perfringens isoladas do intestino de frangos de corte. Todas as estirpes revelaram alta sensibilidade à penicilina, avilamicina, narasin e monensina, apenas 7,3% demonstraram CIM intermediário para lincomicina e 89.1% foram consideradas sensíveis. Para tetraciclina e bacitracina, 41,8% e 47.3% das amostras, respectivamente, foram consideradas resistentes.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

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    Raquel Lourdes Faria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash. First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group. After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group. For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL. RESULTS: The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. CONCLUSIONS: Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  7. Coinfection with Acanthamoeba and Pseudomonas in contact lens-associated keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Reetika; Jhanji, Vishal; Satpathy, Gita; Sharma, Namrata; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Agarwal, Tushar

    2013-02-01

    To report coinfection with Acanthamoeba and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a case with contact lens-associated keratitis. A 20-year-old woman presented to the emergency department of our hospital with a 4-day history of progressively increasing pain, redness, photophobia, mucopurulent discharge, and diminution of vision in her right eye. She was being treated for contact lens-related Pseudomonas keratitis in another hospital before presentation. Gram stain of corneal scrapings revealed gram-negative bacilli. Both Gram stain and 10% KOH wet mount showed the presence of Acanthamoeba cysts. Microbiological cultures obtained from contact lenses and contact lens storage case showed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acanthamoeba. Topical therapy was started in the form of hourly gentamycin 1.3%, cefazolin 5%, chlorhexidine 0.02%, propamidine 0.1%, polymyxin B 30,000 IU eye drops, and neosporin (neomycin, bacitracin, polymyxin) eye ointment four times a day. Symptomatic improvement was observed within 48 hours, along with a decrease in the density of infiltrates and a reduction in the anterior chamber reaction. Repeat corneal scrapings on day 10 showed Acanthamoeba but no bacilli. Progressive resolution of the infiltrate was noted during the next few days. Epithelialization was complete by day 24, following which the amoebicidal therapy was tapered during the next 4 weeks. Complete resolution of keratitis was achieved after 7 weeks of treatment. Both P. aeruginosa and Acanthamoeba are potentially devastating causes of microbial keratitis. Our case highlights the importance of considering the possibility of a concurrent infection in cases with contact lens-related keratitis.

  8. Detection and prevalence of Capnocytophaga in periodontal Health and disease

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    Pushpa S Pudakalkatti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context/Background: Periodontal disease is a multifactorial disease, in which bacteria play a major role. Capnocytophaga species form a part of human oral flora both in health and disease. They have been implicated as putative periodontal pathogens, and yet, they are less understood members of plaque flora. No studies have been conducted on the association of Capnocytophaga species with periodontal diseases in India. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Capnocytophaga species in patients with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis using culture method. Methods: Forty patients each with healthy periodontium, gingivitis, and periodontitis were selected. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from all the patients using sterile curettes and transferred to transport medium and sent to the laboratory. The plaque samples were inoculated on blood agar and trypticase-blood-bacitracin-polymyxin agar to grow Capnocytophaga species. Later, Gram-staining and microscopy were done to confirm the presence of Capnocytophaga in each sample. The prevalence of Capnocytophaga species was statistically analyzed using Chi-square test, Kruskal–Wallis analysis of variance, and Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: Capnocytophaga was detected in 21 (52.50% samples out of 40 samples of gingivitis group, 11 (27.50% samples of healthy group, and 12 (30% samples of periodontitis group. Conclusions: Capnocytophaga is more prevalent in gingivitis compared to healthy periodontium and periodontitis. Capnocytophaga has the potential to cause periodontal disease, but as it is less competitive in the periodontal pocket, it is usually overgrown by other rapidly growing bacteria.

  9. Isolation of Lactococcus lactis Mutants Simultaneously Resistant to the Cell Wall-Active Bacteriocin Lcn972, Lysozyme, Nisin, and Bacteriophage c2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roces, Clara; Courtin, Pascal; Kulakauskas, Saulius; Rodríguez, Ana; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Lactococcin 972 (Lcn972) is a nonlantibiotic bacteriocin that inhibits cell wall biosynthesis by binding to lipid II. In this work, two mutants resistant to Lcn972, Lactococcus lactis D1 and D1-20, with high (>320 arbitrary units [AU]/ml) and low (80 AU/ml) susceptibilities, respectively, have been isolated. Resistance to Lcn972 did not impose a burden to growth under laboratory conditions, nor did it substantially alter the physicochemical properties of the cell surface. However, the peptidoglycan of the mutants featured a higher content of muropeptides with tripeptide side chains than the wild-type strain, linking for the first time peptidoglycan remodelling to bacteriocin resistance. Moreover, L. lactis lacking a functional d,d-carboxypeptidase DacA (i.e., with a high content of pentapeptide side chain muropeptides) was shown to be more susceptible to Lcn972. Cross-resistance to lysozyme and nisin and enhanced susceptibility to penicillin G and bacitracin was also observed. Intriguingly, the Lcn972-resistant mutants were not infected by the lytic phage c2 and less efficiently infected by phage sk1. Lack of c2 infectivity was linked to a 22.6-kbp chromosomal deletion encompassing the phage receptor protein gene pip. The deletion also included maltose metabolic genes and the two-component system (TCS) F. However, a clear correlation between these genes and resistance to Lcn972 could not be clearly established, pointing to the presence of as-yet-unidentified mutations that account for Lcn972 resistance. PMID:22504807

  10. Etiology and Incidence of positive Microbiological tests in the Department of Pneumology

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    Carmela Mazzone

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The support of microbiological diagnosis for the management of the lower respiratory tract infections is of great utility. It is known, however, that for a correct therapeutic approach is essential to obtain clinical data and images diagnostic. Sometimes, in fact, to important clinical symptoms can coincide with microbiological results little worth, or the isolation from a sputum of certain bacteria, can be an expression of colonization or trivial contamination.The objective of this work was to evaluate the frequency of bacterial species responsible for respiratory tract infections, through direct (culture and indirect (serology methods. Between October 2007 - October 2008, 192 sputum cultures were examined, from the Department of Pneumology and out-patients.The isolation of bacterial strains was performed by seeding samples on the following media (Dasit: Columbia blood Agar (A. CNA, mannitol salt A., Wurtz lactose A., Sabouraud A., enriched chocolate A. + bacitracin. For serological tests, immunoassays in microplates (Vircell were used. The data show that of 192 samples deriving from Department of Pneumology, 41 (22% were positive, while among the out-patient samples, the percentage of positive cultures was 41% (20 positives on the total of 49 samples.The bacteria more frequently isolated in the department of Pneumology, was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n.8 while in out-patients was Escherichia coli (n.8. Serological tests resulted positive for anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies in 3 cases, and for anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae in one case, compared to 53 negative samples. The findings that over 75% of cultures have demonstrated negative results, is suggestive of an origin non-bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract.Among the bacterial isolates are predominant “opportunistic bacteria” (46% presumably responsible of nosocomial infections, while in the out-patients are Enterobacteriaceae the prevalent microrganisms isolated.

  11. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cephalic Recording Chambers in Research Macaques (Macaca spp..

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    Stephanie E Woods

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance. Multi-locus sequence typing showed that most belonged to two E. faecalis sequence types (ST: ST 4 and ST 55. The genomes of three representative isolates were sequenced to identify genes encoding antimicrobial resistances and other traits. Antimicrobial resistance genes identified included aac(6'-aph(2", aph(3'-III, str, ant(6-Ia, tetM, tetS, tetL, ermB, bcrABR, cat, and dfrG, and polymorphisms in parC (S80I and gyrA (S83I were observed. These isolates also harbored virulence factors including the cytolysin toxin genes in ST 4 isolates, as well as multiple biofilm-associated genes (esp, agg, ace, SrtA, gelE, ebpABC, hyaluronidases (hylA, hylB, and other survival genes (ElrA, tpx. Crystal violet biofilm assays confirmed that ST 4 isolates produced more biofilm than ST 55 isolates. The abundance of antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes in the ST 4 isolates likely relates to the loss of CRISPR-cas. This macaque colony represents a unique model for studying E. faecalis infection associated with indwelling devices, and provides an opportunity to understand the basis of persistence of this pathogen in a healthcare setting.

  12. Effect of tulsi extract and honey mouthrinses on salivary Streptococcus mutans count in comparison with 0.2% of chlorhexidine: A randomized controlled trial

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    Shaik Ijaz Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mouthrinses have been popularly used as a supplementary oral hygiene aid. A lot of commercially available mouthrinses possess few adverse effects, which has necessitated the search for alternative and herbal mouthrinses. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the effect of tulsi extract and honey mouthrinses on Streptococcus mutans count in comparison with 0.2% of chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in various schools of Nellore District, Andhra Pradesh. A total of forty-five individuals aged 15 years who satisfied the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to three group, i.e., 15 each for Group A (0.2% of chlorhexidine mouthrinse, Group B (honey mouthrinse, and Group C (tulsi extract mouthrinse by lottery methods. Oral hygiene status was assessed and evaluation of S. mutans was done before and after giving the mouthrinse. The sample was streaked on mitis salivarious-bacitracin agar medium. Results: There was a reduction in S. mutans in all the three groups with 0.2% of chlorhexidine showing a maximum reduction. There was significant difference between Group A (0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse and Group B (honey mouthrinse and between Group A (0.2% chlorhexidine mouthrinse and Group C (tulsi extract mouthrinse (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between Group B (honey mouthrinse and Group C (tulsi extract mouthrinse (P = 1.00 in S. mutans count. Conclusion: Herbal mouthrinses containing tulsi and honey, though as not as effective as chlorhexidine in its antimicrobial property, have its own value and it can be effectively used in areas where people cannot access to chlorhexidine.

  13. Quantitative changes in anaerobic subgingival microbiota in patients, before and during fixed orthodontic treatment

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    Amit Sidana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the growth of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Veillonella before and during fixed orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 40 patients (20 males, 20 females. The patients were divided into two groups, Group 1 (pretreatment group before any fixed orthodontic treatment and Group 2 (active treatment group 6 months into fixed treatment. A. actinomycetemcomitans was cultured on tryptic soy bacitracin vancomycin agar, and for the rest and total aerobic count, Columbia agar was used. The culture plates were incubated anaerobically for 72 h. Bacteria were identified by their physical and microscopic appearances. Further, specific bacteria were identified by VITEK 2 Compact Automated Identification System (Biomerieux. Using the magnifying glass, the total number of bacteria was determined. Result: For all the microbes, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, Veillonella (excepting A. actinomycetemcomitans, a significant increase in count was observed. Mean change was highest for P. intermedia (0.64 ± 0.74 × 104 CFU/ml and minimum for P. gingivalis (0.12 ± 0.35 × 104 CFU/ml. For A. actinomycetemcomitans, at both before and active treatment phases, the count was 0 ± 0 × 104 CFU/ml. For different microbes, change in microbial count ranged from 18.8% (P. gingivalis to 52% (P. intermedia. For Veillonella, the change was 51.4%. Conclusion: Orthodontic appliance serves as different loci for bacterial growth. In this in vivo study, significant differences were noted between the bacterial count in pretreatment group and active treatment group. Adequate oral prophylaxis instructions should be given to patients before starting fixed orthodontic treatment so that oral hygiene can be maintained.

  14. Effect of Achyranthes aspera, 0.2% Aqueous Chlorhexidine Gluconate and Punica granatum Oral Rinse on the Levels of Salivary Streptococcus mutans in 8 to 12 Years Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Aayushi; Marwah, Nikhil; Nigam, Anant Gopal; Goenka, Puneet; Goel, Deepak

    2015-11-01

    To study the effect Achyranthes aspera, 0.2% aqueous chlorhexidine gluconate and Punica granatum oral rinse on salivary Streptococcus mutans count in children. A total of 60 children of 8 to 12 years of age were randomly allocated into 3 groups. Group A was given 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash, group B was given 10% A. aspera mouthwash and group C was given 15% P. granatum mouthwash. The day 1 saliva samples were collected from the subjects and inoculated onto mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar. The colony counts were obtained by a clinical microbiologist who was blinded to the subject allocation. Plaque scores were then recorded by the investigator with the help of a volunteer. Following this, they received a thorough scaling and polishing. Subjects in each group were then provided with 140 ml of the respective mouthwash, as a daily supervised rinse after breakfast and before sleeping as per instructions. Following mouth rinsing, the children were instructed not to eat or drink for 15 minutes. At the 7th day, unstimulated saliva was again collected from the subjects of all 3 groups, inoculated onto MSB agar and colony count was obtained. Modified Quigley-Hein plaque index was also evaluated for the refreshed score at this stage. Colony counting was done using loop method and statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) software version 21. All the three mouthwashes showed statistically significant reduction of S. mutans count and plaque index after 7 days, i.e. chlorhexidine (p granatum (p granatum was statistically significant with respect to reduction of S. mutans count with chlorhexidine being marginally better than the other two; All the three mouthwashes were found to be at par when plaque index values from baseline and after interception of 7 days was calculated; Punica granatum has better antimicrobial effect than A. aspera.

  15. Antibiotic resistance and molecular typing among cockle (Anadara granosa) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahilah, A M; Laila, R A S; Sallehuddin, H Mohd; Osman, H; Aminah, A; Ahmad Azuhairi, A

    2014-02-01

    Genomic DNA of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were characterized by antibiotic resistance, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. These isolates originated from 3 distantly locations of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka (East coastal areas), Malaysia. A total of 44 (n = 44) of tentatively V. parahaemolyticus were also examined for the presence of toxR, tdh and trh gene. Of 44 isolates, 37 were positive towards toxR gene; while, none were positive to tdh and trh gene. Antibiotic resistance analysis showed the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were highly resistant to bacitracin (92%, 34/37) and penicillin (89%, 33/37) followed by resistance towards ampicillin (68%, 25/37), cefuroxime (38%, 14/37), amikacin (6%, 2/37) and ceftazidime (14%, 5/37). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates were resistant towards chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, streptomycin and vancomycin. Antibiogram patterns exhibited, 9 patterns and phenotypically less heterogenous when compared to PCR-based techniques using ERIC- and RAPD-PCR. The results of the ERIC- and RAPD-PCR were analyzed using GelCompare software. ERIC-PCR with primers ERIC1R and ERIC2 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 6 clusters and 21 single isolates at a similarity level of 80%. While, RAPD-PCR with primer Gen8 discriminated the V. parahaemolyticus isolates into 11 clusters and 10 single isolates and Gen9 into 8 clusters and 16 single isolates at the same similarity level examined. Results in the presence study demonstrated combination of phenotypically and genotypically methods show a wide heterogeneity among cockle isolates of V. parahaemolyticus.

  16. Specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation of 125I-labeled insulin in isolated turtle (Chrysemys dorbigni) thyroid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.; da Silva, R.S.; Turyn, D.; Dellacha, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Thyroid glands from turtles (Chrysemys dorbigni) pretreated with potassium iodide were incubated with 125 I-insulin in the presence or absence of unlabeled insulin, in order to study its specific uptake. At 24 degrees, the specific uptake reached a plateau at 180 min of incubation. The dose of bovine insulin that inhibited 50% of the 125 I-insulin uptake was 2 micrograms/ml of incubation medium. Most of the radioactive material (71%) extracted from the gland, after 30 min incubation with 125 I-insulin, eluted in the same position as labeled insulin on Sephadex G-50. Only 24% eluted in the salt position. After 240 min incubation, increased amount of radioactivity appeared in the Na 125 I position. When bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone, a substantial reduction of radioactivity was observed in the insulin and Na 125 I elution positions. Dissociation studies were performed at 6 degrees in glands preincubated with 125 I-insulin either at 24 or 6 degrees. The percentage of trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble radioactive material in the dissociation medium increased with incubation time at both temperatures. However, the degradation activity was lower at 6 than at 24 degrees. The addition of bovine insulin to the incubation buffer containing 125 I-insulin reduced the radioactive degradation products in the dissociated medium. Chloroquine or bacitracin inhibited the degradation activity. Incubation of thyroid glands with 125 I-hGH or 125 I-BSA showed values of uptake, dissociation, and degradation similar to those experiments in which an excess of bovine insulin was added together with the labeled hormone. Thus, by multiple criteria, such as specific uptake, dissociation, and degradation, the presence of insulin-binding sites in the turtle thyroid gland may be suggested

  17. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from coastal seawater and sediment in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drais, Ashraf Abbas; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is widely recognized pathogenic Vibrio species due to numerous outbreaks and its' wide occurrence in the marine environment. A total of 50 Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates were isolated from seawater and sediments in Malaysia were tested for sensitivity to 19 antibiotics using disc diffusion method. It was found that all isolates were resistant towards ampicillin (10 μg), penicillin (10 μg), methicillin (5 μg), and novobiocin (5 μg); but exhibit sensitivity to chloramphenicol (30 μg) and gentamicin (100 μg). The low percentage of sensitivity towards antibiotics was observed with the following antibiotics; amoxicillin 10μg (98%), fluconazole 25μg (98%), erythromycin 15 μg (92%), vancomycin 30 μg (92%), bacitracin 10 μg (84%), carbenicillin 100 μg (84%), cephalothin 30 μg (52%), nitrofurantion 200 μg (52%), ciprofloxacin 5 μg (40%), tetracycline 30 μg (20%), kanamycin 30 μg (10%), nalidixic acid 30 μg (10%) and streptomycin 20 μg (6%). Multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index was found to be 0.42-0.78. All the isolates were multi-resistant to these antibiotics. This indicates that the isolates originate from high-risk source of contamination where antibiotics are often used. Thus, there is a need for supervised use of antibiotics and frequent surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains for antimicrobial resistance. The presence of V. parahaemolyticus in coastal water with a high value of multiple antibiotic resistance indexes (MARI) can increase the risk of exposure to human and regular monitoring program for this potential human pathogenic bacterium is important.

  18. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fani, M M; Kohanteb, J; Dayaghi, M

    2007-01-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) extract has been known to have inhibitory activity on various pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and used in the present study. For isolation of S. mutans, extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. S. mutans was characterized by colony morphology, biochemical tests and other conventional bacteriological procedures. Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6%) isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4%) were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. The highest rate of resistance was observed for tetracycline (30.4%) and least resistance (0%) to teichoplanin and vancomycin while 22.8% and 23.9% of the isolates were resistant to penicillin and amoxicillin, respectively. Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 microg ml(-1) and from 0.25 to 1 microg ml(-1), respectively (Pgarlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 microg ml(-1). Considering in vitro data obtained in the present study, mouthwashes or toothpaste containing optimum concentration of garlic extract could be used for prevention of dental caries.

  19. Analysis of a viridans group strain reveals a case of bacteremia due to lancefield group G alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp equisimilis in a patient with pyomyositis and reactive arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Teng, Jade L L; Lau, Susanna K P; Lum, Peggy N L; Leung, Kit-Wah; Wong, Kee-Lam; Li, Kin-Wah; Lam, Kui-Chun; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2003-02-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is classified by a combination of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics into Lancefield group C alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae and Lancefield group C, group G, and group L beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. In this study, we report the isolation of a catalase-negative, alpha-hemolytic, optochin- and bacitracin-resistant viridans group strain, which does not grow in 10 or 40% bile, on MacConkey agar or bile esculin agar, or in 6% NaCl, from the blood culture of a 73-year-old woman with pyomyositis and poststreptococcal reactive arthritis. Lancefield grouping revealed that the strain was a group G streptococcus. The Vitek system (GPI) showed that it was unidentified, and the API system (20 STREP) showed that it was 95.7% S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that it was a strain of S. dysgalactiae. Based on phylogenetic affiliation with 16S rRNA gene or GroEL amino acid (another bacterial gene, in addition to 16S rRNA gene, that is highly conserved) sequences, the strain is most closely related to Lancefield group C beta-hemolytic S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. PCR amplification and sequencing of the streptolysin S structural gene (sagA) and M protein gene (emm) hypervariable region showed the presence of these suspected primary virulence factors. Further studies would delineate whether the isolate is just a hemolysin-deficient variant of group G beta-hemolytic S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis or a novel type of S. dysgalactiae. The present case showed that group G alpha-hemolytic S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis can be associated with serious invasive infection and poststreptococcal sequelae.

  20. Utilização de probiótico, ácido orgânico e antibiótico em dietas para coelhos em crescimento: ensaio de digestibilidade, avaliação da morfometria intestinal e desempenho Utilization of probiotic, organic acid and antibiotic in diets for growing rabbits: essay of digestibility, evaluation of intestinal morphometry and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cristiane Michelan

    2002-11-01

    animais recebendo dietas com inclusão de ácido fumárico, ácido fumárico + bacitracina de zinco e com a dieta contendo os três aditivos. Tanto o peso, como o rendimento de carcaça, foram maiores para os animais alimentados com as dietas, contendo ácido fumárico ou ácido fumárico + bacitracina de zinco. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o peso do fígado, rins e coração.Three experiments, an essay of digestibility, other of morphometrical intestinal evaluation and of performance were carried out to evaluate the effects of inclusion of Calsporin® (0,03%, fumaric acid (1,5% and zinc bacitracin with 15% of activity (0,10% in diets, separated or combined, on utilization of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, gross energy and the morphometrical jejunal analysis and the essay performed of growing rabbits. For the digestibility essay 64 White New Zealand rabbits were used, half of each sex, 50 days old, distributed on a completly randomized design with eight treatments and eight replicates. There was no difference for the digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and gross energy among the treatments. For the morphometrical jejunal analysis, 100 White New Zealand rabbits were slaughtered, four in the begining of the experiment, with 35 days old, and four animals per treatment at 50, 60, and 75 days old. The inclusion of the additives in the diet, separated or combined, had no effect on the jejunal wall , muscularis external tunica and the total wall morphometry of the growing rabbits. However the thickness of mucosal tunic decreased linearly with the age of rabbits. For the performed essay, 176 White New Zealand rabbits were used, half of each sex, from 35 to 75 days old, allocated in a completely randomized design, with eight treatments, 11 replicates and two animals for each replicate. The inclusion of the additives, separated or combined, had no effect on the performance from 35 to 50

  1. Effect of Bacillus apiarius or Torulaspora delbrueckii on performance of broiler chicken

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    I.P Kompiang

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment had been conducted to determine the effect of B. apiarius and T. delbrueckii, isolated from chicken gut, supplementation on the broiler performance. Evaluation was conducted by comparing performance of broiler chicken: (I negative control/basal diet without antibiotic growth promotor (GPA, (II positive control/basal diet with GPA, zinc-bacitracin, (III basal diet + B. apiarius 5 ml/l in drinking water daily, (IV basal diet + T. delbrueckii 5 ml/l in drinking water daily, (V basal diet + B. apiarius 5 ml/l in drinking, daily during the first week, and there after given twice weekly, (VI basal diet + T. delbrueckii 5 ml/l in drinking, daily during the first week, and there after given twice weekly and (VII reference control, basal diet + commercial probiotic 5 ml/l in drinking, daily during the first week, and there after given twice weekly. Thirty two DOC broilers were used for each treatment, divided into 4 replicates (8 birds/replicate and raised in wire cages for 5 weeks. Feed and water were given ad lib., body weight, FCR (feed conversion ratio and mortality were recorded. The results showed that the performance of the birds supplemented daily (III or twice weekly (V with B. apiarius are similar to positive control (II or reference control (VII and significantly (P<0.05 better than the negative control (I. Performance of the birds supplemented daily with T. delbrueckii (IV are similar to positive control (II or reference control (VII and significantly (P<0.05 better than the negative control (I. However, when given only twice weekly (VI, their bodyweight gain was significantly (P<0.05 lower than treatment II, III, IV and VII, but similar to treatment I. Its FCR value was similar to the other treatments. Mortality was low, an average of 1.3/32 birds, during the trial period and there were no differences between all treatments. It is concluded that both B. apiarius and T. delbrueckii could be utilized as probiotic candidates

  2. Aggregicoccus edonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an unusually aggregating myxobacterium isolated from a soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Sakshi; Awal, Ram Prasad; Wink, Joachim; Mohr, Kathrin I; Rohde, Manfred; Stadler, Marc; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Schumann, Peter; Garcia, Ronald; Müller, Rolf

    2015-03-01

    A novel myxobacterium, MCy1366(T) (Ar1733), was isolated in 1981 from a soil sample collected from a region near Tokyo, Japan. It displayed general myxobacterial features like Gram-negative-staining, rod-shaped vegetative cells, gliding on solid surfaces, microbial lytic activity, fruiting-body-like aggregates and myxospore-like structures. The strain was mesophilic, aerobic and showed a chemoheterotrophic mode of nutrition. It was resistant to many antibiotics such as cephalosporin C, kanamycin, gentamicin, hygromycin B, polymyxin and bacitracin, and the key fatty acids of whole cell hydrolysates were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 2-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content of the novel strain was 65.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence showed highest similarity (97.60 %) to 'Stigmatella koreensis' strain KYC-1019 (GenBank accession no. EF112185). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and MALDI-TOF MS data revealed a novel branch in the family Myxococcaceae. DNA-DNA hybridization showed only 28 % relatedness between the novel strain and the closest recognized species, Corallococcus exiguus DSM 14696(T) (97 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). A recent isolate from a soil sample collected in Switzerland, MCy10622, displayed 99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with strain MCy1366(T) and showed almost the same characteristics. Since some morphological features like fruiting-body-like aggregates were barely reproducible in the type strain, the newly isolated strain, MCy10622, was also intensively studied. On the basis of a comprehensive taxonomic study, we propose a novel genus and species, Aggregicoccus edonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., for strains MCy1366(T) and MCy10622. The type strain of the type species is MCy1366(T) ( = DSM 27872(T) = NCCB 100468(T)). © 2015 Prof. Dr. Rolf Muller, Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Campus C2 3, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany.

  3. Effect of supplemental vitamins and trace minerals on performance and carcass quality in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M S; Arentson, B E

    2001-01-01

    Two trials with finishing pigs (PIC line 355 x Camborough 22) were conducted to evaluate the effects of vitamin and trace mineral (VTM) supplement deletions on performance, carcass quality, and tissue nutrient levels. Trial 1, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM supplement regimens and two stress regimens, was conducted for 12 wk with 252 pigs (mixed sex). Average initial weight of pigs was 54 kg. The VTM regimens consisted of control (adequate level of VTM throughout trial), VTM deleted for the final 6 wk, and VTM deleted for entire 12 wk of the trial. The stress regimens consisted of leaving half the treatments in their original location or moving the other half of the treatments to a new pen location every 3 wk. There were three replications (pens) per treatment with 14 pigs per pen (0.80 m2). Diets were medicated with bacitracin methylene disalicylate. Overall, there were no treatment differences (P > 0.05) for ADG, ADFI, gain:feed ratio, longissimus muscle area, or last-rib backfat. However, there was a greater than 75% decrease (P < 0.001) in vitamin E content of longissimus muscle from deleting VTM for 6 or 12 wk. Trial 2, a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments involving three VTM regimens and two genders, was conducted for 12 wk with 306 pigs. Average initial weight of pigs was 58 kg. The VTM regimens were identical to those used in Trial 1. Each treatment consisted of three gender replications of 17 pigs per pen (0.66 m2), and all diets were unmedicated. Overall, pigs fed diets without VTM for 12 wk had lower (P < 0.06) ADG than those fed the control diets. Vitamin E content of the ham muscle was reduced by greater than 50% (P < 0.001) when pigs were fed diets without VTM for 6 or 12 wk compared with those fed the control diet. Concentrations of copper in ham muscle were reduced (P < 0.05) in pigs fed diets without VTM. These data suggest that deleting VTM during the finishing stage markedly lowers the vitamin E content of

  4. Mutante espontâneo de Bacillus licheniformis bloqueado no estágio I da esporogênese, possuidor de metabolismo respiratório aumentado A spontaneous mutant of Bacillus licheniformis with increased respiratory metabolism, blocked in stage I of sporogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Rabinovitch

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Um mutante espontâneo de Bacillus licheniformis, derivado da amostra esporogênica 2390, foi estudado com vistas ao reconhecimento do estágio da evolução para esporo em que o mesmo se encontrava bloqueado. Eletronmicrografias sugeriram que as células desse mutante, colhidas durante a fase estacionária da curva de crescimento, não ultrapassaram o estágio I da esporogênese (i.e., permaneceram com o nucleóide disposto como filamento axial, enquanto a produção de antibiótico (bacitracina e a atividade proteolítica foram francamente detectadas. A linhagem mutante, designada Spolp-72, nas condições experimentais empregadas não biossintetizou esporos por estarvação em solução de sais inorgãnicos, mas evidenciou uma frequência de esporulação menor que 10*-7, após crescimento vegetativo em meio de cultura favorável á esporogênese. A amostra Spolp-72 externa um crescimento vegetativo inicial restringido, quando comparada com a amostra 2390, enquanto que, inversamente, sua atividade respiratória é significativamente mais elevada. Este último comportamento foi confirmado no presente trabalho, contrastando, nesse particular, com outros tipos de mutantes de esporulação já descritos, os quais se encontram bloqueados nos primeiros estágios da via esporogenética.A spontaneous mutant strain derived from the sporogenic B. licheniformis 2390 was studied with a view to determining at what developmental stage toward sporulation it was blocked. Electronmicrographs suggested that the mutant cells harvested during the stationary phase of the growth curve were unable to go beyond stage I of sporogenesis (i. e., their nucleoid remained as an axial filament. On the other hand, antibiotic production (bacitracin and proteolytic activity were easily detected. Under the present experimental conditions the mutant strain, named Spolp-72, did not synthesize spores by starvation in a solution of inorganic salts, in contrast with the parental

  5. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC and Maternal Relatedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiao

    Full Text Available Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC. The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and the maternal relatedness.Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S/dmft(s caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B. Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses were implemented with SAS 9.4.A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%. Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were seen when compared

  6. A comparative evaluation of Oratest with the microbiological method of assessing caries activity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sundaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study is to find out whether Oratest can be used as a diagnostic tool in assessing the caries activity by evaluating its relationship to the existing caries status and the salivary streptococcus mutans level. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 90 students divided into two groups. Group I (test group and Group II (control group consisting of 30 children for control group and 60 children for test group. The sampling of unstimulated saliva for the estimation of streptococcus mutans was done as per the method suggested by Kohler and Bratthall. The plates were then incubated. Rough surface colonies were identified as streptococcus mutans on a pre-determined area of the tip (approximately 1.5 cm 2 were counted for each side of spatula pressed against mitis salivarius bacitracin agar using digital colony counter. The results were expressed in colony forming units (CFU. Oratest was carried out in the same patients after the collection of salivary sample for the microbiological method to evaluate the relationship between the two tests. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests used were ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and Student′s independent t-test. Results: In the control group and test group, when the streptococcus mutans count (CFU and Oratest time (minutes were correlated using Pearson′s correlation analysis, the streptococcus mutans counts was found to be in a statistically significant negative linear relationship with the Oratest time. When the caries status of the children, participated in the test group were correlated with mutans count (CFU and Oratest time, caries status were found to be in a statistically significant positive linear relationship with streptococcus mutans count and in a significant negative linear relationship with Oratest time. Conclusions: The test proved to be a simple, inexpensive and rapid technique for assessing caries activity

  7. Efficacy of Neem Extract and Three Antimicrobial Agents Incorporated into Tissue Conditioner in Inhibiting the Growth of C. Albicans and S. Mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Dikshita Ray; Basavanna, Jayaprakash Mugur; Varghese, Rana Kalappattil

    2017-05-01

    Denture stomatitis is an inflammatory condition which compromises the mucosal surface beneath dentures. The aetiology of denture stomatitis is usually multifactorial which varies from trauma from ill fitting denture to poor immune system. There are evidences that denture stomatitis is an outcome of multispecies biofilms that include Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans . Tissue conditioners are found to be more susceptible to colonisation by micro-organisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of neem leaf extract and three other antimicrobial agents incorporated in a tissue conditioner against both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans . Standard strain of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans were inoculated into Sabouraud Dextrose broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin broth respectively incubated at 37°C. Tissue conditioner (Viscogel) mixed with two different concentrations of ketoconazole, nystatin and chlorhexidine diacetate (5%, 10% w/w) and neem leaf extract (7.5% w/w and 15% w/w) and control group (plain tissue conditioner) were placed into punch hole (6 mm diameter) agar plate inoculated with Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans . A total of 216 samples were prepared for both Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans . Mean Inhibition Diameter (MID) across each punch holes were measured in millimetres at 24 hours and seven days and data were statistically analysed using Kruskal Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney U test. Both ketoconazole and nystatin (10% w/w) showed maximum inhibition of 32 mm and mean of 31.75 followed by 15% w/w neem leaf extract with an inhibition of 21 mm and mean of 20.67 after 24 hours against Candida albicans whereas chlorhexidine diacetate (10% w/w) showed mean of 25.67 followed by chlorhexidine diacetate (5% w/w) and neem extract (15% w/w) which showed mean of 24.17 and 23.67 respectively against Streptococcus mutans . Neem leaf extract exhibited considerable potential to be an efficacious

  8. Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamate, Wasim Ismail; Vibhute, Nupura Aniket; Baad, Rajendra Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area. The aim of the present study was to assess the severity of dental caries in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women by evaluating parameters like Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index, salivary Streptococcus mutans count, flow rate, pH and total calcium content. A total of 50 first time pregnant women in the first trimester were followed during their second trimester, third trimester and postpartum period for the evaluation of DMFT by World Health Organization (WHO) scoring criteria, salivary flow rate by drooling method, salivary pH by pH meter, salivary total calcium content by bioassay test kit and salivary Streptococcus mutans count by semiautomatic counting of colonies grown on Mitis Salivarius (MS) agar supplemented by 0.2U/ml of bacitracin and 10% sucrose. The observations of pregnant women were then compared with same parameters evaluated in the 50 non-pregnant women. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon sign rank test were performed to assess the association between the study parameters. Evaluation of different caries risk factors between pregnant and non-pregnant women clearly showed that pregnant women were at a higher risk for dental caries. Comparison of caries risk parameters during the three trimesters and postpartum period showed that the salivary Streptococcus mutans count had significantly increased in the second trimester , third trimester and postpartum period while the mean pH and mean salivary total calcium content decreased in the third trimester and postpartum period. These

  9. Candida albicans Carriage in Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries (S-ECC) and Maternal Relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Moon, Yonghwi; Li, Lihua; Rustchenko, Elena; Wakabayashi, Hironao; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Feng, Changyong; Gill, Steven R; McLaren, Sean; Malmstrom, Hans; Ren, Yanfang; Quivey, Robert; Koo, Hyun; Kopycka-Kedzierawski, Dorota T

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans has been detected together with Streptococcus mutans in high numbers in plaque-biofilm from children with early childhood caries (ECC). The goal of this study was to examine the C. albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and the maternal relatedness. Subjects in this pilot cross-sectional study were recruited based on a convenient sample. DMFT(S)/dmft(s) caries and plaque scores were assessed during a comprehensive oral exam. Social-demographic and related background information was collected through a questionnaire. Saliva and plaque sample from all children and mother subjects were collected. C. albicans were isolated by BBL™ CHROMagar™ and also identified using germ tube test. S. mutans was isolated using Mitis Salivarius with Bacitracin selective medium and identified by colony morphology. Genetic relatedness was examined using restriction endonuclease analysis of the C. albicans genome using BssHII (REAG-B). Multilocus sequence typing was used to examine the clustering information of isolated C. albicans. Spot assay was performed to examine the C. albicans Caspofungin susceptibility between S-ECC children and their mothers. All statistical analyses (power analysis for sample size, Spearman's correlation coefficient and multiple regression analyses) were implemented with SAS 9.4. A total of 18 S-ECC child-mother pairs and 17 caries free child-mother pairs were enrolled in the study. Results indicated high C. albicans carriage rate in the oral cavity (saliva and plaque) of both S-ECC children and their mothers (>80%). Spearman's correlation coefficient also indicated a significant correlation between salivary and plaque C. albicans and S. mutans carriage (p60% of them demonstrated identical C. albicans REAG-B pattern. C. albicans isolated from >65% of child-mother pairs demonstrated similar susceptibility to caspofungin in spot assay, while no caspofungin resistant strains were seen when compared with C

  10. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM USE OF XYLITOL CHEWING GUM AND MOLTITOL ORAL SPRAY ON SALIVARY STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND ORAL PLAQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Vongsawan, Kutkao; Teerawongpairoj, Chayanid; Choongphong, Nachata; Panich, Tathata; Kaewvimonrat, Pravee

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray on the concentration of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and on the plaque index. Eighty-one second, third and fourth year dental and dental assistant students with a salivary MS concentration > 103 CFU/ml cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar were included in the study. The age range of subjects was 18-23 years. The participants were divided into 3 groups: control, xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray groups. Each subject brushed their teeth with fluoridated toothpaste (1,000 ppm). Each subject in the xylitol chewing gum group was told to chew 2 pieces, 6 times a day (total xylitol dose=7.3 g/day) for 4 weeks. Each subject in the maltitol spray group was told to spray one puff twice daily (morning and evening) for 4 weeks. A dental examination and saliva samples to determine the salivary MS concentration were collected at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks after experiment initiation. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test was used to analyze differences among groups. The mean ages in the control, xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray groups were 22±1, 20±1 and 20±1 years, respectively. The mean MS concentrations at the beginning of the study and after 2 weeks in the control, and xylitol chewing gum and moltitol oral spray groups were not significantly different from each other. There was a significantly lower MS concentration in the moltitol oral spray group than in the control group by 4 weeks (p=0.045) but no significant difference between the control group and the xylitol gum group by 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in the mean plaque index at baseline among the control group, the xylitol chewing gum group and the moltitol oral spray group. The plaque index was significantly lower in the xylitol chewing gum group than the control group (p=0.003) at 2 weeks but not 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in the mean

  11. Phytogenic feed additives as alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in broiler chickens

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    Ganapathi Raj Murugesan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend toward reduction of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP in North American poultry diets has put tremendous pressure on the industry to look for viable alternatives. In this context, phytogenic feed additives (PFA are researched to improve gut health and thereby performance. An experiment was conducted with the objective to evaluate the effects of PFA as an alternative to AGP on small intestinal histomorphology, cecal microbiota composition, nutrient digestibility, and growth performance in broiler chickens. A total of 432, day-old Vencobb 400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three dietary groups, each consisting of 12 replicate pens (n = 12 chicks/pen. The chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal based control (CON, CON + 500 mg/kg of AGP (bacitracin methylene disalicylate containing 450 mg active BMD/g, or CON + 150 mg/kg of proprietary blend of PFA (Digestarom® Poultry until 39 days of age when samples were collected. Birds fed either AGP or PFA had increased villus height in all three segments of the small intestine in comparison to the birds fed CON (P ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, the PFA fed birds had significantly increased villus height and lower crypt depth compared to AGP fed birds (P ≤ 0.05. Birds fed either additive also had increased total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ether extract (P ≤ 0.05. The strong effect of the PFA on villus height in the jejunum may suggest augmented nutrient absorption in PFA fed birds. Although both additives reduced total cecal counts of anaerobic bacteria and Clostridium spp., PFA alone reduced the total coliform count while increasing the Lactobacillus spp. count (P ≤ 0.05. These results suggest the establishment of beneficial microbial colonies in PFA fed birds. Overall both PFA and AGP increased body weight gain while lowering the feed conversion ratio (P ≤ 0.05. Hence data from this experiment demonstrate the efficacy of PFA as a substitute to AGP in

  12. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 isolated from human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meiling; Zhang, Fen; Wan, Cuixiang; Xiong, Yonghua; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Tao, Xueying

    2016-03-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04, a specific strain isolated from human breast milk, was investigated for its survival capacity (acid and bile salt tolerance, survival in simulated gastrointestinal tract, inhibition of pathogens, antibiotic susceptibility, yield of exopolysaccharides) and probiotic properties (antiadhesion of pathogens, protection from harmful effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and antiinflammatory stress on Caco-2 cells). The results showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 had broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive strains (Listeria monocytogenes CMCC54007, Bacillus cereus ATCC14579, and Staphylococcus aureus CMCC26003) and gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC10104, Shigella sonnei ATCC25931, Enterobacter sakazakii ATCC29544, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that Lb. plantarum WLPL04 was susceptible to 8 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin and nitrofurantoin) and resistant to 6 of 14 antibiotics (e.g., kanamycin and bacitracin). Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 was able to survive at pH 2.5 for 3h and at 0.45% bile salt for 12h, suggesting that it can survive well in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, the exopolysaccharide yield of Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reached 426.73 ± 65.56 mg/L at 24h. With strategies of competition, inhibition, and displacement, Lb. plantarum WLPL04 reduced the adhesion of E. coli O157:H7 (35.51%), Sal. typhimurium ATCC 13311 (8.10%), and Staph. aureus CMCC 26003 (40.30%) on Caco-2 cells by competition, and subsequently by 59.80, 62.50, and 42.60%, respectively, for the 3 pathogens through inhibition, and by 75.23, 39.97, and 52.88%, respectively, through displacement. Lactobacillus plantarum WLPL04 attenuated the acute stress induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate on Caco-2 cells and significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α) on Caco-2 cells but increased IL-10 expression in vitro

  13. Isolation and characterization of hemolytic bacteria Fish disc and Neon RainbowIsolamento e caracterização de bactérias hemolíticas de Acará Disco e Neon Arco-Íris

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    José Luiz Pedreira Mouriño

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to isolate, identify and determine the ability of potential pathogenic bacteria hemolytic mite Disco (Symphysodon discus and Neon Rainbow (Melanotaenia praecox, and define which of the antibiotic Trimethoprim, Florfenicol, Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin, Bacitracin, Enrofloxacin, Tetracycline, and Furazolidone Clindamycin has better inhibitory effect in vitro, and determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for Chloramphenicol, Norfloxacin, Erythromycin and Enrofloxacin. In an outbreak of ornamental fish deaths were isolated nine strains of Gram negative, hemolytic where 3 were identified, two as Vibrio cholerae and one as Citrobacter braakii. With these strains were performed antibiogram and was determined the minimum inhibitory concentration at two different temperatures (22 and 30 ° C. Antibiotics Enrofloxacin, Norfloxacin, florfenicol, chloramphenicol and trimethoprim showed the best results in vitro inhibition against the Vibrio cholerae, and Citrobacter braakii. The MIC increased in 30 ° C for erythromycin and enrofloxacin against pathogens, while for Florfenicol and norfloxacin the MIC was not influenced by temperature.O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar, identificar e determinar a capacidade hemolítica de possíveis bactérias patogênicas do Acará Disco (Symphysodon discus e Neon Arco-íris (Melanotaenia praecox, e definir qual o antibiótico entre Trimetoprim, Florfenicol, Cloranfenicol, Norfloxacina, Eritromicina, Bacitracina, Enrofloxacina, Tetraciclina, Furazolidona e Clindamicina possui melhor efeito inibitório in vitro, e determinar a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC para Cloranfenicol, Norfloxacina, Eritromicina e Enrofloxacina. Em um surto de mortalidade de peixes ornamentais foram isoladas nove cepas de bactérias Gram negativas, onde três hemolíticas foram identificadas, duas como Vibrio cholerae e uma como Citrobacter braakii. Com estas foram realizados antibiogramas

  14. Comparative efficacy of a phytogenic feed additive and an antibiotic growth promoter on production performance, caecal microbial population and humoral immune response of broiler chickens inoculated with enteric pathogens

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    Toshi Wati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available phytogenic feed additive (PFA and an antibiotic growth promoter, which was bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, on performance, nutrient retention, caecal colonization of bacteria and humoral immune responses against Newcastle disease in broiler chickens challenged orally with Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. One-day-old male Cobb 400 broiler chicks (n = 120 were fed with 1 a negative control (NC diet, which is the basal diet without any added growth promoter, 2 a positive control (PC diet, the basal diet supplemented with BMD, 500 mg/kg and 3 a diet supplemented with PFA (150 mg/kg for 39 days and the birds were inoculated with S. enteritidis and E. coli on d 28. Supplementation of PFA improved body weight, feed conversion ratio, retention of N and crude fiber, increased fecal moisture content and decreased digesta transit time as compared with the NC and PC groups (P < 0.01. Both the PC and the PFA was found to be equally effective in controlling the surge in numbers of Salmonella and E. coli following oral inoculation of these bacteria as compared with the NC group (P < 0.05 at 24 h past inoculation. Caecal content analysis on d 39 indicated lower numbers of Salmonella, E. coli and Clostridium in the PC and PFA groups as compared with the NC group (P < 0.05. The number of Lactobacillus in the PFA group was higher than those in the NC and PC groups (P < 0.05. Humoral immune response, measured as hemagglutination inhibition titer against Newcastle disease, was better in the PC and PFA groups compared with the NC group (P < 0.05 at d 21 but the difference did not last till d 39. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio was narrower (P < 0.001 and alkaline phosphatase activity was higher (P < 0.01 in the PFA group as compared with the NC and PC groups on d 39. It was concluded that the PFA, which is animal, environment and consumer friendly, may be used as an

  15. Chlorhexidine Antiseptic Irrigation Eradicates Staphylococcus epidermidis From Biofilm: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kenneth; Estes, Chris; McLaren, Alex; Spangehl, Mark J

    2018-03-01

    Antiseptic and antibacterial solutions used for intraoperative irrigation are intended to kill bacteria and thereby decrease the incidence of surgical site infections. It is unknown if the concentrations and exposure times of irrigation solutions commonly used for prophylaxis in clean cases (povidone-iodine 0.35% for 3 minutes) are effective against bacteria in biofilm that are present in implant infections. Currently, povidone-iodine (0.35%), chlorhexidine (0.05%), sodium hypochlorite (0.125%), and triple antibacterial solution are all being used off-label for wound irrigation after surgical débridement for orthopaedic infections. Do commonly used antibacterials and antiseptics kill bacteria in established biofilm at clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times? Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC#35984) biofilms were exposed to chlorhexidine (0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.1%), povidone-iodine (0.35%, 1.0%, 3.5%, and 10%), sodium hypochlorite (0.125%, 0.25%, and 0.5%,), and triple antibacterial solution (bacitracin 50,000 U/L, gentamicin 80 mg/L, and polymyxin 500,000 U/L) for 1, 5, and 10 minutes in triplicate. Surviving bacteria were detected by 21-day subculture. Failure to eradicate all bacteria in any of the three replicates was considered to be "not effective" for that respective solution, concentration, and exposure time. Chlorhexidine 0.05% and 0.1% at all three exposure times, povidone-iodine 10% at all three exposure times, and povidone-iodine 3.5% at 10 minutes only were effective at eradicating S epidermidis from biofilm. All concentrations and all exposure times of sodium hypochlorite and triple antibacterial solution were not effective. Chlorhexidine is capable of eradicating S epidermidis from biofilm in vitro in clinically relevant concentrations and exposure times. Povidone-iodine at commonly used concentrations and exposure times, sodium hypochlorite, and triple antibacterial solutions are not. This in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine may be

  16. Permeation studies on freshly excised rat gastric mucosa: influence of pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithner, Katharina; Grabovac, Vjera; Albrecht, Karin; Hombach, Juliane; Klima, Günter; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the permeation of model drugs through freshly excised rat stomach. Additionally, the capability of excised gastric mucosa to maintain an acidic pH was assessed. In vitro permeation studies were performed in Ussing-type diffusion chambers with rat stomach using fluorescence-labeled bacitracin (bac-FITC), sodium fluorescein (NaFlu), propranolol HCl, and cimetidine as model drugs. The pH was adjusted to pH 1, 2, and 6.8 in the donor chamber and pH 7.4 in the acceptor chamber. The study demonstrated that both, the fore stomach and the glandular gastric mucosa, are capable of maintaining an acidic pH of 1-1.2 in the donor chamber. P(app) (permeation coefficients) were found to be 1.4 ± 0.6 ×·10(-7) and 7.6 ± 0.7 ×·10(-7) for bac-FITC and 3.3 ± 1.5 ×·10(-7) and 2.4 ± 0.6 ×·10(-6) cm/sec for NaFlu at pH 2 and 6.8, respectively, in the glandular stomach. In order to evaluate the effect of pH on the integrity of paracellular space, propranolol as high-permeability drug and cimetidine as low-permeability drug were chosen. The P(app) of propranolol HCl was determined to be 5.9 ± 0.3 ×·10(-7) and 1.1 ± 0.7 ×·10(-6) cm/sec at pH 2 and 6.8, respectively, in the glandular stomach. Cimetidine showed a permeability of 1.4 ± 0.4 ×·10(-5) and 9.6 ± 2.3 ×·10(-6) cm/sec at pH 2 and 6.8. Results provide essential basic information for the development of gastric drug delivery systems.

  17. The sensitivity and the specifity of rapid antigen test in streptococcal upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurol, Yesim; Akan, Hulya; Izbirak, Guldal; Tekkanat, Zuhal Tazegun; Gunduz, Tehlile Silem; Hayran, Osman; Yilmaz, Gulden

    2010-06-01

    It is aimed to detect the sensitivity and specificity of rapid antigen detection of group A beta hemolytic streptococci from throat specimen compared with throat culture. The other goal of the study is to help in giving clinical decisions in upper respiratory tract infections according to the age group, by detection of sensitivity and positive predictive values of the rapid tests and throat cultures. Rapid antigen detection and throat culture results for group A beta hemolytic streptococci from outpatients attending to our university hospital between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008 were evaluated retrospectively. Throat samples were obtained by swabs from the throat and transported in the Stuart medium and Quickvue Strep A [Quidel, San Diego, USA] cassette test was applied and for culture, specimen was inoculated on 5% blood sheep agar and identified according to bacitracin and trimethoprim-sulphametaxazole susceptibility from beta hemolytic colonies. During the dates between the first of November 2005 and 31st of December 2008, from 453 patients both rapid antigen detection and throat culture were evaluated. Rapid antigen detection sensitivity and specificity were found to be 64.6% and 96.79%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 80.95% whereas negative predictive value was 92.82%. Kappa index was 0.91. When the results were evaluated according to the age groups, the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of rapid antigen detection in children were 70%, 90.3% and in adults 59.4%, 70.4%. When bacterial infection is concerned to prevent unnecessary antibiotic use, rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) is a reliable method to begin immediate treatment. To get the maximum sensitivity of RSAT, the specimen collection technique used and education of the health care workers is important. While giving clinical decision, it must be taken into consideration that the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the RSAT is quite

  18. In vitro and in vivo antimicrobial effects of mastic chewing gum against Streptococcus mutans and mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Alev; Duran, Nizami; Koksal, Fatih

    2006-06-01

    Dental caries is associated with oral pathogens and Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is one of the primary cariogenic organisms. Mastic gum, from Pistacia lentiscus, has been shown to have antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of mastic chewing gum against S. mutans and mutans streptococci in vitro and in vivo conditions. Cukurova University, Dental School, in 2002. Antimicrobial activity of mastic gum was evaluated using standard S. mutans strain by disc diffusion method in vitro. Cytotoxicity effect of mastic gum on HEp-2 cells was evaluated by conventional haemocytometer using the trypan blue exclusion method. Clinical studies were then performed on 25 periodontally healthy volunteers. The inhibitory effect of chewing mastic gum against mutans streptococci in saliva was compared to a placebo gum. Saliva samples were taken from the subjects immediately before and after chewing the mastic gum and the placebo gum for 15 min. Additional saliva samples were collected every 30 min. The samples were inoculated onto mitis salivarius-bacitracin agar and incubated for 48 h anaerobically at 37 degrees C. The total number of viable bacteria was then counted. Among tested solvents (chloroform, acetone, petrolium ether and ethanol), it was found that the acetone was found to be more convenient than the others to dissolve the mastic gum. In the cytotoxicity assay, concentrations up to 75 mg/ml of the mastic gum were not toxic for the replication of HEp-2 cells. Thus, lower concentrations of mastic gum (20 and 50 mg/ml) were used for the experiments. In vitro experiments, the diameters of growth inhibition zones of mastic gum were in the range 9.0-27.0 mm. In the clinical trials, the mean number of bacteria in samples taken after chewing the mastic gum and placebo gum were following; at minute 15 was 112 x 10(4)+/-268 x 10(3) and 175 x 10(4)+/-417 x 10(3)cfu/ml, for minute 45 was 85 x 10(4)+/-219 x 10(3) and 165 x 10

  19. Effect of an alcoholic diet on dental caries and on Streptococcus of the mutans group: study in rats Efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre cárie dentária e sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans: estudo em ratos

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    Karla Zanini Kantorski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an alcohol diet on Streptococcus of the mutans group and on dental caries in the oral cavity of rats. Forty animals were divided into 3 groups according to the following liquid diets: 20% ethanol solution (Alcohol Group, AG, 27% sucrose solution (Isocaloric Group, IG, and water (Control Group, CG. After 56 days, samples were collected and plated on Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar to assess the number of colony forming units (CFU/mL of Streptococcus of the mutans group. The animals were sacrificed and the jaws were removed in order to assess the occurrence of dental caries on the smooth and occlusal surfaces using stereomicroscopy. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey test. The average numbers of CFU/mL (10³ were: 8.17 (AG, 9.78 (IG, and 5.63 (CG. There was no significant difference among the groups for the occurrence of occlusal caries. Regarding smooth surface caries, in the upper jaw, the caries number in the IG (1.58 was similar to that in the AG (2.06 and in the CG (1.14, and the number of caries in the AG was higher than in the CG; in the lower jaw there was significant difference among the 3 groups: AG (1.14, IG (2.00 and CG (0.43. The diets with the alcohol and sucrose solutions presented a tendency of increasing the colonization by Streptococcus of the mutans group and of increasing the occurrence of smooth surface dental caries in rat molars when compared to the control diet.O presente estudo avaliou o efeito de uma dieta alcoólica sobre estreptococos do grupo mutans e sobre cárie dentária na cavidade bucal de ratos. Quarenta animais foram divididos em 3 grupos conforme a dieta líquida administrada: solução de etanol a 20% (Grupo álcool, GA, solução de sacarose a 27% (Grupo isocalórico, GI e água (Grupo controle, GC. Após 56 dias, amostras bucais foram coletadas e semeadas em ágar Mitis Salivarius Bacitracina para contagem de unidades formadoras de col

  20. Avaliação de desinfetantes de superfície utilizados em Odontologia Evaluation of surface disinfectants utilized in dentistry

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    Célia Regina Gonçalves e Silva

    2002-06-01

    chlorhexidine. Four surfaces of the equipment were analyzed in the study (the carter, the washbasin for hand-washing, the headrest of the chair and the external surface of the reflector, and the spray-wipe-spray procedure was carried out. From each surface, samples were collected by means of surface plates containing Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar, Sabouraud Dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, MacConkey agar and blood agar, for counting mutans streptococci, Candida yeasts, gram-negative bacteria and total microorganisms, respectively (ufc/plate. The results were statistically analyzed by means of the Student's t test in order to compare the mean ufc/plate values. The most effective disinfectant was 77°GL alcohol with 5% of chlorhexidine, mainly against gram-positive bacteria. Iodophor and phenolic compound were also effective in microbial reduction. 77°GL alcohol was the least effective product - however, although it is not considered as a surface disinfectant, it produced, in this study, statistically significant microbial reduction after the disinfecting procedure.

  1. Óleo essencial de aroeira-vermelha como aditivo na ração de frangos de corte Essential oil from Brazillian red pepper as an additive in broiler diet

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    Maria Aparecida da Silva

    2011-04-01

    of four (4 treatments and five repetitions, with 15 birds each: diet without growth promoter and without Brazilian red pepper oil (negative control; diet with growth promoter (antimicrobial and anticoccidial - positive control; diet containing only antimicrobial (bacitracin zinc; diet with 0.4% of Brazilian red pepper oil. It was not verified significantly dietary effects on the performance of birds (P>0.05. At 21 days of age, the broilers chicks fed with growth promoter showed greater ratio of villous:crypt which not differs from chickens fed with 0.4% Brazilian red pepper oil (P 0.05. It was concluded that the addition of 0.4% Brazilian red pepper oil resulted an improvement in intestinal absorptive surface of broilers compared with chickens fed with diet without growth promoter.

  2. Retention of oral microorganisms on conventional and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements Retenção de microrganismos bucais em cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais e modificados por resina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise PEDRINI

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary caries are a worldwide public and socioeconomic problem. The placement of restorations can lead to the development of environmental conditions favorable to microbial colonization, especially on the tooth/restoration interface, which is a predisposing factor for secondary caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial retention on conventional (Chelon-Fil and Vidrion R and resin-modified (Vitremer and Fuji II LC glass-ionomer cements, in situ, using a hybrid composite resin (Z100 as a control. Twelve volunteers wore Hawley appliances with specimens made of all tested filling materials for 7 days. The specimens were then removed from the appliances and transferred to tubes containing 2.0 ml of Ringer-PRAS. Microorganisms from the samples were inoculated onto blood agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin agar and incubated under anaerobiosis (90% N2, 10% CO2, at 37°C, for 10 and 2 days, respectively. The resin-modified glass-ionomer cements and the composite resin retained the same levels of microorganisms on their surfaces. The resin-modified glass-ionomers retained less mutans streptococci than the composite resin and conventional glass-ionomer cements. The conventional glass-ionomer cements retained less mutans streptococci than the composite resin, but that difference was not statistically significant.A cárie secundária representa problema de saúde pública e socioeconômico no mundo. A restauração de dentes acometidos por cárie pode criar condições favoráveis à proliferação microbiana na superfície do material restaurador ou na interface dente/restauração, criando ambiente propício para o estabelecimento de cárie secundária. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a capacidade de retenção de placa bacteriana em cimentos de ionômero de vidro convencionais (Chelon-Fil e Vidrion R e modificados por resina (Vitremer e Fuji II LC e de resina composta híbrida (Z100, utilizada como controle. Nos testes de reten

  3. Desempenho e histomorfometria intestinal de frangos de corte de 1 a 21 dias de idade recebendo melhoradores de crescimento Performance and intestinal histomorphometry of broiler chickens at 1 to 21 days of age fed growth promoters

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    Lidiana de Siqueira Nunes Ramos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi desenvolvida para avaliar o desempenho produtivo e a histomorfometria dos segmentos do intestino delgado em frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes aditivos melhoradores de crescimento: ração controle (sem melhorador de crescimento; ração controle + antibióticos (colistina e bacitracina de zinco; ração controle + probiótico; ração controle + prebiótico; ração controle + probiótico + prebiótico. As aves foram distribuídas em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as variáveis de desempenho, consumo de ração, ganho de peso e conversão alimentar e as características morfométricas, altura, perímetro e profundidade de vilos, dos segmentos do intestino delgado no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade. O desempenho das aves e as características morfométricas dos segmentos dos intestino não apresentaram diferença entre os grupos. O uso de probiótico, prebiótico, probiótico + prebiótico e antibiótico em rações para frangos de corte no período de 1 a 21 dias de idade em condições de baixo desafio sanitário não interfere no desempenho e nas características histomorfométricas dos segmentos do intestino delgado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance and intestinal histomorphometry of small intestine segments in broiler chickens in 1 to 21-day of age period, fed diets with different growth promoter additives: control diet (without growth promoter; control diet + antibiotic (colistin and zinc bacitracin; control diet + probiotic (Protexin; control diet + prebiotic (Bio moss; control diet + probiotic + prebiotic. The birds were distributed in a random block design, with five treatments and four replications. It was evaluated variables of performance, feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion and the morphometric characteristics, height, circumference and depth of the

  4. Perfil microbiológico, celular e fatores de risco associados à mastite subclínica em cabras no semiárido da Paraíba Cellular and microbiological profiles and risk factors for subclinical mastitis in goats in the semi-arid region of Paraíba

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    Patrícia B. Neves

    2010-05-01

    thirty-one dairy goats were used, 261 samples were collected for microbiological culture and 131 samples for somatic cells count (SCC. During collection, the California Mastitis Test (CMT was conducted and an epidemiological questionnaire was applied for each herd. There was bacterial growth in 30 samples (11.49%, with 25 (83.33% coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and five (16.66% Staphylococcus aureus isolated. The SCC mean was 1.39x10(6 cells/ml. CMT presented low sensitivity (46.7% and low specificity (60.6% compared with microbiological culture. Gentamicin and the association of neomycin, bacitracin and tetracyclin were the antimicrobials against which the microorganisms isolated showed 100% sensitivity. Penicillin and ampicillin had the greatest resistance rates (66.67% and 63.89%, respectively. Goat breeding is not the main activity on the farms and do not isolate diseased animals were identified as risk factors for caprine subclinical mastitis. Program for the control and prophylaxis of mastitis must be implemented focusing primarily on hygiene cares at milking and correction of the risk factors identified in this study.

  5. Efeitos de antimicrobianos e extratos vegetais sobre a microbiota intestinal e a freqüência de diarréia em leitões recém-desmamados Effects of antimicrobials and herbal extracts on intestinal microbiology and diarrhea incidence in weanling pigs

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    Liliana Lotufo Oetting

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados três experimentos envolvendo 120 leitões (21 aos 56 dias de idade para avaliar os efeitos de antimicrobianos e extratos vegetais sobre a microbiota intestinal (experimento 1 e a freqüência de diarréia em leitões (experimentos 1, 2 e 3. Os animais foram distribuídos em pares (um macho castrado e uma fêmea em 20 baias (unidade experimental, em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, composto pelos tratamentos: controle - ração basal; antimicrobiano ração basal com bacitracina de zinco, olaquindox e colistina (50 ppm de cada; extrato vegetal A, B e C - ração basal com 700, 1.400 e 2.100 ppm de extrato vegetal, respectivamente. O extrato vegetal continha óleo essencial de cravo, tomilho, orégano, eugenol e carvacrol. Ao final do experimento 1, foi sacrificado um animal por unidade experimental e coletadas amostras do raspado do intestino delgado para a análise microbiológica. Não foram encontradas diferenças na análise microbiológica. A frequência de diarréia dos animais que receberam antimicrobianos foi inferior à observada nos tratamentos controle e com extratos vegetais no período de 1 a 35 dias de experimentação. Portanto, apesar de não terem sido detectadas diferenças na microbiota, os antimicrobianos foram efetivos no controle da diarréia.Two experiments with a total of 120 weanling pigs (21 to 56 d of age were conducted to evaluate the effects of antimicrobials and herbal extracts on intestinal microbiota (experiment 1 and on fecal score (experiments 1, 2 and 3. Pigs were allotted in pairs (pens with a barrow and a female to a randomized complete block design 12 replications of five treatments. Treatments consisted of: control - basal diet; antimicrobial - basal diet plus Zn bacitracin, olaquindox, and colistin (50 ppm of each; herbal extract A, B and C - basal diet plus 700 ppm, 1,400 ppm and 2,100 ppm of herbal extract, respectively. The herbal extract consisted of a mixture of

  6. Isolamento de Streptococcus pyogenes em indivíduos com faringoamigdalite e teste de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes in individuals with pharyngotonsillitis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing

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    Rozana Scalabrin

    2003-12-01

    collected, none of the individuals was under treatment with antibiotics. The presumptive identification of S. pyogenes was made by the susceptibility test to bacitracin and confirmed by the serological grouping through the extraction of the group-specific carbohydrate "C" antigen. RESULTS: From the 58 samples of oropharynx analyzed, 32 (55.2% were from individuals assisted in drugstores and 26 (44.8% were obtained from those that sought health units. A total of 15 (25.9% samples presented positive culture for S. pyogenes, being most of the strains (9/15, 60% coming from individuals assisted in drugstores. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 33.3% (11/33 of the individuals from zero to 15 years of age and in 16% (4/25 of those over 15. The strains were susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study emphasize the importance of the bacteriological diagnosis in the proper treatment for the streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis that determine the prevention of the supurative or non supurative complications and the eradication of the microorganism of the oropharynx.

  7. Prevalência de Streptococcus β-hemolítico em crianças portadoras de necessidades especiais Prevalence of β-hemolytic Streptococcus in children with special health care needs

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    Viviane Martha Santos de Morais

    2012-10-01

    school (control aged 5-15 years. Cultures in blood agar (5% were identified through Gram/catalase tests and bacitracin/trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole disk diffusion method, applying the chi-squared statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 222 bacterial colonies were isolated in 74 individuals from APAE and 65 in the control group. In the test group, previous episodes of pharyngotonsillitis were reported by 36.49% (27/74 and 9.46% (7/74 were diagnosed with symptoms and/or signs suggestive of oropharynx infection. No positive sample of S. pyogenes was confirmed at APAE, being all samples classified as SBHGNA, with 5 SBHGA in the control group. CONCLUSION: The early identification of β-hemolytic Steptococcus is important for the fast treatment of pharyngotonsillitis and the absence of S. pyogenes avoid future suppurative or not-suppurative sequels in the group from APAE.

  8. Extrato de orégano como aditivo em rações para frangos de corte Oregan extract as an additive in the broiler diet

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    Ellen Hatsumi Fukayama

    2005-12-01

    , anatomic-physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract (villy height, crypta depth and villy:crypta ratio, caecum microbiological analysis, and duodenum and caecum pH. One thousand and fourty male Cobb 500 chicks, in two growing phases (1 to 21 and 1 to 42 days old were randomly assigned to six treatments and eight replicates of 30 broilers. The basal diet (BD was fed during the three phases (1 to 21, 22 to 35 and 36 to 42 days old, according to the following treatments: T1 - BD, T2 - BD with antibiotic (25 ppm zinc bacitracin, T3 - BD with 0.025% OE, T4 - BD with 0.050% OE, T5 - BD with 0.075% OE, and T6 - BD with 0.100% OE. No effect of treatments on broiler performance and duodenum and caecum pH in both phases was observed. The immunity system and anatomic-physiological parameters of gastrointestinal tract were not affected by the treatments, during the first phase. At 42 days old, only the spleen weight and villy height were affected by treatments. Decreasing effect on the number of bacteriums in caecum as the dietary level of oregan extract increased showed the antimicrobian effect of oregan extract. Based on these results, it is possible to conclude that the use of oregan extract as growth promoter did not differ from the other treatments (antibiotic and control.

  9. Fixação de enxerto cutâneo em malha de espessura total com sutura ou cola de fibrina Fixation of full-thickness mesh skin using suture or fibrin glue

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    M.S.P. Amaral

    2004-06-01

    -thickness skin grafts were harvested from thoracic area, and meshed with a commercial mesh dermatome. The graft was secured to the recipient bed using several simple interrupted sutures on the right forelimb. On the left forelimb fibrin glue and eight simple interrupted sutures were used. The bed was closed using bipedicle advancement flap. The non-adherent occlusive bandage and neomycin-bacitracin ointment were used on receptor bed. The bandage was changed every day until the seventh day postoperative and every three days afterwards. The graft survival area was obtained by subtraction of total and nonviable areas measured with a Nikon Photomicroscope connected to a KS-300 image analysis system at 3, 7, 15 and 30 days postsurgically. For microscopic evaluation, the skin graft, recipient bed and adjacent surrounding skin were collected at 7, 15 and 30 days postsurgery. No statistical difference was detected for the viable graft area, in each evaluation moment and between fixation methods. However, based on microscopic evaluation, fibrin glue enhanced the tissue repair process in all evaluation moments. It was possible to conclude that fibrin glue derived from snake venom has moderate adhesive capacity, and, based on microscopic examination, improves the integration of full-thickness mesh skin grafts.