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Sample records for bacilos gram negativos

  1. Bacteremias por bacilos gram-negativos

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    Adrelírio J. R. Gonçalves

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados 31 casos de bacteremia por gram-negativos, assunto que vem merecendo muita atenção dos pesquisadores nos últimos anos. Os organismos etiológicos mais importantes que apareceram em igualdade de freqüência foram Escherichia coli e Klebsiella-Aerobacter, sendo responsáveis por 58% do total das infecções, seguidos por Pseudomonas. A porta de entrada mais freqüente foi o trato urinário em 61,3% dos casos. A infecção foi mais comum no sexo masculino e a faixa etária de 50 a 60 anos predominou. O uso prévio de antibióticos foi um fator predisponente muito importante, seguido pelo uso de esteróides e citostáticos. As principais doenças predisponentes foram diabetes mellitus e neoplasias malignas. Os principais fatores precipitantes foram a manipulação do aparelho urinário, com infecção prévia ou desencadeada, cirurgia do aparelho digestivo, uronatia obstrutiva e obstrução biliar. As principais manifestações clínicas foram a presença de febre, calafrios e hipotensão arterial. A complicação mais freqüente foi o choque bacteriano que incidiu em 58% dos casos, aproximadamente três vêzes aquela relatada na literatura. As outras foram a insuficiência renal aguda, superinfecção e infecção pulmonar metastática. Considerações terapêuticas gerais e esquemas de antibióticos são propostos para estes casos. A mortalidade da bacteremia simples foi de 30,7% e quando associada ao choque elevou-se para 72,2% . As infecções por Pseudomonas foram 100% fatais.

  2. Correlación de bacilos entéricos gram-negativos con parámetros clínicos y demográficos de pacientes con periodontitis crónica

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    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los bacilos entéricos gram-negativos presentes en placa subgingival de pacientes con periodontitis pueden representar una causa de fracaso en la terapia periodontal. Objetivo: investigar la correlación de bacilos entéricos gram-negativos con parámetros clínicos, edad, sexo y hábito de fumar de pacientes con periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: se estudió la presencia de bacilos entéricos gram-negativos en 76 pacientes con periodontitis crónica. Las muestras subgingivales se procesaron mediante cultivo. Se utilizó la prueba de Spearman para determinar la correlación entre las variables clínicas, demográficas y hábito de fumar con la presencia de bacilos entéricos gram-negativos (p<0,05. Resultados y conclusiones: Se observaron bacilos entéricos gram-negativos en el 26,31% de los pacientes. Se encontró una correlación positiva estadísticamente significativa entre bacilos entéricos gram-negativos y los parámetros incremento de edad, sexo masculino, hábito de fumar, aumento en la profundidad de sondaje y pérdida de inserción clínica, presencia de placa y sangrado (r=0,107; 0,235; 0,106; 0.,165; 0,194; 0,123; 0,109; p<0,0001, respectivamente. Estos hallazgos tienen implicaciones terapéuticas importantes que deben tenerse en cuenta en el manejo de los pacientes con periodontitis que presentan entéricos en placa subgingival.

  3. Asociación de Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, bacilos entéricos gram-negativos y parámetros clínicos en periodontitis crónica

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    C.M. Ardila Medina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La relación entre Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens y bacilos entéricos gram-negativos presentes en placa subgingival de pacientes con periodontitis ha recibido muy poca atención en la literatura. Objetivo: Investigar la asociación de Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens y bacilos entéricos gram-negativos con parámetros clínicos de pacientes con periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: Se estudió la prevalencia de P. intermedia/nigrescens y de bacilos entéricos gram-negativos en 76 pacientes con periodontitis crónica. Se utilizaron las pruebas de chi cuadrado y Mann-Whitney para evaluar las diferencias clínicas de los pacientes con presencia y ausencia de los microorganismos estudiados. También se usó la prueba no paramétrica de Spearman para determinar la correlación entre P. intermedia/nigrescens y bacilos entéricos gram-negativos con las variables clínicas (p<0,05. Resultados y conclusiones: El 46,7% y 26,31% de los pacientes presentaron P. intermedia/nigrescens y bacilos entéricos gram-negativos, respectivamente. En el 22% de los sujetos se observaron simultáneamente los microorganismos estudiados. Se encontró una correlación positiva estadísticamente significativa entre P. intermedia/nigrescens y bacilos entéricos gram-negativos (r=0,286, p<0,0001. La presencia de los microorganismos estuvo positivamente correlacionada con profundidad de sondaje (PS, nivel de inserción clínica y presencia de sangrado (r=0,362; 0,358; 0,079; p<0,0001, respectivamente. Igualmente, los pacientes que presentaron P. intermedia/nigrescens y bacilos entéricos gram-negativos mostraron un promedio de PS y de pérdida de inserción clínica significativamente mayor. Los parámetros clínicos adversos observados en presencia de estos microorganismos podrían tener implicaciones en la patogénesis de la periodontitis y un posible impacto en los resultados de la terapia periodontal.

  4. Infection and colonization by Gram-negative bacilli in neonates hospitalized in High Risk Nursery at Uberlandia Federal University Hospital: etiology, resistant phenotypes and risk factors Infecção e colonização por bacilos Gram-negativos em neonatos internados em Berçário de Alto Risco do Hospital da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia: etiologia, fenótipos de resistência e fatores de risco

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    Renata Cristina Cezário

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine endemic and epidemic infection due to Gram-negative bacilli, risk factors associated with colonization and infection by these organisms and the resistance phenotypes (ESBL, AmpC in neonates admitted in a High Risk Nursery. The study was conducted during a 21 month period and included: a prospective study to evaluate the neonates with hospital infection and the use of third-generation cephalosporins; a case-control study to determine the risk factors associated with colonization/infection. Rectal and oropharynx cultures were also performed in four opportunities (September and November 2001, February and August 2002. The isolates for which the resistance of ceftazidime was 2 mg/mL were suspected of producing ESBL or AmpC b-lactamases. The incidence of infection by Gram-negative bacilli was 2.4% (89/3.708 neonates, and sepsis (35.9% and conjunctivitis (31.4% were the most common infections. The endemic infections were more prevalent (73.9% and usually associated with Enterobacteriaceae (95.5%, being these organisms also related to colonization, corresponding mainly to isolates of Enterobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. Two outbreaks of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=10 and Acinetobacter baumannii (n=11 were identified during the survey. Univariate analysis showed that risk factors for Gram-negative bacilli infection considered significant included: the length of stay before infection/colonization, exposure to antimicrobial agents, mechanical ventilation, central venous catheters, parenteral nutrition and surgery. The majority of resistance to ceftazidime among Enterobacteriaceae isolates (80.9% was from ESBL phenotype. Administration of third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone led to the emergence of these multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli in the neonatal unit.Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar infecções endêmicas e epidêmicas por bacilos Gram-negativos, fatores de risco associados a coloniza

  5. Implicación de diversos mecanismos de resistencia a quinolonas en bacilos Gram-negativos: Diseño de una nueva fluoroquinolona

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    Sánchez Céspedes, Javier

    2008-01-01

    [spa] DE LA TESIS: Desde la aparición de las quinolonas, las resistencias bacterianas a las mismas han evolucionado de forma paralela. Conforme han ido apareciendo nuevas moléculas con mayor capacidad bactericida y mejores parámetros farmacodinámicos y farmacocinéticos, también se han ido identificando nuevos y más sofisticados mecanismos de resistencia, que se han ido adaptando a las necesidades de cada momento. Es por ello que se hace necesaria una nueva metodología para el diseño y la ...

  6. Estudo dos principais mecanismos de resistência aos antibióticos β-lactâmicos em bactérias patogénicas de gram negativo

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    Dias, Daniela Jones Antunes

    2009-01-01

    A resistência aos antibióticos é um problema global e emergente, sendo as β-lactamases o principal mecanismo de resistência bacteriana aos antibióticos β-lactâmicos em bactérias de Gram negativo. O principal objectivo deste trabalho consistiu em avaliar a diversidade das β-lactamases produzidas por um grupo de 126 bactérias de Gram negativo,isoladas no período de 2004 a 2008 em diversos ambientes clínicos, em particular as β-lactamases de espectro alargado (ESBL), AmpC e carbapenemases. ...

  7. Perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em amostras de cocos Gram-positivos, catalase negativos, isoladas de mastite subclínica bubalina Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility in strains of Gram positive cocos, negative catalase, isolated from buffalo subclinical mastitis

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    Maria C.E. Vianni

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos em cocos Gram-positivos catalase negativos (21 amostras de Lactococcus garvieae e 6 de Enterococcus gallinarum, isoladas do leite de fêmeas com mastite subclínica e pertencentes a uma população composta por seis rebanhos bubalinos localizados no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. O teste utilizado foi o da difusão de discos em agar Müller Hinton, segundo recomendações do National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards - NCCLS, tendo sido testados discos com ampicilina (10mg, cefalotina (30mg, cefotaxima (30mg, cefoxitina (30mg, cloranfenicol (30mg, eritromicina (15mg, gentamicina (10mg, nitrofurantoína (300mg, norfloxacina (10mg, penicilina (10 UI, tetraciclina (30mg e vancomicina (30mg. Os resultados evidenciaram que em se tratando de Lactococcus garvieae, o antimicrobiano mais eficiente foi o nitrofurantoína com 85,71% de sensibilidade, seguido da cefotaxima (61,90%, vancomicina (52,38%, norfloxacina (47,62% e cefalotina (47,62%. A maior resistência foi desenvolvida frente a penicilina e ampicilina, com 95,24% de resistênciapara os dois antimicrobianos testados. O perfil de susceptibilidade desenvolvido pelas amostras de Enterococcus gallinarum, mostrou baixa sensibilidade frente aos antimicrobianos testados, onde os maiores índices foram observados frente eritromicina e gentamicina, com 33,34% de sensibilidade para ambos; quanto à resistência desenvolvida, foi possível observar 100% de resistência com relação a vancomicina e tetraciclina, seguindo-se cloranfenicol, penicilina, ampicilina, cefoxitina, cefalotina, cefotaxima, norfloxacina e nitrofurantoína, todas evidenciando uma resistência de 83,33% das amostras testadas.The susceptibility of antimicrobials was studied in Gram positive and catalase negative cocci (21 samples of Lactococcus garvieae and 6 Enterococcus gallinarum, isolated from the milk of cows with subclinical mastitis, belonging to six buffalo herds in

  8. Linfadenitis por vacuna de bacilo Calmette-Guérin

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    Armando Reyes-Cadena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La linfadenitis por vacunación con bacilo de Calmette-Guérin (BCG es la complicación más frecuente de esta vacuna. Se define como el crecimiento de los ganglios linfáticos regionales ipsilaterales posteriores a la vacunación, su incidencia se estima en < 0.4/1 000 vacunados menores de 1 año y en 0.03/1 000 vacunados de entre 1 y 20 años de edad.1 Se recomienda que este término se utilice cuando el crecimiento ganglionar se palpe con facilidad, el paciente se mantenga afebril y en buen estado general. Se manifiesta con mucha frecuencia entre las 2 semanas y los 6 meses después de la aplicación de la vacuna y la gran mayoría ocurre en un lapso de 24 meses.2,3

  9. Gram Stain

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    ... the sexually transmitted disease gonorrhea . Gram-positive bacilli— Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) can cause skin infections or pneumonia (also a bioterrorism agent ); Listeria monocytogenes can cause foodborne ... an AFB (acid-fast bacillus) smear and culture may be ordered on a ...

  10. Contraste sucesivo negativo consumatorio en un programa de economia cerrada

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    Mariana Bentosela

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un experimento donde se estudia el efecto de contraste sucesivo negativo consumatorio (CSNC en un paradigma de economía cerrada. En estos diseños los animales no están privados de alimento, viven en las cajas de condicionamiento o en sus jaulas-vivienda y son expuestos al tratamiento experimental durante días. Un grupo de ratones recibió en sus jaulas vivienda agua azucarada al 32% las 24 horas durante trece días (fase precambio y al 4% dos días (fase post-cambio, G 32-4. El grupo control recibió siempre la solución al 4% (G 4-4. Como variable dependiente se registró el consumo (en mi diario. Para analizar los resultados se usó Análisis de Variancia (dos grupos independientes con medidas repetidas. Los animales del G 32-4 mostraron un descenso en su consumo cuando se devaluó la sustancia a 4% en comparación con un grupo que siempre recibió 4%. Este efecto se expresó a las 4 horas del cambio del reforzador y se mantuvo al menos hasta 6 horas posteriores al cambio. Este resultado indica que el efecto se presenta aún en presencia del agua y la comida, con animales saciados y en sus jaulas vivienda. Apoya el predominio de las asociaciones entre la representación interna del reforzador y el que se presenta y se minimiza el efecto de asociaciones entre el contexto y el reforzador. Por otra parte estos resultados su- gieren la potencia del fenómeno estudiado y aumenta su validez ecológica.

  11. El lado oscuro de las organizaciones: efectos negativos en el factor humano

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    Juana Patlán Pérez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como propósito determinar qué es el lado oscuro de las organizaciones y analizar cuáles son los efectos negativos que producen las organizaciones en el factor humano. Para tal propósito se efectuó una revisión a la literatura. El análisis de los efectos negativos que producen las organizaciones se realiza desde una perspectiva sistémica que sustenta que dichos efectos van desde provocar efectos derivados del trabajo tales como accidentes, enfermedades del trabajo, hasta producir efectos en la salud ocupacional y generar reacciones o respuestas negativas por parte del trabajador. En el presente trabajo se determinan los efectos negativos que producen las organizaciones considerando los factores del contexto organizacional y los factores del trabajo/diseño del puesto desde un enfoque sistémico a partir del cual existen insumos (capacitación, entrenamiento, recursos, métodos de trabajo, dirección, etc. y resultados tanto positivos (satisfacción laboral, motivación, productividad como negativos (burnout, acoso laboral, alienación, entre otros. El lado oscuro de las organizaciones es una perspectiva emergente que requiere de mayores investigaciones, propuestas, estrategias y recomendaciones que permitan reconvertir los efectos negativos de las organizaciones en positivos.

  12. Estrategias de futuros profesores de primaria en problemas aditivos con números negativos

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    Almeida, Rut; Bruno, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza las estrategias de resolución de problemas aditivos simples con números negativos por parte de futuros profesor de enseñanza primaria. Los resultados muestran seis estrategias diferentes que dependen de la dificultad del problema y en especial, de la posición de la incógnita. Los futuros profesores usan números negativos en los problemas que les resultan más sencillos y recurren a otras estrategias en los problemas más complejos. Las respuestas evidencian dificult...

  13. Endocervical gram stain

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    Endocervical Gram stain is a method to identify bacteria on tissue from the cervix using a special series of stains. ... a slide. A series of stains called a Gram stain is applied to the ... presence of bacteria. The color, size, and shape of the cells ...

  14. Estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez en personas mayores de Latinoamérica

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    Viviana X. Lasagni Colombo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los objetivos del estudio se centran en investigar la presencia de estereotipos hacia la vejez en adultos mayores de diez países de Latinoamérica. Comparar el nivel de estereotipos entre países y evaluar la influencia de variables socio-demográficas en la formación de estereotipos. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en adultos mayores de 60 a 70 años (N: 965 residentes en diez países de Latinoamérica. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Estereotipos Negativos hacia la Vejez (CENVE y se estudió las posibles asociaciones entre variables socio demográficas y los factores del CENVE a través del análisis de varianzas (ANOVA. Los resultados demuestran que existen estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez en las personas mayores siendo más baja la presencia de estos en el factor motivacional. Se comprobó la relación significativa con variables “ocupación” y “nivel de escolaridad” y se corroboró la diferencia en la presencia de estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez entre los países que conforman este estudio. Conclusión: existen estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez en las personas mayores con diferencias entre grupos de países fundamentalmente por las condiciones sociosanitarias, educativas y económicas por las que atraviesan. El nivel de escolaridad y la situación socioeconómica influyen en la construcción de estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez.

  15. Relações entre afetos positivos e negativos e os cinco fatores de personalidade

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    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA presente pesquisa tem como objetivo verificar a existência de associações entre afetos positivos e negativos e os fatores de personalidade, sob a perspectiva do modelo dos Cinco Grandes Fatores. Colaboraram para o desenvolvimento do estudo 529 estudantes do Ensino Médio de escolas públicas e particulares com idades entre 14 a 27 anos (M = 16,0; DP = 1,48. No que se refere ao sexo 223 (42,2% eram homens e 306 (57,8%, mulheres. Foram aplicadas a Escala de Afetos Zanon (EAZ e a Bateria Fatorial de Personalidade (BFP. Dentre os resultados, a relação entre o fator neuroticismo e os afetos negativos gerou o coeficiente mais forte (r = 0,62. Em relação aos afetos positivos, a maior correlação se deu com o fator extroversão (r = 0,42. Verificou-se que neuroticismo é o melhor preditor dos afetos negativos, enquanto que extroversão dos afetos positivos. Os achados são discutidos à luz da literatura.

  16. Estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez en personas mayores de Latinoamérica

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    Viviana X. Lasagni Colombo; Roberto Bernal Angarita; María del Rosario Tuzzo Gatto; María Soledad Rodríguez Bessolo; Dalila Heredia Calderón; Lenny M. Muñoz Miranda; Norma Palermo Guiñazu; Luynés M. Torrealba Gutiérrez; Elizabeth Crespo Tarifa; Gladys Gavira; Marcelina Palacios; Corina Inés Villarroel Campos; Walid Makin Fahmy; Ana Charamelo Baietti; Pura Díaz Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Los objetivos del estudio se centran en investigar la presencia de estereotipos hacia la vejez en adultos mayores de diez países de Latinoamérica. Comparar el nivel de estereotipos entre países y evaluar la influencia de variables socio-demográficas en la formación de estereotipos. Metodología: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en adultos mayores de 60 a 70 años (N: 965) residentes en diez países de Latinoamérica. Se aplicó el Cuestionario de Estereotipos Negativos h...

  17. Cultura cromogênica de um bacilo ácido-álcool resistente, isolado de mosquito (Culicínio capturado sôbre leproso, em plena natureza, com rétrocultura obtida de rato branco

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    Celso S. C. Rossell

    1946-09-01

    Full Text Available 1. Cultura cromogênica de um bacilo ácido-álcool-acetona resistente isolado de mosquito Culicíno, capturado em condições naturais, sôbre um enfêrmo lepromatoso L3. 2. Retro-cultura obtida em meio de Loewenstein do pus de abscesso dum rato branco, formado em 35 dias (ponto de inoculação, axila direita. O exame microscópico revelou abundantes globias e glóbulos brancos polinucleares fagocitando massas de bacilos ácido-álcool resistentes. 3. No próximo verão prosseguiremos nossos estudos, trabalhando em diferentes leprocômios do brasil, para confirmar o presente trabalho e poder chegar ás suas conclusões definitivas.

  18. Granulomas do pênis: uma complicação rara da terapia intravesical com Bacilo Calmette-Guérin Granulomas of the penis: a rare complication of intravesical therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin

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    Sara Isabel Alcântara Lestre

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A imunoterapia com o Bacilo Calmette-Guérin é amplamente usada no tratamento e profilaxia da neoplasia urotelial superficial. As complicações associadas ao tratamento são comuns. Os autores relatam um caso de inflamação granulomatosa do pênis, associada à terapia intravesical com Bacilo Calmette-Guérin, com múltiplos nódulos eritematosos indolores localizados na glande. É também efetuada uma revisão da literatura. A balanopostite granulomatosa é uma complicação rara associada à imunoterapia com Bacilo Calmette-Guérin, com uma apresentação clinicamente heterogênea que pode dificultar o diagnóstico. O seu reconhecimento clínico é essencial para o início precoce de tuberculostáticos e interrupção de Bacilo Calmette-GuérinImmunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is widely used for treatment and prophylaxis of superficial urothelial cancer. Complications associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment are common. The authors describe a case of granulomatous inflammation of the penis associated with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy, presenting with multiple erythematous and painless nodules located on the glans. A review of the literature is also performed. Granulomatous balanoposthitis is a rare complication of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy, with heterogeneous clinical presentation, which can make the diagnosis difficult. Its clinical recognition is essential for early start of therapy with antitubercular agents and interruption of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

  19. Gram stain of tissue biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003453.htm Gram stain of tissue biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Gram stain of tissue biopsy test involves using crystal violet stain to test ...

  20. Isolamento e estudo experimental de duas novas culturas de bacilos ácido-alcool resistentes de muco nasal de leprosos

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    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available The A. described on December 14, 1951, his first culture of acid-fast bacillus isolated from nasal mucus of a leprous girl. in this paper the A. describes two new strains of acid-fast bacilli gotten also from nasal mucus of other two leprous girls, L3 cases. The first patient (layse S had her mucus treated by petroff's method on December 16, 1952 and sown onto three tubes of loewenstein medium and in glycerin broth. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all three tubes of Loewenstein showed many punctiforme and pin-head yellowish colonies, whose microscopic examination proved to be of a pure acid-fast bacillus culture. This sample inoculated in rats and mice produced, after 55 days incubation, small tumors from which the culture was easily recovered. On April, 9, 1953 a new sample of nasal mucus of the same patient was sown in three tubes of Loewenstein. After two weeks incubation at 37°C all 3 tubes showed germination of small yellowish colonies of acid-fast bacilli. Within four months being gotten two samples of identical cultures in all smeared tubes of Loewenstein medium sown, proved that such cultures were not an ordinary ambient contamination. Second patient: - Maria N. After various sowing of different kinds of material from her, february 26, 1953 her nasal mucus treated by soda and sown onto Loewenstein medium, after 25 days incubation showed in only one tube, one small round colony, at first white, becoming creamy after three months. Transplants in various media grew at first slowly and after 2 or 3 generations grew faster. The "Layse" strain produced pellicle in glycerin broth and Dubos medium; the "Maria N." strain did not produce as yet. Both strains (Layse I and II, and Maria N. gave weak positive Dubos test in half-an-hour and negative after 24 hours reading. Both were strongly positive when stained by Gram, Ziehl-Neelsen and Fontes methods. Both strains gave also positive fluoroscopy. These cultures are being studied. The A

  1. Four grams of glucose

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    Wasserman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Four grams of glucose circulates in the blood of a person weighing 70 kg. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types. In accordance with the importance of these 4 g of glucose, a sophisticated control system is in place to maintain blood glucose constant. Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The body has a remarkable capacity to satisfy the nutritional need for glucose, while ...

  2. La vieja batalla entre la especie humana y el bacilo de Koch: ¿Es posible soñar con erradicar la tuberculosis?

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    J. A. Caminero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata de analizar la complejidad de la vieja batalla que lleva librando, desde hace millones de años, la especie humana contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis, intentando realizar un repaso de todos los conocimientos que se tienen sobre esta enfermedad y de lo más importante de lo que puede acontecer en el futuro, con el fin de llegar a la conclusión de si es posible acabar soñando con erradicar esta enfermedad que tanto daño ha causado a la humanidad. A pesar de que la especie humana tiene suficientes conocimientos para vencer la batalla a M. tuberculosis, importantes condicionantes, sobre todo sociales (pobreza, inmigración, VIH, MDR, están favoreciendo la guerra del lado del bacilo. Y que, incluso aplicando adecuadamente todos los buenos conocimientos adquiridos para el control de la TB (detección y curación de casos, quimioprofilaxis, vacunación BCG, etc., se tardaría aún varios siglos en poder conseguir la erradicación. Sólo la posibilidad de descubrir una vacuna 100% eficaz, o el descubrimiento de nuevas asociaciones antimicrobianas que pudiesen curar la enfermedad en un plazo no superior a 15 días, podría acelerar este ritmo hacia la erradicación. Pero, lamentablemente, no existen fundamentos que permitan soñar con que cualquiera de estas dos posibilidades pueda cumplirse en los próximos 10-20 años. Por lo tanto, el sueño de erradicar la TB es un sueño muy antiguo, pero, lamentablemente, aún muy lejano.

  3. Evaluación de bacilos aerobios formadores de endosporas (bafes) para el control biológico de Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn en el cultivo de papa criolla (solanum tuberosum Grupo Phureja)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Zapata, Diana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani es un hongo fitopatógeno que produce la enfermedad de la Rizoctoniasis en cultivos de papa (Solanun tuberosum) a nivel mundial causando reducción en el rendimiento y la producción entre el 10% y el 26% Los mecanismos de control que se utilizan en la actualidad no permiten un control efectivo de la enfermedad, demandan altos costos y generan problemas medioambientales que estimulan a la búsqueda de estrategias alternativas y/o adicionales como el uso de bacilos formadores de...

  4. Estructuras hexaquirales con coeficiente de Poisson negativo bajo carga uniaxial en el plano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Gerardo Castro Ardila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y las aplicaciones de estructuras deformables con formas celulares y relación de Poisson efectiva negativa son de interés en la actualidad para los sectores automotriz y aeroespacial, como también para la aplicación en componentes ópticos, biológicos, micro electrónicos, estructurales y termo mecánicos. Estas estructuras poseen baja densidad, alta rigidez a cortante en el plano y la capacidad de sufrir grandes deformaciones en el rango elástico del material constitutivo, comparada a una estructura solida del mismo material. Este documento presenta un análisis numérico, utilizando el método de elementos finitos, del comportamiento estático en el plano de estructuras hexaquirales con coeficiente de Poisson efectivo negativo. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren un mejor control de los parámetros de las estructuras porque tienen en cuenta sus restricciones geométricas en aplicaciones reales, facilitando un diseño más flexible y confiable según el tipo de aplicación deseada.

  5. Periodical episodes of foaming involving Gram-negative filaments. Morpho type 0581: an unknown; Episodios periodicos de espumacion con impliaciond e filamentos Gram negativos. El morfotipo 0581: un desconido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarnoza, A.; Rodriguez, E.; Isac, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Fernandez, N.; Zorrila, F.; Fajardo, V.

    2006-07-01

    The bacteria GALO and Microthrix parvicella are responsible for foaming in active sludge in WWTP. According to Eikelboom (2000) and Jenkins, et al. (2003), these micro-organisms are classified by morpho types, which sometimes show a diversity of species when specific probes are used. A study of the periodical foaming process in the WWTP in the municipally of Torres-Torres (Valencia, Spain), with a predominance of morpho type 0581, has made it possible to ascertain both the optical and phylogenetic identity of this morpho type. Contrary to what might have been expected in view of its morphological similarity to Microthrix parvicella, morpho type 0581 is photogenically related to the phylum Chloroflexi and not to the phylum Actinobacteria, to which Microthrix parvicella belong. (Author)

  6. POLIFONIA EM ENUNCIADOS NEGATIVOS: VOZES QUE HABITAM O DIZER "NÃO" Polyphony in Negative Utterances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Orlando Soares da Rocha

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo centra-se na análise de um questionário aplicado, por ocasião de um programa de treinamento, a um grupo de trabalhadores responsáveis pela supervisão das atividades de operários numa fábrica de produção de pneus situada no Brasil. O questionário deveria revelar o "estilo de liderança" exercido por cada chefe de equipe, sendo consideradas cinco diferentes possibilidades: os estilos autocrata, demagógico, demissionário, mediador e participativo. O perfil participativo é visto pelo autor do questionário como "o mais adequado", uma vez que promoveria a conciliação entre os objetivos pessoais dos operários e os objetivos industriais. Com base numa concepção polifônica dos enunciados negativos, a análise realizada permitiu concluir que, além dos cinco estilos previstos no questionário, um sexto perfil se deixa entrever, o qual parece coincidir com" a voz da empresa". A presença desse sexto perfil explicita a pluralidade e complexidade dos saberes que se atualizam no contexto das interações em situação de trabalho.This paper focuses on the analysis of a written questionnaire administered to a group of foremen working in a tyre factory in Brazil. The questionnaire is designed to reveal the" style of leadership" carried out by each member of the group, among five possible variants: autocratical, demagogical, resigning, mediative and participative. The participative profile is seen by the author of the questionnaire as "the adequate one", in as much as it harmonises workmen’s personal and organisational interests. On the basis of a polyphonic conception of negative utterances the case is made for a more complex view of the questionnaire: beyond the five profiles critically antecipated, a sixth one is contemplated, which seems to coincide clearly with what we call "the voice of the organisation", putting forward different kinds of knowledge in the context of interactions at work.

  7. Yersínia Enterocolítica. Estudo da Seroprevalência e Apresentação de 3 Casos Clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Maltez, F; Machado, J.; Rocha, MA; Pires Gonçalves; Morgado, A; Proença, R

    1993-01-01

    A Yersínia enterocolítica é um bacilo gram negativo que emergiu na últimas duas décadas como importante patogénico entérico, associado a um largo espectro de manifestações clínicas. Os autores apresentam um estudo da sua seroprevalência em 200 doentes hospitalizados e descrevem 3 casos clínicos curiosos desta infecção, incluindo um caso grave de endocardite.

  8. Modificación de estereotipos negativos en la vejez en estudiantes de enfermería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen María Sarabia Cobo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la modificación de los estereotipos y mitos sobre la vejez en estudiantes de tercer curso del Grado en Enfermería antes y después de impartir la asignatura Enfermería del Envejecimiento. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo intrasujeto de medidas repetidas. Se empleó el Cuestionario de estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez (CENVE. Resultados: la prevalencia del estereotipo negativo global fue del 62,0% en la medida preintervención (M1 y del 12,3% en la postintervención (M2; para el factor salud, del 63,5% (M1 y del 9,2% (M2; para motivacional-social, del 43,1% (M1 y del 4,9% (M2, y para carácter-personalidad, del 58,3% (M1 y del 3,8% (M2. Se realiza la prueba de t de Student apareada que confirma que las diferencias son estadísticamente significativas. Conclusiones: existe una prevalencia alta de estereotipos negativos hacia la vejez entre los estudiantes de enfermería a pesar de haber realizado prácticas clínicas y estar en el tercer curso del Grado en Enfermería. La asignatura ha demostrado ser eficaz para la modificación de estos estereotipos. La adecuada formación de los futuros profesionales contribuirá de manera notoria a la dispensación de un cuidado adecuado, erradicando tendencias como el edadismo que siguen siendo prevalentes en el sistema sanitario.

  9. Microstructure of Black, Green and Red Gram

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Enamuthu; Crites, Shelly G.; Swanson, Barry G.

    1993-01-01

    The three most commonly consumed legumes (grams or pulses) in India, black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper), or urd , green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) or mung, and red gram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) or tur, were examined by scanning electron microscopy . Seed coat and internal features were examined to differentiate these legumes from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) , adzuki beans (Vigna angu/aris) and lentils (Lens culinaris). Cross-sections of the seed coats of black, green and re...

  10. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, T C; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R M; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environme...

  11. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  12. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  13. Afecto positivo y negativo: ¿Una dimensión bipolar o dos dimensiones unipolares independientes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERRAN PADRÓS BLÁZQUEZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los trabajos pioneros de Bradburn (1969 el afecto positivo y el afecto negativo han sido concebidos como dos dimensiones unipolares independientes, aunque todavía se mantiene hoy en día la controversia teórica entre defensores de un modelo unidimensional bipolar y los de un modelo bidimensional unipolar. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar la problemática que rodea esta controversia tomando en consideración por un lado, los dos estados afectivos (el humor o tono afectivo y las emociones y por otro lado, revisando los estudios y modelos teóricos provenientes de distintas áreas tales como Psicometría, Psicología Básica, neurociencia, Psicología Clínica y Psicología de la Salud. Finalmente, se ofrece una posible explicación a los datos contradictorios obtenidos en los distintos estudios. Se sugiere la conveniencia de hacer estudios claramente diferenciados sobre el humor y las emociones. Sobre el humor existen pocos trabajos, pero éstos ofrecen mayor apoyo a un modelo unidimensional bipolar. Sin embargo, sobre las emociones hay mayor cantidad de estudios que ofrecen mayor apoyo a un modelo bidimensional unipolar.

  14. BACILOS ÁCIDO ALCOHOLRESISTENTES EN BIOPSIAS EMBEBIDASEN PARAFINA EN CASOS DE INFLAMACIÓNGRANULOMATOSA CRÓNICA. Detection of Acid-Fast Bacilli in Formalin-Fixed,Paraffin-Embedded Tissues of Patientswith Chronic Granulomatous Inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER ANDRÉS BUSTAMANTE

    Full Text Available La detección de bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes (BAAR en frotis resulta un aporte significativo al diagnóstico y tratamiento de individuos con inflamación granulomatosa crónica (IGC. Con el objetivo de evaluar la presencia de BAAR en diferentes tejidos de pa-cientes con IGC demostrada y comparar la frecuencia de los extendidos positivos para BAAR con el grado de formación de granulomas y necrosis, se diseño un estudio retrospectivo, en el que se seleccionaron 57 bloques embebidos en parafina que contenían biopsias de pleura, pulmón, pericardio, ganglio linfático y lóbulo cerebral, correspon-dientes a 30 pacientes (63,3% hombres, mayores de 18 años, con IGC demostrada y remitidos al departamento de patología del Hospital Universitario del Valle entre el 2002-2008. A cada muestra se le realizaron tres cortes y se sometieron a tinciones de H/E, Zielh Neelsen y Auramina. La detección de BAAR en frotis fue similar para ambas tinciones especiales en pacientes con IGC necrotizante, reflejando una excelente concordancia en el diagnóstico (kappa=0,89, IC95%(0,68-1,0. Sin embargo, la tinción con Auramina fue superior a la tinción Ziehl Neelsen para la detección de BAAR en pacientes con IGC no necrotizante (kappa=0,65, IC95%(0,23-1,0. No se encontraron diferencias signi-ficativas entre la presencia de BAAR y el tipo de inflamacion, sexo y localización anatómica comprometida. En general, fue buena la concordancia entre los métodos histológicos empleados. Además, se hizo evidente la importancia de implementar el uso de técnicas moleculares mínimamente afectadas por el escaso número de bacilos presentes en las muestras, que finalmente ayudan en el reconocimiento del microorganismo.Detection of acid fast bacilli (AFB in smears is a significant aid in diagnosis and treatment of individuals with chronic granulomatous inflammation (CGI. This study was designed in order to detect the presence of AFB in several tissues of patients with

  15. Methods for distinguishing gram-positive from gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlone, G M; Valadez, M J; Pickett, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Lysis by KOH and hydrolysis of L-alanine-4-nitroanilide were compared with the Gram reaction of aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. Both tests correlated well with the Gram reaction with nonfermentative bacilli and Bacillus species, whereas they did not correlate with nonsporulating anaerobes. Only campylobacteria were KOH positive and L-alanine-4-nitroanilide and gram negative.

  16. Cáncer de mama triple negativo: una enfermedad de difícil diagnóstico y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Zaharia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El cáncer de mama triple negativo (CMTN es una neoplasia maligna caracterizada por la ausencia de la expresión de los receptores de estrógeno, de progesterona y HER2. Estudios recientes han señalado que el CMTN es un grupo heterogéneo de distintas neoplasias, con pronósticos diferentes. Sin embargo, debido a que la realización de perfiles genéticos no es una práctica estándar para el diagnóstico convencional del cáncer de mama, se dificulta la apropiada identificación de este subtipo de cáncer de mama. El CMTN se caracteriza por tener patrones epidemiológicos de alta incidencia en poblaciones afroamericanas y latinas, y de menor incidencia en población caucásica y constituye un problema de salud pública por su elevada morbilidad y mortalidad. Ante la ausencia de blancos terapéuticos, la quimioterapia cumple un rol importante en el tratamiento, y muchos esfuerzos están destinándose a buscar otras combinaciones de quimioterapia y nuevas drogas, mientras que las actuales guías no especifican un tratamiento para este tipo de cánceres. En el presente documento se hace una revisión sobre las características epidemiológicas y clínicas, los posibles factores pronósticos y sobre algunas estrategias terapéuticas contra el CMTN.

  17. CARACTERIZAÇÃO DO STAPHYLOCOCCUS COAGULASE NEGATIVO ISOLADOS DE QUARTOS MAMÁRIOS DE VACAS COM MASTITE SUBCLÍNICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlice Teixeira Ribeiro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na Zona da Mata - MG, durante três meses. De quatro rebanhos utilizados, trabalhou-se com 16 animais mestiços e 19 holandeses. O objetivo foi caracterizar Staphylococcus coagulase negativos, isolados de quartos mamários de vacas, que inicialmente reagiam à prova do "Califórnia Mastitis Test" (CMT, em quatro testes consecutivos, a intervalo de uma semana. A caracterização das 116 amostras encontradas, correspondentes a Staphylococcus coagulase negativo, foram: S. epidermidis (71,55%, S. hyicus subsp. chromogenes (6,03%, S. simulans (6,03%, S. warneri (4,31%, S. hominis (3,45%, S. cohnii (3,45%, S. sciuri (3,45% e S. haemolyticus (1,73%.

  18. Procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a la recuperación de materias primas en Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Javier Castro Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El reciclaje constituye una actividad priorizada en Cuba. El objetivo fue implementar un procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a los procesos operativos de la Empresa de Recuperación de Materias Primas de Cienfuegos. El procedimiento se construyó utilizando la propuesta del Instituto Andaluz de Tecnología para la gestión por procesos y los ocho pasos en la solución de problemas. Se combinaron herramientas de gestión bajo el principio de convergencia metodológica. Los impactos ambientales fueron evaluados mediante el software GAIA versión 1.0, utilizando los criterios propuestos por la Guía Metodológica de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental de Conesa. Se identificaron 97 impactos ambientales negativos, entre severos y moderados integraron el 80.41 % de ellos. El factor ambiental más impactado fue el físico-químico con el 50.52 %. El subproceso no metálico resultó el más impactante, con el 50 % de los impactos severos negativos totales y el 34 % de los moderados. Se identificaron las principales causas asociadas y se diseñó un plan de intervención de 35 medidas con base en los principios de Producción Más Limpia. Los resultados contribuyen a lograr la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos de la entidad y a la sostenibilidad del reciclaje.

  19. Sensibilidade dos estafilococos coagulase positivos e negativos a certos antibióticos Sensibility of positive and negative Staphylococcus coagulase to some antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira Oliveira Moura

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a sensibilidade de estafilococos coagulase positivos e negativos á ampicilina, à dicloxacilina, à feneticilina, hetacilina e á oxacilina. Fez-se também estudo comparativo dos diferentes graus de sensibilidade dos estafilococos coagulase positivos com os coagulase negativos. Conforme demonstram os QUADROS I e II, há diferença significativa de sensibilidade para alguns antibióticos. O QUADRO III, entretanto, não permite concluir com segurança se os estafilococos coagulase positivos são ou não mais sensíveis entre si, do que os coagulase negativos frente ás amostras testadas.We studied the sensibility of positive and negative Staphylococcus coagulase to ampicillin, dicloxacillin, feneticillin, hetacillin. A comparative study of the different degress of sensibility of positive and negative coagulase Staphylococcus was done too. As it is shown in table I and II, there is a significative difference of sensibility to some antibiotics. Table IIIalthough doesn't allow us to conclude with security if the positive coagulase Staphylococcus are more sensitive among, itselves, the negative ones or not, to the tested antibiotics.

  20. Revisiting the Gram-Negative Lipoprotein Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    LoVullo, Eric D.; Wright, Lori F.; Isabella, Vincent; Huntley, Jason F.; Pavelka, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    The processing of lipoproteins (Lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein N-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted by the Lol system, with most Lpps inserted into the outer membrane (OM). We demonstrate here that the lnt gene is not essential to the Gram-negative pathogen Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis str...

  1. A study of 2 rapid tests to differentiate Gram positive and Gram negative aerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Subha Mani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available 293 aerobic bacterial pathogens were isolated from various clinical samples. All the isolates were subjected to Gram stain (GS, potassium hydroxide (KOH string test, and Vancomycin susceptibility test. All Gram negative bacilli i.e. 100%, showed resistance to Vancomycin and KOH string test positivity (p=0.000. 97.8% of gram positive bacteria were sensitive to Vancomycin and 100% were KOH string test negative (p=0.000. As KOH string test and Vancomycin tests are simple and inexpensive, these can be used in addition to Gram staining, for rapid identification of bacterial isolates.

  2. Valoración probabilística de un estadio ganglionar negativo tras cirugía de resección en el cáncer de colon. Repercusiones ante una alta probabilidad de error.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Ramos, David

    2008-01-01

    RESUMEN INTRODUCCIÓN. El estudio ganglionar en el cáncer de colon puede considerarse como una prueba diagnóstica, en la cual se obtiene un resultado binario (ganglios positivos o negativos). Utilizando el teorema de Bayes (TB) puede calcularse la probabilidad de afectación ganglionar cuando el estudio anatomopatológico ha resultado negativo, es decir, puede calcularse la probabilidad final de error (PFE) ante un estadio ganglionar negativo. En función de la PFE que se considere aceptable y...

  3. Inflamación Granulomatosa Crónica: Métodos de detección de bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes en biopsias embebidas en parafina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustamante Rengifo Javier Andres

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    La detección de bacilos ácido alcohol resistentes (BAAR en frotis resulta un aporte significativo al diagnóstico y tratamiento de individuos con inflamación granulomatosa crónica (IGC. Con el objetivo de evaluar la presencia de BAAR en diferentes tejidos de pacientes con IGC demostrada y comparar la frecuencia de los extendidos positivos para BAAR con el grado de formación de granulomas y necrosis, se diseño un estudio retrospectivo, en el que se seleccionaron 57 bloques embebidos en parafina que contenían biopsias de pleura, pulmón, pericardio, ganglio linfático y lóbulo cerebral, correspondientes a 30 pacientes (63.3% hombres, mayores de 18 años, con IGC demostrada y remitidos al departamento de patología del Hospital Universitario del Valle entre el 2002-2008, a cada muestra se le realizaron 3 cortes y se sometieron a tinciones de H/E, Zielh Neelsen y Auramina. La detección de BAAR en frotis fue similar para ambas tinciones especiales en

  4. Gram Staining for the Treatment of Peritonsillar Abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Takenaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether Gram staining can influence the choice of antibiotic for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess. Methods. Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 57 cases of peritonsillar abscess were analyzed with regard to cultured bacteria and Gram staining. Results. Only aerobes were cultured in 16% of cases, and only anaerobes were cultured in 51% of cases. Mixed growth of aerobes and anaerobes was observed in 21% of cases. The cultured bacteria were mainly aerobic Streptococcus, anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and anaerobic Gram-negative rods. Phagocytosis of bacteria on Gram staining was observed in 9 cases. The bacteria cultured from these cases were aerobic Streptococcus, anaerobic Gram-positive cocci, and anaerobic Gram-negative rods. The sensitivity of Gram staining for the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was 90% and 64%, respectively. The specificity of Gram staining for the Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods was 62% and 76%, respectively. Most of the Gram-positive cocci were sensitive to penicillin, but some of anaerobic Gram-negative rods were resistant to penicillin. Conclusion. When Gram staining shows only Gram-positive cocci, penicillin is the treatment of choice. In other cases, antibiotics effective for the penicillin-resistant organisms should be used.

  5. Protamine-induced permeabilization of cell envelopes of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Charlotte; Verheul, A.; Gram, Lone;

    1997-01-01

    carboxyfluorescein and ATP after 2 to 5 min. Maximum antibacterial activity was reached at alkaline pH and in the absence of divalent cations. The efficient permeabilization of cell envelopes of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria suggests that protamine causes a general disruption of the cell envelope...

  6. Gramática y norma

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Torrego, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    La gramática y la norma de corrección son conceptos diferentes. La gramática son esencialmente estructuras ajenas al prestigio social. En ella solo cabe hablar de “gramatical” y de “agramatical”. Esta última condición se basa en la conculcación de reglas (no de normas) gramaticales básicas. En efecto, lo agramatical se caracteriza por que normalmente nadie lo dice, o, si se dice, es algo esporádico, propio de un individuo concreto en circunstancias de despiste, d...

  7. Vibrio vulnificus infection in Southern Brazil - Case report Infecção por Vibrio vulnificus no sul do Brasil - Relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João César Beenke França

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Vibrio is a member of the family Vibrionaceae, and among their disease-causing species, Vibrio vulnificus, a lactose-positive gram-negative bacillus, is one of the most virulent pathogen of the noncholerae vibrios. We describe the case of a 39-year-old male patient, who was using immunosuppressive therapy, admitted to the hospital for liver transplantation. Twelve hours later, the patient presented high fever, myalgia, anuria and erythematous plaques on lower limbs, of rapid growth and proximal progression. The patient was treated with ceftriaxone, meropenem and oxacillin, however he expired within 30 hours. Blood cultures showed growth of a gram-negative bacillus, which was later identified as Vibrio vulnificus.O gênero Vibrio é membro da família Vibrionaceae, e entre as espécies patogênicas, Vibrio vulnificus, bacilo gram negativo lactose positivo, tem sido frequentemente citado. Descrevemos o caso de um paciente masculino de 39 anos, em uso de medicação imunossupressora, admitido no hospital para transplante hepático. Doze horas após a internação, o paciente evoluiu com febre, mialgias, anúria e placas eritematosas em membros inferiores, com rápido crescimento e evolução proximal. O paciente foi tratado com ceftriaxona, meropenem e oxacilina sem melhora, evoluindo para óbito em 30 horas. Hemocultura mostrou crescimento de bacilo gram negativo posteriormente identificado como Vibrio vulnificus.

  8. Renda básica da cidadania versus imposto de renda negativo: o papel dos custos de focalização

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Leitão Paes; Marcelo Lettieri Siqueira

    2008-01-01

    O presente artigo procura comparar duas políticas sociais alternativas de combate à pobreza e à desigualdade de renda no Brasil. A primeira é baseada na concessão de uma renda fixa universal, denominada Renda Básica da Cidadania (RBC), e a segunda, um Imposto de Renda Negativo (IRN), pago apenas às famílias com renda inferior a um determinado patamar. Para análise, adotou-se um modelo de equilíbrio geral computável. Os resultados mostraram que a RBC é melhor que o IRN quando o custo de focali...

  9. Procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a la recuperación de materias primas en Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    OpenAIRE

    David Javier Castro Rodríguez; Osmay Tejeda Sánchez; Omar Gutiérrez Benítez

    2016-01-01

    El reciclaje constituye una actividad priorizada en Cuba. El objetivo fue implementar un procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a los procesos operativos de la Empresa de Recuperación de Materias Primas de Cienfuegos. El procedimiento se construyó utilizando la propuesta del Instituto Andaluz de Tecnología para la gestión por procesos y los ocho pasos en la solución de problemas. Se combinaron herramientas de gestión bajo el principio de convergencia met...

  10. Cyberbullying: estudo da prevalência de comportamentos de cyberbullying e sua relação com vivências de vergonha e estados emocionais negativos

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Tânia Margarida Graça; Cunha, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Objectivos: O presente estudo tem como principal objectivo avaliar a prevalência dos comportamentos de cyberbullying, analisando a influência de variáveis sóciodemográficas, e, compreender a sua relação com as vivências de vergonha interna e externa e com os estados emocionais negativos, particularmente a depressão, a ansiedade e o stress. Método: Para a recolha de dados recorreu-se a uma mostra de adolescentes (N=131) a frequentar o 3º ciclo do ensino básico, com idades compreendidas entr...

  11. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M. J.; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fi...

  12. Quorum sensing in gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, H.; Song, Z.J.; Høiby, N.;

    2004-01-01

    molecules. Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread. These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment...

  13. Revisiting the gram-negative lipoprotein paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of lipoproteins (lpps) in Gram-negative bacteria is generally considered to be an essential pathway. Mature lipoproteins in these bacteria are triacylated, with the final fatty acid addition performed by Lnt, an apolipoprotein n-acyltransferase. The mature lipoproteins are then sorted...

  14. Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla; Ozen, Asli; Andersen, Sandra Christine;

    2013-01-01

    The Firmicutes represent a major component of the intestinal microflora. The intestinal Firmicutes are a large, diverse group of organisms, many of which are poorly characterized due to their anaerobic growth requirements. Although most Firmicutes are Gram positive, members of the class Negativic...

  15. The Gram dimension of a graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, M.; Varvitsiotis, A.; Mahjoub, A.R.; Markakis, V.; Millis, I.; Paschos, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Gram dimension gd(G) of a graph is the smallest integer k ≥ 1 such that, for every assignment of unit vectors to the nodes of the graph, there exists another assignment of unit vectors lying in Rk, having the same inner products on the edges of the graph. The class of graphs satisfying gd(G) ≤ k

  16. The Gram dimension of a graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, M.; Varvitsiotis, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Gram dimension gd(G) of a graph is the smallest integer k ≥ 1 such that, for every assignment of unit vectors to the nodes of the graph, there exists another assignment of unit vectors lying in Rk, having the same inner products on the edges of the graph. The class of graphs satisfying gd(G) ≤ k

  17. Neumonía por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    OpenAIRE

    Verny Huertas-Franco; María Isabel Lacayo-Pallais

    2014-01-01

    La Stenotrophomonas maltophilia es un bacilo gram negativo ambiental emergente que ha venido posicionándose entre el grupo de microorganismos multirresistentes como causa de infección en diversos órganos en ambiente hospitalario y en la comunidad. Se reporta este caso de insuficiencia respiratoria con neumonía severa por S. maltophilia adquirida en la comunidad en una paciente inmunocompetente que tuvo una rápida respuesta a tratamiento con trimetoprim sulfametoxazol cuando se logró identific...

  18. Valor do MALDI-TOF no diagnóstico bacteriológico na fibrose quística

    OpenAIRE

    Lobão, Francisco José Barros

    2014-01-01

    A fibrose quística é a doença hereditária autossómica recessiva frequentemente associada à raça caucasiana. Atualmente, a principal causa de morbilidade e mortalidade é o declínio gradual da função pulmonar devido à colonização crónica por diversas bactérias e fungos, onde os bacilos Gram negativo não fermentadores têm um papel fundamental. O objetivo deste trabalho é comparar duas tecnologias diferentes de identificação bacteriana, na sua capacidade de fornecer uma identifi...

  19. Microorganismos inusuales en surcos y bolsas periodontales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cruz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los microorganismos de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, los bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores y ciertas especies de Candida se han considerado como inusuales en quienes sufren enfermedad periodontal, y en ellos el tratamiento mecánico o antimicrobiano puede ser poco efectivo para resolver o controlar la progresión de la enfermedad. Objetivos: Analizar los perfiles microbiológicos en individuos sanos y en pacientes con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica y periodontitis agresiva, determinar la frecuencia de los microorganismos inusuales y las posibles asociaciones con algunos microorganismos periodontopáticos en la base de datos del laboratorio de microbiología oral y periodontal en Cali. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los informes microbiológicos de 356 pacientes en un período de 41 meses. Las variables analizadas fueron: diagnóstico periodontal, recuento total de colonias, porcentaje de aislamiento de diez microorganismos periodontopáticos y de otros inusuales como miembros de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores y levaduras. Resultados: Se analizaron 202 (56.7% informes de pacientes con periodontitis crónica, 139 (39.1% de periodontitis agresiva y 15 (4.2% de individuos periodontalmente sanos. La presencia de microorganismos inusuales de tipo entérico fue 36% y la prevalencia de levaduras 7% en las personas con periodontitis. No se encontraron diferencias significantes entre los tres diagnósticos clínicos con respecto a la presencia de microorganismos entéricos y levaduras. La mayor prevalencia de organismos entéricos correspondió a los géneros Klebsiella, Enterobacter y a bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores. Se encontraron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre la presencia o ausencia de microorganismos infrecuentes con la de algunos microorganismos periodontopáticos en los individuos con enfermedad periodontal. Discusión y conclusiones: La

  20. Microorganismos inusuales en surcos y bolsas periodontales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Betancourth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Los microorganismos de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, los bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores y ciertas especies de Candida se han considerado como inusuales en quienes sufren enfermedad periodontal, y en ellos el tratamiento mecánico o antimicrobiano puede ser poco efectivo para resolver o controlar la progresión de la enfermedad. Objetivos: Analizar los perfiles microbiológicos en individuos sanos y en pacientes con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica y periodontitis agresiva, determinar la frecuencia de los microorganismos inusuales y las posibles asociaciones con algunos microorganismos periodontopáticos en la base de datos del laboratorio de microbiología oral y periodontal en Cali. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron los informes microbiológicos de 356 pacientes en un período de 41 meses. Las variables analizadas fueron: diagnóstico periodontal, recuento total de colonias, porcentaje de aislamiento de diez microorganismos periodontopáticos y de otros inusuales como miembros de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores y levaduras. Resultados: Se analizaron 202 (56.7% informes de pacientes con periodontitis crónica, 139 (39.1% de periodontitis agresiva y 15 (4.2% de individuos periodontalmente sanos. La presencia de microorganismos inusuales de tipo entérico fue 36% y la prevalencia de levaduras 7% en las personas con periodontitis. No se encontraron diferencias significantes entre los tres diagnósticos clínicos con respecto a la presencia de microorganismos entéricos y levaduras. La mayor prevalencia de organismos entéricos correspondió a los géneros Klebsiella, Enterobacter y a bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores. Se encontraron asociaciones estadísticamente significativas entre la presencia o ausencia de microorganismos infrecuentes con la de algunos microorganismos periodontopáticos en los individuos con enfermedad periodontal. Discusión y conclusiones: La

  1. Neumonía por Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verny Huertas-Franco

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La Stenotrophomonas maltophilia es un bacilo gram negativo ambiental emergente que ha venido posicionándose entre el grupo de microorganismos multirresistentes como causa de infección en diversos órganos en ambiente hospitalario y en la comunidad. Se reporta este caso de insuficiencia respiratoria con neumonía severa por S. maltophilia adquirida en la comunidad en una paciente inmunocompetente que tuvo una rápida respuesta a tratamiento con trimetoprim sulfametoxazol cuando se logró identificar la bacteria.

  2. Microorganismos inusuales en surcos y bolsas periodontales

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Betancourth; Roger Mauricio Arce; Javier Botero; Adriana Jaramillo; Carlos Cruz; Adolfo Contreras

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: Los microorganismos de la familia Enterobacteriaceae, los bacilos Gram negativos no fermentadores y ciertas especies de Candida se han considerado como inusuales en quienes sufren enfermedad periodontal, y en ellos el tratamiento mecánico o antimicrobiano puede ser poco efectivo para resolver o controlar la progresión de la enfermedad. Objetivos: Analizar los perfiles microbiológicos en individuos sanos y en pacientes con diagnóstico de periodontitis crónica y periodontitis agre...

  3. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students Eventos negativos na infância e ansiedade social em estudantes universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Binelli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. METHODS: In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i the loss of someone close, (ii emotional abuse, (iii physical abuse, (iv family violence, and (v sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. RESULTS: Mean (SD age was 21 (4.5, 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22, 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03. None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.INTRODUÇÃO: Existem evidências substanciais sobre o impacto de eventos negativos da vida durante a infância na etiologia dos transtornos psiquiátricos. Examinamos a associação entre os eventos negativos ocorridos na infância e a ansiedade social em uma amostra de 571 estudantes universitários espanhóis. MÉTODOS: Em um estudo transversal realizado em 2007, foram coletados os dados de variáveis sociodemográficas, história psiquiátrica pessoal e familiar e abuso de substâncias por meio de um questionário semiestruturado e avaliamos cinco eventos negativos ocorridos na infância: (i a perda de

  4. CONSUMO EPISÓDICO EXCESIVO DE ALCOHOL EN ADOLESCENTES: SU ASOCIACIÓN CON LOS ESTADOS DE ÁNIMO NEGATIVOS Y LOS FACTORES FAMILIARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Martínez-Hernáez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentos: El consumo episódico excesivo de alcohol (CEEA es una práctica extendida en la población adolescente con graves riesgos para la salud, incluyendo el abuso/dependencia en la edad adulta. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar su asociación con los estados de ánimo negativos y algunas variables familiares entre los adolescentes catalanes. Métodos: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa de adolescentes (edad 14-18 años de Cataluña (Segunda oleada del Panel de Familias e Infancia (2006-2010. Se realizan modelos de regresión logística para mujeres (n = 1.459 y hombres (n= 1.105 para estimar si los estados de ánimo negativos auto-percibidos (tristeza, presión parental, etc. están asociados con el CEEA, capturado como haberse emborrachado por lo menos dos veces al mes durante el último año. Se estima en qué medida esos efectos son atribuibles a algunos factores familiares. Resultados: El sentimiento crónico de tristeza está asociado con el CEEA entre los varones (OR 2,7, al igual que sentirse presionado/a por los progenitores en ambos sexos (OR 1,8 hombres y OR 2,1 mujeres. Las mujeres de rentas medio-bajas y altas son más proclives al CEEA (OR 1,6 y OR 1,7 respectivamente. La existencia de progenitores de origen inmigrante (OR 0,4 y la fijación parental de un horario de retorno a casa los fines de semana (OR 0,6 presentan una asociación negativa con el CEEA entre las mujeres. Conclusiones: Los estados de ánimo negativos (EAN están asociados al CEEA. Los efectos de los factores socio-económicos y familiares sobre el CEEA son más relevantes en mujeres que en varones.

  5. Fatores associados à agressão física em gestantes e os desfechos negativos no recém-nascido

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Fernandes Viellas; Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama; Márcia Lazaro de Carvalho; Liana Wernersbach Pinto

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar os fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos e reprodutivos associados à agressão física na gestação e os desfechos negativos para o recém-nascido em dois grupos de mulheres: adolescentes e adultas jovens. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal com uma amostra de 8.961 puérperas que se hospitalizaram em maternidades do município do Rio de Janeiro por ocasião do parto. Para testar hipótese de homogeneidade de proporções foi utilizado o teste χ². A razão de chances e os intervalos de confia...

  6. Prognostic factors and monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis: gram-positive versus gram-negative pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Wei-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis is rapidly progressive and life-threatening. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the clinical presentation and outcome for patients with this disease differ for those infected with a gram-positive as compared to gram-negative pathogen. Methods Forty-six patients with monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis were examined retrospectively from November 2002 to January 2008. All patients received adequate broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, aggressive resuscitation, prompt radical debridement and adjuvant hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Eleven patients were infected with a gram-positive pathogen (Group 1 and 35 patients with a gram-negative pathogen (Group 2. Results Group 2 was characterized by a higher incidence of hemorrhagic bullae and septic shock, higher APACHE II scores at 24 h post-admission, a higher rate of thrombocytopenia, and a higher prevalence of chronic liver dysfunction. Gouty arthritis was more prevalent in Group 1. For non-survivors, the incidences of chronic liver dysfunction, chronic renal failure and thrombocytopenia were higher in comparison with those for survivors. Lower level of serum albumin was also demonstrated in the non-survivors as compared to those in survivors. Conclusions Pre-existing chronic liver dysfunction, chronic renal failure, thrombocytopenia and hypoalbuminemia, and post-operative dependence on mechanical ventilation represent poor prognostic factors in monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis. Patients with gram-negative monobacterial necrotizing fasciitis present with more fulminant sepsis.

  7. Catalase-negative, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of septicemia Staphylococcus aureus catalase-negativo resistente a meticilina como causa de septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Innaco de Carvalho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A catalase-negative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was isolated from blood, venous catheter spike and bone marrow collected from an HIV-positive man with lobar pneumonia and sepsis after ten days of hospitalization. The isolate was resistant to oxacillin (positive for penicillin-binding protein 2', ceftriaxone, clindamycin and clarithromycin, and susceptible to vancomycin. This is the first case of septicemia due to a catalase-negative S. aureus reported in Brazil, and, to our knowledge, it is the first case of catalase-negative MRSA reported in the literature. We believe that the patient acquired the S. aureus infection within the hospital environment since it was isolated ten days after hospitalization, it was isolated in a venous catheter spike, and the antibiotic resistance profile is similar to other S. aureus isolates recovered from infections in our hospital.Em um paciente HIV-positivo, com pneumonia lobar e septicemia, foi isolada, após dez dias de internação, uma cepa de Staphylococcus aureus catalase-negativa, resistente a meticilina/oxacilina (MRSA, de culturas de sangue, cateter venoso central e medula óssea. A cepa era resistente a oxacilina (PBP 2' positivo, ceftriaxona, clindamicina e claritromicina, e sensível a vancomicina. Este é o primeiro caso, reportado no Brasil, de uma septicemia por S. aureus catalase-negativo e, em nosso conhecimento, o primeiro caso de um S. aureus catalase-negativo resistente a meticilina. Nós acreditamos que o paciente tenha adquirido a infecção no ambiente hospitalar, uma vez que esta cepa foi isolada aos dez dias de internação, foi isolada em cateter venoso central e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos é semelhante ao dos S. aureus de infecções nosocomiais que ocorrem em nosso hospital.

  8. Diagnósticos alternativos em pacientes com suspeita de encefalite por Herpes simplex e negativos à reação em cadeia por polimerase (PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOMINGUES RENAN B.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar os diagnósticos encontrados em uma série de pacientes cuja suspeita clínica inicial era de encefalite herpética (HSE, mas que tiveram este diagnóstico afastado através de resultado negativo à reação em cadeia por polimerase (PCR para detecção do Herpes simples (HSV em líquido cefalorraqueano (LCR. Em 43 dos 61 pacientes com suspeita de HSE estudados (70,5% o resultado à PCR foi negativo. O diagnóstico diferencial foi elucidado em 41,9% dos 43 casos em que a PCR para HSV resultou negativa. Nestes, as patologias diagnosticadas foram infecções virais (2 casos-11,1% e não virais (5 casos-27,2%, doenças vasculares (4 casos-22,2%, desmielinizantes (3 casos-16,7%, distúrbios tóxico-metabólicos (3 casos-16,7% e tumor do sistema nervoso central (1 caso-5,6%. A pouca especificidade do quadro clínico e a disponibilidade de tratamento eficaz e seguro para a HSE justificam a grande quantidade de casos tratados com aciclovir, mas cujo diagnóstico de encefalite pelo HSV não foi confirmado. A utilização da PCR no LCR contribuiu para melhor avaliação etiológica dos quadros de encefalite aguda aqui estudados.

  9. Alternate gram staining technique using a fluorescent lectin.

    OpenAIRE

    Sizemore, R K; Caldwell, J J; Kendrick, A S

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binds specifically to N-acetylglucosamine in the outer peptidoglycan layer of gram-positive bacteria. The peptidoglycan layer of gram-negative bacteria is covered by a membrane and is not labeled by the lectin. By exploiting this phenomenon, an alternative Gram staining technique has been developed.

  10. Regulatory mechanisms differ in UMP kinases from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrin, Cécile; Straut, Monica; Slavova-Azmanova, Neli; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian; Assairi, Liliane; Ionescu, Mihaela; Palibroda, Nicolae; Bârzu, Octavian; Gilles, Anne-Marie

    2007-03-01

    In this work, we examined the regulation by GTP and UTP of the UMP kinases from eight bacterial species. The enzyme from Gram-positive organisms exhibited cooperative kinetics with ATP as substrate. GTP decreased this cooperativity and increased the affinity for ATP. UTP had the opposite effect, as it decreased the enzyme affinity for ATP. The nucleotide analogs 5-bromo-UTP and 5-iodo-UTP were 5-10 times stronger inhibitors than the parent compound. On the other hand, UMP kinases from the Gram-negative organisms did not show cooperativity in substrate binding and catalysis. Activation by GTP resulted mainly from the reversal of inhibition caused by excess UMP, and inhibition by UTP was accompanied by a strong increase in the apparent K(m) for UMP. Altogether, these results indicate that, depending on the bacteria considered, GTP and UTP interact with different enzyme recognition sites. In Gram-positive bacteria, GTP and UTP bind to a single site or largely overlapping sites, shifting the T R equilibrium to either the R or T form, a scenario corresponding to almost all regulatory proteins, commonly called K systems. In Gram-negative organisms, the GTP-binding site corresponds to the unique allosteric site of the Gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, UTP interacts cooperatively with a site that overlaps the catalytic center, i.e. the UMP-binding site and part of the ATP-binding site. These characteristics make UTP an original regulator of UMP kinases from Gram-negative organisms, beyond the common scheme of allosteric control.

  11. Raman Spectroscopy of Xylitol Uptake and Metabolism in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamasha, Khozima; Syed, Talha; Kurtovic, Eldar; Kurtovic, Emir; Stenger, James

    2010-01-01

    Visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of the five-carbon sugar alcohol xylitol by Gram-positive viridans group streptococcus and the two extensively used strains of Gram-negative Escherichia coli, E. coli C and E. coli K-12. E. coli C, but not E. coli K-12, contains a complete xylitol operon, and the viridans group streptococcus contains an incomplete xylitol operon used to metabolize the xylitol. Raman spectra from xylitol-exposed viridans gr...

  12. Rapid method for the differentiation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria on membrane filters.

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, S.; Schell, R F; Pennell, D R

    1988-01-01

    Microfiltration has become a popular procedure for the concentration and enumeration of bacteria. We developed a rapid and sensitive method for the differentiation of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, utilizing a polycarbonate membrane filter, crystal violet, iodine, 95% ethanol, and 6% carbol fuchsin, that can be completed in 60 to 90 s. Gram reactions of 49 species belonging to 30 genera of bacteria were correctly determined by the filter-Gram stain. The sensitivities of the filter-...

  13. [New antimicrobials against Gram-positive organisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo, M

    2008-01-01

    Glycopeptides have been the antimicrobials most commonly used for infections by Gram-positive organisms and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA). In recent years, however, glycopeptide resistance and tolerance have become a serious problem. Thus, enterococci highly resistant to vancomycin, vancomycin-intermediate/ resistant S. aureus (VISA), and vancomycin tolerance in S. aureus are found, and increased therapeutic failure and mortality are clinically reported with vancomycin MIC for S. aureus > or = 1.5-2 microg/mL. When faced with these organisms, we therefore need potent bactericidal antimicrobials that may be empirically administered, effective against susceptible and resistant pathogens, easily dosed, with few adverse effects and no significant interaction with other drugs, and that can be administered in an outpatient setting. In bacteremia by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, use of vancomycin is associated to a greater failure and mortality rate as compared to semisynthetic penicillins. New treatment options for MRSA infections include daptomycin, linezolid, tygecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. New anti-MRSA drugs are also under development, including glycopeptides (dalbavancin, telavancin, and oritavancin), ceftobiprole, and iclaprim. This paper reviews the new antimicrobials against Gram-positive organisms. PMID:18957022

  14. DNA Is Packaged within Membrane-Derived Vesicles of Gram-Negative but Not Gram-Positive Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Dorward, David W.; Garon, Claude F.

    1990-01-01

    Recently, DNA packaged within nuclease-resistant membrane vesicles of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Borrelia burgdorferi was described. This study assayed 18 species of gram-negative and gram-positive eubacteria for nuclease-protected DNA associated with extracellular membrane vesicles. Vesicles from only the gram-negative bacteria contained nuclease-protected linear or supercoiled DNAs or both.

  15. Bioengineered nisin A derivatives with enhanced activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Field

    Full Text Available Nisin is a bacteriocin widely utilized in more than 50 countries as a safe and natural antibacterial food preservative. It is the most extensively studied bacteriocin, having undergone decades of bioengineering with a view to improving function and physicochemical properties. The discovery of novel nisin variants with enhanced activity against clinical and foodborne pathogens has recently been described. We screened a randomized bank of nisin A producers and identified a variant with a serine to glycine change at position 29 (S29G, with enhanced efficacy against S. aureus SA113. Using a site-saturation mutagenesis approach we generated three more derivatives (S29A, S29D and S29E with enhanced activity against a range of Gram positive drug resistant clinical, veterinary and food pathogens. In addition, a number of the nisin S29 derivatives displayed superior antimicrobial activity to nisin A when assessed against a range of Gram negative food-associated pathogens, including E. coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Cronobacter sakazakii. This is the first report of derivatives of nisin, or indeed any lantibiotic, with enhanced antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.

  16. Mechanistic antimicrobial approach of extracellularly synthesized silver nanoparticles against gram positive and gram negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Dhawal P.; Lee, Dae Sung, E-mail: daesung@knu.ac.kr

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Bacterial extracelluar enzymes stabilized the silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). • AgNPs formation was characterized by analytical techniques such as UV–vis, TEM, and FTIR. • AgNPs showed obvious antimicrobial activity against both gram positive and gram negative microorganisms. • A mechanism of AgNPs’ antimicrobial activity was proposed. -- Abstract: The development of eco-friendly and reliable processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles has attracted considerable interest in nanotechnology. In this study, an extracellular enzyme system of a newly isolated microorganism, Exiguobacterium sp. KNU1, was used for the reduction of AgNO{sub 3} solutions to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The extracellularly biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNPs were approximately 30 nm (range 5–50 nm) in size, well-dispersed and spherical. The AgNPs were evaluated for their antimicrobial effects on different gram negative and gram positive bacteria using the minimum inhibitory concentration method. Reasonable antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was observed. The morphological changes occurred in all the microorganisms tested. In particular, E. coli exhibited DNA fragmentation after being treated with the AgNPs. Finally, the mechanism for their bactericidal activity was proposed according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and single cell gel electrophoresis.

  17. Quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong; SONG Zhijun; Niels HФIBY; Michael GIVSKOV

    2004-01-01

    Bacteria can communicate with each other by means of signal molecules to coordinate the behavior of the entire community,and the mechanism is referred to as quorum sensing (QS).Signal systems enable bacteria to sense the size of their densities by monitoring the concentration of the signal molecules.Among Gram-negative bacteria N-acyl-L-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL)-dependent quorum sensing systems are particularly widespread.These systems are used to coordinate expression of phenotypes that are fundamental to the interaction of bacteria with each other and with their environment and particularly higher organisms,covering a variety of functions ranging from pathogenic to symbiotic interactions.The detailed knowledge of these bacterial communication systems has opened completely new perspectives for controlling undesired microbial activities.

  18. Contribuição do contraste negativo na artrografia tomográfica do joelho normal de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Almeida

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A ruptura do ligamento cruzado cranial é uma das causas mais comuns de claudicação do membro pélvico de cães. A radiografia e a ultrassonografia são métodos de diagnóstico frequentemente utilizados na rotina clínica de pequenos animais, porém a tomografia computadorizada é uma modalidade de imagem ainda pouco estudada para avaliar a articulação do joelho de cães. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a contribuição do contraste negativo na artrografia tomográfica do joelho normal de cães, para visibilizar as estruturas intra-articulares e padronizar o uso desse contraste na articulação. Foram utilizados 24 membros pélvicos de cães de raças variadas, selecionados pela ausência de histórico de doença articular prévia do joelho e por apresentarem exames radiográficos, ultrassonográficos e macroscópicos normais. O experimento foi delineado em dois grupos, sendo o grupo I constituído de animais com peso até 20 kg e grupo II acima de 20 kg. Foram feitos cortes tomográficos com o membro flexionado e estendido. A quantidade média de ar empregada para a distensão da cápsula articular foi de 49 ml para o Grupo I e de 81 ml para o Grupo II. Utilizou-se um tubo de látex na porção distal à articulação do joelho para reduzir o escape de ar pelo tendão extensor digital profundo, que possui comunicação intra-articular. Foi possível visibilizar pela imagem tomográfica, em todas as articulações, as seguintes estruturas: ligamento cruzado cranial e caudal, meniscos medial e lateral, ligamento patelar, ligamentos colaterais e cápsula articular. Desta forma, o contraste negativo se mostrou uma alternativa eficaz para auxiliar a identificação das estruturas anatômicas do joelho na artrografia tomográfica.

  19. Evaluation of post-antibiotic effect in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

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    Elisa Tavella

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the postantibiotic effect (PAE is a well recognized phenomenon, the mechanism by which it is induced has not fully elucidated yet. It has been suggested that PAE is the time required by bacteria to synthesize proteins or mRNA characterized by a short half-life that are consumed during antibiotic treatment.This phenomenon is widely studied on Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods, while information about Gram-positive rods and Gram-negative cocci are scanty.To gain new insights on the PAE, this study was addressed to evaluated the time required by Moraxella catarrhalis and Lactobacillus planctarum to resume their physiological growth rate after exposure to various antibiotics. Methods PAE was estimated in accordance with the method of Craig and Gudmundsson using the following drugs: penicillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefalotin, ceftazidime, imipenem, ciprofloxacin, gentamycin and azithromycin. Log-phase bacteria were exposed to drug at a concentration corresponding to 4 times the MIC value for 1h.The drug was inactivated by 1:1000 dilution. Bacterial counts were determined at time zero, immediately after drug dilution, and at each hour after removal for 6 - 7h by a pour-plate technique. The PAE was defined as the difference in time required by test and control cultures to increase by 1 log in CFU number. Results All drugs tested induced a PAE on the strains studied. M. catarrhalis registered PAE values ranging between 0,5 (gentamycin and 2 (ceftazidime, imipenem and azithromycin.With respect to L. plantarum a PAE between 0,8 (cefalotin and 3 hours (ciprofloxacin were detected. Conclusion. These findings demonstrated that all the drugs tested were able to induce a PAE on the strains tested.This observation differs from that observed on Gram-negative rods characterised by negative PAE values induced by penicillins and cephalosporins.This results might reflect the different target of these compounds on these Gram-positive rods or the

  20. Significância clínica, epidemiologia e microbiologia das bacteremias por estafilococos coagulase-negativos em Hospital de Ensino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góngora-Rubio F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estafilococos coagulase-negativos (ECN são importantes agentes etiológicos das bacteremias hospitalares e freqüentemente considerados como contaminantes de hemoculturas. No período de outubro de 1990 a setembro de 1992, foram estudadas 300 hemoculturas positivas para ECN no Hospital São Paulo, sendo 141 bacteremias consideradas de origem hospitalar. Com o objetivo de diferenciar as bacteremias hospitalares verdadeiras das contaminantes por ECN, foram definidos critérios clínicos e microbiológicos. Apenas 20,6% das bacteremias hospitalares por ECN foram consideradas como verdadeiras. A maior freqüência de recém-nascidos internados na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, a presença de cateter intravascular e a utilização de nutrição parenteral foram achados significativos. Não houve diferença significante quanto a resistência a oxacilina e produção de SLIME entre os ECN isolados das bacteremias verdadeiras e contaminantes. O critério clínico e a positividade da hemocultura até 48 horas após a incubação, utilizados em nossa definição, foram úteis para caracterizar as bacteremias verdadeiras por ECN.

  1. Raman Spectroscopy of Xylitol Uptake and Metabolism in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchaudhuri, Sunil; Rehse, Steven J.; Hamasha, Khozima; Syed, Talha; Kurtovic, Eldar; Kurtovic, Emir; Stenger, James

    2011-01-01

    Visible-wavelength Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate the uptake and metabolism of the five-carbon sugar alcohol xylitol by Gram-positive viridans group streptococcus and the two extensively used strains of Gram-negative Escherichia coli, E. coli C and E. coli K-12. E. coli C, but not E. coli K-12, contains a complete xylitol operon, and the viridans group streptococcus contains an incomplete xylitol operon used to metabolize the xylitol. Raman spectra from xylitol-exposed viridans group streptococcus exhibited significant changes that persisted even in progeny grown from the xylitol-exposed mother cells in a xylitol-free medium for 24 h. This behavior was not observed in the E. coli K-12. In both viridans group streptococcus and the E. coli C derivative HF4714, the metabolic intermediates are stably formed to create an anomaly in bacterial normal survival. The uptake of xylitol by Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens occurs even in the presence of other high-calorie sugars, and its stable integration within the bacterial cell wall may discontinue bacterial multiplication. This could be a contributing factor for the known efficacy of xylitol when taken as a prophylactic measure to prevent or reduce occurrences of persistent infection. Specifically, these bacteria are causative agents for several important diseases of children such as pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, and dental caries. If properly explored, such an inexpensive and harmless sugar-alcohol, alone or used in conjunction with fluoride, would pave the way to an alternative preventive therapy for these childhood diseases when the causative pathogens have become resistant to modern medicines such as antibiotics and vaccine immunotherapy. PMID:21037297

  2. A ‘Magnetic’ Gram Stain for Bacterial Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Ghyslain; Chung, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic stain. Bacteria are often classified into Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains by their visual staining properties using crystal violet (CV), a triarylmethane dye. Here we show, that bioorthogonal modification of crystal violet with transcyclooctene (TCO) can be used to render Gram-positive bacteria magnetic with magneto-nanoparticles-Tetrazine (MNP-Tz). This allows for class specific automated magnetic detection, magnetic separation or other magnetic manipulations.

  3. Orbit Classification of Qutrit via the Gram Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. A. Tay; Hishamuddin Zainuddin

    2008-01-01

    We classify the orbits generated by unitary transformation on the density matrices of the three-state quantum systems (qutrits) via the Gram matrix. The Gram matrix is a real symmetric matrix formed from the Hilbert-Schmidt scalar products of the vectors lying in the tangent space to the orbits. The rank of the Gram matrix determines the dimensions of the orbits, which fall into three classes for qutrits.

  4. Environmental Health and Gram Panchayat Members of Western Maharashtra, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam Yugantara R; Samant Anuradha J; Gore Alka D

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of environmental health is to create and maintain ecological conditions that will promote health and thus prevent disease. Gram Panchayat is a local government agency at village level. As community leaders, Gram Panchayat members (elected members of Gram Panchayat) have more responsibility towards maintaining environmental health. Their awareness, attitude and practices regarding environmental health will determine village environment. Method: It is a cross-sectional st...

  5. Effect of Allelochemicals from Leaf Leachates of Gmelina arborea on Inhibition of Some Essential Seed Germination Enzymes in Green Gram, Red Gram, Black Gram, and Chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan Shankar, Ramakrishnan; Veeralakshmi, Shanmugham; Sirajunnisa, Abdul Razack; Rajendran, Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    The present work focused on identification of allelochemicals from the leaf leachates of Gmelina arborea and analyzing its influence on the germination of red gram, green gram, black gram, and chickpea in terms of the levels of some important germination enzymes like acid phosphatase, catalase, peroxidase, and amylase. The study showed that allelopathic effects were more predominant in chickpea with 80% followed by red gram, green gram, and black gram where the inhibition ranged between 26% and 75%. The vigor index in the seed lots is also considerably reduced. Total chlorophyll content was also reduced by allelopathic effect in all treated seeds ranging between 0.7 and 7.5 μg/g dry weight. The effect of allelochemicals drastically reduced the relative water content in red gram followed by the other seed lots. The total protein content varied considerably in the control and the treated seed lots. Allelochemicals inhibited the expression and activity of the enzymes required for efficient germination. The present study also threw limelight on the effective use of this tree, wherein planting this tree amidst pulse related herb plantations could affect the growth of the economically viable plants, but this tree can very well adapt to diversified soil conditions and rainfall zones. PMID:27350959

  6. La Gramática Funcional de Dik Dik's Functional Gram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Ochoa Sierra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo da cuenta del modelo lingüístico denominado gramática funcional de Dik. Este modelo ha sido empleado en los últimos sesenta años para hacer descripciones de varias lenguas. Se pretende presentar una visión sistemática y coherente de este modelo. Para ello, se presentan inicialmente las características generales de lo que se denomina gramática funcional, luego se describen la estructura del modelo y los principios metodológicos; por último, se hace una breve alusión al modelo funcional denominado gramática del rol y la referencia. La revisión se basa principalmente en los trabajos pioneros de Dik.Abstract This article presents the linguistic model called Dik's «Functional Grammar». This model has been used in the past sixty years to describe various languages. We try to present a systematic and coherent model. In this way, the general characteristics of what is called Functional Grammar are initially presented. Then we are going to describe the structure of the model and the methodological principles, and finally, a brief reference to the functional model called Grammar Role and Reference. The review is mainly based on the pioneering Dik's work.

  7. In vitro activity of tigecycline against 313 Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Maioli

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In this study the in vitro activity of tigecycline, member of a new class of antimicrobial agents, the glycylcyclines, was evaluated against clinical isolates collected in Italy. Study Design. A total of 313 clinical pathogens were collected and identified in our Institution during 2007-2008. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the antimicrobial agents were determined by the CLSI (2007 recommended broth microdilution method. Results. Globally 205 Gram-negative and 108 Gram-positive pathogens were evaluated.Tigecycline demonstrated excellent inhibitory activity against Acinetobacter spp., H. influenzae, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., S. aureus, S. agalactiae and S. pneumoniae with MIC90 ≤1mg/l. Conclusion. Tigecycline exhibited potent in vitro antibacterial activity (comparable to or greater than most commonly employed antimicrobials against both Gram-positive and negative clinical pathogens.These data suggest that tigecycline, with an expanded broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, may be an effective empiric therapeutic option for the treatment of serious infections caused by clinically relevant pathogens.

  8. Neoconstitucionalismo negativo y neoconstitucionalismo positivo

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    Giovanni Battista Ratti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La expresión “neoconstitucionalismo” es sumamente ambigua: la cultura contemporánea la usa para denotar cosas tan heterogéneas como una forma de estado, una política de activismo judicial, una reconstrucción teórica de los sistemas jurídicos contemporáneos, una metodología jurídica y una adhesión ideológica al derecho. Este trabajo se centra en los aspectos de política jurisprudencial, de teoría del derecho y de metodología jurídica, enfatizando dos posibles perspectivas del neoconstitucionalismo: una negativa que delinea dicha multifacética concepción del derecho como un conjunto de oposiciones a las tesis defendidas por las concepciones dominantes, y otra positiva que pretende haber identificado una serie de “nuevos descubrimientos” en los sistemas jurídicos contemporáneos. En esta versión positiva se examinan ocho tesis: (1 el derecho de los estados constitucionales es una combinación de reglas y principios, (2 reglas y principios son aptos para constituir un conjunto sistematico de normas, (3 las constituciones contemporáneas incorporan valores morales, de manera que habrían creado una conexión relevante entre derecho y moral, (4 tal incorporación implica un deber de interpretar las disposiciones constitucionales mediante una lectura moral, (5 toda norma jurídica es derrotable, (6 algunos estándares jurídicos requieren de un razonamiento ponderativo o de balance, opuesto al tradicional razonamiento subsutivo, (7 interpretando holísticamente las disposiciones jurídicas, los jueces pueden llegar a decidir cualquier controversia, y,  (8 las normas jurídicas no pueden tener cualquier contenido, porque su contenido es determinado en última instancia por juicios morales. El trabajo termina ilustrando aciertos y equivocaciones de cada versión del neoconstitucionalismo.

  9. Prediction of lipoprotein signal peptides in Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juncker, Agnieszka; Willenbrock, Hanni; Von Heijne, G.;

    2003-01-01

    from Gram-negatives, the HMM was able to identify 92.9% of the lipoproteins included in a Gram-positive test set. A genome search was carried out for 12 Gram-negative genomes and one Gram-positive genome. The results for Escherichia coli K12 were compared with new experimental data, and the predictions...... by the HMM agree well with the experimentally verified lipoproteins. A neural network-based predictor was developed for comparison, and it gave very similar results. LipoP is available as a Web server at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/LipoP/....

  10. A Mysterious Gram-Positive Rods

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    Javzandulam Natsag

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We encountered a patient with a history of intravenous drug use presenting with fever, malaise and nausea who was found to have cavitary lung lesions. Unexpectedly, gram positive rods grew out on day five on multiple blood cultures, which were later identified as Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient underwent transesophageal echocardiogram, which showed aortic and tricuspid valve vegetations. Liver biopsy demonstrated granulomatous hepatitis. Interestingly, serum alkaline phosphatase level fell with antibiotic treatment. Mycobacterium fortuitum is ubiquitous worldwide, being found in tap water, and soil. M. fortuitum is usually considered as a contaminant. Disseminated infection caused by this bacterium in an immunocompetent host is extremely rare. Most of the disseminated infections have been reported in immune-deficient patients. In immunocompetent people, M. fortuitum causes human infection primarily by direct inoculation, including localized post-traumatic and surgical wound infections, and catheter-related sepsis. Our patient, an HIV-negative intravenous drug user, had Mycobacterium fortuitum sepsis associated with infective endocarditis, septic pulmonary emboli, and granulomatous hepatitis. Interestingly, the patient admitted using tap water occasionally for mixing heroin when her sterile water ran out, which we thought was the likely source of M. fortuitum.

  11. Aspectos positivos e negativos da assistênca pré-natal no município de Ribeirão Preto-SP Aspectos positivos y negativos en la asistencia prenatal del municipio de Ribeirão Preto-SP Positive and negative aspects of pre natal care in the municipality of Ribeirão Preto-SP

    OpenAIRE

    Maria das Dores do Vale Oba; Maria Solange Guarino Tavares

    2000-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar os aspectos positivos e negativos da assistência pré-natal na rede pública municipal de saúde de Ribeirão Preto-SP, na opinião de usuários e profissionais de saúde. Utiliza-se a abordagem qualitativa. Alguns avanços podem ser observados em relação à assistência pré-natal: a proximidade da Unidade de Saúde, ampliação da estrutura física, de recursos humanos e central de vagas na área da obstetrícia. Apesar destes aspectos positivos não foi possível ainda...

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon Nanoparticles Isolated from Natural Sources against Pathogenic Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena Varghese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the isolation of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs from kitchen soot, characterization of the CNPs by UV/visible spectroscopy, SEM and XRD, and their antimicrobial action. The antibacterial activity of the isolated carbon nanoparticles was tested against various pathogenic bacterial strains such as Gram-negative Proteus refrigere and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus haemolyticus. The inhibition zones were measured, and it was found that the carbon nanoparticles isolated from natural sources are active against these Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains.

  13. Gender differences in negative mood states in secondary school students: health survey in Catalonia (Spain Diferencias en los estados de ánimo negativo en estudiantes de secundaria según sexo: encuesta de salud en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Monteagudo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of negative mood states in adolescents according to gender, to analyze variability among schools, and to evaluate the associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a cluster design was carried out. We administered the High-school students health survey to a sample of 9,340 students (aged 14-16 years in the third and fourth year of Compulsory Secondary Education in Catalonia, Spain, during the 2005-6 academic year. The main outcome measure was evidence of a negative mood state. A multilevel logistic regression model stratified by gender was used to identify the factors associated with negative mood states and to determine variability among distinct schools. Results: Approximately 19% of adolescents reported evidence of a negative mood state, with a higher prevalence in girls (25%. The most significant factors associated with negative mood states were "use of tranquilizers" and "having eating disorders" in girls and "not exercising" and "poor self-perception of health status" in boys. In both genders, variability was found among schools in the prevalence of negative mood states (girls: variance = 0.078; p Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia del estado de ánimo negativo entre alumnos adolescentes según sexo, analizar la variabilidad entre escuelas y evaluar los factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio transversal basado en un muestreo por conglomerados bietápico. Administramos una encuesta de salud a 9340 estudiantes de tercero y cuarto curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de 14 a 16 años de edad, en Cataluña, durante el curso escolar 2005-06. La variable principal fue el estado de ánimo negativo. Se usó un modelo de regresión logística multinivel estratificado por sexo para identificar los factores asociados al estado de ánimo negativo y determinar la variabilidad entre las diferentes escuelas. Resultados: Aproximadamente el 19% de los adolescentes refirieron un estado de

  14. DISEÑO DE PÉPTIDOS BASADO EN LA SECUENCIA ANÁLOGA AL REPRESOR NEGATIVO icaR DE Staphylococcus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Pinilla

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available La biopelícula como un mecanismo de virulencia en Staphylococcus involucrada en infecciones intrahospitalarias es regulada por un represor negativo icaR, responsable de la transcripción completa del operón icaADBC. La búsqueda de dominios funcionales por modulación computacional de icaR permitió hallar las secuencias peptídicas con actividad biológica análoga a la proteína icaR. Mediante biología computacional se diseñaron péptidos empleando el programa de predicción AntiBP (http: //www. imtech.res.in/ raghava/antibp/; la síntesis química se hizo por Nα-Fmoc y se caracterizaron y purificaron tres moléculas por RP-HPLC y MALDI-TOF. Se evaluó su seguridad biológica mediante ensayo de actividad citotóxica realizada sobre macrófagos murinos de la línea J774 y la actividad hemolítica se determinó mediante el uso de glóbulos rojos. Los tres péptidos caracterizados IR1, IR2 e IR3, presentaron estructura secundaria predominantemente alfa helicoidal, alto grado de pureza y alto score antimicrobiano; además, mostraron baja toxicidad, evidenciada por la actividad citotóxica y hemolítica en las concentraciones ensayadas y en comparación con los controles usados, que permitiría su potencial uso como moléculas candidatas o principios activos con actividad análoga al represor nativo icaR, frente a la biopelícula de los Staphylococcus sp.

  15. Maternidade na adolescência: indicadores emocionais negativos e fatores associados em mães de 14 a 16 anos em Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Scolari Rossetto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Verificou-se a prevalência de indicadores emocionais negativos e fatores associados em 430 mães adolescentes de 14 a 16 anos de Porto Alegre, RS. Foram estudadas variáveis sociodemográficas, relações sociais e familiares, aspectos reprodutivos, abuso e violência. As razões de prevalência (RP foram obtidas por regressão de Poisson mediante análise hierarquizada. A prevalência de sofrimento psíquico intenso foi 32,6%, estando associado à baixa classe social, à não repetência escolar, ao relacionamento ruim com a mãe, à não aceitação da gestação pelo parceiro e à falta de apoio da família frente à gestação. A prevalência de autovalorização negativa foi 15,4%, permanecendo associada ao relacionamento ruim com a mãe e a não possuir uma pessoa confidente. Pouca ou nenhuma expectativa em relação ao futuro foi encontrada em 7,5% das adolescentes, estando associada à repetência escolar, à criação pela mãe biológica, à idade precoce da primeira relação sexual e à ocorrência de abuso físico. A alta prevalência de sofrimento psíquico, encontrada nas mães adolescentes, merece atenção especial das políticas públicas de saúde para a inclusão de profissionais habilitados ao manejo dos aspectos emocionais no atendimento da maternidade precoce.

  16. Type I signal peptidases of Gram-positive bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, M.L. van; Geukens, N.; Jongbloed, J.D.; Tjalsma, H.; Dubois, J.Y.; Bron, S.; Dijl, J.M. van; Anne, J.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins that are exported from the cytoplasm to the periplasm and outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, or the cell wall and growth medium of Gram-positive bacteria, are generally synthesized as precursors with a cleavable signal peptide. During or shortly after pre-protein translocation across

  17. Methods for targetted mutagenesis in gram-positive bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yunfeng

    2014-05-27

    The present invention provides a method of targeted mutagenesis in Gram-positive bacteria. In particular, the present invention provides a method that effectively integrates a suicide integrative vector into a target gene in the chromosome of a Gram-positive bacterium, resulting in inactivation of the target gene.

  18. Gram-positive bacteria persisting in the food production environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knøchel, Susanne; Harmsen, Morten; Knudsen, Bettina;

    2008-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria are able to form aggregates or biofilms and resist external stress factors and some gram-positive pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus may persist in the food production environment for extended periods. Most research has focussed...

  19. Dustborne and airborne gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in high versus low ERMI homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study aimed at investigating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in moldy and non-moldy homes, as defined by the home's Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) value. The ERMI values were determined from floor dust samples in 2010 and 2011 and homes were classified...

  20. Gramicidin A Mutants with Antibiotic Activity against Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfas, Breanna L; Joo, Yechaan; Gao, Jianmin

    2016-03-17

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown potential as alternatives to traditional antibiotics for fighting infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. One promising example of this is gramicidin A (gA). In its wild-type sequence, gA is active by permeating the plasma membrane of Gram-positive bacteria. However, gA is toxic to human red blood cells at similar concentrations to those required for it to exert its antimicrobial effects. Installing cationic side chains into gA has been shown to lower its hemolytic activity while maintaining the antimicrobial potency. In this study, we present the synthesis and the antibiotic activity of a new series of gA mutants that display cationic side chains. Specifically, by synthesizing alkylated lysine derivatives through reductive amination, we were able to create a broad selection of structures with varied activities towards Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Importantly, some of the new mutants were observed to have an unprecedented activity towards important Gram-negative pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Psuedomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26918268

  1. Scanpath Based N-Gram Models for Predicting Reading Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Abhijit; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak; Carl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    sparsity, making it difficult for gaze based n-gram models to handle real test scenarios. It has already been seen that some important eye-movement phenomena are captured better by scanpaths than considering individual fixations, saccades and pauses. In this talk, we propose and validate an n-gram based...... gaze model for reading. The units contributing to each n-gram will be scanpaths (in a temporal order). We describe different scanpath extraction techniques and chose the one which minimizes the entropy/perplexity of the system. To handle data sparsity, we cluster the scanpaths into several groups...

  2. Pensamentos negativos automáticos em pacientes com transtorno do pânico (Automatic Negative Thought in Patients with Panic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Montiel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O transtorno do pânico (TP é caracterizado por ataques de pânico, os quais surgem acompanhados por uma série de pensamentos inadequados ao contexto. Objetivo: identificar e sistematizar a distorção cognitiva e os tipos de pensamentos negativos automáticos (PNA presentes em pacientes com TP. Participantes: 20 indivíduos na faixa etária de 32 anos e com diagnóstico de TP. Instrumentos: Anamnese e entrevista semi-estruturada, Inventário Beck de Ansiedade e Escala para Pânico e Agorafobia. Resultados: os dados apontaram níveis de ansiedade significativos, corroborando o diagnóstico de transtorno do pânico nos sujeitos. Já os PNA - como «Estou com dor de cabeça. Será que é uma crise?» - e os padrões de distorções cognitivas identificados, incluindo suposição, catastrofização, generalização e subestimação/ superestimação, estão em acordo com a literatura apresentada e são condizentes com a prática clínica. ABSTARCT: Panic disorder (PD is characterized by attacks of panic, which are accompanied by a series of thoughts, inappropriate to the context. Objective: to identify and systematize the cognitive distortion and the types of automatic negative thoughts (ANT present in patients with (PD. Participants: 20 individuals in the age of 32 years and with a diagnosis of PD. Instruments: Anamnesis and semi-structured interview, Beck anxiety inventory and scale of panic and agoraphobia. Results: data showed significant levels of anxiety, corroborating the diagnosis of disorders of panic in the subjects. Already the ANT - as «I have a headache. Is it a crisis?» - and the standards identified cognitive distortions, including assumptions, pessimism, generalization and under-estimation / over-estimation, they are subject to the presented literature and they are suitable for clinical practice.

  3. Fatores associados à agressão física em gestantes e os desfechos negativos no recém-nascido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fernandes Viellas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar os fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos e reprodutivos associados à agressão física na gestação e os desfechos negativos para o recém-nascido em dois grupos de mulheres: adolescentes e adultas jovens. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal com uma amostra de 8.961 puérperas que se hospitalizaram em maternidades do município do Rio de Janeiro por ocasião do parto. Para testar hipótese de homogeneidade de proporções foi utilizado o teste χ². A razão de chances e os intervalos de confiança foram estimados através de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi apontado que 5% das adolescentes e 2,5% das adultas jovens sofreram agressão física na gravidez. Em ambos os grupos, as variáveis associadas com o abuso físico foram: menor nível de escolaridade, menor apoio do pai da criança e maior tentativa de interrupção da gestação. O aumento no consumo de bebida alcoólica mostrou associação com o abuso físico apenas no grupo de adolescentes, e o uso de drogas ilícitas somente entre as adultas jovens. Os filhos das puérperas agredidas tiveram duas vezes mais chances de óbito neonatal, e três vezes mais de óbito pós-neonatal. Por outro lado, a assistência pré-natal de boa qualidade reduziu a chance de agressão física durante a gestação. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados alertam para o aumento da chance de óbito neonatal e pós-neonatal entre os filhos das vítimas de agressão física durante a gestação e apontam para a importância do pré-natal na identificação de mulheres sob maior risco de episódios violentos, momento oportuno para o desenvolvimento de ações de proteção e cuidado à mãe e ao bebê.

  4. MetaLocGramN: A meta-predictor of protein subcellular localization for Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Marcin; Pawlowski, Marcin; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2012-12-01

    Subcellular localization is a key functional characteristic of proteins. It is determined by signals encoded in the protein sequence. The experimental determination of subcellular localization is laborious. Thus, a number of computational methods have been developed to predict the protein location from sequence. However predictions made by different methods often disagree with each other and it is not always clear which algorithm performs best for the given cellular compartment. We benchmarked primary subcellular localization predictors for proteins from Gram-negative bacteria, PSORTb3, PSLpred, CELLO, and SOSUI-GramN, on a common dataset that included 1056 proteins. We found that PSORTb3 performs best on the average, but is outperformed by other methods in predictions of extracellular proteins. This motivated us to develop a meta-predictor, which combines the primary methods by using the logistic regression models, to take advantage of their combined strengths, and to eliminate their individual weaknesses. MetaLocGramN runs the primary methods, and based on their output classifies protein sequences into one of five major localizations of the Gram-negative bacterial cell: cytoplasm, plasma membrane, periplasm, outer membrane, and extracellular space. MetaLocGramN achieves the average Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.806, i.e. 12% better than the best individual primary method. MetaLocGramN is a meta-predictor specialized in predicting subcellular localization for proteins from Gram-negative bacteria. According to our benchmark, it performs better than all other tools run independently. MetaLocGramN is a web and SOAP server available for free use by all academic users at the URL http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/MetaLocGramN. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Methods for Protein Interaction and Structural Prediction. PMID:22705560

  5. Nonstaining (KOH) method for determination of gram reactions of marine bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, J D

    1982-01-01

    A rapid nonstaining (KOH) method for the determination of the Gram reactions of bacteria is described, and its application to marine isolates is discussed. All gram-positive and gram-negative results obtained by Gram staining were confirmed by the KOH method. Gram-variable bacteria produced equivocal results.

  6. New antimicrobial approaches to gram positive respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapikou, Adamantia; Cilloniz, Catia; Mensa, Josep; Torres, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Nowadays, we face growing resistance among gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens that cause respiratory infection in the hospital and in the community. The spread of penicillin- and macrolide-resistant pneumococci, Community-acquired methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (Ca-MRSA), the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant staphylococci underline the need for underline the need for therapeutic alternatives. A number of new therapeutic agents, with activity against the above Gram (+) respiratory pathogens, as ceftaroline, ceftopibrole, telavancin, tedizolid have become available, either in clinical trials or have been approved for clinical use. Especially, the development of new oral antibiotics, as nemonaxacin, omadacyclin, cethromycin and solithromycin will give a solution to the lack of oral drugs for outpatient treatment. In the future the clinician needs to optimize the use of old and new antibiotics to treat gram (+) respiratory serious infections. PMID:24878422

  7. Volatile metabolites from some gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöller, Charlotte; Molin, Søren; Wilkins, Ken

    1997-01-01

    A survey of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) excreted from various Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp.) was carried out. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. VOCs identified included dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide...

  8. Hierarchical Classification of Chinese Documents Based on N-grams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We explore the techniques of utilizing N-gram informatio n tocategorize Chinese text documents hierarchically so that the classifier can shak e off the burden of large dictionaries and complex segmentation processing, and subsequently be domain and time independent. A hierarchical Chinese text classif ier is implemented. Experimental results show that hierarchically classifying Chinese text documents based N-grams can achieve satisfactory performance and outperforms the other traditional Chinese text classifiers.

  9. Gram Staining for the Treatment of Peritonsillar Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Yukinori Takenaka; Kazuya Takeda; Tadashi Yoshii; Michiko Hashimoto; Hidenori Inohara

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine whether Gram staining can influence the choice of antibiotic for the treatment of peritonsillar abscess. Methods. Between 2005 and 2009, a total of 57 cases of peritonsillar abscess were analyzed with regard to cultured bacteria and Gram staining. Results. Only aerobes were cultured in 16% of cases, and only anaerobes were cultured in 51% of cases. Mixed growth of aerobes and anaerobes was observed in 21% of cases. The cultured bacteria were mainly aerobic Streptococcus,...

  10. Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci.

  11. Environmental Health and Gram Panchayat Members of Western Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadam Yugantara R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of environmental health is to create and maintain ecological conditions that will promote health and thus prevent disease. Gram Panchayat is a local government agency at village level. As community leaders, Gram Panchayat members (elected members of Gram Panchayat have more responsibility towards maintaining environmental health. Their awareness, attitude and practices regarding environmental health will determine village environment. Method: It is a cross-sectional study conducted in villages from talukas (administrative areas of Kolhapur District. All Gram Panchayat members of six villages from three talukas were administered Self designed questionnaire. Results In awareness 41.3% members scored above 75% and in attitude and practice 71.73% and 67.39% members scored above 50% respectively. Only 6 (13.04% members scored <50% in awareness. Awareness, attitude & practices were independent of age, sex, experience, post & distance from urban area. Members’ awareness improves attitude and practices regarding environmental health. Gram Swachhata Abhiyan (Rural Sanitation Drive that helps in improving awareness. Conclusion By improving environmental health awareness of Gram Panchayat members it is possible to improve attitude & practices.

  12. Contaminação do solo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro pelo Clostridíum tetani: Estudo preliminar das relações entre a composição química do solo e a presença do bacilo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Tavares

    1974-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam os resultados preliminares da relação entre o grau de contaminação pelo C. tetani e a composição química de 82 amostras da camada superficial do solo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, colhidas ao acaso. Não encontram relação importante entre a presença do bacilo e a concentração de potássio, magnésio, fósforo, alumínio, carbono e o pH do solo. As amostras ricas em cálcio, porém, apresentaram maior positividade. Devido à heterogeneidade das amostras, possibilitando a influência de outros fatores nos resultados, os autores pretendem estudar o assunto em amostras mais selecionadas.The authors made a initial study about the relationship between the soil contamination by C. tetani and the chemical composition of 82 soil samples from the Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil. C. tetani was found in 29.2 % of the samples. No relationship could be demonstrated between the presence of the bacillus and the amount of potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, aluminium and carbon (organic material, as well as the pH of the soil. The microbe was or was not found either in rich soils or in poor ones, as well as in acid, neutral or basic soils. It was found a correlation between the amount of calcium and the positivity of the bacillus. Since many factors may have influenced the results, the authors will study this subject more deeply.

  13. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bipul Biswas; Kimberly Rogers; Fredrick McLaughlin; Dwayne Daniels; Anand Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well...

  14. Photometric Application of the Gram Stain Method To Characterize Natural Bacterial Populations in Aquatic Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Saida, H; Ytow, N.; Seki, H.

    1998-01-01

    The Gram stain method was applied to the photometric characterization of aquatic bacterial populations with a charge-coupled device camera and an image analyzer. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were used as standards of typical gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, respectively. A mounting agent to obtain clear images of Gram-stained bacteria on Nuclepore membrane filters was developed. The bacterial stainability by the Gram stain was indicated by the Gram stain index (GSI), which ...

  15. Interesses profissionais e afetos positivos e negativos: estudo exploratório com estudantes de ensino médio Intereses profesionales y afectos positivos y negativos: estudio exploratorio con estudiantes de Enseñanza Secundaria Professional interests and affects positive and negative: exploratory study with youngers from high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Porto Noronha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A Orientação Profissional enquanto área de intervenção e pesquisa tem buscado a compreensão de variáveis que interferem na tomada de decisão e no desenvolvimento de carreira. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório entre interesses profissionais e afetos positivos e negativos. Participaram 529 estudantes do ensino médio de escolas públicas e particulares com idades entre 14 a 27 anos (M=16; DP=1,48. No que se refere ao sexo, 223 (42,2% eram homens e 306 (57,8%, mulheres. Os instrumentos aplicados foram a EAZ - Escala de Afetos de Zanon e a EAP - Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional. Os participantes apresentaram maiores médias para afetos positivos, o que indica julgamento mais positivo da vida, de modo geral. A comparação entre os instrumentos revelou alguns coeficientes positivos e significativos, mas de baixa magnitude. Sugere-se que novos estudos sejam realizados com os construtos da Psicologia Positiva na orientação profissional e desenvolvimento de carreira.La Orientación Profesional como área de intervención e investigación ha buscado entender la comprensión de variables que interfieren en las decisiones y en el desarrollo de carrera. Se trata de un estudio exploratorio entre intereses profesionales y afectos positivos y negativos. Participaron 529 estudiantes de la Enseñanza Secundaria de escuelas públicas y privadas con edades entre14 a 27 años (M=16; DP= 1,48. En lo referente al sexo, 223 (42,2% eran hombres y 306 (57,8% mujeres. Los instrumentos aplicados fueron la Escala de Afetos de Zanon - EAZ y la Escala de Aconselhamento Profissional - EAP. Los participantes presentaron promedios mayores para los afectos positivos, lo que indica juicio más positivo de la vida, en general. La comparación entre los instrumentos mostró algunos coeficientes positivos y significativos, pero de magnitud baja. Se sugiere que nuevos estudios sean realizados con los constructos de la Psicología Positiva en la orientaci

  16. Caracterização, classificação e discriminação de doentes atendidos no serviço de urgência devido a Resultados Clínicos Negativos da Farmacoterapia

    OpenAIRE

    Cavaco, M.; Dias, L.S.; Fernández-Llimós, F.

    2013-01-01

    Resultados Clínicos Negativos da Farmacoterapia (RCNF) como motivo de atendimento em Serviços de Urgência foram investigados através de um questionário semi-fechado. As respostas foram analisadas por análise das correspondências e classificação hierárquica. Identificaram-se três grupos de doentes com RCNF, um essencialmente de sobrerrepresentação de necessidade de medicamentos, outro essencialmente com sobrerrepresentação de inefectividade de medicamentos, o terceiro com representação equitat...

  17. Fluoroquinolone susceptibilities to methicillin-resistant and susceptible coagulase-negative Staphylococcus isolated from eye infection Suscetibilidade dos Staphylococcus coagulase negativo meticilina-resistentes e suscetíveis isolados em infecções oculares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adália Dias Dourado Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the fluoroquinolone susceptibilities of ocular isolate coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS, identified at the Microbiology Laboratory - UNIFESP. DESIGN: Experimental laboratory investigation. METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 21 strains of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS and 22 methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCoNS to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin were determined, using the E-test method standardized by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI/NCCLS. RESULTS: The MIC90s (µg/ml for the second generation of tested fluoroquinolones were higher than the fourth generation, especially for the methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci group. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that methicillin-sensitive coagulase-negative staphylococci are more susceptible to quinolones than are methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and that fourth generation fluoroquinolones appear to be more potent, affecting even coagulase-negative staphylococcal strains resistant to second generation fluoroquinolones.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a suscetibilidade a fluorquinolonas dos Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo (SCoN identificados no Laboratório de Microbiologia Ocular da Unifesp. MÉTODOS: Foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima de 21 cepas de SCoN meticilina-resistentes e 22 meticilina-sensíveis para ciprofloxacina, ofloxacina, gatifloxacina e moxifloxacina, utilizando o E-test estandartizado pelo CLSI/NCCLS. RESULTADOS: Os MIC90 (µg/ml de 43 SCoN isolados para fluorquinolonas de segunda geração foram maiores do que os de quarta geração, principalmente para o grupo dos meticilina-resistentes. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo meticilina-sensíveis são mais suscetíveis às quinolonas do que os Staphylococcus coagulase-negativo meticilina

  18. Evaluación neurológica y neurosicológica de niños VIH positivos y VIH negativos, en Medellín, Colombia, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jaime Vélez Rengifo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: este estudio describe algunas características cognitivas y físicas de un grupo de 23 niños infectados con el VIH y uno de 25 niños no infectados con dicho virus, pareados por edad y sexo, en Medellín, Colombia. Se hicieron examen neurológico y pruebas neurosicológicas como WISC III, McCarthy, Wisconsin, Stroop, TMT y curva de memoria visual. OBJETIVO: describir las características neurológicas y neurosicológicas de un grupo de niños con VIH y compararlas con las de un grupo de niños VIH negativos. MÉTODO: se realizo un estudio descriptivo de corte tranversal. RESULTADOS: el desempeño cognitivo de los niños mayores de 6 años y VIH positivos tuvo una media de 88,58 y el del grupo VIH negativo de 88,36 (p = 0,973. Once de 17 pacientes (67,4% mayores de 6 años VIH positivos tuvieron desempeño cognitivo promedio (90-109. La media del perímetro cefálico del grupo de niños VIH positivos fue 51 cm y la de los niños VIH negativos, 51,12 cm (p = 0,878; no se encontró microcefalia en los niños VIH positivos. Las demás pruebas tampoco mostraron diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos. CONCLUSIONES: en comparación con los niños VIH negativos, los VIH positivos estudiados no presentan microcefalia, disminución del desempeño cognitivo ni otras alteraciones neurosicológicas, lo que puede explicarse por un tratamiento farmacológico adecuado y continuo, pero es ideal hacerles seguimiento para conocer mejor el impacto de la enfermedad.

  19. El desempeño de los estudiantes en un problema cuya solución debería ser un número negativo: la influencia del contexto, del lenguaje y del dato sobrante

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Lidia Aurora; Slisko, Josip; Benítez, Luis David

    2012-01-01

    Presentamos los resultados de un instrumento diseñado para estudiar el desempeño de estudiantes del primer año de una facultad de ciencias físico matemáticas ante un problema que involucra números con signo. En este instrumento se planteó un problema de un libro de texto de educación media básica y se encontró que más del cincuenta por ciento no utiliza un signo negativo como se espera que lo hagan. Con el instrumento y las respuestas de los estudiantes analizamos la pertinencia del contexto,...

  20. Alterações ultra-sonográficas na gravidez Rh negativo sensibilizada avaliada pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico e pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média

    OpenAIRE

    Nardozza Luciano Marcondes Machado; Camano Luiz; Moron Antonio Fernandes; Pares David Baptista da Silva; Chinen Paulo Alexandre; Lobo Guilherme Antonio Rago

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar e confrontar a presença de alterações ultra-sonográficas nas gestações Rh negativo sensibilizadas, quando a anemia fetal foi determinada ou pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico, ou pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Observacional descritivo com grupo de comparação. Nosso grupo de estudo foi constituído por 99 pacientes, avaliadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2004. Foram analisados e comparados dois grupos: 74 gestan...

  1. Compact q-gram Profiling of Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing the q-gram profile of a string T of size N compressed by a context-free grammar with n production rules. We present an algorithm that runs in O(N − α) expected time and uses O(n + k T , q ) space, where N − α ≤ qn is the exact number of characters decompressed...... by the algorithm and k T , q  ≤ N − α is the number of distinct q-grams in T . This simultaneously matches the current best known time bound and improves the best known space bound. Our space bound is asymptotically optimal in the sense that any algorithm storing the grammar and the q-gram profile must use Ω(n + k...

  2. Compact q-gram profiling of compressed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing the q-gram profile of a string T of size N compressed by a context-free grammar with n production rules. We present an algorithm that runs in O(N−α) expected time and uses O(n+q+kT,q) space, where N−α≤qnN−α≤qn is the exact number of characters decompressed...... by the algorithm and kT,q≤N−α is the number of distinct q-grams in T . This simultaneously matches the current best known time bound and improves the best known space bound. Our space bound is asymptotically optimal in the sense that any algorithm storing the grammar and the q-gram profile must use Ω...

  3. Neither Single nor a Combination of Routine Laboratory Parameters can Discriminate between Gram-positive and Gram-negative Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzinger, Franz; Dedeyan, Michel; Rammerstorfer, Matthias; Perkmann, Thomas; Burgmann, Heinz; Makristathis, Athanasios; Dorffner, Georg; Loetsch, Felix; Blacky, Alexander; Ramharter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Adequate early empiric antibiotic therapy is pivotal for the outcome of patients with bloodstream infections. In clinical practice the use of surrogate laboratory parameters is frequently proposed to predict underlying bacterial pathogens; however there is no clear evidence for this assumption. In this study, we investigated the discriminatory capacity of predictive models consisting of routinely available laboratory parameters to predict the presence of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteremia. Major machine learning algorithms were screened for their capacity to maximize the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) for discriminating between Gram-positive and Gram-negative cases. Data from 23,765 patients with clinically suspected bacteremia were screened and 1,180 bacteremic patients were included in the study. A relative predominance of Gram-negative bacteremia (54.0%), which was more pronounced in females (59.1%), was observed. The final model achieved 0.675 ROC-AUC resulting in 44.57% sensitivity and 79.75% specificity. Various parameters presented a significant difference between both genders. In gender-specific models, the discriminatory potency was slightly improved. The results of this study do not support the use of surrogate laboratory parameters for predicting classes of causative pathogens. In this patient cohort, gender-specific differences in various laboratory parameters were observed, indicating differences in the host response between genders.

  4. Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Julliette M

    2012-02-03

    LPS tolerance has been the focus of extensive scientific and clinical research over the last several decades in an attempt to elucidate the sequence of changes that occur at a molecular level in tolerized cells. Tolerance to components of gram-positive bacterial cell walls such as bacterial lipoprotein and lipoteichoic acid is a much lesser studied, although equally important, phenomenon. This review will focus on cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components and examines the alterations in cell surface receptor expression, changes in intracellular signaling, gene expression and cytokine production, and the phenomenon of cross-tolerance.

  5. The COHERENT Methodology in FunGramKB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Periñán-Pascual

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has been done synergistically between FunGramKB, a lexical-conceptual knowledge base, and the Lexical Constructional Model, a linguistic meaning construction model. since concepts are claimed to play an important role in the design of the cognitive-linguistic interface, this paper discusses the methodology adopted in structuring the basic conceptual level in the FunGramKB Core Ontology. more particularly, we describe our four-phase COHERENT methodology (i.e. COnceptualization + HiErarchization + REmodelling + refinemeNT, which guided the cognitive mapping of the defining vocabulary in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English.

  6. Probing interaction of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cells with ZnO nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Aanchal; Bhargava, Richa; Poddar, Pankaj, E-mail: p.poddar@ncl.res.in

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the physiological effects of the ZnO nanorods on the Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Aerobacter aerogenes) bacterial cells have been studied. The analysis of bacterial growth curves for various concentrations of ZnO nanorods indicates that Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial cells show inhibition at concentrations of ∼ 64 and ∼ 256 μg/mL respectively. The marked difference in susceptibility towards nanorods was also validated by spread plate and disk diffusion methods. In addition, the scanning electron micrographs show a clear damage to the cells via changed morphology of the cells from rod to coccoid etc. The confocal optical microscopy images of these cells also demonstrate the reduction in live cell count in the presence of ZnO nanorods. These, results clearly indicate that the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanorods is higher towards Gram positive bacterium than Gram negative bacterium which indicates that the structure of the cell wall might play a major role in the interaction with nanostructured materials and shows high sensitivity to the particle concentration. Highlights: ► Effect of ZnO nanorods on the growth cycles of four bacterial strains. ► A relation has been established between growth rate of bacteria and concentration. ► Serious damage in the morphology of bacterial cells in the presence of ZnO nanorods. ► Microscopic studies to see the time dependent effect on bacterial cells.

  7. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitzler, Grace E.; Ruiz, Maria J.; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S.; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  8. Kinase Activity Profiling of Gram-Negative Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Diks, Sander H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; van der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W.

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processes essential t

  9. Kinase activity profiling of gram-negative pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Hoogendijk (Arie); S.H. Diks (Sander); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); T. van der Poll (Tom); C.W. Wieland (Catharina )

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processe

  10. Kinase activity profiling of gram-negative pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Hoogendijk; S.H. Diks; M.P. Peppelenbosch; T. van der Poll; C.W. Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processes essential

  11. Horse gram- an underutilized nutraceutical pulse crop: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Horse gram is an underutilized pulse crop grown in wide range of adverse climatic conditions. It occupies an important place in human nutrition and has rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Besides nutritional importance, it has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases due to presence of non-nutritive bioactive substances. These bioactive substances such as phytic acid, phenolic acid, fiber, enzymatic/proteinase inhibitors have significant metabolic and/or physiological effects. The importance of horse gram was well recognized by the folk/alternative/traditional medicine as a potential therapeutic agent to treat kidney stones, urinary diseases, piles, common cold, throat infection, fever etc. The inception of nutraceutical concept and increasing health consciousness the demand of nutraceutical and functional food is increased. In recent years, isolation and utilization of potential antioxidants from legumes including horse gram are increased as it decreases the risk of intestinal diseases, diabetes, coronary heart disease, prevention of dental caries etc. Keeping in view the increasing demand of food having nutraceutical values, the present review ascribed with recent scientific knowledge towards the possibilities of exploring the horse gram, as a source of food and nutraceuticals compounds. PMID:25892749

  12. Defining a role for Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Lei, Lisbeth Kristensen; Ebersbach, Tine;

    2010-01-01

    mechanism, and that Hfq facilitates the binding of LhrA to its target. The work presented here provides the first experimental evidence for Hfq-dependent riboregulation in a Gram-positive bacterium. Our findings indicate that modulation of translation by trans-encoded sRNAs may occur by both Hfq...

  13. Genome Sequences of Nine Gram-Negative Vaginal Bacterial Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitzler, Grace E; Ruiz, Maria J; Lu, Wendy; Weimer, Cory; Park, SoEun; Robinson, Lloyd S; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kymberlie; Wollam, Aye; Mitreva, Makedonka; Lewis, Warren G; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    The vagina is home to a wide variety of bacteria that have great potential to impact human health. Here, we announce reference strains (now available through BEI Resources) and draft genome sequences for 9 Gram-negative vaginal isolates from the taxa Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Fusobacterium, Proteus, and Prevotella. PMID:27688330

  14. Application of DNA comet assay for detection of radiation treatment of grams and pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hasan M.; Ashfaq A Khan; Khan, Sanaullah

    2010-01-01

    Several types of whole pulses (green lentils, red lentils, yellow lentils, chickpeas, green peas, cowpeas and yellow peas) and grams (black grams, red grams and white grams) have been investigated for the identification of radiation treatment using microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay). Pulses and grams were exposed to the radiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 5 kGy covering the legalized commercial dose range for protection from insect/pest infestations. All irradiated samples...

  15. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by direct gram stain of vaginal fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegel, C A; Amsel, R; Holmes, K K

    1983-01-01

    To determine whether bacterial vaginosis (BV), also known as nonspecific vaginitis, could be diagnosed by evaluating a Gram stain of vaginal fluid, we examined samples from 60 women of whom 25 had clinical evidence of BV and 35 had candidal vaginitis or normal examinations. An inverse relationship between the quantity of the Lactobacillus morphotype (large gram-positive rods) and of the Gardnerella morphotype (small gram-variable rods) was noted on Gram stain (P less than 0.001). When Gram st...

  16. Meningite bacteriana neonatal agentes etiológicos em 109 casos durante período de dez anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. T. Silva Ramos

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available A etiologia das meningites purulentas foi analisada em 109 recém-nascidos admitidos em unidade de cuidados intensivos neonatais durante período de dez anos. Bactérias foram recuperadas do LCR de 57 (52,2% recém-nascidos. Verificou-se predomínio dos bacilos Gram-negativos isolados em 38 (34,9%; cocos Gram-positivos foram isolados em somente 12 (11,0%. Os microorganismos tidos como de contaminação hospitalar - Klebsiella sp, Salmonella sp, Enterobacter sp, Pseudomonas sp, Flavobacterium meningosepticum e Ser-ratia marcescens responderam pela etiologia presumível em 38 (49,3% dentre 77 pacientes com culturas positivas; foram isolados de 22 (7,0% recém-nascidos com procedência hospitalar imediata e somente em 12 (34,3% daqueles vindos diretamente do domicílio (X2 = 4,08; p<0,05. A letalidade foi significantemente maior nos pacientes com cultura de LCR positiva (47,45%, quando comparada àquela (18,4% dos pacientes com cultura de LCR negativa (c²=5,01: p<0,05. A análise da casuística permite concluir pelo predomínio dos bacilos Gram-negativos, muitos deles de origem hospitalar. Recomenda-se a melhoria das condições de atendimento nos berçários e controle mais eficiente das infecções hospitalares.

  17. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Daniels, Dwayne; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50  μ L leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties.

  18. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L. on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water. The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties.

  19. Nanoemulsion Therapy for Burn Wounds Is Effective as a Topical Antimicrobial Against Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgachev, Vladislav A; Ciotti, Susan M; Eisma, Rone; Gracon, Stephen; Wilkinson, J Erby; Baker, James R; Hemmila, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial efficacy of two different nanoemulsion (NE) formulations against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in an in vivo rodent scald burn model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and received a partial-thickness scald burn. Eight hours after burn injury, the wound was inoculated with 1 × 10(8) colony-forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment groups consisted of two different NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402), NE vehicle, or saline. Topical application of the treatment was performed at 16 and 24 hours after burn injury. Animals were killed 32 hours after burn injury, and skin samples were obtained for quantitative wound culture and determination of dermal inflammation markers. In a separate set of experiments, burn wound progression was measured histologically after 72 hours of treatment. Both NE formulations (NB-201 and NB-402) significantly reduced burn wound infections with either P. aeruginosa or S. aureus and decreased median bacterial counts at least three logs when compared with animals with saline applications (p wound as measured by myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay and histopathology (p wound progression 72 hours after injury. Topically applied NB-201 and NB-402 are effective in decreasing Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria growth in burn wounds, reducing inflammation, and abrogating burn wound progression. PMID:26182074

  20. Um protótipo de gramática gerativa portuguesa: a gramática de Soares Barbosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Lopes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho estuda os aspectos doutrinários da Grammatica Philosophica da Lingua Portugueza, de Jerônimo Soares Barbosa, elaborada com base na doutrina da Grammaire générale et raisonnée de Port-Royal, para mostrar que ela é o protótipo iluminista de uma gramática gerativa da língua portuguesa. Essa gramática é a expressão das idéias iluministas no domínio da ciência da linguagem. Insere-se assim no embate ideológico que se travava, nessa época, entre as idéias absolutistas e a filosofia das Luzes. Essas posições manifestam-se, no nível dos estudos lingüísticos, pela gramática normativa, que estabelece um saber fazer, e pela gramática filosófica, que constrói um fazer.

  1. GRAPHENE OXIDE AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGAINST TWO GRAM-POSITIVE AND TWO GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA IN ADDITION TO ONE FUNGUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roda F. Al-Thani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene based materials have wide potential applications in biology, biomedical, agriculture environmental and biotechnology. Graphene Oxide (GO is one of those materials and has a promising substance as antimicrobial agents. GO in this study was prepared by a modified Hummers method and was characterized by different techniques for confirmation of formation of GO. To study the antimicrobial activities of GO, it was tested against these microorganisms, one eukaryotic fungus (Candida albicans, C. albicans two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli (E. coli ATCC 41570 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa ATCC 25619 and two Gram positive bacteria (Streptococcus faecalis (S. faecalis ATCC 19433 and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus ATCC 11632. Anti-microbial activity of GO was detected by spectrophotometer as indirect method to measure the growth and viable cell count as direct method. Readings were taken at successive incubated times. Results revealed that GO has antibacterial and anti-fungal activity against microorganisms used in this study. In conculosion the developed GO exhibit excellent antimicrobial property and GO affects more on Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and fungi.

  2. Performance comparison between broilers positive and negative for antibodies against the chicken anemia virus Comparação de desempenho entre frangos positivos e negativos para anticorpos contra o vírus da anemia das galinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauricio Librelotto Rubin

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The chicken anemia virus (CAV is present in virtually every country investigated, Brazil including. The aim of this study was to determine what the difference in performance is between positive (progeny of breeders vaccinated or with natural infection and negative broilers to the presence of antibodies against the CAV in currently intensive raising systems. As a result, it was observed that negative broilers were significantly heavier than positive broilers. Negative males had a final weight 5.43% higher than positive males. There was no significant difference among different treatments in relation to parameters as mortality and feeding conversion. These study indicated that the presence of antibodies against CAV in broilers - may it be through vaccination or natural infection of breeders - did not generate progeny with superior performance under the tested raising conditions.O vírus da anemia das galinhas (CAV - "chicken anemia virus" está presente em praticamente todos os países investigados, inclusive no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar qual a diferença de desempenho, comparando frangos positivos (progênie de matrizes vacinadas ou com infecção natural com frangos negativos para a presença de anticorpos contra o CAV, no sistema atual de criação intensiva. Como resultado, foi observado que os frangos negativos foram significativamente mais pesados que os frangos positivos. Os machos negativos tiveram um peso final 5,43% superior ao dos machos positivos. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos em relação aos parâmetros de mortalidade e conversão alimentar. Este estudo indicou que a presença de anticorpos contra o CAV em frangos de corte, seja através da vacinação ou infecção natural das matrizes, não gerou uma progênie com melhor desempenho nas condições de criação testadas.

  3. La «Escala de Balance Afectivo»: Propiedades psicométricas de un instrumento para la medida del afecto positivo y negativo en población española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Godoy-Izquierdo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El Balance Afectivo se ha propuesto como uno de los componentes, junto con la Satisfacción Vital, del Bienestar Subjetivo. El Balance Afectivo se refiere a las respuestas emocionales de la persona cuando hace juicios valorativos sobre su vida, y es el resultado de la consideración de las emociones tanto positivas como negativas experimentadas a lo largo de un período de tiempo determinado. Este estudio presenta las características de la Escala de Balance Afectivo (EBA (versión española de la escala de Afecto Positivo y Negativo de Warr et al., 1983 en una muestra española adulta obtenida de la población general. METODOLOGÍA: Participaron voluntariamente en este estudio 219 personas con edades comprendidas entre los 18 y 64 años (M= 30.54; dt= 10.79; 62.1% mujeres procedentes de diferentes contextos comunitarios. Los participantes respondieron 4 medidas sobre balance afectivo, competencia personal inespecífica, salud general y satisfacción vital en una única administración. RESULTADOS: Respecto a las propiedades psicométricas de la EBA, las subescalas de Afecto Positivo y Afecto Negativo muestran una elevada consistencia interna, con valores de alfa de Cronbach de 0.82 y 0.75 respectivamente. Sus elementos muestran un adecuado comportamiento que refleja su pertinencia y relevancia para la medida del Balance Afectivo. La estructura factorial arroja un modelo bifactorial perfectamente ajustado a la propuesta teórica. No obstante, dos ítems necesitarían ser reformulados. El análisis de la posible relación entre el afecto positivo y el afecto negativo realizado utilizando un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales apoya la estrecha relación inversa entre ambas dimensiones de la afectividad. La escala muestra una adecuada validez convergente con medidas de competencia personal inespecífica o global, de salud física y mental y de satisfacción vital. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio nos permiten confirmar la EBA como una

  4. Bovine mastitis caused by gram negative bacteria in Mosul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. A. Al-Dabbagh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 90 milk samples were collected from cows with clinical and subclinical mastitis from different areas in Mosul city, in a period from October 2009 to June 2010, for the detection of gram negative bacteriological causative agents. The bacteria were identified using morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. thirty tow (35.3% gram negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the total count which included 14 isolates (15.5% for Escherichia coli, 7 isolates (7.7% for Klebsiella spp, 4 isolates (4.4% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 3 isolates (3.3% for Enterobacter aerogenes ,2 isolates for Serratia marcescens and one isolates (1.1% for each of Aeromonas hydrophila and Pasteurella multocida. Results of antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that most of these isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin following by Gentamycin and Cotrimoxazole, while most of these organisms were resistant to Ampicillin, the isolates showed different percentages of sensitivity to Doxycycline, Tetracycline, Neomycin and Chloramphenicol.

  5. An Eco-friendly, Scaled-down Gram Stain Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Gyure

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, flushing large volumes of Gram stain reagents into sanitary sewage systems is no longer acceptable. These chemical wastes are highly regulated and must be collected, labeled, and disposed of in a responsible manner, usually by paying a commercial service to remove them to an authorized off-site facility. Such services are costly and, as expected, costs are proportional to volume of collected waste. This “old” method of Gram staining, even if effluent is collected, generates a high volume of liquid waste which is unnecessarily diluted with additional large volumes of water from the rinsing steps. The purpose of using this scaled-down and eco-friendly protocol is to dramatically reduce the amount of liquid waste produced without sacrificing quality of results. This protocol is flexible, practical, and easy to implement. It does not require students to work at a bench sink, reduces user cost, and lowers environmental impact overall.

  6. Statistical Analysis of the Indus Script Using n-Grams

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Nisha; Joglekar, Hrishikesh; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Vahia, Mayank N.; Adhikari, Ronojoy; Mahadevan, Iravatham

    2010-01-01

    The Indus script is one of the major undeciphered scripts of the ancient world. The small size of the corpus, the absence of bilingual texts, and the lack of definite knowledge of the underlying language has frustrated efforts at decipherment since the discovery of the remains of the Indus civilization. Building on previous statistical approaches, we apply the tools of statistical language processing, specifically n-gram Markov chains, to analyze the syntax of the Indus script. We find that u...

  7. Poplar Lignin Decomposition by Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Odier, E.; Janin, G.; Monties, B

    1981-01-01

    Eleven gram-negative aerobic bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae and Neisseriaceae) out of 122 soil isolates were selected for their ability to assimilate poplar dioxane lignin without a cosubstrate. Dioxane lignin and milled wood lignin degradation rates ranged between 20 and 40% of initial content after 7 days in mineral medium, as determined by a loss of absorbance at 280 nm; 10 strains could degrade in situ lignin, as evidenced by the decrease of the acetyl bromide lignin content of microtome wood...

  8. La Gramática Discursivo-Funcional

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Hengeveld; J.L. Mackenzie

    2011-01-01

    La Gramática Discursivo-Funcional (GDF) es una teoría funcional del lenguaje de inspiración tipológica que presenta una organización descendente (top-down) con el objeto de alcanzar la adecuación psicológica y que toma el Acto Discursivo como unidad básica de análisis para lograr la adecuación pragm

  9. Multivariate Generalized Gram-Charlier Series in Vector Notations

    OpenAIRE

    C, Dharmani Bhaveshkumar

    2015-01-01

    The article derives multivariate Generalized Gram-Charlier (GGC) series that expands an unknown joint probability density function (\\textit{pdf}) of a random vector in terms of the differentiations of the joint \\textit{pdf} of a reference random vector. Conventionally, the higher order differentiations of a multivariate \\textit{pdf} in GGC series will require multi-element array or tensor representations. But, the current article derives the GGC series in vector notations. The required higher...

  10. Horse gram- an underutilized nutraceutical pulse crop: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad, Saroj Kumar; Singh, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Horse gram is an underutilized pulse crop grown in wide range of adverse climatic conditions. It occupies an important place in human nutrition and has rich source of protein, minerals, and vitamins. Besides nutritional importance, it has been linked to reduced risk of various diseases due to presence of non-nutritive bioactive substances. These bioactive substances such as phytic acid, phenolic acid, fiber, enzymatic/proteinase inhibitors have significant metabolic and/or physiological effec...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ameer Azam,1,2 Arham S Ahmed,2 Mohammad Oves,3 Mohammad S Khan,3 Sami S Habib,1 Adnan Memic11Centre of Nanotechnology, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Centre of Excellence in Materials Science (Nanomaterials, 3Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, IndiaBackground: Nanomaterials have unique properties compared to their bulk counterparts. For this reason, nanotechnology has attracted a great deal of attention from the scientific community. Metal oxide nanomaterials like ZnO and CuO have been used industrially for several purposes, including cosmetics, paints, plastics, and textiles. A common feature that these nanoparticles exhibit is their antimicrobial behavior against pathogenic bacteria. In this report, we demonstrate the antimicrobial activity of ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 nanoparticles against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.Methods and results: Nanosized particles of three metal oxides (ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3 were synthesized by a sol–gel combustion route and characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. X-ray diffraction results confirmed the single-phase formation of all three nanomaterials. The particle sizes were observed to be 18, 22, and 28 nm for ZnO, CuO, and Fe2O3, respectively. We used these nanomaterials to evaluate their antibacterial activity against both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis bacteria.Conclusion: Among the three metal oxide nanomaterials, ZnO showed greatest antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria used in this study. It was observed that ZnO nanoparticles have excellent bactericidal potential, while Fe2O3 nanoparticles exhibited the least bactericidal activity. The order of antibacterial activity was demonstrated to be the following: ZnO > CuO > Fe2O3

  12. Efficient n-gram analysis in R with cmscu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David W; Davis, Jason K; Sindi, Suzanne S; Dale, Rick

    2016-09-01

    We present a new R package, cmscu, which implements a Count-Min-Sketch with conservative updating (Cormode and Muthukrishnan Journal of Algorithms, 55(1), 58-75, 2005), and its application to n-gram analyses (Goyal et al. 2012). By writing the core implementation in C++ and exposing it to R via Rcpp, we are able to provide a memory-efficient, high-throughput, and easy-to-use library. As a proof of concept, we implemented the computationally challenging (Heafield et al. 2013) modified Kneser-Ney n-gram smoothing algorithm using cmscu as the querying engine. We then explore information density measures (Jaeger Cognitive Psychology, 61(1), 23-62, 2010) from n-gram frequencies (for n=2,3) derived from a corpus of over 2.2 million reviews provided by a Yelp, Inc. dataset. We demonstrate that these text data are at a scale beyond the reach of other more common, more general-purpose libraries available through CRAN. Using the cmscu library and the smoothing implementation, we find a positive relationship between review information density and reader review ratings. We end by highlighting the important use of new efficient tools to explore behavioral phenomena in large, relatively noisy data sets. PMID:27496173

  13. The talking language in some major Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Goutam; Ray, Arun Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Cell-cell interaction or quorum sensing (QS) is a vital biochemical/physiological process in bacteria that is required for various physiological functions, including nutrient uptake, competence development, biofilm formation, sporulation, as well as for toxin secretion. In natural environment, bacteria live in close association with other bacteria and interaction among them is crucial for survival. The QS-regulated gene expression in bacteria is a cell density-dependent process and the initiation process depends on the threshold level of the signaling molecule, N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL). The present review summarizes the QS signal and its respective circuit in Gram-negative bacteria. Most of the human pathogens belong to Gram-negative group, and only a few of them cause disease through QS system. Thus, inhibition of pathogenic bacteria is important. Use of antibiotics creates a selective pressure (antibiotics act as natural selection factor to promote one group of bacteria over another group) for emerging multidrug-resistant bacteria and will not be suitable for long-term use. The alternative process of inhibition of QS in bacteria using different natural and synthetic molecules is called quorum quenching. However, in the long run, QS inhibitors or blockers may also develop resistance, but obviously it will solve some sort of problems. In this review, we also have stated the mode of action of quorum-quenching molecule. The understanding of QS network in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria will help us to solve many health-related problems in future. PMID:27062655

  14. Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Gram-Negative Bacteria in Gorgan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golsha, R. (MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics will lead to drug resistance of microorganism and specially nosocomial organisms. Because of high incidence of antibiotic resistance in hospitals, we aimed to study antibiotic resistance to gram negative bacteria. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the data of biological samples (2006-2008, with positive culture result. Using antibiogram, microbial resistance to isolated microorganism was determined, and after culturing the samples, bacteria were identified by using differential media and antiserum. Then, antibiotic resistance was performed by disk diffusion. Results: The most common gram-negative microorganism obtained from all cultures was E.coli with the lowest drug resistance to Nitrofurantoin. Conclusion: Based on the results, antimicrobial resistance pattern is not the same in different places and furthermore it is ever changing. Therefore, further research is needed to be done to have an accurate pattern of antibiotic resistance to provide effective treatment regimens. Key words: Antibiotic Resistance; Disk Diffusion; Gram Negative Bacteria; Gorgan

  15. Keywords in Context (Using n-grams with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Turkel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Like in Output Data as HTML File, this lesson takes the frequency pairs collected in Counting Frequencies and outputs them in HTML. This time the focus is on keywords in context (KWIC which creates n-grams from the original document content – in this case a trial transcript from the Old Bailey Online. You can use your program to select a keyword and the computer will output all instances of that keyword, along with the words to the left and right of it, making it easy to see at a glance how the keyword is used. Once the KWICs have been created, they are then wrapped in HTML and sent to the browser where they can be viewed. This reinforces what was learned in Output Data as HTML File, opting for a slightly different output. At the end of this lesson, you will be able to extract all possible n-grams from the text. In the next lesson, you will be learn how to output all of the n-grams of a given keyword in a document downloaded from the Internet, and display them clearly in your browser window.

  16. Kaulath, a new fungal fermented food from horse gram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Minakshee; Vasantha, K Y; Sreerama, Y N; Haware, Devendra J; Singh, R P; Sattur, A P

    2015-12-01

    Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) is used in the traditional method for treatmentof several health complications. It is also known that fermentation of such substrates yields a number of compounds that enhance the overall activities against several disease states. Solid state fermentation of horse gram using Penicillium camemberti showed an inhibition of pancreatic lipase and alpha glucosidase activities. The fermented material, termed Kaulath, showed 60 % increase in fat content. A reduction in sodium and increased levels of potassium and calcium was observed in Kaulath. In addition, a higher free radical scavenging activity was noted in this product compared to unfermented horse gram. Anti-nutritional factors, such as phytic acid and trypsin inhibitors showed a reduction in Kaulath. Furthermore, Kaulath, upto 1 g per kg body weight, did not exhibit any mortality or toxic effects in experimental rats after 14 days of administration. The hematological and clinical parameters were within safe limits between the groups, supported by the histopathology of liver and kidney. These results indicate potential food use of Kaulath in diets and as functional ingredients in formulated foods. PMID:26604417

  17. Uso do contraste oral negativo em exames de colangiografia por ressonância magnética Use of oral negative contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário de Melo Galvão Filho

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizamos estudo prospectivo das vias biliares e pancreáticas através de colangiografia por ressonância magnética, com a utilização de meio de contraste oral negativo. Os nossos objetivos foram verificar se este novo meio de contraste melhora a visualização das vias biliar e pancreática, além de identificar a freqüência de efeitos colaterais ao contraste e sua aceitação pelo paciente. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Quinze voluntários (oito homens e sete mulheres com idades variando entre 18 e 54 anos (média de 29 anos, sem queixas ou cirurgias abdominais, foram submetidos a colangiografia por ressonância magnética. Foram realizadas duas seqüências colangiográficas em apnéia, antes e cinco minutos após a ingestão de 300 ml de contraste oral negativo. Os exames foram realizados em equipamento operando a 1,0 T. RESULTADOS: Setenta e três por cento dos voluntários consideraram o gosto ruim ou muito ruim, sugerindo uma aceitação discutível; 27% dos voluntários apresentaram náuseas; 20%, cólicas; 14%, azia ou parestesia labial; e 7%, diarréia. A visualização da via biliar extra-hepática foi considerada melhor após o contraste oral negativo em 9/15 voluntários (60% e do ducto pancreático principal em todos os cinco em que havia interposição de alças. CONCLUSÃO: O contraste oral negativo melhora a visualização dos ductos hepatocolédoco e pancreático principal em exames de colangiografia por ressonância magnética, apesar da baixa aceitação e dos seus efeitos colaterais.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the feasibility of using a negative oral contrast agent to null the bowel signal during magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Fifteen healthy volunteers with no previous history of pancreaticobiliary disease or surgery were imaged with a single-shot fast spin-echo pulse sequence, using a magnetic resonance imaging system operating at 1.0 T. Data

  18. Highly active modulators of indole signaling alter pathogenic behaviors in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minvielle, Marine J; Eguren, Kristen; Melander, Christian

    2013-12-16

    Indole is a universal signal that regulates various bacterial behaviors, such as biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. To generate mechanistic probes of indole signaling and control indole-mediated pathogenic phenotypes in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, we have investigated the use of desformylflustrabromine (dFBr) derivatives to generate highly active indole mimetics. We have developed non-microbicidal dFBr derivatives that are 27-2000 times more active than indole in modulating biofilm formation, motility, acid resistance, and antibiotic resistance. The activity of these analogues parallels indole, because they are dependent on temperature, the enzyme tryptophanase TnaA, and the transcriptional regulator SdiA. This investigation demonstrates that molecules based on the dFBr scaffold can alter pathogenic behaviors by mimicking indole-signaling pathways.

  19. Rational design of a plasmid origin that replicates efficiently in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton V Bryksin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most plasmids replicate only within a particular genus or family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe an engineered high copy number expression vector, pBAV1K-T5, that produces varying quantities of active reporter proteins in Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, (all gram-negative, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Leifsonia shinshuensis, Peanibacillus sp. S18-36 and Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate the efficiency of pBAV1K-T5 replication in different bacterial species, thereby facilitating the study of proteins that don't fold well in E. coli and pathogens not amenable to existing genetic tools.

  20. Prevalência e prognóstico dos pacientes com pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica em um hospital universitário Prevalence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in a university hospital and prognosis for the patients affected

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio Martins de Queiroz Guimarães; José Rodolfo Rocco

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar prevalência de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica em unidade de terapia intensiva, fatores associados e evolução. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 278 pacientes sob ventilação mecânica por mais de 24 horas prospectivamente em hospital universitário. RESULTADOS: Desenvolveram a doença 38,1% dos pacientes, 35,7 casos/1.000 dias de ventilação mecânica: 45,3% por bacilos gram negativos, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%) o mais comum e 43,4% por germes multi-resistentes. O grupo com...

  1. Uma revisão sobre metalo-β-lactamases A review on metallo-β-lactamases

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia de Mello Bertoncheli; Rosmari Hörner

    2008-01-01

    A emergência e disseminação da resistência aos antimicrobianos são problemas de grande importância mundial, particularmente entre patógenos nosocomiais de importância clínica como os bacilos Gram negativos não fermentadores e membros da família Enterobacteriaceae. O principal mecanismo de resistência desses patógenos é a produção de β-lactamases, que são enzimas que hidrolisam o anel β-lactâmico impedindo assim a ação dos antimicrobianos β-lactâmicos. As β-lactamases foram...

  2. La vieja batalla entre la especie humana y el bacilo de Koch: ¿Es posible soñar con erradicar la tuberculosis? The old battle between the human species and Koch’s bacillae: Can one dream of eradicating tuberculosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Caminero

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo trata de analizar la complejidad de la vieja batalla que lleva librando, desde hace millones de años, la especie humana contra Mycobacterium tuberculosis, intentando realizar un repaso de todos los conocimientos que se tienen sobre esta enfermedad y de lo más importante de lo que puede acontecer en el futuro, con el fin de llegar a la conclusión de si es posible acabar soñando con erradicar esta enfermedad que tanto daño ha causado a la humanidad. A pesar de que la especie humana tiene suficientes conocimientos para vencer la batalla a M. tuberculosis, importantes condicionantes, sobre todo sociales (pobreza, inmigración, VIH, MDR, están favoreciendo la guerra del lado del bacilo. Y que, incluso aplicando adecuadamente todos los buenos conocimientos adquiridos para el control de la TB (detección y curación de casos, quimioprofilaxis, vacunación BCG, etc., se tardaría aún varios siglos en poder conseguir la erradicación. Sólo la posibilidad de descubrir una vacuna 100% eficaz, o el descubrimiento de nuevas asociaciones antimicrobianas que pudiesen curar la enfermedad en un plazo no superior a 15 días, podría acelerar este ritmo hacia la erradicación. Pero, lamentablemente, no existen fundamentos que permitan soñar con que cualquiera de estas dos posibilidades pueda cumplirse en los próximos 10-20 años. Por lo tanto, el sueño de erradicar la TB es un sueño muy antiguo, pero, lamentablemente, aún muy lejano.This article analyses the complexity of the age-old battle that the human species has been waging for millions of years against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We review all of the knowledge available about this disease, and the most important future developments, in order to reach the conclusion that it is indeed possible to dream of eradicating this disease that has caused such harm to humanity. In spite of the human species possessing sufficient knowledge to win the battle against Mycobacterium

  3. Isolating "Unknown" Bacteria in the Introductory Microbiology Laboratory: A New Selective Medium for Gram-Positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillip, John L.; Drake, MaryAnne

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, preparation, and use of a medium that can select against a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria while still allowing growth and differentiation of a wide range of Gram-positives. (WRM)

  4. In Vitro Study of Amniotic Fluid Gram Stain: Effect of Centrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Gauthier

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gram stain of amniotic fluid (AF is used to detect intraamniotic infection. The purpose of this study was to determine if centrifugation improved the ability of AF Gram stain to detect bacteria.

  5. A study of in vitro activity of daptomycin against 2679 Gram-positive cocci

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菲菲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the in vitro activity of daptomycin against 2679 Gram-positive cocci.Methods A total of 2679 non-duplicate Gram-positive cocci isolates were collected from 17 teaching hospitals during January,

  6. A selective medium for the isolation of the acinetobacter genus bacteria Um Meio Seletivo para o Isolamento de Bactérias do Gênero Acinetobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair A. Zebral

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available A selective and differencial medium was developed for the isolation of Acinetobacter genus bacteria. This Acinobacter Agar Medium (p.H + 7.4 contains in grams per litre: thiotone, 10; yeast extract, 3; naC1, 5; saccharose, 10; mannitol, 10; sodium citrate, 0.5; sodium desoxycholate, 0.1; crystal violet, 0.00025; phenol red, 0.04 and agar-agar 15. This medium has the advantage of inhibiting the growth of cocci and Gram-positive bacilli, by the use of sodium citrate and sodium desoxycholate associated with the crystal violet; and of differentiating the Gram-negative bacilli from the Enterobacteriaceae, through the fermentative activity upon the saccharose and/or mannitol, contrasting with the complete inactivity of the Acinetobacter genus bacteria over those substances.Um meio seletivo e diferenciador foi desenvolvido para facilitar o isolamento das bactérias do gênero Acinetobacter. Este meio (Agar Acinetobacter contém em gramas por litro: Tiotone (BBL, 10; extrato de levedura (BBL, 3; NaC1, 5; sacarose, 10; manitol, 10; citrato de sódio, 0,5; desoxicolato de sódio, 0,1; cristal violeta, 0,00025; vermelho de fenol, 0,04 e pH 7,4. Apresenta a vantagem de impedir o crescimento dos cocos e bacilos Gram positivos, pelo emprego do citrato de sódio e do desoxicolato de sódio, associados ao cristal violeta e de diferenciar os bacilos Gram negativos da família Enterobacteriaceae, pela sua atividade fermentativa sobre a sacarose e/ou manitol, em contraste com a completa inatividade das bactérias do gênero Acinetobacter sobre os mesmos substratos.

  7. Acercamiento al fantástico mundo de las cantidades negativas. Una propuesta metodológica para conceptualizar la noción de número entero negativo y sus operaciones con estudiantes de grado séptimo

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta Muñoz, Guillermo Elías

    2014-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es diseñar una unidad didáctica para superar los obstáculos en el aprendizaje del concepto de número entero negativo y sus operaciones, dirigida a los estudiantes de grado séptimo de la Escuela Normal Superior Sagrado Corazón Aranzazu, Caldas. Para ello, se utilizó instrumentos como: pretest, unidad didáctica y postest entregados a los estudiantes. Este trabajo se centra en la construcción del número entero a partir de la significación del número negativo siend...

  8. Rapid discrimination of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples by using NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and flow cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Wada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For precise diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI, and selection of the appropriate prescriptions for their treatment, we explored a simple and rapid method of discriminating gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid samples. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the NaOH-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solution conventionally used for plasmid extraction from Escherichia coli and the automated urine particle analyzer UF-1000i (Sysmex Corporation for our novel method. The NaOH-SDS solution was used to determine differences in the cell wall structures between gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, since the tolerance to such chemicals reflects the thickness and structural differences of bacterial cell walls. The UF-1000i instrument was used as a quantitative bacterial counter. We found that gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli, in liquid culture could easily be lysed by direct addition of equal volumes of NaOH-SDS solution. In contrast, Enterococcus faecalis, which is a gram-positive bacterium, could not be completely lysed by the solution. We then optimized the reaction time of the NaOH-SDS treatment at room temperature by using 3 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative bacterial strains and determined that the optimum reaction time was 5 min. Finally, in order to evaluate the generalizability of this method, we treated 8 gram-positive strains and 8 gram-negative strains, or 4 gram-positive and 4 gram-negative strains incubated in voluntary urine from healthy volunteers in the same way and demonstrated that all the gram-positive bacteria were discriminated quantitatively from gram negative bacteria using this method. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using our new method, we could easily discriminate gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in liquid culture media within 10 min. This simple and rapid method may be useful for determining the treatment course of patients with UTIs, especially for those without a prior history

  9. Antimicrobial activity of cationic gemini surfactant containing an oxycarbonyl group in the lipophilic portion against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Taiga; Imai, Yoshitane; Kawaguchi, Kakuhiro; Miyano, Naoko; Ikeda, Isao

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the antimicrobial activities of a cationic Gemini surfactant, trans-1,4-bis[2-(alkanoyloxy)ethyldimethylammonio]-2-butene dichloride [II-m-2(t-butene)] and its derivatives against Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. The II-m-2(t-butene) compound was previously shown to have good surface activity and biodegradability. A dodecanoyloxy derivative (m = 12) of II-m-2(t-butene) showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive Streptococcus aureus [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC): 7.8 μg/mL] and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (MIC: 31.2 μg/mL). PMID:24420061

  10. Novel pharmaceutical molecules against emerging resistant gram-positive cocci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Manfredi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: methicillin- and also vancomycin (glycopeptide-resistant Gram-positive organisms have emerged as an increasingly problematic cause of hospital-acquired infections, also spreading into the community. Vancomycin (glycopeptide resistance has emerged primarily among Enterococci, but the MIC values of vancomycin for the entire Staphylococcus species are also increasing worldwide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: the aim of our review is to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of newer antibiotics with activity against methicillin-resistant and glycopeptide-resistant Gram-positive cocci, on the ground of our experience at a tertiary care metropolitan Hospital, and the most recent literature evidences in this field. RESULTS: Quinupristin-dalfopristin, linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline show an excellent in vitro activity, comparable to the activity of vancomycin and teicoplanin for methicillin-resistant staphylococci, and superior to the one that vancomycin for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Dalbavancin, televancin, and oritavancin are new lipoglycopeptide agents with excellent activity against Gram-positive cocci, and have superior pharmacodynamics properties compared to vancomycin. We review the bacterial spectrum, clinical indications and practical use, pharmacologic properties, and expected adverse events and contraindications associated with each of these novel antimicrobial agents, compared with the present standard of care. DISCUSSION: linezolid activity is substantially comparable to that of vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA pneumonia, although its penetration into the respiratory tract is exceptionally elevated. Tigecycline has activity against both Enterococus species and MRSA; it is also active against a broad spectrum of Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes, which allows for use intraabdominal, diabetic foot and surgical infections. Daptomycin has a rapid bactericidal activity for

  11. Microwave assisted dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, J Jerish; Yadav, B K

    2015-04-01

    This article summarises the results of the investigation of application of microwave exposure on the dehulling characteristics of the black gram and the properties of the dehulled grains. Black gram was exposed to 3 microwave power levels, viz., 450, 630 and 810 W for 7 different exposure, ranging from 60 to 150 s at an interval of 15 s with a view to determine the suitable combination of dosage in order to get the maximum yield with little change in colour. Related changes in properties were also studied. It was observed that the surface temperature of the grain increased with the increase in microwave power level from 450 to 810 W as well as exposure time from 60 to 150 s in the range from 58 to 123 °C while the dehulling time reduced from 445 to 170 s. The dehulling yield increased with increasing microwave dosage in the beginning and reached to the maximum value followed by decreasing trend. The colour of the dehulled grain changed slowly up to a microwave dosage of 972 J/g after that it changed vividly darker than the control. The dehulling and dhal yields and colour change were polynomial functions of microwave dosage. The highest yield of 73.7 % was achieved at about 972 J/g with a little change in colour (CIELAB ΔE* value of 2.58). The corresponding dehulling time, cooking time and losses during dehulling were respectively 185 s, 10 min and 15.1 % as compared to 492 s, 20 min and 31.5 % for control respectively. It is concluded that a dosage of about 972 J/g was the best for the black gram dehulling at a rate of 630 W or higher power level.

  12. Mining for constructions in texts using N-gram and network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibuya, Yoshikata; Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2015-01-01

    N-gram analysis to Lewis Carroll's novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Mark Twain's novelThe Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and extrapolate a number of likely constructional phenomena from recurring N-gram patterns in the two texts. In addition to simple N-gram analysis, the following...

  13. DMPD: Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16885502 Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review. Bu...(.csml) Show Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review. PubmedID 16885502 Title... Cellular reprogramming by gram-positive bacterial components: a review. Authors

  14. Translocation of proteins across the cell envelope of Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wely, Karel H.M. van; Swaving, Jelto; Freudl, Roland; Driessen, Arnold J.M.

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, secretory proteins of Gram-positive bacteria only need to traverse a single membrane to enter the extracellular environment. For this reason, Gram-positive bacteria (e.g. various Bacillus species) are often used in industry for the commercial production of extr

  15. An eight-step gram-scale synthesis of (-)-jiadifenolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Hua; Martinez, Michael D.; Shenvi, Ryan A.

    2015-07-01

    Development of a biologically active secondary metabolite into a useful medicine requires continuous access to meaningful quantities of material. Although any chemical synthesis is broadly useful for its versatility, identification of a synthesis route that can be economically scaled represents a greater challenge. Here we report a concise synthesis of the neurotrophic trace metabolite (-)-jiadifenolide and its production on a gram-scale. The brevity of the route and the structural similarity of a key intermediate to many potent Illicium terpenes make chemical synthesis the unquestionable method for accessing and modifying these potential therapeutics.

  16. Adjetivos nas gramáticas do português

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Santos de Carvalho

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa a apontar que mesmo depois de cinco décadas do advento da Nomenclatura Gramatical Brasileira (NGB, ainda seja possível perceber, nas gramáticas do português, uma variedade de códigos terminológicos para se referir ao mesmo tipo de adjetivo. Visamos, com isso, levantar alguns questionamentos acerca dos motivos pelos quais ainda persiste um conflito de termos em torno da classe dos adjetivos, além de sinalizar a possibilidade de simplificação e padronização dos conceitos e da nomenclatura conflitante.

  17. Activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide against gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabry, Werner Hugo Karl; Kock, Hans-Jürgen; Vahlensieck, Winfried

    2014-04-01

    The activity of the antiseptic polyhexanide was tested against 250 gram-negative clinical isolates, that is, 50 isolates each of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by using a serial broth microdilution technique according to DIN 58940. Time-kill studies were performed for reference stains E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae ATCC 4352, P. aeruginosa ATCC 15442, M. catarrhalis ATCC 43617, and H. influenzae ATCC 49247. All tested isolates had MICs and MBCs within a range of 1-32 mg/L and were regarded as susceptible to polyhexanide. The highest values were found for P. aeruginosa and H. influenzae with MICs and MBCs of 32 mg/L. Addition of up to 4% albumin to the test medium did not change MICs and MBCs. Time-kill studies of the reference strains showed reduction rates from 3 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/ml to more than 5 log10 CFU/ml for 200 and 400 mg/L polyhexanide within 5-30 min. Testing of polyhexanide in combination with antibiotics showed indifference with amoxicillin, cefotaxime, imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin; no antagonism was found. As no resistance and no antagonism with antibiotics were detected, polyhexanide is regarded as suitable agent for topical eradication of gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Synergistic interaction of eugenol with antibiotics against Gram negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemaiswarya, S; Doble, M

    2009-11-01

    Eugenol, the principal chemical component of clove oil from Eugenia aromatica has been long known for its analgesic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. The interaction of the eugenol with ten different hydrophobic and hydrophilic antibiotics was studied against five different Gram negative bacteria. The MIC of the combination was found to decrease by a factor of 5-1000 with respect to their individual MIC. This synergy is because of the membrane damaging nature of eugenol, where 1mM of its concentration is able to damage nearly 50% of the bacterial membrane. Eugenol was also able to enhance the activities of lysozyme, Triton X-100 and SDS in damaging the bacterial cell membrane. The hydrophilic antibiotics such as vancomycin and beta-lactam antibiotics which have a marginal activity on these gram negative bacteria exhibit an enhanced antibacterial activity when pretreated with eugenol. Reduced usage of antibiotics could be employed as a treatment strategy to slow down the onset of antibiotic resistance as well as decrease its toxicity. Experiments performed with human blood cells indicated that the concentration of eugenol used for the combination studies were below its cytotoxic values. Pharmacodynamic studies of the combinations need to be performed to decide on the effective dosage. PMID:19540744

  19. Notas sobre a experiência de vida num internato: aspectos positivos e negativos para o desenvolvimento dos internos Investigating the experience of living in a boarding school: positives and negatives aspects for the students development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normanda Araujo de Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga os aspectos positivos e negativos da experiência de internato para o desenvolvimento de alunos de uma instituição de ensino técnico, a influência da vivência coletiva sobre o desempenho escolar e a concepção sobre um internato ideal. Foram realizadas cinco entrevistas com alunos das três séries do Ensino Médio, com idades entre 15 e 22 anos. Os dados foram analisados a partir da análise de conteúdo. Os aspectos positivos e os negativos da experiência de internato foram apontados a partir da categoria "convivência grupal" (possibilidade de fazer novos amigos x brigas e desentendimentos. As limitações estruturais do internato e a rotina estressante foram as principais implicações percebidas para o desempenho escolar, enquanto o internato ideal foi concebido a partir de mudanças estruturais e da qualidade das relações interpessoais. Os resultados são importantes para a compreensão de contextos educativos desse tipo, os quais são muito pouco referidos na literatura.This work investigates the positive and negative aspects of the experience of living in a boarding school to the psychological development of students, the influences of the collective experience on the school performance and the conception of an ideal boarding school. Five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15-22 year-old students. Data was analyzed through content analysis. Both positive and negative aspects of the boarding school experience were pointed out from the group-gathering category (possibility of making new friends versus fights and arguments. The limitations of the boarding school concerning facilities and physical structure, as well as the stressful routine, were the main implications of the collective experience on the school performance. The interns' concept of an ideal boarding school depended on facilities and structure improvements, and on the quality of the relationships. The results are important to

  20. Comparative activity of tigecycline and tetracycline on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria revealed by a multicentre study in four North European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lennart E; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Vaara, Martti;

    2011-01-01

    This study involves a multicentre surveillance of tigecycline and tetracycline activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria from primary care centres (PCCs), general hospital wards (GHWs) and intensive care units (ICUs) in Denmark (n = 9), Finland (n = 10), Norway (n = 7) and Sweden (n...

  1. Higher order structure in the 3'-minor domain of small subunit ribosomal RNAs from a gram negative bacterium, a gram positive bacterium and a eukaryote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douthwaite, S; Christensen, A; Garrett, R A

    1983-01-01

    of additional higher order structure in the renatured free RNA. It can be concluded that a high level of conservation of higher order structure has occurred during the evolution of the gram negative and gram positive eubacteria and the eukaryote in both the double helical regions and the "unstructured" regions...

  2. Silver-doped manganese dioxide and trioxide nanoparticles inhibit both gram positive and gram negative pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkalekar, R K; Prabhu, M S; Naik, M M; Salker, A V

    2014-01-01

    Palladium, ruthenium and silver-doped MnO2 and silver doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles were synthesized by simple co-precipitation technique. SEM-TEM analysis revealed the nano-size of these synthesized samples. XPS data illustrates that Mn is present in 4+ and 3+ oxidation states in MnO2 and Mn2O3 respectively. Thermal analysis gave significant evidence for the phase changes with increasing temperature. Antibacterial activity of these synthesized nanoparticles on three Gram positive bacterial cultures (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Streptococcus epidermis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633) and three Gram negative cultures (Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella abony NCTC 6017 and Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 1003) was investigated using a disc diffusion method and live/dead assay. Only Ag-doped MnO2 and Ag-doped Mn2O3 nanoparticles showed antibacterial property against all six-test bacteria but Ag-doped MnO2 was found to be more effective than Ag-doped Mn2O3. PMID:24140741

  3. Platelets augment respiratory burst in neutrophils activated by selected species of gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Pytel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils and platelets circulate in blood system and play important physiological roles as part of immunological system. Neutrophils are the first line of host defense against various intruders, and platelets are satellite cells cooperating with other components of defense system. Recent studies report about the cooperation among these types of cells. We analyzed the effect of platelets on oxygen burst in neutrophils triggered by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria in vitro. The effect of platelets on oxygen burst in neutrophils was measured by luminol enhanced chemiluminescence. Opsonized and non-opsonized bacteria were used as activators. Activation of neutrophils with live non-opsonized and opsonized bacteria in the presence of platelets increased the oxygen burst as compared to the same system without platelets. The gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus were causing higher activation than gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli. This work demonstrate that platelets potentate the response of neutrophils augmenting their respiratory burst in vitro when triggered by bacteria.

  4. Biocompatible Fe3O4 Increases the Efficacy of Amoxicillin Delivery against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of amoxicillin- functionalized magnetite nanostructures (Fe3O4@AMO, revealing and discussing several biomedical applications of these nanomaterials. Our results proved that 10 nm Fe3O4@AMO nanoparticles does not alter the normal cell cycle progression of cultured diploid cells, and an in vivo murine model confirms that the nanostructures disperse through the host body and tend to localize in particular sites and organs. The nanoparticles were found clustered especially in the lungs, kidneys and spleen, next to the blood vessels at this level, while being totally absent in the brain and liver, suggesting that they are circulated through the blood flow and have low toxicity. Fe3O4@AMO has the ability to be easily circulated through the body and optimizations may be done so these nanostructures cluster to a specific target region. Functionalized magnetite nanostructures proved a great antimicrobial effect, being active against both the Gram positive pathogen S. aureus and the Gram negative pathogen E. coli. The fabricated nanostructures significantly reduced the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the active drug. This result has a great practical relevance, since the functionalized nanostructures may be used for decreasing the therapeutic doses which usually manifest great severe side effects, when administrated in high doses. Fe3O4@AMO represents also a suitable approach for the development of new alternative strategies for improving the activity of therapeutic agents by targeted delivery and controlled release.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide modification in Gram-negative bacteria during chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Rita F; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Valvano, Miguel A

    2016-07-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of the outer membrane that plays a key role in host-pathogen interactions with the innate immune system. During infection, bacteria are exposed to a host environment that is typically dominated by inflammatory cells and soluble factors, including antibiotics, which provide cues about regulation of gene expression. Bacterial adaptive changes including modulation of LPS synthesis and structure are a conserved theme in infections, irrespective of the type or bacteria or the site of infection. In general, these changes result in immune system evasion, persisting inflammation and increased antimicrobial resistance. Here, we review the modifications of LPS structure and biosynthetic pathways that occur upon adaptation of model opportunistic pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria, Helicobacter pylori and Salmonella enterica) to chronic infection in respiratory and gastrointestinal sites. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms of these variations and their role in the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:27075488

  6. Detection of pathogenic gram negative bacteria using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, B. B.; Divya, M. P.; Bagavathiappan, S.; Thomas, Sabu; Philip, John

    2012-11-01

    Detection of viable bacteria is of prime importance in all fields of microbiology and biotechnology. Conventional methods of enumerating bacteria are often time consuming and labor-intensive. All living organisms generate heat due to metabolic activities and hence, measurement of heat energy is a viable tool for detection and quantification of bacteria. In this article, we employ a non-contact and real time method - infrared thermography (IRT) for measurement of temperature variations in four clinically significant gram negative pathogenic bacteria, viz. Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We observe that, the energy content, defined as the ratio of heat generated by bacterial metabolic activities to the heat lost from the liquid medium to the surrounding, vary linearly with the bacterial concentration in all the four pathogenic bacteria. The amount of energy content observed in different species is attributed to their metabolisms and morphologies that affect the convection velocity and hence heat transport in the medium.

  7. Marine Compounds with Therapeutic Potential in Gram-Negative Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Yermak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the potential use of compounds, including lipid A, chitosan, and carrageenan, from marine sources as agents for treating endotoxemic complications from Gram-negative infections, such as sepsis and endotoxic shock. Lipid A, which can be isolated from various species of marine bacteria, is a potential antagonist of bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide (LPSs. Chitosan is a widespread marine polysaccharide that is derived from chitin, the major component of crustacean shells. The potential of chitosan as an LPS-binding and endotoxin-neutralizing agent is also examined in this paper, including a discussion on the generation of hydrophobic chitosan derivatives to increase the binding affinity of chitosan to LPS. In addition, the ability of carrageenan, which is the polysaccharide of red alga, to decrease the toxicity of LPS is discussed. We also review data obtained using animal models that demonstrate the potency of carrageenan and chitosan as antiendotoxin agents.

  8. Statistical analysis of the Indus script using $n$-grams

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Nisha; Rao, Rajesh P N; Vahia, M N; Mahadevan, Iravatham; Adhikari, R

    2009-01-01

    The Indus script is one of the major undeciphered scripts of the ancient world. The small size of the corpus, the absence of bilingual texts, and the lack of definite knowledge of the underlying language has frustrated efforts at decipherment since the discovery of the remains of the Indus civilisation. Recently, some researchers have questioned the premise that the Indus script encodes spoken language. Building on previous statistical approaches, we apply the tools of statistical language processing, specifically $n$-gram Markov chains, to analyse the Indus script for syntax. Our main results are that the script has well-defined signs which begin and end texts, that there is directionality and strong correlations in the sign order, and that there are groups of signs which appear to have identical syntactic function. All these require no {\\it a priori} suppositions regarding the syntactic or semantic content of the signs, but follow directly from the statistical analysis. Using information theoretic measures,...

  9. Distribution of Gram Negative Bacteria and Evaluation of Resistance Profiles

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    Serap Pamukcuoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to examine the distributon of Gram negative bacteria isolated from urine cultures of out-patients in Afyonkarahisar State Hospital and evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates of these pathogens. Material and Method: Urine samples of out-patients which were sent to microbiology laboratory between 2012-2013 were retrospectively evaluated. The isolates were identified using conventional methods and/or automated Vitec 2.0 system. Antibiogram sensitivities were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method or automated system and interpreted on the basis of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CSI criteria. Double disc sinergy test (DDST or Vitec 2.0 system was used to detect extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL.When conventional methods could%u2019t be clarified according to their colony morphologies, gram staining patterns, biochemical test; automated system has been used. Results: A total of 671 isolates acquired from urine samples were studied. 427 Escherichia coli (63.6 %, 165 Klebsiella spp. (24.6 %, 22 Pseudomonas spp. (3.3 %, nine Acinetobacter spp. (1.3 %, 41 Proteus spp. (6.1 % and seven Serratia (1.0 % strains were identified among isolates. 97 E.coli (22.8 % and 41 Klebsiella (24.8 % isolates were ESBL positive. Most common bacteria were E.coli, 31.1 % of which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 16 % to ciprofloxacin and 3.6 % to nitrofurantoin. Among Enterobacteriaceae, no resistance aganist carbapenems were detected. Moreover, aminoglicoside sensitivity rate was significantly high in this group. Discussion: Microorganisms that have progressively increasing antimicrobial resistance should be considered in the treatment of urinary tract infections. It is also important to use the most appropriate antibiotics to avoid unnecessary usage of these drugs in order to decrease drug resistance rates and ESBL production which may effect the success of the treatment.

  10. Ensaios sôbre lepra experimental: inoculações de três amostras de bacilos ácido-álcool resistentes (amostras "Chaves II", "Emilia" e "Hecke" isoladas de leprosos, em trinta doentes da Colônia Mirueira

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    H. C. de Souza-Araujo

    1951-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o fim de produzir o fenômeno de KOCH, os A. A. inocularam em 30 leprosos da Colônia Mirueira (Recife, de várias idades e formas clínicas, emulsões vivas de três culturas de bacilos ácido-álcool resistentes isolados de leprosos pro um dêles (S.A.. As doses inoculadas foram de 0,2 cc., por via intradérmica, em cada doente, das amostras "CII", "E" e "H" e mais da Leprolina S.A. (antígeno morto. No 10º dia da inoculação verificou-se que 24 dos 30 pacientes tiveram reação geral intensa; 2, reação moderada e 4, nenhuma reação geral. 16 dos 30 tiveram reação leprótica, sendo 10 em casos ativos (lepromatosos e 6 em inativos, e 17 dos 30 tiveram adenopatias inguinais. O inóculo "CII" produziu escaras de 1 x 1 e 2 x 2 cm. de diâmetro, com destruição total da pele, nos 30 pacientes (o total dêles; o inóculo "E" produziu escaras de igual intensidade em 29, o inóculo "H", escaras muitos mais benignas em 23, e a Leprolina em 10, naturalmente por ação concomitante de um dos outros três inóculos. No 10º dia foram semeadas em meio de LOEWENSTEIN secreções das escaras de sete dos 30 doentes, num total de 20 tubos, dos quais 19 produziram retroculuras, a amioria contaminada por fungos ou por bactérias cianófilas. De um doente foi obtido retrocultura cromogênica da escara produzida na intradérmoreação pela "Leprolina S. A.", macro e microscòpricamente indiferencável das amostras "CII" e "E". Aliás, pela extensiva experimentação feita com estas duas amostras, estamos nos inclinando por considerá-las como idênticas. No 18º dia da inoculação foram feitos 30 esfregaços de secreções de lesões experimentais de 13 doentes, com 15 resultados positivos (50%, apesar do exame tardio. As morfologias macro e microscópica das retroculturas obtidas em Recife confirmam os caracteres descritos nas culturas originais. Dêste rápido ensaio se conclui que a maioria dos pacientes apresentou o fenômeno de KOCH parcial ou

  11. Isolation and screening of d-limonene-resistant microorganisms Isolamento e seleção de microrganismos resistentes ao d-Limoneno

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    Juliano Lemos Bicas

    2007-09-01

    bacilos Gram positivos, seguidos por uma menor quantidade de bacilos Gram negativos, leveduras e cocos Gram positivos, além de cinco fungos. Cerca de metade das linhagens de bacilos Gram positivos e Gram negativos e de, leveduras e alguns de cocos Gram positivos resistiram à presença de até 2% de limoneno, dentre as quais 70 foram capazes de sobreviver em ambientes contendo limoneno como única fonte de carbono. O trabalho descrito nesse artigo representa o primeiro passo no desenvolvimento de processos de produção de compostos de aroma pela biotransformação do limoneno.

  12. Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels

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    Wang Q

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Qi Wang,1 Philip Larese-Casanova,2 Thomas J Webster3,41Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 4Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAbstract: There are wide spread bacterial contamination issues on various paper products, such as paper towels hanging in sink splash zones or those used to clean surfaces, filter papers used in water and air purifying systems, and wrappings used in the food industry; such contamination may lead to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent severe health concerns. In this study, selenium nanoparticles were coated on normal paper towel surfaces through a quick precipitation method, introducing antibacterial properties to the paper towels in a healthy way. Their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation was tested in bacterial assays involving Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed significant and continuous bacteria inhibition with about a 90% reduction from 24 to 72 hours for gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The selenium coated paper towels also showed significant inhibition of gram-negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa and E. coli growth at about 57% and 84%, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Therefore, this study established a promising selenium-based antibacterial strategy to prevent bacterial growth on paper products, which may lead to the avoidance of bacteria spreading and consequent severe health concerns.Keywords: selenium nanoparticles, paper towels, antibacterial

  13. Flow cytometric evaluation of physico-chemical impact on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

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    Antje eFröhling

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since heat sensitivity of fruits and vegetables limits the application of thermal inactivation processes, new emerging inactivation technologies have to be established to fulfil the requirements of food safety without affecting the produce quality. The efficiency of inactivation treatments has to be ensured and monitored. Monitoring of inactivation effects is commonly performed using traditional cultivation methods which have the disadvantage of the time span needed to obtain results.The aim of this study was to compare the inactivation effects of peracetic acid (PAA, ozonated water (O3 and cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using flow cytometric methods. E. coli cells were completely depolarized after treatment (15 s with 0.25 % PAA at 10 °C, and after treatment (10 s with 3.8 mg l-1 O3 at 12°C. The membrane potential of CAPP treated cells remained almost constant at an operating power of 20 W over a time period of 3 min, and subsequently decreased within 30 s of further treatment. Complete membrane permeabilization was observed after 10 s O3 treatment, but treatment with PAA and CAPP did not completely permeabilize the cells within 2 min and 4 min, respectively. Similar results were obtained for esterase activity. O3 inactivates cellular esterase but esterase activity was detected after 4 min CAPP treatment and 2 min PAA treatment. L. innocua cells and P. carotovorum cells were also permeabilized instantaneously by O3 treatment at concentrations of 3.8 ± 1 mg l-1. However, higher membrane permeabilization of L. innocua and P. carotovorum than of E. coli was observed at CAPP treatment of 20 W. The degree of bacterial damage due to the inactivation processes is highly dependent on treatment parameters as well as on treated bacteria. Important information regarding the inactivation mechanisms can be obtained by flow cytometric measurements and this enables the definition of critical process

  14. Enhanced antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been used as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammtory, and antiangiogenic due to its unique properties such as physical, chemical, and biological properties. The present study was aimed to investigate antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics against various human pathogenic bacteria. Here, we show that a simple, reliable, cost effective and green method for the synthesis of AgNPs by treating silver ions with leaf extract of Allophylus cobbe. The A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs (AgNPs) was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, the antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of antibiotics or AgNPs, or combinations of AgNPs with an antibiotic was evaluated using a series of assays: such as in vitro killing assay, disc diffusion assay, biofilm inhibition, and reactive oxygen species generation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia. The results suggest that, in combination with antibiotics, there were significant antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects at lowest concentration of AgNPs using a novel plant extract of A. cobbe, otherwise sublethal concentrations of the antibiotics. The significant enhancing effects were observed for ampicillin and vancomycin against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, respectively. These data suggest that combining antibiotics and biogenic AgNPs can be used therapeutically for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. This study presented evidence of antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of A. cobbe-mediated synthesis of AgNPs and their enhanced capacity against various human pathogenic bacteria. These results

  15. Application of DNA comet assay for detection of radiation treatment of grams and pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hasan M; Khan, Ashfaq A; Khan, Sanaullah

    2011-12-01

    Several types of whole pulses (green lentils, red lentils, yellow lentils, chickpeas, green peas, cowpeas and yellow peas) and grams (black grams, red grams and white grams) have been investigated for the identification of radiation treatment using microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay). Pulses and grams were exposed to the radiation doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 5 kGy covering the legalized commercial dose range for protection from insect/pest infestations. All irradiated samples showed comet like stretching of fragmented DNA toward anode, which is expected for irradiated samples. Unirradiated samples showed many intact cells/nuclei in form of round stains or with short faint tails, which is typical for unirradiated food samples. The study shows that DNA comet assay can be used as a rapid, inexpensive and highly effective screening test for the detection of radiation treatment of foods, like pulses and grams. PMID:23572810

  16. Delays in Appropriate Antibiotic Therapy for Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infections: A Multicenter, Community Hospital Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moehring, Rebekah W.; Richard Sloane; Chen, Luke F.; Smathers, Emily C.; Schmader, Kenneth E.; Fowler, Vance G.; Weber, David J.; Sexton, Daniel J.; Anderson, Deverick J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI) is a serious condition with estimated 30% mortality. Clinical outcomes for patients with severe infections improve when antibiotics are appropriately chosen and given early. The objective of this study was to estimate the association of prior healthcare exposure on time to appropriate antibiotic therapy in patients with gram-negative BSI. METHOD: We performed a multicenter cohort study of adult, hospitalized patients with gram-ne...

  17. Simple Method for Detection of Metallo – β–Lactamase Among Gram Negative Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal R; Sumana MN; Kishore A; Kulkarni M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbapenem resistance due to the production of metallo-β -lactamase (MBL) in Gram-negative organism is an increasing public health problem. Aim: The purpose of this study is to detectMBL in Gram Negative bacterial isolates among Ventilator Associated Pneumonia patients. Materials and Methods: Phenotypic detection of MBL was done by three methods: 1.Modified Hodge Test (MHT) 2.Combined disc test (CDT) 3.Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST). Results: Out of 126 gram negative bacterial is...

  18. Simultaneous Fluorescent Gram Staining and Activity Assessment of Activated Sludge Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Scott; Snape, Jason R.; Lappin-Scott, Hilary M.; Porter, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Wastewater treatment is one of the most important commercial biotechnological processes, and yet the component bacterial populations and their associated metabolic activities are poorly understood. The novel fluorescent dye hexidium iodide allows assessment of Gram status by differential absorption through bacterial cell walls. Differentiation between gram-positive and gram-negative wastewater bacteria was achieved after flow cytometric analysis. This study shows that the relative proportions...

  19. Use of urinary gram stain for detection of urinary tract infection in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Sükrü; Caksen, Hüseyin; Rastgeldi, Levent; Uner, Abdurrahman; Oner, Ahmet Faik; Odabaş, Dursun

    2002-01-01

    In this study, urinary culture, urinary Gram stain, and four tests within the urinalysis, leukocyte esterase, nitrite, microscopyfor bacteria, and microscopyforpyuria, were examined in 100 children with symptoms suggesting urinary tract infection. Our purpose was to determine the validity of the urinary Gram stain compared with a combination of pyuria plus Gram stain and overall urinalysis (positiveness of nitrite, leukocyte esterase, microscopy for bacteria, or microscopy for white blood cel...

  20. In Vitro Study of Amniotic Fluid Gram Stain: Effect of Centrifugation

    OpenAIRE

    Gauthier, Daniel W.; Wilfredo Torres; Meyer, William J.; Lewis, Barbara G.; Vernon, Michael O.; Janda, William M.

    1994-01-01

    Objective: Gram stain of amniotic fluid (AF) is used to detect intraamniotic infection. The purpose of this study was to determine if centrifugation improved the ability of AF Gram stain to detect bacteria. Methods: AF obtained by amniocentesis from patients with preterm labor (PTL) or preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) was pooled. Individual AF samples as well as the pooled sample had a negative Gram stain for microorganisms or white blood cells (WBCs) and negative cultures. With...

  1. Vancomycin sensitivity and koh string test as an alternative to gram staining of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Arthi K; Appalaraju B; Parvathi S

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred and eighteen bacterial isolates obtained from various clinical samples were subjected to Gram stain by conventional method. For all the isolates potassium hydroxide (KOH) string test and sensitivity to vancomycin were done. Gram positive bacteria showed 100% sensitivity to vancomycin as also 100% negativity for string test. Of the gram negative bacteria, 99.42% were resistant to vancomycin while 98.85% were positive for the string test. KOH and vancomyc...

  2. Vancomycin sensitivity and koh string test as an alternative to gram staining of bacteria

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    Arthi K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eighteen bacterial isolates obtained from various clinical samples were subjected to Gram stain by conventional method. For all the isolates potassium hydroxide (KOH string test and sensitivity to vancomycin were done. Gram positive bacteria showed 100% sensitivity to vancomycin as also 100% negativity for string test. Of the gram negative bacteria, 99.42% were resistant to vancomycin while 98.85% were positive for the string test. KOH and vancomycin tests are simple, inexpensive and can be used in addition to Gram staining for rapid identification of bacterial cultures.

  3. Influence of black gram (Vigna mungo) trypsin inhibitory fraction on the hepatic protein catabolism in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakannan, V; Sathyamoorthy, A V; Motlag, D B

    1984-01-01

    The effect of black gram and black gram trypsin inhibitor on the protein catabolism of male albino mice has been investigated. Group 1 was given autoclaved black gram (control), Group II raw black gram and Group III the autoclaved black gram incorporated with 1% black gram trypsin inhibitor. Blood as well as urinary urea and creatine were found to be elevated in Groups II and III. Increased levels of arginase, ornithine transcarbamylase and transaminases were noted in Groups II and III. The results suggested an enhanced catabolism of proteins evoked by the native black gram trypsin inhibitor.

  4. Consumo diario de tabaco en la adolescencia, estados de ánimo negativos y rol de la comunicación familiar Adolescent daily smoking, negative mood-states and the role of family communication

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    Ángel Martínez-Hernáez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si los estados de ánimo negativos son un factor de riesgo de consumo diario de tabaco en la adolescencia y el papel de los factores familiares en esta asociación. Método: Estudio transversal de una muestra representativa de adolescentes (edad 14-18 años de Cataluña (Segunda Oleada del Panel de Familias e Infancia. Se realizan seis modelos de regresión logística para mujeres (n = 1442 y hombres (n = 1100, con el fin de estimar si los estados de ánimo negativos son un factor de riesgo de consumo diario de cigarrillos. Se estima en qué medida esos efectos son atribuibles a factores familiares. Resultados: La prevalencia de fumadores diarios a los 17/18 años es del 3,8% para las mujeres y del 3,6% para los hombres. El sentimiento de tristeza entre las adolescentes es un factor de riesgo de consumo diario de cigarrillos (odds ratio [OR] = 1,663 y la comunicación con el padre anula este efecto. Sentirse presionados por los progenitores es un factor de riesgo de consumo diario para ambos sexos (mujeres, OR = 2,064; hombres, OR = 1,784, pero al controlar por la variable «comunicación parental» comprobamos que el efecto se reduce, aunque no se anula. Vivir en una familia reconstituida es un factor de riesgo de consumo diario entre los chicos (OR = 2,988. Conclusiones: A igualdad de estados de ánimo, la comunicación intergeneracional atenúa el riesgo de consumo diario de tabaco entre los/las adolescentes. Las intervenciones de prevención y deshabituación tabáquica que incluyan este tipo de factores pueden ser más efectivas.Objective: To determine whether negative mood states constitute a risk factor for daily smoking during adolescence, and to specify the role of familial factors in the association between the two variables. Methods: Cross-sectional study of a representative sample (second wave, Panel of Families and Childhood of Catalan adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age. Six logistic regression models

  5. Alterações ultra-sonográficas na gravidez Rh negativo sensibilizada avaliada pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico e pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média

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    Nardozza Luciano Marcondes Machado

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e confrontar a presença de alterações ultra-sonográficas nas gestações Rh negativo sensibilizadas, quando a anemia fetal foi determinada ou pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico, ou pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Observacional descritivo com grupo de comparação. Nosso grupo de estudo foi constituído por 99 pacientes, avaliadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2004. Foram analisados e comparados dois grupos: 74 gestantes sensibilizadas pelo fator Rh cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada pela espectrofotometria (grupo SE e 25 gestantes sensibilizadas pelo fator Rh cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada pela dopplervelocimetria (grupo SD. Avaliamos a presença ou não de alterações ultra-sonográficas no acompanhamento pré-natal e confrontamos os dois grupos de estudo. RESULTADOS: No grupo cuja anemia fetal foi acompanhada através da espectrofotometria (grupo SE, apuramos modificações placentárias, principalmente o aumento da espessura e sua alteração textural, mais assiduamente que as encontradiças no grupo de gestantes sensibilizadas, em que a anemia foi determinada através da dopplervelocimetria (grupo SD (64% X 32%, p = 6,294. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações ultra-sonográficas foram detectadas em dobro quando a anemia foi avaliada pela espectrofotometria em comparação com o grupo seguido pela dopplervelocimetria.

  6. Querying and Serving N-gram Language Models with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical n-gram language modeling is a very important technique in Natural Language Processing (NLP and Computational Linguistics used to assess the fluency of an utterance in any given language. It is widely employed in several important NLP applications such as Machine Translation and Automatic Speech Recognition. However, the most commonly used toolkit (SRILM to build such language models on a large scale is written entirely in C++ which presents a challenge to an NLP developer or researcher whose primary language of choice is Python. This article first provides a gentle introduction to statistical language modeling. It then describes how to build a native and efficient Python interface (using SWIG to the SRILM toolkit such that language models can be queried and used directly in Python code. Finally, it also demonstrates an effective use case of this interface by showing how to leverage it to build a Python language model server. Such a server can prove to be extremely useful when the language model needs to be queried by multiple clients over a network: the language model must only be loaded into memory once by the server and can then satisfy multiple requests. This article includes only those listings of source code that are most salient. To conserve space, some are only presented in excerpted form. The complete set of full source code listings may be found in Volume 1 of The Python Papers Source Codes Journal.

  7. Glycopeptide Resistance in Gram-Positive Cocci: A Review

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    S. Sujatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens in the past two decades all over the world and have seriously limited the choices available to clinicians for treating infections caused by these agents. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, perhaps the most notorious among the nosocomial pathogens, was till recently susceptible to vancomycin and the other glycopeptides. Emergence of vancomycin nonsusceptible strains of S. aureus has led to a worrisome scenario where the options available for treating serious infections due to these organisms are very limited and not well evaluated. Vancomycin resistance in clinically significant isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci is also on the rise in many setups. This paper aims to highlight the genetic basis of vancomycin resistance in Enterococcus species and S. aureus. It also focuses on important considerations in detection of vancomycin resistance in these gram-positive bacteria. The problem of glycopeptide resistance in clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci and the phenomenon of vancomycin tolerance seen in some strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae has also been discussed. Finally, therapeutic options available and being developed against these pathogens have also found a mention.

  8. Gram-negative osteomyelitis: clinical and microbiological profile

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    Vladimir Cordeiro de Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite the growing interest in the study of Gram-negative bacilli (GNB infections, very little information on osteomyelitis caused by GNB is available in the medical literature. OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: To assess clinical and microbiological features of 101 cases of osteomyelitis caused by GNB alone, between January 2007 and January 2009, in a reference center for the treatment of high complexity traumas in the city of São Paulo. RESULTS: Most patients were men (63%, with median age of 42 years, affected by chronic osteomyelitis (43% or acute osteomyelitis associated to open fractures (32%, the majority on the lower limbs (71%. The patients were treated with antibiotics as inpatients for 40 days (median and for 99 days (median in outpatient settings. After 6 months follow-up, the clinical remission rate was around 60%, relapse 19%, amputation 7%, and death 5%. Nine percent of cases were lost to follow-up. A total of 121 GNB was isolated from 101 clinical samples. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Enterobacter sp. (25%, Acinetobacter baumannii (21% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20%. Susceptibility to carbapenems was about 100% for Enterobacter sp., 75% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 60% for Acinetobacter baumannii. CONCLUSION: Osteomyelitis caused by GNB remains a serious therapeutic challenge, especially when associated to nonfermenting bacteria. We emphasize the need to consider these agents in diagnosed cases of osteomyelitis, so that an ideal antimicrobial treatment can be administered since the very beginning of the therapy.

  9. High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens.

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    Simone Aymanns

    Full Text Available Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10-50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration.

  10. Statistical analysis of the Indus script using n-grams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Nisha; Joglekar, Hrishikesh; Rao, Rajesh P N; Vahia, Mayank N; Adhikari, Ronojoy; Mahadevan, Iravatham

    2010-01-01

    The Indus script is one of the major undeciphered scripts of the ancient world. The small size of the corpus, the absence of bilingual texts, and the lack of definite knowledge of the underlying language has frustrated efforts at decipherment since the discovery of the remains of the Indus civilization. Building on previous statistical approaches, we apply the tools of statistical language processing, specifically n-gram Markov chains, to analyze the syntax of the Indus script. We find that unigrams follow a Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution. Text beginner and ender distributions are unequal, providing internal evidence for syntax. We see clear evidence of strong bigram correlations and extract significant pairs and triplets using a log-likelihood measure of association. Highly frequent pairs and triplets are not always highly significant. The model performance is evaluated using information-theoretic measures and cross-validation. The model can restore doubtfully read texts with an accuracy of about 75%. We find that a quadrigram Markov chain saturates information theoretic measures against a held-out corpus. Our work forms the basis for the development of a stochastic grammar which may be used to explore the syntax of the Indus script in greater detail. PMID:20333254

  11. Statistical analysis of the Indus script using n-grams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Yadav

    Full Text Available The Indus script is one of the major undeciphered scripts of the ancient world. The small size of the corpus, the absence of bilingual texts, and the lack of definite knowledge of the underlying language has frustrated efforts at decipherment since the discovery of the remains of the Indus civilization. Building on previous statistical approaches, we apply the tools of statistical language processing, specifically n-gram Markov chains, to analyze the syntax of the Indus script. We find that unigrams follow a Zipf-Mandelbrot distribution. Text beginner and ender distributions are unequal, providing internal evidence for syntax. We see clear evidence of strong bigram correlations and extract significant pairs and triplets using a log-likelihood measure of association. Highly frequent pairs and triplets are not always highly significant. The model performance is evaluated using information-theoretic measures and cross-validation. The model can restore doubtfully read texts with an accuracy of about 75%. We find that a quadrigram Markov chain saturates information theoretic measures against a held-out corpus. Our work forms the basis for the development of a stochastic grammar which may be used to explore the syntax of the Indus script in greater detail.

  12. Multidrug efflux pumps of Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Bryan D; Kaatz, Glenn W

    2016-07-01

    Gram-positive organisms are responsible for some of the most serious of human infections. Resistance to front-line antimicrobial agents can complicate otherwise curative therapy. These organisms possess multiple drug resistance mechanisms, with drug efflux being a significant contributing factor. Efflux proteins belonging to all five transporter families are involved, and frequently can transport multiple structurally unrelated compounds resulting in a multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. In addition to clinically relevant antimicrobial agents, MDR efflux proteins can transport environmental biocides and disinfectants which may allow persistence in the healthcare environment and subsequent acquisition by patients or staff. Intensive research on MDR efflux proteins and the regulation of expression of their genes is ongoing, providing some insight into the mechanisms of multidrug recognition and transport. Inhibitors of many of these proteins have been identified, including drugs currently being used for other indications. Structural modifications guided by structure-activity studies have resulted in the identification of potent compounds. However, lack of broad-spectrum pump inhibition combined with potential toxicity has hampered progress. Further work is required to gain a detailed understanding of the multidrug recognition process, followed by application of this knowledge in the design of safer and more highly potent inhibitors. PMID:27449594

  13. Biogenesis of outer membranes in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Hajime

    2009-03-23

    The outer membrane, an essential organelle of Gram-negative bacteria, is composed of four major components: lipopolysaccharide, phospholipids, beta-barrel proteins, and lipoproteins. The mechanisms underlying the transport of these components to outer membranes are currently under extensive examination. Among them, the sorting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane of Escherichia coli has been clarified in detail. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes outer membrane sorting of lipoproteins. Various Lpt proteins have recently been identified as factors involved in the transport of lipopolysaccharide to the outer membrane, although the mechanism remains largely unknown. Proteins with alpha-helical membrane spanning segments are found in the inner membrane, whereas amphipathic beta-barrel proteins span the outer membrane. These beta-barrel proteins are inserted into the outer membranes through a central core protein BamA (YaeT) with the help of four outer membrane lipoproteins. In contrast, little is known about how phospholipids are transported to the outer membrane. PMID:19270402

  14. Resistance to antimicrobial peptides in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenheid, Samantha; Le Moual, Hervé

    2012-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are present in virtually all organisms and are an ancient and critical component of innate immunity. In mammals, AMPs are present in phagocytic cells, on body surfaces such as skin and mucosa, and in secretions and body fluids such as sweat, saliva, urine, and breast milk, consistent with their role as part of the first line of defense against a wide range of pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. AMPs are microbicidal and have also been shown to act as immunomodulators with chemoattractant and signaling activities. During the co-evolution of hosts and bacterial pathogens, bacteria have developed the ability to sense and initiate an adaptive response to AMPs to resist their bactericidal activity. Here, we review the various mechanisms used by Gram-negative bacteria to sense and resist AMP-mediated killing. These mechanisms play an important role in bacterial resistance to host-derived AMPs that are encountered during the course of infection. Bacterial resistance to AMPs should also be taken into consideration in the development and use of AMPs as anti-infective agents, for which there is currently a great deal of academic and commercial interest.

  15. Circulating Inflammatory Mediators during Start of Fever in Differential Diagnosis of Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Infections in Leukopenic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Eva; Maldonado, Rosario; Ojeda, Maria L.; Francisco J Miñano

    2005-01-01

    Gram-negative and gram-positive infections have been considered the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with leukopenia following chemotherapy. However, discrimination between bacterial infections and harmless fever episodes is difficult. Because classical inflammatory signs of infection are often absent and fever is frequently the only sign of infection, the aim of this study was to assess the significance of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, macrophage inflammatory...

  16. Detection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Biofilm Producing Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated From a Tertiary Care Hospital of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms adhere to non-living material or living tissue, and form biofilms made up of extracellular polymers/slime. Biofilm-associated microorganisms behave differently from free-floating bacteria with respect to growth rates and ability to resist antimicrobial treatments and therefore pose a public health problem. The objective of this study is to detect the prevalence of biofilm producers among Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated from clinical specimens, and to study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. The study was carried out from October 2009 to March 2010, at the Department of Microbiology, Army Medical College/ National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Clinical specimens were received from various wards of a tertiary care hospital. These were dealt by standard microbiological procedures. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria isolated were subjected to biofilm detection by congo red agar method (CRA. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of those isolates, which showed positive results (slime production, was done according to the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. A total of 150 isolates were tested for the production of biofilm/slime. Among them, 81 isolates showed positive results. From these 81, 51 were Gram positive and 30 were Gram negative. All the 81(54% slime producers showed reduced susceptibility to majority of antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms are an important virulence factor associated with chronic nosocomial infection. Detection of biofilm forming organisms can help in appropriate antibiotic choice.

  17. Avaliação da atividade in vitro dos novos antimicrobianos da classe das fluoroquinolonas, cefalosporinas e carbapenens contra 569 amostras clínicas de bactérias gram-negativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gales A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO. A proposta deste estudo foi a avaliação da atividade in vitro de novos antimicrobianos da classe das fluoroquinolonas, das cefalosporinas e dos carbapenens contra bactérias gram-negativas. MATERIAL E MÉTODO. Foram avaliadas 569 amostras clínicas isoladas no Hospital São Paulo - UNIFESP/EPM, no período compreendido entre junho e julho de 1992. A distribuição das espécies foi: Enterobacter sp. (62, Escherichia coli (308, Klebsiella pneumoniae (27, Klebsiella sp. (9, Proteus mirabilis (23, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (88, Pseudomonas sp. (4, Serratia sp. (30 e outros gram-negativos (7. Os testes de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos avaliados (ciprofloxacina, ofloxacina, levofloxacina, grepafloxacina, DU 6859-a, ceftazidima, cefepima, FK 037, imipenem, meropenem e biapenem foram realizados pela técnica de microdiluição em caldo. RESULTADOS. A fluoroquinolona mais potente foi a DU 6859-a; em algumas amostras, apresentou potência duas a quatro vezes superior àquela apresentada pela ciprofloxacina. As novas cefalosporinas de 4ª geração apresentaram potência e espectro de ação semelhantes nas amostras de Enterobacteriaceae, com exceção das amostras de Enterobacter sp., para as quais a cefepima foi mais ativa, e das amostras de P. aeruginosa, para as quais a cefalosporina mais potente e com maior percentagem de suscetibilidade foi a ceftazidima. O meropenem foi o carbapenem mais potente e com maior percentagem de suscetibilidade nas amostras estudadas. CONCLUSÃO. As novas drogas apresentaram, em geral, melhor atividade in vitro do que drogas da mesma classe já utilizadas na prática clínica. Porém, mais estudos serão necessários para avaliar a atividade in vivo desses agentes e sua real utilidade clínica.

  18. A Comparison of Heat versus Methanol Fixation for Gram Staining Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerath, Jeanne M.; Roland, Jenna M.; Rossi, Lucas C.; Weishalla, Steven R.; Wolf, Melissa M.

    2009-01-01

    Gram staining bacteria is a fundamental technique introduced in general biology and microbiology laboratory courses. Two common problems students encounter when Gram staining bacteria are (1) having a difficult time locating bacterial cells on the microscope slide and (2) over-decolorizing bacterial cells during the staining procedure such that…

  19. Tundmatud kohad ja asjade loomus / Katrine Gram Sloth, Johna Hansen ; intervjueerinud Laura Põld

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gram Sloth, Katrine, 1983-

    2016-01-01

    Taani kunstnik Katrine Gram Sloth ja Rootsi arhitekt Johna Hansen räägivad oma lapsepõlvest, kunstnikuteest, loomingust. Johna Hanseni jaapanipärasest einelaua installatsioonist "Laud" (2015-2016), Katrine Gram Slothi Islandil loodud teosest "Vista Revisited" (2015)

  20. Efficient n-gram, Skipgram and Flexgram Modelling with Colibri Core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gompel, M. van; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Counting n-grams lies at the core of any frequentist corpus analysis and is often considered a trivial matter. Going beyond consecutive n-grams to patterns such as skipgrams and flexgrams increases the demand for efficient solutions. The need to operate on big corpus data does so even more. Lossless

  1. Cell to cell communication by autoinducing in gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturme, M.H.J.; Kleerebezem, M.; Nakayama, J.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Vaughan, E.E.; Vos, de W.M.

    2002-01-01

    While intercellular communication systems in Gram-negative bacteria are often based on homoserine lactones as signalling molecules, it has been shown that autoinducing peptides are involved in intercellular communication in Gram-positive bacteria. Many of these peptides are exported by dedicated sys

  2. Does the empiric use of vancomycin in pediatrics increase the risk for Gram-negative bacteremia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuno, SPMU; Heesen, GJM; Arends, JP; Kimpen, JLL; van Houten, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Background, Gram-negative bacteremia in children, a major cause of morbidity and mortality, may in part be induced by intensive treatment procedures and nonspecific use of antibiotics. Our primary objective was to study the causal relationship between the use of vancomycin and Gram-negative bacterem

  3. Novel antimicrobial peptides that inhibit gram positive bacterial exotoxin synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A Merriman

    Full Text Available Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, cause serious human illnesses through combinations of surface virulence factors and secretion of exotoxins. Our prior studies using the protein synthesis inhibitor clindamycin and signal transduction inhibitors glycerol monolaurate and α-globin and β-globin chains of hemoglobin indicate that their abilities to inhibit exotoxin production by S. aureus are separable from abilities to inhibit growth of the organism. Additionally, our previous studies suggest that inhibition of exotoxin production, in absence of ability to kill S. aureus and normal flora lactobacilli, will prevent colonization by pathogenic S. aureus, while not interfering with lactobacilli colonization. These disparate activities may be important in development of novel anti-infective agents that do not alter normal flora. We initiated studies to explore the exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition activity of hemoglobin peptides further to develop potential agents to prevent S. aureus infections. We tested synthesized α-globin chain peptides, synthetic variants of α-globin chain peptides, and two human defensins for ability to inhibit exotoxin production without significantly inhibiting S. aureus growth. All of these peptides were weakly or not inhibitory to bacterial growth. However, the peptides were inhibitory to exotoxin production with increasing activity dependent on increasing numbers of positively-charged amino acids. Additionally, the peptides could be immobilized on agarose beads or have amino acid sequences scrambled and still retain exotoxin-synthesis-inhibition. The peptides are not toxic to human vaginal epithelial cells and do not inhibit growth of normal flora L. crispatus. These peptides may interfere with plasma membrane signal transduction in S. aureus due to their positive charges.

  4. Gram-scale fractionation of nanodiamonds by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Size is a defining characteristic of nanoparticles; it influences their optical and electronic properties as well as their interactions with molecules and macromolecules. Producing nanoparticles with narrow size distributions remains one of the main challenges to their utilization. At this time, the number of practical approaches to optimize the size distribution of nanoparticles in many interesting materials systems, including diamond nanocrystals, remains limited. Diamond nanocrystals synthesized by detonation protocols-so-called detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs)-are promising systems for drug delivery, photonics, and composites. DNDs are composed of primary particles with diameters mainly <10 nm and their aggregates (ca. 10-500 nm). Here, we introduce a large-scale approach to rate-zonal density gradient ultracentrifugation to obtain monodispersed fractions of nanoparticles in high yields. We use this method to fractionate a highly concentrated and stable aqueous solution of DNDs and to investigate the size distribution of various fractions by dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. This fractionation method enabled us to separate gram-scale amounts of DNDs into several size ranges within a relatively short period of time. In addition, the high product yields obtained for each fraction allowed us to apply the fractionation method iteratively to a particular size range of particles and to collect various fractions of highly monodispersed primary particles. Our method paves the way for in-depth studies of the physical and optical properties, growth, and aggregation mechanism of DNDs. Applications requiring DNDs with specific particle or aggregate sizes are now within reach. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases in gram negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Rawat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs are a group of plasmid-mediated, diverse, complex and rapidly evolving enzymes that are posing a major therapeutic challenge today in the treatment of hospitalized and community-based patients. Infections due to ESBL producers range from uncomplicated urinary tract infections to life-threatening sepsis. Derived from the older TEM is derived from Temoniera, a patient from whom the strain was first isolated in Greece. ß-lactamases, these enzymes share the ability to hydrolyze third-generation cephalosporins and aztreonam and yet are inhibited by clavulanic acid. In addition, ESBL-producing organisms exhibit co-resistance to many other classes of antibiotics, resulting in limitation of therapeutic option. Because of inoculum effect and substrate specificity, their detection is also a major challenge. At present, however, organizations such as the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards provide guidelines for the detection of ESBLs in Klebsiella pneumoniae, K. oxytoca, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. In common to all ESBL-detection methods is the general principle that the activity of extended-spectrum cephalosporins against ESBL-producing organisms will be enhanced by the presence of clavulanic acid. Carbapenems are the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL-producing organisms, yet carbapenem-resistant isolates have recently been reported. ESBLs represent an impressive example of the ability of gram-negative bacteria to develop new antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in the face of the introduction of new antimicrobial agents. Thus there is need for efficient infection-control practices for containment of outbreaks; and intervention strategies, e.g., antibiotic rotation to reduce further selection and spread of these increasingly resistant pathogens.

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos de folhas e ramos da Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Aquifoliaceae Antimicrobial activity of extracts of the leaves and branches of Ilex paraguariensis (erva-mate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno De Biasi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana de Ilex paraguariensis foram utilizados seis microrganismos: Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus epidermidis. O método utilizado foi de difusão do disco. Foram adicionados em discos de papel filtro 10 µl de extratos hidro-alcoólicos das folhas e ramos coletados de dois ambientes distintos, com e sem exposição ao sol. As placas foram incubadas a 35- 37 ºC por 24 h. Os extratos inibiram levedura, bacilos gram-negativos e cocos gram-positivos, não mostrando atividade frente à Escherichia coli.For the evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of Ilex paraguariensis six microorganisms were used: Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In disks of filter paper 10 µl of hydro-alcoholic extracts of the leaves and branches from two distinct environments were added, with and without sun exposure. The extracts have inhibited levedura, gram-negative bacillus and gram-positive cocos, with no activity to Escherichia coli.

  7. Antibiotic therapeutic options for infections caused by drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwan, K; Senok, A C; Rotimi, V O

    2009-01-01

    Serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria are currently difficult to treat because many of these pathogens are now resistant to standard antimicrobial agents. As a result of the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens, new antimicrobial agents are urgently needed for clinical use. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of drugs that have activity against these Gram-positive pathogens. Daptomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin and dalbavancin are five antimicrobial agents that are useful for the treatment of infections due to drug-resistant Gram-positive cocci. This review focuses on their mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, clinical effectiveness, drug interaction and safety. These antimicrobial agents provide the clinician with additional treatment options among the limited therapies for resistant Gram-positive bacterial infection. PMID:20701863

  8. Gram-negative folliculitis. A rare problem or is it underdiagnosed? Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierra-Téllez Daniela, Ponce-Olivera Rosa María, Tirado-Sánchez Andrés

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGram-negative folliculitis may be the result of prolonged antibacterial treatments in patients with acne and rosacea. It is caused by alteration of facial skin flora and the nasal mucous, a decrease of Gram-positive bacteria and a proliferation of Gram-negative bacteria (for example Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Klebsiella sp. and Proteus mirabilis. It should be considered in patients with acne who have not had a clinical improvement after 3-6 months of treatment with tetracyclines. The disease is underestimated, probably because bacteriological studies are rarely requested and the increased use of oral isotretinoin for acne management. One of the most effective treatments for Gram-negative folliculitis is oral isotretinoin (0.5-1 mg / kg / day for 4-5 months. We report the case of Gram negative folliculitis successfully treated with oral isotretinoin.

  9. The ability of electrochemical oxidation with a BDD anode to inactivate Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria in low conductivity sulfate medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera-Casamada, Carmina; Sirés, Ignasi; Prieto, María J; Brillas, Enric; Araujo, Rosa M

    2016-11-01

    The disinfection of 100 mL of synthetic water containing 7 mM Na2SO4 with 10(6) CFU mL(-1) of either Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria has been studied by electrochemical oxidation. The electrolytic cell was a stirred tank reactor equipped with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and a stainless steel cathode and the trials were performed at acidic and neutral pH, at 33.3 mA cm(-2) and 25 °C. Reactive oxygen species, pre-eminently hydroxyl radicals, were efficiently produced in both media from water oxidation at the BDD anode and the bacteria concentration was reduced by ≥ 5 log units after 60 min of electrolysis, thus constituting a good chlorine-free disinfection treatment. All the inactivation kinetics were described by a logistic model, with no significant statistical differences between acidic and neutral suspensions. The electrochemical disinfection with BDD was very effective for Gram-negative bacilli like Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive ones like Bacillus atrophaeus, whereas the Gram-positive cocci Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae were more resistant. Thus, the latter organisms are a better choice than E. coli as process indicators. Scanning electron microscopy highlighted a transition from initial cells with standard morphology supported on clean filters to inactivated cells with a highly altered morphology lying on dirty filters with plenty of cellular debris. Larger damage was observed for Gram-negative cells compared to Gram-positive ones. The inactivation effect could then be related to the chemical composition of the outer layers of the cell structure along with the modification of the transmembrane potentials upon current passage. PMID:27567151

  10. Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase: a candidate biomarker to discriminate between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruolin Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Delay in the treatment of pleural infection may contribute to its high mortality. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural adenosine deaminase in discrimination between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space prior to selecting antibiotics. METHODS: A total of 76 patients were enrolled and grouped into subgroups according to Gram staining: 1 patients with Gram-negative bacterial infections, aged 53.2±18.6 years old, of whom 44.7% had empyemas and 2 patients with Gram-positive bacterial infections, aged 53.5±21.5 years old, of whom 63.1% had empyemas. The pleural effusion was sampled by thoracocentesis and then sent for adenosine deaminase testing, biochemical testing and microbiological culture. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the differences in adenosine deaminase levels between the groups. Correlations between adenosine deaminase and specified variables were also quantified using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operator characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of pleural effusion adenosine deaminase. RESULTS: Mean pleural adenosine deaminase levels differed significantly between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial infections of the pleural space (191.8±32.1 U/L vs 81.0±16.9 U/L, p<0.01. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.689 (95% confidence interval: 0.570, 0.792, p<0.01 at the cutoff value of 86 U/L. Additionally, pleural adenosine deaminase had a sensitivity of 63.2% (46.0-78.2%; a specificity of 73.7% (56.9-86.6%; positive and negative likelihood ratios of 2.18 and 0.50, respectively; and positive and negative predictive values of 70.6% and 66.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Pleural effusion adenosine deaminase is a helpful alternative biomarker for early and quick discrimination of Gram-negative from Gram-positive bacterial infections of the

  11. Aspectos positivos e negativos da esterilização tubária do ponto de vista de mulheres esterilizadas Positive and negative aspects of Fallopian tube sterilization as viewed by sterilized women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzinete Simões Minella

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo consiste em tratar os aspectos positivos e negativos da esterilização feminina, de acordo com o ponto de vista de dois grupos de mulheres esterilizadas em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil, a partir de uma discussão sociológica sobre o seu estado de saúde atual, avaliando-se as relações que costumam fazer entre este estado e a condição de esterilizada. O primeiro grupo está constituído por mulheres provenientes de um bairro de baixa renda, predominantemente donas de casa, e o segundo grupo inclui funcionárias públicas, estudantes e professoras universitárias, provenientes dos setores médios da sociedade, totalizando quarenta mulheres. A metodologia da pesquisa baseou-se em um questionário estruturado com perguntas abertas de modo a registrar tanto aspectos ligados a variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas, quanto dados subjetivos ligados às representações das mulheres sobre o período pós-esterilização. Além de uma série de outros aspectos, tornou-se possível concluir que não existe consenso sobre as conseqüências da esterilização, tendo-se constatado a existência de uma proporção significativa de mulheres esterilizadas (11 principalmente antes dos 30 anos que percebem alterações de saúde após a laqueadura.The objective of this paper is to point out the positive and negative aspects of female sterilization as seen by two groups of sterilized women in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, based on a sociological discussion of their present health status, evaluating the associations that they generally make with the fact that they have been sterilized. The first group included mostly housewives from a low-income neighborhood, while the second involved upper-middle-class female public employees, students, and university professors, totaling 40 women. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire with open-ended questions. Information on social, economic, and

  12. Medicina da produção: monitorização do balanço energético negativo (BEN em vacas leiteiras - Herd health management: negative energy balance (NEB evaluation in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, Dália

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoO balanço energético negativo (BEN ocorre invariavelmente de formasignificativa em vacas leiteiras de alta produção, no pós-parto, devido ao desfasamento entre o pico de lactação e o pico de ingestão. O presente trabalho descreve os principais métodos de avaliação e monitorização do BEN com aplicabilidade em explorações de bovinos leiteiros. A avaliação periódica da condição corporal dos animais associada à da produção e composição do leite através das folhas de contraste leiteiro são ferramentas básicas de monitorização. A detecção de corpos cetónicos na urina ou leite permite a realização do screening do complexo cetoseesteatose hepática na própria exploração. Já a análise laboratorial dos parâmetros bioquímicos, “os perfis metabólicos”, poderá confirmar orientações de programas alimentares e de prevenção de doenças metabólicas, se correctamente interpretada.SummaryA significant negative energy balance (NEB occurs in high-producingdairy cows due to the delay between the peak lactation and peak intake. In the present work, the main techniques were described in order to evaluate the NEB as a practical tool in dairy farms. The body condition and milk production and composition records are primordial tools for NEB control. A rapid screening of fatty liver-ketosis complex can be done by ketone analysis in situ. The metabolic profiles are used for orientation and confirmation of nutritional and metabolic diseases programs, if correctly interpreted.

  13. The NASA/MSFC Global Reference Atmospheric Model: 1999 Version (GRAM-99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Johnson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    The latest version of Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-99) is presented and discussed. GRAM-99 uses either (binary) Global Upper Air Climatic Atlas (GUACA) or (ASCII) Global Gridded Upper Air Statistics (GGUAS) CD-ROM data sets, for 0-27 km altitudes. As with earlier versions, GRAM-99 provides complete geographical and altitude coverage for each month of the year. GRAM-99 uses a specially-developed data set, based on Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) data, for 20-120 km altitudes, and NASA's 1999 version Marshall Engineering Thermosphere (MET-99) model for heights above 90 km. Fairing techniques assure smooth transition in overlap height ranges (20-27 km and 90-120 km). GRAM-99 includes water vapor and 11 other atmospheric constituents (O3, N2O, CO, CH4, CO2, N2, O2, O, A, He and H). A variable-scale perturbation model provides both large-scale (wave) and small-scale (stochastic) deviations from mean values for thermodynamic variables and horizontal and vertical wind components. The small-scale perturbation model includes improvements in representing intermittency ("patchiness"). A major new feature is an option to substitute Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) data for conventional GRAM climatology when a trajectory passes sufficiently near any RRA site. A complete user's guide for running the program, plus sample input and output, is provided. An example is provided for how to incorporate GRAM-99 as subroutines in other programs (e.g., trajectory codes).

  14. Rapid diagnosis of gram negative pneumonia by assay of endotoxin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugin, J; Auckenthaler, R; Delaspre, O; van Gessel, E; Suter, P M

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia can be made by quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or of protected specimen brushings, though cultures require 24-48 hours to provide results. In 80% of cases aerobic Gram negative bacteria are the cause. METHODS: A rapid diagnostic method of assessing the endotoxin content of lavage fluid by Limulus assay is described. Forty samples of lavage fluid were obtained from patients with multiple trauma requiring mechanical ventilation for a prolonged period. Pneumonia was diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological, and bacteriological findings, including quantitative cultures of lavage fluid. RESULTS: A relation was observed between the concentration of endotoxin in lavage fluid and the quantity of Gram negative bacteria. The median endotoxin content of lavage fluid in Gram negative bacterial pneumonia was 15 endotoxin units (EU)/ml; the range observed in individual patients was 6 to > 150 EU/ml. In patients with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci and in non-infected patients the median endotoxin level was 0.17 (range < or = 0.06 to 2) EU/ml. An endotoxin level greater than or equal to 6 EU/ml distinguished patients with Gram negative bacterial pneumonia from colonised patients and from those with pneumonia due to Gram positive cocci. CONCLUSION: The measurement of endotoxin in lavage fluid is a rapid (less than two hours) and accurate diagnostic method. It should allow specific and early treatment of Gram negative bacterial pneumonia. PMID:1412100

  15. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  16. Evaluation of the in vitro growth of urinary tract infection-causing gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in a proposed synthetic human urine (SHU) medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, Deepak S; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-08-01

    Bacteriuria is a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI) and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), which are among the most frequent infections in humans. A variety of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria are associated with these infections but Escherichia coli contributes up to 80% of cases. Multiple bacterial species including E. coli can grow in human urine as a means to maintain colonization during infections. In vitro bacteriuria studies aimed at modeling microbial growth in urine have utilized various compositions of synthetic human urine (SHU) and a Composite SHU formulation was recently proposed. In this study, we sought to validate the recently proposed Composite SHU as a medium that supports the growth of several bacterial species that are known to grow in normal human urine and/or artificial urine. Comparative growth assays of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis were undertaken using viable bacterial count and optical density measurements over a 48h culture period. Three different SHU formulations were tested in various culture vessels, shaking conditions and volumes and showed that Composite SHU can support the robust growth of gram-negative bacteria but requires supplementation with 0.2% yeast extract to support the growth of gram-positive bacteria. Experiments are also presented that show an unexpected but major influence of P. mirabilis towards the ability to measure bacterial growth in generally accepted multiwell assays using absorbance readings, predicted to have a basis in the release of volatile organic compound(s) from P. mirabilis during growth in Composite SHU medium. This study represents an essential methodological validation of a more chemically defined type of synthetic urine that can be applied to study mechanisms of bacteriuria and we conclude will offer a useful in vitro model to investigate the

  17. Physico-Chemical-Managed Killing of Penicillin-Resistant Static and Growing Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Vegetative Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Robert Chaffee (Inventor); Schramm, Jr., Harry F. (Inventor); Defalco, Francis G. (Inventor); Farris, III, Alex F. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Systems and methods for the use of compounds from the Hofmeister series coupled with specific pH and temperature to provide rapid physico-chemical-managed killing of penicillin-resistant static and growing Gram-positive and Gram-negative vegetative bacteria. The systems and methods represent the more general physico-chemical enhancement of susceptibility for a wide range of pathological macromolecular targets to clinical management by establishing the reactivity of those targets to topically applied drugs or anti-toxins.

  18. A NUMERICALLY STABLE BLOCK MODIFIED GRAM-SCHMIDT ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING STIFF WEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musheng Wei; Qiaohua Liu

    2007-01-01

    Recently,Wei in[18]proved that perturbed stiff weighted pseudoinverses and stiff weighted least squares problems are stable,if and only if the original and perturbed coefficient matrices A and A satisfy several row rank preservation conditions.According to these conditions,in this paper we show that in general,ordinary modified Gram-Schmidt with column pivoting is not numerically stable for solving the stiff weighted least squares problem.We then propose a row block modified Gram-Schmidt algorithm with column pivoting,and show that with appropriately chosen tolerance,this algorithm can correctly determine the numerical ranks of these row partitioned sub-matrices,and the computed QR factor R contains small roundoff error which is row stable.Several numerical experiments are also provided to compare the results of the ordinary Modified Gram-Schmidt algorithm with column pivoting and the row block Modified Gram-Schmidt algorithm with column pivoting.

  19. Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Yanyan; Zhang Peng [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Rogelj, Snezna, E-mail: pzhang@nmt.edu [Department of Biology, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2010-02-10

    A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO{sub 2}-NH{sub 2}-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO{sub 2}-NH{sub 2}-RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism.

  20. Tannin contents and protein digestibility of black grams (Vigna mungo) after soaking and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia-Ur-rehman; Shah, W H

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research was to ascertain the effects of soaking black grams (Cultivar AARI-5732) in different salt solutions at different temperatures and different time periods, and different methods of cooking on the tannin content and protein digestibility. Tannin content of black grams was reduced to various extents by soaking at 30 degrees and 100 degrees C for different time periods. However, soaking at 100 degrees C increased the rate of extraction and reduced the extraction time of tannins. Soaking black grams in water at 100 degrees C reduced tannins by 22.14% in 45 minutes whereas about 2.5 times more tannin was reduced after soaking in sodium bicarbonate solution with or without sodium chloride. Maximum improvement in protein digestibility was also observed after soaking black grams in sodium bicarbonate solution. Tannin contents were further reduced along with improvement in protein digestibility as a result of cooking.

  1. What Poisoned the Apple Juice? A Gram Staining and Selective Media Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Paul; Brown, Nikole; Hauser, Doug; Pomart, Katrina; Karcher, Sue; Balschweid, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Introduces an inquiry-based laboratory experiment in which students identify an unknown bacterial species by using techniques such as Gram staining. Uses an authentic problem solving approach in a scenario entitled, "What poisoned the apple juice?" (YDS)

  2. Expanding n-gram training data for language models based on morpho-syntactic transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Verwimp, Lyan; Pelemans, Joris; Hamme, Hugo Van; Wambacq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Verwimp L., Pelemans J., Van hamme H., Wambacq P., ''Expanding n-gram training data for language models based on morpho-syntactic transformations'', Computational linguistics in the Netherlands journal (CLIN journal), vol. 5, pp. 49-64, 2015.

  3. Nosocomial Gram-negative bacteremia in intensive care: epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Irene Sligl

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: ICU-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia is associated with high mortality. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and carbapenems was common. Coronary artery disease, immune suppression, and inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy were independently associated with increased mortality.

  4. Rose Bengal-decorated silica nanoparticles as photosensitizers for inactivation of gram-positive bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of photosensitizer, made from Rose Bengal (RB)-decorated silica (SiO2-NH2-RB) nanoparticles, was developed to inactivate gram-positive bacteria, including Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with high efficiency through photodynamic action. The nanoparticles were characterized microscopically and spectroscopically to confirm their structures. The characterization of singlet oxygen generated by RB, both free and immobilized on a nanoparticle surface, was performed in the presence of anthracene-9,10-dipropionic acid. The capability of SiO2-NH2-RB nanoparticles to inactivate bacteria was tested in vitro on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The results showed that RB-decorated silica nanoparticles can inactivate MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (both gram-positive) very effectively (up to eight-orders-of-magnitude reduction). Photosensitizers of such design should have good potential as antibacterial agents through a photodynamic mechanism.

  5. INFLUENCIA DEL FEEDBACK POSITIVO Y NEGATIVO EN ALUMNOS DE SECUNDARIA SOBRE EL CLIMA EGO-TAREA PERCIBIDO, LA VALORACIÓN DE LA EF Y LA PREFERENCIA EN LA COMPLEJIDAD DE LAS TAREAS DE CLASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Requena

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

     

    RESUMEN

    El presente artículo trata la incidencia que el feedback afectivo positivo (FAP o negativo (FAN, aportado por el profesor de Educación Física (EF, tiene sobre la valoración que el alumno muestra sobre la EF, sobre sus preferencias hacia el nivel de dificultad de las tareas de clase y sobre el clima ego-tarea según la actuación del profesor. El estudio se realizó con 21 sujetos en tres grupos: dos experimentales a los que se aplicó un FAP y FAN respectivamente, y un tercer grupo control. Los resultados muestran una incidencia significativa en la percepción del clima implicante al ego, la percepción del clima implicante a la tarea y la valoración de las clases de EF. Además los sujetos que han recibido un FAN presentan niveles de percepción de un clima implicante al ego mayores y significativos que aquellos sujetos que habían recibido un FAP. Respecto a la percepción de un clima implicante a la tarea, aquellos sujetos que reciben un FAP tienden a percibir mayores niveles de clima implicante a la tarea al compararlos con los que reciben FAP y feedback control. Sobre la valoración de la EF, los sujetos que reciben FAP valoran más positivamente las clases de EF que los que reciben FAN.
    PALABRAS CLAVE: Educación Física, enseñanza, motivación.

     

    ABSTRACT

    The present article studies the effect that positive affective feedback (FAP or negative affective feedback (FAN, received from a Physical Education (PE teacher, have on the attitude that a student shows in class. This study evaluates their level of difficulty preferences in class tasks and the ego-task climate according to the performance of the professor. The study was done with 21

  6. Cell wall sorting signals in surface proteins of gram-positive bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Schneewind, O; Mihaylova-Petkov, D; Model, P

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcal protein A is anchored to the cell wall, a unique cellular compartment of Gram-positive bacteria. The sorting signal sufficient for cell wall anchoring consists of an LPXTG motif, a C-terminal hydrophobic domain and a charged tail. Homologous sequences are found in many surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria and we explored the universality of these sequences to serve as cell wall sorting signals. We show that several signals are able to anchor fusion proteins to the staphyl...

  7. Construction and evaluation of multisite recombinatorial (Gateway) cloning vectors for Gram-positive bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rees Catherine ED; Salisbury Vyvyan; Gaddipati Sanyasi R; Qazi Saara NA; Perehinec Tania M; Hill Philip J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The Gateway recombinatorial cloning system allows easy and rapid joining of DNA fragments. Here we report the construction and evaluation of three different Gram-positive vectors that can be used with the Multisite Gateway cloning system to rapidly produce new gene arrangements in plasmid constructs for use in a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. Results Comparison of patterns of reporter gene expression with conventionally constructed clones show that the presence of resi...

  8. Antibiotic-Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli in Meals Delivered at a General Hospital, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rosa Anna Plano; Anna Maria Di Noto; Alberto Firenze; Sonia Sciortino; Caterina Mammina

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at detecting the presence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negatives in samples of meals delivered at the University General Hospital of Palermo, Italy. Antibiotic resistant Gram negatives were isolated in July—September 2007 ffrom cold dishes and food contact surfaces and utensils. Bacterial strains were submitted to susceptibility test and subtyped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Forty-six of 55 (83.6%) food samples and 14 of 17 (82.3%) environmental swabs ...

  9. Comparison of urine Gram stain and urine culture to diagnose urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Utami Putri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (are due to pathogen invasion of the urinary tract. The upper or lower tract may be affected, depending on the presence of infection in the kidney, or bladder and urethra. Infection of urinary tract affect up to 10% of children and are the most common bacterial infection in infants and young children worldwide. The prevalence of UTI is 3-5% in girls and 1% in boys. Urine culture is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for UTI. However, Gram stains of uncentrifuged urine have been done in rural health centers and laboratories in peripheral areas that lack facilities to evaluate urine specimens. Gram stains of urine may be an effective method for ruling out UTI in rural health center patients, thus saving time and money in impoverished settings.Objective To compare urine Gram stain and urine culture as diagnostic tests for in children.Methods This cross-sectional study was held in H. Adam Malik Hospital from May to June 2010. The 54 participants were aged 0 - 14 years, suspected to have UTI and recruited by consecutive sampling. Uurine was collected after the external urethral orifice was cleaned. A drop of the urine specimen was Gram stained and examined by a light microscope, while the remainder of the specimen was used for laboratory urine cultures. If Gram negative bacteria were observed by Gram stain, we considered the subject to have UTI.Results The sensitivity and specificity of urine Gram stain compared to urine culture were 88% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were 100% and 90%, respectively.Conclusion Uurine Gram stain may be a good alternative to urine culture for diagnosing UTI in children living in areas with limited health care facilities. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:121-4.].

  10. Comparison of urine Gram stain and urine culture to diagnose urinary tract infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Utami Putri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Urinary tract infection (are due to pathogen invasion of the urinary tract. The upper or lower tract may be affected, depending on the presence of infection in the kidney, or bladder and urethra. Infection of urinary tract affect up to 10% of children and are the most common bacterial infection in infants and young children worldwide. The prevalence of UTI is 3-5% in girls and 1% in boys. Urine culture is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for UTI. However, Gram stains of uncentrifuged urine have been done in rural health centers and laboratories in peripheral areas that lack facilities to evaluate urine specimens. Gram stains of urine may be an effective method for ruling out UTI in rural health center patients, thus saving time and money in impoverished settings. Objective To compare urine Gram stain and urine culture as diagnostic tests for in children. Methods This cross-sectional study was held in H. Adam Malik Hospital from May to June 2010. The 54 participants were aged 0 - 14 years, suspected to have UTI and recruited by consecutive sampling. Uurine was collected after the external urethral orifice was cleaned. A drop of the urine specimen was Gram stained and examined by a light microscope, while the remainder of the specimen was used for laboratory urine cultures. If Gram negative bacteria were observed by Gram stain, we considered the subject to have UTI. Results The sensitivity and specificity of urine Gram stain compared to urine culture were 88% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV were 100% and 90%, respectively. Conclusion Uurine Gram stain may be a good alternative to urine culture for diagnosing UTI in children living in areas with limited health care facilities. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:121-4.].

  11. Glycerol Monolaurate Inhibits the Effects of Gram Positive Select Agents on Eukaryotic Cells†

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Marnie L.; Schlievert, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    Many exotoxins of gram positive bacteria, such as superantigens (staphylococcal enterotoxins, toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 [TSST-1], and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins) and anthrax toxin are bioterrorism agents that cause diseases by immunostimulation or cytotoxicity. Glycerol monolaurate (GML), a fatty acid monoester found naturally in humans, has been reported to prevent synthesis of gram positive bacterial exotoxins. This study explored the ability of GML to inhibit the effects of exoto...

  12. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Suwantarat, Nuntra; Carroll, Karen C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGN), including extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and multidrug-resistant glucose-nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (nonfermenters), have emerged and spread throughout Southeast Asia. Methods We reviewed and summarized current critical knowledge on the epidemiology and molecular characterization of MDRGN in Southeast Asia by PubMed searches for publications prior to 10 March 2016 with the term related to “MDRGN definition” combin...

  13. A genomic update on clostridial phylogeny: Gram-negative spore-formers and other misplaced clostridia

    OpenAIRE

    Yutin, Natalya; Michael Y. Galperin

    2013-01-01

    The class Clostridia in the phylum Firmicutes (formerly low-G+C Gram-positive bacteria) includes diverse bacteria of medical, environmental, and biotechnological importance. The Selenomonas-Megasphaera-Sporomusa branch, which unifies members of the Firmicutes with Gram-negative-type cell envelopes, was recently moved from Clostridia to a separate class Negativicutes. However, draft genome sequences of the spore-forming members of the Negativicutes revealed typically clostridial sets of sporul...

  14. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI. PMID:27227294

  15. Effects of Food Additives on Susceptibility of Gram Negative Bacteria Derived from Dry-Fermented Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    DORJ, Serjmyadag; SHIMADA, Kenichiro; SEKIKAWA, Mitsuo; 島田, 謙一郎; 関川, 三男

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of food additives on gram-negative bacteria. The food additives used included synthetic antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole, BHA, and butylated hydroxytoluene, BHT), a curing agent and lactic acid with or without a cell-free supernatant (CFS) containing antimicrobial compounds of Lactobacillus sakei D-1001. The gram-negative bacteria were selected from dry-fermented sausages and cultured with different food additives for 18 h in nutrient broth, and then anot...

  16. Gram-Positive Uropathogens, Polymicrobial Urinary Tract Infection, and the Emerging Microbiota of the Urinary Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kimberly A; Lewis, Amanda L

    2016-04-01

    Gram-positive bacteria are a common cause of urinary-tract infection (UTI), particularly among individuals who are elderly, pregnant, or who have other risk factors for UTI. Here we review the epidemiology, virulence mechanisms, and host response to the most frequently isolated Gram-positive uropathogens: Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus agalactiae. We also review several emerging, rare, misclassified, and otherwise underreported Gram-positive pathogens of the urinary tract including Aerococcus, Corynebacterium, Actinobaculum, and Gardnerella. The literature strongly suggests that urologic diseases involving Gram-positive bacteria may be easily overlooked due to limited culture-based assays typically utilized for urine in hospital microbiology laboratories. Some UTIs are polymicrobial in nature, often involving one or more Gram-positive bacteria. We herein review the risk factors and recent evidence for mechanisms of bacterial synergy in experimental models of polymicrobial UTI. Recent experimental data has demonstrated that, despite being cleared quickly from the bladder, some Gram-positive bacteria can impact pathogenic outcomes of co-infecting organisms. When taken together, the available evidence argues that Gram-positive bacteria are important uropathogens in their own right, but that some can be easily overlooked because they are missed by routine diagnostic methods. Finally, a growing body of evidence demonstrates that a surprising variety of fastidious Gram-positive bacteria may either reside in or be regularly exposed to the urinary tract and further suggests that their presence is widespread among women, as well as men. Experimental studies in this area are needed; however, there is a growing appreciation that the composition of bacteria found in the bladder could be a potentially important determinant in urologic disease, including susceptibility to UTI. PMID:27227294

  17. Impacts of vehicle exhaust black soot on germination of gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Naba Kumar Mondal; Debopriya Panja; Chittaranjan Das; Uttiya Dey; Kousik Das

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of carbon soot collected from exhaust tube of 15 years old petrol and diesel operated vehicles on gram seed germination and biochemical changes of seedling. In view of the widespread cultivation of gram seed in India and long-term impact of black carbon is the warming of the atmosphere as per the recommendation of IPCC (2007). Black soot were separately treated with different doses and the effects of these treatment had on seed germination...

  18. Community Profiling of Culturable Fluorescent Pseudomonads in the Rhizosphere of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rupak K Sarma; Animesh Gogoi; Budheswar Dehury; Rajal Debnath; Tarun C Bora; Ratul Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Study on microbial diversity in the unexplored rhizosphere is important to understand their community structure, biology and ecological interaction with the host plant. This research assessed the genetic and functional diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads [FP] in the green gram rhizophere. One hundred and twenty types of morphologically distinct fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated during vegetative as well as reproductive growth phase of green gram. Rep PCR, ARDRA and RISA revealed two di...

  19. Involvement of both Type I and Type II mechanisms in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria photosensitization by a meso-substituted cationic porphyrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergaieg, Karim; Seux, Rene [Laboratoire d' Etude et de Recherche en Environnement et Sante, National School of Public Health, Av. Pr. Leon Bernard, CS 74312, Rennes 35043 (France); Chevanne, Martine; Cillard, Josiane [Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire et Vegetale, UPRES 3891, UFR des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, University of Rennes 1, 2 Av. Pr. Leon Bernard, CS 34317, Rennes 35043 (France)

    2008-12-15

    A meso-substituted cationic porphyrin (TMPyP) showed a photocytotoxicity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In order to determine the mechanism involved in the phototoxicity of this photosensitizer, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments with 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (TEMP), a specific probe for singlet oxygen, and the spin-trap 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) were carried out with illuminated TMPyP. An EPR signal characteristic of TEMP-singlet oxygen (TEMPO) adduct formation was observed, which could be ascribed to singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) generated by TMPyP photosensitization. The signal for the DMPO spin adduct of superoxide anion (DMPO-OOH) was observed in DMSO solution but not in aqueous conditions. However, an EPR spectrum characteristic of the DMPO-hydroxyl radical spin adduct (DMPO-OH) was observed in aqueous conditions. The obtained results testify a primary hydroxyl radical ({sup .}OH) generation probably from superoxide anion (O{sub 2} {sup x} {sup -})via the Fenton reaction and/or via Haber-Weiss reaction. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria inactivation by TMPyP photosensitization predominantly involved Type II reactions mediated by the formation of {sup 1}O{sub 2}, as demonstrated by the effect of quenchers for {sup 1}O{sub 2} and scavengers for {sup .}OH (sodium azide, thiourea, and dimethylsulphoxide). Participation of other active oxygen species cannot however be neglected since Type I reactions also had a significant effect, particularly for Gram-negative bacteria. For Gram-negative bacteria the photoinactivation rate was lower in the presence of superoxide dismutase, a specific O{sub 2} {sup x} {sup -} scavenger, and/or catalase, an enzyme which specifically eliminates H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but was unchanged for Gram-positive bacteria. The generation of {sup 1}O{sub 2}, O{sub 2} {sup x} {sup -} and {sup .}OH by TMPyP photosensitization indicated that TMPyP maintained a photodynamic activity in

  20. Prevalence of Gram Negative Bacteria in Diabetic Foot -A Clinico-Microbiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.Banashankari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Objective: To determine the bacterial spectrum in diabetic foot lesions and analyze the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolated bacteria. Methods and Methodology: Tissue samples/discharge/pus/ were cultured from 202 patients admitted for the treatment of diabetic foot infections. Specimens were tested by gram stain, culture and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: A total of 202 specimens were cultured, yielding 246 bacteria at the end of 18-24hrs. Gram negative aerobes were the most frequently isolated bacteria constituting 162 isolates (66%, followed by gram- positive aerobes 78 isolates (32%. Enterobacteriaceae group and P. aeruginosa strains were largely susceptible to imipenem (100%, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime, aminoglycosides, and ciprofloxacin. More than 70% of staphylococcus aureus was sensitive to methicillin. Cefoperazone + sulbactum showed about 67% sensitivity, while ciprofloxacin and amikacin were only 23% and 44% sensitive. MRSA was isolated in 20 cases (47% of S.aureus and Methicillin resistant coagulase negative staphylococcus in 2 cases (15% of coagulase negative staphylococcus. Methicillin resistant organisms were sensitive to vancomycin (95%. Conclusion: Diabetic foot infections are predominantly due to gram positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus or polymicrobial. There is a growing trend of isolating gram negative bacteria in these naïve lesions of the diabetic foot. The need for adequate gram negative antibacterial coverage at the commencement of diabetic foot therapy is essential to prevent and treat limb/life threatening infections.

  1. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de quinupristina/dalfopristina para cocos gram-positivos isolados de cinco centros brasileiros: resultado do estudo de vigilância L-SMART Antimicrobial in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin against gram-positive cocci isolated from 5 Brazilian centers: results from the local smart (L-SMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Mendes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Há alguns anos tem-se verificado um aumento progressivo da resistência de alguns cocos gram-positivos a determinados antimicrobianos. Este aumento da resistência tem sido observado principalmente no ambiente hospitalar, e as bactérias mais comumente envolvidas são os Staphylococcus spp. e os Enterococcus spp. Devido a este fato, novos antimicrobianos são avaliados para o tratamento de infecções causadas por estas cepas multirresistentes. A associação quinupristina/dalfopristina (Q/D, também conhecida como Synercid®, é um antibacteriano da classe das estreptograminas, de uso endovenoso, composto por dois derivados semi-sintéticos da pristinamicina. A combinação das estreptograminas B e A na razão de 30:70 tem atividade antimicrobiana voltada para cocos gram--positivos, como Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., incluindo S. pneumoniae e Enterococcus faecium, sendo o E. faecalis habitualmente resistente. Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade in vitro de Q/D e outros oito antimicrobianos frente a 631 amostras de cocos gram-positivos isoladas de cinco centros brasileiros, complementadas com outras 20 cepas de E. faecium resistentes à vancomicina, provenientes dos Estados Unidos. Para a avaliação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC pelo método do Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia e as cepas testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (n = 267, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (n = 131, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 130, Streptococcus beta-hemolíticos (n = 28, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 44 e E. faecium (n = 51. A Q/D demonstrou excelente atividade contra Staphylococcus spp., independente de serem sensíveis ou resistentes à oxacilina. Para S. pneumoniae, a Q/D apresentou igualmente uma ótima atividade, inclusive para as cepas com resistência intermediária ou total para penicilina. Entre as cepas de E. faecium sensíveis à vancomicina, o MIC90 de Q/D obtido foi de 3µg

  2. Conjuntivite por Achromobacter xylosoxidans: relato de caso Conjunctivitis due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Faggion Lucatelli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos um caso de conjuntivite ocasionada por Achromobacter xylosoxidans em paciente imunocompetente usuária de lentes de contato rígidas. A bactéria foi isolada da solução utilizada para a desinfecção das lentes bem como do raspado conjuntival. A. xylosoxidans tem sido descrita em infecções oportunistas em pacientes imunodeprimidos, contudo pode ser confundida com outros bacilos gram-negativos, principalmente Pseudomonas aeruginosa, isoladas de infecções oculares em pacientes imunocompetentes. Devido ao reduzido perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrado pelo A. xylosoxidans, torna-se importante a identificação deste agente etiológico em quadros de conjuntivite.We report here a case of conjunctivitis in an immunocompetent patient due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans, which was associated with the use of rigid contact lenses. The bacteria were isolated from the scraped conjunctival swab as well as from the lens cleaning fluid. A. xylosoxidans is an opportunistic pathogen, especially in immunocompromised patients; however, in isolates of ocular infections, from immunocompetent patients, it may be confused with other gram-negative organisms, particularly Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Due to an increased resistance against different antimicrobial agents, A. xylosoxidans must be fully identified and differentiated from other gram-negative isolates from ocular infections.

  3. Computing symmetrical strength of N-grams: a two pass filtering approach in automatic classification of text documents

    OpenAIRE

    Agnihotri, Deepak; Verma, Kesari; Tripathi, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    The contiguous sequences of the terms (N-grams) in the documents are symmetrically distributed among different classes. The symmetrical distribution of the N-Grams raises uncertainty in the belongings of the N-Grams towards the class. In this paper, we focused on the selection of most discriminating N-Grams by reducing the effects of symmetrical distribution. In this context, a new text feature selection method named as the symmetrical strength of the N-Grams (SSNG) is proposed using a two pa...

  4. Carcterización de microorganismos asociados a la descomposición de hojas consumidas por Tremarctos ornatus (Urcidae y posible relación en su datación Characterization of Microorganisms Associated to Leave Decomposing Comsumed by Tremarctos ornatus (Urcidae and Its Possible Data Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Jimena

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se establecieron bases para un método de datación de hojas consumidas por Tremarctos ornatus, con base a la presencia de microorganismos aislados de restos vegetales de las hojas de Tillandsia spp. recogidos en campo, correspondientes a diferentes etapas de descomposición. Las muestras (2 cm de la base de la hoja consumida por el animal fueron procesadas en el laboratorio para el aislamiento y caracterización de los microorganismos presentes, encontrando que los morfotipos bacterianos predominantes fueron cocobacilos (Pseudomonas sp. y bacilos Gram negativos, (los primeros se encontraron en todas las edades de descomposición y los segundos solo en las muestras menores a seis meses. Morfotipos correspondientes a cocobacilos Gram positivos solo se encontraron en hojas entre 13 meses y bacilos Gram positivos (Bacillus sp. en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos Gram positivos solo se presentaron en la muestra de hoja con 56 meses de descomposición. Se encontraron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, dos corresponden a Mucor sp. y Trichoderma sp., además de Epicoccum sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp. El género Trichoderma sp. se encontró asociado a por lo menos uno de los morfotipos anteriormente mencionados en rastros mayores de un mes e inferiores a cinco meses.We established basis for a datetelling method of leaves (Tillandsia spp. consumed by Tremarctos ornatus by determining or detecting the presence of microorganisms. We used samples from the field that corresponded to different states of decomposition. The samples (2 cm from the leaf base consumed by the animal were processed in the laboratory, characterized and determined. Cocobacilli (Pseudomonas sp. and negative bacilli Gram were the most common bacteria morphotypes, the first were founded on samples from all ages and the second on samples no older than six months. Positive cocobacili Gram (Bacillus sp.; were just present in samples between

  5. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS ASOCIADOS A LA DESCOMPOSICIÓN DE HOJAS CONSUMIDAS POR Tremarctos ornatus (URCIDAE Y POSIBLE RELACIÓN EN SU DATACIÓN Characterization of Microorganisms Associated to Leave Decomposing Comsumed by Tremarctos ornatus (Urcidae and Its Possible Data Relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YUSLENI FIERRO TOSCAZO

    Full Text Available Se establecieron bases para un método de datación de hojas consumidas por Tremarctos ornatus, con base a la presencia de microorganismos aislados de restos vegetales de las hojas de Tillandsia spp. recogidos en campo, correspondientes a diferentes etapas de descomposición. Las muestras (2 cm de la base de la hoja consumida por el animal fueron procesadas en el laboratorio para el aislamiento y caracterización de los microorganismos presentes, encontrando que los morfotipos bacterianos predominantes fueron cocobacilos (Pseudomonas sp. y bacilos Gram negativos, (los primeros se encontraron en todas las edades de descomposición y los segundos solo en las muestras menores a seis meses. Morfotipos correspondientes a cocobacilos Gram positivos solo se encontraron en hojas entre 13 meses y bacilos Gram positivos (Bacillus sp. en hojas de menos de un mes. Cocos y diplococos Gram positivos solo se presentaron en la muestra de hoja con 56 meses de descomposición. Se encontraron cuatro morfotipos de hongos, dos corresponden a Mucor sp. y Trichoderma sp., además de Epicoccum sp., Alternaria sp., Rhizoctonia sp. El género Trichoderma sp. se encontró asociado a por lo menos uno de los morfotipos anteriormente mencionados en rastros mayores de un mes e inferiores a cinco meses.We established basis for a datetelling method of leaves (Tillandsia spp. consumed by Tremarctos ornatus by determining or detecting the presence of microorganisms. We used samples from the field that corresponded to different states of decomposition. The samples (2 cm from the leaf base consumed by the animal were processed in the laboratory, characterized and determined. Cocobacilli (Pseudomonas sp. and negative bacilli Gram were the most common bacteria morphotypes, the first were founded on samples from all ages and the second on samples no older than six months. Positive cocobacili Gram (Bacillus sp.; were just present in samples between one and three months old. Positive

  6. Phosphorus Response and Amino Acid Composition of Different Green Gram (Vigna radiata L. Genotypes from Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kywe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mungbean or green gram (Vigna radiata L. is an important component of rice-based cropping systems in Myanmar, where grain yields of around 800 kg ha^(-1 are much below its yield potential of 3000 kg ha^(-1. The reasons for this shortfall are as under-investigated as is the genotype-specific response of this crop to phosphorus (P application, which is critically low in many Myanmar soils, and the genetic variation in grain quality. For green gram quality, the concentration of lysine, an essential amino acid is particularly important given its scarcity in many cereal-based diets of Southeast Asia. The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate the effects of P application on the root and shoot growth, yield and its components for a range of green gram varieties, and to analyse the protein concentration and amino acid composition in green gram seed of different origins. To this end from 2001 to 2003, field experiments were conducted under rain-fed conditions in Yezin and Nyaung Oo. Fifteen landraces and five introduced green gram cultivars were grown at two levels of P (0 and 15 kg ha^(-1. There were large genotypic differences in P effects and a significant interaction between green gram genotypes and P for shoot and root growth. An unexpected benefit of P application was a reduction of pest and plant virus infestation in the field. Significant genotypic differences in the amino acid profile of seeds were also observed. The results indicate the potential for breeding efforts to increase seed yield and protein quality in green gram.

  7. Alterações ultra-sonográficas na gravidez Rh negativo sensibilizada avaliada pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico e pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média Ultrasound findings in Rh-alloimmunized pregnancies assessed by spectrophotometric analysis of amniotic fluid and Doppler velocimetry of fetal middle cerebral artery

    OpenAIRE

    Luciano Marcondes Machado Nardozza; Luiz Camano; Antonio Fernandes Moron; David Baptista da Silva Pares; Paulo Alexandre Chinen; Guilherme Antonio Rago Lobo

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar e confrontar a presença de alterações ultra-sonográficas nas gestações Rh negativo sensibilizadas, quando a anemia fetal foi determinada ou pela espectrofotometria do líquido amniótico, ou pela dopplervelocimetria da artéria cerebral média. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Observacional descritivo com grupo de comparação. Nosso grupo de estudo foi constituído por 99 pacientes, avaliadas no período de janeiro de 1995 a janeiro de 2004. Foram analisados e comparados dois grupos: 74 gestan...

  8. Fatores associados à agressão física em gestantes e os desfechos negativos no recém-nascido Factors associated with physical aggression in pregnant women and adverse outcomes for the newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fernandes Viellas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar os fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos e reprodutivos associados à agressão física na gestação e os desfechos negativos para o recém-nascido em dois grupos de mulheres: adolescentes e adultas jovens. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal com uma amostra de 8.961 puérperas que se hospitalizaram em maternidades do município do Rio de Janeiro por ocasião do parto. Para testar hipótese de homogeneidade de proporções foi utilizado o teste χ². A razão de chances e os intervalos de confiança foram estimados através de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Foi apontado que 5% das adolescentes e 2,5% das adultas jovens sofreram agressão física na gravidez. Em ambos os grupos, as variáveis associadas com o abuso físico foram: menor nível de escolaridade, menor apoio do pai da criança e maior tentativa de interrupção da gestação. O aumento no consumo de bebida alcoólica mostrou associação com o abuso físico apenas no grupo de adolescentes, e o uso de drogas ilícitas somente entre as adultas jovens. Os filhos das puérperas agredidas tiveram duas vezes mais chances de óbito neonatal, e três vezes mais de óbito pós-neonatal. Por outro lado, a assistência pré-natal de boa qualidade reduziu a chance de agressão física durante a gestação. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados alertam para o aumento da chance de óbito neonatal e pós-neonatal entre os filhos das vítimas de agressão física durante a gestação e apontam para a importância do pré-natal na identificação de mulheres sob maior risco de episódios violentos, momento oportuno para o desenvolvimento de ações de proteção e cuidado à mãe e ao bebê.OBJECTIVE: To assess the socioeconomic, demographic, and reproductive factors associated with physical aggression during pregnancy, and the negative outcomes for the newborn in two groups of women: adolescents and young adults. METHOD: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 8,961 mothers who were admitted

  9. Native and heterologous production of bacteriocins from gram-positive microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Mabel; Jaramillo, Diana; Melendez, Adelina Del Pilar; J Alméciga-Diaz, Carlos; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2011-12-01

    In nature, microorganisms can present several mechanisms for setting intercommunication and defense. One of these mechanisms is related to the production of bacteriocins, which are peptides with antimicrobial activity. Bacteriocins can be found in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Nevertheless, bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria are of particular interest due to the industrial use of several strains that belong to this group, especially lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which have the status of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganisms. In this work, we will review recent tendencies in the field of invention and state of art related to bacteriocin production by Gram-positive microorganism. Hundred-eight patents related to Gram-positive bacteriocin producers have been disclosed since 1965, from which 57% are related bacteriocins derived from Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Pediococcus strains. Surprisingly, patents regarding heterologous bacteriocins production were mainly presented just in the last decade. Although the major application of bacteriocins is concerned to food industry to control spoilage and foodborne bacteria, during the last years bacteriocin applications have been displacing to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, and plant disease resistance and growth promotion.

  10. Combating multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria with structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shu J; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Pantarat, Namfon; Sulistio, Adrian; Wong, Edgar H H; Chen, Yu-Yen; Lenzo, Jason C; Holden, James A; Blencowe, Anton; Reynolds, Eric C; Qiao, Greg G

    2016-01-01

    With the recent emergence of reports on resistant Gram-negative 'superbugs', infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been named as one of the most urgent global health threats due to the lack of effective and biocompatible drugs. Here, we show that a class of antimicrobial agents, termed 'structurally nanoengineered antimicrobial peptide polymers' (SNAPPs) exhibit sub-μM activity against all Gram-negative bacteria tested, including ESKAPE and colistin-resistant and MDR (CMDR) pathogens, while demonstrating low toxicity. SNAPPs are highly effective in combating CMDR Acinetobacter baumannii infections in vivo, the first example of a synthetic antimicrobial polymer with CMDR Gram-negative pathogen efficacy. Furthermore, we did not observe any resistance acquisition by A. baumannii (including the CMDR strain) to SNAPPs. Comprehensive analyses using a range of microscopy and (bio)assay techniques revealed that the antimicrobial activity of SNAPPs proceeds via a multimodal mechanism of bacterial cell death by outer membrane destabilization, unregulated ion movement across the cytoplasmic membrane and induction of the apoptotic-like death pathway, possibly accounting for why we did not observe resistance to SNAPPs in CMDR bacteria. Overall, SNAPPs show great promise as low-cost and effective antimicrobial agents and may represent a weapon in combating the growing threat of MDR Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:27617798

  11. Growth ability of Gram negative bacteria in free-living amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeybek, Zuhal; Binay, Ali Rıza

    2014-11-01

    When bacteria and free-living amoebae (FLAs) live both in natural waters and man-made aquatic systems, they constantly interact with each other. Some bacteria can survive and grow within FLAs. Therefore, it has recently been thought that FLAs play an important role in spreading pathogenic bacteria in aquatic systems. In this study we investigated the intracellular growing ability of 7 different Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Aeromonas salmonicida, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, L. pneumophila serogroup 3, L. pneumophila serogroup 6) in four different FLA isolates (A1-A4). Among these, four bacterial isolates (P. fluorescens, P.putida, P.pneumotropica, A.salmonicida) and two free-living amoebae isolates (A3, A4) were isolated from the tap water in our city (Istanbul). It was found that 4 different Gram-negative bacteria could grow in A1, 2 different Gram-negative bacteria could grow in A2, 4 different Gram-negative bacteria could grow in A3, 1 Gram-negative bacterium could grow in A4. In conclusion, we think that this ability of growth could vary according to the characteristics of both bacteria and FLA isolates. Also, other factors such as environmental temperature, bacterial concentration, and extended incubation period may play a role in these interactions. This situation can be clarified with future studies.

  12. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner;

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identifica......Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive...... cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial...... characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1...

  13. Analysis on n-gram statistics and linguistic features of whole genome protein sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Qi-wen; WANG Xiao-long; LIN Lei

    2008-01-01

    To obtain the statistical sequence analysis on a large number of genomic and proteomie sequences available for different organisms,the n-grams of whole genome protein sequences from 20 organisms were extracted.Their linguistic features were analyzed by two tests:Zipf power law and Shannon entropy,developed for analysis of natural languages and symbolic sequences.The natural genome proteins and the artificial genome proteins were compared with each other and some statistical features of n-grams were discovered.The results show that:the n-grams of whole genome protein sequences approximately follow the Zipf law when n is larger than 4;the Shannon n-gram entropy of natural genome proteins is lower than that of artificial proteins;a simple unigram model can distinguish different organisms;there exist organism-specific usages of "phrases" in protein sequences.It is suggested that further detailed analysis on n-gram of whole genome protein sequences will result in a powerful model for mapping the relationship of protein sequence,structure and function.

  14. Outcome of infections due to pandrug-resistant (PDR Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bliziotis Ioannis A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing problem of infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has led to re-use of polymyxins in several countries. However, there are already clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria that are resistant to all available antibiotics, including polymyxins. Methods We present a case series of patients with infections due to pathogens resistant to all antimicrobial agents tested, including polymyxins. An isolate was defined as pandrug-resistant (PDR if it exhibited resistance to all 7 anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial agents, i.e. antipseudomonal penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, quinolones, aminoglycosides, and polymyxins. Results Clinical cure of the infection due to pandrug-resistant (PDR Gram-negative bacteria, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed in 4 out of 6 patients with combination of colistin and beta lactam antibiotics. Conclusion Colistin, in combination with beta lactam antibiotics, may be a useful agent for the management of pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. The re-use of polymyxins, an old class of antibiotics, should be done with caution in an attempt to delay the rate of development of pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections.

  15. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of monobactams as antibacterial agents against gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai-Gen; Hu, Xin-Xin; Li, Cong-Ran; Li, Ying-Hong; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Bi, Chong-Wen; Tang, Sheng; You, Xue-Fu; Song, Dan-Qing

    2016-03-01

    A series of monobactam derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against susceptible and resistant Gram-negative strains, taking Aztreonam and BAL30072 as the leads. Six conjugates (12a-f) bearing PIH-like siderophore moieties were created to enhance the bactericidal activities against Gram-negative bacteria based on Trojan Horse strategy, and all of them displayed potencies against susceptible Gram-negative strains with MIC ≤ 8 μg/mL. SAR revealed that the polar substituents on the oxime side chain were beneficial for activities against resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Compounds 19c and 33a-b exhibited the promising potencies against ESBLs-producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MICs ranging from 2 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL. These results offered powerful information for further strategic optimization in search of the antibacterial candidates against MDR Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26827160

  16. Strategies for the use of bacteriocins in Gram-negative bacteria: relevance in food microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudêncio, Cláudia Vieira; Dos Santos, Miriam Teresinha; Vanetti, Maria Cristina Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized peptides that have bacteriostatic or bactericidal effects on other bacteria. The use of bacteriocins has emerged as an important strategy to increase food security and to minimize the incidence of foodborne diseases, due to its minimal impact on the nutritional and sensory properties of food products. Gram-negative bacteria are naturally resistant to the action of bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria, which are widely explored in foods. However, these microorganisms can be sensitized by mild treatments, such as the use of chelating agents, by treatment with plant essential oils or by physical treatments such as heating, freezing or high pressure processing. This sensitization is important in food microbiology, because most pathogens that cause foodborne diseases are Gram-negative bacteria. However, the effectiveness of these treatments is influenced by several factors, such as pH, temperature, the composition of the food and target microbiota. In this review, we comment on the main methods used for the sensitization of Gram-negative bacteria, especially Salmonella, to improve the action of bacteriocins produced by Gram-positive bacteria.

  17. Appraising Contemporary Strategies to Combat Multidrug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections–Proceedings and Data From the Gram-Negative Resistance Summit

    OpenAIRE

    Kollef, Marin H; Golan, Yoav; Micek, Scott T.; Shorr, Andrew F.; Marcos I. Restrepo

    2011-01-01

    The emerging problem of antibiotic resistance, especially among Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), has become a serious threat to global public health. Very few new antibacterial classes with activity against antibiotic-resistant GNB have been brought to market. Renewed and growing attention to the development of novel compounds targeting antibiotic-resistant GNB, as well as a better understanding of strategies aimed at preventing the spread of resistant bacterial strains and preserving the effica...

  18. La domesticación de las lenguas. De las gramáticas europeas a las gramáticas amerindias (de 1492 al siglo XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gabriel Caro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo se enfoca en el estudio de las gramáticas de las lenguas amerindias, el proyecto que llevó a curas y gramáticos a poner por escrito una serie de lenguas que no conocían la escritura. A través del estudio de las gramáticas de las lenguas amerindias (el náhuatl, el quechua, el muisca, podemos vislumbrar las razones que llevaron a sus autores a establecer contactos con culturas y sociedades diferentes, y además de apropiarse, de una forma novedosa, de un saber y una práctica cotidiana de los seres humanos en su existencia social. La búsqueda de la conversión de los indígenas al catolicismo, junto con la labor de los misioneros y capellanes, llevaron a un enorme esfuerzo por hacer entendibles las lenguas y los significados de estos nuevos grupos que aparecen en la historia y pensamiento europeos.

  19. Comparative analysis of bacterial viruses Bam35, infecting a gram-positive host, and PRD1, infecting gram-negative hosts, demonstrates a viral lineage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extra- and intracellular viruses in the biosphere outnumber their cellular hosts by at least one order of magnitude. How is this enormous domain of viruses organized? Sampling of the virosphere has been scarce and focused on viruses infecting humans, cultivated plants, and animals as well as those infecting well-studied bacteria. It has been relatively easy to cluster closely related viruses based on their genome sequences. However, it has been impossible to establish long-range evolutionary relationships as sequence homology diminishes. Recent advances in the evaluation of virus architecture by high-resolution structural analysis and elucidation of viral functions have allowed new opportunities for establishment of possible long-range phylogenic relationships--virus lineages. Here, we use a genomic approach to investigate a proposed virus lineage formed by bacteriophage PRD1, infecting gram-negative bacteria, and human adenovirus. The new member of this proposed lineage, bacteriophage Bam35, is morphologically indistinguishable from PRD1. It infects gram-positive hosts that evolutionarily separated from gram-negative bacteria more than one billion years ago. For example, it can be inferred from structural analysis of the coat protein sequence that the fold is very similar to that of PRD1. This and other observations made here support the idea that a common early ancestor for Bam35, PRD1, and adenoviruses existed

  20. Enhancement of Antibacterial Activity of Capped Silver Nanoparticles in Combination with Antibiotics, on Model Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Jyothi Kora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404 nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3±13.5, 19.3±6.0, and 16.0±4.8 nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing triclosan/gantrez and sodium bicarbonate Eficiência antimicrobiana in vitro de um enxaguatório bucal contendo triclosan/gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rico Pires

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Several antiseptic substances have been used as adjuncts to routine mechanical procedures of oral hygiene, based on their antimicrobial effects. The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial efficiency of a mouthwash containing Triclosan/Gantrez and sodium bicarbonate in comparison to both positive and negative controls. Standard strain samples of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus and Bacillus subtilis were used. Samples of Streptococcus mutans and Gram-negative bacilli were collected from 20 volunteers (10 with a clinically healthy periodontium and 10 presenting biofilm-associated gingivitis. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC. The results indicated that the test solution inhibited the growth of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms from the volunteers’ saliva as well as that of the standard strains at the MIC dilution of 1:20, whereas the MIC dilution of 0.12% chlorhexidine against the same bacteria was 1:80. Thus, even though the tested mouthrinse solution presented an in-vitro antimicrobial activity superior to that of a placebo, it was inferior to that of chlorhexidine.Diversas substâncias antisépticas têm sido utilizadas como adjuntos aos procedimentos mecânicos rotineiros de higiene oral, com base em seus efeitos antimicrobianos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, in vitro, a eficiência antimicrobiana de um enxaguatório bucal contendo Triclosan/Gantrez e bicarbonato de sódio, em comparação a controles positivos e negativos. Linhagens padrão de Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces viscosus e Bacillus subtilis foram utilizadas. Amostras de Streptococcus mutans e Bacilos Gram-negativos foram coletadas de 20 voluntários (10 com um periodonto clinicamente saudável e 10 com gengivite associada à presença de biofilme. A avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana foi

  2. [Antimicrobial therapy in severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat to patients in healthcare settings, and are especially prevalent and problematic in intensive therapy units. Recently, the emergence of pandrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria poses additional concerns. This review examines the clinical impact and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality among ITU patients. Beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases play the most important role in resistance to antibiotics. Despite the tendency to increased resistance, carbapenems administered by continuous infusion remain the most effective drugs in severe sepsis. Drug concentration monitoring, albeit rarely used in practice, is necessary to ensure an effective therapeutic effect.

  3. Cyclic-di-GMP signaling in the Gram-positive pathogen Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeleau, Eric; Burrus, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    The anaerobic Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile causes intestinal infections responsible for symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. Like other bacteria, C. difficile needs to sense and integrate environmental signals in order to adapt to changes and thrive in its environment. The second messenger cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) was recently recognized as a quasi-ubiquitous phenotype coordinator in bacteria. Mostly known to be involved in the transition from motile to sessile and multicellular behaviors in Gammaproteobacteria, c-di-GMP is now known to regulate many other phenotypes from cell morphogenesis to virulence, in many Gram-negative and a few Gram-positive bacteria. Herein, we review recent advances in our understanding of c-di-GMP signaling in the lifecycle of C. difficile.

  4. Efficient n-gram, Skipgram and Flexgram Modelling with Colibri Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Gompel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Counting n-grams lies at the core of any frequentist corpus analysis and is often considered a trivial matter. Going beyond consecutive n-grams to patterns such as skipgrams and flexgrams increases the demand for efficient solutions. The need to operate on big corpus data does so even more. Lossless compression and non-trivial algorithms are needed to lower the memory demands, yet retain good speed. Colibri Core is software for the efficient computation and querying of n-grams, skipgrams and flexgrams from corpus data. The resulting pattern models can be analysed and compared in various ways. The software offers a programming library for C++ and Python, as well as command-line tools.

  5. Purification and characterization of acid phosphatase from a germinating black gram (Vigna mungo L. seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaduzzaman A.K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An acid phosphatase has been isolated and purified from an extract of a germinating black gram seedling. The method was accomplished by gel filtration of a germinating black gram seedling crude extract on sephadex G-75 followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. The acid phosphatase gave a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis. The molecular weight of the acid phosphatase determined by SDS-polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis was estimated to be 25 kDa. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 5 and at temperature of 55°C. Mg2+, Zn2+ and EDTA had an inhibitory effect on the activity of the acid phosphatase. Black gram seedling acid phosphatase was activated by K+, Cu2+ and Ba2+. The Km value of the enzyme was found to be 0.49 mM for pNPP as substrate.

  6. STUDY ON SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ESBL PRODUCING GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Surgical site infections have been a major problem, because of the emergence of drug resistant bacteria, in particular B - lactamase producing bacteria. Extended spectrum beta lactamase producing gram negative organisms pose a great challenge in treatment o f SSI present study is aimed at determining multiple drug resistance in gram negative bacteria & to find out ESBL producers, in correlation with treatment outcome. A total of 120 wound infected cases were studied. Staphylococcus aureus was predominant bact erium - 20.Among gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas species is predominant (14 followed by Escherichia coli (13 , Klebsiella species (12 , Proteus (9 Citrobacter (4 Providencia (2 & Acinetobacter species (2 . Out of 56 gramnegative bacteria isolated, 20 were i dentified as ESBL producers, which was statistically significant. Delay in wound healing correlated with infection by ESBL producers, which alarms the need of abstinence from antibiotic abuse

  7. Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hae Joo; Coulibaly, Fasséli; Clow, Fiona; Proft, Thomas; Baker, Edward N

    2007-12-01

    Many bacterial pathogens have long, slender pili through which they adhere to host cells. The crystal structure of the major pilin subunit from the Gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes at 2.2 angstroms resolution reveals an extended structure comprising two all-beta domains. The molecules associate in columns through the crystal, with each carboxyl terminus adjacent to a conserved lysine of the next molecule. This lysine forms the isopeptide bonds that link the subunits in native pili, validating the relevance of the crystal assembly. Each subunit contains two lysine-asparagine isopeptide bonds generated by an intramolecular reaction, and we find evidence for similar isopeptide bonds in other cell surface proteins of Gram-positive bacteria. The present structure explains the strength and stability of such Gram-positive pili and could facilitate vaccine development. PMID:18063798

  8. [Antimicrobial therapy in severe infections with multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duszyńska, Wiesława

    2010-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria pose a serious and rapidly emerging threat to patients in healthcare settings, and are especially prevalent and problematic in intensive therapy units. Recently, the emergence of pandrug-resistance in Gram-negative bacteria poses additional concerns. This review examines the clinical impact and epidemiology of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality among ITU patients. Beta-lactamases, cephalosporinases and carbapenemases play the most important role in resistance to antibiotics. Despite the tendency to increased resistance, carbapenems administered by continuous infusion remain the most effective drugs in severe sepsis. Drug concentration monitoring, albeit rarely used in practice, is necessary to ensure an effective therapeutic effect. PMID:21413423

  9. Detection of the common resistance genes in Gram-negative bacteria using gene chip technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ting

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To design a resistance gene detection chip that could, in parallel, detect common clinical drug resistance genes of Gram-negative bacteria. Materials and Methods: Seventy clinically significant Gram-negative bacilli (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii were collected. According to the known resistance gene sequences, we designed and synthesized primers and probes, which were used to prepare resistance gene detection chips, and finally we hybridized and scanned the gene detection chips. Results: The results between the gene chip and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were compared. The rate was consistently 100% in the eight kinds of resistance genes tested (TEM, SHV, CTX-M, DHA, CIT, VIM, KPC, OXA-23. One strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the IMP, but it was not found by gene chip. Conclusion: The design of Gram-negative bacteria-resistant gene detection chip had better application value.

  10. The textcat Package for n -Gram Based Text Categorization in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Hornik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the language used will typically be the first step in most natural language processing tasks. Among the wide variety of language identification methods discussed in the literature, the ones employing the Cavnar and Trenkle (1994 approach to text categorization based on character n-gram frequencies have been particularly successful. This paper presents the R extension package textcat for n-gram based text categorization which implements both the Cavnar and Trenkle approach as well as a reduced n-gram approach designed to remove redundancies of the original approach. A multi-lingual corpus obtained from the Wikipedia pages available on a selection of topics is used to illustrate the functionality of the package and the performance of the provided language identification methods.

  11. New insights into regulation of the tryptophan biosynthetic operon in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Preciado, A; Jensen, R A; Yanofsky, C; Merino, E

    2005-08-01

    The tryptophan operon of Bacillus subtilis serves as an excellent model for investigating transcription regulation in Gram-positive bacteria. In this article, we extend this knowledge by analyzing the predicted regulatory regions in the trp operons of other fully sequenced Gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, it appears that in eight of the organisms examined, transcription of the trp operon appears to be regulated by tandem T-box elements. These regulatory elements have recently been described in the trp operons of two bacterial species. Single T-box elements are commonly found in Gram-positive bacteria in operons encoding aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and proteins performing other functions. Different regulatory mechanisms appear to be associated with variations of trp gene organization within the trp operon. PMID:15953653

  12. Características clínicas y microbiológicas de los pacientes neutropénicos febriles con neoplasias hematológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Alberto Jaimes Barragán

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron en forma retrospectiva 441 historias clínicas en el período comprendido entre enero de 2003 y diciembre de 2005. De éstas, se identificaron las características de 117 episodios de neutropenia febril en 96 pacientes. La mediana de edad fue 34 años y el 56,4% de los episodios ocurrieron en hombres. Las más frecuentes neoplasias hematológicas relacionadas con neutropenia febril fueron leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA y leucemia mieloide aguda (LMA con 45 episodios de cada una, que corresponden al 76,9%. La mediana de duración de la neutropenia fue 8 días y el 60,7% de los casos entraron en la categoría de neutropenia grave. La mortalidad global fue del 32% y el 81,5% de estas muertes estuvieron asociadas directamente con la infección. Se obtuvo aislamiento microbiológico en el 51% de los eventos. Los bacilos gram negativos (BGN constituyeron el 59% de los aislamientos microbiológicos y los cocos gram positivos el 32%. El 14,3% de los BGN aislados fueron positivos para beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE y la resistencia global a ciprofloxacina alcanzó el 31,4%. El esquema antimicrobiano empírico más frecuentemente utilizado fue ciprofloxacina más ceftriaxona; la respuesta terapéutica fue desfavorable en 65% de los casos. En el Hospital San Vicente de Paúl de Medellín siguen primando los gérmenes gram negativos y son altas las tasas de resistencia a los antibióticos utilizados tradicionalmente como de primera línea, lo que sugiere la necesidad de reevaluar la pertinencia de estos esquemas.

  13. Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli in lower respiratory tract infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashidhar Vishwanath

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lower respiratory tract infections are among important causes of morbidity and mortality for all age groups. The emergence of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli is an issue of increasing concern.A retrospective study including respiratory specimens (sputum and BAL was conducted in our tertiary care centre. Samples were processed for microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing following standard methods. Multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli causing lower respiratory tract infections were studied for their causation of disease. The effect of appropriate treatment on clinical outcome was observed.A total of 472 Gram-negative pathogens were isolated from sputum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid specimens during the study period. Among these Gram-negative pathogens 175 (37% were found to be multidrug resistant. Klebsiella pneumoniae 85 (48.6% and Acinetobacter spp. 59 (33.7% were the predominant multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli isolated. Based on clinico-microbiological correlation, 138 (78.9% multidrug resistant isolates were found to be pathogenic and the rest 37 (21.1% were considered as colonizers. After initiating appropriate antibiotic therapy, clinical improvement was seen in 110 (79.7% patients. In the patients who showed improvement, amikacin (34.3% and cefoperazone-sulbactum (21.8% were found to be the most effective drugs.A large majority of the isolated multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli were found to be pathogenic. Regular surveillance which directs appropriate empirical therapy; and good clinic-microbiological workup of each case of lower respiratory tract infection can reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with multidrug resistant organisms.

  14. Quorum sensing signal-response systems in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfort, Kai; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2016-08-11

    Bacteria use quorum sensing to orchestrate gene expression programmes that underlie collective behaviours. Quorum sensing relies on the production, release, detection and group-level response to extracellular signalling molecules, which are called autoinducers. Recent work has discovered new autoinducers in Gram-negative bacteria, shown how these molecules are recognized by cognate receptors, revealed new regulatory components that are embedded in canonical signalling circuits and identified novel regulatory network designs. In this Review we examine how, together, these features of quorum sensing signal-response systems combine to control collective behaviours in Gram-negative bacteria and we discuss the implications for host-microbial associations and antibacterial therapy. PMID:27510864

  15. Estimation of quizalofop ethyl residues in black gram (Vigna mungo L.) by gas liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Kousik; Sahoo, Sanjay Kumar; Battu, R S; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-01-01

    Quizalofop ethyl, a phenoxy propionate herbicide is used for post emergence control of annual and perennial grass weeds in broad-leaved crops in India. The experiments were designed to study the harvest time residues of quizalofop ethyl in black gram for two seasons. At harvest time, the residues of quizalofop ethyl on black gram seed, foliage and soil were found to be below the determination limit of 0.01 mg kg(-1) following a single application of the herbicide at 50 and 100 g a.i. ha(-1) for both the periods. Application of the herbicide is quite safe from a consumer and environmental point of view.

  16. Sequencing and Characterization of the xyl Operon of a Gram-Positive Bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEDA, YASUO; Takase, Kazuma; Yamato, Ichiro; Abe, Keietsu

    1998-01-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive ...

  17. Pharmacologic options for CNS infections caused by resistant Gram-positive organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppard, William J; Johnston, Carolyn J; Urmanski, Angela M

    2008-02-01

    Infectious disease continues to evolve, presenting new and challenging clinical situations for practitioners. Specific to device-related and neurosurgical-related CNS infections, Gram-positive organisms are of growing concern. Current Infection Disease Society of America guidelines for the treatment of CNS infections offer little direction after conventional therapy, consisting of vancomycin, has failed or the patient has demonstrated intolerance. A review of literature evaluating alternative therapies, specifically linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, daptomycin and tigecycline, will be presented. Interpretations of these data are offered followed by a brief presentation of future therapies, including ortavancin, telavancin, dalbavancin, ceftobiprole and iclaprim, all of which possess potent Gram-positive activity. PMID:18251666

  18. Susceptibility of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Urine Isolates to Oral Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Elizabeth B; Zucchi, Paola C; Chen, Alice; Raux, Brian R; Kirby, James E; McCoy, Christopher; Eliopoulos, George M

    2016-05-01

    Increasing resistance among Gram-negative uropathogens limits treatment options, and susceptibility data for multidrug-resistant isolates are limited. We assessed the activity of five oral agents against 91 multidrug-resistant Gram-negative urine isolates that were collected from emergency department/hospitalized patients. Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin were most active (>75% susceptibility). Susceptibilities to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin were ≤40%; empirical use of these agents likely provides inadequate coverage in areas with a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant uropathogens. PMID:26883704

  19. Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatmen...

  20. Quorum sensing signal-response systems in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papenfort, Kai; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2016-08-11

    Bacteria use quorum sensing to orchestrate gene expression programmes that underlie collective behaviours. Quorum sensing relies on the production, release, detection and group-level response to extracellular signalling molecules, which are called autoinducers. Recent work has discovered new autoinducers in Gram-negative bacteria, shown how these molecules are recognized by cognate receptors, revealed new regulatory components that are embedded in canonical signalling circuits and identified novel regulatory network designs. In this Review we examine how, together, these features of quorum sensing signal-response systems combine to control collective behaviours in Gram-negative bacteria and we discuss the implications for host-microbial associations and antibacterial therapy.

  1. Antimicrobial compounds targeting Gram-negative bacteria in food: Their mode of action and combinational effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    compromising food shelf-life or safety. Natural antimicrobial compounds have therefore gained increased interest as a label-friendly alternative that can be added directly to food products. Although natural antimicrobials constitute an interesting source of compounds, it is often not understood how...... projects concerning the efficiency of combining natural antimicrobial agents in vitro or in a food matrix. In the first project, the action mechanism behind the natural antimicrobial cationic biopolymer ε-poly-L-lysine was studied against the Gram-positive Listeria innocua and the Gram-negative Escherichia...

  2. Negative mood states and related factors in a sample of adolescent secondary-school students in Barcelona (Spain Estados de ánimo negativos y los factores relacionados en una muestra de adolescentes de enseñanza secundaria de Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Q. Ahonen

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poor mental health is a common problem in adolescence. Little information is available, however, about the factors influencing negative mood states in otherwise healthy adolescents. We aimed to describe the mood states and related factors in a sample of adolescents in the city of Barcelona (Spain. Methods: We administered a health survey to a sample of 2,727 students from public, subsidized, and private schools in Barcelona, aged approximately 14, 16, and 18 years old. To analyze the associations among moods and related factors, we used bivariate logistic regression, and fitted multivariate logistic regressions using the statistically significant variables from the bivariate analysis. To examine the possible group effects of the school on individual students, we employed multilevel analysis. Results: The frequencies of negative mood states increased with age, with girls consistently reporting more frequent negative mood states than boys. The factors associated with negative mood states were problematic alcohol use, perceived mistreatment or abuse, antisocial behavior, intention to use or current use of illegal drugs (not including cannabis, lower perceived academic performance, and feeling isolated. Conclusions: Mood states are influenced by lifestyle and social factors, about which there is little local information. To plan and implement appropriate public health interventions, more complete information about the possible areas of influence is required. To complement the information obtained from studies such as the present study, longitudinal and qualitative studies would be desirable.Introducción: El deterioro de la salud mental es un problema frecuente en la adolescencia. Sin embargo, se sabe poco de los factores influyentes en los estados de ánimo negativos en adolescentes saludables. Pretendemos describir los estados de ánimo negativos y los factores relacionados en una muestra de adolescentes de la ciudad de Barcelona. M

  3. [Health care associated multidrug-resistant bacteria in a pediatric hospital: five year experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mação, Patrícia; Lopes, João Casalta; Oliveira, Henrique; Oliveira, Guiomar; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: Nos últimos anos tem-se assistido a um aumento das infeções por bactérias multirresistentes. Os dados pediátricos no global, e em particular em Portugal, são escassos.Objectivos: Avaliar a evolução das infeções por bactérias multirresistentes associadas aos cuidados de saúde num hospital pediátrico.Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo de incidência efetuado nas enfermarias médicas, cirúrgicas e de cuidados intensivos num hospital pediátrico nível III, entre Janeiro de 2005 e Dezembro de 2009. As bactérias multirresistentes estudadas foram Staphylococcus aureus meticilino-resistente (SAMR), bacilos gram negativos produtores de β-lactamases de espectro expandido (ESBL), Enterococcus spp resistentes à vancomicina (ERV), Pseudomonas aeruginosa multirresistentes (PAMR) e Acinetobacter baumanii resistente aos carbapenems. Foram analisados dados demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriais, terapêuticos e presença de fatores de risco.Resultados: Durante o período de estudo foram identificadas 106 bactérias multirresistentes associadas, correspondentes a 72 crianças, com predomínio do sexo masculino (65,3%). As bactérias multirresistentes mais frequentemente identificadas foram SAMR (35,8%), PAMR (29,2%) e bacilos gram negativos com fenótipo ESBL (17,9%). Destas 106 bactérias multirresistentes, 45 (42,5%) foram identificadas em infeção. Ao longo do período de estudo, a proporção anual de infeções por bactérias multirresistentes variou entre 32,0% em 2006 e 55,6% em 2009 (p = 0,376). A taxa de incidência global de infeção por estas bactérias foi de 0,400 por 1 000 dias de internamento, correspondendo a 0,274 infeções por 100 internamentos, valor que se manteve estável ao longo dos cinco anos. Predominaram as infeções da corrente sanguínea (31,1%), intra-abdominais (20,0%), associadas a cateter venoso central (17,8%) e da pele e tecidos moles (11,1%). Todas as crianças tinham fatores de risco e os mais

  4. Intravenous colistin in the treatment of sepsis from multiresistant Gram-negative bacilli in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Markou, Nikolaos; Apostolakos, Haralampos; Koumoudiou, Christiana; Athanasiou, Maria; Koutsoukou, Alexandra; Alamanos, Ioannis; Gregorakos, Leonidas

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative strains in intensive care units (ICUs) has recently rekindled interest in colistin, a bactericidal antibiotic that was used in the 1960s for treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacilli. We conducted the present observational study to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous colistin in the treatment of critically ill patients with sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacilli resistant to all other antibiotics. Patients a...

  5. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean.

  6. Gramáticas y diccionarios en la enseñanza del italiano como L2

    OpenAIRE

    Porras Castro, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    [ES] No hay lengua ni hablante, autóctono o extranjero que pueda prescindir de la Gramática o del Diccionario en el proceso de enseñanza/aprendizaje de un alengua extranjera. La Gramática aquí contemplada es un proyecto abierto y un Corpus disponible por parte del profesor y el alumno. Así considerada Gramática e Investigación son campos paralelos y no antagónicos. Gramática y Diccionario constituyen los dos pilares básicos de la enseñanza de una lengua extranjera. Aprender una lengua es un p...

  7. The complete genome sequence of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunst, F; Ogasawara, N; Moszer, [No Value; Albertini, AM; Alloni, G; Azevedo, [No Value; Bertero, MG; Bessieres, P; Bolotin, A; Borchert, S; Borriss, R; Boursier, L; Brans, A; Brignell, SC; Bron, S; Brouillet, S; Bruschi, CV; Caldwell, B; Capuano, [No Value; Carter, NM; Choi, SK; Codani, JJ; Connerton, IF; Cummings, NJ; Daniel, RA; Denizot, F; Devine, KM; Dusterhoft, A; Ehrlich, SD; Emmerson, PT; Entian, KD; Errington, J; Fabret, C; Ferrari, E; Foulger, D; Fujita, M; Fujita, Y; Fuma, S; Galizzi, A; Galleron, N; Ghim, SY; Glaser, P; Goffeau, A; Golightly, EJ; Grandi, G; Guiseppi, G; Guy, BJ; Haga, K; Haiech, J; Harwood, CR; Henaut, A; Hilbert, H; Holsappel, S; Hosono, S; Hullo, MF; Itaya, M; Jones, L; Joris, B; Karamata, D; Kasahara, Y; KlaerrBlanchard, M; Klein, C; Kobayashi, Y; Koetter, P; Koningstein, G; Krogh, S; Kumano, M; Kurita, K; Lapidus, A; Lardinois, S; Lauber, J; Lazarevic, [No Value; Lee, SM; Levine, A; Liu, H; Masuda, S; Mauel, C; Medigue, C; Medina, N; Mellado, RP; Mizuno, M; Moestl, D; Nakai, S; Noback, M; Noone, D; OReilly, M; Ogawa, K; Ogiwara, A; Oudega, B; Park, SH; Parro, [No Value; Pohl, TM; Portetelle, D; Porwollik, S; Prescott, AM; Presecan, E; Pujic, P; Purnelle, B; Rapoport, G; Rey, M; Reynolds, S; Rieger, M; Rivolta, C; Rocha, E; Roche, B; Rose, M; Sadaie, Y; Sato, T; Scanlan, E; Schleich, S; Schroeter, R; Scoffone, F; Sekiguchi, J; Sekowska, A; Seror, SJ; Serror, P; Shin, BS; Soldo, B; Sorokin, A; Tacconi, E; Takagi, T; Takahashi, H; Takemaru, K; Takeuchi, M; Tamakoshi, A; Tanaka, T; Terpstra, P; Tognoni, A; Tosato, [No Value; Uchiyama, S; Vandenbol, M; Vannier, F; Vassarotti, A; Viari, A; Wambutt, R; Wedler, E; Wedler, H; Weitzenegger, T; Winters, P; Wipat, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamane, K; Yasumoto, K; Yata, K; Yoshida, K; Yoshikawa, HF; Zumstein, E; Yoshikawa, H; Danchin, A

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatl

  8. Improved annotation of conjugated bile acid hydrolase superfamily members in Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.M.; Siezen, R.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2008-01-01

    Most Gram-positive bacteria inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract are capable of hydrolysing bile salts. Bile salt hydrolysis is thought to play an important role in various biological processes in the host. Therefore, correct annotation of bacterial bile salt hydrolases (Bsh) in public databases (E

  9. Colonization and resistance dynamics of gram-negative bacteria in patients during and after hospitalization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.G. Filius (Margreet); I.C. Gyssens (Inge); I.M. Kershof (Irma); P.J. Roovers (Patty); A. Ott (Alewijn); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); H.P. Endtz (Hubert)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe colonization and resistance dynamics of aerobic gram-negative bacteria in the intestinal and oropharyngeal microfloras of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) and general wards were investigated during and after hospitalization. A total of 3,316 specimens were obtained fro

  10. A classification system for plasmids from Enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez;

    2010-01-01

    A classification system for plasmids isolated from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria was developed based on 111 published plasmid sequences from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria; mostly staphylococci. Based on PCR amplification of conserved areas of the replication initiati....... Furthermore, conjugation experiments were performed obtaining 30 transconjugants when selecting for antimicrobial resistance. Among them 19 gave no positive amplicons indicating presence of rep-families not tested for in this experimental setup.......A classification system for plasmids isolated from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria was developed based on 111 published plasmid sequences from enterococci and other Gram-positive bacteria; mostly staphylococci. Based on PCR amplification of conserved areas of the replication initiating...... genes (rep), alignment of these sequences and using a cut off value of 80% identity on both protein and DNA level, 19 replicon families (rep-families) were defined together with several unique sequences. The prevalence of these rep-families was tested on 79 enterococcal isolates from a collection...

  11. Cadmium and zinc interactions with a Gram-positive soil bacterium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plette, A.C.C.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed study is presented on the cadmium and zinc sorption to both isolated cell walls and intact, living cells of the Gram-positive soil bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis A177. Acid/base titrations were performed on isolated cell wall material to characterize the type and amount of reactive si

  12. Trace Level Rare Earth Elements Separation From Gram Scale Uranium by Calcium Fluoride Coprecipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiu-feng

    2013-01-01

    In the fission yield measurement of rare earth elements of uranium induced by neutron,and the analysis of rare earth elements in spent fuel,the separation of trace rare earth elements from a large number of uranium has very important significance.We separated trace level rare earth elements from gram scale uranium by calcium fluoride coprecipitation in this paper.

  13. Polyamine Distribution Patterns in Coryneform Bacteria and Related Gram-Positive Eubacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Hamana, Koei

    1996-01-01

    Polyamines of the nine genera of coryneform and related Gram-positive eubacteria were analyzed by HPLC. Authentic species of Microbacterium, Aureobacterium, Cellulomonas and Corynebacterium were devoid of polyamines. Arthrobacter species were divided into polyamine-absent, putrescine, cadaverine and putrescine-cadaverine types. Clavibacter contained putrescine and cadaverine. Spermidine was detected in some species of Brevibacterium, Exiguobacterium and Curtobacterium and diaminopropane in so...

  14. Pyridone Methylsulfone Hydroxamate LpxC Inhibitors for the Treatment of Serious Gram-Negative Infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, Justin I.; Brown, Matthew F.; Reilly, Usa; Price, Loren M.; Abramite, Joseph A.; Arcari, Joel; Barham, Rose; Che, Ye; Chen, Jinshan Michael; Chung, Seung Won; Collantes, Elizabeth M.; Desbonnet, Charlene; Doroski, Matthew; Doty, Jonathan; Engtrakul, Juntyma J.; Harris, Thomas M.; Huband, Michael; Knafels, John D.; Leach, Karen L.; Liu, Shenping; Marfat, Anthony; McAllister, Laura; McElroy, Eric; Menard, Carol A.; Mitton-Fry, Mark; Mullins, Lisa; Noe, Mark C.; O’Donnell, John; Oliver, Robert; Penzien, Joseph; Plummer, Mark; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Thoma, Christy; Tomaras, Andrew P.; Uccello, Daniel P.; Vaz, Alfin; Wishka, Donn G. (Pfizer)

    2012-11-09

    The synthesis and biological activity of a new series of LpxC inhibitors represented by pyridone methylsulfone hydroxamate 2a is presented. Members of this series have improved solubility and free fraction when compared to compounds in the previously described biphenyl methylsulfone hydroxamate series, and they maintain superior Gram-negative antibacterial activity to comparator agents.

  15. Different subcellular locations of secretome components of Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Ridder, Anja N. J. A.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2006-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria contain different types of secretion systems for the transport of proteins into or across the cytoplasmic membrane. Recent studies on subcellular localization of specific components of these secretion systems and their substrates have shown that they can be present at various

  16. Patterns of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Colonization in Nursing Home Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Dommeti, Parimala; WANG, Linda; Flannery, Erika L; Symons, Kathleen; Mody, Lona

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of colonization with all gram-negative bacilli (GNB) and with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB among nursing home residents with and without indwelling devices. We found that device presence increases the risk of colonization with all GNB and with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB. Colonization with ciprofloxacin-resistant GNB increases with decreasing functional status.

  17. Temperature Effect on Morphobiochemical Characters in Some Black Gram (Vigna mungo) Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manasi; Shree, Dhara

    2013-01-01

    Lack of suitable varieties and genotypes of black gram with adaptation to local conditions is among the factors affecting its production. Efforts to genetically improve the crop mostly involve identifying important morphological descriptors followed by development of advanced breeding lines for locale-specific cultivars. The present day available black gram varieties have not been properly characterized for their thermo sensitiveness with respect to morphological and biochemical characters. Hence efforts were taken in the present research to study the effect of the temperature on these characters in seven black gram varieties over different development stages. We aimed at studying the effect of 3 temperature regimes for identifying suitable stress tolerant genotypes. High percent germination (87.2%), root length (3.68 cm), carbohydrate content (3.72 mg g(-1) fresh tissue) among the genotypes was highest at 10°C-20°C temperature. High shoot length (13.39 cm), free amino acid content (3.73 mg g(-1) fresh tissue), and protein content (9.54 mg g(-1) fresh tissue) was found to be present when the genotypes were exposed to 20°C-30°C temperature. The black gram varieties J.L and PDU-1 performed best in all the temperature regimes over characters. Thus suitable varieties for all temperature regimes were identified using biochemical analysis.

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli in different age groups in a community.

    OpenAIRE

    Leistevuo, T; Leistevuo, J; Osterblad, M; Arvola, T. (Timo); Toivonen, P; Klaukka, T; Lehtonen, A; Huovinen, P.

    1996-01-01

    We measured the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal aerobic gram-negative bacilli by age in community subjects. For none of the eight antimicrobial agents studied were there any statistically significant differences in the carriage rates of resistance in different age groups. Bacterial resistance was common in all age groups, including the children, and occurred for all antimicrobial agents tested.

  19. Diversity of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine macroalgae from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Sergio; Alvarado, Pamela; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Garrido, Ignacio

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about the diversity and roles of Gram-positive and pigmented bacteria in Antarctic environments, especially those associated with marine macroorganisms. This work is the first study about the diversity and antimicrobial activity of culturable pigmented Gram-positive bacteria associated with marine Antarctic macroalgae. A total of 31 pigmented Gram-positive strains were isolated from the surface of six species of macroalgae collected in the King George Island, South Shetland Islands. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities ≥99%, 18 phylotypes were defined, which were clustered into 11 genera of Actinobacteria (Agrococcus, Arthrobacter, Brachybacterium, Citricoccus, Kocuria, Labedella, Microbacterium, Micrococcus, Rhodococcus, Salinibacterium and Sanguibacter) and one genus of the Firmicutes (Staphylococcus). It was found that five isolates displayed antimicrobial activity against a set of macroalgae-associated bacteria. The active isolates were phylogenetically related to Agrococcus baldri, Brachybacterium rhamnosum, Citricoccus zhacaiensis and Kocuria palustris. The results indicate that a diverse community of pigmented Gram-positive bacteria is associated with Antartic macroalgae and suggest its potential as a promising source of antimicrobial and pigmented natural compounds.

  20. Constructive updating/downdating of oblique projectors: a generalization of the Gram-Schmidt process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalization of the Gram-Schmidt procedure is achieved by providing equations for updating and downdating oblique projectors. The work is motivated by the problem of adaptive signal representation outside the orthogonal basis setting. The proposed techniques are shown to be relevant to the problem of discriminating signals produced by different phenomena when the order of the signal model needs to be adjusted

  1. Constructive updating/downdating of oblique projectors: a generalization of the Gram-Schmidt process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura [Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    A generalization of the Gram-Schmidt procedure is achieved by providing equations for updating and downdating oblique projectors. The work is motivated by the problem of adaptive signal representation outside the orthogonal basis setting. The proposed techniques are shown to be relevant to the problem of discriminating signals produced by different phenomena when the order of the signal model needs to be adjusted.

  2. In Vitro Activity of an Oral Streptogramin Antimicrobial, XRP2868, against Gram-Positive Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Eliopoulos, G M; Ferraro, M J; Wennersten, C B; Moellering, R C

    2005-01-01

    The comparative in vitro potency of XRP2868, a new oral semisynthetic streptogramin antibiotic, was evaluated against gram-positive bacteria. XRP2868 inhibited all staphylococci at ≤1 μg/ml and all nonpneumococcal streptococci at ≤0.25 μg/ml and was fourfold more potent than quinupristin-dalfopristin against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecium.

  3. Uma visão geral da gramática funcional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Moura Neves

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    O trabalho apresenta uma visão geral do que vem sendo chamado funcionalismo em lingüística. Contrapõem-se os modelos formalista e funcionalista e examinam-se, em especial, as propostas de gramática funcional de C. S. Dik e de M. A. K. Halliday.

  4. Expression systems for industrial Gram-positive bacteria with low guanine and cytosine content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Willem M. de; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    1997-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the development of gene expression systems for industrial Gram-positive bacteria with low guanine and cytosine content that belong to the genera Bacillus, Clostridium, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. In particular, considerable adva

  5. Nutritional composition, processing, and utilization of horse gram and moth bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, S S; Salunkhe, D K

    1985-01-01

    Horse gram and moth bean are the unexploited legumes of the tropics and subtropics grown mostly under dry-land agriculture. The chemical composition is comparable with commonly cultivated legumes. Like other legumes, these are deficient in methionine and tryptophan. Horse gram is an excellent source of iron and molybdenum. Comparatively, horse gram seeds have higher trypsin inhibitor and hemagglutinin activities and polyphenols than moth bean seeds. Dehusking, germination, cooking, and roasting have been shown to produce beneficial effects on nutritional quality of both the legumes. Both the legumes require prolonged cooking to obtain product of acceptable nature. A soak solution (1.5% NaHCO3 + 0.5% Na2CO3 + 0.75% citric acid) treatment has been shown to reduce cooking time and improve protein quality. Moth bean is mostly consumed as dhal or sprouts. The whole seeds of horse gram are generally utilized as cattle feed. However, it is consumed as a whole seed, sprouts, or whole meal by a large population in rural areas of southern India. Medical uses of these legumes have been discussed.

  6. Genomics of Methylotrophy in Gram-Positive Methylamine-Utilizing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tami L. McTaggart

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive methylotrophic bacteria have been known for a long period of time, some serving as model organisms for characterizing the specific details of methylotrophy pathways/enzymes within this group. However, genome-based knowledge of methylotrophy within this group has been so far limited to a single species, Bacillus methanolicus (Firmicutes. The paucity of whole-genome data for Gram-positive methylotrophs limits our global understanding of methylotrophy within this group, including their roles in specific biogeochemical cycles, as well as their biotechnological potential. Here, we describe the isolation of seven novel strains of Gram-positive methylotrophs that include two strains of Bacillus and five representatives of Actinobacteria classified within two genera, Arthrobacter and Mycobacterium. We report whole-genome sequences for these isolates and present comparative analysis of the methylotrophy functional modules within these genomes. The genomic sequences of these seven novel organisms, all capable of growth on methylated amines, present an important reference dataset for understanding the genomic basis of methylotrophy in Gram-positive methylotrophic bacteria. This study is a major contribution to the field of methylotrophy, aimed at closing the gap in the genomic knowledge of methylotrophy within this diverse group of bacteria.

  7. Construction and evaluation of multisite recombinatorial (Gateway cloning vectors for Gram-positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rees Catherine ED

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Gateway recombinatorial cloning system allows easy and rapid joining of DNA fragments. Here we report the construction and evaluation of three different Gram-positive vectors that can be used with the Multisite Gateway cloning system to rapidly produce new gene arrangements in plasmid constructs for use in a variety of Gram-positive bacteria. Results Comparison of patterns of reporter gene expression with conventionally constructed clones show that the presence of residual recombination (att sites does not have an effect on patterns of gene expression, although overall levels of gene expression may vary. Rapid construction of these new vectors allowed vector/gene combinations to be optimized following evaluation of plasmid constructs in different bacterial cells and demonstrates the benefits of plasmid construction using Gateway cloning. Conclusion The residual att sites present after Gateway cloning did not affect patterns of promoter induction in Gram-positive bacteria and there was no evidence of differences in mRNA stability of transcripts. However overall levels of gene expression may be reduced, possibly due to some post-transcriptional event. The new vectors described here allow faster, more efficient cloning in range of Gram-positive bacteria.

  8. Active lipoprotein precursors in the gram-positive eubacterium Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, R; Tjalsma, H; van Dijl, J.M; Leenhouts, K.; Buist, G; Venema, G

    2003-01-01

    Lipid-modified proteins play important roles at the interface between eubacterial cells and their environment. The importance of lipoprotein processing by signal peptidase II (SPase II) is underscored by the fact that this enzyme is essential for viability of the Gram-negative eubacterium Escherichi

  9. Transformations of the gram-positive honey bee pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae, by electroporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we developed an electrotransformation method for use with the Gram-positive bacterium Paenibacillus larvae—a deadly pathogen of honey bees. The method is substantially different from the only other electroporation method for a Paenibacillus species found in the literature. Using the ty...

  10. Serum procalcitonin elevation in critically ill patients at the onset of bacteremia caused by either gram negative or gram positive bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prin Sébastien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ICU, bacteremia is a life-threatening infection whose prognosis is highly dependent on early recognition and treatment with appropriate antibiotics. Procalcitonin levels have been shown to distinguish between bacteremia and noninfectious inflammatory states accurately and quickly in critically ill patients. However, we still do not know to what extent the magnitude of PCT elevation at the onset of bacteremia varies according to the Gram stain result. Methods Review of the medical records of every patient treated between May, 2004 and December, 2006 who had bacteremia caused by either Gram positive (GP or Gram negative (GN bacteria, and whose PCT dosage at the onset of infection was available. Results 97 episodes of either GN bacteremia (n = 52 or GP bacteremia (n = 45 were included. Procalcitonin levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with GN bacteremia than in those with GP bacteremia, whereas the SOFA score value in the two groups was similar. Moreover, in the study population, a high PCT value was found to be independently associated with GN bacteremia. A PCT level of 16.0 ng/mL yielded an 83.0% positive predictive value and a 74.0% negative predictive value for GN-related bacteremia in the study cohort (AUROCC = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71–0.88. Conclusion In a critically ill patient with clinical sepsis, GN bacteremia could be associated with higher PCT values than those found in GP bacteremia, regardless of the severity of the disease.

  11. N-gram analysis of 970 microbial organisms reveals presence of biological language models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathiraju Madhavi K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested previously that genome and proteome sequences show characteristics typical of natural-language texts such as "signature-style" word usage indicative of authors or topics, and that the algorithms originally developed for natural language processing may therefore be applied to genome sequences to draw biologically relevant conclusions. Following this approach of 'biological language modeling', statistical n-gram analysis has been applied for comparative analysis of whole proteome sequences of 44 organisms. It has been shown that a few particular amino acid n-grams are found in abundance in one organism but occurring very rarely in other organisms, thereby serving as genome signatures. At that time proteomes of only 44 organisms were available, thereby limiting the generalization of this hypothesis. Today nearly 1,000 genome sequences and corresponding translated sequences are available, making it feasible to test the existence of biological language models over the evolutionary tree. Results We studied whole proteome sequences of 970 microbial organisms using n-gram frequencies and cross-perplexity employing the Biological Language Modeling Toolkit and Patternix Revelio toolkit. Genus-specific signatures were observed even in a simple unigram distribution. By taking statistical n-gram model of one organism as reference and computing cross-perplexity of all other microbial proteomes with it, cross-perplexity was found to be predictive of branch distance of the phylogenetic tree. For example, a 4-gram model from proteome of Shigellae flexneri 2a, which belongs to the Gammaproteobacteria class showed a self-perplexity of 15.34 while the cross-perplexity of other organisms was in the range of 15.59 to 29.5 and was proportional to their branching distance in the evolutionary tree from S. flexneri. The organisms of this genus, which happen to be pathotypes of E.coli, also have the closest perplexity values with

  12. Gramática y gramáticas: entre el formalismo y el funcionalismo Grammar and grammars: between formalism and functionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro William Santiago Galvis

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se presentan las distintas nociones que tiene el término gramática, desde la perspectiva prescriptiva, referida al sistema organizativo de la lengua, reglas y principios que intervienen en la construcción de palabras, frases y oraciones; pasando por la no prescriptiva, de orientación científica, que estudia sistemáticamente las palabras, sus clases, posibles combinaciones, relaciones y significados que puedan atribuírseles; hasta llegar a la relacionada con los enfoques lingüí...

  13. Efficacy of the Ryu nonstaining KOH technique for rapidly determining gram reactions of food-borne and waterborne bacteria and yeasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, E. M.

    1995-01-01

    A simple and rapid (< 60 s) nonstaining technique with 3% potassium hydroxide to determine Gram reactions was tested with 495 food-borne and waterborne bacteria and yeasts. In KOH, suspensions of gram-negative bacteria become viscous and string out. Gram-positive bacteria are not affected. There was 100% correlation between the KOH string test results and gram-positive and gram-negative strains.

  14. Microcins from Enterobacteria: On the Edge Between Gram-Positive Bacteriocins and Colicins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebuffat, Sylvie

    Most bacteria and archaea produce gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides/proteins called bacteriocins, which are secreted by the producing bacteria to compete against other microorganisms in a given niche. They are considered important mediators of intra- and interspecies interactions and therefore a factor in ­maintaining the microbial diversity and stability. They are ribosomally synthesized, and most of them are produced as inactive precursor proteins, which in some cases are further enzymatically modified. Bacteriocins generally exert potent antibacterial activities directed against bacterial species closely related to the producing bacteria. Bacteriocins are abundant and diverse in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. This chapter focuses on colicins and microcins from enterobacteria (mainly Escherichia coli) and on bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Microcins are the lower-molecular-mass bacteriocins produced by Gram-negative bacteria with a repertoire of only 14 representatives. They form a very restricted family of bacteriocins, compared to the huge family of LAB bacteriocins that is constituted of several hundreds of peptides, with which microcins share common characteristics. Nevertheless, microcins also show similarities, particularly in their uptake mechanisms, with the higher-molecular-mass colicins, also produced by E. coli strains. On the edge between LAB bacteriocins and colicins, microcins appear to combine highly efficient strategies developed by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at different levels, including uptake, translocation, killing of target cells, and immunity of the producing bacteria, making them important actors of bacterial competitions and fascinating models for novel concepts toward antimicrobial strategies and against resistance mechanisms.

  15. COMPARATIVE ACTIVITY OF DORIPENEM, IMIPENEM AND MEROPENEM AGAINST GRAM NEGATIVE PATHOGENS: A PRELIMINARY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Sam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Doripenem is a new parenteral carbapenems, which has beta-lactamase stability and is not inactivated by renal dehydropeptidases. Doripenem has a spectrum of activity similar to imipenem and ertapenem against Gram-positive cocci and similar to meropenem against Gram-negative pathogens. In this study, we summarize the activity of doripenem against Gram negative bacilli in comparison with other carbapenems (Imipenem, meropenem and select group of antimicrobial drugs by disk diffusion. SETTINGS AND DESIGN A retrospective study was conducted over a period of 3 months (December 2013 to February 2014 in the Department of Microbiology of a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. METHODS AND MATERIAL Gram negative bacillary isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility with the following antibiotics: imipenem, meropenem, doripenem, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin/tazobactam, and trimethoprimsulphamethoxazole by employing the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The results were interpreted as per CLSI guidelines. RESULTS A total of 498 isolates obtained from urine, skin and soft tissue specimens and lower respiratory specimens were included in the study. The most frequent Gram-negative bacilli isolated were E. coli (31.5%, Acinetobacter spp. (20.1%, Klebsiella spp. (19.5%, P. aeruginosa (16.7%, Enterobacter spp. (8.2%, Proteus spp. (3% and Citrobacter spp. (1%. The isolates showed highest rates of susceptibility to meropenem (65.5% followed by imipenem (63.7%, doripenem (55.8%, amikacin (53.4%, piperacillin/tazobactam (48.7%, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (38.3%, ceftazidime (26.9%, ceftriaxone (23.9% and ciprofloxacin (25.3%. CONCLUSIONS In this study, the activity of doripenem was found to be lower than meropenem and imipenem against all the isolates tested. Further detailed evaluation of doripenem is required with in-vitro MIC studies and their correlation with clinical outcomes.

  16. Lesões granulomatosas encontradas em bovinos abatidos para consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Tessele

    2014-08-01

    (bacilos gram-negativos e da actinomicose (bacilos gram-positivos pôde ser observado somente nas colorações de Gram. Os diagnósticos diferenciais para essas três condições são discutidos.

  17. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Effects of Silver Nanoparticles Alone and In Combination with Zataria Multiflora Extract On Some Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Sheikholeslami (MSc

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The spread of drug resistance in bacteria have prompted researchers to seek suitable alternative for antimicrobial drugs among various medicinal plants and nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles alone and in combination with methanol extract of Zataria multiflora on five Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods: Different concentrations of the nanoparticles and extract alone or in combination with each other were tested against the bacteria, using well diffusion method. Three concentration levels (lowest, average and highest were prepared form the nanoparticles and the extract for the combination, and finally nine different combinations were prepared. Results: The extract and nanoparticles showed inhibitory effects against all the tested bacteria. The maximum diameter of growth inhibition zone in the presence of the extract and nanoparticles were observed in Streptococcus pyogenes (35.6mm and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (20.6mm, respectively. The maximum diameter of growth inhibition zone for the combination was measured in S. pyogenes (31mm. Conclusion: The combination of low concentrations of the plant extract and nanoparticles are more effective against bacteria, but the combination of their high concentrations reduce the antibacterial effects in some cases.

  18. Growth of Ag-nanoparticles in an aqueous solution and their antimicrobial activities against Gram positive, Gram negative bacterial strains and Candida fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazam, Elham Shafik; Zaheer, Zoya

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves aqueous extract as reducing as well as a capping agent in absence and presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). The resulting nanomaterials were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscope. The UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of AgNPs at 400-450 nm. TEM photographs indicate that the truncated triangular silver nanoplates and/or spherical morphology of the AgNPs with an average diameter of 25 nm have been distorted markedly in presence of CTAB. The AgNPs were almost mono disperse in nature. Antimicrobial activities of AgNPs were determined by using two bacteria (Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus MTCC-3160), Gram negative Escherichia coli MTCC-450) and one species of Candida fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 90030) with Kirby-Bauer or disc diffusion method. The zone of inhibition seems extremely good showing a relatively large zone of inhibition in both Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans strains. PMID:26796584

  19. Efficient photodynamic therapy against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria using THPTS, a cationic photosensitizer excited by infrared wavelength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Schastak

    Full Text Available The worldwide rise in the rates of antibiotic resistance of bacteria underlines the need for alternative antibacterial agents. A promising approach to kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria uses light in combination with a photosensitizer to induce a phototoxic reaction. Concentrations of 1, 10 and 100microM of tetrahydroporphyrin-tetratosylat (THPTS and different incubation times (30, 90 and 180min were used to measure photodynamic efficiency against two Gram-positive strains of S.aureus (MSSA and MRSA, and two Gram-negative strains of E.coli and P.aeruginosa. We found that phototoxicity of the drug is independent of the antibiotic resistance pattern when incubated in PBS for the investigated strains. Also, an incubation with 100microM THPTS followed by illumination, yielded a 6lg (> or =99.999% decrease in the viable numbers of all bacteria strains tested, indicating that the THPTS drug has a high degree of photodynamic inactivation. We then modulated incubation time, photosensitizer concentration and monitored the effect of serum on the THPTS activity. In doing so, we established the conditions to obtain the strongest bactericidal effect. Our results suggest that this new and highly pure synthetic compound should improve the efficiency of photodynamic therapy against multiresistant bacteria and has a significant potential for clinical applications in the treatment of nosocomial infections.

  20. Determinación de b-lactamasas de espectro extendido en gérmenes nosocomiales del Hospital San Jerónimo, Montería.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Martínez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Este estudio tuvo como objetivos establecer la prevalencia de b-lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE en bacilos Gram negativos nosocomiales y comparar tres métodos para su identificación. Materiales y métodos: Se estudiaron en el Hospital San Jerónimo (HSJ de Montería durante los años 2001 y 2002, 201 microorganismos aislados de pacientes con infección nosocomial. Para identificar la presencia de BLEE se tuvo en cuenta la actividad hidrolítica sobre la ceftazidima que midió el sinergismo del ácido clavulánico en combinación con ceftazidima. Para comparar los métodos de identificación de BLEE, se utilizaron los propuestos por el National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS difusión de disco, la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI90 y el método de combinación de disco de Jarlier. Resultados: Los resultados mostraron que 86 (43% de 201 gérmenes fueron productores de BLEE. Se presentaron BLEE en 24 (63% de 38 Acinetobacter baumannii, 11 (61% de 18 Enterobacter spp, 17 (46% de 37 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 22 (38% de 58 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 5 (31% de 16 Proteus mirabilis y 7 (20.5% de 34 Escherichia coli. Al comparar los métodos de identificación no se presentaron diferencias entre si (p>0.05. Los resultados muestran una prevalencia alta de BLEE (43% en los bacilos Gram negativos nosocomiales del HSJ de Montería. Conclusiones: El estudio logró demostrar la importancia de los métodos de identificación de BLEE como apoyo para la correcta instauración de la terapia antimicrobiana en gérmenes nosocomiales y sobre esta base sugerir la implementación de medidas de vigilancia que prevengan y disminuyan la diseminación de BLEE en este hospital.

  1. DMPD: Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1916089 Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneuk...ep;5(12):2652-60. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Gram-negative endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects...tive endotoxin: an extraordinary lipid with profound effects oneukaryotic signal transduction. Authors Raetz

  2. Computing symmetrical strength of N-grams: a two pass filtering approach in automatic classification of text documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, Deepak; Verma, Kesari; Tripathi, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    The contiguous sequences of the terms (N-grams) in the documents are symmetrically distributed among different classes. The symmetrical distribution of the N-Grams raises uncertainty in the belongings of the N-Grams towards the class. In this paper, we focused on the selection of most discriminating N-Grams by reducing the effects of symmetrical distribution. In this context, a new text feature selection method named as the symmetrical strength of the N-Grams (SSNG) is proposed using a two pass filtering based feature selection (TPF) approach. Initially, in the first pass of the TPF, the SSNG method chooses various informative N-Grams from the entire extracted N-Grams of the corpus. Subsequently, in the second pass the well-known Chi Square (χ(2)) method is being used to select few most informative N-Grams. Further, to classify the documents the two standard classifiers Multinomial Naive Bayes and Linear Support Vector Machine have been applied on the ten standard text data sets. In most of the datasets, the experimental results state the performance and success rate of SSNG method using TPF approach is superior to the state-of-the-art methods viz. Mutual Information, Information Gain, Odds Ratio, Discriminating Feature Selection and χ(2). PMID:27386386

  3. Maturation pathway of nisin and other lantibiotics : post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptides exported by Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Willem M. de; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Siezen, Roland J.

    1995-01-01

    Lantibiotics form a family of highly modified peptides which are secreted by several Gram-positive bacteria. They exhibit antimicrobial activity, mainly against other Gram-positive bacteria, by forming pores in the cellular membrane. These antimicrobial peptides are ribosomally synthesized and conta

  4. Gramática y gramáticas: entre el formalismo y el funcionalismo Grammar and grammars: between formalism and functionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro William Santiago Galvis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan las distintas nociones que tiene el término gramática, desde la perspectiva prescriptiva, referida al sistema organizativo de la lengua, reglas y principios que intervienen en la construcción de palabras, frases y oraciones; pasando por la no prescriptiva, de orientación científica, que estudia sistemáticamente las palabras, sus clases, posibles combinaciones, relaciones y significados que puedan atribuírseles; hasta llegar a la relacionada con los enfoques lingüísticos específicos, o cada teoría o modelo de análisis que se ha propuesto para abordar un sistema verbal. Es a partir de la inmersión en esta última acepción que se estudian los presupuestos básicos de los programas formalista y funcionalista. El primero de ellos es utilizado por la gramática como un aparato formal de descripción y explicación con el que se busca aclarar la capacidad de la mente humana para producir y comprender expresiones verbales, sin tener en cuenta factores no verbales, mientras que el segundo hace énfasis en la función comunicativa de las lenguas, de forma que la gramática queda subordinada a factores extralingüísticos.In this work the different concepts that the word grammar has are presented, from the prescriptive perspective, referred to the organizational system of the language, rules and principles involved in the construction of words, phrases and sentences; passing through non-prescriptive perspective, which has a scientific orientation that studies the words systematically, their kinds, combinations, relations and meanings that may be assigned to them; up to that related to specific linguistic approaches, or every theory or model of analysis that has been proposed to address a verbal system. It is from this latter conception that the basic assumptions of formalist and functionalist programs are. The first one as a formal unit of description and explanation in grammar which seeks to clarify the human

  5. Variable selection in discriminant analysis based on Gram-Schmidt process%基于Gram-Schmidt过程的判别变量筛选方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠文; 陈梅玲; Gilbert Saporta

    2011-01-01

    A new linear discriminant analysis modeling method based on Gram-Schmidt process was introduced,which firstly selected the most effective variables for classification in the independent variables set.In the meantime,the insignificant variables and the redundant information were identified and removed from the independent variables set.The selected variables were transformed into a set of orthogonal vectors by Gram-Schmidt process.Not only can the proposed method accomplish variable selection in linear discrimination,but also overcome the multi-collinearity problem effectively.Since F-statistic works as a criterion to verify the discrimination effect of each selected variable,it helps analysts to understand the analysis result.In order to test the reasonableness and effectiveness of the method,a simulation experiment was carried out.The result indicates that the proposed method can lead to a reasonable and precise conclusion.%利用Gram-Schmidt过程,在自变量集合中选择对判别分类解释性最强的信息,删除对分类无显著解释作用的信息以及重复解释的信息,并把挑选出来的解释变量集合变换成若干直交变量.一方面实现了判别分析模型中的变量筛选,同时也解决了自变量多重共线条件下的有效建模问题.在选入变量的过程中运用F统计量检验变量的判别作用,更容易被统计应用人员所接受.为了说明所提算法的合理性和有效性,以Fisher判别分析建模为例,通过仿真数据建模取得了合理准确的分析结论.

  6. Serum procalcitonin elevation in elderly patients with coronary heart disease at the onset of septic shock caused by either Gram negative or Gram positive bacteremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Dao-zheng; MA Huan; WANG Shou-hong; WU Yan; QIN Tie-he; TAN Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Septic shock caused by bacteremia is a life-threatening infection whose prognosis is highly dependent on early recognition and appropriate treatment.Procalcitonin (PCT) has been shown to accurately and quickly distinguish bacteremia from noninfectious inflammatory states in critically severe patients.However,the extent of PCT magnitude elevation according to the Gram stain result in elderly patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) at the onset of septic shock caused by bacteremia varies,and has not been clearly elucidated.Methods The medical records of advanced age (non-neutropenic) patient with CHD and septic shock between Mar 2013 and Jun 2015 who had bacteremia caused by either Gram-positive (GP) bacteria or Gram-negative (GN) bacteria were reviewed,and the levels of PCT,C-reactive (CRP) protein and white blood cells count (WBC) in both groups were analyzed.Results 75 episodes of either GN bacteremia (n =40) or GP bacteremia (n =35) were enrolled.PCT levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with GN bacteremia than in those with GP bacteremia [(8.93 ± 17.58) vs.(64.42 ± 58.56) ng/L (P < 0.001)],whereas there was no significant difference in CRP and WBC (P > 0.05).Moreover,a high PCT level was found to be independently associated with GN bacteremia in this study population.A PCT level of 19.69 ng/mL yielded a 72.5% sensitivity,a 91.4% specificity,an 8.43 positive likelihood ratio and a 0.30 negative likelihood ratio for GN-related bacteremia in the study cohort [AUROCC =0.870 (0.041),95% CI (0.790-0.949)].Conclusion In an elderly patient (non-neutropenic)with CHD and septic shock,GN bacteremia could be associated with higher PCT values than those found in GP bacteremia (PCT > 19.69 ng/mL).

  7. Complexity in Animal Communication: Estimating the Size of N-Gram Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, new techniques that allow conditional entropy to estimate the combinatorics of symbols are applied to animal communication studies to estimate the communication’s repertoire size. By using the conditional entropy estimates at multiple orders, the paper estimates the total repertoire sizes for animal communication across bottlenose dolphins, humpback whales and several species of birds for an N-gram length of one to three. In addition to discussing the impact of this method on studies of animal communication complexity, the reliability of these estimates is compared to other methods through simulation. While entropy does undercount the total repertoire size due to rare N-grams, it gives a more accurate picture of the most frequently used repertoire than just repertoire size alone.

  8. Operation of the TSTA (Tritium Systems Test Assembly) with 100 gram tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March of 1988 full operation of the 4-column isotope separation system (ISS) was realized in runs that approximated the design load of tritium. Previous operations had been fraught with operating difficulties principally due to external systems. This report will examine the recent highly successful 6-day period of operation. During this time the system was cooled from room temperature, loaded with hydrogen isotopes including 109 grams of tritium, integrated with the transfer pumping, impurity injection, and impurity removal systems, as well as the remote computer control system. At the end of the operation 12 grams of tritium having a measured purity of 99.987% (remainder deuterium) were offloaded from the system. Observed profiles in the columns in general agree with computer models. A Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP) of 5.0 cm is confirmed. 3 refs., 5 figs

  9. STUDIES ON THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL MUTAGEN (GAMMA IRRADIATION IN BLACK GRAM (VIGNA MUNGO (L. HEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *M. DHASARATHAN, 1N. MEENAKSHIGANESAN AND 2S. GEETHA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Black gram (Vigna mungo (L. Hepper variety TNAU (Bg CO 6 was exposed to varying doses of gamma rays to study their effect on various characters like seed germination and seedling survival, plant height at 30th day and at maturity, pollen and seed fertility. In M1 generation the results revealed that there was more reduction at higher doses compared to lower doses for all the characters studied. The higher doses of gamma rays lead to lethal injury and sterility. Effects on these traits have been attributed to the physiological disturbance or chromosomal damage of the cells caused by the gamma rays. The results of the present study clearly indicate that different doses of gamma rays can be effectively utilized to create variability for various quantitative traits in black gram.

  10. β-Lactam Resistance Mechanisms: Gram-Positive Bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jed F; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2016-01-01

    The value of the β-lactam antibiotics for the control of bacterial infection has eroded with time. Three Gram-positive human pathogens that were once routinely susceptible to β-lactam chemotherapy-Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus-now are not. Although a fourth bacterium, the acid-fast (but not Gram-positive-staining) Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has intrinsic resistance to earlier β-lactams, the emergence of strains of this bacterium resistant to virtually all other antibiotics has compelled the evaluation of newer β-lactam combinations as possible contributors to the multidrug chemotherapy required to control tubercular infection. The emerging molecular-level understanding of these resistance mechanisms used by these four bacteria provides the conceptual framework for bringing forward new β-lactams, and new β-lactam strategies, for the future control of their infections. PMID:27091943

  11. Language Classification using N-grams Accelerated by FPGA-based Bloom Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, A; Gokhale, M

    2007-09-13

    N-Gram (n-character sequences in text documents) counting is a well-established technique used in classifying the language of text in a document. In this paper, n-gram processing is accelerated through the use of reconfigurable hardware on the XtremeData XD1000 system. Our design employs parallelism at multiple levels, with parallel Bloom Filters accessing on-chip RAM, parallel language classifiers, and parallel document processing. In contrast to another hardware implementation (HAIL algorithm) that uses off-chip SRAM for lookup, our highly scalable implementation uses only on-chip memory blocks. Our implementation of end-to-end language classification runs at 85x comparable software and 1.45x the competing hardware design.

  12. When Ribonucleases Come into Play in Pathogens: A Survey of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Jester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that RNA stability plays critical roles in bacterial adaptation and survival in different environments like those encountered when bacteria infect a host. Bacterial ribonucleases acting alone or in concert with regulatory RNAs or RNA binding proteins are the mediators of the regulatory outcome on RNA stability. We will give a current update of what is known about ribonucleases in the model Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis and will describe their established roles in virulence in several Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria that are imposing major health concerns worldwide. Implications on bacterial evolution through stabilization/transfer of genetic material (phage or plasmid DNA as a result of ribonucleases' functions will be covered. The role of ribonucleases in emergence of antibiotic resistance and new concepts in drug design will additionally be discussed.

  13. Widespread abundance of functional bacterial amyloid in Mycolata and other Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordal, Peter Bruun; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Larsen, Poul;

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, extracellular functional bacterial amyloid (FuBA) has been detected and characterized in only a few bacterial species, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Gram-positive Streptomyces coelicolor. Here we have probed Gram-positive bacteria with conformationally specific...... antibodies to reveal the existence of FuBA in 12 out of 14 examined Mycolata species as well as six other examined distantly related species belonging to the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Most of the bacteria produced extracellular fimbria, sometimes in copious amounts, and in two cases large...... extracellular fibrils were also produced. In three cases, FuBA was only revealed after extensive removal of extracellular material by saponification, indicating an integrated attachment within the cellular envelope. Spores from species within the genera Streptomyces, Bacillus and Nocardia were all coated with...

  14. Sulfonylpiperidines as novel, antibacterial inhibitors of Gram-positive thymidylate kinase (TMK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Botella, Gabriel; Loch, James T; Green, Oluyinka M; Kawatkar, Sameer P; Olivier, Nelson B; Boriack-Sjodin, P Ann; Keating, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Thymidylate kinase (TMK) is an essential enzyme for DNA synthesis in bacteria, phosphorylating deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) to deoxythymidine diphosphate (dTDP), and thus is a potential new antibacterial drug target. Previously, we have described the first potent and selective inhibitors of Gram-positive TMK, leading to in vivo validation of the target. Here, a structure-guided design approach based on the initial series led to the discovery of novel sulfonylpiperidine inhibitors of TMK. Formation of hydrogen bonds with Arg48 in Staphylococcus aureus TMK was key to obtaining excellent enzyme affinity, as verified by protein crystallography. Replacement of a methylene linker in the series by a sulfonamide was accomplished with retention of binding conformation. Further optimization of logD yielded phenol derivative 11, a potent inhibitor of TMK showing excellent MICs against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive bacteria and >10(5) selectivity versus the human TMK homologue. PMID:23206863

  15. Strategies to Improve the Accuracy of Mars-GRAM Sensitivity Studies at Large Optical Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.; Badger, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM’s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL). It has been discovered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) site selection process that Mars-GRAM when used for sensitivity studies for MapYear=0 and large optical depth values such as tau=3 is less than realistic. A comparison study between Mars atmospheric density estimates from Mars-GRAM and measurements by Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has been undertaken for locations of varying latitudes, Ls, and LTST on Mars. The preliminary results from this study have validated the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) limb data. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). MGCM results that were used for Mars-GRAM with MapYear=0 were from a MGCM run with a fixed value of tau=3 for the entire year at all locations. Unrealistic energy absorption by uniform atmospheric dust leads to an unrealistic thermal energy balance on the polar caps. The outcome is an inaccurate cycle of condensation/sublimation of the polar caps and, as a consequence, an inaccurate cycle of total atmospheric mass and global-average surface pressure. Under an assumption of unchanged temperature profile and hydrostatic equilibrium, a given percentage change in surface pressure would produce a corresponding percentage change in density at all altitudes. Consequently, the final result of a change in surface pressure is an imprecise atmospheric density at all altitudes. To solve this pressure-density problem, a density factor value was determined for tau=.3, 1 and 3 that will adjust the input values of MGCM MapYear 0 pressure and density to achieve a better match of Mars-GRAM MapYear 0 with MapYears 1 and 2 MGCM output

  16. Protein transport across the cell wall of monoderm Gram-positive bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Brian M.; Marquis, Hélène

    2012-01-01

    In monoderm (single membrane) Gram-positive bacteria, the majority of secreted proteins are first translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane into the inner wall zone. For a subset of these proteins, final destination is within the cell envelope either as membrane-anchored or cell wall-anchored proteins, whereas another subset of proteins is destined to be transported across the cell wall into the extracellular milieu. Although the cell wall is a porous structure, there is evidence that, for...

  17. Bacterial glycobiology: rhamnose-containing cell wall polysaccharides in Gram-positive bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Mistou, Michel-Yves; Sutcliffe, Iain; van Sorge, Nina

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the Gram-positive cell wall is typically described as containing peptidoglycan, proteins and essential secondary cell wall structures called teichoic acids, which comprise approximately half of the cell wall mass. The cell walls of many species within the genera Streptococcus, Enterococcus and Lactococcus contain large amounts of the sugar rhamnose, which is incorporated in cell wall-anchored polysaccharides (CWP) that possibly function as homologues of well-studied wall te...

  18. Chlorhexidine resistance in a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from an aquatic source

    OpenAIRE

    Sekavec, Jeffrey G.; Moore, William T.; Gillock, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative bacterium of considerable importance in both clinical, especially nosocomial infections, and zoonotic respects, both aquatic and terrestrial infections. In addition to the ability to thrive in a wide range of conditions, A. hydrophila is resistant to numerous antibiotics and antimicrobials. In conjunction with Kansas State University and the Kansas Water Office, water samples from various locations within Kansas were screened for organisms resistant to ...

  19. Immunomodulatory role of leptin treatment in experimental sepsis caused by gram negative bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Koca, Cemile; KAVAKLI, Havva ŞAHİN; ALICI, Özlem

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of leptin treatment on circulating inflammatory cytokines and on tissue damage in experimental rat model of gram-negative sepsis. Materials and methods: Adult male Wistar rats, 28 in total, were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 7): sham, leptin, sepsis, and sepsis group treated with leptin (sepsis+leptin). Sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 2 × 1010 CFU of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Leptin and sepsis+leptin groups received a single dose ip ...

  20. Structural studies of the carbohydrate binding domains LysM & G5 from Gram positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Fuglsang

    Gram positive bakterier er dækket af en ydre cellevæg, bestående af et komplekst netværk af sukkerkæder. Denne ydre cellevæg udgør en vigtig barriere, som har til formål at opretholde bakteriens form og modstå det høje osmotiske tryk, der er til stede inde i bakterie-cellen. Et stort antal protei...

  1. Prevalence of multiresistant gram-negative organisms in a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty Trinad

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial resistance is fast becoming a global concern with rapid increases in multidrug-resistant Gram negative organisms. The prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing clinical isolates increases the burden on implementing infectious disease management in low socio-economic regions. As incidence can vary widely between regions, this study was done to determine resistance patterns of Gram-negative organisms at Bugando Medical Center, a tertiary hospital in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods A total of 800 clinical samples (urine, wound swab, pus, blood, aspirate, sputum etc were processed over a period of 6 months. Gram-negative bacteria were identified using conventional in-house biochemical tests and susceptibility to common antibiotics done using disc diffusion methods. The disc approximation method was used to identify ESBL producers. Results A total of 377 Gram-negative bacteria (GNB recovered from 377 clinical specimens were analyzed of which 76.9% were Enterobacteriaceae. Among all GNB, 110/377 (29.2% were found to be ESBL producers. Species specific ESBLs rate among Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp, Proteus spp and other enterobacteria were 63.7%, 24.4%, 17.7%, 6.4% and 27.9% respectively. A statistically significant higher number of inpatients 100/283 (35.3% compared to 10/94 (10.6% of outpatients had ESBL-producing organisms (p = 0.000023. Rates of resistances to gentamicin, tetracycline, sulphamethaxazole/trimethoprim and ciprofloxacin were significantly higher among ESBLs isolates than non-ESBL isolates (p = 0.000001. Conclusion ESBL producing organisms are common at BMC (Bugando Medical Center and pose a challenge to antibiotic therapy. Successful implementation of a routine detection of ESBL production is essential in designing appropriate antibiotic prescribing policies and infection control intervention programmes.

  2. Properties of a Gram-Posi tive Bacteriolytic Activity from an Oral Clinical Isolate

    OpenAIRE

    Grenier, D

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise an oral bacterial isolate possessing extracellular bacteriolytic activity and to determine the basic properties of this activity. The lytic strain L1 was a gram-positive pleomorphic rod that grew only under anaerobic conditions. Glucose and raffinose were fermented whereas catalase and urease were not produced. The activity spectrum of a crude lytic fraction was restricted to strains of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus. On the basis of ...

  3. Transformation of Actinomyces spp. by a gram-negative broad-host-range plasmid.

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, M K; Kozelsky, C S

    1994-01-01

    The gram-negative broad-host-range vector pJRD215 was transferred by electroporation into strains of Actinomyces viscosus or Actinomyces naeslundii at efficiencies which ranged from 10(2) to 10(7) transformants per microgram of plasmid DNA. The Actinomyces transformants expressed pJRD215-encoded resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin. Moreover, the transforming plasmid DNA had not undergone any deletions or rearrangements, nor had it integrated into the genomes of these strains.

  4. Gram-positive antimicrobial activity of amino acid-based hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwansyah, I; Li, Yong-Qiang; Shi, Wenxiong; Qi, Dianpeng; Leow, Wan Ru; Tang, Mark B Y; Li, Shuzhou; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-01-27

    Antimicrobial hydrogels are prepared based on the co-assembly of commercial Fmoc-phenylalanine and Fmoc-leucine, which act as the hydrogelator and antimicrobial building block, respectively. This co-assembled antimicrobial hydrogel is demonstrated to exhibit selective bactericidal activity for gram-positive bacteria while being biocompatible with normal mammalian cells, showing great potential as an antimicrobial coating for clinical anti-infective applications.

  5. In vitro activity of ciprofloxacin against aerobic gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Rudin, J E; Norden, C W; Shinners, E M

    1984-01-01

    For 177 gram-negative isolates, the MICs for ciprofloxacin ranged from 0.02 microgram/ml (Escherichia coli) to 0.31 microgram/ml (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). In time-kill curves, ciprofloxacin at 8 X the MIC almost completely killed 10(6) CFU of P. aeruginosa by 24 h. Ciprofloxacin at 4 X the MIC allowed bacterial regrowth by 24 h, with development of partial resistance to ciprofloxacin.

  6. Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria induce a common early response in human monocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Ghai Rohit; Tchatalbachev Svetlin; Hossain Hamid; Chakraborty Trinad

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We infected freshly isolated human peripheral monocytes with live bacteria of three clinically important gram-positive bacterial species, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Listeria monocytogenes and studied the ensuing early transcriptional response using expression microarrays. Thus the observed response was unbiased by signals originating from other helper and effector cells of the host and was not limited to induction by solitary bacterial constituents...

  7. Oritavancin: a novel glycolipopeptide active against Gram-positive pathogens including multiresistant strains

    OpenAIRE

    Bouza, Emilio; Burillo, Almudena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oritavancin is a glycolipopeptide antibiotic under investigation for the treatment of serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Oritavancin has demonstrated rapid dose-dependent bactericidal activity towards vancomycin-susceptible and -resistant enterococci, meticillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), heteroresistant VISA (hVISA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) and small-colony variants of S. aure...

  8. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns among respiratory isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a Turkish university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Gonlugur Ugur; Bakici Mustafa; Akkurt Ibrahim; Efeoglu Tanseli

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Gram-negative bacteria cause most nosocomial respiratory infections. At the University of Cumhuriyet, we examined 328 respiratory isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumanii organisms in Sivas, Turkey over 3 years. We used disk diffusion or standardized microdilution to test the isolates against 18 antibiotics. Results We cultured organisms from sputum (54%), tracheal aspirate (25%), and bronchial lavage fluid (21%). The most common organisms were Klebsiella ...

  9. Synthetic teichoic acid conjugate vaccine against nosocomial Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverde, Diana; Wobser, Dominique; Romero-Saavedra, Felipe; Hogendorf, Wouter; van der Marel, Gijsbert; Berthold, Martin; Kropec, Andrea; Codee, Jeroen; Huebner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) are amphiphilic polymers that are important constituents of the cell wall of many Gram-positive bacteria. The chemical structures of LTA vary among organisms, albeit in the majority of Gram-positive bacteria the LTAs feature a common poly-1,3-(glycerolphosphate) backbone. Previously, the specificity of opsonic antibodies for this backbone present in some Gram-positive bacteria has been demonstrated, suggesting that this minimal structure may be sufficient for vaccine development. In the present work, we studied a well-defined synthetic LTA-fragment, which is able to inhibit opsonic killing of polyclonal rabbit sera raised against native LTA from Enterococcus faecalis 12030. This promising compound was conjugated with BSA and used to raise rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Subsequently, the opsonic activity of this serum was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay and specificity was confirmed by an opsonophagocytic inhibition assay. The conjugated LTA-fragment was able to induce specific opsonic antibodies that mediate killing of the clinical strains E. faecalis 12030, Enterococcus faecium E1162, and community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strain MW2 (USA400). Prophylactic immunization with the teichoic acid conjugate and with the rabbit serum raised against this compound was evaluated in active and passive immunization studies in mice, and in an enterococcal endocarditis rat model. In all animal models, a statistically significant reduction of colony counts was observed indicating that the novel synthetic LTA-fragment conjugate is a promising vaccine candidate for active or passive immunotherapy against E. faecalis and other Gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Syndecan-1 Is an in Vivo Suppressor of Gram-positive Toxic Shock*

    OpenAIRE

    HAYASHIDA, KAZUTAKA; Chen, Ye; BARTLETT, ALLISON H.; PARK, PYONG WOO

    2008-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans bind to and regulate many inflammatory mediators in vitro, suggesting that they serve an important role in influencing inflammatory responses in vivo. Here we evaluated the role of syndecan-1, a major heparan sulfate proteoglycan, in modulating inflammatory responses in Gram-positive toxic shock, a systemic disease that is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Syndecan-1-null and wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally wit...

  11. Apriori and N-gram Based Chinese Text Feature Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晔; 黄上腾

    2004-01-01

    A feature extraction, which means extracting the representative words from a text, is an important issue in text mining field. This paper presented a new Apriori and N-gram based Chinese text feature extraction method, and analyzed its correctness and performance. Our method solves the question that the exist extraction methods cannot find the frequent words with arbitrary length in Chinese texts. The experimental results show this method is feasible.

  12. Small-Molecule Inhibitors of Gram-Negative Lipoprotein Trafficking Discovered by Phenotypic Screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Sarah M.; Fleming, Paul R.; MacCormack, Kathleen; McLaughlin, Robert E.; Whiteaker, James D.; Narita, Shin-ichiro; Mori, Makiko; Tokuda, Hajime; Miller, Alita A.

    2015-01-01

    In Gram-negative bacteria, lipoproteins are transported to the outer membrane by the Lol system. In this process, lipoproteins are released from the inner membrane by the ABC transporter LolCDE and passed to LolA, a diffusible periplasmic molecular chaperone. Lipoproteins are then transferred to the outer membrane receptor protein, LolB, for insertion in the outer membrane. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of novel pyridineimidazole compounds that inhibit this process. Esch...

  13. Quinupristin-Dalfopristin Resistance among Gram-Positive Bacteria in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Luh, Kwen-Tay; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Pan, Hui-Ju; Chen, Yu-Chi; Lu, Jang-Jih; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Ho, Shen-Wu

    2000-01-01

    To understand quinupristin-dalfopristin resistance among clinical isolates of gram-positive bacteria in Taiwan, where this agent is not yet available for clinical use, we evaluated 1,287 nonduplicate isolates recovered from January 1996 to December 1999 for in vitro susceptibility to quinupristin-dalfopristin and other newer antimicrobial agents. All methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates were susceptible to quinupristin-dalfopristin. High rates of nonsusceptibility to ...

  14. NDM-1 (New Delhi metallo beta lactamase-1 producing Gram-negative bacilli: Emergence & clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Ahmad Fomda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Backgound & objectives: Resistance to carbapenems in Gram-negative bacteria conferred by NDM-1 is a global health problem. We investigated the occurrence of NDM-1 in clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a tertiary care hospital in Kashmir valley, India. Methods: Gram-negative bacilli from different clinical isolates were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method and interpreted using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Isolates resistant to carbapenems were subjected to different phenotypic test such as modified Hodge test (MHT, boronic acid and oxacillin based MHT ( BA-MHT and OXA-MHT, combined disk test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC with imipenem and imipenem -EDTA for determination of class B metallo enzymes. Presence of blaNDM-1 gene was established by PCR and confirmed by sequencing. Results: Of the total 1625 Gram-negative isolates received, 100 were resistant to imipenem. Of the 100 isolates, 55 (55% were positive by modified Hodge test indicating carbapenemase production. Of the 100 isolates tested by MHT, BA-MHT and OXA-MHT, 29 (29% isolates belonged to Class A and 15 (15% to Class B, while 56 (56% isolates were negative. Of the 15 class B metallo beta lactamase producers, nine carried the blaNDM-1 gene. NDM-1 was found among Escherichia coli (2 isolates, Klebsiella pneumoniae (2 isolates, Citrobacter freundii (3 isolates, Acinetobacter spp (1 isolate, and one isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Isolates were resistant to all antibiotic tested except polymyxin B and tigecycline. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed the presence of clinical isolates expressing NDM-1 in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India. These isolates harbour plasmid mediated multiple drug resistant determinants and can disseminate easily across several unrelated genera. To halt their spread, early identification of these isolates is mandatory.

  15. Broad Specificity Efflux pumps and Their Role in Multidrug Resistance of Gram Negative Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Nikaido, Hiroshi; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance mechanisms reported in Gram-negative bacteria are producing a worldwide health problem. The continuous dissemination of «multi-drug resistant» (MDR) bacteria drastically reduces the efficacy of our antibiotic “arsenal” and consequently increases the frequency of therapeutic failure. In MDR bacteria, the over-expression of efflux pumps that expel structurally-unrelated drugs contributes to the reduced susceptibility by decreasing the intracellular concentration of antibio...

  16. A Novel Fluorescent Protein-Based Biosensor for Gram-Negative Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Yan Y.; Ho, Bow; Ding, Jeak L.

    2002-01-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) based on rational computational design was performed to create a fluorescence-based biosensor for endotoxin and gram-negative bacteria. EGFP mutants (EGFPi) bearing one (G10) or two (G12) strands of endotoxin binding motifs were constructed and expressed in an Escherichia coli host. The EGFPi proteins were purified and tested for their efficacy as a novel fluorescent biosensor. After efficient removal of lipopolysaccharide...

  17. 134Cs transfer factors to green gram and soybean as influenced by waste mica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse pot culture experiment was carried out to study the 134Cs transfer factors from soils to green gram and soybean as influenced by waste mica application (0, 10, 20, 40 g mica kg−1 soil) and compared with muriate of potash (MOP) application (0.17 g kg−1 soil). For the study, the soils were contaminated with 134Cs radionuclide 37 kBq kg−1 soil. The shoot biomass and K uptake by crops were significantly improved with waste mica application (40 g kg−1 soil). Compared to control, waste mica and MOP application significantly improved the yield, K content in plant and its uptake. Amongst the soils, crops grown in vertisol recorded higher shoot biomass compared to inceptisol and ultisol. Irrespective of the treatments, higher 134Cs transfer factors were seen in ultisol (0.30) as compared to inceptisol (0.16) and vertisol (0.13). It was observed that higher the K concentration in soil and plant, lowered 134Cs transfer to green gram and soybean. The study recommended that waste mica 20 g kg−1 would be useful for checking the 134Cs transfer factors from soils to green gram and soybean. - Highlights: ►Effect of waste mica on 134Cs transfer factors (TF) to green gram and soybean was studied. ►134Cs TF were higher in ultisol as compared to inceptisol and vertisol. ►Higher the K concentration in shoot drastically lowered 134Cs TF to crops. ►Waste mica 20 g/kg was useful to check 134Cs TF without compromising on crop yield.

  18. Risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infection caused by multidrug resistant gram-negative bacilli in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana V. Arnoni

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for nosocomial bloodstream infections by multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli. From November 2001 to December 2003, in the Pediatric Department of the Santa Casa de São Paulo, a retrospective case-control study was developed concerning patients who had nosocomial bloodstream infection caused by Gram-negative bacilli. Patients with multidrug resistant infections were designated as case patients, and control patients were those with an infection that did not meet the criteria for multidrug resistance. Previous use of central venous catheter and previous use of vancomycin plus third generation cephalosporins were associated to a higher chance of infections by multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacilli (Odds ratio - 5.8 and 5.2, respectively. Regarding sensitivity of the isolated agents, 47.8% were multidrug resistant, 54.2% were Klebsiella spp. ESBL producers and 36.4% were imipenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lethality rate was 36.9% in the studied cases and this rate was significantly higher in the group of patients with multidrug resistant infections (p=0.013. Risk factor identification as well as the knowledge of the susceptibility of the nosocomial infectious agents gave us the possibility to perform preventive and control strategies to reduce the costs and mortality related to these infections.

  19. Detection of Cross Site Scripting Attack in Wireless Networks Using n-Gram and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Ho Choi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of attacks targeting the web are aiming at the weak point of web application. Even though SQL injection, which is the form of XSS (Cross Site Scripting attacks, is not a threat to the system to operate the web site, it is very critical to the places that deal with the important information because sensitive information can be obtained and falsified. In this paper, the method to detect themalicious SQL injection script code which is the typical XSS attack using n-Gram indexing and SVM (Support Vector Machine is proposed. In order to test the proposed method, the test was conducted after classifying each data set as normal code and malicious code, and the malicious script code was detected by applying index term generated by n-Gram and data set generated by code dictionary to SVM classifier. As a result, when the malicious script code detection was conducted using n-Gram index term and SVM, the superior performance could be identified in detecting malicious script and the more improved results than existing methods could be seen in the malicious script code detection recall.

  20. Emergence of Pan-drug resistance amongst gram negative bacteria! The First case series from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghafur

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increasing prevalence of carbapenem resistant Gram negative bacteria is a serious clinical and public health challenge. Bacteria resistant to all available antibiotics (Pan Drug Resistance herald the onset of post antibiotics era. We hereby report clinical profile of 13 patients with pan drug resistant gram negative isolates. Methods:Retrospective analysis of 13 patients with pan drug resistant gram negative isolates over the last 18 months was done by medical records review. Identification of the isolates and susceptibility testing was done using VITEK auto analyzer in concordance with the corresponding CLSI guidelines. Results:Out of four patients with bacteremic isolates, three patients received colistin based combination therapy. Though two of these patients had microbiologic clearance, all the three died. Out of the 9 patients with non bacteremic isolates, 4 had infection and 5 had colonization. Three (out of four were treated with combination therapy including colistin and one patient received colistin monotherapy. All four patients had microbiological clearance. Three patients had clinical cure and were discharged. One patient later developed bacteremia and died. Conclusion:Infections, particularly blood stream with pan drug resistant organisms has a higher mortality. Urgent studies to reevaluate existing therapeutic options and research into new antibiotic molecules are the need of the hour. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(3: 86-91

  1. Oligosaccharins of black gram (Vigna mungo L.) as affected by processing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girigowda, K; Prashanth, S J; Mulimani, V H

    2005-12-01

    The oligosaccharide content was determined in 12 different cultivars of black gram. The effect of various treatments such as soaking, cooking, and enzyme treatment on the raffinose family oligosaccharides of dry seeds and flour was studied. Ajugose, a higher oligosaccharide (DP 6) found in trace quantities in seeds, was shown in black gram by HPLC. The percent reduction of raffinose, stachyose, verbascose, and ajugose after soaking for 16 hr was 41.66%, 47.61%, 28.48%, and 26.82%, respectively in Local-I variety and 43.75%, 20.58%, 23.60%, and 15.88%, respectively in Local-II variety. Cooking for 60 min resulted in decrease of 100% for raffinose, 76.19% for stachyose, 36.39% for verbascose, and 60.97% for ajugose in Local-I variety and 100% for raffinose, 55.88% for stachyose, 48.52% for verbascose, and 56.07% for ajugose in Local-II variety. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of 3 hr enzyme-treated samples revealed almost complete hydrolysis of raffinose family of oligosaccharides. Among the different methods employed, enzyme treatment was found to be the most effective for removing alpha-galactosides in black gram.

  2. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  3. Simple Method for Detection of Metallo – β–Lactamase Among Gram Negative Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbapenem resistance due to the production of metallo-β -lactamase (MBL in Gram-negative organism is an increasing public health problem. Aim: The purpose of this study is to detectMBL in Gram Negative bacterial isolates among Ventilator Associated Pneumonia patients. Materials and Methods: Phenotypic detection of MBL was done by three methods: 1.Modified Hodge Test (MHT 2.Combined disc test (CDT 3.Double Disc Synergy Test (DDST. Results: Out of 126 gram negative bacterial isolates, 80 (63.49% showed resistance to carbapenem group of drugs. Among them maximum resistance was shown by Acinetobacter baumanii (90.32%, followed by Klebseilla pneumoniae (45.7%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26%. Out of 80 isolates, 66 were positive for MBL by MHT, 64 by CDT and 61 were detected positive for MBL by DDST. Conclusion: MHT and CDT were found equally efficient method to detect MBL. Maximum MBL production was detected in Acinetobacter baumanii. Simple and accurate screening test is required to prevent the spread of nosocomial strain in hospitals.

  4. Blue green alga mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uma Suganya, K.S. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Govindaraju, K., E-mail: govindtu@gmail.com [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Ganesh Kumar, V.; Stalin Dhas, T.; Karthick, V. [Centre for Ocean Research, Sathyabama University, Chennai 600 119 (India); Singaravelu, G. [Nanoscience Division, Department of Zoology, Thiruvalluvar University, Vellore 632115 (India); Elanchezhiyan, M. [Department of Microbiology, Dr ALM Post Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Chennai 600113 (India)

    2015-02-01

    Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in design and development of nanomedicine. Synthesis of AuNPs from biogenic materials is environmentally benign and possesses high bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties. In the present study, blue green alga Spirulina platensis protein mediated synthesis of AuNPs and its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria is discussed. AuNPs were characterized using Ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Stable, well defined AuNPs of smaller and uniform shape with an average size of ∼ 5 nm were obtained. The antibacterial efficacy of protein functionalized AuNPs were tested against Gram positive organisms Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. - Highlights: • Size controlled synthesis of gold nanoparticles from blue green alga Spirulina platensis • Stability of gold nanoparticles at different temperatures • Potent antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms.

  5. Future trends in the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Rosemarie; Bonatti, Hugo; Sawyer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Gram-positive organisms are the most common bacterial pathogens that cause diseases in humans, with streptococci and staphylococci occurring most frequently. Immunization has been extremely successful in eradicating some Gram-positive infections, such as diphtheria and tetanus, and relatively successful for pneumococci. Staphylococcus aureus vaccines are under investigation. In terms of antimicrobial susceptibility, some Gram-positive organisms have remained sensitive to most antimicrobials, whereas others, including staphylococci, pneumococci and enterococci, have developed clinically relevant resistance. Extensive exposure to antimicrobials in the hospital setting has caused the spread of clones mainly in the hospital environment, yet multiresistance is now also found in community-acquired diseases. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) and resistant pneumococci are the most important examples, but even viridans streptococci are becoming resistant to some antibiotics. Moreover, MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are found in pets and farm animals. Because of these concerns, new antimicrobials have been developed during the past decade, including quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, tigecycline, daptomycin and dalbavancin. Also under investigation are beta-lactams, streptogramins and quinolones with activity against MRSA, penicillin-resistant pneumococci and VRE. Finally, infection-control measures, including the identification of carriers of multiresistant organisms and appropriate isolation, must continue to be implemented. PMID:19271030

  6. Gram-Negative Infections in Adult Intensive Care Units of Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent epidemiology of Gram-negative infections in selected countries from Latin American and Caribbean adult intensive care units (ICUs. A systematic search of the biomedical literature (PubMed was performed to identify articles published over the last decade. Where appropriate, data also were collected from the reference list of published articles, health departments of specific countries, and registries. Independent cohort data from all countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela signified a high rate of ICU infections (prevalence: Argentina, 24%; Brazil, 57%. Gram-negative pathogens, predominantly Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli, accounted for >50% of ICU infections, which were often complicated by the presence of multidrug-resistant strains and clonal outbreaks. Empirical use of antimicrobial agents was identified as a strong risk factor for resistance development and excessive mortality. Infection control strategies utilizing hygiene measures and antimicrobial stewardship programs reduced the rate of device-associated infections. To mitigate the poor health outcomes associated with infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, urgent focus must be placed on infection control strategies and local surveillance programs.

  7. The growing threat of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections in patients with hematologic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas M; Satlin, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Prolonged neutropenia and chemotherapy-induced mucositis render patients with hematologic malignancies highly vulnerable to Gram-negative bacteremia. Unfortunately, multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly encountered globally, and current guidelines for empirical antibiotic coverage in these patients may not adequately treat these bacteria. This expansion of resistance, coupled with traditional culturing techniques requiring 2-4 days for bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility results, have grave implications for these immunocompromised hosts. This review characterizes the epidemiology, risk factors, resistance mechanisms, recommended treatments, and outcomes of the MDR Gram-negative bacteria that commonly cause infections in patients with hematologic malignancies. We also examine the infection prevention strategies in hematology patients, such as infection control practices, antimicrobial stewardship, and targeted decolonization. Finally, we assess the strategies to improve outcomes of the infected patients, including gastrointestinal screening to guide empirical antibiotic therapy, new rapid diagnostic tools for expeditious identification of MDR pathogens, and use of two new antimicrobial agents, ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam. PMID:27339405

  8. Gram-negative intestinal indigenous microbiota from two Siluriform fishes in a tropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Silvana; e Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula; Zauli, Danielle Alves Gomes; Nicoli, Jacques Robert; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of Hypostomus auroguttatus and Pimelodus maculatus, a detritivorous and an omnivorous fish species, respectively, were compared between fishes from the reservoir and the stretch of the river below the dam of the Funil hydroelectric plant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four selective culture media were used under aerobic and two under anaerobic conditions. The omnivorous species had microbiota with higher population levels compared to the detritivorous species. The number of morphotypes and population levels of total bacteria, vibrio and Bacteroides tended to be higher in summer and autumn in the reservoir, and not different in the river. The number of morphotypes of enterobacteria and total bacteria were higher in the lotic environment compared with the lentic one. The bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides and the obligate anaerobic Fusobacterium mortiferum were the most frequently identified microorganisms in the intestine of both H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Both season and habitat influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of H. auroguttatus and P. maculatus. Environmental factors influenced the Gram-negative intestinal microbiota of both species with possible impact on the interrelationship between the fishes and their digestive ecosystem, although the gut microbiota composition of fishes may result from host-specific selective pressures within the gut.

  9. GramHealth: a bottom-up approach to provide preventive healthcare services for unreached community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashir; Kabir, Lutfe; Kai, Eiko; Inoue, Sozo

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient healthcare facilities and unavailability of medical experts in rural areas are the two major reasons that kept the people unreached to healthcare services. Recent penetration of mobile phone and the demand to basic healthcare services, remote health consultancy over mobile phone became popular in developing countries. In this paper, we introduce two such representative initiatives from Bangladesh and discuss the technical challenges they face to serve a remote patient. To solve these issues, we have prototyped a box with necessary diagnostic tools, we call it a "portable clinic" and a software tool, "GramHealth" for managing the patient information. We carried out experiments in three villages in Bangladesh to observe the usability of the portable clinic and verify the functionality of "GramHealth". We display the qualitative analysis of the results obtained from the experiment. GramHealth DB has a unique combination of structured, semi-structured and un-structured data. We are currently looking at these data to see whether these can be treated as BigData and if yes, how to analyze the data and what to expect from these data to make a better clinical decision support.

  10. The Mechanisms of Virulence Regulation by Small Noncoding RNAs in Low GC Gram-Positive Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Pitman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of small noncoding regulatory RNAs (sRNAs in bacteria has grown tremendously recently, giving new insights into gene regulation. The implementation of computational analysis and RNA sequencing has provided new tools to discover and analyze potential sRNAs. Small regulatory RNAs that act by base-pairing to target mRNAs have been found to be ubiquitous and are the most abundant class of post-transcriptional regulators in bacteria. The majority of sRNA studies has been limited to E. coli and other gram-negative bacteria. However, examples of sRNAs in gram-positive bacteria are still plentiful although the detailed gene regulation mechanisms behind them are not as well understood. Strict virulence control is critical for a pathogen’s survival and many sRNAs have been found to be involved in that process. This review outlines the targets and currently known mechanisms of trans-acting sRNAs involved in virulence regulation in various gram-positive pathogens. In addition, their shared characteristics such as CU interaction motifs, the role of Hfq, and involvement in two-component regulators, riboswitches, quorum sensing, or toxin/antitoxin systems are described.

  11. Coagulase-negative staphylococcus and enterococcus as predominant pathogens in liver transplant recipients with Gram-positive coccal bacteremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Shao-hua; KONG Hai-shen; JIA Chang-ku; XU Jian; ZHANG Wen-jin; WANG Wei-lin; SHEN Yan; ZHANG Min; ZHENG Shu-sen

    2010-01-01

    Background Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus have been a common cause of infection among liver transplant (LT) recipients in recent decades. The understanding of local epidemiology and its evolving trends with regard to pathogenic spectra and antibiotic susceptibility is beneficial to prophylactic and empiric treatment for LT recipients. This study aimed to investigate etiology, timing, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors for multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive coccal bacteremia after LT.Methods A cohort analysis of prospectively recorded data was performed to investigate etiologies, timing, antibiotic susceptibility and risk factors for MDR Gram-positive coccal bacteremia in 475 LT recipients.Results In 475 LT recipients in the first six months after LT, there were a total of 98 episodes of bacteremia caused by Gram-positive cocci in 82 (17%) patients. Seventy-five (77%) bacteremic episodes occurred in the first post-LT month.The most frequent Gram-positive cocci were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS, 46 isolates),methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, 13) and enterococcus (34, E. faecium 30, E. faecalis 4). In all Gram-positive bacteremic isolates, 59 of 98 (60%) were MDR. Gram-positive coccal bacteremia and MDR Gram-positive coccal bacteremia predominantly occurred in patients with acute severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B and with fulminant/subfulminant hepatitis. Four independent risk factors for development of bacteremia caused by MDR Gram-positive coccus were: LT candidates with encephalopathy grades Ⅱ-Ⅳ (P=0.013, OR: 16.253, 95% CI:1.822-144.995), pre-LT use of empirical antibiotics (P=0.018, OR: 1.029, 95% CI: 1.002-1.057), post-LT urinary tract infections (P <0.001, OR: 20.340, 95% CI: 4.135-100.048) and abdominal infection (P=0.004, OR: 2.820, 95% CI:1.122-10.114). The main infectious manifestations were coinfections due to gram-positive cocci and gram-negative bacilli

  12. A 980nm driven photothermal ablation of virulent and antibiotic resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strains using Prussian blue nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaoui, Houcem; Jijie, Roxana; Pan, Guo-Hui; Drider, Djamel; Caly, Delphine; Bouckaert, Julie; Dumitrascu, Nicoleta; Chtourou, Radouane; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2016-10-15

    A 980nm laser-driven antimicrobial photothermal therapy using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) -coated Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PVP/PB NPs) is demonstrated. This approach allows an efficient eradication of a virulent strain of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated with urinary tract infection as well as for the ablation of antibiotic resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli. Interestingly the 980nm irradiation exhibits minimal effect on mammalian cells up to a PVP/PB NPs concentration of 50μgmL(-1), while at this concentration bacteria are completely eradicated. This feature is certainly very promising for the selective targeting of bacteria over mammalian cells. PMID:27405072

  13. Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Virna; Silva, Ana Carla; Cabrita, Paula; Peres, Cidália; Malcata, Xavier; Brito, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are amongst the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurring worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13), previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their ability to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclusion assays, the relative percentages of adhesion and invasion of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis were significantly reduced when the human HT-29 cell line was previously exposed to LB95. The relative percentage of invasion by Listeria monocytogenes was significantly reduced when HT-29 cells were previously exposed to LB95. In the cytotoxicity assays, the cell-free supernatant of the co-culture (CFSC)of VTEC with LB95 accounted for the lowest value obtained amongst the co-cultures of VTEC with LABs, and was significantly lower than the value obtained with the co-culture of VTEC with the two probiotic reference strains. The cytotoxicity of CFSC of VTEC with both LB95 and LB13 exhibited values not significantly different from the cell-free supernatant of the nonpathogenic E. coli B strain. Our results suggested that LB95 may be able to attenuate the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens; together with other reported features of these strains, our data reveal their possible use in probiotic foods due to their interesting potential in preventing enteric infections in humans.

  14. The NASA/MSFC global reference atmospheric model: 1990 version (GRAM-90). Part 2: Program/data listings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, C. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.; Jeffries, W. R., III; Johnson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    A new (1990) version of the NASA/MSFC Global Reference Atmospheric Model (GRAM-90) was completed and the program and key data base listing are presented. GRAM-90 incorporate extensive new data, mostly collected under the Middle Atmosphere Program, to produce a completely revised middle atmosphere model (20 to 120 km). At altitudes greater than 120 km, GRAM-90 uses the NASA Marshall Engineering Thermosphere model. Complete listings of all program and major data bases are presented. Also, a test case is included.

  15. Limitations in the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a model host for gram-positive bacterial infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Lind; Pedersen, K.S.; Loeschcke, V;

    2007-01-01

    resistance respectively, were subjected to infection by L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and E. coli. Mortality rates were comparable with that of the Oregon R strain. Conclusions: Use of the injection method shows the limitation of D. melanogaster as a model host for gram-positive bacteria as opportunistic...... infection by nonpathogenic gram-positive bacteria results in partial or high mortality. In addition, lines of fruit flies resistant to various stress exposures did not show an increased resistance to infection by gram-positive pathogens under the conditions tested. Significance and Impact of the Study...

  16. Evaluating Mars Science Laboratory Landing Sites with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, H. L.; Justus, C. G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM s perturbation modeling capability is commonly used, in a Monte-Carlo mode, to perform high fidelity engineering end-to-end simulations for entry, descent, and landing (EDL) [1]. From the surface to 80 km altitude, Mars-GRAM is based on the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM). Mars-GRAM and MGCM use surface topography from Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), with altitudes referenced to the MOLA areoid, or constant potential surface. Traditional Mars-GRAM options for representing the mean atmosphere along entry corridors include: (1) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) mapping years 1 and 2, with Mars-GRAM data coming from NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) results driven by observed TES dust optical depth or (2) TES mapping year 0, with user-controlled dust optical depth and Mars-GRAM data interpolated from MGCM model results driven by selected values of globally-uniform dust optical depth. Mars-GRAM 2005 has been validated [2] against Radio Science data, and both nadir and limb data from TES [3]. There are several new features included in Mars-GRAM 2005. The first is the option to use input data sets from MGCM model runs that were designed to closely simulate conditions observed during the first two years of TES observations at Mars. The TES Year 1 option includes values from April 1999 through January 2001. The TES Year 2 option includes values from February 2001 through December 2002. The second new feature is the option to read and use any auxiliary profile of temperature and density versus altitude. In exercising the auxiliary profile Mars-GRAM option, values from the auxiliary profile replace data from the original MGCM databases. Some examples of auxiliary profiles include data from TES nadir or limb observations and Mars mesoscale model output at a particular

  17. Defining a role for Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria: evidence for Hfq-dependent antisense regulation in Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Lei, Lisbeth Kristensen; Ebersbach, Tine; Olsen, Anders Steno; Klitgaard, Janne Kudsk; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Kallipolitis, Birgitte Haahr

    2009-01-01

    Small trans-encoded RNAs (sRNAs) modulate the translation and decay of mRNAs in bacteria. In Gram-negative species, antisense regulation by trans-encoded sRNAs relies on the Sm-like protein Hfq. In contrast to this, Hfq is dispensable for sRNA-mediated riboregulation in the Gram-positive species studied thus far. Here, we provide evidence for Hfq-dependent translational repression in the Gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which is known to encode at least 50 sRNAs. We show t...

  18. Estudio de la subestimación histológica e incidencia de falsos negativos en biopsias de mama por vacío con guía estereotáxica Evaluation of the histological underestimation and incidence of false-negative using vacuum assisted breast biopsy and stereotactic equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez Lucero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar los resultados histológicos en biopsias percutáneas bajo guía mamográfica y sistema de vacío con los resultados anatomopatológicos de las ulteriores cirugías. Evaluar falsos negativos al control mamográfico tras seis meses del procedimiento. Materiales y Métodos. Entre mayo de 2008 y mayo de 2010 en 148 mujeres se realizaron 157 biopsias. Del total biopsiado, se obtuvieron 137 grupos cálcicos, 6 nódulos, 9 densidades focales asimétricas y 5 blancos mixtos. Se colocaron clips en 85 blancos (85/157; 54,14%. Se compara la histología obtenida por punción con la surgida de las cirugías para analizar discrepancias o subestimaciones. En las biopsias negativas se indica control mamográfico a los 6 meses para evaluar falsos negativos. Resultados: En 41 pacientes (41/157; 27,70% se decidió completar con cirugía por el resultado histológico de la punción. Accedimos al resultado histológico quirúrgico en 34 casos, observando una concordancia entre la anatomía patológica de la punción y la quirúrgica en los 34 casos. De los 116 casos en los que no se realizó cirugía, logramos seguir mamográficamente a 67 mujeres reconociendo 1 falso negativo (1/67; 1,49% vinculado a un grupo cálcico. Conclusiones. Encontramos una correlación histológica en el 100% de los casos en los que accedimos a la anatomía patológica quirúrgica y pudimos reconocer durante el seguimiento posbiopsia 1 falso negativo. En el grupo que pudo evaluarse no hallamos subestimación. El falso negativo fue en una de las primeras pacientes biopsiadas, por lo que podría interpretarse como probable causa la falta de experiencia con el sistema. Creemos conveniente contar con grupos poblacionales más numerosos para obtener mayores conclusiones.Objective. To compare the histological findings in percutaneous biopsies under stereotactic guidance and vacuum assisted breast biopsy, with the pathological results from subsequent surgery. To evaluate false

  19. Ten-years comparative study after surgical treatment of perforated peptic ulcer according to ulcer relapse between H. Pylori positive, after eradication, and negative patients Estudo comparativo quanto à recidiva ulcerosa do tratamento cirúrgico de úlcera péptica perfurada entre pacientes H. Pylori positivos, após erradicação, e negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Pachaly Dalcin

    2009-03-01

    úrgico da úlcera péptica perfurada é assunto discutível. Os cirurgiões, por muitos anos, fizeram suas opções entre procedimentos de redução ácida, somente fechamento da perfuração - porém com maior chance de recidiva ulcerosa. Desde a comprovada vinculação da úlcera péptica e suas complicações à infecção gastroduodenal causada pelo Helicobacter pylori, houve recomendação para mudança na atitude dos cirurgiões na volta à operação mais simples com erradicação da bactéria. OBJETIVO: Analisar a recidiva ulcerosa em pacientes com úlcera perfurada H. pylori positiva que foram submetidos à simples sutura da lesão e omentopexia com erradicação da bactéria e compará-la com H. pylori negativo submetido ao mesmo tratamento cirúrgico. MÉTODOS: Cento e quatorze pacientes com úlceras pré-pilóricas, pilóricas e duodenais perfuradas foram atendidos com fechamento simples. Trinta dias após a operação submeteram-se à endoscopia digestiva alta com biópsias para testes da urease e histopatológicos. Foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o resultado dos testes: positivo e negativo.Os positivos foram erradicados e, junto com o grupo negativo, foram seguidos com endoscopias semestrais e testes de detecção para H. pylori procurando por recidiva ulcerosa e reinfecção no grupo erradicado. RESULTADOS: O grupo positivo foi formado por 25 pacientes, dos quais dois foram considerados não erradicáveis segundo os critérios do protocolo. Os demais foram seguidos por período médio de 38,21 meses e detectadas recidivas em quatro pacientes (17,39%, metade deles (8,69% foram reinfectados. O grupo negativo foi formado por 26 pacientes, seguido por período médio de 38,28 meses e oito (30,76% apresentaram recidiva ulcerosa. Não foi evidenciada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: Em relação à recidiva ulcerosa, o fechamento simples seguido de erradicação da bactéria é o procedimento padrão para o grupo

  20. Microbiologic profile of flexible endoscope disinfection in two Brazilian hospitals Estudo microbiológico da desinfecção de endoscópios flexíveis em dois hospitais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Machado

    2006-12-01

    ão rotineiramente utilizados em hospitais e clínicas e podem ser fontes potenciais de infecção cruzada quando a descontaminação é inadequada OBJETIVO: As rotinas de descontaminação dos endoscópios flexíveis (broncoscópios, gastrocópios e colonoscópios realizadas em dois hospitais universitários do Brasil foram avaliadas durante 3 anos MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Amostras aleatórias foram coletadas dos canais internos dos endoscópios, depois que o aparelho era utilizado nos pacientes e após o processo de desinfecção RESULTADOS: Contaminação superior a 103 foi verificada em amostras coletadas após o exame endoscópico, sendo isolado bacilos gram-negativos (n = 142: 56%, cocos gram-positivos (n = 43: 17%, leveduras (n = 43: 17% e bacilos gram-positivos (n = 26: 10%. Em 72 das 149 amostras coletadas após procedimentos de limpeza e desinfecção, detectou-se bacilos gram-negativos (n = 55: 61%, cocos gram-positivos (n = 21: 23%, bacilos gram-positivos (n = 8: 9% e leveduras (n = 6: 7%. Gastroscópios e colonoscópios eram os aparelhos com maior freqüência e taxa de contaminação. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, Bacillus spp and Corynebacterium spp foram os mais identificados CONCLUSÃO: A limpeza inapropriada e curto período de tempo de desinfecção eram, respectivamente, os maiores fatores associados com a presença de microrganismos em gastroscópios e colonoscópios. De acordo com os organismos isolados, considera-se que a desinfecção nos hospitais era de nível baixo a intermediário. Após a investigação, os centros de endoscopia adequaram seus protocolos, sanando os problemas verificados nos procedimentos de descontaminação dos endoscópios.

  1. The major sigma factor (RpoD) from Helicobacter pylori and other gram-negative bacteria shows an enhanced rate of divergence.

    OpenAIRE

    Solnick, J. V.; Hansen, L M; Syvanen, M

    1997-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the Helicobacter pylori major sigma factor (RpoD) shows that it is highly divergent, which may be related to the marked diversity of the H. pylori chromosome. Furthermore, the rate of divergence of RpoD among other gram-negative bacteria is much greater than that among gram-positive bacteria. This suggests that RpoD from gram-negative bacteria is functionally less constrained than that from gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Optimizing Antibiotic Dosing Strategies for the Treatment of Gram-negative Infections in the Era of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monogue, Marguerite L; Kuti, Joseph L; Nicolau, David P

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative organisms are an increasing source of concern within the healthcare setting due to their common presence as a cause of infection and emerging resistance to current therapies. However, current antimicrobial dosing recommendations may be insufficient for the treatment of gram-negative infections. Applying knowledge of an antibiotic's pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile when designing a dosing regimen leads to a greater likelihood of achieving optimal exposure, including against gram-negative pathogens with higher MICs. Additionally, administering antibiotics directly to the site of infection, such as via aerosolization for pneumonia, is another method to achieve optimized drug exposure at the site of infection. Incorporating these treatment strategies into clinical practice will assist antimicrobial stewardship programs in successfully treating gram-negative infections.

  3. Predictors of PTSD symptoms in brazilian police officers: the synergy of negative affect and peritraumatic dissociation Preditores de sintomas de transtorno de estresse pós-traumático em policiais brasileiros: a interação entre afeto negativo e dissociação peritraumática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah B Maia

    2011-12-01

    negativo, frequência de incidentes críticos, sofrimento e dissociação peritraumáticos, sintomas de TEPT e apoio social. Regressão linear hierárquica foi utilizada para avaliar fatores de risco. RESULTADOS: Afeto negativo, tempo de trabalho, frequência de exposição a eventos traumáticos, dissociação peritraumática e apoio social diminuído permaneceram no modelo final e explicaram 55% das variações dos sintomas de TEPT. Foi observado efeito sinérgico entre dissociação peritraumática e afeto negativo. CONCLUSÃO: Baseados nos achados os autores discutem estratégias de prevenção que visam diminuir o impacto da exposição a eventos traumáticos em policiais ao longo de suas carreiras.

  4. Prevalence of Gram-negative Pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibility in bacterial meningitis in pediatric cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Pal Chugh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to find out the prevalence and spectrum of Gram negative pathogens causing bacterial meningitis and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in a tertiary care hospital. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF (3-5 ml was collected from 638 admitted children clinically suspected of septic meningitis. Bacterial isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Of the 638 samples tested 102 (15.99% were culture positive. Male to female (M:F ratio was 1.62:1. The maximum incidence of 45 (44.12% cases was found in children (1-12 yrs; in institutional deliveries the incidence was 58 (56.86% cases. Further, the incidence of 51 cases was found from May to August. Escherichia coli (E. coli were commonest, seen in 9 (25% cases followed by Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter spp. and Klebsiella spp. with 6 (16.67% cases each. Enterobacter spp., Neisseria spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated in 3 (8.33% cases each. E. coli, Acinetobacter spp, Citrobacter spp and Klebsiella spp isolates were 100% susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and cefoperazone-sulbactam and 100% resistant to cotrimoxazole and tetracycline. All strains of Neisseria spp, Enterobacter spp and Pseudomonas spp. were 100% susceptible to meropenem followed by gatifloxacin. These were 100% resistant to tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Neisseria spp. were also 100% susceptible to pristinamycin. In septic meningitis Gram negative organisms are less common (35.29%. Of the isolates, more common Gram negative isolates included E. coli, Acinetobacter Spp., Citrobacter Spp., and Klebsiella spp. and these isolates were 100% susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin-tazobacatam and cefoperazone-sulbactam. Hence, empirical therapy should be formulated according to antimicrobial susceptibility patterns.

  5. Extended spectrum beta-lactamase detection in gram-negative bacilli of nosocomial origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechen C Tsering

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance to third generation cephalosporins by acquisition and expression of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL enzymes among gram-negative bacilli is on a rise. The presence of ESBL producing organisms significantly affects the course and outcome of an infection and poses a challenge to infection management worldwide. Materials and Methods: In the period from June 2007 to 2008, we collected 1489 samples from patients suspected of nosocomial infection. The isolates were identified based on colony morphology and biochemical reaction. Gram negative bacilli resistant to third generation cephalosporins were tested for ESBL by double disc synergy test (DDST- a screening test and then phenotypic confirmatory test. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: From the sample of 238 gram-negative bacilli, we isolated Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Enterobacter cloacae. Following both methods, 34% isolates were ESBL-positive. The ESBL producing isolates were significantly resistant (p < 0.01 to ampicillin, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin as compared to non-ESBL producers. Multidrug resistance was significantly (p < 0.01 higher (69.14% in ESBL positive isolates than non-ESBL isolates (21.66%. Conclusion: High prevalence of ESBL in our hospital cannot be ignored. ESBL producers can be detected by DDST and phenotypic confirmatory test with equal efficacy. The sensitivity of screening test improved with the use of more than one antibiotic and addition of one or two antibiotics would not increase cost and labor. We recommend DDST using multiple antibiotics in all microbiology units as a routine screening test.

  6. Actividad in vitro de furvina frente a bacterias Gram negativas multirresistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeny Morales-Moreno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente existe una crisis global en el tratamiento de las enfermedades infecciosas debido a microorganismos resistentes a la mayoría de los agentes antimicrobianos convencionales. Desafortunadamente, no han sido desarrollados nuevas clases de estos compuestos antibacterianos activos frente a bacterias Gram negativas multirresistentes en los últimos años. Esta situación llevó a que muchos trabajos de investigación estén encaminados a la búsqueda de nuevas sustancias biológicamente activas. Los objetivos del presente estudio consistieron en aislar e identificar bacterias Gram negativas resistentes a múltiples fármacos, así como evaluar la actividad antibacteriana in vitro de furvina frente a ellas. La identificación se efectuó mediante métodos bioquímicos convencionales. La resistencia a los agentes antibacterianos se determinó mediante el método de difusión en agar y la actividad in vitro se evaluó cuantitativamente mediante macrodilución en caldo según los criterios del Instituto de Estándares de Laboratorios Clínicos. Fueron identificadas de 62 cepas multirresistentes de ocho géneros. El 59,67 % de ellas perteneció al género Acinetobacter y una cepa de Enterobacter cloacae fue resistente a meropenem con concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI mayor que 4 μg/mL. El 100 % de las cepas de Acinetobacter spp. multirresistentes presentó CMI en el intervalo de 8 a 32 μg/mL frente a furvina y el 30 % de ellas, mostró resistencia a meropenem con valores de CMI entre 16 y 256 μg/mL. Finalmente, furvina mostró buena actividad antibacteriana in vitro frente a todas las bacterias Gram negativas multirresistentes evaluadas.

  7. Metabolic versatility of Gram-positive microbial isolates from contaminated river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narancic, Tanja; Djokic, Lidija [Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, P.O. Box 23, 11010 Belgrade (Serbia); Kenny, Shane T.; O' Connor, Kevin E. [School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences, Centre for Synthesis and Chemical Biology, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Radulovic, Vanja [Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, P.O. Box 23, 11010 Belgrade (Serbia); Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina, E-mail: jasminanikodinovic@gmail.com [Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, P.O. Box 23, 11010 Belgrade (Serbia); Vasiljevic, Branka [Institute of Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering, University of Belgrade, Vojvode Stepe 444a, P.O. Box 23, 11010 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thirty-four isolated Gram-positive bacteria could degrade wide range of aromatic pollutants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nine isolates could grow in the presence of extremely high levels of heavy metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twelve isolates accumulated polyphosphate, 3 polyhydroxybutyrate, 4 exopolysaccharides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The incidence of multiple antibiotic resistance markers among isolates was low. - Abstract: Gram-positive bacteria from river sediments affected by the proximity of a petrochemical industrial site were isolated and characterized with respect to their ability to degrade a wide range of aromatic compounds. In this study we identified metabolically diverse Gram-positive bacteria capable of growth on wide range aromatic compounds in the presence of heavy metals and with the ability to accumulate biopolymers. Thirty-four isolates that were able to use 9 or more common aromatic pollutants, such as benzene, biphenyl, naphthalene etc. as a sole source of carbon and energy included members of Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Streptomyces, and Staphylococcus genus. Rhodococcus sp. TN105, Gordonia sp. TN103 and Arthrobacter sp. TN221 were identified as novel strains. Nine isolates were able to grow in the presence of one or more metals (mercury, cadmium, nickel) at high concentration (100 mM). Seven isolates could degrade 15 different aromatic compounds and could grow in the presence of one or more heavy metals. Two of these isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including erythromycin and nalidixic acid. One third of isolates could accumulate at least one biopolymer. Twelve isolates (mainly Bacillus sp. and Arthrobacter sp.) accumulated polyphosphate, 3 Bacillus sp. accumulated polyhydroxybutyrate, while 4 isolates could accumulate exopolysaccharides.

  8. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Al-Mariri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157. Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria.

  9. Occurrence of gram-negative bacteria in hens' eggs depending on their source and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepień-Pyśniak, D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the qualitative composition of Gram-negative microbes, mainly of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, in the albumens and yolks and on the shells of hens' eggs, depending on their source and on the temperature and duration of their storage. A total of 375 table eggs were studied, from a large-scale poultry farm, a small-scale poultry farm and a supermarket. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups according to the temperature and duration of their storage during the study. Two serotypes of bacteria of the genus Salmonella were identified: S. Enteritidis and S. Arizonae. Strains of Salmonella spp. were also isolated. Apart from Salmonella and Escherichia coli, among the most frequently isolated bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter freundii. Qualitative analysis of the bacterial microflora of the eggs also showed the presence of other Gram negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Tatumella ptyseos, Providencia stuartii, Serratia liquefaciens, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Vibrio metschnikovii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Kluyvera spp., Rahnella aquatilis, Proteus mirabilis, and Achromobacter spp. The study demonstrated that the conditions applied, i.e., the temperature and duration of storage, did not significantly influence the prevalence of particular species of Gram-negative bacteria in the eggs. However, based on the analysis of contamination of eggs with Salmonella depending on their source, it can be concluded that the system in which the hens are housed affects the risk of contamination of eggs with these pathogens. PMID:21033566

  10. Community profiling of culturable fluorescent pseudomonads in the rhizosphere of green gram (Vigna radiata L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupak K Sarma

    Full Text Available Study on microbial diversity in the unexplored rhizosphere is important to understand their community structure, biology and ecological interaction with the host plant. This research assessed the genetic and functional diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads [FP] in the green gram rhizophere. One hundred and twenty types of morphologically distinct fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated during vegetative as well as reproductive growth phase of green gram. Rep PCR, ARDRA and RISA revealed two distinct clusters in each case at 75, 61 and 70% similarity coefficient index respectively. 16S rRNA partial sequencing analysis of 85 distantly related fluorescent pseudomonads depicted Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the dominant group. Out of 120 isolates, 23 (19% showed antagonistic activity towards phytopathogenic fungi. These bacterial isolates showed varied production of salicylic acid, HCN and chitinase, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA and pyoluteorin (PLT. Production efficiency of inherent level of plant growth promoting (PGP traits among the 120 isolates demonstrated that 10 (8% solubilised inorganic phosphates, 25 (20% produced indoles and 5 (4% retained ACC deaminase activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GGRJ21 showed the highest production of all antagonistic and plant growth promoting (PGP traits. In a greenhouse experiment, GGRJ21 suppressed root rot disease of green gram by 28-93% (p = 0.05. Consistent up regulation of three important stress responsive genes, i.e., acdS, KatA and gbsA and elevated production efficiency of different PGP traits could promote GGRJ21 as a potent plant growth regulator.

  11. DMPD: Lipopolysaccharide sensing an important factor in the innate immune response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShypersensitivity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available se toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShypersensitivity. Freudenberg MA, Tchapt...portant factor in the innate immune response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of L...une response toGram-negative bacterial infections: benefits and hazards of LPShyp

  12. Learning Document Embeddings by Predicting N-grams for Sentiment Classification of Long Movie Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bofang; Liu, Tao; Du, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Deyuan; Zhao, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Despite the loss of semantic information, bag-of-ngram based methods still achieve state-of-the-art results for tasks such as sentiment classification of long movie reviews. Many document embeddings methods have been proposed to capture semantics, but they still can't outperform bag-of-ngram based methods on this task. In this paper, we modify the architecture of the recently proposed Paragraph Vector, allowing it to learn document vectors by predicting not only words, but n-gram features as ...

  13. Scanning an individual monitoring database for multiple occurrences using bi-gram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintaining the integrity of the databases is one of the important aspects of quality assurance at individual monitoring services and national dose registers. This paper presents a method for finding and preventing the occurrence of duplicate entries in the databases that can occur, e.g. because of a variable spelling or misspelling of the name. The method is based on bi-gram text analysis techniques. The methods can also be used for retrieving dose data in historical databases in the framework of dose reconstruction efforts of persons of whom the spelling of the name as originally entered, possibly decades ago, is uncertain. (authors)

  14. Portland cement hydration in the presence of admixtures: black gram pulse and superplasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Nand Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of admixtures such as black gram pulse (BGP and sulfonated naphthalene based superplasticizer (SP on the hydration of Portland cement has been studied. The hydration characteristics of OPC in the presence of BGP and SP were studied with the help of non evaporable water content determinations, calorimetric method, Mössbauer spectroscopic and atomic force microscopic techniques. Results have shown that both BGP and SP get adsorbed at the surface of cement and its hydration products. The hydration of Portland cement is retarded in the presence of both the admixtures and nanosize hydration products are formed.

  15. Biodegradation of bisphenol A and other bisphenols by a gram-negative aerobic bacterium.

    OpenAIRE

    Lobos, J. H.; Leib, T K; Su, T. M.

    1992-01-01

    A novel bacterium designated strain MV1 was isolated from a sludge enrichment taken from the wastewater treatment plant at a plastics manufacturing facility and shown to degrade 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (4,4'-isopropylidenediphenol or bisphenol A). Strain MV1 is a gram-negative, aerobic bacillus that grows on bisphenol A as a sole source of carbon and energy. Total carbon analysis for bisphenol A degradation demonstrated that 60% of the carbon was mineralized to CO2, 20% was associated...

  16. Induced high yielding mutant in green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green gram (mungbean) plays a significant role in meeting the protein requirements in India, with its predominantly vegetarian population. Therefore, an attempt was made to induce desirable mutants. Dry seed of cultivar 'Pusa 105' were irradiated with gamma rays ranging from 10 to 50 krad. A high yielding mutant (Hy I) identified in the M4 generation from 40 krad dose, has shown significant increases in the number of pods/plants, number of branches/plant, and yield/plant. Further work is in progress. Comparison of the mutant HyI with the parent cultivar Pusa 105 is given

  17. Desulfotomaculum spp. and related Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacteria in deep subsurface environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eAullo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gram-positive spore-forming sulfate reducers and particularly members of the genus Desulfotomaculum are commonly found in the subsurface biosphere by culture based and molecular approaches. Due to their metabolic versatility and their ability to persist as endospores. Desulfotomaculum spp. are well adapted for colonizing environments through a slow sedimentation process. Because of their ability to grow autotrophically (H2/CO2 and produce sulfide or acetate, these microorganisms may play key roles in deep lithoautotrophic microbial communities. Available data about Desulfotomaculum spp. and related species from studies carried out from deep freshwater lakes, marine sediments, oligotrophic and organic rich deep geological settings are discussed in this review.

  18. Actividad in vitro de furvina frente a bacterias Gram negativas multirresistentes

    OpenAIRE

    Yeny Morales-Moreno; Ricardo Medina-Marrero; Milagros Garcia-Bernal; Marlen Casanova-González; Robin Rodríguez-Pérez; Natacha Fernández-López; Mayda Guerra-Martínez; Rafael Gómez-Marrero; Nidia Rojas-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Actualmente existe una crisis global en el tratamiento de las enfermedades infecciosas debido a microorganismos resistentes a la mayoría de los agentes antimicrobianos convencionales. Desafortunadamente, no han sido desarrollados nuevas clases de estos compuestos antibacterianos activos frente a bacterias Gram negativas multirresistentes en los últimos años. Esta situación llevó a que muchos trabajos de investigación estén encaminados a la búsqueda de nuevas sustancias biológicamente activas....

  19. Una gramática emergente ¿internet como cultura o artefacto?

    OpenAIRE

    Mireya Barón Pulido

    2012-01-01

    Nativos digitales, gramáticas emergentes, internet como cultura y como artefacto son referentes marco que dinamizan tanto la emisión como la interpretación de signos en la población universitaria. El artículo muestra los resultados de las tendencias de usos de los lenguajes y mediaciones TICS en jóvenes universitarios de primer semestre del Politécnico Grancolombiano-COLOMBIA a partir del trabajo con grupos focales y aplicación de instrumento, con el propósito de sistematizar la tendencia de ...

  20. Fluoroquinolones Protective against Cephalosporin Resistance in Gram-Negative Nosocomial Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Schwaber, Mitchell J.; Cosgrove, Sara E.; Kaye, Keith S; Gold, Howard Seth; Carmeli, Yehuda

    2004-01-01

    In a matched case-control study, we studied the effect of prior receipt of fluoroquinolones on isolation of three third-generation cephalosporin-resistant gram-negative nosocomial pathogens. Two hundred eighty-two cases with a third-generation cephalosporin-resistant pathogen (203 with Enterobacter spp., 50 with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 29 with Klebsiella pneumoniae) were matched on length of stay to controls in a 1:2 ratio. Case-patients and controls were similar in age (mean 62 years) an...

  1. Gram-positive bacteria of marine origin: a numerical taxonomic study on Mediterranean isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa, M; Garay, E; Pujalte, M J

    1997-12-01

    A numerical taxonomic study was performed on 65 Gram-positive wild strains of heterotrophic, aerobic, marine bacteria, and 9 reference strains. The isolates were obtained from oysters and seawater sampled monthly over one year, by direct plating on Marine Agar. The strains were characterized by 96 morphological, biochemical, physiological and nutritional tests. Clustering yielded 13 phena at 0.62 similarity level (Sl coefficient). Only one of the seven phena containing wild isolates could be identified (Bacillus marinus). A pronounced salt requirement was found in most isolates.

  2. Gamma-rays and EMS induced pentaphyllous mutant in black gram (Vigna mungo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Raghuvanshi, S S; Prakash, D

    1988-01-01

    Pentaphyllous mutants in black gram were isolated in M2 generation of a segregating family, irradiated at 20 kR. The genetic nature of mutants was tested by hybridizing with controls, and chi-square tests applied to the F2 population, proved it to be a monogenic recessive. The pentaphyllous mutant had a greater number of pods and leaves per plant and larger and more root nodules. It also showed improved nutritional value with increased seed protein percentage and no increase in TIA (trypsin inhibitor activity).

  3. Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Punica granatum pericarp on pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli.

    OpenAIRE

    Voravuthikunchai, S.; Supavita, T.; Sirirak, T.; Panthong, K.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of crude extracts of Punica granatum Linn. pericarp with 3 different solvents against pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts showed the antibacterial activity against all strains tested including enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 4 strains (E. coli O157: H7, E. coli O26: H11, E. coli O111: NM, E. coli O22), Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella boydii and Salmonella london. Inhibition zones ranged from 10.02 to 19.15 mm. Min...

  4. Comparison of urine Gram stain and urine culture to diagnose urinary tract infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Utami Putri; Oke Rina; Rosmayanti; Rafita Ramayati; Rusdidjas

    2015-01-01

    Background Urinary tract infection (are due to pathogen invasion of the urinary tract. The upper or lower tract may be affected, depending on the presence of infection in the kidney, or bladder and urethra. Infection of urinary tract affect up to 10% of children and are the most common bacterial infection in infants and young children worldwide. The prevalence of UTI is 3-5% in girls and 1% in boys. Urine culture is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for UTI. However, Gram sta...

  5. Sequencing and characterization of the xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Y; Takase, K; Yamato, I; Abe, K

    1998-07-01

    The xyl operon of a gram-positive bacterium, Tetragenococcus halophila (previously called Pediococcus halophilus), was cloned and sequenced. The DNA was about 7.7 kb long and contained genes for a ribose binding protein and part of a ribose transporter, xylR (a putative regulatory gene), and the xyl operon, along with its regulatory region and transcription termination signal, in this order. The DNA was AT rich, the GC content being 35.8%, consistent with the GC content of this gram-positive bacterium. The xyl operon consisted of three genes, xylA, encoding a xylose isomerase, xylB, encoding a xylulose kinase, and xylE, encoding a xylose transporter, with predicted molecular weights of 49,400, 56,400, and 51,600, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the XylR, XylA, XylB, and XylE proteins were similar to those of the corresponding proteins in other gram-positive and -negative bacteria, the similarities being 37 to 64%. Each polypeptide of XylB and XylE was expressed functionally in Escherichia coli. XylE transported D-xylose in a sodium ion-dependent manner, suggesting that it is the first described xylose/Na+ symporter. The XylR protein contained a consensus sequence for binding catabolites of glucose, such as glucose-6-phosphate, which has been discovered in glucose and fructose kinases in bacteria. Correspondingly, the regulatory region of this operon contained a putative binding site of XylR with a palindromic structure. Furthermore, it contained a consensus sequence, CRE (catabolite-responsive element), for binding CcpA (catabolite control protein A). We speculate that the transcriptional regulation of this operon resembles the regulation of catabolite-repressible operons such as the amy, lev, xyl, and gnt operons in various gram-positive bacteria. We discuss the significance of the regulation of gene expression of this operon in T. halophila. PMID:9647823

  6. BacPP: a web-based tool for Gram-negative bacterial promoter prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila E Silva, S; Notari, D L; Neis, F A; Ribeiro, H G; Echeverrigaray, S

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial Promoter Prediction (BacPP) is a tool used to predict given sequences as promoters of Gram-negative bacteria according to the σ factor that recognizes it. The first version of BacPP was implemented in Python language in a desktop version without a friendly interface. For this reason, a web version of BacPP is now available with the purpose of improving its usability and availability. The present paper describes the implementation of the web version of this tool, focusing on its software architecture and user functionalities. The software is available at www.bacpp.bioinfoucs.com/home. PMID:27173187

  7. Analytical Derivation of the Inverse Moments of One-Sided Correlated Gram Matrices With Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-02-03

    This paper addresses the development of analytical tools for the computation of the inverse moments of random Gram matrices with one side correlation. Such a question is mainly driven by applications in signal processing and wireless communications wherein such matrices naturally arise. In particular, we derive closed-form expressions for the inverse moments and show that the obtained results can help approximate several performance metrics such as the average estimation error corresponding to the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE) and the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) estimator or also other loss functions used to measure the accuracy of covariance matrix estimates.

  8. Zoo Animals as Reservoirs of Gram-Negative Bacteria Harboring Integrons and Antimicrobial Resistance Genes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Ashraf M.; Motoi, Yusuke; Sato, Maiko; Maruyama, Akito; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Fukumoto, Yukio; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2007-01-01

    A total of 232 isolates of gram-negative bacteria were recovered from mammals, reptiles, and birds housed at Asa Zoological Park, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan. Forty-nine isolates (21.1%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes and harbored at least one antimicrobial resistance gene. PCR and DNA sequencing identified class 1 and class 2 integrons and many β-lactamase-encoding genes, in addition to a novel AmpC β-lactamase gene, blaCMY-26. Furthermore, the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance g...

  9. Peptidoglycan Recycling in Gram-Positive Bacteria Is Crucial for Survival in Stationary Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Marina; Gaupp, Rosmarie; Duckworth, Amanda; Schneider, Alexander; Dalügge, Désirée; Mühleck, Maraike; Deubel, Denise; Unsleber, Sandra; Yu, Wenqi; Muth, Günther; Bischoff, Markus; Götz, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peptidoglycan recycling is a metabolic process by which Gram-negative bacteria reutilize up to half of their cell wall within one generation during vegetative growth. Whether peptidoglycan recycling also occurs in Gram-positive bacteria has so far remained unclear. We show here that three Gram-positive model organisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Streptomyces coelicolor, all recycle the sugar N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) of their peptidoglycan during growth in rich medium. They possess MurNAc-6-phosphate (MurNAc-6P) etherase (MurQ in E. coli) enzymes, which are responsible for the intracellular conversion of MurNAc-6P to N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate and d-lactate. By applying mass spectrometry, we observed accumulation of MurNAc-6P in MurNAc-6P etherase deletion mutants but not in either the isogenic parental strains or complemented strains, suggesting that MurQ orthologs are required for the recycling of cell wall-derived MurNAc in these bacteria. Quantification of MurNAc-6P in ΔmurQ cells of S. aureus and B. subtilis revealed small amounts during exponential growth phase (0.19 nmol and 0.03 nmol, respectively, per ml of cells at an optical density at 600 nm [OD600] of 1) but large amounts during transition (0.56 nmol and 0.52 nmol) and stationary (0.53 nmol and 1.36 nmol) phases. The addition of MurNAc to ΔmurQ cultures greatly increased the levels of intracellular MurNAc-6P in all growth phases. The ΔmurQ mutants of S. aureus and B. subtilis showed no growth deficiency in rich medium compared to the growth of the respective parental strains, but intriguingly, they had a severe survival disadvantage in late stationary phase. Thus, although peptidoglycan recycling is apparently not essential for the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, it provides a benefit for long-term survival. PMID:27729505

  10. Comparison of tryptophan biosynthetic operon regulation in different Gram-positive bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Preciado, Ana; Yanofsky, Charles; Merino, Enrique

    2007-09-01

    The tryptophan biosynthetic operon has been widely used as a model system for studying transcription regulation. In Bacillus subtilis, the trp operon is primarily regulated by a tryptophan-activated RNA-binding protein, TRAP. Here we show that in many other Gram-positive species the trp operon is regulated differently, by tRNA(Trp) sensing by the RNA-based T-box mechanism, with T-boxes arranged in tandem. Our analyses reveal an apparent relationship between trp operon organization and the specific regulatory mechanism(s) used. PMID:17555843

  11. O-antigen protects gram-negative bacteria from histone killing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Chaput

    Full Text Available Beyond their traditional role of wrapping DNA, histones display antibacterial activity to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. To identify bacterial components that allow survival to a histone challenge, we selected resistant bacteria from homologous Escherichia coli libraries that harbor plasmids carrying pieces of the chromosome in different sizes. We identified genes required for exopolysaccharide production and for the synthesis of the polysaccharide domain of the lipopolysaccharide, called O-antigen. Indeed, O-antigen and exopolysaccharide conferred further resistance to histones. Notably, O-antigen also conferred resistance to histones in the pathogens Shigella flexneri and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  12. Early antipyretic exposure does not increase mortality in patients with gram-negative severe sepsis: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Nicholas; Skrupky, Lee; Fuller, Brian; Moy, Hawnwan; Alunday, Robert; Wallendorf, Michael; Micek, Scott; Fagley, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Existing data suggest that antipyretic medications may have deleterious effects on immune function and may increase mortality in human infection. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of antipyretic therapy on 28-day in-hospital mortality when administered early in the course of gram-negative severe sepsis or septic shock. This study was a single-center retrospective cohort study at a 1,111-bed academic medical center of all febrile patients with gram-negative bacteremia hospitalized...

  13. Activity of a New Oral Streptogramin, XRP2868, against Gram-Positive Cocci Harboring Various Mechanisms of Resistance to Streptogramins

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, Michel; Leclercq, Roland

    2006-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of XRP2868, a new oral streptogramin composed of a combination of RPR132552 (streptogramin A) and RPR202868 (streptogramin B), was evaluated against a collection of clinical gram-positive isolates with characterized phenotypes and genotypes of streptogramin resistance. The effects of genes for resistance to streptogramin A or B on the activity of XRP2868 and its components were also tested by cloning these genes individually or in various combinations in gram-positi...

  14. Isolation and molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from imported flamingos in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Fukumoto Yukio; Watanabe Hitoshi; Noda Ayako; Ahmed Ashraf M; Sato Maiko; Shimamoto Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Imported animals, especially those from developing countries, may constitute a potential hazard to native animals and to public health. In this study, a new flock of lesser flamingos imported from Tanzania to Hiroshima Zoological Park were screened for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, integrons and antimicrobial resistance genes. Thirty-seven Gram-negative bacterial isolates were obtained from the flamingos. Seven isolates (18.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes, th...

  15. Estudo da produção de beta -lactamase e sensibilidade às drogas em linhagens de estafilococos coagulase-negativos isolados de recém-nascidos Study of production of beta-lactamase and drugs susceptibility in strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated of neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estafilococos coagulase-negativos (ECN, embora reconhecidos como saprófitas por muito tempo, têm emergido como agentes etiológicos de uma série de infecções, sendo atualmente os principais responsáveis por sepse em UTI neonatal. Tendo em vista estas características, este estudo objetivou a identificação de estafilococos coagulase-negativos isolados de processos infecciosos em recém-nascidos, bem como a determinação da produção de beta-lactamase e sensibilidade às drogas pelas linhagens isoladas. O Staphylococcus epidermidis foi a espécie mais freqüentemente isolada (77,8%. O estudo da produção de beta-lactamase revelou esta característica na maioria das linhagens de ECN isoladas (71,8%. As linhagens de ECN mostraram, ainda, resistência múltipla aos antibióticos utilizados, com 63,2% dos isolados apresentando resistência a cinco ou mais drogas. A elevada transmissibilidade de plasmídios entre estas linhagens e o uso abusivo de drogas antimicrobianas têm-se constituído em importantes fatores na seleção de amostras multirresistentes e na transferência de genes de resistência.Although coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS have been recognized as saprophytes for a long time, they had emerged as etiologic agents of infections. They have currently been the most frequently isolated pathogen in sepsis in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. This study aimed the identification of CNS strains isolated from newborns' infections and to determination of beta-lactamase and drugs susceptibility. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated species (77,8%. The study of the beta-lactamase production revealed this characteristic in the most of the strains of CNS isolated (71,8%. The strains isolated in this study presented multiple resistance to the antibiotics tested, with 63,2% of isolates presenting resistance to five or more drugs. The high transmissibility of plasmids among those strains and the abusive use of

  16. Applications of Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) Supporting Mission Site Selection for Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.

    2008-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM 2005) is an engineering level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. An overview is presented of Mars-GRAM 2005 and its new features. One new feature of Mars-GRAM 2005 is the 'auxiliary profile' option. In this option, an input file of temperature and density versus altitude is used to replace mean atmospheric values from Mars-GRAM's conventional (General Circulation Model) climatology. An auxiliary profile can be generated from any source of data or alternate model output. Auxiliary profiles for this study were produced from mesoscale model output (Southwest Research Institute's Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS) model and Oregon State University's Mars mesoscale model (MMM5)model) and a global Thermal Emission Spectrometer(TES) database. The global TES database has been specifically generated for purposes of making Mars-GRAM auxiliary profiles. This data base contains averages and standard deviations of temperature, density, and thermal wind components,averaged over 5-by-5 degree latitude-longitude bins and 15 degree L(s) bins, for each of three Mars years of TES nadir data. Results are presented using auxiliary profiles produced from the mesoscale model output and TES observed data for candidate Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing sites. Input parameters rpscale (for density perturbations) and rwscale (for wind perturbations) can be used to "recalibrate" Mars-GRAM perturbation magnitudes to better replicate observed or mesoscale model variability.

  17. A Probability Distribution of Surface Elevation for Wind Waves in Terms of the Gram-Charlier Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄传江; 戴德君; 王伟; 钱成春

    2003-01-01

    Laboratory experiments are conducted to study the probability distribution of surface elevation for wind waves and the convergence is discussed of the Gram-Charlier series in describing the surface elevation distribution. Results show that the agreement between the Gram-Charlier series and the observed distribution becomes better and better as the truncated order of the series increases in a certain range, which is contrary to the phenomenon observed by Huang and Long (1980). It is also shown that the Gram-Charlier series is sensitive to the anomalies in the data set which will make the agreement worse if they are not preprocessed appropriately. Negative values of the probability distribution expressed by the Gram-Charlier series in some ranges of surface elevations are discussed, but the absolute values of the negative values as well as the ranges of their occurrence become smaller gradually as more and more terms are included. Therefore the negative values will have no evident effect on the form of the whole surface elevation distribution when the series is truncated at higher orders. Furthermore, a simple recurrence formula is obtained to calculate the coefficients of the Gram-Charlier series in order to extend the Gram-Charlier series to high orders conveniently.

  18. Structural engineering of a phage lysin that targets Gram-negative pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Keller, Paul W.; Chaturvedi, Kaveri S.; Seddiki, Nadir; Fairman, James W.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Kirby, Tara L.; Henderson, Jeffrey P.; Steven, Alasdair C.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K. (NIH); (WU-MED)

    2012-11-13

    Bacterial pathogens are becoming increasingly resistant to antibiotics. As an alternative therapeutic strategy, phage therapy reagents containing purified viral lysins have been developed against Gram-positive organisms but not against Gram-negative organisms due to the inability of these types of drugs to cross the bacterial outer membrane. We solved the crystal structures of a Yersinia pestis outer membrane transporter called FyuA and a bacterial toxin called pesticin that targets this transporter. FyuA is a {beta}-barrel membrane protein belonging to the family of TonB dependent transporters, whereas pesticin is a soluble protein with two domains, one that binds to FyuA and another that is structurally similar to phage T4 lysozyme. The structure of pesticin allowed us to design a phage therapy reagent comprised of the FyuA binding domain of pesticin fused to the N-terminus of T4 lysozyme. This hybrid toxin kills specific Yersinia and pathogenic E. coli strains and, importantly, can evade the pesticin immunity protein (Pim) giving it a distinct advantage over pesticin. Furthermore, because FyuA is required for virulence and is more common in pathogenic bacteria, the hybrid toxin also has the advantage of targeting primarily disease-causing bacteria rather than indiscriminately eliminating natural gut flora.

  19. A General System for Studying Protein-Protein Interactions in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Auberry, Deanna L [ORNL; Buchanan, Michelle V [ORNL; Cannon, Bill [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Foote, Linda J [ORNL; Hervey, IV, William Judson [ORNL; Hooker, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Kennel, Steve J [ORNL; Lankford, Patricia K [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan S [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; McKeown, Catherine K [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL; Owens, Elizabeth T [ORNL; Schmoyer, Denise D [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Wiley, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wang, Yisong [ORNL; Gilmore, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2008-01-01

    Abstract One of the most promising methods for large-scale studies of protein interactions is isolation of an affinity-tagged protein with its in vivo interaction partners, followed by mass spectrometric identification of the copurified proteins. Previous studies have generated affinity-tagged proteins using genetic tools or cloning systems that are specific to a particular organism. To enable protein-protein interaction studies across a wider range of Gram-negative bacteria, we have developed a methodology based on expression of affinity-tagged bait proteins from a medium copy-number plasmid. This construct is based on a broad-host-range vector backbone (pBBR1MCS5). The vector has been modified to incorporate the Gateway DEST vector recombination region, to facilitate cloning and expression of fusion proteins bearing a variety of affinity, fluorescent, or other tags. We demonstrate this methodology by characterizing interactions among subunits of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex in two metabolically versatile Gram-negative microbial species of environmental interest, Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Results compared favorably with those for both plasmid and chromosomally encoded affinity-tagged fusion proteins expressed in a model organism, Escherichia coli.

  20. A general system for studying protein-protein interactions in gram-negative bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, Dale A.; Hurst, G. B.; Foote, Linda J.; Lankford, Patricia K.; McKeown, Cathy K.; Lu, Tse-Yuan S.; Schmoyer, Denise D.; Shah, Manesh B.; Hervey IV, W. J.; McDonald, W. Hayes; Hooker, Brian S.; Cannon, William R.; Daly, Don S.; Gilmore, Jason M.; Wiley, H. S.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Wang, Yisong; Larimer, Frank; Kennel, S. J.; Doktycz, M. J.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer; Owens, Elizabeth T.; Buchanan, M. V.

    2008-08-01

    One of the most promising of the emerging methods for large-scale studies of interactions among proteins is co-isolation of an affinity-tagged protein and its interaction partners, followed by mass spectrometric identification of the co-purifying proteins. We describe a methodology for systematically identifying the proteins that interact with affinity-tagged “bait” proteins expressed from a medium copy plasmid, which are based on a broad host range (pBBR1MCS5) vector backbone that has been modified to incorporate the Gateway DEST plasmid multiple cloning region. This construct was designed to facilitate expression of fusion proteins bearing an affinity tag, across a range of Gram negative bacterial hosts. We demonstrate the performance of this methodology by characterizing interactions among subunits of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex in two metabolically versatile Gram negative microbial species of environmental interest, Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA010 and Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Results from the RNA polymerase complex from these two species compared favorably with those for both plasmid- and chromosomally-encoded affinity-tagged fusion proteins expressed in a model organism, E. coli.

  1. Antimicrobial peptides targeting Gram-negative pathogens, produced and delivered by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volzing, Katherine; Borrero, Juan; Sadowsky, Michael J; Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2013-11-15

    We present results of tests with recombinant Lactococcus lactis that produce and secrete heterologous antimicrobial peptides with activity against Gram-negative pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella . In an initial screening, the activities of numerous candidate antimicrobial peptides, made by solid state synthesis, were assessed against several indicator pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains. Peptides A3APO and Alyteserin were selected as top performers based on high antimicrobial activity against the pathogens tested and on significantly lower antimicrobial activity against L. lactis . Expression cassettes containing the signal peptide of the protein Usp45 fused to the codon-optimized sequence of mature A3APO and Alyteserin were cloned under the control of a nisin-inducible promoter PnisA and transformed into L. lactis IL1403. The resulting recombinant strains were induced to express and secrete both peptides. A3APO- and Alyteserin-containing supernatants from these recombinant L. lactis inhibited the growth of pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella by up to 20-fold, while maintaining the host's viability. This system may serve as a model for the production and delivery of antimicrobial peptides by lactic acid bacteria to target Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria populations.

  2. Correction: Membrane-active macromolecules resensitize NDM-1 gram-negative clinical isolates to tetracycline antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakara S S M Uppu

    Full Text Available Gram-negative 'superbugs' such as New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1 producing pathogens have become world's major public health threats. Development of molecular strategies that can rehabilitate the 'old antibiotics' and halt the antibiotic resistance is a promising approach to target them. We report membrane-active macromolecules (MAMsthat restore the antibacterial efficacy (enhancement by >80-1250 fold of tetracycline antibiotics towards blaNDM-1 Klebsiella pneumonia and blaNDM-1 Escherichia coli clinical isolates.Organismic studies showed that bacteria had an increased and faster uptake of tetracyclinein the presence of MAMs which is attributed to the mechanism of re-sensitization. Moreover,bacteria did not develop resistance to MAMs and MAMs stalled the development of bacterial resistance to tetracycline. MAMs displayed membrane-active properties such as dissipation of membrane potential and membrane-permeabilization that enabled higher uptake of tetracycline in bacteria. In-vivo toxicity studies displayed good safety profiles and preliminary in-vivo antibacterial efficacy studies showed that mice treated with MAMs in combination with antibiotics had significantly decreased bacterial burden compared to the untreated mice. This report of re-instating the efficacy of the antibiotics towards blaNDM-1 pathogens using membrane-active molecules advocates their potential for synergistic co-delivery of antibiotics to combat Gram-negative superbugs.

  3. Membrane-active macromolecules resensitize NDM-1 gram-negative clinical isolates to tetracycline antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divakara S S M Uppu

    Full Text Available Gram-negative 'superbugs' such as New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1 producing pathogens have become world's major public health threats. Development of molecular strategies that can rehabilitate the 'old antibiotics' and halt the antibiotic resistance is a promising approach to target them. We report membrane-active macromolecules (MAMs that restore the antibacterial efficacy (enhancement by >80-1250 fold of tetracycline antibiotics towards blaNDM-1 Klebsiella pneumonia and blaNDM-1 Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Organismic studies showed that bacteria had an increased and faster uptake of tetracycline in the presence of MAMs which is attributed to the mechanism of re-sensitization. Moreover, bacteria did not develop resistance to MAMs and MAMs stalled the development of bacterial resistance to tetracycline. MAMs displayed membrane-active properties such as dissipation of membrane potential and membrane-permeabilization that enabled higher uptake of tetracycline in bacteria. In-vivo toxicity studies displayed good safety profiles and preliminary in-vivo antibacterial efficacy studies showed that mice treated with MAMs in combination with antibiotics had significantly decreased bacterial burden compared to the untreated mice. This report of re-instating the efficacy of the antibiotics towards blaNDM-1 pathogens using membrane-active molecules advocates their potential for synergistic co-delivery of antibiotics to combat Gram-negative superbugs.

  4. Water soluble carbon nano-onions from wood wool as growth promoters for gram plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkar, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Manas; Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Sarkar, Sabyasachi

    2012-11-01

    Water-soluble carbon nano-onions (wsCNOs) isolated from wood wool--a wood-based pyrolysis waste product of wood, can enhance the overall growth rate of gram (Cicer arietinum) plants. Treatment of plants with upto 30 μg mL-1 of wsCNOs for an initial 10 day period in laboratory conditions led to an increase in the overall growth of the plant biomass. In order to examine the growth stimulating effects of wsCNOs under natural conditions, 10 day-old plants treated with and without wsCNOs were transplanted into soil of standard carbon and nitrogen composition. We observed an enhanced growth rate of the wsCNOs pre-treated plants in soil, which finally led to an increased productivity of plants in terms of a larger number of grams. On analyzing the carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen (CHN) content for the shoot and fruit sections of the plants treated with and without wsCNOs, only a minor difference in the composition was noticed. However, a slight increase in the percentage of carbon and hydrogen in shoots reflects the synthesis of more organic biomass in the case of treated plants. This work shows that wsCNOs are non-toxic to plant cells and can act as efficient growth stimulants which can be used as benign growth promoters.

  5. Context-sensitive Spelling Correction Using Google Web 1T 5-Gram Information

    CERN Document Server

    Bassil, Youssef; 10.5539/cis.v5n3p37

    2012-01-01

    In computing, spell checking is the process of detecting and sometimes providing spelling suggestions for incorrectly spelled words in a text. Basically, a spell checker is a computer program that uses a dictionary of words to perform spell checking. The bigger the dictionary is, the higher is the error detection rate. The fact that spell checkers are based on regular dictionaries, they suffer from data sparseness problem as they cannot capture large vocabulary of words including proper names, domain-specific terms, technical jargons, special acronyms, and terminologies. As a result, they exhibit low error detection rate and often fail to catch major errors in the text. This paper proposes a new context-sensitive spelling correction method for detecting and correcting non-word and real-word errors in digital text documents. The approach hinges around data statistics from Google Web 1T 5-gram data set which consists of a big volume of n-gram word sequences, extracted from the World Wide Web. Fundamentally, the...

  6. Antibacterial activity of crude extract of Punica granatum pericarp on pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voravuthikunchai, S.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of crude extracts of Punica granatum Linn. pericarp with 3 different solvents against pathogenic Gram-negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts showed the antibacterial activity against all strains tested including enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli 4 strains (E. coli O157: H7, E. coli O26: H11, E. coli O111: NM, E. coli O22, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella boydii and Salmonella london. Inhibition zones ranged from 10.02 to 19.15 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged from 0.09 to 3.13 mg/ml and 3.13 to 25 mg/ml, respectively. Aqueous extract had low antibacterial activity while crude chloroform extracts had no effect on the growth of these strains. Ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. granatum pericarp demonstrated high activity with the best MIC and MBC values of 0.02 to 0.78 mg/ml and 0.19 to 6.25 mg/ml, respectively. As ethanolic extract of P. granatum was very effective against these pathogenic bacteria, further investigation on this plant species may provide alternative, but bioactive, medicines for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infection.

  7. Oritavancin: A New Lipoglycopeptide Antibiotic in the Treatment of Gram-Positive Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brade, Karrine D; Rybak, Jeffrey M; Rybak, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Resistance among Gram-positive organisms has been steadily increasing over the last several years; however, the development of new antibiotics to treat infections caused from these organisms has fallen short of the emergent need. Specifically, resistance among Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. to essential antibiotics is considered a major problem. Oritavancin is a semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotic that was recently approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). While structurally related to vancomycin, oritavancin also possesses unique mechanisms of action that greatly enhance its antimicrobial potency against multi-drug resistant pathogens including both VanA- and VanB-mediated vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Owing to the addition of the highly hydrophobic tail group, oritavancin possesses a prolonged half-life ranging from 200-300 h. Although oritavancin is only currently Food and Drug Administration approved for ABSSSI, this agent may eventually play a role in additional indications where new innovative therapy is needed including bacteremia and deep-seeded, Gram-positive infections such as infective endocarditis or osteomyelitis. This review will focus on oritavancin's spectrum of activity, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, and the completed and ongoing clinical studies evaluating its use. PMID:26831328

  8. THE SUPPLEMENTARY RELATIONS BETWEEN THE PROTEINS OF MOTTLED GRAM BEAN AND CERTAIN OTHER CEREALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗登义

    2006-01-01

    @@ It has been well understood that a mixture of vegetable and animal proteins is of higher quality than the former alone, and also there are some remarkable instances of effective supplementing between the proteins of certain cereals and certain legume seeds[1]. In practice, it is very valuable for the selection of human diets and farm-animal relations. This question is especially important in China where the protein of the average diet are mainly of vegetable origin, in which about 83 percent are derived from cereals and 11 percent from beans[2]. However, a review of the literature indicates that no work has been done on the supplementary relationships of the protein of mottled gram bean with those of other cereals. The writer purchased, therefore, from the Peiping market some cheaper cereals commonly used in China, namely, yellow corn(黄玉米), red kaoliang(红高粱),oat meal(油麦面),panicled glutinous and non-glutinous millets(黄米及糜子米); and determined the supplementary values between the proteins of mottled gram bean and these cereals. The experimental details are communicated in the present paper.

  9. Benfang Lei’s research on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and bacterial pathogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Benfang Lei’s laboratory conducts research on pathogenesis of human pathogen Group A Streptococcus (GAS)and horse pathogen Streptococcus equi(S.equi). His current research focuses on heme acquisition in Gram-positive pathogens and molecular mechanism of GAS and S.equi pathogenesis.Heme is an important source of essential iron for bacterial pathogens.Benfang Lei and colleagues identified the first cell surface heme-binding protein in Gram-positive pathogens and the heme acquisition system in GAS,demonstrated direct heme transfer from one protein to another,demonstrated an experimental pathway of heme acquisition by the Staphylococcus aureus Isd system,elucidated the activated heme transfer mechanism,and obtained evidence for a chemical mechanism of direct axial ligand displacement during the Shp-to-HtsA heme transfer reaction.These findings have considerably contributed to the progress that has been made over recent years in understanding the heme acquisition process in Grampositive pathogens.Pathogenesis of GAS is mediated by an abundance of extracellular proteins,and pathogenic role and functional mechanism are not known for many of these virulence factors.Lei laboratory identified a secreted protein of GAS as a CovRS-regulated virulence factor that is a protective antigen and is critical for GAS spreading in the skin and systemic dissemination.These studies may lead to development of novel strategies to prevent and treat GAS infections.

  10. New antimicrobial agents as therapy for resistant gram-positive cocci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentino, J R; Narita, M; Yu, V L

    2008-01-01

    Vancomycin- and methicillin-resistant gram-positive cocci have emerged as an increasingly problematic cause of hospital-acquired infections. We conducted a literature review of newer antibiotics with activity against vancomycin-resistant and methicillin-resistant gram-positive cocci. Quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline have in vitro activity for methicillin-resistant staphylococci and are superior to vancomycin for vancomycin-resistant isolates. Dalbavancin, telavancin, and oritavancin are new glycopeptides that have superior pharmacodynamic properties compared to vancomycin. We review the antibacterial spectrum, clinical indications and contraindications, pharmacologic properties, and adverse events associated with each of these agents. Daptomycin has rapid bactericidal activity for Staphylococcus aureus and is approved for use in bacteremia and right-sided endocarditis. Linezolid is comparable to vancomycin in patients with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pneumonia and has pharmacoeconomic advantages given its oral formulation. Quinupristin/dalfopristin is the drug of choice for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium infections but has no activity against Enterococcus faecalis. Tigecycline has activity against both enterococcus species and MRSA; it is also active against Enterobacteriaceae and anaerobes which allows for use in intra-abdominal and diabetic foot infections. A review of numerous in vitro and animal model studies shows that interaction between these newer agents and other antistaphylococcal agents for S. aureus are usually indifferent (additive). PMID:17899228

  11. Short-term starvation of immune deficient Drosophila improves survival to gram-negative bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony E Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary immunodeficiencies are inborn errors of immunity that lead to life threatening conditions. These predispositions describe human immunity in natura and highlight the important function of components of the Toll-IL-1- receptor-nuclear factor kappa B (TIR-NF-kappaB pathway. Since the TIR-NF-kappaB circuit is a conserved component of the host defence in higher animals, genetically tractable models may contribute ideas for clinical interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used immunodeficient fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster to address questions pertaining to survival following bacterial infection. We describe here that flies lacking the NF-kappaB protein Relish, indispensable for countering Gram-negative bacteria, had a greatly improved survival to such infections when subject to dietary short-term starvation (STS prior to immune challenge. STS induced the release of Nitric Oxide (NO, a potent molecule against pathogens in flies, mice and humans. Administering the NO Synthase-inhibitory arginine analog N-Nitro-L-Arginine-Methyl-Ester (L-NAME but not its inactive enantiomer D-NAME increased once again sensitivity to infection to levels expected for relish mutants. Surprisingly, NO signalling required the NF-kappaB protein Dif, usually needed for responses against Gram-positive bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that NO release through STS may reflect an evolutionary conserved process. Moreover, STS could be explored to address immune phenotypes related to infection and may offer ways to boost natural immunity.

  12. Managing and preventing outbreaks of Gram-negative infections in UK neonatal units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Mark; Bedford-Russell, Alison; Cooper, Tracey; Fry, Carole; Heath, Paul T; Kennea, Nigel; McCartney, Maureen; Patel, Bharat; Pollard, Tina; Sharland, Mike; Wilson, Peter

    2013-11-01

    De novo guidance on the management of Gram-negative bacteria outbreaks in UK neonatal units was developed in 2012 by a Department of Health, England Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Associated Infection working group. The recommendations included activation of an organisational response and establishing a control team when an outbreak is suspected; screening for the specific organism only during an outbreak; undertaking multidisciplinary reviews of cleaning routines, hand hygiene and Gram-negative bacteria transmission risks; considering deep-cleaning; cohorting colonised and infected babies preferably but not necessarily in isolation cubicles; and considering reducing beds or closing a unit to new admissions as a way of improving spacing and staff:patient ratios until the outbreak is under control. The group advised establishing mechanisms to communicate effectively across the network; informing parents of the outbreak as early as possible, and providing prewritten 'infection outbreak' information sheets. For prevention of outbreaks, the group advised meeting national staffing and cot-spacing requirements; following a Water Action Plan; using infection reduction care bundles and benchmarking; and introducing breast milk early and limiting antibiotic use. PMID:23792354

  13. Impacts of vehicle exhaust black soot on germination of gram seed (Cicer arietinum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Mondal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was initiated to examine the effects of carbon soot collected from exhaust tube of 15 years old petrol and diesel operated vehicles on gram seed germination and biochemical changes of seedling. In view of the widespread cultivation of gram seed in India and long-term impact of black carbon is the warming of the atmosphere as per the recommendation of IPCC (2007. Black soot were separately treated with different doses and the effects of these treatment had on seed germination, seedling vigor, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, root and shoot growth, protein, sugar, phenol and proline estimation were studied. The treatment T6 significantly affected on seed germination (84% as well as seedling vigor and chlorophyll content. But other treatment promoted both seed germination and seedling vigor along with enhancement of other biochemical constituents. On the other hand micrograph study revealed that treatments T1 and T4 both showed negative effects on stomata rather than the ultra-structure of xylem and phloem.

  14. Cuprous Oxide Scale up: Gram Production via Bulk Synthesis using Classic Solvents at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Han, T. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Cuprous oxide is a p-type semiconducting material that has been highly researched for its interesting properties. Many small-scale syntheses have exhibited excellent control over size and morphology. As the demand for cuprous oxide grows, the synthesis method need to evolve to facilitate large-scale production. This paper supplies a facile bulk synthesis method for Cu₂O on average, 1-liter reaction volume can produce 1 gram of particles. In order to study the shape and size control mechanisms on such a scale, the reaction volume was diminished to 250 mL producing on average 0.3 grams of nanoparticles per batch. Well-shaped nanoparticles have been synthesized using an aqueous solution of CuCl₂, NaOH, SDS surfactant, and NH₂OH-HCl at mild temperatures. The time allotted between the addition of NaOH and NH₂OH-HCl was determined to be critical for Cu(OH)2 production, an important precursor to the final produce The effects of stirring rates on a large scale was also analyzed during reagent addition and post reagent addition. A morphological change from rhombic dodecahedra to spheres occurred as the stirring speed was increased. The effects of NH₂OH-HCl concentration were also studied to control the etching effects of the final product.

  15. Glycopeptide Antibiotic To Overcome the Intrinsic Resistance of Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Manjunath, Goutham B; Sarkar, Paramita; Akkapeddi, Padma; Paramanandham, Krishnamoorthy; Shome, Bibek R; Ravikumar, Raju; Haldar, Jayanta

    2016-02-12

    The emergence of drug resistance along with a declining pipeline of clinically useful antibiotics has made it vital to develop more effective antimicrobial therapeutics, particularly against difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens (GNPs). Many antibacterial agents, including glycopeptide antibiotics such as vancomycin, are inherently inactive toward GNPs because of their inability to cross the outer membrane of these pathogens. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, lipophilic cationic (permanent positive charge) vancomycin analogues were able to permeabilize the outer membrane of GNPs and overcome the inherent resistance of GNPs toward glycopeptides. Unlike vancomycin, these analogues were shown to have a high activity against a variety of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii. In the murine model of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infection, the optimized compound showed potent activity with no observed toxicity. The notable activity of these compounds is attributed to the incorporation of new membrane disruption mechanisms (cytoplasmic membrane depolarization along with outer and inner (cytoplasmic) membrane permeabilization) into vancomycin. Therefore, our results indicate the potential of the present vancomycin analogues to be used against drug-resistant GNPs, thus strengthening the antibiotic arsenal for combating Gram-negative bacterial infections. PMID:27624964

  16. [Comparative urinary bactericidal activity of oral antibiotics against gram-positive pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedenić, Branka; Budimir, Ana; Gverić, Ana; Plecko, Vanda; Vranes, Jasmina; Bubonja-Sonje, Marina; Kalenić, Smilja

    2012-01-01

    In routine bacteriological laboratories the antibacterial activity of antibiotics is determined by in vitro testing, usually by disk-diffusion test. However, in vitro testing does not always reflect antibacterial efficiency of antibiotics in vivo. In this investigation, the urine samples obtained in a single oral dose pharmacokinetic study were examined for their bactericidal activity against a range of relevant Gram-positive urinary tract pathogens. Urinary bactericidal activity of linezolid had been previously compared with ciprofloxacin but not with other oral antibiotics such as beta-lactams. Linezolid showed satisfactory urinary bactericidal titres throughout the whole testing period against all Gram-positive cocci. Fluoroquinolones displayed high and persisting levels of urinary bactericidal activity against staphylococci, but their activity against enterococci was weaker. According to the results of ex-vivo testing amoxycillin could be recommended only for infections caused by E. faecalis. Amoxycillin combined with clavulanic acid can be considered as a therapeutic option for infections caused by S. saprophyticus and E. faecalis. Older cephalosporins had high titres only against S. saprophyticus. Their drawback is a short elimination half-time in urine resulting in rapid decrease of urinary bactericidal titers during dosing interval. Furthermore, they do not show activity against enterococci due to their intrinsic resistance to cephalosporins. PMID:22930932

  17. Membrane-Active Macromolecules Resensitize NDM-1 Gram-Negative Clinical Isolates to Tetracycline Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppu, Divakara S. S. M.; Manjunath, Goutham B.; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Kaviyil, Jyothi E.; Ravikumar, Raju; Paramanandham, Krishnamoorthy; Shome, Bibek R.; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative ‘superbugs’ such as New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (blaNDM-1) producing pathogens have become world’s major public health threats. Development of molecular strategies that can rehabilitate the ‘old antibiotics’ and halt the antibiotic resistance is a promising approach to target them. We report membrane-active macromolecules (MAMs) that restore the antibacterial efficacy (enhancement by >80-1250 fold) of tetracycline antibiotics towards blaNDM-1 Klebsiella pneumonia and blaNDM-1 Escherichia coli clinical isolates. Organismic studies showed that bacteria had an increased and faster uptake of tetracycline in the presence of MAMs which is attributed to the mechanism of re-sensitization. Moreover, bacteria did not develop resistance to MAMs and MAMs stalled the development of bacterial resistance to tetracycline. MAMs displayed membrane-active properties such as dissipation of membrane potential and membrane-permeabilization that enabled higher uptake of tetracycline in bacteria. In-vivo toxicity studies displayed good safety profiles and preliminary in-vivo antibacterial efficacy studies showed that mice treated with MAMs in combination with antibiotics had significantly decreased bacterial burden compared to the untreated mice. This report of re-instating the efficacy of the antibiotics towards blaNDM-1 pathogens using membrane-active molecules advocates their potential for synergistic co-delivery of antibiotics to combat Gram-negative superbugs. PMID:25789871

  18. Synthetic Quorum Sensing and Cell-Cell Communication in Gram-Positive Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Nicholas; Collins, Cynthia H

    2016-07-15

    The components of natural quorum-sensing (QS) systems can be used to engineer synthetic communication systems that regulate gene expression in response to chemical signals. We have used the machinery from the peptide-based agr QS system from Staphylococcus aureus to engineer a synthetic QS system in Bacillus megaterium to enable autoinduction of a target gene at high cell densities. Growth and gene expression from these synthetic QS cells were characterized in both complex and minimal media. We also split the signal production and sensing components between two strains of B. megaterium to produce sender and receiver cells and characterized the resulting communication in liquid media and on semisolid agar. The system described in this work represents the first synthetic QS and cell-cell communication system that has been engineered to function in a Gram-positive host, and it has the potential to enable the generation of dynamic gene regulatory networks in B. megaterium and other Gram-positive organisms. PMID:26203497

  19. Optimization of fluorescent tools for cell biology studies in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalão, Maria João; Figueiredo, Joana; Henriques, Mafalda X; Gomes, João Paulo; Filipe, Sérgio R

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of how Gram-positive bacteria divide and ensure the correct localization of different molecular machineries, such as those involved in the synthesis of the bacterial cell surface, is crucial to design strategies to fight bacterial infections. In order to determine the correct subcellular localization of fluorescent proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae, we have previously described tools to express derivatives of four fluorescent proteins, mCherry, Citrine, CFP and GFP, to levels that allow visualization by fluorescence microscopy, by fusing the first ten amino acids of the S. pneumoniae protein Wze (the i-tag), upstream of the fluorescent protein. Here, we report that these tools can also be used in other Gram-positive bacteria, namely Lactococcus lactis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, possibly due to optimized translation rates. Additionally, we have optimized the i-tag by testing the effect of the first ten amino acids of other pneumococcal proteins in the increased expression of the fluorescent protein Citrine. We found that manipulating the structure and stability of the 5' end of the mRNA molecule, which may influence the accessibility of the ribosome, is determinant to ensure the expression of a strong fluorescent signal.

  20. ABC transporters involved in the biogenesis of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Shin-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    The outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria is an asymmetric lipid bilayer with phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). β-Barreled outer membrane proteins and lipoproteins are embedded in the outer membrane. All of these constituents are essential to the function of the outer membrane. The transport systems for lipoproteins have been characterized in detail. An ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, LolCDE, initiates sorting by mediating the detachment of lipoproteins from the inner membrane to form a water-soluble lipoprotein-LolA complex in the periplasm. Lipoproteins are then transferred to LolB at the outer membrane and are incorporated into the lipid bilayer. A model analogous to the Lol system has been suggested for the transport of LPS, where an ABC transporter, LptBFG, mediates the detachment of LPS from the inner membrane. Recent developments in the functional characterization of ABC transporters involved in the biogenesis of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria are discussed. PMID:21670534

  1. Beta-lactamase induction and cell wall metabolism in Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximin eZeng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Production of beta-lactamases, the enzymes that degrade beta-lactam antibiotics, is the most widespread and threatening mechanism of antibiotic resistance. In the past, extensive research has focused on the structure, function, and ecology of beta-lactamases while limited efforts were placed on the regulatory mechanisms of beta-lactamases. Recently, increasing evidence demonstrate a direct link between beta-lactamase induction and cell wall metabolism in Gram-negative bacteria. Specifically, expression of beta-lactamase could be induced by the liberated murein fragments, such as muropeptides. This article summarizes current knowledge on cell wall metabolism, beta-lactam, and beta lactamases. In particular, we comprehensively reviewed recent studies on the beta-lactamase induction by muropeptides via two major molecular mechanisms (the AmpG-AmpR-AmpC pathway and BlrAB-like two-component regulatory system in Gram-negative bacteria. The signaling pathways for beta-lactamase induction offer a broad array of promising targets for the discovery of new antibacterial drugs used for combination therapies. Therefore, to develop effective mitigation strategies against the widespread beta-lactam resistance, examination of the molecular basis of beta-lactamase induction by cell wall fragment is highly warranted.

  2. Structures of β-hairpin Antimicrobial Protegrin Peptides in Lipopolysaccharide Membranes: Mechanism of Gram Selectivity Obtained From Solid-State NMR

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Yongchao; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Hong, Mei

    2011-01-01

    The structural basis for the Gram selectivity of two disulfide-bonded β-hairpin antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is investigated using solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The hexa-arginine PG-1 exhibits potent activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while a mutant of PG-1 with only three cationic residues maintains Gram-positive activity but is 30-fold less active against Gram-negative bacteria. We determined the topological structure and lipid interactions of these two pepti...

  3. El ABP mediado con tecnología móvil como estrategia pedagógica para el desarrollo de la competencia matemática en resolución de problemas: un caso con la adición de números enteros negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulises Domínguez Merlano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados de la investigación "Efecto del Aprendizaje Basado en Proyectos mediado con tecnología móvil en la resolución de problemas aditivos con números enteros negativos". La investigación es cuantitativa, con enfoque correlacional y diseño cuasi-experimental con pre-test y pos-test. se conformaron dos grupos, experimental y control, de veinte estudiantes cada uno. El primero utilizó el ABP con la mediación de los Classemate, mientras que el segundo, no empleó la mediación de la tecnología. Para establecer las diferencias entre los grupos, se empleó el método estadístico ANOVA, evidenciando que no existen diferencias significativas en la competencia de resolución de problemas entre los grupos. sin embargo se determinó que existen diferencias en el pre-test y pos-test al interior de los grupos. La utilización del ABP mejora el desempeño de los estudiantes en la competencia de resolución de problemas independientemente del tipo de mediación empleada.

  4. Anal cancer precursor lesions in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients seen at a tertiary health institution in Brazil Lesões precursoras do câncer anal em pacientes HIV-positivos e HIV-negativos atendidos numa instituição de saúde terciária no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Tramujas da Costa e Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASIL or anal cancer in patients attended at the Tropical Medicine Foundation of Amazonas. Methods: 344 patients consecutively attended at the institution, in 2007/2008, were distributed in the following strata according to presence/abscense of at risk conditions for anal cancer: Group 1 _ HIV-positive men-who-have-sex-with-men (101; Group 2 _ HIV-positive females (49; Group 3 _ patients without any at risk condition for anal cancer (53; Group 4 _ HIV-positive heterosexual men (38; Group 5 _ HIV-negative patients, without anoreceptive sexual habits, but with other at risk conditions for anal cancer (45; Group 6 _ HIV-negative men-who-have-sex-with-men (26; and Group 7 _ HIV-negative anoreceptive females (32. The histopathological results of biopsies guided by high-resolution anoscopy were analyzed by frequentist and bayesian statistics in order to calculate the point-prevalence of ASIL/cancer and observe any eventual preponderance of one group over the other. Results: The point-prevalence of ASIL for all the patients studied was 93/344 (27%, the difference between HIV-positive and negative patients being statistically significant (38.3% versus 13.5%; p Objetivo: Investigar a prevalência de lesões intraepiteliais escamosas anais (ASIL ou câncer anal em pacientes atendidos na Fundação de Medicina Tropical do Amazonas. Métodos: 344 pacientes consecutivamente atendidos na instituição, em 2007/2008, foram distribuídos nos seguintes estratos conforme a presença/ausência de fatores de risco para o câncer anal: Grupo 1 _ homens-que-fazem-sexo-com-homens HIV-positivos (101; Grupo 2 _ mulheres HIV-positivas (49; Grupo 3 _ pacientes sem condição de risco para o câncer anal (53; Grupo 4 _ homens heterossexuais HIV-positivos (38; Grupo 5 _ pacientes HIV-negativos, sem hábitos sexuais anorreceptivos, mas com outras condições de risco para o câncer anal (45

  5. Identification of a new family of enzymes with potential O-acetylpeptidoglycan esterase activity in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Anthony J

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolism of the rigid bacterial cell wall heteropolymer peptidoglycan is a dynamic process requiring continuous biosynthesis and maintenance involving the coordination of both lytic and synthetic enzymes. The O-acetylation of peptidoglycan has been proposed to provide one level of control on these activities as this modification inhibits the action of the major endogenous lytic enzymes, the lytic transglycosylases. The O-acetylation of peptidoglycan also inhibits the activity of the lysozymes which serve as the first line of defense of host cells against the invasion of bacterial pathogens. Despite this central importance, there is a dearth of information regarding peptidoglycan O-acetylation and nothing has previously been reported on its de-acetylation. Results Homology searches of the genome databases have permitted this first report on the identification of a potential family of O-Acetylpeptidoglycan esterases (Ape. These proteins encoded in the genomes of a variety of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including a number of important human pathogens such as species of Neisseria, Helicobacter, Campylobacter, and Bacillus anthracis, have been organized into three families based on amino acid sequence similarities with family 1 being further divided into three sub-families. The genes encoding these proteins are shown to be clustered with Peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferases (Pat and in some cases, together with other genes involved in cell wall metabolism. Representative bacteria that encode the Ape proteins were experimentally shown to produce O-acetylated peptidoglycan. Conclusion The hypothetical proteins encoded by the pat and ape genes have been organized into families based on sequence similarities. The Pat proteins have sequence similarity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa AlgI, an integral membrane protein known to participate in the O-acetylation of the exopolysaccaride, alginate. As none of the bacteria

  6. Evaluation of direct inoculation of the BD PHOENIX system from positive BACTEC blood cultures for both Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolffs Petra FG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapid identification (ID and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST of the causative micro-organism of bloodstream infections result in earlier targeting of antibiotic therapy. In order to obtain results of ID and AST up to 24 hours earlier, we evaluated the accuracy of direct inoculation of the Phoenix system from positive blood cultures (BACTEC by using Serum Separator Tubes to harvest bacteria from positive blood cultures. Results were compared to those of standard Phoenix procedure. Discrepancies between the two methods were resolved by using the API system, E-test or microbroth dilution. Results ID with the direct method was correct for 95.2% of all tested Enterobacteriaceae (n = 42 and 71.4% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains (n = 7. AST with the direct method showed a categorical agreement for Gram-negative rods (GNR of 99.0%, with 0.7% minor errors, 0.3% very major errors and no major errors. All antibiotics showed an agreement of >95%. The direct method for AST of Staphylococcus (n = 81 and Enterococcus (n = 3 species showed a categorical agreement of 95.4%, with a minor error rate of 1.1%, a major error rate of 3.1% and a very major error rate of 0.4%. All antibiotics showed an agreement of >90%, except for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Conclusions Inoculation of Phoenix panels directly from positive blood cultures can be used to report reliable results of AST of GNR a day earlier, as well as ID-results of Enterobacteriaceae. For Staphylococcus and Enterococcus species, results of AST can also be reported a day earlier for all antibiotics, except for erythromycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  7. 革兰氏阳性菌和阴性菌对山梨酸钾的耐受差异性%Study of the Tolerance Difference between Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria to Potassium Sorbate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕菲; 郭桂萍; 赵勇; 潘迎捷; 卢瑛

    2012-01-01

    对革兰氏阳性菌和革兰氏阴性茵对山梨酸钾防腐剂的耐受性差异进行了探讨.以食品中常见的革兰氏阳性菌(蜡样芽孢杆菌,金黄色葡萄球茵和单增李斯特茵)与革兰氏阴性茵(沙门氏菌、副溶血弧菌、荧光假单胞菌)为研究对象,针对纯培养状态和模拟食品体系进行了研究.结果显示,加入1 g/L山梨酸钾后革兰氏阴性茵的菌数可减少近102~103.5 CFU/mL,而革兰氏阳性茵的菌数只能减少近10 CFU/mL,说明山梨酸钾对革兰氏阴性茵的抑茵效果比革兰氏阳性茵要高2倍以上.最小抑菌浓度实验和即食海带的接种模拟实验结果与生长曲线结果相吻合,显示革兰氏阳性茵对山梨酸钾的耐受性强于革兰氏阴性茵,此结果对于今后应用山梨酸钾进行革兰氏阳性菌类的防控具有重要意义.%In this study, the tolerance of 3 gram positive (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus au-reus and Listeria monocytologene) and 3 gram negative bacteria {Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella and Pseudomonas fluorescent) topotassium sorbate were carefully studied by pure cultivation and simulation of food system. When 1 g/L potassium sorbate was presented in culture, the number of gram negative bacteria was reduced to up to 2~3. 5 lg(CFU/mL), while those of gram positive bacteria were only reduce to 1 lg(CFU/mL). This results demonstrated potassium sorbate inhibited on the gram negative bacteria growth than that of the gram negative bacteria. Results of pure culture, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inoculation to instant kelp results all showed that the tolerance of gram positive bacteria is better than gram negative bacteria. It may have significance in the application of potassium sorbate on the control of gram positive bacteria.

  8. Dialogos negativos anotaciones sobre el montaje de Medea Okupa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo José Islas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En este texto hablamos de dos temas: la adaptación de una obra de Eurípides, ]Medea, y su montaje en el contexto de un espacio público a partir de un trabajo de investigación en actuación sobre la poética de la tragedia.Estos dos temas, que exponemos por separado una mejor comprensión.

  9. Factores motivacionales positivos y negativos en los trastornos de personalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Pelechano Barberá, Vicente; Pastor, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    793 personas han cumplimentado la escala de Loranger sobre trastornos de personalidad y diversos cuestionarios sobre factores contextúales de personalidad relacionados con el mundo laboral. El análisis de los coeficientes de correlación arroja resultados altos y muy altos entre la mayoría de trastornos y factores motivacionales. El estudio de las diferencias en motivación por volumen de trastornos sugiere la existencia de cuatro grupos de factores de motivación que actúan de manera diferencia...

  10. O paradigma do custo negativo The paradigm of negative cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Dalmonech

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The current view that cost must be equal to or greater than zero (C ≥ O was subject to question. Considering the present and the future, a cost that can also be negative was foreseen. With the development of information (IT and communication (CT technologies as well as globalization, new ways of doing business are at hand for identification, evaluation, measurement and investigation. Development of these new ways will give rise to a concept of cost that may vary from a negative infinite to a positive infinite - ∞ to + ∞.

  11. AVALIAÇÃO DA QUALIDADE BACTERIOLÓGICA DE OVOS DE GALINHA COMERCIALIZADOS EM GOIÂNIA, GOIÁS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Stringhini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a qualidade bacteriológica de ovos de galinha de diferentes origens, obtidos em granjas de postura comercial e comercializados em diversos pontos varejistas em Goiânia, Goiás, foram coletados ao acaso 816 ovos, totalizando 272 amostras, que foram encaminhadas ao Laboratório de Bacteriologia do Departamento de Medicina Veterinária da EV/UFG para o processamento bacteriológico do conteúdo líquido. Os resultados obtidos indicaram 110 (40,44% amostras positivas, tendo sido isoladas e identificadas bactérias da família Enterobacteriaceae, sendo 4,46% de Salmonella spp e fungos Aspergillus spp. Ocorreu predominância de bacilos Gram-negativos, que podem causar alterações químicas elevar à deterioração microbiana, resultando em alterações organolépticas do ovo e representando potencial risco à saúde pública. Conclui-se que, para a redução de riscos alimentares, de origem microbiana, devem-se adotar medidas de biossegurança em toda a cadeia de produção de alimentos. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Enterobacteriaceae, qualidade microbiológica, ovos de mesa, poedeiras comerciais.

  12. Susceptibility of Arcobacter butzleri to heavy metals Sensibilidade de Arcobacter butzleri a metais pesados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Otth

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of 50 strains of Arcobacter butzleri isolated from chicken liver [12], mussels [18], river water [6] and bovine [5], duck [2] and pelicans [7] feces to mercury (Hg, chromium (Cr, silver (Ag, nickel (Ni, cobalt (Co, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, molybdenum (Mo and lead (Pb was determined.All the strains were resistant to Mo, Mn, Ni, Co, Pb and Fe and susceptible to Hg, Ag and Cr. MIC values showed high variability, indicating a non homogeneous behavior among the strains.Arcobacter butzleri é um bacilo Gram negativo de caráter zoonótico, pertencente à Família Campylobacteraceae, que tem sido associado a diarréia e septicemia no ser humano. A susceptibilidade de 50 amostras de A. butzleri isoladas de fígados de frango [12], mariscos [18], água de rio [6] e fezes de bovinos [5], patos [2] e pelicanos [7] aos metais pesados mercúrio (Hg, cromo (Cr, prata (Ag, níquel (Ni, cobalto Co, ferro (Fe, manganês (Mn, molibdênio (Mo e chumbo (Pb foi determinada.Todas as amostras foram resistentes a Mo, Mn, Ni, Co, Pb e Fe, sendo susceptíveis a Hg, Ag e Cr. Os valores das CIM apresentaram alta variabilidade indicando um comportamento não homogêneo entre as amostras.

  13. Desarrollo de un sistema de transformación genética en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Corredor

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    La transformación genética es una alternativa para el conocimiento de genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de los hongos. A la fecha se han transformado algunos hongos utilizando técnicas como luz ultravioleta para obtener mutantes auxotróficas. Así mismo, se ha empleado la transformación basada en la introducción de plásmidos que confieren resistencia a antibióticos bien sea por medio de electroporación o imitando un evento que se presenta naturalmente entre plantas y el bacilo gram negativo Agrobacterium tumefaciens y que consiste en la transferencia del T-DNA del plásmido Ti bacteriano a la célula vegetal, con la consecuente aparición de un tumor en el tallo de
    la planta. Este mecanismo se ha reproducido con éxito en hongos
    filamentosos y en levaduras. En el caso de Paraco ccidioides brasiliensis aún no se dispone de un modelo de transformación. Considerando esta carencia y la necesidad de conocer los genes involucrados en la patogenicidad de este microorganismo, pretendemos desarrollar un sistema de transformación genética para P. brasiliensis utilizando A. tumefaciens.

     

     

  14. Brazilian experience in EU-CORE: daptomycin registry and treatment of serious Gram-positive infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Timerman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To collect data about non-controlled prescribing use of daptomycin and its impact among Brazilian patients with serious Gram positive bacterial infection, as well as the efficacy and safety outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multi-center, retrospective, non-interventional registry (August 01, 2009 to June 30, 2011 to collect data on 120 patients (44 patients in the first year and 76 patients in the second year who had received at least one dose of commercial daptomycin in Brazil for the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infection. RESULTS: Right-sided endocarditis (15.8%, complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIwound (15.0% and bacteremia-catheter-related (14.2% were the most frequent primary infections; lung (21.7% was the most common site for infection. Daptomycin was used empirically in 76 (63.3% patients, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA was the most common suspected pathogen (86.1%. 82.5% of the cultures were obtained prior to or shortly after initiation of daptomycin therapy. Staphylococcus spp. - coagulase negative, MRSA, and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were the most frequently identified pathogens (23.8%, 23.8% and 12.5%, respectively. The most common daptomycin dose administered for bacteremia and cSSTI was 6 mg/kg (30.6% and 4 mg/kg (51.7%, respectively. The median duration of inpatient daptomycin therapy was 14 days. Most patients (57.1% did not receive daptomycin while in intensive care unit. Carbapenem (22.5% was the most commonly used antibiotic concomitantly. The patients showed clinical improvement after two days (median following the start of daptomycin therapy. The clinical success rate was 80.8% and the overall rate of treatment failure was 10.8%. The main reasons for daptomycin discontinuation were successful end of therapy (75.8%, switched therapy (11.7%, and treatment failure (4.2%. Daptomycin demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile

  15. Global De Novo Protein-Protein Interactome Elucidates Interactions of Drought-Responsive Proteins in Horse Gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Gangwar, Indu; Panzade, Ganesh; Shankar, Ravi; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the availability of de novo transcriptome of horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) and recent developments in systems biology studies, the first ever global protein-protein interactome (PPI) map was constructed for this highly drought-tolerant legume. Large-scale studies of PPIs and the constructed database would provide rationale behind the interplay at cascading translational levels for drought stress-adaptive mechanisms in horse gram. Using a bidirectional approach (interolog and domain-based), a high-confidence interactome map and database for horse gram was constructed. Available transcriptomic information for shoot and root tissues of a sensitive (M-191; genotype 1) and a drought-tolerant (M-249; genotype 2) genotype of horse gram was utilized to draw comparative PPI subnetworks under drought stress. High-confidence 6804 interactions were predicted among 1812 proteins covering about one-fourth of the horse gram proteome. The highest number of interactions (33.86%) in horse gram interactome matched with Arabidopsis PPI data. The top five hub nodes mostly included ubiquitin and heat-shock-related proteins. Higher numbers of PPIs were found to be responsive in shoot tissue (416) and root tissue (2228) of genotype 2 compared with shoot tissue (136) and root tissue (579) of genotype 1. Characterization of PPIs using gene ontology analysis revealed that kinase and transferase activities involved in signal transduction, cellular processes, nucleocytoplasmic transport, protein ubiquitination, and localization of molecules were most responsive to drought stress. Hence, these could be framed in stress adaptive mechanisms of horse gram. Being the first legume global PPI map, it would provide new insights into gene and protein regulatory networks for drought stress tolerance mechanisms in horse gram. Information compiled in the form of database (MauPIR) will provide the much needed high-confidence systems biology information for horse gram genes, proteins, and

  16. Extended spectrum β-lactamases, carbapenemases and mobile genetic elements responsible for antibiotics resistance in Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Salabi, Allaaeddin; Walsh, Timothey R; Chouchani, Chedly

    2013-05-01

    Infectious diseases due to Gram-negative bacteria are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Antimicrobial agents represent one major therapeutic tools implicated to treat these infections. The misuse of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the emergence of resistant strains of Gram-negatives in particular Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters; they have an effect not only on a human but on the public health when bacteria use the resistance mechanisms to spread in the hospital environment and to the community outside the hospitals by means of mobile genetic elements. Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. They have developed several mechanisms by which they can withstand to antimicrobials, these mechanisms include the production of Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases, furthermore, Gram-negative bacteria are now capable of spreading such resistance between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters using mobile genetic elements as vehicles for such resistance mechanisms rendering antibiotics useless. Therefore, addressing the issue of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance is considered one of most urgent priorities. This review will help to illustrate different resistance mechanisms; ESBLs, carbapenemases encoded by genes carried by mobile genetic elements, which are used by Gram-negative bacteria to escape antimicrobial effect.

  17. Construction of a genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, based on molecular markers and comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Souframanien, J; Gopalakrishna, T

    2008-08-01

    A genetic linkage map of black gram, Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, was constructed with 428 molecular markers using an F9 recombinant inbred population of 104 individuals. The population was derived from an inter-subspecific cross between a black gram cultivar, TU94-2, and a wild genotype, V. mungo var. silvestris. The linkage analysis at a LOD score of 5.0 distributed all 428 markers (254 AFLP, 47 SSR, 86 RAPD, and 41 ISSR) into 11 linkage groups. The map spanned a total distance of 865.1 cM with an average marker density of 2 cM. The largest linkage group spanned 115 cM and the smallest linkage group was of 44.9 cM. The number of markers per linkage group ranged from 11 to 86 and the average distance between markers varied from 1.1 to 5.6 cM. Comparison of the map with other published azuki bean and black gram maps showed high colinearity of markers, with some inversions. The current map is the most saturated map for black gram to date and will provide a useful tool for identification of QTLs and for marker-assisted selection of agronomically important characters in black gram.

  18. False-Negative Rate of Gram-Stain Microscopy for Diagnosis of Septic Arthritis: Suggestions for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Stirling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the false-negative diagnostic rate of septic arthritis using Gram-stain microscopy of synovial fluid and compare this to values reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We propose a method of improving the diagnostic value of Gram-stain microscopy using Lithium Heparin containers that prevent synovial fluid coagulation. Retrospective study of the Manchester Royal Infirmary microbiology database of patients undergoing synovial fluid Gram-stain and culture between December 2003 and March 2012 was undertaken. The initial cohort of 1896 synovial fluid analyses for suspected septic arthritis was reduced to 143 after exclusion criteria were applied. Analysis of our Gram-stain microscopy yielded 111 false-negative results from a cohort size of 143 positive synovial fluid cultures, giving a false-negative rate of 78%. We report a false-negative rate of Gram-stain microscopy for septic arthritis of 78%. Clinicians should therefore avoid the investigation until a statistically significant data set confirms its efficacy. The investigation's value could be improved by using Lithium Heparin containers to collect homogenous synovial fluid samples. Ongoing research aims to establish how much this could reduce the false-negative rate.

  19. Defining a role for Hfq in Gram-positive bacteria: evidence for Hfq-dependent antisense regulation in Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jesper Sejrup; Lei, Lisbeth Kristensen; Ebersbach, Tine; Olsen, Anders Steno; Klitgaard, Janne Kudsk; Valentin-Hansen, Poul; Kallipolitis, Birgitte Haahr

    2010-01-01

    Small trans-encoded RNAs (sRNAs) modulate the translation and decay of mRNAs in bacteria. In Gram-negative species, antisense regulation by trans-encoded sRNAs relies on the Sm-like protein Hfq. In contrast to this, Hfq is dispensable for sRNA-mediated riboregulation in the Gram-positive species studied thus far. Here, we provide evidence for Hfq-dependent translational repression in the Gram-positive human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes, which is known to encode at least 50 sRNAs. We show that the Hfq-binding sRNA LhrA controls the translation and degradation of its target mRNA by an antisense mechanism, and that Hfq facilitates the binding of LhrA to its target. The work presented here provides the first experimental evidence for Hfq-dependent riboregulation in a Gram-positive bacterium. Our findings indicate that modulation of translation by trans-encoded sRNAs may occur by both Hfq-dependent and -independent mechanisms, thus adding another layer of complexity to sRNA-mediated riboregulation in Gram-positive species. PMID:19942685

  20. Cis-encoded noncoding antisense RNAs in streptococci and other low GC Gram (+ bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hong eCho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent advances of bioinformatics and high throughput sequencing technology, discovery of regulatory noncoding RNAs in bacteria has been increased to a great extent. Based on this bandwagon, many studies searching for trans-acting small noncoding RNAs in streptococci have been performed intensively, especially in the important human pathogen, group A and B streptococci. However, studies for cis-encoded noncoding antisense RNAs in streptococci have been scarce. A recent study shows antisense RNAs are involved in virulence gene regulation in group B streptococcus, S. agalactiae. This suggests antisense RNAs could have important roles in the pathogenesis of streptococcal pathogens. In this review, we describe recent discoveries of chromosomal cis-encoded antisense RNAs in streptococcal pathogens and other low GC Gram (+ bacteria to provide a guide for future studies.

  1. Latent morpho-semantic analysis : multilingual information retrieval with character n-grams and mutual information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter A.; Abdelali, Ahmed (New Mexico State University)

    2008-08-01

    We describe an entirely statistics-based, unsupervised, and language-independent approach to multilingual information retrieval, which we call Latent Morpho-Semantic Analysis (LMSA). LMSA overcomes some of the shortcomings of related previous approaches such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). LMSA has an important theoretical advantage over LSA: it combines well-known techniques in a novel way to break the terms of LSA down into units which correspond more closely to morphemes. Thus, it has a particular appeal for use with morphologically complex languages such as Arabic. We show through empirical results that the theoretical advantages of LMSA can translate into significant gains in precision in multilingual information retrieval tests. These gains are not matched either when a standard stemmer is used with LSA, or when terms are indiscriminately broken down into n-grams.

  2. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine

    Eight non-lactating, non-pregnant dairy cows each received three intravenous injections of LPS with three-week intervals (doses: 10, 100 and 1000 ng LPS/kg, consecutively). All three LPS doses induced clinical, haematological and APP responses as well as changes in serum levels of microminerals......-induced anorexia and ruminal hypomotility may be detrimental for lactating dairy cows, since these cows are highly dependent on continuous feed intake to avoid severe metabolic disturbances. Furthermore, depression of the cytokine-producing capacity of circulating PBMCs may result in aberrant innate immune...... may suggest that cows attain a cytokine profile after LPS exposure that for some period of time allows them to react more promptly when re-exposed to LPS or Gram-negative bacteria. Whether this constitutes tolerance is not known. In conclusion, the work presented in this thesis advances our...

  3. Language Identification of Web Pages Based on Improved N-gram Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chew Yew Choong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Language identification of written text in the domain of Latin-script based languages is a well-studied research field. However, new challenges arise when it is applied to non-Latin-script based languages, especially for Asian languages web pages. The objective of this paper is to propose and evaluate the effectiveness of adapting Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Biblical texts as a training corpus, together with two new heuristics to improve an n-gram based language identification algorithm for Asian languages. Extension of the training corpus produced improved accuracy. Improvement was also achieved by using byte-sequence based HTML parser and a HTML character entities converter. The performance of the algorithm was evaluated based on a written text corpus of 1,660 web pages, spanning 182 languages from Asia, Africa, the Americas, Europe and Oceania. Experimental result showed that the algorithm achieved a language identification accuracy rate of 94.04%.

  4. The structures of lipopolysaccharides from plant-associated gram-negative bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molinaro, Antonio; Newman, Mari-Anne; Lanzetta, Rosa;

    2009-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) have multiple roles in plant-microbe interactions. LPSs contribute to the low permeabilities of bacterial outer membranes, which act as barriers to protect bacteria from plant-derived antimicrobial substances. Conversely, perception of LPSs...... by plant cells can lead to the triggering of defence responses or to the priming of the plant to respond more rapidly and/or to a greater degree to subsequent pathogen challenge. LPSs are thus key molecules in the interactions between bacteria and plants, either in symbiosis or pathogenesis. Since LPSs...... are glycoconjugates genetically and chemically consisting of three different molecular regions, their detailed structure elucidation is a very topical and major scientific task for chemists, and is achieved by a combination of state-of-art chemical and spectroscopic techniques. Knowledge of LPSs' chemical structures...

  5. Late specialization: the key to success in centimeters, grams, or seconds (cgs) sports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesch, Karin Silvia; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Hauge, Marie-Louise Trier;

    2011-01-01

    , involvement in other sports, career development, as well as determining whether or not these variables predict membership in the elite group. The results clearly reveal that elite athletes specialized at a later age and trained less in childhood. However, elite athletes were shown to intensify their training......A controversial question within elite sports is whether young athletes need to specialize early, as suggested by Ericsson et al., or if it is more beneficial to follow the path of early diversification proposed by Côté et al., which includes sampling different sport experiences during childhood...... and specializing later on during adolescence. Based on a Danish sample of 148 elite and 95 near-elite athletes from cgs sports (sports measured in centimeters, grams, or seconds), the present study investigates group differences concerning accumulated practice hours during the early stages of the career...

  6. Purification Techniques of Bacteriocins from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Other Gram-Positive Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Lucila; Sesma, Fernando

    The search for new antimicrobial peptides produced by lactic acid ­bacteria and other Gram-positive microorganisms has become an interesting field of research in the past decades. The fact that bacteriocins are active against numerous foodborne and human pathogens, are produced by generally regarded as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, and are readily degraded by proteolytic host systems makes them attractive candidates for biotechnological applications. However, before suggesting or choosing a new bacteriocin for future technology developments, it is necessary to elucidate its biochemical structure and its mode of action, which may be carried out once the bacteriocin is purified to homogeneity. This chapter focuses on describing the main strategies used for the purification of numerous bacteriocins.

  7. SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING, MODEL 9977, ADDENDUM 3, JUSTIFICATION FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITY CONTENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramczyk, G.

    2011-10-31

    This Addendum establishes a new family of content envelopes consisting of small quantities of radioactive materials. These content envelopes and specific packing configurations are shown to be subcritical. However, the dose rates of some payloads must be measured and shown to comply with applicable radiation limits. Authorization for shipment of the content envelop requires acceptance of this Addendum by the DOE-HQ certifying official as a supplement to the 9977 SARP Revision 2 and DOE-HQ's subsequent revision of the CoC Revision 10 (which is based on SARP Addendum 2 and SARP Addendum 4) to authorize the additional content envelope. The Small Gram Quantity Content Envelopes and packing configurations will be incorporated in the next revision of the 9977 SARP.

  8. Biofilms affecting progression of mild steel corrosion by Gram positive Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Madida, Bafana B

    2015-10-01

    The biodeterioration of metals have detrimental effects on the environment with economic implications. The deterioration of metals is of great concern to industry. In this study, mild steel coupons which were immersed in a medium containing Gram-positive Bacillus spp. and different nutrient sources were compared with the control in sterile deionized water. The weight loss of the coupons in the presence of Bacillus spp. alone was lower than the control and was further reduced when additional carbon sources, especially fructose, were added. The level of metal corrosion was significantly increased in the presence of nitrate with or without bacteria. There was a significant strong correlation between the weight loss and biofilm level (r =  0.64; p level of metal corrosion under different environmental conditions, thereby, supporting the development of a preventive strategy against corrosion. PMID:25847372

  9. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns among respiratory isolates of Gram-negative bacilli in a Turkish university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonlugur Ugur

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gram-negative bacteria cause most nosocomial respiratory infections. At the University of Cumhuriyet, we examined 328 respiratory isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumanii organisms in Sivas, Turkey over 3 years. We used disk diffusion or standardized microdilution to test the isolates against 18 antibiotics. Results We cultured organisms from sputum (54%, tracheal aspirate (25%, and bronchial lavage fluid (21%. The most common organisms were Klebsiella spp (35%, A. baumanii (27%, and Escherichia coli (15%. Imipenem was the most active agent, inhibiting 90% of Enterobacteriaceae and A. baumanii organisms. We considered approximately 12% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 21% of E. coli isolates to be possible producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. K. pneumoniae isolates of the extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype were more resistant to imipenem, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline in our study than they are in other regions of the world. Conclusions Our results suggest that imipenem resistance in our region is growing.

  10. Coexpression of ESBL, Amp C and MBL in gram negative bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruturaj M. Kolhapure

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Klebsiella was the commonest isolate (28.47% followed by E coli (26.48%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.54%, Enterobacter (8.92%, Acinetobacter (8.92% and Citrobacter (7.64%. A total of 272 out of 706 gram negative isolates were ESBL producers. ESBL production was seen more in E. coli followed by Klebsiella and P. aeruginosa. A total of 73 out of 706 isolates were inducible Amp C producers. AmpC production was seen more in Acinetobacter. A total of 65 out of 706 isolates were MBL producers. MBL Production was seen more in E. coli. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2698-2703

  11. [Emerging and important antibiotic resistance in Gram negative bacteria: epidemiology, theory and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, P; Poirel, L

    2014-04-23

    Emerging and clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance mechanisms among Gram-negative rods are the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), carbapenemases, and 16S RNA methylases conferring resistance to aminoglycosides. Those resistance determinants do confer multiresistance to antibiotics. They are found in Enterobacteriaceae (especially community-acquired isolates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii). Detection of ESBL-producing and carbapenemase-producing isolates rely on the use of rapid diagnostic techniques that have to be performed when a reduced susceptibility to 3rd/4th generation cephalosporins or to carbapenems is observed, respectively. Only an early detection of those emerging resistance traits may contribute to limit their nosocomial spread and to optimize the antibiotic stewardship.

  12. NANOTECHNOLOGICAL SOLUTION FOR IMPROVING THE ANTIBIOTIC EFFICIENCY AGAINST BIOFILMS DEVELOPED BY GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIAL STRAINS

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    Keng-Shiang Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available At present bacteria involved in biofilm associated infections display the highest rates of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria, which made that treatment options to be limited, and determined the researchers to find out alternative treatments to antibiotics. In the recent years nanomaterials gained much attention in medicine, particularly in the fight to bacteria resistant to antibiotics by acting as drug delivery devices. Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs have raised much interest during the recent years due to their potential applications in medicine. In the present study we synthesized MNPd functionalized with antibiotics for the study of their antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two Gram-negative bacteria, frequently resistant to antibiotics, involved in biofilm infections in order to investigate their capacity to serve as potential drug delivery systems in the fight to these important opportunist pathogens.

  13. Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria: a product of globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkey, P M

    2015-04-01

    Global trade and mobility of people has increased rapidly over the last 20 years. This has had profound consequences for the evolution and the movement of antibiotic resistance genes. There is increasing exposure of populations all around the world to resistant bacteria arising in the emerging economies. Arguably the most important development of the last two decades in the field of antibiotic resistance is the emergence and spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M group. A consequence of the very high rates of ESBL production among Enterobacteriaceae in Asian countries is that there is a substantial use of carbapenem antibiotics, resulting in the emergence of plasmid-mediated resistance to carbapenems. This article reviews the emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, focuses on three particular carbapenemases--imipenem carbapenemases, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase, and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase--and highlights the importance of control of antibiotic use.

  14. DNA/Ag Nanoparticles as Antibacterial Agents against Gram-Negative Bacteria

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    Tomomi Takeshima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver (Ag nanoparticles were produced using DNA extracted from salmon milt as templates. Particles spherical in shape with an average diameter smaller than 10 nm were obtained. The nanoparticles consisted of Ag as the core with an outermost thin layer of DNA. The DNA/Ag hybrid nanoparticles were immobilized over the surface of cotton based fabrics and their antibacterial efficiency was evaluated using E. coli as the typical Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial experiments were performed according to the Antibacterial Standard of Japanese Association for the Functional Evaluation of Textiles. The fabrics modified with DNA/Ag nanoparticles showed a high enough inhibitory and killing efficiency against E. coli at a concentration of Ag ≥ 10 ppm.

  15. 革兰阴性菌耐药%Drug resistance of Gram-negative bacterias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵长安

    2016-01-01

    随着抗生素滥用状况的日趋严峻、使用监管的日渐复杂和发现新的尤其是针对革兰阴性菌(GNB)抗生素技术难度的日益增加,GNB 的耐药问题日趋严峻。现主要讨论临床上常见的 GNB 耐药的相关问题。%Along with the condition of antibiotic abuse,the regulatory hurdles to new antibiotics which have be-come increasingly complex and the technical difficulty of discovering new antibiotics,especially those able to penetrate Gram -negative bacteria(GNB),drug -resistant of GNB has become increasingly serious.This review focuses on com-mon clinical GNB drug resistance related issues.

  16. Gram teigiamų maisto patogenų fotosensibilizacija maisto matricose

    OpenAIRE

    Paškevičiūtė, Eglė

    2014-01-01

    Šio darbo metu nustatyta, kad fotosensibilizacija efektyvus metodas Gram teigiamų maisto patogenų inaktyvacijai in vitro, nuo pakuočių bei maisto matricų paviršiaus. Rezultatai in vitro rodo, kad pasiekiama pilna patogeninių mikroorganizmų inaktyvacija (7 log). Modelinėje sistemoje atlikus patogenų adheziją ant poliolefino paviršiaus gauta visiška jų inaktyvacija fotosensibilizacijos būdu. Dėl nereguliarių paviršių patogenų inaktyvavimas ant maisto matricų yra sudėtingesnis ir mažiau efektyvu...

  17. The HlyB/HlyD-dependent secretion of toxins by gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koronakis, V; Stanley, P; Koronakis, E; Hughes, C

    1992-09-01

    Hemolysin (HlyA) and related toxins are secreted across both the cytoplasmic and outer membranes of Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria in a remarkable process which proceeds without a periplasmic intermediate. It is directed by an uncleaved C-terminal targetting signal and the HlyD and HlyB translocator proteins, the latter of which are members of a transporter superfamily central to import and export of a wide range of substrates by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Our mutational analyses of the HlyA targetting signal and definition for the first time of stages and intermediates in the HlyB/HlyD-dependent translocation allow a discussion of the hemolysin export process in the wider context of protein translocation. PMID:1419114

  18. Data on the standardization of a cyclohexanone-responsive expression system for Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Ilaria; Nikel, Pablo I; de Lorenzo, Víctor

    2016-03-01

    Engineering of robust microbial cell factories requires the use of dedicated genetic tools somewhat different from those traditionally used for laboratory-adapted microorganisms. We have edited and formatted the ChnR/P chnB regulatory node of Acinetobacter johnsonii to ease the targeted engineering of ectopic gene expression in Gram-negative bacteria. The proposed compositional standard was thoroughly verified with a monomeric and superfolder green fluorescent protein (msf•GFP) in Escherichia coli. The expression data presented reflect a tightly controlled transcription initiation signal in response to cyclohexanone. Data in this article are related to the research paper "Genetic programming of catalytic Pseudomonas putida biofilms for boosting biodegradation of haloalkanes" [1].

  19. Detection of Quorum Sensing Signals in Gram-Negative Bacteria by Using Reporter Strain CV026

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    Ahmad Humayan KABIR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing signals are referred to as acylated homoserine lactones (AHL that are mainly found in Gram-negative bacteria. It implies the ability of certain bacteria of producing different AHL molecules. The bacteria Pseudomonas aureofaciens and Xenorhabdus nematophila were cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB10 media and CV026 was used as a reporter strain to detect the presence of AHLs produced by the cultured bacteria. In this study, the reporter strain has revealed the quorum sensing ability of P. aureofaciens and X. nematophila by producing the purple pigment violacein in the supply of external AHLs molecules. Thin layer chromatography (TLC bioassay having four controls was conducted to detect specific AHL molecule supplied by P. aureofaciens and X. nematophila. The specific AHL molecule was observed to be migrated according to their polarity on the TLC plate.

  20. A new family of lysozyme inhibitors contributing to lysozyme tolerance in gram-negative bacteria.

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    Lien Callewaert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Lysozymes are ancient and important components of the innate immune system of animals that hydrolyze peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer. Bacteria engaging in commensal or pathogenic interactions with an animal host have evolved various strategies to evade this bactericidal enzyme, one recently proposed strategy being the production of lysozyme inhibitors. We here report the discovery of a novel family of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors with widespread homologs in gram-negative bacteria. First, a lysozyme inhibitor was isolated by affinity chromatography from a periplasmic extract of Salmonella Enteritidis, identified by mass spectrometry and correspondingly designated as PliC (periplasmic lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme. A pliC knock-out mutant no longer produced lysozyme inhibitory activity and showed increased lysozyme sensitivity in the presence of the outer membrane permeabilizing protein lactoferrin. PliC lacks similarity with the previously described Escherichia coli lysozyme inhibitor Ivy, but is related to a group of proteins with a common conserved COG3895 domain, some of them predicted to be lipoproteins. No function has yet been assigned to these proteins, although they are widely spread among the Proteobacteria. We demonstrate that at least two representatives of this group, MliC (membrane bound lysozyme inhibitor of c-type lysozyme of E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, also possess lysozyme inhibitory activity and confer increased lysozyme tolerance upon expression in E. coli. Interestingly, mliC of Salmonella Typhi was picked up earlier in a screen for genes induced during residence in macrophages, and knockout of mliC was shown to reduce macrophage survival of S. Typhi. Based on these observations, we suggest that the COG3895 domain is a common feature of a novel and widespread family of bacterial lysozyme inhibitors in gram-negative bacteria that may function as colonization or virulence factors in bacteria