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Sample records for bacillus strains injected

  1. Genotypic Diversity among Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Cathrine Rein; Caugant, Dominique A; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-four strains of Bacillus cereus were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and compared with 12 Bacillus thuringiensis strains. In addition, the 36 strains were examined for variation in 15 chromosomal genes encoding enzymes (by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis [MEE]). The genome of each strain had a distinct NotI restriction enzyme digestion profile by PFGE, and the 36 strains could be assigned to 27 multilocus genotypes by MEE. However, neither PFGE nor MEE analysis co...

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Four Plant Probiotic Bacillus Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome sequences of four Bacillus strains that exhibit plant probiotic activities. Three of them are the type strains of Bacillus endophyticus, "Bacillus gaemokensis," and Bacillus trypoxylicola, and the other, Bacillus sp. strain KCTC 13219, should be reclassified into a species belonging to the genus Lysinibacillus. PMID:27174273

  3. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis strain HD521

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qiao; Xu, Li Z.; Zou, Ting; Ai, Peng; Huang, Gang H.; Li, Ping; Zheng, Ai P.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely used biological pesticide in the world. It belongs to the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which contains six species. Among these six species, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. cereus have a low genetic diversity. B. thuringiensis strain HD521 shows maroon colony which is different from most of the B. thuringiensis strains. Strain HD521 also displays an ability to inhibit plant sheath blight disease pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IB) growth a...

  4. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Kealy Peak, K.; Kathleen E. Duncan; Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra S.; McCarthy, Peter J.; Cannons, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S) for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted...

  5. Protein engineering of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251

    OpenAIRE

    Penninga, Dirk

    1996-01-01

    An enormous diversity of molecular functions in living organisms is carried out by proteins. Our studies have focussed on the functional analysis of a starch-converting enzyme, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus circulans strain 251. Zie: Summary

  6. Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HD-1

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Michael; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Dyer, David; Bulla, Lee

    2014-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD-1, which serves as the primary U.S. reference standard for all commercial insecticidal formulations of B. thuringiensis manufactured around the world.

  7. Genetic transformation of Bacillus strains close to bacillus subtilis and isolated from the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal and plasmid transformation was found in five out of 118 Bacillus strains, close or identical to Bacillus subtilis, and isolated from soil in Moscow or in the Moscow district. The efficiency of transformation in these strains was lower than that in derivatives of Bac. subtilis strain 168. In these strains the ability to undergo transformation was dependent on the rate of sporulation and the presence of restrictases. As in the case of Bac. subtilis 168 the strains isolated may be used as models in genetic transformation studies on Bac. subtilis

  8. Secondary cell wall polysaccharides in Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus strains

    OpenAIRE

    Leoff, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a systematic comparison of cell wall carbohydrates, in particular the non classical secondary cell wall polysaccharides from closely related strains within the Bacillus cereus group. The results suggest that the cell wall glycosyl composition of the various Bacillus cereus group strains display differences that correlate with their phylogenetic relatedness. Comparative structural analysis of polysaccharide components that were released from the cell walls of the various s...

  9. Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Margarita; Yousten Allan A

    1997-01-01

    A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer). Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. ...

  10. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Seyed-Mohamadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacillus anthracis is one of the most homogenous bacteria ever described. Bacillus anthracis 17JB is a laboratory strain. It is broadly used as a challenge strain in guinea pigs for potency test of anthrax vaccine.Material and Methods: This work describes genetic characterization of B. anthracis 17 JB strain using the SNPs and MLVA genotyping.Results and Conclusion: In SNPs typing, the originally French 17JB strain represented the A. Br. 008/009 subgroup. In Levy's genotyping method, 843, 451 and 864 bp long fragments were identified at AA03, AJ03 and AA07 loci, respectively. In the vaccine manufacturer perspective these findings are much valuable on their own account, but similar research is required to extend molecular knowledge of B. anthracis epidemiology in Persia.Keywords: Bacillus anthracis 17JB, Genetic characterization, SNPs typing

  11. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus strains by microarray-based resequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Zwick

    Full Text Available The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a "one reaction" genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing.

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis strain KATMIRA1933

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a draft sequence of Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933. Previous studies demonstrated probiotic properties of this strain partially attributed to production of an antibacterial compound, subtilosin. Comparative analysis of this strain’s genome with that of a commercial probiotic strain, B. subtilis Natto, is presented.

  13. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Joseph W Kloepper; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including...

  14. Distribution of phenotypes among Bacillus thuringiensis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extensive collection of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates from around the world were phenotypically profiled using standard biochemical tests. Six phenotypic traits occurred in 20-86% of the isolates and were useful in distinguishing isolates: production of urease (U; 20.5% of isolates), hydrolysis...

  15. Occurrence and diversity of mosquitocidal strains of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Balaraman

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the discovery of the first Bacillus thuringiensis strain capable of killing mosquito larvae,namely, B. thuringiensis var israelensis, there are several reports from different parts of the worldabout the occurrence of mosquitocidal strains belonging to different subspecies/serotypes numberingthirty-six. The main sources of these wild type strains are soils/sediments, plants, animal feces,sick/moribund insects and waters. The toxicity of the strains within a subspecies/serotype variedwidely. Some of the strains exhibited toxicity to mosquitoes as well as lepidopterans and dipterans(including mosquitoes as well as plant parasitic nematodes.

  16. Enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation by a newly isolated bacillus subtilis strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by a new bacillus subtilis 22BN strain was investigated. The strain was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane and naphthalene and at the same time to produce surface-active compound at high concentrations (1.5 - 2.0 g l-1). Biosurfactant production was detected by surface tension lowering and emulsifying activity. The strain is a good degrader of both hydrocarbons used with degradability of 98.3 ± 1% and 75 ± 2% for n-hexadecane and naphthalene, respectively. Measurement of cell hydrophobicity showed that the combination of slightly soluble substrate and rhamnolipid developed higher hydrophobicity correlated with increased utilization of both hydrocarbon substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacillus subtilis strain that degrades hydrophobic compounds and at the same time produces rhamnolipid biosurfactant. (orig.)

  17. Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correa Margarita

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer. Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. B. sphaericus 2362 was unable to mobilize pUB110 for transfer to strains that had served as recipients of pAMß1. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that genetically engineered B. sphaericus carrying a recombinant plasmid could pass that plasmid to other bacteria

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain 407 Cry-

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlein, Anja; Liesegang, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen that has been used widely as a biopesticide. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain 407 Cry-, which is used to study the genetic determinants of pathogenicity. The genome consists of a 5.5-Mb chromosome and nine plasmids, including a novel 502-kb megaplasmid.

  19. Capsule Production in Bacillus cereus Strains Associated with Severe Pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sue, David; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Popovic, Tanja; Wilkins, Patricia P.

    2006-01-01

    We identified three encapsulated Bacillus cereus strains, isolated from patients with severe pneumonia, in a collection of B. cereus isolates associated with human illness. We found that the extent of capsule expression was influenced by culturing conditions. Our findings highlight consequent clinical and laboratory diagnostic challenges posed by such isolates.

  20. Use of bacillus subtilis strains to inhibit postharvest pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isolate (87) of the bacillus subtilis strains isolated from cold stored citrus fruit 13 proved to inhibit the growth in vitro of the penicillium italicum used in the experiment (from 50.6% to 92.2%) and to inhibit botrytis cinerea (from 65.3% to 95.9%). A further test, superimposing on plates containing PDA strains Nos. 13, 173, and 160, totally inhibited the fungi. Tested in vivo on artificially bruised oranges, they significantly inhibited two fungi

  1. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  2. Antimicrobial peptide genes in Bacillus strains from plant environments

    OpenAIRE

    Mora Pons, Isabel; Cabrefiga Olamendi, Jordi; Montesinos Seguí, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    The presence of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) biosynthetic genes srfAA (surfactin), bacA (bacylisin), fenD (fengycin), bmyB (bacyllomicin), spaS (subtilin), and ituC (iturin) was examined in 184 isolates of Bacillus spp. obtained from plant environments (aerial, rhizosphere, soil) in the Mediterranean land area of Spain. Most strains had between two and four AMP genes whereas strains with five genes were seldom detected and none of the strains had six genes. The most frequent AMP gene marke...

  3. Antimicrobial peptide genes in Bacillus strains from plant environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Isabel; Cabrefiga, Jordi; Montesinos, Emilio

    2011-12-01

    The presence of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) biosynthetic genes srfAA (surfactin), bacA (bacylisin), fenD (fengycin), bmyB (bacyllomicin), spaS (subtilin), and ituC (iturin) was examined in 184 isolates of Bacillus spp. obtained from plant environments (aerial, rhizosphere, soil) in the Mediterranean land area of Spain. Most strains had between two and four AMP genes whereas strains with five genes were seldom detected and none of the strains had six genes. The most frequent AMP gene markers were srfAA, bacA, bmyB, and fenD, and the most frequent genotypes srfAA-bacA-bmyB and srfAAbacA- bmyB-fenD. The dominance of these particular genes in Bacillus strains associated with plants reinforces the competitive role of surfactin, bacyllomicin, fengycin, and bacilysin in the fitness of strains in natural environments. The use of these AMP gene markers may assist in the selection of putative biological control agents of plant pathogens. PMID:22569759

  4. Biodegradation of malathion by Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion, a well-known organophosphate pesticide, has been used in agriculture over the last two decades for controlling pests of economically important crops. In the present study, a single bacterium, ML-1, was isolated by soil-enrichment technique and identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of the 16S rRNA technique. The bacterium was grown in carbon-free minimal salt medium (MSM and was found to be very efficient in utilizing malathion as the sole source of carbon. Biodegradation experiments were performed in MSM without carbon source to determine the malathion degradation by the selected strain, and the residues of malathion were determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques. Bacillus licheniformis showed very promising results and efficiently consumed malathion as the sole carbon source via malathion carboxylesterase (MCE, and about 78% malathion was degraded within 5 days. The carboxylesterase activity was determined by using crude extract while using malathion as substrate, and the residues were determined by HPLC. It has been found that the MCE hydrolyzed 87% malathion within 96 h of incubation. Characterization of crude MCE revealed that the enzyme is robust in nature in terms of organic solvents, as it was found to be stable in various concentrations of ethanol and acetonitrile. Similarly, and it can work in a wide pH and temperature range. The results of this study highlighted the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1 as a biodegrader that can be used for the bioremediation of malathion-contaminated soil.

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  6. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peak, K Kealy; Duncan, Kathleen E; Luna, Vicki A; King, Debra S; McCarthy, Peter J; Cannons, Andrew C

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA) analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S) for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%-70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9-13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition. PMID:22046187

  7. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of the Type Strain Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-González, Ismael L.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus genus have been extensively studied because of their ability to produce enzymes with high biotechnological value. Here, we report the draft of the whole-genome sequence of the type strain Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719, an alkali-tolerant strain. PMID:27417833

  8. Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium Bacillus sp. Strain 916

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Luo, Chuping; Chen, Zhiyi

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain 916, isolated from the soil, showed strong activity against Rhizoctonia solani. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain 916. Its 3.9-Mb genome reveals a number of genes whose products are possibly involved in promotion of plant growth or antibiosis.

  9. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Lopamudra Haldar; Gandhi, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B...

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Strain NKYL29, an Antimicrobial-Peptide-Producing Strain from Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yanbin; Xu, Haijin; Ying LI; Liu, Hongbin; Yu, Lei; Qiao, Mingqiang; Liu, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain NKYL29 is an antimicrobial-peptide-producing strain isolated from the soil of Ranzhuang Tunnel in Hebei Province, China. Here, we present the draft genome of this strain, which provides the genetic basis for application of the antimicrobial peptide.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HD73

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guiming; Song, Lai; Shu, Changlong; Wang, Pinshu; Deng, Chao; Peng, Qi; Lereclus, Didier; Wang, Xumin; Huang, Dafang; Zhang, Jie; Song, Fuping

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive bacterium that produces intracellular protein crystals toxic to a wide variety of insect larvae. We report the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD73 from the Centre OILB (Institut Pasteur, France), which belongs to serotype 3ab and is toxic to lepidopteran larvae.

  12. Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra;

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains fo...

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Strain F, Isolated from Ancient Permafrost

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, Evgeniy V.; Brouchkov, Anatoli V.; Kurilshikov, Alexander M.; Griva, Gennady I.; Kashuba, Elena; Kashuba, Vladimir I.; Melefors, O; Repin, Vladimir E.; Melnikov, Vladimir P.; Vlassov, Valentin V

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus cereus strain F was isolated and cultured from a sample of permafrost, aged presumably about 3 million years, on the Mammoth Mountain (62°56′N, 133°59′E). These genome data provide the basis to investigate Bacillus cereus F, identified as a long-term survivor of the extremely cold and close environment.

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Cyclodextrin-Producing Alkaliphilic Bacillus Strains JCM 19045, JCM 19046, and JCM 19047

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Toshiaki; Sakamoto, Kazuaki; Akinaga, Masashi; Kawauchi, Ayumi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Zhang, Xiaochi; Yamada, Akinori; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Kuwahara, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Nogi, Yuichi; Kitamura, Keiko; Yuki, Masahiro; Iida, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus strains JCM 19045, JCM 19046, and JCM 19047 are alkaliphiles that produce β-cyclodextrin from starch. They are related to Bacillus xiaoxiensis and Bacillus lehensis. The genome information for these three strains will be useful for studies of the physiological role of cyclodextrin and cyclodextrin production.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1181 - Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1181 Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus...

  16. Recombinant Strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Producing Cyt1A, Cry11B, and the Bacillus sphaericus Binary Toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K.; Federici, Brian A.

    2003-01-01

    A novel recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain that produces the B. sphaericus binary toxin, Cyt1Aa, and Cry11Ba is described. The toxicity of this strain (50% lethal concentration [LC50] = 1.7 ng/ml) against fourth-instar Culex quinquefasciatus was higher than that of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis IPS-82 (LC50 = 7.9 ng/ml) or B. sphaericus 2362 (LC50 = 12.6 ng/ml).

  17. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Antwerpen, Markus; Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis strain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows.

  18. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis strain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens.

  19. Comparison of Growth and Toxin Production in Two Vaccine Strains of Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Anna D; Spero, Leonard

    1981-01-01

    Two vaccine strains of Bacillus anthracis were monitored in a 10-liter fermentor to compare growth patterns and toxin production. Under identical conditions, the Sterne strain produced all three components of anthrax toxin, whereas strain V770 produced only the protective antigen.

  20. Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Strain HUK15, Isolated from Hexachlorocyclohexane-Contaminated Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gasc , Cyrielle; Richard, Jean-Yves; Peyret, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strain HUK15 has been isolated from hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-long-term-contaminated soil. The genome of strain HUK15 was sequenced to investigate its adaptation toward HCH and its potential capability to degrade the pesticide. Here, we report the annotated draft genome sequence (~4.3 Mbp) of this strain.

  1. Isolation and characterization of antagonistic Bacillus strains capable to degrade ethylenethiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Sajben-Nagy, Enikő; Bóka, Bettina; Vörös, Mónika; Berki, Adrienn; Palágyi, Andrea; Krisch, Judit; Skrbić, Biljana; Durišić-Mladenović, N; Manczinger, László

    2013-03-01

    In this study, more than 150 bacteria showing antagonistic properties against bacterial and fungal pathogens of the tomato plant were isolated and characterized. The most efficient agents against these phytopathogenic microorganisms belong to the genus Bacillus: the best biocontrol isolates were representatives of Bacillus subtilis, B. mojavensis and B. amyloliquefaciens species. They intensively produced fengycin or/and surfactin depsipeptide antibiotics and also proved to be excellent protease secretors. It was proved, that the selected strains were able to use ethylenethiourea (ETU) as sole nitrogen source. These antagonistic and ETU-degrading Bacillus strains can be applied as biocontrol and also as bioremediation agents. PMID:23143288

  2. Persistent Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in 3 Persons Who Inject Drugs, San Diego, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R; Reed, Sharon

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones. PMID:27533890

  3. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country. PMID:27082248

  4. Isolation of Alpha-amylase Producing Thermophilic Bacillus Strains and Partial Characterization of the Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Celal Türker; Bahri Devrim Özcan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we isolated three thermophilic Bacillus strains from the soil samples collected from the coast sediments of the Burnaz Stream located in Erzin. The isolates were entitled as Bacillus sp. CT1, CT2, and CT3, respectively. The maximum α-amylase production was revealed at 60°C for CT1 strain, and at 80°C for CT2 and CT3 strains, respectively. The optimum enzyme activity was observed at 90°C for CT1 α-amylase, whereas at 60°C for CT2 and CT3 α-amylases. On the other hand, opt...

  5. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain 629, an Endophyte from Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantAnna, Brena M M; Marbach, Phellippe P A; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; De Souza, Jorge T; Roque, Milton R A; Queiroz, Artur T L

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain 629 is an endophyte isolated from Theobroma cacao L. Here, we report the draft genome sequence (3.9 Mb) of B. amyloliquefaciens strain 629 containing 16 contigs (3,903,367 bp), 3,912 coding sequences, and an average 46.5% G+C content. PMID:26586881

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain DAR 81934, Which Exhibits Molluscicidal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Aisuo; Pattemore, Julie; Ash, Gavin; Williams, Angela; Hane, James

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as a biopesticide for a long time. Its molluscicidal activity, however, is rarely realized. Here, we report the genome sequence of B. thuringiensis strain DAR 81934, a strain with molluscicidal activity against the pest snail Cernuella virgata.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis Strain CU1050, Which Is Sensitive to Phage SPβ

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is used as a model organism to study cellular and molecular processes. Here, we announce the complete genomic sequence of B. subtilis strain CU1050, derived from B. subtilis strain 168. CU1050 has historically been used to study suppressor mutations and phage biology, especially the lysogenic phage SPβ.

  8. Screening Bacillus thuringiensis strains for toxicity against Manduca sexta and Plutella xylostella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates or strains for toxicity has traditionally been performed with one bacterial isolate at time versus a specific insect. By testing of Bt strains in groups, we identified 28 of 147 Bt isolates as toxic to either diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.),...

  9. A new chemically defined medium for the growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus strains in anaerobiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, Amina aïcha; Tichit-Planchon, Stella; Jobin, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A new chemically defined liquid medium, MODS, was developed for the aerobic growth and anaerobic growth and sporulation of Bacillus cereus strains. The comparison of sporulation capacity of 18 strains of B. cereus has shown effective growth and spore production in anaerobiosis.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar Israelensis Strain HD-789

    OpenAIRE

    Doggett, Norman A.; Stubben, Chris J; Chertkov, Olga; Bruce, David C.; Detter, J Chris; Johnson, Shannon L.; Han, Cliff S.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial insecticide for controlling agricultural pests. We report the finished genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis strain HD-789, which contains genes encoding 7 parasporal crystals consisting of Cry4Aa3, Cry4Ba5 (2 genes), Cry10Aa3, Cry11Aa3, Cry60Ba3, and Cry60Aa3, plus 3 Cyt toxin genes and 1 hemagglutinin gene.

  11. Bacillus 'next generation' diagnostics: Moving from detection towards sub-typing and risk related strain profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MonikaEhling-Schulz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The highly heterogeneous genus Bacillus comprises the largest species group of endospore forming bacteria. Because of their ubiquitous nature, Bacillus spores can enter food production at several stages resulting in significant economic losses and posing a potential risk to consumers due the capacity of certain Bacillus strains for toxin production. In the past, food microbiological diagnostics was focused on the determination of species using conventional culture based methods, which are still widely used. However, due to the extreme intraspecies diversity found in the genus Bacillus, DNA based identification and typing methods are gaining increasing importance in routine diagnostics. Several studies showed that certain characteristics are rather strain dependent than species specific. Therefore, the challenge for current and future Bacillus diagnostics is not only the efficient and accurate identification on species level but also the development of rapid methods to identify strains with specific characteristics (such as stress resistance or spoilage potential, trace contamination sources, and last but not least discriminate potential hazardous strains from non-toxic strains.

  12. Plasmid Mediated Antibiotic and Heavy Metal Resistance in Bacillus Strains Isolated From Soils in Rize, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif SEVİM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bacillus strains which were isolated from soil samples were examined for resistance to 17 different antibiotics (ampicillin, methicillin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, cephalotine, gentamycin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, tobramycin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, vancomycin, oxacilin, neomycin, kanamycin and, novabiocin and to 10 different heavy metals (copper, lead, cobalt, chrome, iron, mercury, zinc, nickel, manganese and, cadmium and for the presence of plasmid DNA. A total of eleven strains (67% were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The most common resistance was observed against methicillin and oxacillin. The most resistance strains were found as Bacillus sp. B3 and Bacillus sp. B11. High heavy metal resistance against copper, chromium, zinc, iron and nickel was detected, but mercury and cobalt resistance was not detected, except for 3 strains (B3, B11, and B12 which showed mercury resistance. It has been determined that seven Bacillus strains have plasmids. The isolated plasmids were transformed into the Bacillus subtilis W168 and it was shown that heavy metal and antibiotic resistance determinants were carried on these plasmids. These results showed that there was a correlation between plasmid content and resistance for both antibiotic and heavy metal resistance

  13. Optimization of polyphosphate production by Bacillus megaterium strain G11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Emtiazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polyphosphates, also called volutin granules, are linear polymers from orthophosphates linked by energy-rich phosphoanhydride bands that have been seen in bacteria, yeasts, fungi, plants and animals. These polymers are completely safe and nontoxic, and have numerous applications in food and drug industries.Materials and methods: Due to the great importance and wide range of the utilization of these polymers in various industries, several factors such as various carbon sources, carbon source concentration and phosphorus concentration were studied and optimized. In order to increase polyphosphate production in Bacillus megaterium strain G11. The optimization process was carried out with determination of the amount of polyphosphate accumulated in cell and phosphorus removed from the medium. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used in order to determine whether there was a significant difference between data obtained in this research.Results: Growth of B. megaterium in the presence of sucrose (OD=3.026 was better than glucose (OD=2.616 whereas polyphosphate production and phosphorus removal from medium were higher in the presence of glucose (0.033 g g-1 dry cell weight and 1.61 g l-1, respectively. On the other hand, polyphosphate production and phosphorus removal from medium coordinately were decreased with increasing glucose concentration. Furthermore, in studying the effects of phosphorus, we faced two phases of rising and falling. Actually, the increase of phosphorus concentration (0.25-1 g l-1 in medium caused an increase in polyphosphate production and phosphorus removal from medium whereas both of them were decreased with a more increase in amount of phosphorus (1-4 g l-1. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests showed that there was a significant difference (P<0.01 between data obtained at each optimization step and the best glucose and dipotassium phosphate concentrations for polyphosphate production were 5 and 0.5 g l-1 respectively

  14. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  15. A recombinant Bacillus anthracis strain producing the Clostridium perfringens Ib component induces protection against iota toxins.

    OpenAIRE

    Sirard, J C; Weber, M.; Duflot, E; Popoff, M R; Mock, M

    1997-01-01

    The Bacillus anthracis toxinogenic Sterne strain is currently used as a live veterinary vaccine against anthrax. The capacity of a toxin-deficient derivative strain to produce a heterologous antigen by using the strong inducible promoter of the B. anthracis pag gene was investigated. The expression of the foreign gene ibp, encoding the Ib component of iota toxin from Clostridium perfringens, was analyzed. A pag-ibp fusion was introduced by allelic exchange into a toxin-deficient Sterne strain...

  16. A Cluster of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia Cases among Injection Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Linda MN Hoang; Romney, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A...

  17. Increase of the a-amylase yield by Some Bacillus Strains

    OpenAIRE

    SARIKAYA, Elif

    2000-01-01

    In order to obtain high amounts of a-amylase enzyme from Bacillus bacteria a new medium was developed. In this medium, three strains of Bacillus bacteria were grown in the presence of different carbon, nitrogen and metal ions. The highest a-amylase yield was obtained by addition of Na-citrate, strach and sucrose for the strains of B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens I and B. amyloliquefaciens II, respectively. As a nitrogen source, yeast extract was found to be effective on enzyme yield for...

  18. The Genetically Remote Pathogenic Strain NVH391-98 of the Bacillus cereus Group Represents the Cluster of Thermophilic Strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, Sandrine; Galleron, Nathalie; Bidnenko, Elena; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Lapidus, Alla; Sorokin, Alexei

    2007-10-02

    Bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group are known to cause food poisoning. A rare phylogenetically remote strain, NVH391-98, was recently characterized to encode a particularly efficient cytotoxin K presumably responsible for food poisoning. This pathogenic strain and its close relatives can be phenotypically distinguished from other strains of the B. cereus group by the inability to grow at temperatures below 17 degrees C and by the ability to grow at temperatures from 48 to 53 degrees C. A temperate phage, phBC391A2, residing in the genome of NVH391-98 allows us to distinguish the three known members of this thermophilic strain cluster.

  19. Deciphering the conserved genetic loci implicated in plant disease control through comparative genomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Mohammad J.; Chao eRan; Ke eLiu; Choong-Min eRyu; Rasmussen-Ivey, Cody R.; Williams, Malachi A.; Mohammad K. Hassan; Soo-Keun eChoi; Haeyoung eJeong; Molli eNewman; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Mark R Liles

    2015-01-01

    To understand the growth-promoting and disease-inhibiting activities of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains, the genomes of 12 Bacillus subtilis group strains with PGPR activity were sequenced and analyzed. These B. subtilis strains exhibited high genomic diversity, whereas the genomes of B. amyloliquefaciens strains (a member of the B. subtilis group) are highly conserved. A pairwise BLASTp matrix revealed that gene family similarity among Bacillus genomes ranges from 32- 90%...

  20. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fábio Cavalcante Barros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes.

  1. Production of Enzymes from Agroindustrial Wastes by Biosurfactant-Producing Strains of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Francisco Fábio Cavalcante; Simiqueli, Ana Paula Resende; de Andrade, Cristiano José; Pastore, Gláucia Maria

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Bacillus are the source of several enzymes of current industrial interest. Hydrolases, such as amylases, proteases, and lipases, are the main enzymes consumed worldwide and have applications in a wide range of products and industrial processes. Fermentation processes by Bacillus subtilis using cassava wastewater as a substrate are reported in the technical literature; however, the same combination of microorganisms and this culture medium is limited or nonexistent. In this paper, the amylase, protease, and lipase production of ten Bacillus subtilis strains previously identified as biosurfactant producers in cassava wastewater was evaluated. The LB1a and LB5a strains were selected for analysis using a synthetic medium and cassava wastewater and were identified as good enzyme producers, especially of amylases and proteases. In addition, the enzymatic activity results indicate that cassava wastewater was better than the synthetic medium for the induction of these enzymes. PMID:23533780

  2. Biodegradation of Eugenol by Bacillus Cereus Strain PN24

    OpenAIRE

    Kadakol, Jagannath C.; Kamanavalli, Chandrappa M.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus cereus PN24 was isolated from soil by a conventional enrichment culture method using eugenol as a sole source of carbon and energy. The organism also utilized eugenol, 4-vinyl guaiacol, vanillin, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid as growth substrates. The organism degraded eugenol to protocatechuic acid, which was further metabolized by a β-ketoadipate pathway. On the other hand, the intermediate of the eugenol-degrading pathway, such as ferulic acid was not detected in the cultu...

  3. Biological characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis strain Btll and identification of its cry-type genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tinghui LIU; Wei GUO; Weiming SUN; Yongxiang SUN

    2009-01-01

    A novel strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Bt11, isolated from soil samples in China, was classified and characterized in terms of its crystal proteins, cry genes content. The Bt11 strain showed high toxicity against Spodoptera exigua and Helicoverpa armigera neonates. Btll strain shares morphological and biochemical characteristics with the previously described Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that crystals were composed of several polypeptides ranging from 20 to 130 kDa, of which the 35, 80, and 130 kDa proteins were the major components. PCR-RFLP with total DNA from strain Btll and specific primers for cryl, cry2, cry3, cry4/10, cry7, cry8, cry9, and cryll genes revealed that crylAa, crylAb, crylla, and cry9Ea genes were present.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus clausii UBBC07, a Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Pitta, Swetha; Madempudi, Ratna Sudha

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Bacillus clausiiUBBC07 is a safe endospore-forming strain, characterized for defined therapeutic effects. The finished draft whole-genome sequence is presented here to scan its genetic constitution for its expanded use as a probiotic in various health sectors. PMID:27103711

  5. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Bacillus sonorensis Strain L12, a Source of Nonribosomal Lipopeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Adimpong, David Bichala; Sørensen, Kim I.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Thorsen, Line; Rasmussen, Thomas B.; Derkx, Patrick M. F.; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus sonorensis L12 draft genome sequence is approximately 4,647,754 bp in size with a G+C content of 45.2%. Over 86% of the genome contains protein-encoding genes, including several gene clusters for de novo biosynthesis of the nonribosomal lipopeptides iturin, bacitracin, and fengycin, which could mean that the strain exhibits antifungal effects.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence for the Fusarium Head Blight Antagonist Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain TrigoCor 1448

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Beth A.; Ramaiya, Preethi; Lopez de Leon, Alfredo; Kumar, Ravi; Crinklaw, Austin; Jolkovsky, Eliana; Crane, Julia M.; Bergstrom, Gary C; Rey, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the complete genome sequence for Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TrigoCor 1448 (ATCC 202152), a bacterial biological control agent for Fusarium head blight in wheat. We compare it to its closest relative, B. amyloliquefaciens strain AS43.3.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Pitta, Swetha; Madempudi, Ratna Sudha

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Bacillus coagulansUnique IS-2 is a potential spore-forming probiotic that is commercially available on the market. The draft genome sequence presented here provides deep insight into the beneficial features of this strain for its safe use as a probiotic for various human and animal health applications. PMID:27103709

  8. 77 FR 745 - Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... lethal dose, (LD 50 ) > 5,050 mg/kg. EPA Toxicity Category IV.] 6. Acute dermal irritation (OCSPP...-5805. II. Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of February 4, 2011 (76 FR 6465.../pathogenicity studies show that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 is not toxic, infective, or pathogenic...

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of the Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Pitta, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 is a potential spore-forming probiotic that is commercially available on the market. The draft genome sequence presented here provides deep insight into the beneficial features of this strain for its safe use as a probiotic for various human and animal health applications. PMID:27103709

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus clausii UBBC07, a Spore-Forming Probiotic Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadrasta, Aditya; Pitta, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus clausii UBBC07 is a safe endospore-forming strain, characterized for defined therapeutic effects. The finished draft whole-genome sequence is presented here to scan its genetic constitution for its expanded use as a probiotic in various health sectors. PMID:27103711

  11. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Jiang; Hui Qiao; Zhaojuan Zheng; Qiulu Chu; Xin Li; Qiang Yong; Jia Ouyang

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-...

  12. Isolation of a New Mexican Strain of Bacillus subtilis with Antifungal and Antibacterial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    M. G. L. Basurto-Cadena; M. Vázquez-Arista; García-Jiménez, J.; Salcedo-Hernández, R.; Bideshi, D. K.; Barboza-Corona, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    Although several strains of B. subtilis with antifungal activity have been isolated worldwide, to date there are no published reports regarding the isolation of a native B. subtilis strain from strawberry plants in Mexico. A native bacterium (Bacillus subtilis 21) demonstrated in vitro antagonistic activity against different plant pathogenic fungi. Under greenhouse conditions, it was shown that plants infected with Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium verticillioides and treated with B. subtilis 2...

  13. Plasmid transfer between strains of Bacillus thuringiensis infecting Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarrett, P.; Stephenson, M

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possibility of plasmid transfer occurring between strains of Bacillus thuringiensis in infected lepidopterous larvae, Galleria mellonella and Spodoptera littoralis were infected with two or more strains of B. thuringiensis and the resulting bacteria from the dead insects were examined for plasmid transfer. Transfer rates of plasmids coding for crystal production and tetracycline resistance were high, reaching levels similar to those obtained in laboratory broth cultures. Tran...

  14. Molecular Characterization of Bacillus Strains Involved in Outbreaks of Anthrax in France in 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Guy; VAISSAIRE, Josée; Weber-Levy, Martine; Le Doujet, Claudine; Mock, Michèle

    1998-01-01

    Outbreaks of anthrax zoonose occurred in two regions of France in 1997. Ninety-four animals died, and there were three nonfatal cases in humans. The diagnosis of anthrax was rapidly confirmed by bacteriological and molecular biological methods. The strains of Bacillus anthracis in animal and soil samples were identified by a multiplex PCR assay. They all belonged to the variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) group (VNTR)3. A penicillin-resistant strain was detected. Nonvirulent bacilli related ...

  15. The respiratory chains of four strains of the alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii

    OpenAIRE

    A. Abbrescia; P.L. Martino; Panelli, D.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Papa, S; Alifano, P; Palese, L.L.; Gaballo, A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of terminal respiratory enzymes has been performed on four strains of Bacillus clausii used for preparation of a European probiotic. These four strains originated most probably from a common ancestor through early selection of stable clones for industrial propagation. They exhibit a low level of intra-specific diversity and a high degree of genomic conservation, making them an attractive model to study the different bioenergetics behaviors of alkaliphilic bacilli. The a...

  16. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD{sub 99} values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD{sub 99} dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability.

  17. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD99 values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD99 dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability

  18. High-quality genome sequence and description of Bacillus ndiopicus strain FF3T sp. nov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Lo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Strain FF3T was isolated from the skin-flora of a 39-year-old healthy Senegalese man. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry did not allow any identification. This strain exhibited a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 96.8% with Bacillus massiliensis, the phylogenetically closest species with standing nomenclature. Using a polyphasic study made of phenotypic and genomic analyses, strain FF3T was Gram-positive, aeroanaerobic and rod shaped and exhibited a genome of 4 068 720 bp with a G+C content of 37.03% that coded 3982 protein-coding and 67 RNA genes (including four rRNA operons. On the basis of these data, we propose the creation of Bacillus ndiopicus sp. nov.

  19. A cluster of Bacillus cereus bacteremia cases among injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Hoang, Linda Mn; Romney, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided. PMID:26015795

  20. Degradation characteristics of two Bacillus strains on the Microcystis aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PEI Hai-yan; HU Wen-rong; QU Yin-bo; MU Rui-min; LI Xiao-cai

    2005-01-01

    The degradation kinetics of strains P05 and P07 and the degradation effects of mixed strain on Microcystis aeruginosa were studied. The results showed that: ( 1 ) The degradation processes of strains P05 and P07 on Microcystis aeruginosa accorded with the first-order reaction model when the range of Chl- a concentration was from 0 to 1500 μg/L. (2) The initial bacterium densities had a strong influence on the degradation velocity. The greater the initial bacterium density was, the faster the degradation was. The degradation velocity constants of P05 were 0.1913, 0.2175 and 0.3092 respectively, when bacterium densities were 4.8×105 , 4.8 × 106, 2.4 × 107 cells/ml. For strain P07, they were 0.1509, 0.1647 and 0.2708. The degradation velocity constant of strain P05 was higher than that of P07 when the bacterium density was under 4.8 × 105 cells/ml, but the constant increasing of P07 was quicker than that of P05. (3) The degradation effects of P05 and P07 strains did not antagonize. When the concentration of Chl-a was high, the degradation effects of mixed strain excelled that of any single strains. But with the decrease of the Chl-a concentration, this advantage was not clear. When the concentration was less than 180 μg/L, the degradation effects of mixed were consistent with that of strain P07.

  1. A novel multiplex PCR discriminates Bacillus anthracis and its genetically related strains from other Bacillus cereus group species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Ogawa

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an important zoonotic disease worldwide that is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming pathogenic bacterium. A rapid and sensitive method to detect B. anthracis is important for anthrax risk management and control in animal cases to address public health issues. However, it has recently become difficult to identify B. anthracis by using previously reported molecular-based methods because of the emergence of B. cereus, which causes severe extra-intestinal infection, as well as the human pathogenic B. thuringiensis, both of which are genetically related to B. anthracis. The close genetic relation of chromosomal backgrounds has led to complexity of molecular-based diagnosis. In this study, we established a B. anthracis multiplex PCR that can screen for the presence of B. anthracis virulent plasmids and differentiate B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group species. Six sets of primers targeting a chromosome of B. anthracis and B. anthracis-like strains, two virulent plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, a bacterial gene, 16S rRNA gene, and a mammalian gene, actin-beta gene, were designed. The multiplex PCR detected approximately 3.0 CFU of B. anthracis DNA per PCR reaction and was sensitive to B. anthracis. The internal control primers also detected all bacterial and mammalian DNAs examined, indicating the practical applicability of this assay as it enables monitoring of appropriate amplification. The assay was also applied for detection of clinical strains genetically related to B. anthracis, which were B. cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infections in Japan, and field strains isolated in Zambia, and the assay differentiated B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group strains. Taken together, the results indicate that the newly developed multiplex PCR is a sensitive and practical method for detecting B. anthracis.

  2. Identification of Bacillus strains by MALDI TOF MS using geometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostin, Konstantin V.; Demidov, Evgeny A.; Bryanskaya, Alla V.; Efimov, Vadim M.; Rozanov, Alexey S.; Peltek, Sergey E.

    2015-11-01

    Microorganism identification by MALDI TOF mass-spectrometry is based on the comparison of the mass spectrum of the studied organism with those of reference strains. It is a rapid and reliable method. However, commercial databases and programs are mostly designed for identification of clinically important strains and can be used only for particular mass spectrometer models. The need for open platforms and reference databases is obvious. In this study we describe a geometric approach for microorganism identification by mass spectra and demonstrate its capabilities by analyzing 24 strains belonging to the Bacillus pumilus group. This method is based on representing mass spectra as points on a multidimensional space, which allows us to use geometric distances to compare the spectra. Delimitation of microorganisms performed by geometric approach correlates well with the results of molecular phylogenetic analysis and clustering using Biotyper 3.1. All three methods used allowed us to reliably divide the strains into two groups corresponding to closely related species, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus altitudinis. The method developed by us will be implemented in a Web interface designed for using open reference databases for microorganism identification. The data is available at http://www.bionet.nsc.ru/mbl/database/database.html.

  3. Mechanisms of microbial oil recovery by Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Zhang, X.; Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Sharma, P.K.; Jackson, B.E.

    1995-12-31

    Core displacement experiments at elevated pressures were conducted to determine whether microbial processes are effective under conditions that simulate those found in an actual oil reservoir. The in-situ growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2 resulted in the recovery of residual oil. About 21 and 23% of the residual oil was recovered by C. acetobutylicum and Bacillus strain JF-2, respectively. Flooding cores with cell-free culture fluids of C. acetobutylicum with and without the addition of 50 mM acetone and 100 mM butanol did not result in the recovery of residual oil. Mathematical simulations showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not showed that the amount of gas produced by the clostridial fermentation was not sufficient to recover residual oil. Oil recovery by Bacillus strain JF-2 was highly correlated to surfactant production. A biosurfactant-deficient mutant of strain JF-2 was not capable of recovering residual oil. These data show that surfactant production is an important mechanism for microbially enhanced oil recovery. The mechanism for oil recovery by C. acetobutylicum is not understood at this time, but the production of acids, solvents, or gases alone cannot explain the observed increases in oil recovery by this organism.

  4. Probiotic Bacillus cereus Strains, a Potential Risk for Public Health in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kui; Hölzel, Christina S.; Cui, Yifang; Mayer, Ricarda; Wang, Yang; Dietrich, Richard; Didier, Andrea; Bassitta, Rupert; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Ding, Shuangyang

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an important cause of foodborne infectious disease and food poisoning. However, B. cereus has also been used as a probiotic in human medicine and livestock production, with low standards of safety assessment. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 15 commercial probiotic B. cereus preparations from China in terms of mislabeling, toxin production, and transferable antimicrobial resistance. Most preparations were incorrectly labeled, as they contained additional bacterial species; one product did not contain viable B. cereus at all. In total, 18 B. cereus group strains—specifically B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis—were isolated. Enterotoxin genes nhe, hbl, and cytK1, as well as the ces-gene were assessed by PCR. Enterotoxin production and cytotoxicity were confirmed by ELISA and cell culture assays, respectively. All isolated B. cereus group strains produced the enterotoxin Nhe; 15 strains additionally produced Hbl. Antimicrobial resistance was assessed by microdilution; resistance genes were detected by PCR and further characterized by sequencing, transformation and conjugation assays. Nearly half of the strains harbored the antimicrobial resistance gene tet(45). In one strain, tet(45) was situated on a mobile genetic element—encoding a site-specific recombination mechanism—and was transferable to Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis by electro-transformation. In view of the wide and uncontrolled use of these products, stricter regulations for safety assessment, including determination of virulence factors and transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, are urgently needed. PMID:27242738

  5. Construction of an environmental safe Bacillus thuringiensis engineered strain against Coleoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yajun; Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-05-01

    Cloning of new toxic genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and construction of Bt engineered strains are two key strategies for bio-control of coleopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. In this study, we cloned a new cry3Aa-type gene, cry3Aa8, from wild Bt strain YC-03 against coleopteran, and constructed a Bt engineered strain, ACE-38, containing insecticidal protein-encoding gene cry3Aa8. The engineered strain, with almost four times of Cry3Aa yield compared with strain YC-03, was an antibiotic marker-free strain. Though no selective pressure was presented in the medium, cry3Aa8 in the engineered strain ACE-38 remained stable. The yield of Cry3Aa by strain ACE-38 reached 2.09 mg/ml in the optimized fermentation medium. The activity of strain ACE-38 against Plagiodera versicolora was tested, and the LC50 of ACE-38 cultures in the optimized fermentation medium was 1.13 μl/ml. Strain ACE-38 is a non-antibiotic Bt engineered strain with high Chrysomelidae toxicity and exhibits good fermentation property. The modified indigenous site-specific recombination system constructed in this study might be useful for the construction of Bt engineered strains containing genes that cannot be expressed in the indigenous site-specific recombination system using plasmid pBMB1205R. PMID:26767987

  6. Toxigenic genes, spoilage potential, and antimicrobial resistance of Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Seza; Eyi, Ayla; Küçüksarı, Rümeysa

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. can be recovered from almost every environment. It is also found readily in foods, where it may cause food spoilage and/or food poisoning due to its toxigenic and pathogenic nature, and extracellular enzymes. In this study, 29 Bacillus cereus group strains from ice cream were examined for the presence of following virulence genes hblC, nheA, cytK and ces genes, and tested for a range of the extracellular enzymes, and antimicrobial susceptibility. The strains were found to produce extracellular enzymes: proteolytic and lipolytic activity, gelatin hydrolysis and lecithinase production (100%), DNase production (93.1%) and amylase activity (93.1%). Of 29 strains examined, 24 (82.8%) showed hemolytic activity on blood agar. Beta-lactamase enzyme was only produced by 20.7% of B. cereus group. Among 29 B. cereus group from ice cream, nheA was the most common virulence gene detected in 44.8% of the strains, followed by hblC gene with 17.2%. Four (13.8%) of the 29 strains were positive for both hblC gene and nheA gene. Contrarily, cytK and ces genes were not detected in any of the strains. Antimicrobial susceptibility of ice cream isolates was tested to 14 different antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. We detected resistance to penicillin and ampicillin with the same rate of 89.7%. Thirty-one percent of the strains were multiresistant to three or more antibiotics. This study emphasizes that the presence of natural isolates of Bacillus spp. harboring one or more enterotoxin genes, producing extracellular enzymes which may cause spoilage and acquiring antibiotic resistance might hold crucial importance in the food safety and quality. PMID:24309214

  7. A strain-variable bacteriocin in Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with repeated Cys-Xaa-Xaa motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haft Daniel H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bacteriocins are peptide antibiotics from ribosomally translated precursors, produced by bacteria often through extensive post-translational modification. Minimal sequence conservation, short gene lengths, and low complexity sequence can hinder bacteriocin identification, even during gene calling, so they are often discovered by proximity to accessory genes encoding maturation, immunity, and export functions. This work reports a new subfamily of putative thiazole-containing heterocyclic bacteriocins. It appears universal in all strains of Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus, but has gone unrecognized because it is always encoded far from its maturation protein operon. Patterns of insertions and deletions among twenty-four variants suggest a repeating functional unit of Cys-Xaa-Xaa. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Andrei Osterman and Lakshminarayan Iyer.

  8. Screening of Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against mosquitoes Prospecção de estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra mosquitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Gomes Monnerat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate 210 Bacillus thuringiensis strains against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to select the most effective. These strains were isolated from different regions of Brazil and are stored in a Bacillus spp. collection at Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Brasília, Brazil. The selected strains were characterized by morphological (microscopy, biochemical (SDS-PAGE 10% and molecular (PCR methods. Six B. thuringiensis strains were identified as mosquito-toxic after the selective bioassays. None of the strains produced the expected PCR products for detection of cry4, cry11 and cyt1A genes. These results indicate that the activity of mosquitocidal Brazilian strains are not related with Cry4, Cry11 or Cyt proteins, so they could be used as an alternative bioinsecticide against mosquitoes.Neste trabalho foram realizados testes de patogenicidade com 210 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis contra larvas de Aedes aegypti e Culex quinquefasciatus, a fim de se determinar as mais eficazes. Estas estirpes foram isoladas de diversas regiões do Brasil e estão armazenadas na coleção de Bacillus spp. da Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia. As estirpes selecionadas foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos (microscopia, bioquímicos (SDS-PAGE 10% e moleculares (Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase. Foram selecionadas seis estirpes entomopatogênicas de Bacillus thuringiensis. Nenhuma das estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis apresentou produtos de PCR esperados para a detecção dos genes cry4, cry11 e cyt1A. A patogenicidade das estirpes não está associada à presença das toxinas Cry4, Cry11 ou Cyt, assim, essas estirpes poderão ser utilizadas para a formatação de um bioinseticida alternativo contra mosquitos.

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis Laboratory Strains JH642 (AG174) and AG1839

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Janet L.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis is widely used for studies of cellular and molecular processes. We announce the complete genomic sequences of strain AG174, our stock of the commonly used strain JH642, and strain AG1839, a derivative that contains a mutation in the replication initiation gene dnaB and a linked Tn917.

  10. Microbial enhanced oil recovery by Bacillus subtilis strains under simulated reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira; Pereira, J. F.; Coutinho, J.A.P.; Soares, L. P.; Ribeiro, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is a tertiary oil recovery process in which microorganisms and their metabolites are used to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. Stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions in situ reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil into the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow. As a result, oil production can be increased. In previous work, Bacillus subtilis strains that...

  11. Analysis of the sporicidal activity of chlorine dioxide disinfectant against Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain)

    OpenAIRE

    Chatuev, B.A.; Peterson, J W

    2010-01-01

    Routine surface decontamination is an essential hospital and laboratory procedure, but the list of effective, noncorrosive disinfectants that kill spores is limited. We investigated the sporicidal potential of an aqueous chlorine dioxide solution and encountered some unanticipated problems. Quantitative bacteriological culture methods were used to determine the log10 reduction of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain) spores following 3 min exposure to various concentrations of aqueous chlorine d...

  12. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Qasim

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time....

  13. Bioremediation potential of a newly isolate solvent tolerant strain Bacillus thermophilus PS11

    OpenAIRE

    PAYEL SARKAR; SHILPI GHOSH

    2012-01-01

    The increased generation of solvent waste has been stated as one of the most critical environmental problems. Though microbial bioremediation has been widely used for waste treatment but their application in solvent waste treatment is limited since the solvents have toxic effects on the microbial cells. A solvent tolerant strain of Bacillus thermophilus PS11 was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Transmission electron micrograph of PS11 showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulat...

  14. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of Bacillus sonorensis Strain L12, a Source of Nonribosomal Lipopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adimpong, David B; Sørensen, Kim I; Nielsen, Dennis S; Thorsen, Line; Rasmussen, Thomas B; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus sonorensis L12 draft genome sequence is approximately 4,647,754 bp in size with a G+C content of 45.2%. Over 86% of the genome contains protein-encoding genes, including several gene clusters for de novo biosynthesis of the nonribosomal lipopeptides iturin, bacitracin, and fengycin, which could mean that the strain exhibits antifungal effects. PMID:23538904

  15. Purification and Properties of a Xylan-Binding Endoxylanase from Alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. Strain K-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ratanakhanokchai, Khanok; Kyu, Khin Lay; Tanticharoen, Morakot

    1999-01-01

    An alkaliphilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain K-1, produces extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanases, β-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and acetyl esterase when grown in xylan medium. One of the extracellular xylanases that is stable in an alkaline state was purified to homogeneity by affinity adsorption-desorption on insoluble xylan. The enzyme bound to insoluble xylan but not to crystalline cellulose. The molecular mass of the purified xylan-binding xylanase was estimated to be...

  16. Zwittermicin A-producing strains of Bacillus cereus from diverse soils.

    OpenAIRE

    Stabb, E V; Jacobson, L. M.; Handelsman, J

    1994-01-01

    Bacillus cereus UW85 produces a novel aminopolyol antibiotic, zwittermicin A, that contributes to the ability of UW85 to suppress damping-off of alfalfa caused by Phytophthora medicaginis. UW85 produces a second antibiotic, provisionally designated antibiotic B, which also contributes to suppression of damping-off but has not been structurally defined yet and is less potent than zwittermicin A. The purpose of this study was to isolate genetically diverse strains of B. cereus that produce zwit...

  17. Biosynthesis of hydrolytic enzymes of UV-mutants of Bacillus subtilis B-3 strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies were carried out on 12 UV-mutants of Bacillus subtilis B-3 which synthesize from 18 to 105% more hydrolytic enzymes (proteinases, amylases, cellulases and lipases) than the wild strain. After 5 years' storage of the mutants, a 26-fold increase in amylase biosynthesis was observed for a G7 UV-mutant. This mutant showed also other phenotypic differences. The increased ability of mutant G7 to synthesize amylases was controlled by the maltose-substrate induction. (author)

  18. Evaluation of genetic and phenotypic consistency of Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856: a commercial probiotic strain

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Sivakumar, Arumugam; Eshuis-de Ruiter, Talitha; Booij-Veurink, Janine; de Vries, Ynte P.; Ali, Furqan

    2016-01-01

    Commercial probiotics preparation containing Bacillus coagulans have been sold in the market for several decades. Due to its high intra-species genomic diversity, it is very likely that B. coagulans strain may alter in different ways over multiple years of production. Therefore, the present study focuses to evaluate the genetic consistency and probiotic potential of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. Phenotypic and genotypic techniques including biochemical profiling, 16S rRNA sequencing, GTG 5″, BOX PC...

  19. Microbial System for Polysaccharide Depolymerization: Enzymatic Route for Xanthan Depolymerization by Bacillus sp. Strain GL1

    OpenAIRE

    Nankai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Kawai, Shigeyuki; Murata, Kousaku

    1999-01-01

    An enzymatic route for the depolymerization of a heteropolysaccharide (xanthan) in Bacillus sp. strain GL1, which was closely related to Brevibacillus thermoruber, was determined by analyzing the structures of xanthan depolymerization products. The bacterium produces extracellular xanthan lyase catalyzing the cleavage of the glycosidic bond between pyruvylated mannosyl and glucuronyl residues in xanthan side chains (W. Hashimoto et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 64:3765–3768, 1998). The modif...

  20. Isolation and Antibiotic Sensitivity of Bacillus thuringinesis Strain From Dump Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt is a commonly used as a pesticide. B. thuringiensis is a naturally-occurring soil bacterium, also occurs naturally in the gut of caterpillars of various types of moths and butterflies, as well as on the dark surface of plants. The xylanase producing bacterial strains were isolated from dump soil. The strains were isolated on xylan agar media and screening was carried out by xylanolysis method. To test the sensitivity of the isolates, ten different antibiotics were used. The strains were tested for resistance to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin, vancomycin, amoxycillin and neomycin. The strains showed sensitive to doxycyclin, erythromycin, chloramphenical, cephallaxin, kanamycin, ampicillin, steptomycin and vancomycin and also showed resistance to amoxycillin and neomycin, when tested by disc diffusion method on nutrient agar plate confirmed by antibiotic spread plate method. The inhibitory effect of B. thuringiensis strains against the test bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutca, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Pseudomonus aeruginosa examined. It was found that, B. thuringiensis S1, B. thuringiensis S2 and B. thuringiensis S3 strains showed an inhibitory effect on all of the test bacteria.

  1. Spores from mesophilic Bacillus cereus strains germinate better and grow faster in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions than spores from psychrotrophic strains.

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnands, L. M.; Dufrenne, J. B.; Zwietering, M.H.; van Leusden, F. M.

    2006-01-01

    The species Bacillus cereus, known for its ability to cause food borne disease, consists of a large variety of strains. An important property for discrimination of strains is their growth temperature range. Psychrotrophic strains can grow well at refrigerator temperatures but grow at 37 degrees C with difficulty. Mesophilic strains on the other hand are unable to grow below 10 degrees C, but grow well at 37 degrees C. Spores of six psychrotrophic and six mesophilic strains were investigated f...

  2. How the edaphic Bacillus megaterium strain Mes11 adapts its metabolism to the herbicide mesotrione pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity of pesticides towards microorganisms can have a major impact on ecosystem function. Nevertheless, some microorganisms are able to respond quickly to this stress by degrading these molecules. The edaphic Bacillus megaterium strain Mes11 can degrade the herbicide mesotrione. In order to gain insight into the cellular response involved, the intracellular proteome of Mes11 exposed to mesotrione was analyzed using the two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) approach coupled with mass spectrometry. The results showed an average of 1820 protein spots being detected. The gel profile analyses revealed 32 protein spots whose abundance is modified after treatment with mesotrione. Twenty spots could be identified, leading to 17 non redundant proteins, mainly involved in stress, metabolic and storage mechanisms. These findings clarify the pathways used by B. megaterium strain Mes11 to resist and adapt to the presence of mesotrione. - Highlights: • Bacillus megaterium strain Mes11 is able to degrade the herbicide mesotrione. • The response to mesotrione stress was studied by a differential proteomic approach. • Adaptation to mesotrione involves stress, central metabolism and storage proteins. • Some identified proteins could be directly involved in mesotrione degradation. - Metabolism adaptation of the mesotrione-degrading Bacillus megaterium to the mesotrione herbicide stress

  3. A Study on Effect of different culture media on amylase enzyme production by a native strain of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ziba Akbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amylases are among the most important enzymes and have great significance in present-day biotechnology. Amylase with commercial applications is mainly derived from the genus Bacillus. The main purpose of this study is identification and isolatation amylase enzyme producer Bacillus, determining the amylase enzyme activity and affecting a number of culture medium on amylase enzyme production. Materials and methods: Soil, water and wastewater samples were collected from agricultural area, choghakhor lake in chahar mahal e bakhtiari province and from food factory in Esfahan. Bacillus isolates were screened for amylolytic properties by starch hydrolysis test on starch agar plate. Amylase producing Bacillus were identified biochemical tests and molecular experiments. Amylase enzyme activity of isolates was measured using di-nitro salicylic acid (DNS method. Enzyme production was studied in variose medium culture TSB, NB, Yeast extract, molases and milk medium. Results: The enzyme amylase-producing strains, one sample showed was the highest amylase activity. The Bacillus has been detected as a member of Bacillus subtilis according to Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology and molecular recognition. The enzyme activity of Bacillus subtilis was measured 7/21 (U/ml in production media. Trough medium culture maximum amylase production for Bacillus subtilis was achieved in molases medium. Discussion and conclusion: In this study, Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from wastewater of a significant amount of enzyme producing 7/21 (U/ml as indicated. Among the medium-amylase from Bacillus subtilis highest enzyme activity was observed in beet molasses. According to this study, the use of Bacillus strains is an efficient way to achieve the amylase enzyme.

  4. MEDICINAL INJECTION FOR TREATMENT OF 54 CASES OF LUMBAR STRAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-hui

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lumbar strain refers to the long-term accumulated mild injuries due to improper posture and overload in soft tissues, such as in lumbar sacral muscle, ligament and fascia. It happens generally at young age, is the common disorder in clinic and leads to quite inconvenience and pain in the life of patient. The author adopted medicinal injection with procaine and Vit. B1 on Tingyaoxue (挺腰穴) to treat 54 cases of lumbar strain and has achieved the remarkable effects. The report is presented as follows.

  5. Bacillus cereus strain MCN as a debriding agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, H. P.; Haynes, B. W.; Stone, L. L.

    1978-01-01

    Biologically active means are effective for rapidly removing scar tissue caused by burns or corrosive agents. Specially selected strain of bacteria applied to injury site releases enzymes which are active against eschar. These bacteria tend to locate between eschar and unburned tissue, thus providing optimal cell surface area arrangement for enzyme dispersal. Procedure may prove especially useful in treatment of disaster casualties under relatively primitive conditions.

  6. Isolation of strains of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal biological activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is to study the effect of toxins (δ-endotoxins) extracted from strains of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from the mud on the fly Sabkhat Dejoumi Ceratitis capitata, a pest of citrus and fruit trees. Among 51 isolated tested, 15 showed a very significant insecticidal activity, characterized by mortality rates exceeding 80 pour cent. These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of Bt revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by strains of Bt for large scale application.

  7. Biocontrol of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. by two Bacillus strains from Chinese liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-16

    Streptomyces spp. producing geosmin have been regarded as the most frequent and serious microbial contamination causing earthy off-flavor in Chinese liquor. It is therefore necessary to control the Streptomyces community during liquor fermentation. Biological control, using the native microbiota present in liquor making, appears to be a better solution than chemical methods. The objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota antagonistic toward Streptomyces spp. and then to evaluate the possible action mode of the antagonists. Fourteen Bacillus strains isolated from different Daqu (the fermentation starter) showed antagonistic activity against Streptomyces sampsonii, which is one of the dominant geosmin producers. Bacillus subtilis 2-16 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1-45 from Maotai Daqu significantly inhibited the growth of S. sampsonii by 57.8% and 84.3% respectively, and effectively prevented the geosmin production in the simulated fermentation experiments (inoculation ratio 1:1). To probe the biocontrol mode, the ability of strain 2-16 and 1-45 to produce antimicrobial metabolites and to reduce geosmin in the fermentation system was investigated. Antimicrobial substances were identified as lipopeptides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF MS) and in vitro antibiotic assay. In addition, strains 2-16 and 1-45 were able to remove 45% and 15% of the geosmin respectively in the simulated solid-state fermentation. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, and how the use of native Bacillus species in Daqu could provide an eco-friendly method to prevent growth of Streptomyces spp. and geosmin contamination in Chinese liquor fermentation. PMID:27161758

  8. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Sevdalina; Kozhuharova, Lubka

    2010-07-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus strains were isolated from soil and analyzed for the purpose of determining whether they could be used as natural biological agents. Primary in vitro screening for antagonism of the isolates was performed against five phytopathogenic mould fungi. Strains TS 01 and ZR 02 exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory effects. They were identified as Bacillus subtilis on the basis of their morphological, cultural and physiology-biochemical properties as well as their hierarchical cluster analysis conducted by means of computer program SPSS. The antimicrobial activity of the strains from cultural medium and sterile filtrate were determined in vitro against a great number of predominantly phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria. TS 01 and ZR 02 strains exhibited very broad and at the same time degree varying antibiotic spectra of activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Many of them were tested against sensitivity to the antimicrobial action of B. subtilis for the very first time. B. subtilis TS 01 and ZR 02 showed highest antifungal activity (sterile zone in diameter over 37 mm) against Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Monilia linhartiana 869, Phytophthora cryptogea 759/1 and Rhizoctonia sp. The most sensitive bacterial species were found to be Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Ro and Xanthomonas campestris with sterile zones 48.0 and 50.0 mm in diameter, respectively. The latter draws a conclusion that the isolated and identified Bacillus subtilis strains are promising natural biocontrol agents and should be further studied and tested for control of numerous plant diseases. PMID:24026925

  9. [An Efficient Method for Genetic Certification of Bacillus subtilis strains, Prospective Producers of Biopreparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terletskiy, V P; Tyshenko, V I; Novikova, I I; Boikova, I V; Tyulebaev, S D; Shakhtamirov, I Ya

    2016-01-01

    Genetic certification of commercial strains of bacteria antagonistic to phytopathogenic microorganisms guarantees their unequivocal identification and confirmation of safety. In Russia, unlike EU countries, genetic certification of Bacillus subtilis strains is not used. Based on the previously proposed double digestion selective label (DDSL) fingerprinting, a method for genetic identification and certification of B. subtilis strains was proposed. The method was tested on several strains differing in their physiological and biochemical properties and in the composition of secondary metabolites responsible for the spectrum of antibiotic activity. High resolving power of this approach was shown. Optimal restriction endonucleases (SgsI and Eco32I) were determined and validated. A detailed protocol for genetic certification of this bacterial species was developed. DDSL is a universal method, which may be adapted for genetic identification and certification of other bacterial species. PMID:27301128

  10. The respiratory chains of four strains of the alkaliphilic Bacillus clausii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abbrescia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of terminal respiratory enzymes has been performed on four strains of Bacillus clausii used for preparation of a European probiotic. These four strains originated most probably from a common ancestor through early selection of stable clones for industrial propagation. They exhibit a low level of intra-specific diversity and a high degree of genomic conservation, making them an attractive model to study the different bioenergetics behaviors of alkaliphilic bacilli. The analysis of the different bioenergetics responses has been carried out revealing striking differences among the strains. Two out of the four strains have shown a functional redundancy of the terminal part of the respiratory chain. The biochemical data correlate with the expression level of the mRNA of cytochrome c oxidase and quinol oxidase genes (heme-copper type. The consequences of these different bioenergetics behaviors are also discussed.

  11. Occurrence, characterization and insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated from argan fields in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussaid, H; Vidal-Quist, J C; Oufdou, K; El Messoussi, S; Castañera, P; González-Cabrera, J

    2011-01-01

    Soils collected from five locations in the argan forest (an endemic plant) in Morocco were used to form the first collection of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from this area (58 strains). Here we found that the argan forest is a major source of Bt, as 90.62% of the samples contained Bt strains. These strains produced mainly spherical or irregular crystals that in some cases remained adhered to the spore after cell lysis. There was no strain producing bipyramidal crystals, suggesting the absence of strains bearing crv1 genes. This was confirmed by PCR analysis using eight primer pairs that can potentially detect 13 different groups of cry and cyt genes. Strains containing cry7/8 were the most abundant (25.53%), followed by strains harbouring cry9A (14.89%), cry11 (8.51%) and cry4 (4.25%). The mixtures of spores and crystals as well as culture supernatants were assayed for toxicity towards Ceratitis capitata (Medfly), showing up to 30% mortality. Our findings suggest that the argan region is a suitable target for future and wider screening programmes looking for strains bearing toxins or combinations of them to develop more efficient Bt-based formulates. PMID:21970180

  12. Cyclic lipopeptide profile of three Bacillus subtilis strains; antagonists of Fusarium head blight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Schisler, David A; Price, Neil P; Vaughn, Steven F

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the lipopetides associated with three Bacillus subtilis strains. The strains are antagonists of Gibberella zeae, and have been shown to be effective in reducing Fusarium head blight in wheat. The lipopeptide profile of three B. subtilis strains (AS43.3, AS43.4, and OH131.1) was determined using mass spectroscopy. Strains AS43.3 and AS43.4 produced the anti-fungal lipopeptides from the iturin and fengycin family during the stationary growth phase. All three strains produced the lipopeptide surfactin at different growth times. Strain OH131.1 only produced surfactin under these conditions. The antifungal activity of the culture supernatant and individual lipopeptides was determined by the inhibition of G. zeae. Cell-free supernatant from strains AS43.3 and AS43.4 demonstrated strong antibiosis of G. zeae, while strain OH131.1 had no antibiosis activity. These results suggest a different mechanism of antagonism for strain OH131.1, relative to AS43.3 and AS43.4. PMID:21887643

  13. Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daligault, Hajnalka; Chapman, Carol; Bruce, David; Karavis, Mark; Krepps, Michael; McGregor, Paul A.; Hong, Charles; Park, Kyong H.; Akmal, Arya; Feldman, Andrew; Lin, Jeffrey S.; Chang, Wenling E.; Higgs, Brandon W.; Demirev, Plamen; Lindquist, John; Liem, Alvin; Fochler, Ed; Read, Timothy D.; Tapia, Roxanne; Johnson, Shannon; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Detter, Chris; Han, Cliff; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Rosenzweig, C. Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the decades-long use of Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii (BG) as a simulant for biological warfare (BW) agents, knowledge of its genome composition is limited. Furthermore, the ability to differentiate signatures of deliberate adaptation and selection from natural variation is lacking for most bacterial agents. We characterized a lineage of BGwith a long history of use as a simulant for BW operations, focusing on classical bacteriological markers, metabolic profiling and whole-genome shotgun sequencing (WGS). Results Archival strains and two “present day” type strains were compared to simulant strains on different laboratory media. Several of the samples produced multiple colony morphotypes that differed from that of an archival isolate. To trace the microevolutionary history of these isolates, we obtained WGS data for several archival and present-day strains and morphotypes. Bacillus-wide phylogenetic analysis identified B. subtilis as the nearest neighbor to B. atrophaeus. The genome of B. atrophaeus is, on average, 86% identical to B. subtilis on the nucleotide level. WGS of variants revealed that several strains were mixed but highly related populations and uncovered a progressive accumulation of mutations among the “military” isolates. Metabolic profiling and microscopic examination of bacterial cultures revealed enhanced growth of “military” isolates on lactate-containing media, and showed that the “military” strains exhibited a hypersporulating phenotype. Conclusions Our analysis revealed the genomic and phenotypic signatures of strain adaptation and deliberate selection for traits that were desirable in a simulant organism. Together, these results demonstrate the power of whole-genome and modern systems-level approaches to characterize microbial lineages to develop and validate forensic markers for strain discrimination and reveal signatures of deliberate adaptation. PMID:21464989

  14. Identification of a new Bacillus licheniformis strain producing a bacteriocin-like substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaoqi; Yu, Zhanqiao; Xie, Jianhua; Zhang, Rijun

    2012-06-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance has spurred a great number of studies for development of new antimicrobials in the past decade. The purpose of this study was to screen environmental samples for Bacillus strains producing potent antimicrobial agents. A new strain, which showed strong antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica ser. Pullorum, was isolated from soil and designated as B116. This new isolate was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by morphological, biochemical and genetic analyses. The production of bacteriocin-like substance (BLS) started at early exponential phase and achieved highest level at early stationary phase. The BLS was precipitated by ammonium sulfate and its molecular mass was determined as ∼4 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Culture supernatant of the new isolate exhibited antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. The BLS was resistant to heat, acid and alkaline treatment. Activity of the BLS was totally lost after digestion by pronase and partially lost after digestion by papain and lipase. The new isolate and relevant BLS are potentially useful in food and feed applications. PMID:22752909

  15. Isolation and characterization of atrazine mineralizing Bacillus subtilis strain HB-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Wang

    Full Text Available Atrazine is a widely used herbicide with great environmental concern due to its high potential to contaminate soil and waters. An atrazine-degrading bacterial strain HB-6 was isolated from industrial wastewater and the 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified HB-6 as a Bacillus subtilis. PCR assays indicated that HB-6 contained atrazine-degrading genes trzN, atzB and atzC. The strain HB-6 was capable of utilizing atrazine and cyanuric acid as a sole nitrogen source for growth and even cleaved the s-triazine ring and mineralized atrazine. The strain demonstrated a very high efficiency of atrazine biodegradation with a broad optimum pH and temperature ranges and could be enhanced by cooperating with other bacteria, suggesting its huge potential for remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. To our knowledge, there are few Bacillus subtilis strains reported that can mineralize atrazine, therefore, the present work might provide some new insights on atrazine remediation.

  16. Laser He-Ne effect on bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain LBT-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxin is one of the world widely used entomopathogen. It presents an strong insecticide activity on Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. It was studied the effect of Laser He-Ne on Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki strain LBT-24. Growing curves were made and were calculated the duplication time and the specific growing speed of each one. The curves were statistically compared. It was also analysed the phage induction with and without Laser red light influence. Also, it was observed the presence of the d-endotoxin crystal with this treatment. The red Laser He-Ne enhanced the growth of this micro-organism under laboratory conditions and didn't have any effect over the other characteristics analysed

  17. Characterization of melanin produced by a wild-type strain of Bacillus cereus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jianping; CAI Jun; DENG Yinyue; CHEN Yuehua; REN Gaixin

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus cereus 58 (Bc58)is a UV-resistant wild type strain that has an ability to produce a sorrel pigment induced by L-tyrosine.The Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR)spectra and chemical tests of its pigment are similar to that of the standard melanin (Sigma).A bioassay shows that the LC50 of a Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)formulation added with the melanin of Bc58 and exposed to UV for 5 h is 16.1 μg/ml,which is similar to that of the Bt formulation without UV treatment,however,it is almost double that of the Bt formulation exposed to UV without the melanin of Bc58.The result of SDS-PAGE indicates that the melanin of Bc58 can protect the insecticidal crystal proteins from degradation.This suggests that it is an excellent UV protective agent for the insecticidal crystal proteins of the Bt formulation.

  18. An Ultra-Violet Tolerant Wild-Type Strain of Melanin-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansinenea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus thuringiensis is the most successful biological control agent used in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control. However, the insecticidal activity of the B. thuringiensis formulation is not very stable and rapidly loses its biological activity under field conditions, due to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Melanin is known to absorb radiation therefore photo protection of B. thuringiensis based on melanin has been extensively studied. Objectives The aim of this study was to find a wild type strain of naturally melanin-producing B. thuringiensis to avoid any mutation or manipulation that can affect the Cry protein content. Materials and Methods Bacillus thuringiensis strains were isolated from soils of different States of Mexico and pigment extraction was followed by lowering the pH to 2 using 1N HCl. Pigment was characterized by some chemical tests based on its solubility, bleaching by H2O2 and flocculation with FeCl3, and using an Infrared (IR spectrum. Ultraviolet (UV irradiation experiment was performed to probe the melanin efficacy. Results ELI52 strain of B. thuringiensis was confirmed to naturally produce melanin. The Cry protein analysis suggested that ELI52 is probably a B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis strain with toxic activity against the Diptera order of insects. Ultra Violet protection efficacy of melanin was probed counting total viable colonies after UV radiation and comparing the results with the non-producing melanin strain L-DOPA (L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine was also detected in the culture. ELI52 strain showed an antagonistic effect over some common bacteria from the environment. Conclusions ELI52 wild-type strain of B. thuringiensis is a good bio-insecticide that produces melanin with UV-resistance that is probably toxic against the Diptera order of insects and can inhibit the growth of other environmental bacteria.

  19. Isolation and identification of some Bacillus thuringiensis strains with insecticidal activity against Ceratitis capitata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present work is to study the effect of toxins (delta-endotoxins), extracted from different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis on Ceratitis capitata, a devastating of citrus and fruit trees. Strains of B. thuringiensis were isolated from the mud of Sebket Sejoumi. Among 70 isolates tested, 15 showed a significant identicalness activity in which 5 isolates led to mortality rates ≥ 90 pour cent . These mortality rates are caused by endotoxins of B. thuringiensis. Analysis of proteins profiles of different isolates of B. thuringiensis revealed variability between them. The preliminary results of this study encourage us towards the characterization of the insecticidal activity produced by B. thuringiensis strains for large scale application.

  20. Tryptophan provision by dietary supplementation of a Bacillus subtilis mutant strain in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Pitarch, A; Nielsen, B.; Canibe, Nuria;

    2015-01-01

    Supplementing Bacillus (B.) subtilis mutants selected to overproduce a specific amino acid (AA) may be an alternative method to provide essential AA in pig diets. Two experiments on a B. subtilis strain selected to overproduce Trp were conducted using 8-kg pigs fed Trp-deficient diets for 20 d. B....... subtilis were supplied in a low or high dose in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. The Trp-deficient diet (0.15 SID Trp:Lys) reduced (p < .05) both gain and feed intake of piglets compared to the positive control diet (0.17 SID Trp:Lys). Supplementation of the B. subtilis strain was not able to...... counterbalance the Trp deficiency in any of the two experiments. No effect of B. subtilis supplementation to piglet diets was observed on the plasma AA profile. In conclusion, this mutant strain of B. subtilis was not able to compensate a Trp deficiency in the tested doses....

  1. Screening of bacterial strains for pectinolytic activity: characterization of the polygalacturonase produced by Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Márcia M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sixty eight bacterial strains, isolated from soil and samples of vegetable in decomposition, were screened for the use of citrus pectin as the sole carbon source. 102 were positive for pectinase depolymerization in assay plates as evidenced by clear hydrolization halos. Among them, 30% presented considerable pectinolytic activity. The cultivation of these strains by submerged and semi-solid fermentation for polygalacturonase production indicated that five strains of Bacillus sp produced high quantities of the enzyme. The physico-chemical characteristics, such as optimum pH of 6.0 - 7.0, optimum temperatures between 45oC and 55oC, stability at temperatures above 40oC and in neutral and alkaline pH, were determined.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis GXA-28, a Thermophilic Strain with High Productivity of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Wei; Chen, Guiguang; Tang, Zhen; Wu, Hao; Shu, Lin; Liang, Zhiqun

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis GXA-28 is a thermophilic strain that can produce high yield and high molecular weight of poly-γ-glutamic acid under high temperature. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this strain, which may provide the genomic basis for the high productivity of poly-γ-glutamic acid.

  3. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain UASWS BA1, a Bacterium Antagonistic to Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort, F; Calmin, G.; Pelleteret, P.; Farinelli, L.; Osteras, M; Crovadore, J.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain UASWS BA1, isolated from inner wood tissues of a decaying Platanus × acerifolia tree. This strain proved to be antagonistic to several plant pathogenic fungi and oomycetes and can be developed as a biological control agent in agriculture.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Strain BcFL2013, a Clinical Isolate Similar to G9241

    OpenAIRE

    Gee, Jay E.; Marston, Chung K.; Sammons, Scott A.; Burroughs, Mark A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus strains, such as G9241, causing anthrax-like illnesses have recently been discovered. We report the genome sequence of a clinical strain, B. cereus BcFL2013, which is similar to G9241, recovered from a patient in Florida.

  5. Construction of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain for high purity levan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Gu, Yanyan; Han, Lifang; Bi, Kexin; Quan, Yufeng; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Mingfeng; Wang, Shufang; Gao, Weixia; Sun, Yang; Song, Cunjiang

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NK-1 has the potential to produce levan and poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) simultaneously. However, it is not possible to purify each single product from the same strain because the extraction process is identical. We deleted the pgs cluster (for γ-PGA synthesis) from the NK-1 strain and constructed a γ-PGA-deficient NK-ΔLP strain. Nuclear magnetic results showed that the NK-ΔLP strain could produce high purity levan product. However, its levan titer was only 1.96 g L(-1) in the basal medium. Single-factor experimental and response surface methodology was used to optimize the culture condition, leading to levan titer of 13.9 and 22.6 g L(-1) in flask culture and in a 5-L bioreactor, respectively. The levan purity can reach to 92.7% after 48 h cultivation. Furthermore, the relationship between levanase (LevB) and levan molecular weight was studied. The results showed that LevB resulted in the production of low molecular weight levan and its expression level determined the ratio of high and low molecular weight levan. We also deleted the sac cluster (for levan synthesis) from the NK-1 strain and constructed a levan-deficient NK-L strain. The NK-L strain exhibited increased purity of γ-PGA product from 79.5 to 91.2%. PMID:25953857

  6. Compounds produced by two robust Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol strains involved in antimicrobial activity and plant-growth promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Magno-Pérez, Maria Concepción; Hierrezuelo, Jesús; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Romero, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Several members of the Bacillus genus are potential candidates to be used as biological control agents to combat pests or plant diseases. The bacterial attributes associated to Bacillus behaviour are mainly: the production of antimicrobial compounds, the plant-growth promotion capability and the induction of systemic resistance in plant host. In previous works, we have demonstrated this multifaceted biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens CECT8237 (UMAF6639) and CECT8238 (UMAF6614) strain...

  7. The Construction of the Probe for Amylase Ⅱ Gene Cloning from Bacillus halodurans Strain 38C1-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Primers and probes were established according to the sequences of the alpha-amylase genes of Bacillus. halodurans C-125, Thermus sp. IM6501, B. stearothermophilus ET-1, and B. acidopullulytics. Primers were designed and a 0.2 kb DNA fragment was amplified, the fragment was successfully used for the detection of the amylase Ⅱ gene in a 2 842 bp region from Bacillus halodurans strain 38C1-1.

  8. Bioremediation potential of a newly isolate solvent tolerant strain Bacillus thermophilus PS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAYEL SARKAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased generation of solvent waste has been stated as one of the most critical environmental problems. Though microbial bioremediation has been widely used for waste treatment but their application in solvent waste treatment is limited since the solvents have toxic effects on the microbial cells. A solvent tolerant strain of Bacillus thermophilus PS11 was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Transmission electron micrograph of PS11 showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvents in the cytoplasm, indicating the adaptation of the bacterial strain to the solvent after 48h of incubation. The strain was also capable of growing in presence of wide range of other hydrophobic solvents with log P-values below 3.5. The isolate could uptake 50 ng/ml of uranium in its initial 12h of growth, exhibiting both solvent tolerance and metal resistance property. This combination of solvent tolerance and metal resistance will make the isolated Bacillus thermophilus PS11 a potential tool for metal bioremediation in solvent rich wastewaters.

  9. Production and antimicrobial activity of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde from Bacillus subtilis strain CU12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, C; Novitsky, L; Tsopmo, A; Avis, T J

    2012-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains are known to produce a vast array of antimicrobial compounds. However, some compounds remain to be identified. Disk assays performed in vitro with Bacillus subtilis CU12 showed a significant reduction in mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium sambucinum, and Pythium sulcatum. Crude B. subtilis culture filtrates were subsequently extracted with ethyl acetate and butanol. A bioassay guided purification procedure revealed the presence of one major antifungal compound in the butanol extract. Purification of the compound was performed using a reverse-phase C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge and flash column chromatography. NMR data showed that the main antimicrobial compound was a cyclic dimer of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (HPA). This study demonstrated the antimicrobial activity of B. subtilis strain CU12 against phytopathogenic microorganisms is mediated at least in part by the production of HPA. It also suggests that this B. subtilis strain could be effective at controlling pathogens through protection of its ecological niche by antibiosis. PMID:23179100

  10. Isolation of Alpha-amylase Producing Thermophilic Bacillus Strains and Partial Characterization of the Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celal Türker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we isolated three thermophilic Bacillus strains from the soil samples collected from the coast sediments of the Burnaz Stream located in Erzin. The isolates were entitled as Bacillus sp. CT1, CT2, and CT3, respectively. The maximum α-amylase production was revealed at 60°C for CT1 strain, and at 80°C for CT2 and CT3 strains, respectively. The optimum enzyme activity was observed at 90°C for CT1 α-amylase, whereas at 60°C for CT2 and CT3 α-amylases. On the other hand, optimum pH value for CT2 α-amylase was 7.0, whereas 8.0 for CT1 and CT3 α-amylases. The specific activities of CT1, CT2, and CT3 amylases were 317.6, 113.3 and 362.7 U/mg at 55°C, respectively. The estimated molecular weight of CT1 and CT3 α-amylase was 65 kDa, and for CT2 α-amylase was 38 kDa by zymogram analysis.

  11. Purification and characterization of keratinase from a new Bacillus subtilis strain

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Cheng-gang; Chen, Ji-shuang; Qi, Jiong-jiong; Yin, Yun; Zheng, Xiao-dong

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to purify and characterize a keratinase produced by a new isolated Bacillus subtilis KD-N2 strain. The keratinase produced by the isolate was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, Sephadex G-75 and DEAE (diethylaminoethyl)-Sepharose chromatographic techniques. The purified enzyme was shown to have a molecular mass of 30.5 kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. The optimum pH at 50 °C was 8.5 and ...

  12. Purification and some properties of an alkaline xylanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain 41M-1.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, S.; Wakabayashi, K; Nakai, R; Aono, R; Horikoshi, K

    1993-01-01

    An alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain, 41M-1, isolated from soil produced multiple xylanases extracellularly. One of these xylanases was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and anion-exchange chromatography. The moleculr mass of this enzyme (xylanase J) was 36 kDa, and the isoelectric point was pH 5.3. Xylanase J was most active at pH 9.0. The optimum temperature for the activity at pH 9.0 was around 50 degrees C. The enzyme was stable up to 55 degrees C at pH 9.0 for 30 m...

  13. Purification and properties of xylanase A from alkali-tolerant Bacillus sp. strain BP-23.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Blanco; Vidal, T; Colom, J F; Pastor, F I

    1995-01-01

    Xylanase A from the recently isolated Bacillus sp. strain BP-23 was purified to homogeneity. The enzyme shows a molecular mass of 32 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.3. Optimum temperature and pH for xylanase activity were 50 degrees C and 5.5 respectively. Xylanase A was completely inhibited by N-bromosuccinimide. The main products of birchwood xylan hydrolysis were xylotetraose and xylobiose. The enzyme was shown to facilitate chemical bleaching of pulp, generating savings of 38% in terms ...

  14. A Soluble Aggregated Thermophile Metalloaminopeptidase Produced by an Alcalophile Strain of Bacillus halodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dabonné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available H4 strain isolated from Lake Bogoria was found to be Bacillus halodurans. The Bacteria produced an extracellular peptidase activity toward substrates Ile-pNA, Met-pNA and Val-pNA. It also hydrolyzed small peptides. A purification procedure including ion-exchange chromatography ion exchange DEAE and sizeexclusion chromatography followed by Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrymalide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE revealed the aggregated form of the enzyme. The three substrates are hydrolyzed by a single catalytic site. The enzyme inactivated by bestatin, and 1,10-phenanthroline is a metalloaminopeptidase whose activity is maximal at pH 9.0 and 65ºC.

  15. Xanthan Lyase of Bacillus sp. Strain GL1 Liberates Pyruvylated Mannose from Xanthan Side Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Tsuchiya, Noriaki; Nankai, Hirokazu; Murata, Kousaku

    1998-01-01

    When the bacterium Bacillus sp. strain GL1 was grown in a medium containing xanthan as the carbon source, the viscosity of the medium decreased in association with growth, showing that the bacterium had xanthan-depolymerizing enzymes. One of the xanthan-depolymerizing enzymes (xanthan lyase) was present in the medium and was found to be induced by xanthan. The xanthan lyase purified from the culture fluid was a monomer with a molecular mass of 75 kDa, and was most active at pH 5.5 and 50°C. T...

  16. Isolation and Identification of a new Bacillus cereus strain and Characterization of its Neopullulanase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Davaeifar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification and use of more efficient enzymes in the food and pharmaceutical industries is the focus of many researchers. The aim of this study was to search for a new bacterial strain capable of producing high levels of pullulanase applicable to biotechnology, the starch bioprocessing and food industries. A new pullulan hydrolyzing Bacillus strain was isolated and designated SDK2. Morphological and biochemical tests identified the strain as a putative Bacillus cereus strain, which was further characterized and confirmed through 16s rRNA sequencing, and was submitted to GeneBank, under the accession number FR6864500. Quantative analysis of the strain’s pullulanase activity was carried out by the Dintrosalicyclic (DNS acid-based assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC of the culture supernatant, identified the extracellular pullulanase as neopullulanase. Effects of temperature and pH on pullulanase activity were also studied. The optimum conditions for enzyme activity, as represented by 60o C and a pH of 7, resulted in an activity of 13.43 U/ml, which is much higher than some of the previously reported activities. However, growth of B. cereus SDK2 was also observed at a pH range of 5 to 10, and temperatures of 30 oC to 50 oC. The effect of metal ions and reagents, such as Mg+2, Ca+2, Zn+2, Cu+2, Fe+2, Ni+2 on enzyme activity showed that Ca+2 ions increased pullulan activity, whereas the other ions and reagents inhibited pullulanase activity. The ability of B. cereus SDK2 to produce high levels of neopullulanase stable at 60 oC that can generate panose from pullulan, make this newly isolated strain a valuable source of debranching enzyme for biotechnology, the starch bioprocess and medical industries.

  17. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Mendoza-Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50 on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes.

  18. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  19. Anthelmintic Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains against the Gill Fish Trematode Centrocestus formosanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Estrada, Luis Javier; Hernández-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel; Arenas-Sosa, Iván; Flores-Pérez, Fernando Iván; Morales-Montor, Jorge; Peña-Chora, Guadalupe

    2016-01-01

    Parasitic agents, such as helminths, are the most important biotic factors affecting aquaculture, and the fluke Centrocestus formosanus is considered to be highly pathogenic in various fish species. There have been efforts to control this parasite with chemical helminthicides, but these efforts have had unsuccessful results. We evaluated the anthelmintic effect of 37 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against C. formosanus metacercariae in vitro using two concentrations of total protein, and only six strains produced high mortality. The virulence (CL50) on matacercariae of three strains was obtained: the GP308, GP526, and ME1 strains exhibited a LC50 of 146.2 μg/mL, 289.2 μg/mL, and 1721.9 μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, these six B. thuringiensis strains were evaluated against the cercariae of C. formosanus; the LC50 obtained from the GP526 strain with solubilized protein was 83.8 μg/mL, and it could be considered as an alternative control of the metacercariae and cercariae of this parasite in the productivity systems of ornamental fishes. PMID:27294137

  20. Characterization of a highly toxic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar kurstaki very similar to the HD-73 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Pozo, Yaritza; Del Rincón-Castro, Ma Cristina; Ibarra, Jorge E

    2016-09-01

    The LBIT-1200 strain of Bacillus thuringiensis was recently isolated from soil, and showed a 6.4 and 9.5 increase in toxicity, against Manduca sexta and Trichoplusia ni, respectively, compared to HD-73. However, LBIT-1200 was still highly similar to HD-73, including the production of bipyramidal crystals containing only one protein of ∼130 000 kDa, its flagellin gene sequence related to the kurstaki serotype, plasmid and RepPCR patterns similar to HD-73, no production of β-exotoxin and no presence of VIP genes. Sequencing of its cry gene showed the presence of a cry1Ac-type gene with four amino acid differences, including two amino acid replacements in domain III, compared to Cry1Ac1, which may explain its higher toxicity. In conclusion, the LBIT-1200 strain is a variant of the HD-73 strain but shows a much higher toxicity, which makes this new strain an important candidate to be developed as a bioinsecticide, once it passes other tests, throughout its biotechnological development. PMID:27535648

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Mun Su [University of Florida, Gainesville; Moritz, Brelan E. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Patel, Milind [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ou, Mark [University of Florida, Gainesville; Harbrucker, Roberta [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ingram, Lonnie O. [University of Florida; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T. [University of Florida

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  3. Simultaneous removal of chlorothalonil and nitrate by Bacillus cereus strain NS1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yiqiang [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States)]. E-mail: yqzhang@ucr.edu; Lu Jianhang [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States); Wu Laosheng [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States); Chang, Andrew [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States); Frankenberger, William T. [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA-92521 (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Elevated NO{sub 3} {sup -} and chlorothalonil (CTN) have been found in production nursery recycling ponds. Bacillus cereus strain NS1 isolated from nursery recycling pond sediment was assessed for its ability to reduce NO{sub 3} {sup -} and degrade CTN in a mineral medium. The results showed that the efficiency of NO{sub 3} {sup -} reduction and CTN degradation by B. cereus strain NS1 were related to the nature of organic carbon sources added to the medium. In the medium amended with 100 mg/L yeast extract, 86% of NO{sub 3} {sup -} (100 mg/L) and 99% of CTN (78 {mu}g/L) were simultaneously removed by B. cereus strain NS1 during the first day of the experiment. It took 6 days for the removal of 82-93% of NO{sub 3} {sup -} and 87-91% of CTN in the media containing glucose and acetate. B. cereus strain NS1 needed organic carbon as energy sources and electron donors to respire NO{sub 3} {sup -}, and simultaneously degrade CTN. These results suggest that B. cereus strain NS1 may have great potential to remediate NO{sub 3} {sup -} and CTN contaminated water in nursery recycling ponds.

  4. Simultaneous removal of chlorothalonil and nitrate by Bacillus cereus strain NS1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elevated NO3- and chlorothalonil (CTN) have been found in production nursery recycling ponds. Bacillus cereus strain NS1 isolated from nursery recycling pond sediment was assessed for its ability to reduce NO3- and degrade CTN in a mineral medium. The results showed that the efficiency of NO3- reduction and CTN degradation by B. cereus strain NS1 were related to the nature of organic carbon sources added to the medium. In the medium amended with 100 mg/L yeast extract, 86% of NO3- (100 mg/L) and 99% of CTN (78 μg/L) were simultaneously removed by B. cereus strain NS1 during the first day of the experiment. It took 6 days for the removal of 82-93% of NO3- and 87-91% of CTN in the media containing glucose and acetate. B. cereus strain NS1 needed organic carbon as energy sources and electron donors to respire NO3-, and simultaneously degrade CTN. These results suggest that B. cereus strain NS1 may have great potential to remediate NO3- and CTN contaminated water in nursery recycling ponds

  5. Characterization of antagonistic-potential of two Bacillus strains and their biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biocontrol mechanism of two antagonistic Bacillus strains (Bacillus subtilis MB14 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MB101), three in vitro antagonism assays were screened and the results were concluded that both strains inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth in a similar manner by dual culture assay, but the maximum percent of inhibition only resulted with MB101 by volatile and diffusible metabolite assays. Moreover, cell free supernatant (CFS) of MB101 also showed significant (p > 0.05) growth inhibition as compared to MB14, when 10 and 20% CFS mix with the growth medium of R. solani. After in vitro-validation, both strains were evaluated under greenhouse and the results concluded that strain MB101 had significant biocontrol potential as compared to MB14. Strain MB101 was enhanced the plant height, biomass and chlorophyll content of tomato plant through a higher degree of root colonization. In field trials, strain MB101 showed higher lessening in root rot symptoms with significant fruit yield as compare to strain MB14 and infected control. Next to the field study, the presence of four antibiotic genes (srfAA, fenD, ituC, and bmyB) also concluded the antifungal nature of both Bacillus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed a close relatedness of three genes (srfAA, fenD, and ituC) with earlier reported sequences of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. However, bmyB showed heterogeneity in among both strains (MB14 and MB101) and it may be concluded that higher degree of antagonism, root colonization and different antibiotic producing genes may play an important role in biocontrol mechanism of strain MB101. PMID:24277414

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis monogenic strains: screening and interactions with insecticides used against rice pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura M.N.; Dörr, Natália C.; Ribeiro, Ana Paula A.; de Salles, Silvia M.; de Oliveira, Jaime V.; Menezes, Valmir G.; Fiuza, Lidia M.

    2012-01-01

    The screening of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins with high potential to control insect pests has been the goal of numerous research groups. In this study, we evaluated six monogenic Bt strains (Bt dendrolimus HD-37, Bt kurstaki HD-1, Bt kurstaki HD-73, Bt thuringiensis 4412, Bt kurstaki NRD-12 and Bt entomocidus 60.5, which codify the cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1C, cry2A genes respectively) as potential insecticides for the most important insect pests of irrigated rice: Spodoptera frugiperda, Diatraea saccharalis, Oryzophagus oryzae, Oebalus poecilus and Tibraca limbativentris. We also analyzed their compatibility with chemical insecticides (thiamethoxam, labdacyhalothrin, malathion and fipronil), which are extensively used in rice crops. The bioassay results showed that Bt thuringiensis 4412 and Bt entomocidus 60.5 were the most toxic for the lepidopterans, with a 93% and 82% mortality rate for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. For O. oryzae, the Bt kurstaki NRD-12 (64%) and Bt dendrolimus HD-37 (62%) strains were the most toxic. The Bt dendrolimus HD-37 strain also caused high mortality (82%) to O. poecilus, however the strains assessed to T. limbativentris caused a maximum rate of 5%. The assays for the Bt strains interaction with insecticides revealed the compatibility of the six strains with the four insecticides tested. The results from this study showed the high potential of cry1Aa and cry1Ba genes for genetic engineering of rice plants or the strains to biopesticide formulations. PMID:24031872

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis monogenic strains: screening and interactions with insecticides used against rice pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura M N; Dörr, Natália C; Ribeiro, Ana Paula A; de Salles, Silvia M; de Oliveira, Jaime V; Menezes, Valmir G; Fiuza, Lidia M

    2012-04-01

    The screening of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins with high potential to control insect pests has been the goal of numerous research groups. In this study, we evaluated six monogenic Bt strains (Bt dendrolimus HD-37, Bt kurstaki HD-1, Bt kurstaki HD-73, Bt thuringiensis 4412, Bt kurstaki NRD-12 and Bt entomocidus 60.5, which codify the cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1C, cry2A genes respectively) as potential insecticides for the most important insect pests of irrigated rice: Spodoptera frugiperda, Diatraea saccharalis, Oryzophagus oryzae, Oebalus poecilus and Tibraca limbativentris. We also analyzed their compatibility with chemical insecticides (thiamethoxam, labdacyhalothrin, malathion and fipronil), which are extensively used in rice crops. The bioassay results showed that Bt thuringiensis 4412 and Bt entomocidus 60.5 were the most toxic for the lepidopterans, with a 93% and 82% mortality rate for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. For O. oryzae, the Bt kurstaki NRD-12 (64%) and Bt dendrolimus HD-37 (62%) strains were the most toxic. The Bt dendrolimus HD-37 strain also caused high mortality (82%) to O. poecilus, however the strains assessed to T. limbativentris caused a maximum rate of 5%. The assays for the Bt strains interaction with insecticides revealed the compatibility of the six strains with the four insecticides tested. The results from this study showed the high potential of cry1Aa and cry1Ba genes for genetic engineering of rice plants or the strains to biopesticide formulations. PMID:24031872

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis monogenic strains: screening and interactions with insecticides used against rice pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M.N. Pinto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The screening of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt Cry proteins with high potential to control insect pests has been the goal of numerous research groups. In this study, we evaluated six monogenic Bt strains (Bt dendrolimus HD-37, Bt kurstaki HD-1, Bt kurstaki HD-73, Bt thuringiensis 4412, Bt kurstaki NRD-12 and Bt entomocidus 60.5, which codify the cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ba, cry1C, cry2A genes respectively as potential insecticides for the most important insect pests of irrigated rice: Spodoptera frugiperda, Diatraea saccharalis, Oryzophagus oryzae, Oebalus poecilus and Tibraca limbativentris. We also analyzed their compatibility with chemical insecticides (thiamethoxam, labdacyhalothrin, malathion and fipronil, which are extensively used in rice crops. The bioassay results showed that Bt thuringiensis 4412 and Bt entomocidus 60.5 were the most toxic for the lepidopterans, with a 93% and 82% mortality rate for S. frugiperda and D. saccharalis, respectively. For O. oryzae, the Bt kurstaki NRD-12 (64% and Bt dendrolimus HD-37 (62% strains were the most toxic. The Bt dendrolimus HD-37 strain also caused high mortality (82% to O. poecilus, however the strains assessed to T. limbativentris caused a maximum rate of 5%. The assays for the Bt strains interaction with insecticides revealed the compatibility of the six strains with the four insecticides tested. The results from this study showed the high potential of cry1Aa and cry1Ba genes for genetic engineering of rice plants or the strains to biopesticide formulations.

  9. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIFENTHRIN CATABOLIZING BACTERIAL STRAIN BACILLUS CIBI FROM SOIL FOR PYRETHROIDS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroids are commonly used in most parts of the world and are reported to have potential health risks. Bifenthrin, a third generation pyrethroid used as insecticide has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health. Bioremediation is a practical approach to reduce pesticide in the environment and reports of microbial degradation of bifenthrin are meagre. This study was aimed at isolating and characterizing bacterial isolates for the efficient removal of bifenthrin residues in the environment. A bacterial strain PGS-4 isolated from sewage of pesticide industry was tested for growth at higher concentration of bifenthrin (800 mg L-1 and the optimum pH and temperature were determined. The strain utilized bifenthrin as sole carbon source for growth over a wide range of pH (4.0-9.0 and temperatures (16-37°C. On the basis of growth kinetics studies, the optimal conditions were determined to be pH 7.0-8.0 and 30°C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain PGS-4 forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Bacillus and showed 99% similarity to that of Bacillus cibi. This study depicts the ability of B. cibi to utilize bifenthrin at higher concentration under in vitro thereby can be used in eliminating bifenthrin from contaminated soils as a practical approach to reduce pyrethroid toxicity in the environment.

  10. Poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] production under different salinity conditions by a novel Bacillus megaterium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Contreras, Alejandra; Koller, Martin; Braunegg, Gerhart; Marqués-Calvo, María Soledad

    2016-01-25

    Bacillus megaterium uyuni S29, isolated from the Bolivian salt lake Uyuni, displays a high capability to produce poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB) in industrial culture media. In order to analyze the influence of salt on biomass formation and PHB production, cultivations at different NaCl concentrations were carried out according to the salinity conditions of the habitats of the strain's original isolation. In this preliminary report, the strain showed considerable adaptability to media of different salinity, obtaining the best results for both cellular growth and PHB production in media containing 45 g/L NaCl. The strain grew at 100 g/L NaCl and PHB production was observed even at high salt levels of 250 g/L without unwanted concurrent spore formation. Its tolerance to high salt concentrations together with auspicious PHB productivity makes this strain appealing not only for PHB production, but also for other biotechnological applications such as the treatment of salty wastewater; additional studies will be needed to further increase PHB productivity. PMID:26344348

  11. Keratinase production and keratin degradation by a mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-gang CAI; Bing-gan LOU; Xiao-dong ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    A new feather-degrading bacterium was isolated from a local feather waste site and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on morphological, physiochemical, and phylogenetic characteristics. Screening for mutants with elevated keratinolytic activity using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis resulted in a mutant strain KD-N2 producing keratinolytic activity about 2.5 times that of the wild-type strain. The mutant strain produced inducible keratinase in different substrates of feathers, hair, wool and silk under submerged cultivation. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the degradation of feathers, hair and silk by the keratinase. The optimal conditions for keratinase production include initial pH of 7.5, inoculum size of 2% (v/v), age of inoculum of 16 h, and cultivation at 23 ℃. The maximum keratinolytic activity of KD-N2 was achieved after 30 h. Essential amino acids like threonine, valine, methionine as well as ammonia were produced when feathers were used as substrates. Strain KD-N2,therefore, shows great promise of finding potential applications in keratin hydrolysis and keratinase production.

  12. Comparative study on production of α-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibu Divakaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpha amylase (α-1, 4-glucan-glucanhydrolase, EC 3.2.1.1, an extracellular enzyme, degrades α, 1-4 glucosidic linkages of starch and related substrates in an endo-fashion producing oligosaccharides including maltose, glucose and alpha limit dextrin (7. The present study deals with the production and comparative study of production of α-amylase from two strains of Bacillus licheniformis, MTCC 2617 and 2618, by using four different substrates, starch, rice, wheat and ragi powder as carbon source by submerged fermentation. The effect of varying pH and incubation temperature, activator, inhibitor, and substrate concentration was investigated on the activity of α-amylase produced by MTCC strain 2618. The results shows that the production of the α-amylase by the B.licheniformis strain MTCC 2618, using four different substrates were found to be maximum (Starch 3.64 IU/ml/minutes, Rice powder 2.93 IU/ml/minutes, Wheat powder 2.67 IU/ml/minutes, Ragi powder 2.36 IU/ml/minutes on comparing the enzyme production of two strains. It was also observed that the maximum production was found on the 3rd day (i.e. 72 hr and characterization of crude enzyme revealed that optimum activity was at pH 7 and 37ºC.

  13. Decolorization of sulfonated azo dye Metanil Yellow by newly isolated bacterial strains: Bacillus sp. strain AK1 and Lysinibacillus sp. strain AK2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneya, O; Souche, S Yogesh; Santoshkumar, M; Karegoudar, T B

    2011-06-15

    Two different bacterial strains capable of decolorizing a highly water soluble azo dye Metanil Yellow were isolated from dye contaminated soil sample collected from Atul Dyeing Industry, Bellary, India. The individual bacterial strains Bacillus sp. AK1 and Lysinibacillus sp. AK2 decolorized Metanil Yellow (200 mg L(-1)) completely within 27 and 12h respectively. Various parameters like pH, temperature, NaCl and initial dye concentrations were optimized to develop an economically feasible decolorization process. The maximum concentration of Metanil Yellow (1000 mg L(-1)) was decolorized by strains AK2 and AK1 within 78 and 84 h respectively. These strains could decolorize Metanil Yellow over a broad pH range 5.5-9.0; the optimum pH was 7.2. The decolorization of Metanil Yellow was most efficient at 40°C and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, TLC, HPLC and GC/MS analysis. Further, both the strains showed the involvement of azoreductase in the decolorization process. Phytotoxicity studies of catabolic products of Metanil Yellow on the seeds of chick pea and pigeon pea revealed much reduction in the toxicity of metabolites as compared to the parent dye. These results indicating the effectiveness of strains AK1 and AK2 for the treatment of textile effluents containing azo dyes. PMID:21470774

  14. Studies of plant colonisation by closely related Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol agents using strain specific quantitative PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anna H; Bejai, Sarosh; Niazi, Adnan; Manzoor, Shahid; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Meijer, Johan

    2014-12-01

    Certain strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can colonize plants and improve growth and stress management. In order to study these effects, bacterial growth dynamics on plants and in the rhizosphere are of interest calling for specific analytical tools. For that purpose, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays were developed in order to differentiate among three closely related B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains (UCMB5033, UCMB5036, UCMB5113) and to determine their levels with high accuracy. Oligonucleotide primers were designed for strain unique gene sequences and used for SYBR green based qPCR analysis. Standard curves covered a wide linear range (10(6)) of DNA amounts with the lowest detection level at 50 fg. Post-reaction melting curve analysis showed only a single product. Accurate threshold cycles were obtained, even in the presence of high excess of related Bacillus strains and total bacterial DNA from soil. Analysis of Bacillus colonisation after seed treatment of two oilseed rape cultivars (Oase and Ritz) grown on agar support showed a time dependent effect but that the bacteria mostly were found on root tissues and little on green tissues. The colonisation on plants grown in soil varied among the Bacillus strains where Oase seemed to house more bacteria than Ritz. Applied as a mixture, all three Bacillus strains co-existed on the roots of plants grown in soil. The qPCR assay in combination with other techniques will be a powerful tool to study plant interactions of these B. amyloliquefaciens biocontrol agents to further understand the requirements for successful interactions and improvement of plant properties. PMID:25294724

  15. Identification of the pXO1 plasmid in attenuated Bacillus anthracis vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xudong; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Enmin; Wei, Jianchun; Li, Wei; Wang, Bingxiang; Dong, Shulin; Zhu, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Anthrax toxins and capsule are the major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis. They are encoded by genes located on the plasmids pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. The vaccine strain Pasteur II was produced from high temperature subcultures of B. anthracis, which resulted in virulence attenuation through the loss of the plasmid pXO1. However, it is unclear whether the high temperature culture completely abolishes the plasmid DNA or affects the replication of the plasmid pXO1. In this study, we tested 3 B. anthracis vaccine strains, including Pasteur II from France, Qiankefusiji II from Russia, and Rentian II from Japan, which were all generated from subcultures at high temperatures. Surprisingly, we detected the presence of pXO1 plasmid DNA using overlap PCR in all these vaccine strains. DNA sequencing analysis of overlap PCR products further confirmed the presence of pXO1. Moreover, the expression of the protective antigen (PA) encoded on pXO1 was determined by using SDS-PAGE and western blotting. In addition, we mimicked Pasteur's method and exposed the A16R vaccine strain, which lacks the pXO2 plasmid, to high temperature, and identified the pXO1 plasmid in the subcultures at high temperatures. This indicated that the high temperature treatment at 42.5°C was unable to eliminate pXO1 plasmid DNA from B. anthracis. Our results suggest that the attenuation of the Pasteur II vaccine strain is likely due to the impact of high temperature stress on plasmid replication, which in turn limits the copy number of pXO1. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms of the remaining immunogenicity and toxicity of the vaccine strains. PMID:27029580

  16. Isolation and characterization of a new Bacillus thuringiensis strain with a promising toxicity against Lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukedi, Hanen; Sellami, Sameh; Ktari, Sonia; Belguith-Ben Hassan, Najeh; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya; Tounsi, Slim; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides derived from Bacillus thuringiensis are gaining worldwide importance as environmentally desirable alternatives to chemicals for the control of pests in public health and agriculture. Isolation and characterization of new strains with higher and broader spectrum of activity is an ever growing field. In the present work, a novel Tunisian B. thuringiensis isolate named BLB459 was characterized and electrophoresis assay showed that among a collection of 200 B. thuringiensis strains, the plasmid profile of BLB459 was distinctive. SmaI-PFGE typing confirmed the uniqueness of the DNA pattern of this strain, compared with BUPM95 and HD1 reference strains. PCR and sequencing assays revealed that BLB459 harbored three cry genes (cry30, cry40 and cry54) corresponding to the obtained molecular sizes in the protein pattern. Interestingly, PCR-RFLP assay demonstrated the originality of the BLB459 cry30-type gene compared to the other published cry30 genes. Insecticidal bioassays showed that BLB459 spore-crystal suspension was highly toxic to both Ephestia kuehniella and Spodoptera littoralis with LC50 values of about 64 (53-75) and 80 (69-91) μg of toxin cm(-2), respectively, comparing with that of the commercial strain HD1 used as reference. Important histopathological effects of BLB459 δ-endotoxins on the two tested larvae midguts were detected, traduced by the vacuolization of the apical cells, the damage of microvilli, and the disruption of epithelial cells. These results proved that BLB459 strain could be of a great interest for lepidopteran biocontrol. PMID:27242138

  17. Augmentation of tribenuron methyl removal from polluted soil with Bacillus sp.strain BS2 and indigenous earthworms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Tang; Zhiping Zhao; Yajun Liu; Nanxi Wang; Baojun Wang; Yanan Wang; Ningyi Zhou; Shuangjiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Tribenuron methyl(TBM)is a member of the sulfonylurea herbicide family and is widely used worldwide.In this study,TBMdegrading bacteria were enriched with TBM as potential carbon,nitrogen or sulfur source,and 44 bacterial isolates were obtained.These isolates were phylogenetically diverse,and were grouped into 25 operational taxonomic units and 14 currently known genera.Three representatives,Bacillus sp.strain BS2,Microbacterium sp.strain BS3,and Cellulosimicrobium sp.strain BS 11,were selected,and their growth and TBM removal from culture broth were investigated.In addition,indigenous earthworms were collected and applied to augment TBM degradation in lab-scale soil column experiments.Results demonstrated that Bacillus sp.strain BS2 and earthworms significantly increased TBM removal during soil column experiments.

  18. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  19. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activities against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9 Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  20. Genome Sequence of the Acrystalliferous Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar Israelensis Strain 4Q7, Widely Used as a Recombination Host

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis is well known for its mosquitocidal activity and has long been used as a biopesticide. Herein, we present the genome sequence of B. thuringiensis serovar israelensis strain 4Q7, a plasmid-cured derivative with higher transformation efficiency than wild types.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Jansson, Janet K; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. PMID:26272562

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    OpenAIRE

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  3. Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain Bonn, Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Necrotic Skin Infection Site of a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Grass, Gregor; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Molitor, Ernst; Götte, Natascha; Antwerpen, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain Bonn associated with human skin infection. B. pumilus Bonn was isolated from a carbuncle-like necrotic site, resembling cutaneous anthrax, on the back of the hand of a 10-year-old child.

  4. Genome Sequence of Bacillus pumilus Strain Bonn, Isolated from an Anthrax-Like Necrotic Skin Infection Site of a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Gregor; Bierbaum, Gabriele; Molitor, Ernst; Götte, Natascha; Antwerpen, Markus

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus pumilus strain Bonn associated with human skin infection. B. pumilus Bonn was isolated from a carbuncle-like necrotic site, resembling cutaneous anthrax, on the back of the hand of a 10-year-old child. PMID:26868410

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus clausii AKU0647, a Strain That Produces Endo-β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Mori, Kazuki; Suyama, Akiko; Huang, Yibo; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kuhara, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify glycosyl hydrolase genes in the genome of Bacillus clausii strain AKU0647, which produces endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase A (Endo-A), we conducted whole-genome shotgun sequencing. We identified several other putative glycosyl hydrolase genes apart from the Endo-A gene, and report these findings here. PMID:27151792

  6. Preliminary Study and Improve the Production of Metabolites with Antifungal Activity by A Bacillus Sp Strain IBA 33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonieta Gordillo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites, isolated from decaying lemon fruits, were evaluated for the control of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium moniliforme. These metabolites were recovered from Landy medium (LM without aminoacids. In order to optimize metabolites production the LM was modified by adding different concentrations and sources of amino acids and carbohydrates at different culture conditions. Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites efficacy to control fungi were evaluated with in vitro and in vivo assays. A. flavus growth inhibition was 52% with the metabolites of Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 recovered from LM (MBLM in vitro assays. MBLM supplemented with 0.5% glutamic acid, inhibited the growth of P. digitatum, G. candidum, A. clavatus, A. niger and F. moniliforme by 65%, 88.44%, 84%, 34% and 92% respectively. The highest inhibition of P. expansum was 45% with MBLM supplemented with 0.5% aspartic acid. Similar results were obtained in vivo assays. These results showed that Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites specificity against fungi depended on the composition of the LM.

  7. Preliminary Study and Improve the Production of Metabolites with Antifungal Activity by A Bacillus Sp Strain IBA 33

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonieta Gordillo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites, isolated from decaying lemon fruits, were evaluated for the control of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi (Penicillium digitatum, Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, and Fusarium moniliforme. These metabolites were recovered from Landy medium (LM without aminoacids. In order to optimize metabolites production the LM was modified by adding different concentrations and sources of amino acids and carbohydrates at different culture conditions.Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites efficacy to control fungi were evaluated with in vitro and in vivo assays. A. flavus growth inhibition was 52% with the metabolites of Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 recovered from LM (MBLM in vitro assays. MBLM supplemented with 0.5% glutamic acid, inhibited the growth of P. digitatum, G. candidum, A. clavatus, A. niger and F. moniliforme by 65%, 88.44%, 84%, 34% and 92% respectively. The highest inhibition of P. expansum was 45% with MBLM supplemented with 0.5% aspartic acid. Similar results were obtained in vivo assays. These results showed that Bacillus sp strain IBA 33 metabolites specificity against fungi depended on the composition of the LM.

  8. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta, Glen; Espinoza, Ana M

    2006-03-01

    Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65% of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita), and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa). In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero) Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Carara) it was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%), oval (20%), bipyramidal (3%), bipyramidal and cubic (1%), bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5%) and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%). Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Rio Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed delta-endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with cry3

  9. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS TEQUILENSIS STRAINS CSGAB0139 ISOLATED FROM SPOILT COTTAGE CHEESE

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna.K; Jill Shah; Radhika Birmole

    2014-01-01

    An alkaline protease producing strain was isolated from spoilt cottage cheese sample which was identified as Bacillus tequilensis strain SCSGAB0139 on the basis of morphological, cultural, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Primary screening for protease production was carried out by observing for zone of hydrolysis on skim milk agar, GYEA milk agar and gelatin agar plates. Physicochemical parameters like pH of the medium, incubation time and temperature, aeration and...

  10. A novel small antifungal peptide from Bacillus strain B-TL2 isolated from tobacco stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Beibei; Xie, Chengjian; Yang, Xingyong

    2008-03-01

    A novel small antifungal peptide produced by a Bacillus strain B-TL2 isolated from tobacco stems was purified. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose Fast Flow column and reverse-phase HPLC on SOURCE 5RPC column. After the final isolation step, one peptide with antifungal activity, designated as BTL, was obtained. The molecular mass of the purified BTL was determined as 2500 Da and 2237.7 Da by SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, respectively. The N-amino acid sequence of BTL was determined to be NH(2)-KQQLATEAESAGPIL, which shows relatively low identity to other antimicrobial peptides from bacteria. The peptide exhibited strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Bipolaris maydis, Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger, Cercospora personata. The purified BTL displayed thermostability, almost retaining 100% activity at 100 degrees C for 15 min. PMID:18241956

  11. Bioemulsifier production by a halothermophilic Bacillus strain with potential applications in microbially enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgheib, S M M; Amoozegar, M A; Elahi, E; Asad, S; Banat, I M

    2008-02-01

    A halothermotolerant Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium was isolated from petroleum reservoirs in Iran and identified as Bacillus licheniformis sp. strain ACO1 by phenotypic characterization and 16S rRNA analysis. It showed a high capacity for bioemulsifier production and grew up to 60 degrees C with NaCl at 180 g l(-1). The optimum NaCl concentration, pH and temperature for bioemulsifier production were 4% (w/v), 8.0, and 45 degrees C, respectively. Although ACO1 did not utilize hydrocarbons, it had a high emulsifying activity (E (24) = 65 +/- 5%) on different hydrophobic substrates. Emulsification was optimal while growing on yeast extract as the sole carbon source and NaNO(3) as the nitrogen source. The efficiency of the residual oil recovery increased by 22% after in situ growth of B. licheniformis ACO1 in a sand-pack model saturated with liquid paraffin. PMID:17876532

  12. Toxicity of radiation-resistant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berl.) to larval Plutella xylostella (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 24 isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), resistant to a γ-radiation dose of 100 krad, were screened for their toxicity to larval silkworms, Bombyxmori(L.), and 15 of them were subsequently tested for their toxicity to larval diamond-back moth, Plutella xylostella(L.). The LC50's of these isolates to B. mori ranged from 1.6 X 105 to 6.0 X 103 spores/mL or from 5.9 to 0.3 μg cellular protein/mL. The irradiation treatment produced isolates which were significantly more toxic to P. xylostella (LC50 4 spores/mL or 3.7 μg cellular protein/mL) and/ or less toxic to B. mori (LC50 > 2.3 X 104 spores/mL or 1.0 μg cellular protein/mL) than the parent commercial strain

  13. Biochemical characterisation of lipase from a new strain of Bacillus sp. ITP-001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Murillo P. Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are characterised mainly by catalytic versatility and application in different industrial segments. The aim of this study was to biochemically characterise a lipase from a new strain of Bacillus sp. ITP-001. The isoelectric point and molecular mass were 3.12 and 54 kDa, respectively. The optima lipase activity was 276 U g-1 at pH 7.0 and a temperature of 80 ºC, showing greater stability at pH 5.0 and 37 ºC. Enzymatic activity was stimulated by various ions and pyridine, and inhibited by Cu+ and ethanol. The values of Km and v max were 105.26 mmol and 0.116 mmol min-1 g-1, respectively determined by the Eadie-Scatchard method.

  14. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  15. Lipopeptides from Bacillus strain AR2 inhibits biofilm formation by Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautela, Ria; Singh, Anil Kumar; Shukla, Abha; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-05-01

    The ability of the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to reversibly switch between different morphological forms and establish biofilms is crucial for establishing infection. Targeting phenotypic plasticity and biofilm formation in C. albicans represents a new concept for antifungal drug discovery. The present study evaluated the influence of cyclic lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain AR2 on C. albicans biofilms. The biosurfactant was characterized as a mixture of iturin and fengycin by MALDI-TOF and amino acid analysis. The biosurfactant exhibited concentration dependent growth inhibition and fungicidal activity. The biosurfactant at sub-minimum growth inhibition concentration decreased cell surface hydrophobicity, hindered germ tube formation and reduced the mRNA expression of hyphae-specific gene HWP1 and ALS3 without exhibiting significant growth inhibition. The biosurfactants inhibited biofilm formation in the range of 46-100 % depending upon the concentration and Candida strains. The biosurfactant treatment dislodged 25-100 % of preformed biofilm from polystyrene plates. The biosurfactant retained its antifungal and antibiofilm activity even after exposure to extreme temperature. By virtue of the ability to inhibit germ tube and biofilm formation, two important traits of C. albicans involved in establishing infection, lipopeptides from strain AR2 may represent a potential candidate for developing heat stable anti-Candida drugs. PMID:24623107

  16. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Jiang

    Full Text Available An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH, condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  17. Lactic Acid Production from Pretreated Hydrolysates of Corn Stover by a Newly Developed Bacillus coagulans Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Qiao, Hui; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Chu, Qiulu; Li, Xin; Yong, Qiang; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-01-01

    An inhibitor-tolerance strain, Bacillus coagulans GKN316, was developed through atmospheric and room temperature plasma (ARTP) mutation and evolution experiment in condensed dilute-acid hydrolysate (CDH) of corn stover. The fermentabilities of other hydrolysates with B. coagulans GKN316 and the parental strain B. coagulans NL01 were assessed. When using condensed acid-catalyzed steam-exploded hydrolysate (CASEH), condensed acid-catalyzed liquid hot water hydrolysate (CALH) and condensed acid-catalyzed sulfite hydrolysate (CASH) as substrates, the concentration of lactic acid reached 45.39, 16.83, and 18.71 g/L by B. coagulans GKN316, respectively. But for B. coagulans NL01, only CASEH could be directly fermented to produce 15.47 g/L lactic acid. The individual inhibitory effect of furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBal) on xylose utilization by B. coagulans GKN316 was also studied. The strain B. coagulans GKN316 could effectively convert these toxic inhibitors to the less toxic corresponding alcohols in situ. These results suggested that B. coagulans GKN316 was well suited to production of lactic acid from undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:26863012

  18. Evaluation of genetic and phenotypic consistency of Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856: a commercial probiotic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Muhammed; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam; Natarajan, Sankaran; Sivakumar, Arumugam; Eshuis-de Ruiter, Talitha; Booij-Veurink, Janine; de Vries, Ynte P; Ali, Furqan

    2016-04-01

    Commercial probiotics preparation containing Bacillus coagulans have been sold in the market for several decades. Due to its high intra-species genomic diversity, it is very likely that B. coagulans strain may alter in different ways over multiple years of production. Therefore, the present study focuses to evaluate the genetic consistency and probiotic potential of B. coagulans MTCC 5856. Phenotypic and genotypic techniques including biochemical profiling, 16S rRNA sequencing, GTG 5″, BOX PCR fingerprinting, and Multi-Locus-Sequence typing (MLST) were carried out to evaluate the identity and consistency of the B. coagulans MTCC 5856. Further, in vitro probiotic potential, safety and stability at ambient temperature conditions of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 were evaluated. All the samples were identified as B. coagulans by biochemical profiling and 16S rRNA sequencing. GTG 5″, BOX PCR fingerprints and MLST studies revealed that the same strain was present over 3 years of commercial production. B. coagulans MTCC 5856 showed resistance to gastric acid, bile salt and exhibited antimicrobial activity in in-vitro studies. Additionally, B. coagulans MTCC 5856 was found to be non-mutagenic, non-cytotoxic, negative for enterotoxin genes and stable at ambient temperature (25 ± 2 °C) for 36 months. The data of the study verified that the same strain of B. coagulans MTCC 5856 was present in commercial preparation over multiple years of production. PMID:26925622

  19. Cloning, purification and characterization of a thermostable β-galactosidase from Bacillus licheniformis strain KG9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matpan Bekler, F; Stougaard, P; Güven, K; Gül Güven, R; Acer, Ö

    2015-01-01

    A thermo— and alkalitolerant Bacillus licheniformis KG9 isolated from Taşlıdere hot water spring in Batman/Turkey was found to produce a thermostable β—galactosidase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 16S rRNA gene from B. licheniformis strain KG9 was 99.9% identical to that of the genome sequenced B. licheniformis strain DSM 13. Analysis of the B. licheniformis DSM 13 genomic sequence revealed four putative β—galactosidase genes. PCR primers based on the genome sequence of strain DSM 13 were used to isolate the corresponding β—galactosidase genes from B. licheniformis strain KG9. The calculated molecular weights of the β—galactosidases I, II, III, and IV using sequencing data were 30, 79, 74, and 79 kDa, respectively. The genes were inserted into an expression vector and recombinant β—galactosidase was produced in Escherichia coli. Of the four β—galactosidase genes identified in strain KG9, three of them were expressed as active, intracellular enzymes in E. coli. One of the recombinant enzymes, β—galactosidase III, was purified and characterized. Optimal temperature and pH was determined to be at 60 ºC and pH 6.0, respectively. Km was determined to be 1.3 mM and 13.3 mM with oNPG (ortho—nitrophenyl—β—D—galactopyranoside) and lactose as substrates, respectively, and Vmax was measured to 1.96 μmol/min and 1.55 μmol/min with oNPG and lactose, respectively. PMID:26115614

  20. Isolation and characterization of a furfural-degrading bacterium Bacillus cereus sp. strain DS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Bao, Jianguo; Lu, Jueming; Gao, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    Furfural was found to be the main organic pollutant in the wastewater coming from the Diosgenin factory. This substance is derived from acidic pentosan in Dioscorea zingiberensis and is also found in a variety of agricultural byproducts, including corncobs, oat, wheat bran, and sawdust. It is regarded as a toxicant and an inhibitor to the growth of microorganism in both sewage disposal and biological fermentation. A furfural-degrading strain (DS1) was isolated from activated sludge of wastewater treatment plant in a diosgenin factory by continuous enrichment culture. The strain was identified as Bacillus cereus based on morphological, physiological tests, as well as on 16S rDNA sequence and Biolog analyses. The capacity of this strain to grow on a mineral salt medium, utilizing furfural as the sole carbon and energy source to degrade furfural, was investigated in this study. Under the condition of pH 9.0, temperature 35 °C, with rotating speed of 150 rpm, and an inoculum of 6 %, the strain showed that the furfural degradation capacity reaches 35 % in 7 days, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The addition of inorganic carbon sources could bring down the biodegradation efficiency of the furfural. The strain DS1 showed better furfural removal capacity, as compared to other inorganic carbon sources in the media. Furthermore, a furfural concentration of as high as 4,000 mg L(-1) was tolerated by the culture. The capacity to degrade furfural was demonstrated for the first time by using the genus B. cereus. This study suggests the possible application in biodegradation strategies. PMID:25274411

  1. Deciphering the conserved genetic loci implicated in plant disease control through comparative genomics of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J Hossain

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To understand the growth-promoting and disease-inhibiting activities of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR strains, the genomes of 12 Bacillus subtilis group strains with PGPR activity were sequenced and analyzed. These B. subtilis strains exhibited high genomic diversity, whereas the genomes of B. amyloliquefaciens strains (a member of the B. subtilis group are highly conserved. A pairwise BLASTp matrix revealed that gene family similarity among Bacillus genomes ranges from 32- 90%, with 2,839 genes within the core genome of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. Comparative genomic analyses of B. amyloliquefaciens strains identified genes that are linked with biological control and colonization of roots and/or leaves, including 73 genes uniquely associated with subsp. plantarum strains that have predicted functions related to signaling, transportation, secondary metabolite production, and carbon source utilization. Although B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains contain gene clusters that encode many different secondary metabolites, only polyketide biosynthetic clusters that encode difficidin and macrolactin are conserved within this subspecies. To evaluate their role in plant pathogen biocontrol, genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis were deleted in B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain, revealing that difficidin expression is critical in reducing the severity of disease, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in tomato plants. This study defines genomic features of PGPR strains and links them with biocontrol activity and with host colonization.

  2. Calcium Carbonate Precipitation by Bacillus and Sporosarcina Strains Isolated from Concrete and Analysis of the Bacterial Community of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Eom, Hyo Jung; Park, Chulwoo; Jung, Jaejoon; Shin, Bora; Kim, Wook; Chung, Namhyun; Choi, In-Geol; Park, Woojun

    2016-03-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation (CCP) is a long-standing but re-emerging environmental engineering process for production of self-healing concrete, bioremediation, and long-term storage of CO2. CCP-capable bacteria, two Bacillus strains (JH3 and JH7) and one Sporosarcina strain (HYO08), were isolated from two samples of concrete and characterized phylogenetically. Calcium carbonate crystals precipitated by the three strains were morphologically distinct according to field emission scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry mapping confirmed biomineralization via extracellular calcium carbonate production. The three strains differed in their physiological characteristics: growth at alkali pH and high NaCl concentrations, and urease activity. Sporosarcina sp. HYO08 and Bacillus sp. JH7 were more alkali- and halotolerant, respectively. Analysis of the community from the same concrete samples using barcoded pyrosequencing revealed that the relative abundance of Bacillus and Sporosarcina species was low, which indicated low culturability of other dominant bacteria. This study suggests that calcium carbonate crystals with different properties can be produced by various CCP-capable strains, and other novel isolates await discovery. PMID:26699752

  3. Secreted Compounds of the Probiotic Bacillus clausii Strain O/C Inhibit the Cytotoxic Effects Induced by Clostridium difficile and Bacillus cereus Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripert, Gabrielle; Racedo, Silvia M; Elie, Anne-Marie; Jacquot, Claudine; Bressollier, Philippe; Urdaci, Maria C

    2016-06-01

    Although the use of probiotics based on Bacillus strains to fight off intestinal pathogens and antibiotic-associated diarrhea is widespread, the mechanisms involved in producing their beneficial effects remain unclear. Here, we studied the ability of compounds secreted by the probiotic Bacillus clausii strain O/C to counteract the cytotoxic effects induced by toxins of two pathogens, Clostridium difficile and Bacillus cereus, by evaluating eukaryotic cell viability and expression of selected genes. Coincubation of C. difficile and B. cereus toxic culture supernatants with the B. clausii supernatant completely prevented the damage induced by toxins in Vero and Caco-2 cells. The hemolytic effect of B. cereus was also avoided by the probiotic supernatant. Moreover, in these cells, the expression of rhoB, encoding a Rho GTPase target for C. difficile toxins, was normalized when C. difficile supernatant was pretreated using the B. clausii supernatant. All of the beneficial effects observed with the probiotic were abolished by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Suspecting the involvement of a secreted protease in this protective effect, a protease was purified from the B. clausii supernatant and identified as a serine protease (M-protease; GenBank accession number Q99405). Experiments on Vero cells demonstrated the antitoxic activity of the purified protease against pathogen supernatants. This is the first report showing the capacity of a protease secreted by probiotic bacteria to inhibit the cytotoxic effects of toxinogenic C. difficile and B. cereus strains. This extracellular compound could be responsible, at least in part, for the protective effects observed for this human probiotic in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. PMID:27001810

  4. Algicidal metabolites produced by Bacillus sp. strain B1 against Phaeocystis globosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Chen, Lina; Yin, Pinghe

    2014-03-01

    The bloom of Phaeocystis globosa has broken out frequently in the coastal areas of China in recent years, which has led to substantial economic losses. This study shows that Bacillus sp. strain B1, which was previously identified by our group, is effective in regulating P. globosa by excreting active metabolites. Heat stability, pH stability and molecular weight range of the algicidal compounds from strain B1 were measured and the results demonstrated that the algicidal activities of these compounds were not affected by pH or temperature variation. The algicidal compounds extracted with methanol were isolated and purified by ODS-A column chromatography and HPLC. The algicidal compounds corresponding to peaks 2-5 eluted from HPLC were further analysed by quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). PeakView™ Software determined the compounds corresponding to peaks 2-5 to be L-histidine, o-tyrosine, N-acetylhistamine and urocanic acid on the basis of the accurate mass information, the isotopic pattern and MS-MS spectra. Furthermore, these compounds were also able to eliminate Skeletonema costatum, Prorocentrum donghaiense and Heterosigma akashiwo. This is the first report of bacteria-derived algicidal compounds being identified only by Q-TOF-MS and PeakView™ Software, and these compounds may be used as the constituents of algicides in the future. PMID:24370882

  5. Antagonistic action of Bacillus subtilis strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueju Zhao

    Full Text Available Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight (FHB, a devastating disease that leads to extensive yield and quality loss of wheat and barley. Bacteria isolated from wheat kernels and plant anthers were screened for antagonistic activity against F. graminearum. Based on its in vitro effectiveness, strain SG6 was selected for characterization and identified as Bacillus subtilis. B. subtilis SG6 exhibited a high antifungal effect on the mycelium growth, sporulation and DON production of F. graminearum with the inhibition rate of 87.9%, 95.6% and 100%, respectively. In order to gain insight into biological control effect in situ, we applied B. subtilis SG6 at anthesis through the soft dough stage of kernel development in field test. It was revealed that B. subtilis SG6 significantly reduced disease incidence (DI, FHB index and DON (P ≤ 0.05. Further, ultrastructural examination shows that B. subtilis SG6 strain induced stripping of F. graminearum hyphal surface by destroying the cellular structure. When hypha cell wall was damaged, the organelles and cytoplasm inside cell would exude, leading to cell death. The antifungal activity of SG6 could be associated with the coproduction of chitinase, fengycins and surfactins.

  6. Proteomic Analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain 4.0718 at Different Growth Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth process of Bacillus thuringiensis Bt4.0718 strain was studied using proteomic technologies. The proteins of Bt whole cells at three phases—middle vegetative, early sporulation, and late sporulation—were extracted with lysis buffer, followed with separation by 2-DE and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Bioactive factors such as insecticidal crystal proteins (ICPs including Cry1Ac(3, Cry2Aa, and BTRX28, immune inhibitor (InhA, and InhA precursor were identified. InhA started to express at the middle vegetative phase, suggesting its contribution to the survival of Bt in the host body. At the early sporulation phase, ICPs started their expression. CotJC, OppA, ORF1, and SpoIVA related to the formation of crystals and spores were identified, the expression characteristics of which ensured the stable formation of crystals and spores. This study provides an important foundation for further exploration of the stable expression of ICPs, the smooth formation of crystals, and the construction of recombinant strains.

  7. Characterization of a new bacillus stearothermophilus isolate: a highly thermostable [alpha]-amylase-producing strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wind, R.D. (Agrotechnological Research Inst., Wageningen (Netherlands)); Buitelaar, R.M. (Agrotechnological Research Inst., Wageningen (Netherlands)); Eggink, G. (Agrotechnological Research Inst., Wageningen (Netherlands)); Huizing, H.J. (Agrotechnological Research Inst., Wageningen (Netherlands)); Dijkhuizen, L. (Dept. of Microbiology, Groningen Univ. (Netherlands))

    1994-04-01

    A novel strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from samples of a potato-processing industry. Comapred to known [alpha]-amylases from other B. stearothermophilus strains, the isolate was found to produce a highly thermostable [alpha]-amylase. The half-time of inactivation of this [alpha]-amylase was 5.1 h at 80 C and 2.4 h at 90 C. The temperature optimum for activity of the [alpha]-amylase was 70 C; the pH optimum for activity was relatively low, in the range 5.5-6.0 [alpha]-Amylase synthesis was regulated by induction and repression mechanisms. An inverse relationship was found between growth rate and [alpha]-amylase production. Low starch concentrations and low growth temperatures were favourable for enzyme production by the organism. At the optimal temperature for growth, 65 C, the [alpha]-amylase was a growth-associated enzyme. The optimal temperature for [alpha]-amylase production, however, was 40 C, with [alpha]-amylase increasing from 3.9 units (U)/ml to 143 U/ml when lowering the growth temperature from 65 C to 40 C. Maximal [alpha]-amylase production in a batch fermentor run at 65 C was 102 U/ml, which was 26-fold higher than in erlenmeyer flasks at 65 C. The dissolved O[sub 2] concentration was found to be a critical factor in production of the [alpha]-amylase. (orig.)

  8. Comparative transcriptional profiling of Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains during growth in CO2-bicarbonate and aerobic atmospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla D Passalacqua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacillus species are spore-forming bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and display a range of virulent and avirulent phenotypes. This range is particularly evident in the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group; where closely related strains cause anthrax, food-borne illnesses, and pneumonia, but can also be non-pathogenic. Although much of this phenotypic range can be attributed to the presence or absence of a few key virulence factors, there are other virulence-associated loci that are conserved throughout the B. cereus group, and we hypothesized that these genes may be regulated differently in pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report transcriptional profiles of three closely related but phenotypically unique members of the Bacillus cereus group--a pneumonia-causing B. cereus strain (G9241, an attenuated strain of B. anthracis (Sterne 34F(2, and an avirulent B. cereus strain (10987--during exponential growth in two distinct atmospheric environments: 14% CO(2/bicarbonate and ambient air. We show that the disease-causing Bacillus strains undergo more distinctive transcriptional changes between the two environments, and that the expression of plasmid-encoded virulence genes was increased exclusively in the CO(2 environment. We observed a core of conserved metabolic genes that were differentially expressed in all three strains in both conditions. Additionally, the expression profiles of putative virulence genes in G9241 suggest that this strain, unlike Bacillus anthracis, may regulate gene expression with both PlcR and AtxA transcriptional regulators, each acting in a different environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that homologous and even identical genes within the genomes of three closely related members of the B. cereus sensu lato group are in some instances regulated very differently, and that these differences can have important implications for virulence. This study

  9. Anti-biofilm activity of an exopolysaccharide from a sponge-associated strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordone Angela

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondary metabolites ranging from furanone to exo-polysaccharides have been suggested to have anti-biofilm activity in various recent studies. Among these, Escherichia coli group II capsular polysaccharides were shown to inhibit biofilm formation of a wide range of organisms and more recently marine Vibrio sp. were found to secrete complex exopolysaccharides having the potential for broad-spectrum biofilm inhibition and disruption. Results In this study we report that a newly identified ca. 1800 kDa polysaccharide having simple monomeric units of α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→2-glycerol-phosphate exerts an anti-biofilm activity against a number of both pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains without bactericidal effects. This polysaccharide was extracted from a Bacillus licheniformis strain associated with the marine organism Spongia officinalis. The mechanism of action of this compound is most likely independent from quorum sensing, as its structure is unrelated to any of the so far known quorum sensing molecules. In our experiments we also found that treatment of abiotic surfaces with our polysaccharide reduced the initial adhesion and biofilm development of strains such as Escherichia coli PHL628 and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Conclusion The polysaccharide isolated from sponge-associated B. licheniformis has several features that provide a tool for better exploration of novel anti-biofilm compounds. Inhibiting biofilm formation of a wide range of bacteria without affecting their growth appears to represent a special feature of the polysaccharide described in this report. Further research on such surface-active compounds might help developing new classes of anti-biofilm molecules with broad spectrum activity and more in general will allow exploring of new functions for bacterial polysaccharides in the environment.

  10. Anthrax Vaccine Antigen-Adjuvant Formulations Completely Protect New Zealand White Rabbits against Challenge with Bacillus anthracis Ames Strain Spores

    OpenAIRE

    Peachman, Kristina K.; Li, Qin; Matyas, Gary R.; Shivachandra, Sathish B.; Lovchik, Julie; Lyons, Rick C.; Alving, Carl R; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rao, Mangala

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to develop an improved anthrax vaccine that shows high potency, five different anthrax protective antigen (PA)-adjuvant vaccine formulations that were previously found to be efficacious in a nonhuman primate model were evaluated for their efficacy in a rabbit pulmonary challenge model using Bacillus anthracis Ames strain spores. The vaccine formulations include PA adsorbed to Alhydrogel, PA encapsulated in liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A, stable liposomal PA oil-in-wa...

  11. Biosorption Potential of Bacillus salmalaya Strain 139SI for Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Arezoo Dadrasnia; Kelvin Swee Chuan Wei; Nasser Shahsavari; Mohd Sofian Azirun; Salmah Ismail

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the biosorption capacity of live and dead cells of a novel Bacillus strain for chromium. The optimum biosorption condition was evaluated in various analytical parameters, including initial concentration of chromium, pH, and contact time. The Langmuir isotherm model showed an enhanced fit to the equilibrium data. Live and dead biomasses followed the monolayer biosorption of the active surface sites. The maximum biosorption capacity was 20.35 mg/g at 25 °C, with p...

  12. Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; L. R. Rodrigues; J.A. Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactant-producing Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples enhance oil recovery at lab scale Eduardo J Gudiña, Lígia R. Rodrigues, José A. Teixeira IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using micro...

  13. Biodegradation of real petroleum wastewater by immobilized hyper phenol-tolerant strains of Bacillus cereus in a fluidized bed bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Aditi; Ghoshal, Aloke K.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial bioremediation of petroleum wastewater by phenol-degrading-bacteria holds promise in circumventing the issue of petroleum-spill related pollution. Herein, biodegradation of petroleum wastewater samples collected from oil refinery site was carried out in a fluidized bed bioreactor by Ca-alginate immobilized biomass of phenol-degrading strains of Bacillus cereus (AKG1 MTCC9817 and AKG2 MTCC9818). Degradation performance of the system was evaluated by measuring the changes in chemical ...

  14. Engineering of a Bacillus subtilis Strain with Adjustable Levels of Intracellular Biotin for Secretory Production of Functional Streptavidin

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Sau-Ching; Wong, Sui-Lam

    2002-01-01

    Streptavidin is a biotin-binding protein which has been widely used in many in vitro and in vivo applications. Because of the ease of protein recovery and availability of protease-deficient strains, the Bacillus subtilis expression-secretion system is an attractive system for streptavidin production. However, attempts to produce streptavidin using B. subtilis face the problem that cells overproducing large amounts of streptavidin suffer poor growth, presumably because of biotin deficiency. Th...

  15. An in-depth characterization of the entomopathogenic strain Bacillus pumilus 15.1 reveals that it produces inclusion bodies similar to the parasporal crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Diana C; Molina, C Alfonso; Osuna, Antonio; Vílchez, Susana

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, the local isolate Bacillus pumilus 15.1 has been morphologically and biochemically characterized in order to gain a better understanding of this novel entomopathogenic strain active against Ceratitis capitata. This strain could represent an interesting biothechnological tool for the control of this pest. Here, we report on its nutrient preferences, extracellular enzyme production, motility mechanism, biofilm production, antibiotic suceptibility, natural resistance to chemical and physical insults, and morphology of the vegetative cells and spores. The pathogen was found to be β-hemolytic and susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and streptomycin. We also report a series of biocide, thermal, and UV treatments that reduce the viability of B. pumilus 15.1 by several orders of magnitude. Heat and chemical treatments kill at least 99.9 % of vegetative cells, but spores were much more resistant. Bleach was the only chemical that was able to completely eliminate B. pumilus 15.1 spores. Compared to the B. subtilis 168 spores, B. pumilus 15.1 spores were between 2.67 and 350 times more resistant to UV radiation while the vegetative cells of B. pumilus 15.1 were almost up to 3 orders of magnitude more resistant than the model strain. We performed electron microscopy for morphological characterization, and we observed geometric structures resembling the parasporal crystal inclusions synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis. Some of the results obtained here such as the parasporal inclusion bodies produced by B. pumilus 15.1 could potentially represent virulence factors of this novel and potentially interesting strain. PMID:26782747

  16. Use of metabolic and molecular methods for the identification of a Bacillus strain isolated from paper affected by foxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paolis, Maria Rita; Lippi, Daniela

    2008-01-01

    Foxing of paper is a deterioration phenomenon occurring in the form of brown-yellowish spots, the abiotic and/or biotic causes of which are not yet completely understood. Nevertheless, microbiological infection has been recognized that may contribute to paper damage and therefore it becomes important to know the taxonomic position and the degradative activity of the potential infectious biological agents which mostly are fungi, but also bacteria and yeasts. A cellulolytic bacterial strain isolated from a foxed paper sample exhibited morphological and physiological characteristics of the Bacillus genus. To study its taxonomic position, different identification methods were used: the Biolog system, the direct amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction analysis (DAPD-PCR) and the partial sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. Biolog system and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene assigned the strain to the Paenibacillus polymyxa species. DAPD-PCR analysis indicated a high similarity with Bacillus circulans, by comparing the isolated strain with some closely related Bacillus species. PMID:17686620

  17. Identification of two new keratinolytic proteases from a Bacillus pumilus strain using protein analysis and gene sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellahi, Soltana; Chibani, Abdelwaheb; Feuk-Lagerstedt, Elisabeth; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2016-12-01

    The Bacillus strain (CCUG 66887) has a high capacity to excrete keratinase with the ability to degrade both alpha- and beta keratin. In this study we aimed to show the characteristics of the keratinolytic protease and to identify its gene by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry methods (nanoHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) followed by Mascot data base search. The results showed that the enzyme in fact consists of two different keratinases, both with a molecular mass of 38 kDa. Further, DNA sequencing generated the open reading frame (ORF) of one of the genes (Ker1), and de novo genome sequencing identified the ORF of the second gene (Ker2). The two keratinase genes contain 1153 base pairs each and have a gene similarity of 67 %. In addition, the Bacillus strain was classified as Bacillus pumilus and its genes were annotated in the GeneBank at NCBI (accession: CP011109.1). Amino acid sequences alignment with known B. pumilus proteases indicated that the two keratinases of B. pumilus strain C4 are subtilisin-like serine proteases belonging to the Protease S8 family. Taken together, these result suggest the two keratinases as promising candidates for enzymatic processing of keratinous wastes in waste refinery. PMID:27363997

  18. Identification of the immunogenic spore and vegetative proteins of Bacillus anthracis vaccine strain A16R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankai Liu

    Full Text Available Immunoproteomics was used to screen the immunogenic spore and vegetative proteins of Bacillus anthracis vaccine strain A16R. The spore and vegetative proteins were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and transferred to polyvinylidene difluoride membranes, and then western blotting was performed with rabbit immune serum against B.anthracis live spores. Immunogenic spots were cut and digested by trypsin. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was performed to identify the proteins. As a result, 11 and 45 immunogenic proteins were identified in the spores and vegetative cells, respectively; 26 of which have not been reported previously. To verify their immunogenicity, 12 of the identified proteins were selected to be expressed, and the immune sera from the mice vaccinated by the 12 expressed proteins, except BA0887, had a specific western blot band with the A16R whole cellular lytic proteins. Some of these immunogenic proteins might be used as novel vaccine candidates themselves or for enhancing the protective efficacy of a protective-antigen-based vaccine.

  19. Purification and characterization of alkaline protease produced by a mutant strain of bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study describes the production, purification and characterization of alkaline protease from mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis EMS-8. The enzyme was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation which gave 2.64 fold purification with 81.5% yield at 70% saturation. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined using SDS-PAGE and it was found to be 25 KDa. The optimum pH of enzyme activity was 8.5; however the enzyme remained stable up to pH 10 after 24 hrs of incubation. Similarly, the optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 40 degree C, whereas it remained stable up to 90 degree C with greatly reduced activity. Alkaline protease showed highest specificity towards casein. Among different inhibitors, Phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) completely inhibited the enzyme activity indicating the serine nature of protease. Similarly, the protease activity was greatly reduced in the presence of MnCl/sub 2/, whereas MgCl/sub 2/ enhanced its activity. The shelf life of the protease was also determined and it was found that the activity of the enzyme came to an end after second week, when the enzyme was stored at room temperature. (author)

  20. Production of Bio polymer (PHB) from Whey by Local Strain of Bacillus cereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local strain Bacillus cereus S3, which isolated from the soil attached to the rice root, was employed for PHB production from whey and soya extract as the main carbon and nitrogen sources. Some supplements such as (0.5 g) tryptone and (0.5 g) NaCl were added to 75 ml whey and 25 ml soya extract to optimize the PHB accumulation medium. Different parameters including; initial ph of the medium, working volume, NaCl concentration and inoculum age and size; were carried out under shaking flask conditions (150 rpm) at 30 degree C for 48 h of incubation to enhance the PHB accumulation. The maximum PHB accumulation (2.42 gl-1) was achieved at ph 6, 100 ml working volume, (0.5-2%) NaCl, at 60 h and 4 ml inoculum age and size, respectively. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on the activity of B. cereus S3 towards PHB accumulation. At dose level 1.5 kGy the maximum PHB accumulation obtained was 3.2 gl-1

  1. Purification and characterization of keratinase from a new Bacillus subtilis strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-gang CAI; Ji-shuang CHEN; Jiong-jiong QI; Yun YIN; Xiao-dong ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to purify and characterize a keratinase produced by a new isolated Bacillus subtilis KD-N2strain. The keratinase produced by the isolate was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation, Sephadex G-75 and DEAE (diethylaminoethyl)-Sepharose chromatographic techniques. The purified enzyme was shown to have a molecular mass of 30.5kDa, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. The optimum pH at 50℃ was 8.5 and the optimum temperature at pH 8.5 was 55℃. The keratinase was partially inactivated by some metal ions, organic solvents and serine protease inhibitor phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) had positive effect on the keratinase activity. Reducing agents including dithiothreitol (DTT),mercaptoethanol, L-cysteine, sodium sulphite, as well as chemicals of SDS, ammonium sulfamate and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)stimulated the enzyme activity upon a feather meal substrate. Besides feather keratin, the enzyme is active upon the soluble proteins ovalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), casein and insoluble ones as sheep wool and human hair. Calf hair, silk and collagen could not be hydrolyzed by the keratinase.

  2. [Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis ge25 strain and preliminary study on its antagonistic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chen-Yun; Li, Yong; Liu, Min; Ding, Wan-Long; Qin, Min-Jian

    2014-07-01

    Panax ginseng is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbal medicine, soil borne diseases influenced the yield and quality severely. In our previous work, endophytic Bacillus subtilis ge25 strain was isolated from ginseng root, and which showed significant antagonistic activity against several most destructive ginseng phytopathogens. In the present work, crude protein and lipopeptid extracts were prepared from LB and Landy supernate by salting out, acid precipitation methods respectively. The antagonistic activity of crude extracts and stability to temperature and protease digestion were examined by ginseng phytopathogen Alternaria panax. Results showed that, the antagonistic activity of crude protein extracts from LB culture was complete and partially lost when treated by high temperature and proteinase K. However, crude lipopeptid from Landy culture showed significant stabile antagonistic activity to them. Acid-hydrolyzation and TLC-bioautography analysis showed, that the crude lipopeptide contained at least one cyclic lipopeptide. In consideration of the stability and perfect antagonistic activity of ge25, further researches will promote the biocontrol of ginseng diseases in the field. PMID:25272485

  3. Purification and characterization of a novel antifungal protein from Bacillus subtilis strain B29"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Qian YANG; Li-hua ZHAO; Shu-mei ZHANG; Yu-xia WANG; Xiao-yu ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    An antifungal protein was isolated from a culture of Bacillus subtilis strain B29. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-52 cellulose and gel filtration chromatography on Bio-Gel P-100.The protein was absorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Bio-Gel P-100. The purified antifungal fraction was designated as B29I, with a molecular mass of 42.3 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), pl value 5.69 by isoelectric focusing (IEF)-PAGE, and 97.81% purity by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). B29I exhibited in-hibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium moniliforme, and Sclerotinia scle-rotiorum. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of its antifungal activity toward Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani were 45 and 112 μmol/L, respectively. B291 also demonstrated an inhibitory effect on conidial spore germination of Fusarium oxysporum and suppression of germ-tube elongation, and induced distortion, tumescence, and rupture of a portion of the germi-nated spores.

  4. Cloning, Sequencing, and In Silico Analysis of β-Propeller Phytase Bacillus licheniformis Strain PB-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Propeller phytases (BPPhy are widely distributed in nature and play a major role in phytate-phosphorus cycling. In the present study, a BPPhy gene from Bacillus licheniformis strain was expressed in E. coli with a phytase activity of 1.15 U/mL and specific activity of 0.92 U/mg proteins. The expressed enzyme represented a full length ORF “PhyPB13” of 381 amino acid residues and differs by 3 residues from the closest similar existing BPPhy sequences. The PhyPB13 sequence was characterized in silico using various bioinformatic tools to better understand structural, functional, and evolutionary aspects of BPPhy class by multiple sequence alignment and homology search, phylogenetic tree construction, variation in biochemical features, and distribution of motifs and superfamilies. In all sequences, conserved sites were observed toward their N-terminus and C-terminus. Cysteine was not present in the sequence. Overall, three major clusters were observed in phylogenetic tree with variation in biophysical characteristics. A total of 10 motifs were reported with motif “1” observed in all 44 protein sequences and might be used for diversity and expression analysis of BPPhy enzymes. This study revealed important sequence features of BPPhy and pave a way for determining catalytic mechanism and selection of phytase with desirable characteristics.

  5. Rapid focused sequencing: a multiplexed assay for simultaneous detection and strain typing of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary S Turingan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the United States in 2001 has heightened concern about the use of pathogenic microorganisms in bioterrorism attacks. Many of the deadliest bacteria, including the Class A Select Agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis, are highly infectious via the pulmonary route when released in aerosolized form. Hence, rapid, sensitive, and reliable methods for detection of these biothreats and characterization of their potential impact on the exposed population are of critical importance to initiate and support rapid military, public health, and clinical responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have developed microfluidic multiplexed PCR and sequencing assays based on the simultaneous interrogation of three pathogens per assay and ten loci per pathogen. Microfluidic separation of amplified fluorescently labeled fragments generated characteristic electrophoretic signatures for identification of each agent. The three sets of primers allowed significant strain typing and discrimination from non-pathogenic closely-related species and environmental background strains based on amplicon sizes alone. Furthermore, sequencing of the 10 amplicons per pathogen, termed "Rapid Focused Sequencing," allowed an even greater degree of strain discrimination and, in some cases, can be used to determine virulence. Both amplification and sequencing assays were performed in microfluidic biochips developed for fast thermal cycling and requiring 7 µL per reaction. The 30-plex sequencing assay resulted in genotypic resolution of 84 representative strains belonging to each of the three biothreat species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The microfluidic multiplexed assays allowed identification and strain differentiation of the biothreat agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis and clear discrimination from closely-related species and several environmental

  6. Characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis strains and selection of an isolate active against Spodoptera frugiperda and Peridroma saucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Analía; Virla, Eduardo G; Pera, Licia M; Baigorí, Mario D

    2009-12-01

    Twelve Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains, isolated from larvae and soil samples in Argentina, were molecularly and phenotypically characterized and their insecticidal activities against Spodoptera frugiperda and Peridroma saucia were determined. One isolate--Bt RT--produced more than 93% mortality on first instar larvae of both species, which was higher than that produced by the reference strain Bt 4D1. Bt RT carried a different cry gene profile than Bt 4D1. Scanning electron microscopy showed the presence of bipyramidal and cuboidal crystals. Phenotypic characterization revealed lytic enzymes that could contribute to Bt pathogenicity. PMID:19693442

  7. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as potential protective starter cultures for the production of Bikalga, an alkaline fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaor, C.S.; Nielsen, D.S.; Sawadogo-Lingani, H.;

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To identify and screen dominant Bacillus spp. strains isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa for their antimicrobial activities in brain heart infusion (BHI) medium and in a H. sabdariffa seed-based medium. Further, to characterize the antimicrobial substances produced...... produced several lipopeptide antibiotics and showed good potential for biological control of Bikalga. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pathogenic bacteria often occur in spontaneous food fermentations. This is the first report to identify indigenous B. amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum strains as...

  8. Efficient production of 2,3-butanediol from corn stover hydrolysate by using a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiang; Li, Kun; Wang, Kai; Chen, Chao; Gao, Chao; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis strain X10 was newly isolated for 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Strain X10 could utilize glucose and xylose simultaneously without carbon catabolite repression. In addition, strain X10 possesses high tolerance to fermentation inhibitors including furfural, vanillin, formic acid, and acetic acid. In a fed-batch fermentation, 74.0g/L of 2,3-BD was obtained from corn stover hydrolysate, with a productivity of 2.1g/Lh and a yield of 94.6%. Thus, this thermophilic B. licheniformis strain is a candidate for the development of efficient industrial production of 2,3-BD from corn stover hydrolysate. PMID:25151068

  9. Growth promotion and increased potassium uptake of cotton and rape by a potassium releasing strain of Bacillus edaphicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, X.F. [Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Dept. of Microbiology, Nanjing (China)

    2005-10-01

    A potassium-releasing bacterial strain Bacillus edaphicus NBT was examined for plant-growth-promoting effects and nutrient uptake on cotton and rape in K-deficient soil in pot experiments. Inoculation with bacterial strain B. edaphicus NBT was found to increase root and shoot growth of cotton and rape. Strain NBT was able to mobilize potassium efficiently in both plants when illite was added to the soil. In cotton and rape growing in soils treated with insoluble potassium and inoculated with strain NBT, the potassium content was increased by 30 and 26%, respectively. Bacterial inoculation also resulted in higher N and P contents of above ground plant components. The bacterial isolate was also able to colonize and develop in the rhizosphere soil of cotton and rape after root inoculation. (Author)

  10. Characterisation of a radiation-resistant strain of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai with improved toxicity to larval plutella xylostella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation-resistant strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai which was previously shown to be more toxic against larval Plutell xylostella was further characterized. Some of the growth characteristics of the mutant strain were quite different from those of the parent strain. In shake flask culture, its lag period was shorter and its cell yield was lower. The growth rate, however, was the same as that of the parent. Electron microscope studies show that the insecticidal parasporal crystals from the mutant strain are significantly bigger than those produced by the parent strain. The average length and width of the crystals were 1.25 and 0.53 um respectively whereas those of the parent were 0.87 and 0.35 um, respectively. The crystals from the mutant strain were also more toxic. The LC50 was 0.30 ug crystal protein per ml as against 0.66 ug crystal protein per ml for those from the parent strain. Protein profile of the crystals obtained with SDS-PA gel electrophoresis showed that the mutant strain produced an additional polypeptide of 143 KDa polypeptide. The mutant strain also has an additional high molecular weight plasmid. The improved toxicity may have been brought about by a number of factors including an alteration in the regulatory mechanism that control the synthesis of the polypeptides that make up the crystals. (Auth.). 5 figs.; 21 refs.; 2 tabs

  11. Powder formulations of two strains of Bacillus subtilis for control of rape seed damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Farzaneh, M; Sarani, S

    2006-01-01

    Talc-based formulations of Bacillus subtilis strains B1 and B2 were tested as seed and soil treatments separately for their ability to control Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rape seed damping-off, in greenhouse and field trials. In general, the formulated bacteria was more effective to suppress the disease than the suspension of bacterial cells in carboxymethylcellulose solution (1%, w/v), in both greenhouse and field trials. The formulations of strain B1 as soil treatment and strain B2 as seed treatment in greenhouse, and the formulations of strain B2 as seed and soil treatments in field trials had the greatest effect on reducing the rape seed damping-off (66.7%, 73.3%, 41.3%, and 42.4%, respectively). The formulations of strain B1 as soil treatment and strain B2 as seed treatment were the most effective treatments to increase the root dry weights in the infected soil in greenhouse. The formulation of strain B2 as soil treatment had the greatest effect on enhancement of the fresh weight of roots and stem fresh and dry weights. The formulations of strains B1 and B2 stored at 4 degrees C exhibited better shelf life and efficacy in vitro than their counterparts stored at 25 degrees C. Long-term stability of the formulation of strain B1 was found to be better. PMID:17390784

  12. Elasticity at Large Deformations and High Strain Rates in Injection Molded Polypropylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P.T.S.; Gaymans, R.J.; Dijk, van D.J.; Huetink, J.

    2003-01-01

    The deformation behavior of isotactic polypropylene (PP) as a function of strain rate was investigated at 50°C in uniaxial tension. Injection molded dogbone specimens were tested at high strain rates, E = lo-' - 1@ s-l, and the local deformation in the neck was studied using fast tensile videometry.

  13. Characterizing CMN1308, a Novel Strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, for Potential Biological Control Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal diseases of plants continue to contribute to heavy crop losses in spite of the best control efforts of plant pathologists. Breeding for disease-resistant varieties and the application of synthetic chemical fungicides are the most widely accepted approaches in plant disease management. CMN1308 strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated from healthy Chinese chestnut fruit, which has antibiosis and induced resistance to the prevention mechanism of pathogenic bacterium after picking. In order to evaluate the antibiosis mechanism, CMN1308 was fostered with the method of confront culture. The antimicrobial components were also isolated from the culture of CMN1308, and their stability and antimicrobial activity was tested under different treatments such as temperature, pH and UV. The results showed that CMN1308 displays advantages in regard to spatial competition against the major pathogens of chestnut, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium solani, Stachybotrys chartarum, Cryphonectria parasitica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger. Among this, CMN1308 had the best antimicrobial activity against P. expansum, with the inhibition zone diameter of 27.1 mm. The antimicrobial material isolated from CMN1308 culture showed a strong inhibition to the growth of P. expansum hyphal and also had a good stability to high temperature, alkali media and UV, but was sensitive to acidic conditions. Furthermore, CMN1308 increased the peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase activity and reduced the MDA content in chestnuts after infecting by pathogenic fungi. Thus, producing antibiotic compounds and inducible resistance are the main factors that may explain the antibacterial mechanism of CMN1308 on chestnut pathogenic. The results of this study might help to optimize the practical use of CMN1308 in the biological control of chestnut rot or other fruit rot infected by pathogenic fungi.

  14. Purification and partial characterization of bacillocin 490, a novel bacteriocin produced by a thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Felice Maurilio

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applications of bacteriocins as food preservatives have been so far limited, principally because of their low antimicrobial activity in foods. Nisin is the only bacteriocin of significant use, but applications are restricted principally because of its very low activity at neutral or alkaline pH. Thus the isolation of new bacteriocins active in foods is desirable. Results We isolated a Bacillus licheniformis thermophilic strain producing a bacteriocin with some novel features, named here bacillocin 490. This bacteriocin was inactivated by pronase E and proteinase K and was active against closely related Bacillus spp. both in aerobic and in anaerobic conditions. Bactericidal activity was kept during storage at 4°C and was remarkably stable in a wide pH range. The bacteriocin was partially purified by elution after adhesion to cells of the food-isolated strain Bacillus smithii and had a rather low mass (2 KDa. Antimicrobial activity against B. smithii was observed also when this organism was grown in water buffalo milk. Conclusions Bacillocin 490 is a novel candidate as a food anti-microbial agent since it displays its activity in milk, is stable to heat treatment and during storage, is active in a wide pH range and has bactericidal activity also at high temperature. These features may allow the use of bacillocin 490 during processes performed at high temperature and as a complementary antimicrobial agent of nisin against some Bacillus spp. in non-acidic foods. The small size suggests its use on solid foods.

  15. Genome Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Strain Stendal, Isolated from an Anthrax Outbreak in Cattle in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwerpen, Markus; Elschner, Mandy; Gaede, Wolfgang; Schliephake, Annette; Grass, Gregor; Tomaso, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    In July 2012, an anthrax outbreak occurred among cattle in northern Germany resulting in ten losses. Here, we report the draft genome sequence ofBacillus anthracisstrain Stendal, isolated from one of the diseased cows. PMID:27056225

  16. Detection and expression of enterotoxin genes in endophytic strains of Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Melnick, Rachel L; Testen, Anna L.; Poleatewich, A.M.; Backman, Paul A.; Bailey, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether endophytic Bacillus cereus isolates from agronomic crops possessed genes for the nonhaemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe) and haemolysin BL (HBL) and, therefore, have the potential to cause diarrheal illness in humans.

  17. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition in Bacillus anthracis and related strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kinya; Kim, Chu-Young; Fox, David T; Koppisch, Andrew T

    2010-07-01

    Recent observations have shed light on some of the endogenous iron-acquisition mechanisms of members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group. In particular, pathogens in the B. cereus group use siderophores with both unique chemical structures and biological roles. This review will focus on recent discoveries in siderophore biosynthesis and biology in this group, which contains numerous human pathogens, most notably the causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis. PMID:20466767

  18. De-hairing protease production by an isolated Bacillus cereus strain AT under solid-state fermentation using cow dung: Biosynthesis and properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Lazarus, Sophia; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Agro-industrial residues and cow dung were used as the substrate for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus cereus strain AT. The bacterial strain Bacillus cereus strain AT produced a high level of protease using cow dung substrate (4813 ± 62 U g−1). Physiological fermentation factors such as the incubation time (72 h), the pH (9), the moisture content (120%), and the inoculum level (6%) played a vital role in the enzyme bioprocess. The enzyme production improved with the supplementa...

  19. Identification of a Marine Bacillus Strain C5 and Parathion-Methyl Degradation Characteristics of the Extracellular Esterase B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain C5 that can produce new type of marine esterase was isolated and screened from marine sludge. According to 16S rRNA sequence analysis and physiological and biochemical experiments, the strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis. A single isozyme with a molecular weight of 86 kDa was observed by SDS-PAGE and native-PAGE. On this basis, the mechanism of esterase B1 secreted by strain C5 degrading parathion-methyl was explored, and the effects of temperature and pH on the degradation rate were investigated. From the results, p-nitrophenol was one of the degradation products of B1 degrading parathion-methyl, and the best degradation effect could be achieved at the temperature of 40°C and the neutral pH value.

  20. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusrium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we report the whole genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent....

  1. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, S E; Blacutt, A A; Meinersmann, R J; Bacon, C W

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

  2. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, S. E.; Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C W

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent.

  3. PCR screening for the surfactin (sfp) gene in marine Bacillus strains and its molecular characterization from Bacillus tequilensis NIOS11

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Porob, S.; Nayak, S.; Fernandes, Areena; Padmanabhan, P.; Patil, B.A.; Meena, R.M.; Ramaiah, N.

    yield of many strains and the increased costs of substrates. Therefore, the search for new biosurfactant producers from different environmental sources with enhanced and novel properties is a continuing endeavor. Plating on blood agar, purification..., Cooper DG et al. Ionic channels induced by surfactin in planar lipid bilayer membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1064: 13–23, 1991. 13. Eshita SM, Roberto NH, Beale JM et al. Bacillomycin Lc, a new antibiotic of the iturin group: isolations, structures...

  4. Concomitant production of two proteases and alpha-amylase by a novel strain of Bacillus subtilis in a microprocessor controlled bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Mukhtar; Ikram-ul-Haq,

    2012-01-01

    We describe the simultaneous production of Bacillus subtilis based proteases and alpha amylase using a computer controlled laboratory scale 7.5 L batch bioreactor. The present strain is the first to be reported that concomitantly produces these two industrially important enzymes. The growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis was monitored and maximum production of alkaline protease and alpha amylase was found to coincide with maximum sporulation. Two types of proteases were detected in the ...

  5. Isolation of a Halophilic Bacterium, Bacillus sp. Strain NY-6 for Organic Contaminants Removal in Saline Wastewater on Ship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Gao; Zhenjiang Yu; Xiaohui Zhang; Dan Zhao; Fangbo Zhao

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine if certain strains of Bacillus bacteria,could survive in dry powder products and if so,could the bacteria degrade organic contaminants in saline wastewater on a ship.As part of the study,we isolated 7 domesticated strains named NY1,NY2,…,and NY7,the strain NY6 showed to have the best performance for organic matter degradation and could survive in dry powder more than 3 months.NY6 was identified as Bacillus aerius,based on the morphological and physic-chemical properties.Its optimal growth conditions were as follows:salinity was 2%; temperature was 37℃; pH was in 6.5-7.0; best ratio of C∶ N∶ P was 100∶5∶1.The capability of its dry powder for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal was 800mg COD/g in synthesized marine wastewater with 2% salinity.The spores in the dry powder were 1.972× 108 g1.

  6. Characterization of a bacteriocin-like substance produced from a novel isolated strain of Bacillus subtilis SLYY-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfeng; Li, Hongfang; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Duan, Xiaohui; Liu, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, the strain SLYY-3 was isolated from sediments of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China. The strain SLYY-3, which produced a bacteriocin-like substance (BLS), was characterized to be a strain of Bacillus subtillis by biochemical profiling and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. It is the first time to report that Bacillus subtilis from Jiaozhou Bay sediments could produce a BLS. The BLS of B. subtillis SLYY-3 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria (including Staphylococcus aureus and B. subtillis) and some fungi (including Penicillium glaucum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus). The antimicrobial activity was detected from culture in the exponential growth phase and reached its maximum when culture entered into stationary growth phase. It was thermo-tolerant even when being kept at 100°C for 60 min without losing any activity and stable over a wide pH range from 1.0 to 12.0 while being inactivated by proteolytic enzyme and trypsin, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the BLS. The BLS was purified by precipitation with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and gel filteration (Sephadex G-100). SDS-PAGE analysis of the extracellular peptides of SLYY-3 revealed a bacteriocin-like protein with a molecular mass of 66 kDa. Altogether, these characteristics indicate the potential of the BLS for food industry as a protection against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms.

  7. Elucidation of the mechanisms of CryIIIA overproduction in a mutagenized strain of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NB176 is a Bacillus thuringiensis mutant derived by λ-irradiation of NB125 Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis (Krieg). It exhibits two interesting phenotypes: (i) oligosporogeny and (ii) twofold to threefold overproduction of the CryIIIA protein. Southern profiles of the NB176 strain showed an additional copy(s) of the cryIIIA gene located on a 4 kb HindIII fragment, in addition to the expected cryIIIA gene on a 3 kb HindIII fragment. Each cryIIIA gene-bearing HindIII fragment was cloned from NB176. The restriction map of the 3 kb HindIII fragment was identical to that published by Donovan and coworkers. Sequencing of the 4 kb HindIII fragment showed no alterations in the promoter region of the cryIIIA gene but did show replacement of the region immediately following the cryIIIA open reading frame with a sequence encoding a transposase with 50% amino acid homology to that of Tn 1000. These findings suggest that the overproduction phenotype of NB176 results from extra copies of the cryIIIA gene produced from a transposition event(s) induced or stabilized by γ-irradiation. Integration of additional copies of the cryIIIA gene into the native 90MDa plasmid of the wild-type B. thuringiensis var. tenebrionis strain resulted in strains that made enormous crystals, many possessing greatly enhanced insecticidal activity

  8. Cellulase and xylanase productions by isolated Amazon Bacillus strains using soybean industrial residue based solid-state cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Júlio X.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, a large amount of a fibrous residue is generated as result of soybean (Glycine max protein production. This material, which is rich in hemicellulose and cellulose, can be used in solid state cultivations for the production of valuable metabolites and enzymes. In this work, we studied the bioconversion of this residue by bacteria strains isolated from water and soil collected in the Amazon region. Five strains among 87 isolated bacteria selected for their ability to produce either celullases or xylanases were cultivated on the aforementioned residue. From strain BL62, identified as Bacillus subtilis, it was obtained a preparation showing the highest specific cellulase activity, 1.08 UI/mg protein within 24 hours of growth. Concerning xylanase, the isolate BL53, also identified as Bacillus subtilis, showed the highest specific activity for this enzyme, 5.19 UI/mg protein within 72 hours of cultivation. It has also been observed the production of proteases that were associated with the loss of cellulase and xylanase activities. These results indicated that the selected microorganisms, and the cultivation process, have great biotechnological potential.

  9. Bioreactor studies on the production of bacitracin by mutant strain of bacillus licheniformis BLS-NTTG 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the production of antibiotic bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis using submerged fermentation technique in stirred fermenter. Altogether 15 samples were isolated from local habitat such as Government College Lahore. Of all the culture tested BLS 13 gave maximum titer (81 plus minus li. Micro /ml) in the fermentation broth. To develop the process for the production of antibiotic bacitracin agro industrial wastes used as a sole source of carbon in different fermentation medias (M1-M10). The culture of Bacillus licheniformis BLS 13 was improved by UV irradiation by exposing the cells of BLS-UV 16 mutated for 60 minutes gave the maximum production i.e. 129.1 plus minus 0.7 i. Micro/ml. The parental strain (i.e. BLS 13 was also improved by using chemical mutagen NTTG which enhance the antibiotic activity, and the mutated strain number i.e. BLS-NTTG 4 gave the maximum production 143.0 plus minus 1.0 i. Micro/ml. In stirred fermenter chemically mutated strain was used to check the productivity of bacitracin in stirred fermenter was increased up to 156 plus minus 1 i. micro /ml. (author)

  10. Mode of action of metabolites from Bacillus sp. strain IBA 33 on Geotrichum citri-aurantii arthroconidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, María Antonieta; Navarro, Antonio R; Maldonado, María Cristina

    2015-11-01

    Geotrichum citri-aurantii is a postharvest phytopathogenic fungus of lemons. We studied the mode of action of antifungal metabolites from Bacillus sp. strain IBA 33 on arthroconidia of G. citri-aurantii. These metabolites are lipopeptides belonging to the iturin family. Membrane permeabilization of G. citri-aurantii was analyzed and mitochondrial respiratory rate was evaluated. Disturbance of the plasma membrane promotes the leakage of many cellular components into the surrounding media, and mitochondrial membrane disorganization promotes the inhibition of the respiratory rate. Our findings provide insights into the ability of lipopeptides to suppress plant fungal pathogens and their possible agronomical applications. PMID:26394707

  11. Purification and Characterization of a Maltotetraose-Forming Alkaline (alpha)-Amylase from an Alkalophilic Bacillus Strain, GM8901

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, T U; Gu, B. G.; Jeong, J Y; Byun, S. M.; Shin, Y. C.

    1995-01-01

    An alkalophilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain GM8901, grown at pH 10.5 and 50(deg)C, produced five alkaline amylases in culture broth. At an early stage of the bacterial growth, amylase I (Amyl I) was produced initially and then, as cultivation progressed, four alkaline amylases, Amyl II, Amyl III, Amyl IV, and Amyl V, were produced from proteolytic degradation of Amyl I. A serine protease present in the culture medium was believed to be involved in Amyl I degradation. We purified Amyl I fro...

  12. A Bacillus anthracis strain deleted for six proteases serves as an effective host for production of recombinant proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerantsev, Andrei P.; Pomerantseva, Olga M.; Moayeri, Mahtab; Fattah, Rasem; Tallant, Cynthia; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a number of extracellular proteases that impact the integrity and yield of other proteins in the B. anthracis secretome. In this study we show that anthrolysin O (ALO) and the three anthrax toxin proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF), produced from the B. anthracis Ames 35 strain (pXO1+, pXO2−), are completely degraded at the onset of stationary phase due to the action of proteases. An improved Cre-loxP gene knockout system wa...

  13. Polysaccharide Lyase: Molecular Cloning, Sequencing, and Overexpression of the Xanthan Lyase Gene of Bacillus sp. Strain GL1

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Wataru; Miki, Hikaru; Tsuchiya, Noriaki; Nankai, Hirokazu; Murata, Kousaku

    2001-01-01

    When grown on xanthan as a carbon source, the bacterium Bacillus sp. strain GL1 produces extracellular xanthan lyase (75 kDa), catalyzing the first step of xanthan depolymerization (H. Nankai, W. Hashimoto, H. Miki, S. Kawai, and K. Murata, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:2520–2526, 1999). A gene for the lyase was cloned, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The gene contained an open reading frame consisting of 2,793 bp coding for a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 99,308. The poly...

  14. Application of statistical experimental design for optimisation of bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain on cheap medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Ben Khedher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to overproduce bioinsecticides production by a sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain, an optimal composition of a cheap medium was defined using a response surface methodology. In a first step, a Plackett-Burman design used to evaluate the effects of eight medium components on delta-endotoxin production showed that starch, soya bean and sodium chloride exhibited significant effects on bioinsecticides production. In a second step, these parameters were selected for further optimisation by central composite design. The obtained results revealed that the optimum culture medium for delta-endotoxin production consists of 30 g L-1 starch, 30 g L-1 soya bean and 9g L-1 sodium chloride. When compared to the basal production medium, an improvement in delta-endotoxin production up to 50% was noted. Moreover, relative toxin yield of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis S22 was improved markedly by using optimised cheap medium (148.5 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch when compared to the yield obtained in the basal medium (94.46 mg delta-endotoxins per g starch. Therefore, the use of optimised culture cheap medium appeared to be a good alternative for a low cost production of sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis bioinsecticides at industrial scale which is of great importance in practical point of view.

  15. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF XYLANOLYTIC ENZYME FROM AN EFFECTIVE STRAIN BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS ISOLATED FROM THE DECAYING WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Chaturvedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Bacillus licheniformis produced extracellular xylanase under submerged fermentation when wheat bran is used as carbon source. The xylan is the most common hemicellulosic polysaccharide in food industry and agricultural wastes, comprising a backbone of xylose residues linked by β-1,4 glycosidic bonds. Bacillus licheniformis has been shown to be a promising organism for enhanced production of xylanases & β-xylosidase under submerged fermentation (SmF. The optimization of cultural conditions and carbon, nitrogen sources for enzymes production. The bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis was cultivated using as substrate xylan, wheat bran, corn straw, corncob, and sugarcane bagasse. Wheat bran has been a good xylanase (16.8U/ml & β xylosidase (5.6U/ml activity after 48h of fermentation. Maximum enzyme activity was observed in xylan as carbon source and peptone as nitrogen source. Both crude enzymes were characterized and a bacterial xylanase shows optimum pH for xylanase activity at 6.5 & β xylosidase were found to be 6.0. The optimum temperatures were 450C for both and they were thermally stable up to 500C. The parameters of Vmax and Km obtained using Line weaver-Burk plot method were 277.7μmol / min/mg and 5.26 mg /L correspondingly

  16. Antibacterial activity and genotypic-phenotypic characteristics of bacteriocin-producing Bacillus subtilis KKU213: potential as a probiotic strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khochamit, Nalisa; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Sukon, Peerapol; Siripornadulsil, Wilailak

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties of Bacillus subtilis strain KKU213, isolated from local soil, were investigated. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of a KKU213 culture containing crude bacteriocins exhibited inhibitory effects on Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity of the CFS precipitated with 40% ammonium sulfate (AS) remained even after treatment at 60 and 100 °C, at pH 4 and 10 and with proteolytic enzymes, detergents and heavy metals. When analyzed by SDS-PAGE and overlaid with the indicator strains B. cereus and S. aureus, the 40% AS precipitate exhibited inhibitory activity on proteins smaller than 10 kDa. However, proteins larger than 25 kDa and smaller than 10 kDa were still observed on a native protein gel. Purified subtilosin A was prepared by Amberlite XAD-16 bead extraction and HPLC and analyzed by Nano-LC-QTOF-MS. Its molecular mass was found to be 3.4 kDa, and it retained its antibacterial activity. These results are consistent with the detection of the anti-listerial subtilosin A gene of the sbo/alb cluster in the KKU213 strain, which is 100% identical to that of B. subtilis subsp. subtilis 168. In addition to stable and cyclic subtilosin A, a mixture of many extracellular antibacterial peptides was also detected in the KKU213 culture. The KKU213 strain produced extracellular amylase, cellulase, lipase and protease, is highly acid-resistant (pH 2) when cultured in inulin and promotes health and reduces infection of intestinally colonized broiler chickens. Therefore, we propose that bacteriocin-producing B. subtilis KKU213 could be used as a potential probiotic strain or protective culture. PMID:25440998

  17. Growth energetics of an alkaline serine protease-producing strain of Bacillus clausii during continuous cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Torben; Nielsen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Glucose-limited chemostats were used to determine the growth yields of biomass of Bacillus clausii PP 473-8 producing an alkaline serine protease Savinase (Novozymes A/S, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) and a low yield of biomass on oxygen was observed. The energy metabolism was investigated further by setting.......93 mmol ATP/gDW/h. From these values it is concluded that the high oxygen consumption compared with other Bacillus species is due to a low efficiency in respiration resulting in a low P/O ratio. Finally, the energetic parameters were estimated for different architectures of the respiratory chain....

  18. Systematic mutagenesis method for enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis mutant strain UV-MN-HN-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nauman Aftab

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was intended to obtain the enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis through random mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters. Several isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were isolated from local habitat and isolate designated as GP-35 produced maximum bacitracin production (14±0.72 IU ml-1. Bacitracin production of Bacillus licheniformis GP-35 was increased to 23±0.69 IU ml-1 after treatment with ultraviolet (UV radiations. Similarly, treatment of vegetative cells of GP-35 with chemicals like N-methyl N'-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG and Nitrous acid (HNO2 increased the bacitracin production to a level of 31±1.35 IU ml-1 and 27±0.89 IU ml-1 respectively. Treatment of isolate GP-35 with combined effect of UV and chemical treatment yield significantly higher titers of bacitracin with maximum bacitracin production of 41.6±0.92 IU ml-1. Production of bacitracin was further enhanced (59.1±1.35 IU ml-1 by optimization of different parameters like phosphate sources, organic acids as well as temperature and pH. An increase of 4.22 fold in the production of bacitracin after mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters was achieved in comparison to wild type. Mutant strain was highly stable and produced consistent yield of bacitracin even after 15 generations. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Yp/s (IU/g substrate, Yp/x (IU/g cells, Yx/s (g/g, Yp/s, mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-MN-HN-6 was found to be a hyperproducer of bacitracin.

  19. Biotechnological potential of Bacillus salmalaya 139SI: a novel strain for remediating water polluted with crude oil waste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmah Ismail

    Full Text Available Environmental contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons, mainly crude oil waste from refineries, is becoming prevalent worldwide. This study investigates the bioremediation of water contaminated with crude oil waste. Bacillus salamalaya 139SI, a bacterium isolated from a private farm soil in the Kuala Selangor in Malaysia, was found to be a potential degrader of crude oil waste. When a microbial population of 108 CFU ml-1 was used, the 139SI strain degraded 79% and 88% of the total petroleum hydrocarbons after 42 days of incubation in mineral salt media containing 2% and 1% of crude oil waste, respectively, under optimum conditions. In the uninoculated medium containing 1% crude oil waste, 6% was degraded. Relative to the control, the degradation was significantly greater when a bacteria count of 99 × 108 CFU ml-1 was added to the treatments polluted with 1% oil. Thus, this isolated strain is useful for enhancing the biotreatment of oil in wastewater.

  20. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  1. Biological control of the grapevine diseases 'grey mold' and 'powdery mildew' by Bacillus B27 and B29 strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maachia, Ben; Rafik, Errakhi; Chérif, M; Nandal, Preeti; Mohapatra, Trupti; Bernard, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Uncinula necator and Botrytis cinerea are the most destructive pathogens of the grapevine in Tunisia and elsewhere. We used two strains of Bacillus subtilis group, B27 and B29 to control powdery mildew and the grey mold disease of the grapevine. Green house experiments showed that B29 and B27 strains of the bacteria efficiently reduced the severity of powdery mildew up to 50% and 60%, respectively. Further, they decreased Botrytis cinerea development on grape leaf by 77% and 99%, respectively. The mode of action has been shown to be chitinolytic. These two bacteria showed significant production of total proteins discharged into the culture medium. Determination of some chitinolytic enzymes revealed the involvement of N-acetyl glucosaminidase (Nagase), the chitin-1,4-chitobiosidase (Biase) and endochitinase in degrading the mycelium of B. cinerea. PMID:25757242

  2. Influence of temperature, L-alanine and phosphate buffer on the radiation susceptibility of Bacillus pumilus strain E601

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bacillus pumilus E601 strain has been examined for resistance to gamma and electron irradiation. Decimal reduction doses (D10 values), computed on the basis of recoverable organisms, have been found to depend on the dose rate of pulsed electrons in the range 1-1600krad per 35ns pulse. The highest dose rates in these ranges lead to higher D10 values than have been measured with the 60Co source (gamma irradiation). Treatment of heat-shocked B. pumilus spores with L-alanine in phosphate buffer resulted in a significant reduction in resistance towards both heat and radiation owing to the loss of spore properties. No response to alanine was observed in the absence of buffer. The sensitivity of alanine-germinated spores of B. pumilus (E601) to ionizing radiations was found to be identical with that of vegetative cells of this strain under the same conditions. (author)

  3. Influence of Temperature, L-Alanine and Phosphate Buffer on the Radiation Susceptibility of Bacillus Pumilus Strain E601

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bacillus pumilus E601 strain has been examined for resistance to gamma and electron irradiation. Decimal reduction doses (D10 values), computed on the basis of recoverable organisms, have been found to depend on the dose rate of pulsed electrons in the range 1 -1600 krad per 35 ns pulse. The highest dose rates in these ranges lead to higher D10 values than have been measured with the 60Co source (gamma irradiation). Treatment of heat-shocked B. pumilus spores with L-alanine in phosphate buffer resulted in a significant reduction in resistance towards both heat and radiation owing to the loss of spore properties. No response to alanine was observed in the absence of buffer. The sensitivity of alanine-germinated spores of B. pumilus (E601) to ionizing radiations was found to be identical with that of vegetative cells of this strain under the same conditions. (author)

  4. Biosorption Potential of Bacillus salmalaya Strain 139SI for Removal of Cr(VI) from Aqueous Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadrasnia, Arezoo; Chuan Wei, Kelvin Swee; Shahsavari, Nasser; Azirun, Mohd Sofian; Ismail, Salmah

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the biosorption capacity of live and dead cells of a novel Bacillus strain for chromium. The optimum biosorption condition was evaluated in various analytical parameters, including initial concentration of chromium, pH, and contact time. The Langmuir isotherm model showed an enhanced fit to the equilibrium data. Live and dead biomasses followed the monolayer biosorption of the active surface sites. The maximum biosorption capacity was 20.35 mg/g at 25 °C, with pH 3 and contact time of 50 min. Strain 139SI was an excellent host to the hexavalent chromium. The biosorption kinetics of chromium in the dead and live cells of Bacillus salmalaya (B. salmalaya) 139SI followed the pseudo second-order mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared indicated significant influence of the dead cells on the biosorption of chromium based on cell morphological changes. Approximately 92% and 70% desorption efficiencies were achieved using dead and live cells, respectively. These findings demonstrated the high sorption capacity of dead biomasses of B. salmalaya 139SI in the biosorption process. Thermodynamic evaluation (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) indicated that the mechanism of Cr(VI) adsorption is endothermic; that is, chemisorption. Results indicated that chromium accumulation occurred in the cell wall of B. salmalaya 139SI rather than intracellular accumulation. PMID:26633454

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TSBSO 3.8, a biosurfactant-producing strain with biotechnological potential for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; Jurelevicius, Diogo; Marques, Joana Montezano; de Souza, Pamella Macedo; de Araújo, Livia Vieira; Barros, Thalita Gonçalves; de Souza, Rodrigo Octavio Mendonça Alves; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães; Seldin, Lucy

    2015-12-01

    A screening for biosurfactant-producing bacteria was conducted with 217 strains that were isolated from environmental samples contaminated with crude oil and/or petroleum derivatives. Although 19 promising biosurfactant producers were detected, strain TSBSO 3.8, which was identified by molecular methods as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, drew attention for its production of a high-activity compound that presented an emulsification activity of 63% and considerably decreased surface (28.5 mN/m) and interfacial (11.4 mN/m) tensions in Trypticase Soy Broth culture medium. TSBSO 3.8 growth and biosurfactant production were tested under different physical and chemical conditions to evaluate its biotechnological potential. Biosurfactant production occurred between 0.5% and 7% NaCl, at pH values varying from 6 to 9 and temperatures ranging from 28 to 50 °C. Moreover, biosurfactant properties remained the same after autoclaving at 121 °C for 15 min. The biosurfactant was also successful in a test to simulate microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Mass spectrometry analysis showed that the surface active compound was a surfactin, known as a powerful biosurfactant that is commonly produced by Bacillus species. The production of a high-efficiency biosurfactant, under some physical and chemical conditions that resemble those experienced in an oil production reservoir, such as high salinities and temperatures, makes TSBSO 3.8 an excellent candidate and creates good expectations for its application in MEOR. PMID:26350801

  6. Biosorption Potential of Bacillus salmalaya Strain 139SI for Removal of Cr(VI from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Dadrasnia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the biosorption capacity of live and dead cells of a novel Bacillus strain for chromium. The optimum biosorption condition was evaluated in various analytical parameters, including initial concentration of chromium, pH, and contact time. The Langmuir isotherm model showed an enhanced fit to the equilibrium data. Live and dead biomasses followed the monolayer biosorption of the active surface sites. The maximum biosorption capacity was 20.35 mg/g at 25 °C, with pH 3 and contact time of 50 min. Strain 139SI was an excellent host to the hexavalent chromium. The biosorption kinetics of chromium in the dead and live cells of Bacillus salmalaya (B. salmalaya 139SI followed the pseudo second-order mechanism. Scanning electron microscopy and fourier transform infrared indicated significant influence of the dead cells on the biosorption of chromium based on cell morphological changes. Approximately 92% and 70% desorption efficiencies were achieved using dead and live cells, respectively. These findings demonstrated the high sorption capacity of dead biomasses of B. salmalaya 139SI in the biosorption process. Thermodynamic evaluation (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0 indicated that the mechanism of Cr(VI adsorption is endothermic; that is, chemisorption. Results indicated that chromium accumulation occurred in the cell wall of B. salmalaya 139SI rather than intracellular accumulation.

  7. Impact of rhizosphere factors on cyclic lipopeptide signature from the plant beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihorimbere, Venant; Cawoy, Hélène; Seyer, Alexandre; Brunelle, Alain; Thonart, Philippe; Ongena, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic lipopeptides (cLPs) of the surfactin, iturin and fengycin families synthesized by plant-associated Bacilli represent an important class of antibiotics as they may be tightly involved in the protective effect of selected strains against phytopathogens. However, their production by Bacillus cells developing on roots under rhizosphere conditions is still poorly understood. In this work, we combined electrospray and imaging mass spectrometry-based approaches to determine the detailed pattern of surfactins, iturins and fengycins produced in planta by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499. Very different production rates were observed for the three cLPs families. Whereas surfactin accumulated in significant amounts, much lower quantities of iturins and fengycins were detected in the environment of colonized roots in comparison with laboratory medium. In addition, the surfactin pattern produced by strain S499 evolving on roots is enriched in homologues with long fatty acid chains (C15) compared with the chains typically secreted under in vitro conditions. Additional experiments revealed that lipopeptide production by root-associated S499 cells is qualitatively and quantitatively dictated by the specific nutritional context of the rhizosphere (exudates enriched in organic acids, oxygen limitation) but also by the formation of biofilm-related structures around root hairs. As surfactins, iturins and fengycins retain specific functions and bioactivities, the biological relevance of their differential production observed in planta is discussed in the context of biocontrol of plant diseases. PMID:22029651

  8. Screening of biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains using glycerol from the biodiesel synthesis as main carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, M; Melo, V M M; Rodrigues, S; Sant'ana, H B; Gonçalves, L R B

    2012-08-01

    Glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was evaluated as carbon source for biosurfactant production. For this reason, seven non-pathogenic biosurfactant-producing Bacillus strains, isolated from the tank of chlorination at the Wastewater Treatment Plant at Federal University of Ceara, were screened. The production of biosurfactant was verified by determining the surface tension value, as well as the emulsifying capacity of the free-cell broth against soy oil, kerosene and N-hexadecane. Best results were achieved when using LAMI005 and LAMI009 strains, whose biosurfactant reduced the surface tension of the broth to 28.8 ± 0.0 and 27.1 ± 0.1 mN m(-1), respectively. Additionally, at 72 h of cultivation, 441.06 and 267.56 mg L(-1) of surfactin were produced by LAMI005 and LAMI009, respectively. The biosurfactants were capable of forming stable emulsions with various hydrocarbons, such as soy oil and kerosene. Analyses carried out with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis LAMI009 and LAMI005 was compatible with the commercially available surfactin standard. The values of minimum surface tension and the CMC of the produced biosurfactant indicated that it is feasible to produce biosurfactants from a residual and renewable and low-cost carbon source, such as glycerol. PMID:22218992

  9. Influence of the pressure holding time on strain generation in fuel injection lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basara, Adis, E-mail: adis.basara@evonik.com [Process Technology and Engineering, Evonik Degussa GmbH, Rodenbacher Chaussee 4, 63457 Hanau-Wolfgang (Germany); Alt, Nicolas; Schluecker, Eberhard [Institute for Process Technology and Machinery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Cauerstrasse 4, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    An influence of the pressure holding time on residual strain generation during the autofrettage process was studied experimentally for the first time in the present work. It is the state of the art that fuel injection lines are held at the autofrettage pressure for only a few seconds in an industrial production. In doing so, it is assumed that a desirable residual stress-strain pattern is generated. However, the results of the experimental investigations outlined in this work indicated that completion of the plastic deformation caused by the autofrettage process and generation of the desirable stress-strain pattern require a much longer period. As shown, a third-order polynomial equation best described the interdependence between the time required for the completion of the process, the corresponding autofrettage pressure and the generated strain state. The method presented can be used as a tool for the determination of the optimal autofrettage process parameters in industrial production of fuel injection lines.

  10. Lipase-Secreting Bacillus Species in an Oil-Contaminated Habitat: Promising Strains to Alleviate Oil Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Pin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are of great interest for different industrial applications due to their diversity and versatility. Among different lipases, microbial lipases are preferable due to their broad substrate specificity, and higher stability with lower production costs compared to the lipases from plants and animals. In the past, a vast number of bacterial species have been reported as potential lipases producers. In this study, the lipases-producing bacterial species were isolated from an oil spillage area in the conventional night market. Isolated species were identified as Bacillus species by biochemical tests which indicate their predominant establishment, and further screened on the agar solid surfaces using lipid and gelatin as the substrates. Out of the ten strains tested, four potential strains were subjected to comparison analysis of the lipolytic versus proteolytic activities. Strain 10 exhibited the highest lipolytic and proteolytic activity. In all the strains, the proteolytic activity is higher than the lipolytic activity except for strain 8, suggesting the possibility for substrate-based extracellular gene induction. The simultaneous secretion of both the lipase and protease is a mean of survival. The isolated bacterial species which harbour both lipase and protease enzymes could render potential industrial-based applications and solve environmental issues.

  11. Recovery of Bacillus thuringiensis and insect toxic related strains from forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    We attempted to recover Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) from soil that had been sprayed two years prior with Bt for gypsy moth control. By amplifying the bacteria found in the soil on bacterial agar and feeding this diverse microbial population to tobacco hornworm larvae, 15 spore-forming bacteria from ...

  12. 77 FR 1633 - Bacillus Subtilis Strain CX-9060; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ..., 2009; 74 FR 15865; FRL-8408-7). The previously submitted studies on Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 include... Register of March 10, 2010 (75 FR 11171) (FRL-8810- 8), EPA issued a notice pursuant to section 408(d)(3...(h) (75 FR 76284, FRL-8853-8) eliminates the option for the expression of tolerances or...

  13. Detection and expression of enterotoxin genes in plant-associated strains of Bacillus cereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus cereus is an environmental microbe that commonly inhabits plants and soil. Twenty five plant-associated B. cereus isolates were obtained from apple, cacao, tomato, and potato. The isolates were screened for the presence and expression of enterotoxin B (BcET) components of the nonhemolytic e...

  14. Crystalliferous Bacillus cereus group bacteria from a Maryland hardwood forest are dominated by psychrotolerant strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal forming Bacillus spp. were isolated from soil samples collected at different elevations within a mixed hardwood forest in central Maryland, and their phylogenetic relationships determined by multilocus sequence analysis. The vast majority of isolates obtained were associated with two phylog...

  15. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on growth and enzymatic activity of a native strain of Bacillus sp Efecto de la aflatoxina B1 sobre el crecimiento y actividad proteolítica de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez Edna Judith

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different aflatoxin B1 (AFAB1 concentrations on alkaline protease growth and enzymatic activity was evaluated; a native strain of alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated in CSL (Corn Steep Liquor was used. It was found that the effect of AFAB1 on the strain inhibited its growth and enzymatic activity to 1 ppm, showing that the strain is highly sensible to AFAB1, meaning that medium obtained f rom Colombian corn contaminated with this mycotoxin cannot be easily used. Concentrations less than 0.1 ppm did not affect growth and enzymatic activity. Key words: Bacillus, aflatoxin, alkaline proteases.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de aflatoxina B1 (AFAB1 sobre el crecimiento y actividad enzimática de proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico cultivada en LAM (Licor Agotado de Maíz. Se encontró que la cepa inhibe su crecimiento y actividad enzimática a 1 ppm, lo que demuestra una alta sensibilidad de la cepa evaluada a la AFAB1 e imposibilita utilizar fácilmente medios obtenidos de maíz nacional contaminado con esta micotoxina. Las concentraciones inferiores a 0.1 ppm no tienen ningún efecto sobre el crecimiento y la actividad enzimática. Palabras clave: Bacillus, aflatoxina, proteasas alcalinas.

  16. Examination of serological memory in rabbits injected with Bacillus anthracis protective antigen adsorbed to Alhydrogel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. Little

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological memory after inoculation of protective antigen (PA combined with Alhydrogel adjuvant (PA/Alhydrogel was examined in New Zealand white rabbits, an animal model for anthrax. A threshold dose of 0.1 μg of PA/Alhydrogel was identified which resulted in an ELISA titer 2 weeks after a primary immunization of only 0.168 μg anti-PA IgG per ml and a toxin-neutralizing antibody titer (TNA ED50 of 1.8 (n = 40. A significant increase in anti-PA IgG and TNA ED50 titers were measured (p < 0.0001 2 weeks after a booster immunization with 0.1 μg of PA/Alhydrogel at 14 days (n = 10; 40.9 μg anti-PA IgG per ml; 522 TNA ED50 and 28 days (n = 10; 63.8 μg anti-PA IgG per ml; 501 TNA ED50. At this threshold dose of PA/Alhydrogel, protection against an aerosol exposure to Bacillus anthracis Ames spores improved as the booster immunization was administered from 4 days (40% survival, to 8 days (50% survival, and to 12 days (80% survival before challenge. The partial protection of rabbits, even in the absence of protective antibody titers (0.9 μg anti-PA IgG per ml and 26 TNA ED50 when the booster immunization was administered 4 days before challenge, suggested a protective potential for serologic memory.

  17. Disruption of microbial biofilms by an extracellular protein isolated from epibiotic tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra H Dusane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Marine epibiotic bacteria produce bioactive compounds effective against microbial biofilms. The study examines antibiofilm ability of a protein obtained from a tropical marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis D1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: B. licheniformis strain D1 isolated from the surface of green mussel, Perna viridis showed antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Candida albicans BH, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and biofouling Bacillus pumilus TiO1 cultures. The antimicrobial activity was lost after treatment with trypsin and proteinase K. The protein was purified by ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF analysis revealed the antimicrobial agent to be a 14 kDa protein designated as BL-DZ1. The protein was stable at 75°C for 30 min and over a pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The sequence alignment of the MALDI-fingerprint showed homology with the NCBI entry for a hypothetical protein (BL00275 derived from B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 with the accession number gi52082584. The protein showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC value of 1.6 µg/ml against C. albicans. Against both P. aeruginosa and B. pumilus the MIC was 3.12 µg/ml. The protein inhibited microbial growth, decreased biofilm formation and dispersed pre-formed biofilms of the representative cultures in polystyrene microtiter plates and on glass surfaces. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We isolated a protein from a tropical marine strain of B. licheniformis, assigned a function to the hypothetical protein entry in the NCBI database and described its application as a potential antibiofilm agent.

  18. Bacillus Cereus GD 55 Strain Improvement by Physical and Chemical Mutagenesis for Enhanced Production of Fibrinolytic Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. VENKATA NAGA RAJU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work has been undertaken to enhance the production of industrially important fibrinolytic protease by subjecting indigenous fibrinolytic protease producing Bacillus cereus to strain improvement by random mutagenesis using ultra-violet (UV irradiation, ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS and ethidium bromide treatment. Mutants were screened on the basis of enzyme assay by spectrophotometer using folin’s phenol reagent. Ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS and ethidium bromide treated Bacillus cereus GD 55 was proved to be the best for optimum production of fibrinolytic protease. The effect of different production parameters such as carbon source, inoculum sizes, pH, temperature, nitrogen source (inorganic and organic and incubation time on fibrinolytic protease production by the mutated bacterial strain was studied. The enzyme production was assayed in submerged fermentation (SmF condition. The maximum fibrinolytic protease production was observed with fructose 1% (18.60 ± 0.62 U/ml, inoculum size level 2% (22.10 ± 0.80 U/ml, pH 8.0 (28.65 ± 0.41 U/ml, temperature 35°C (28.68 ± 0.19 U/ml, NH4NO3 1% (34.24 ± 0.12 U/ml, peptone 1% (35.68 ± 0.27 U/ml and incubation time 48 hours (38.92 ± 0.56 U/ml in the production medium. EMS&EB-15 mutant strains were found to produce 2-4 fold more enzyme. Thus these findings have more impact on enzyme economy for biotechnological applications of microbial fibrinolytic proteases.

  19. Subtilomycin: A New Lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis Strain MMA7 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona simulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M. Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are attracting increased attention as an alternative to classic antibiotics in the fight against infectious disease and multidrug resistant pathogens. Bacillus subtilis strain MMA7 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans displays a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, as well as several pathogenic Candida species. This activity is in part associated with a newly identified lantibiotic, herein named as subtilomycin. The proposed biosynthetic cluster is composed of six genes, including protein-coding genes for LanB-like dehydratase and LanC-like cyclase modification enzymes, characteristic of the class I lantibiotics. The subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster in B. subtilis strain MMA7 is found in place of the sporulation killing factor (skf operon, reported in many B. subtilis isolates and involved in a bacterial cannibalistic behaviour intended to delay sporulation. The presence of the subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster appears to be widespread amongst B. subtilis strains isolated from different shallow and deep water marine sponges. Subtilomycin possesses several desirable industrial and pharmaceutical physicochemical properties, including activity over a wide pH range, thermal resistance and water solubility. Additionally, the production of the lantibiotic subtilomycin could be a desirable property should B. subtilis strain MMA7 be employed as a probiotic in aquaculture applications.

  20. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases. PMID:26347324

  1. ISOLATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL CYCLIC PEPTIDE SUBTILOSIN A FROM A GUT-ASSOCIATED BACILLUS SUBTILIS STRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislain Schyns

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The endospore-forming Bacillus subtilis has been used as probiotics over the last 50 years. However, little is known on how Bacillus spp act in the gut compared to other well-characterized probiotics such as lactic acid bacteria. It is believed that the competitive exclusion of pathogens results from different mode of action notably the production of antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins. Here, we report the characterization of the unexpected ability of a gut-associated B. subtilis BSP1 to synthetize the cyclic bacteriocin subtilosin A at high level. Our findings suggest that the BSP1 phenotype could be related, at least in part, to a subsequent increased expression level of the subtilosin A biosynthetic gene cluster sbo-alb in response to a higher activity of the stationery and sporulation master regulator Spo0A.

  2. Ehanced oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions using an indigenous Bacillus subtilis strain

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, Jorge F. B.; Costa, A R; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, J.A.P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

  3. An Ultra-Violet Tolerant Wild-Type Strain of Melanin-Producing Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Sansinenea, Estibaliz; Salazar, Francisco de, (S.I.); Ramirez, Melanie; Ortiz, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacillus thuringiensis is the most successful biological control agent used in agriculture, forestry and mosquito control. However, the insecticidal activity of the B. thuringiensis formulation is not very stable and rapidly loses its biological activity under field conditions, due to the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Melanin is known to absorb radiation therefore photo protection of B. thuringiensis based on melanin has been extensively studied. Objectives: The aim of this s...

  4. EXPRESSION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS PROTECTIVE ANTIGEN IN VACCINE STRAIN BRUCELLA ABORTUS RB51

    OpenAIRE

    Poff, Sherry Ann

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen that can cause cutaneous, gastrointestinal or respiratory disease in many vertebrates, including humans. Commercially available anthrax vaccines for immunization of humans are of limited duration and do not protect against the respiratory form of the disease. Brucella abortus is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes chronic infection in animals and humans. As with other intracellular pathogens, cell mediated im...

  5. Biotelemetric passive sensor injected within tendon for strain and elasticity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichorim, Sérgio Francisco; Abatti, Paulo José

    2006-05-01

    A passive and injectable (using hypodermic needle) biotelemetric sensor for measurements of tendon length changes has been developed. From these measurements tendon strain and Young's modulus of elasticity can be derived. The sensor (about 2.1 x 29 mm) is a LC circuit fixed in tendon by metallic anchors (barbs), where the value of the resonance frequency is modulated by displacement of a mobile ferrite core. The sensor was injected into digital extensor tendon of pig, allowing the determination of its stress-strain curve and, consequently, of Young's modulus of elasticity of the tendon. Practical results, such as sensitivity of 18.199 kHz/mm (correlation coefficient of 0.9891) for strains up to 5.17%, mechanical hysteresis of 6.5%, and Young's modulus of 0.9146 GPa for a pig tendon (post mortem), are presented and discussed. PMID:16686414

  6. Bacillus halodurans Strain C125 Encodes and Synthesizes Enzymes from Both Known Pathways To Form dUMP Directly from Cytosine Deoxyribonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, Christian Berg; Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Reinauer, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the genome of Bacillus halodurans strain C125 indicated that two pathways leading from a cytosine deoxyribonucleotide to dUMP, used for dTMP synthesis, were encoded by the genome of the bacterium. The genes that were responsible, the comEB gene and the dcdB gene, encoding dCMP deaminase...

  7. Conclusion on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA following the peer review of the initial risk assessments carried out by the competent authority of the rapporteur Member State Germany, for the pesticide active substance Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 are reported.  The context of the peer review was that required by Commission Regulation (EU No 188/2011.  The conclusions were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 as a fungicide on table and wine grapes. The reliable endpoints concluded as being appropriate for use in regulatory risk assessment, derived from the available studies and literature in the dossier peer reviewed, are presented.  Missing information identified as being required by the regulatory framework is listed.  The assessment of potential transfer of genetic material from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 to other organisms cannot not be finalised.  The consumer and re-entry worker risk assessment cannot be finalised as data are missing on the levels of secondary metabolites/toxins produced by the organism on plants.  Furthermore, the risk assessment for non-target organisms and the groundwater exposure assessment from secondary metabolites/toxins could not be finalised.  As the soil exposure assessments could not be finalised, also the risk to soil-dwelling organisms from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strain D747 could not be finalised.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis Strain BR58, a Biopesticide Product Effective against the Coffee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzetti, Janaina; Ricietto, Ana P. S.; da Silva, Carlos R. M.; Wolf, Ivan R.; Neves, Pedro M. O. J.; Meneguim, Ana M.; Vilas-Boas, Laurival A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial control agent against insect pests. The draft genome sequence of the Brazilian strain BR58 described here contains the insecticidal genes cry4A, cry4B, cry10A, cry11A, cry60A, cry60B, and cyt1A, which show toxicity to both Aedes aegypti and Hypothenemus hampei larvae. PMID:26659669

  9. Identification of Bacilysin, Chlorotetaine, and Iturin A Produced by Bacillus sp. Strain CS93 Isolated from Pozol, a Mexican Fermented Maize Dough

    OpenAIRE

    Phister, Trevor G.; O'Sullivan, Daniel J.; McKay, Larry L.

    2004-01-01

    Three antimicrobial compounds produced by Bacillus sp. strain CS93 isolated from pozol were identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The three compounds were iturin, bacilysin, and chlorotetaine. Production of these compounds by CS93 could account for the medicinal properties attributed to pozol.

  10. Improvement of antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic producing strain of Bacillus subtilis AFCI-69 by radiation and chemical mutagens. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation was used to select higher antibiotic yield mutants of Bacillus subtilis AECL 69. The test organisms were Aspergillus niger RAGENI 70 and Staphylococcus aureus 6571 (16) N.C.T.C. Searches for fermentation, purification and characterization of antibiotics of parent strain and its mutants were carried out

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain RHNK22, Isolated from Rhizosphere with Biosurfactant (Surfactin, Iturin, and Fengycin) and Antifungal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendra Kumar, Papathoti; Swapna, T H; Sathi Reddy, Koppula; Archana, K; Nageshwar, Lingampalli; Nalini, S; Khan, Mohamed Yahya; Hameeda, Bee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain RHNK22 isolated from groundnut rhizosphere showed direct and indirect plant growth-promoting traits along with biosurfactant activity and reduction in surface tension of water. Biosurfactants were identified as lipopeptides (surfactin, iturin, and fengycin) by molecular and biochemical analysis in our studies. PMID:26823600

  12. Isolation and characterization of a β-propeller gene containing phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 for growth promotion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanif, Muhammad Kashif; Hameed, Sohail; Imran, Asma; Naqqash, Tahir; Shahid, Muhammad; Van Elsas, Jan D

    2015-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain RHNK22, Isolated from Rhizosphere with Biosurfactant (Surfactin, Iturin, and Fengycin) and Antifungal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Narendra Kumar, Papathoti; Swapna, T. H.; Sathi Reddy, Koppula; K. Archana; Nageshwar, Lingampalli; Nalini, S.; Khan, Mohamed Yahya; Hameeda, Bee

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain RHNK22 isolated from groundnut rhizosphere showed direct and indirect plant growth-promoting traits along with biosurfactant activity and reduction in surface tension of water. Biosurfactants were identified as lipopeptides (surfactin, iturin, and fengycin) by molecular and biochemical analysis in our studies.

  14. Nucleotide sequence of the beta-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase gene of alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain 1011 and similarity of its amino acid sequence to those of alpha-amylases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, K.; Kataoka, S; Ishii, Y; Takano, T.; Yamane, K

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the gene for cyclodextrin glucanotransferase of alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain 1011 was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence at the NH2-terminal side of the enzyme showed a high homology with the sequences of alpha-amylase in the three regions which constitutes the active centers of alpha-amylases.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus subtilis ALBA01, a Strain with Antagonistic Activity against the Soilborne Fungal Pathogen of Onion Setophoma terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobares, Romina A.; Ducasse, Daniel A.; Smania, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a nonpathogenic bacterium that lives in soil and has long been used as biological control agent in agriculture. Here, we report the genome sequence of a B. subtilis strain isolated from rhizosphere of onion that shows strong biological activity against the soilborne fungal pathogen Setophoma terrestris. PMID:27257193

  16. Characterization of two antimicrobial peptides produced by a halotolerant Bacillus subtilis strain SK.DU.4 isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample

    OpenAIRE

    Baindara, Piyush; Mandal, Santi M.; Chawla, Niharika; Singh, Pradip Kumar; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Korpole, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A bacterial strain producing two antimicrobial peptides was isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on both phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. It grew optimally up to 14% NaCl and produced antimicrobial peptide within 24 h of growth. The peptides were purified using a combination of chemical extraction and chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-TOF analysis of HPLC purified fractions revealed that the strain SK.DU.4 secreted a...

  17. community Participation for culturing Local Strain of bacillus Thuringiensis H-14 in coconut Medium to controlanopheles Sundaicus Larvae at kampung Laut, cilacap regency

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwik Trapsilowati; Blondine Ch. P.; Aryani Pujiyanti

    2015-01-01

    background: Community participation was necessary for culturinglocal strain of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 in coconut medium and adoption this bioinsecticide to control Anopheles sundaicus. This study aimed to evaluate community participation for culturing local strain of B. thuringiensis H-14 using coconut media and spreading the results of inoculation against Anopheles sundaicus larvae. Methods: The study design was a quasi-experiment. Reseach was conducted in February-November 2007 in Kamp...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. GZT, a 2,4,6-Tribromophenol-Degrading Strain Isolated from the River Sludge of an Electronic Waste-Dismantling Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhishu; Li, Guiying; Das, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain GZT, a 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TBP)-degrading bacterium previously isolated from an electronic waste-dismantling region. The draft genome sequence is 5.18 Mb and has a G+C content of 35.1%. This is the first genome report of a brominated flame retardant-degrading strain. PMID:27257197

  19. COLONIZATION OF VIGNA RADIATA ROOTS BY CHROMIUM RESISTANT BACTERIAL STRAINS OF OCHROBACTRUM INTERMEDIUM, BACILLUS CEREUS AND BREVIBA CTERIUM SP.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Faisal; SHAHIDA Hasnain

    2005-01-01

    The present study deals with colonization potential of plant growth promoting bacterial strains ( Ochrobactrum intermedium, Bacillus cereus and Brevibacterium sp. ) on Vigna radiata roots. The roots were heavily colonized with O. intermedium and B. cereus as compared to Brevibacterium sp. O. intermedium mainly colonized rhizoplane while B. cereus occurred both on the rhizoplane and near root zone. O. intermedium and B. cereus were found to be present both on the rhizoplane and near root zone, while Brevibacterium only in the rhizosphere in the form of groups. The cells of B. cereus were found more in the sites where root exudates were existed. From the above results it was observed that the number of O. intermedium cells were large at root exudate site. Fig 2, Tab 1, Ref 15

  20. The self-assembly of a cyclic lipopeptides mixture secreted by a B. megaterium strain and its implications on activity against a sensitive Bacillus species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel T Pueyo

    Full Text Available Cyclic lipopeptides are produced by a soil Bacillus megaterium strain and several other Bacillus species. In this work, they are detected both in the Bacillus intact cells and the cells culture medium by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The cyclic lipopeptides self-assemble in water media producing negatively charged and large aggregates (300-800 nm of mean hydrodynamic radius as evaluated by dynamic light scattering and zeta-potential analysis. The aggregate size depends on pH and ionic strength. However, it is not affected by changes in the osmolarity of the outer medium suggesting the absence of an internal aqueous compartment despite the occurrence of low molecular weight phospholipids in their composition as determined from inorganic phosphorus analysis. The activity against a sensitive Bacillus cereus strain was evaluated from inhibition halos and B. cereus lysis. Essential features determining the antibiotic activity on susceptible Bacillus cereus cells are the preserved cyclic moiety conferring cyclic lipopeptides resistance to proteases and the medium pH. The aggregates are inactive per se at the pH of the culture medium which is around 6 or below. The knock out of the sensitive cells only takes place when the aggregates are disassembled due to a high negative charge at pH above 6.

  1. Potential probiotic attributes of a new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shao-Bin; Zhao, Li-Na; Wu, Ying; Li, Shi-Chang; Sun, Jian-Rui; Huang, Jing-Fang; Li, Dan-Dan

    2015-06-01

    A new strain of Bacillus coagulans CGMCC 9551, which has a broad range of antibacterial activities against six main pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O8, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar enteritidis, Streptococcus suis, Listeria monocytogenes and Pasteurella multocida, was isolated from healthy piglet feces. In adhesion assay, the isolate exhibited a stronger adhesion to pig intestinal mucus than that of B. subtilis JT143 and L. acidophilus LY24 respectively isolated from BioPlus(®)2B and FloraFIT(®) Probiotics (P salt. The strain was fully resistant to pH 2 for 2 h with 90.1 ± 3.5% survival and susceptible to 15 antibiotics commonly used in veterinary medicine. Additionally, the bacteria showed amylase, protease and cellulase activities. The safety assessment demonstrated the lack of toxicity potential in B. coagulans CGMCC 9551 by ligated rabbit ileal loop assay, acute and subchronic toxicity test. These results implied that that the new strain of B. coagulans CGMCC 9951 isolated from healthy piglet feces has promising probiotic characteristics and offers desirable opportunities for its successful commercialization as one excellent candidate probiotic. PMID:25752235

  2. Integrate genome-based assessment of safety for probiotic strains: Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvetti, Elisa; Orrù, Luigi; Capozzi, Vittorio; Martina, Alessia; Lamontanara, Antonella; Keller, David; Cash, Howard; Felis, Giovanna E; Cattivelli, Luigi; Torriani, Sandra; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that confer beneficial effects on the host; nevertheless, before being allowed for human consumption, their safety must be verified with accurate protocols. In the genomic era, such procedures should take into account the genomic-based approaches. This study aims at assessing the safety traits of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 integrating the most updated genomics-based procedures and conventional phenotypic assays. Special attention was paid to putative virulence factors (VF), antibiotic resistance (AR) genes and genes encoding enzymes responsible for harmful metabolites (i.e. biogenic amines, BAs). This probiotic strain was phenotypically resistant to streptomycin and kanamycin, although the genome analysis suggested that the AR-related genes were not easily transferrable to other bacteria, and no other genes with potential safety risks, such as those related to VF or BA production, were retrieved. Furthermore, no unstable elements that could potentially lead to genomic rearrangements were detected. Moreover, a workflow is proposed to allow the proper taxonomic identification of a microbial strain and the accurate evaluation of risk-related gene traits, combining whole genome sequencing analysis with updated bioinformatics tools and standard phenotypic assays. The workflow presented can be generalized as a guideline for the safety investigation of novel probiotic strains to help stakeholders (from scientists to manufacturers and consumers) to meet regulatory requirements and avoid misleading information. PMID:26952108

  3. Expression of cry1Ab gene from a novel Bacillus thuringiensis strain SY49-1 active on pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, Ugur; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Yılmaz, Semih; Karabörklü, Salih; Temizgul, Rıdvan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the cry1Ab gene of previously characterized and Lepidoptera-, Diptera-, and Coleoptera-active Bacillus thuringiensis SY49-1 strain was cloned, expressed and individually tested on Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. pET-cry1Ab plasmids were constructed by ligating the cry1Ab into pET28a (+) expression vector. Constructed plasmids were transferred to an Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain rendered competent with CaCl2. Isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside was used to induce the expression of cry1Ab in E. coli BL21(DE3), and consequently, ∼130kDa of Cry1Ab was obtained. Bioassay results indicated that recombinant Cry1Ab at a dose of 1000μgg(-1) caused 40% and 64% mortality on P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella larvae, respectively. However, the mortality rates of Bt SY49-1 strains' spore-crystal mixture at the same dose were observed to be 70% on P. interpunctella and 90% on E. kuehniella larvae. The results indicated that cry1Ab may be considered as a good candidate in transgenic crop production and as an alternative biocontrol agent in controlling stored product moths. PMID:27143037

  4. Biodegradation of fluoranthene by a newly isolated strain of Bacillus stratosphericus from Mediterranean seawater of the Sfax fishing harbour, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentati, Dorra; Chebbi, Alif; Loukil, Slim; Kchaou, Sonia; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Sayadi, Sami; Chamkha, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    A physico-chemical characterization of seawater taken from the fishing harbour of Sfax, Tunisia, revealed a contamination by organic and inorganic micropollutants. An aerobic marine halotolerant Bacillus stratosphericus strain FLU5 was isolated after enrichment on fluoranthene, a persistent and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). GC-MS analyses showed that strain FLU5 was capable of degrading almost 45 % of fluoranthene (100 mg l(-1)), without yeast extract added, after 30 days of incubation at 30 g l(-1) NaCl and 37 °C. In addition, the isolate FLU5 showed a remarkable capacity to grow on a wide range of aliphatic, aromatic and complex hydrocarbons. This strain could also synthesize a biosurfactant which was capable of reducing the surface tension of the cell-free medium, during the growth on fluoranthene. The biodegradative abilities of PAHs are promising and can be used to perform the bioremediation strategies of seawaters and marine sediments contaminated by hydrocarbons. PMID:27083911

  5. The influence of thermal shock on filamentous bacillus subtillis strain resistance to subsequent stress treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When grown at 30 degC and heat shocked in a liquid medium at 45 degC, the filamentous cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 became more sensitive to subsequent killing with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and UV light but not with γ-rays. Certain characteristics (for instance, the increased tolerance to damaging agents at 30 degC and the time-dependent changes in the sensitivity to MNNG induced by thermal shock) evidence against direct involvement of repair systems in this phenomenon. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Determination of cyclodextrin production by cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from alkalophilic Bacillus circulans strain B-65

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Slaviša; Pešić Dragan; Berić Tanja; Simić Draga

    2016-01-01

    New alkalophilic Bacillus sp. producers of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) were isolated from 54 different soil samples (Serbian springs and soils). Amylolytic activity of isolates was found to be in the range of 0.4 to 12.2 U/mL and cyclodextrinogenic activity in the range of 0.02 to 0.53 U/mL. The isolate designated as B-65 showed the highest amylolytic and cyclodextrinogenic activity. On the basis of morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, isolate B-65 was i...

  7. The potential of the novel mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis strain LLP29 for use in practice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Wu, S.; Peng, Y.; Li, M.; Sun, L.; Huang, E.; Guan, X.; Gelbič, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2011), s. 458-460. ISSN 1081-1710 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08003 Grant ostatní: National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31071745; Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515110010; Science Foundation of the Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515120010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.885, year: 2011

  8. Screening and identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain S1/4 with large and efficient insecticidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Sameh; Zghal, Taheni; Cherif, Maroua; Zalila-Kolsi, Imen; Jaoua, Samir; Jamoussi, Kaïs

    2013-06-01

    The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis was recognized for its entomopathogenic activities related to Cry and Cyt proteins forming the δ-endotoxins and some extracellular activities like the vegetative insecticidal proteins (VIP) and Cry1I. These activities may act specifically against diverse organisms and some of them typically characterize each strain. Here, we screened a set of 212 B. thuringiensis strains to search the higher insecticidal activities. These strains had bipyramidal and cubic crystal morphologies and 30% of them showed PCR amplification of vip3 internal region, from which five isolates (S1/4, S17, S122, S123, and S144) showed plasmid profile variability. These five strains contained the cry1I, cry1Aa and/or cry1Ac, cry1Ab and cry2 genes, and S1/4 harbored in addition the cry1C, vip1, and vip2 genes. They produced from 25 to 46 µg δ-endotoxin per 10(7) spores. Their δ-endotoxins displayed distinct lethal concentrations 50% against either Spodoptera littoralis or Ephestia kuehniella larvae with the lowest one for S1/4, which was also active against Tuta absoluta. Fortunately, the analysis of the culture supernatants revealed that S1/4 had the higher toxicity towards these lepidopteron but it did not show any toxicity against the Tribolium castaneum coleopteran larvae; additionally, S1/4 displayed an antibacterial activity. S1/4 is a good candidate for agricultural pest control, as it is more efficient than the reference strain HD1. PMID:22915162

  9. A Bacillus anthracis strain deleted for six proteases serves as an effective host for production of recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Pomerantseva, Olga M; Moayeri, Mahtab; Fattah, Rasem; Tallant, Cynthia; Leppla, Stephen H

    2011-11-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a number of extracellular proteases that impact the integrity and yield of other proteins in the B. anthracis secretome. In this study we show that anthrolysin O (ALO) and the three anthrax toxin proteins, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF), and edema factor (EF), produced from the B. anthracis Ames 35 strain (pXO1⁺, pXO2⁻), are completely degraded at the onset of stationary phase due to the action of proteases. An improved Cre-loxP gene knockout system was used to sequentially delete the genes encoding six proteases (InhA1, InhA2, camelysin, TasA, NprB, and MmpZ). The role of each protease in degradation of the B. anthracis toxin components and ALO was demonstrated. Levels of the anthrax toxin components and ALO in the supernatant of the sporulation defective, pXO1⁺ A35HMS mutant strain deleted for the six proteases were significantly increased and remained stable over 24 h. A pXO1-free variant of this six-protease mutant strain, designated BH460, provides an improved host strain for the preparation of recombinant proteins. As an example, BH460 was used to produce recombinant EF, which previously has been difficult to obtain from B. anthracis. The EF protein produced from BH460 had the highest in vivo potency of any EF previously purified from B. anthracis or Escherichia coli hosts. BH460 is recommended as an effective host strain for recombinant protein production, typically yielding greater than 10mg pure protein per liter of culture. PMID:21827967

  10. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR ISOLATION OF SOME BACILLUS STRAINS WITH AN EXPRESSED ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marotta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:There is now increasing evidence that probiotic bacteria can provide health benefits to humans. In many areas of medicine (gastroenterology, urology, allergology, oncology and others, these sanative microorganisms may be considered as possible and viable alternatives applicable to patient care. Particularly, we have found that oral administration of Bacillus oligonitrophilus KU-1 cells can be used for treatment and prevention of some tumors. Here we present a simple method for isolation of bacteria with anticancer properties from soil.RESUMEN:Está aumentando la evidencia de que hay bacterias probióticas que pueden proporcionar beneficios saludables a los seres humanos. En muchas áreas de la medicina (gastroenterología, urología, alergología, oncología y otras, estos microorganismos pueden considerarse como alternativas posibles y viables aplicables al cuidado del paciente. Particularmente, nosotros hemos encontrado que la administración oral de células KU-1 Bacillus oligonitrophilus puede ser utilizada para el tratamiento y la prevención de algunos tumores. Aquí presentamos un método simple para aislamiento de suelos, de bacterias con características anticáncer.

  11. Molasses as a whole medium for biosurfactants production by Bacillus strains and their application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saimmai, Atipan; Sobhon, Vorasan; Maneerat, Suppasil

    2011-09-01

    Two types of biosurfactant (BS)-producing bacteria, Bacillus licheniformis TR7 and Bacillus subtilis SA9, were isolated from mangrove sediment in the south of Thailand. The BS production was done by using only molasses as a whole medium for growth and production. Under optimized conditions, the yields of TR7 and SA9 BS were found to be 3.30 and 3.78 g/l, respectively. It could reduce the surface tension of pure water to 28.5 and 29.5 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentrations of about 10 and 30 mg/l, respectively. Good thermal, pH, and salt stability were exhibited. Both BSs could recover oil more effectively than the two synthetic surfactants. In addition, TR7 and SA9 BS could enhance the solubility of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Thus, these BSs have the potential for the removal of oil and PAHs from the combined contaminated environment and facilitate its bioremediation. These studies indicate that molasses, as a renewable, relatively inexpensive and easily available resource, can be used for important biotechnological processes. PMID:21509601

  12. Use of a plasmid DNA probe to monitor populations of Bacillus pumilus inoculant strains in hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors are evaluating naturally occurring isolates of Bacillus pumilus for use as microbial hay preservatives. Seven isolates of B, pumilus from hay contained a 42-kb cryptic plasmid (pMGD296). They wished to determine whether pMGD296 could be used as a molecular marker to follow populations of these isolates in hay over time. Southern blots and colony blots of 69 isolates of B. pumilus and other Bacillus spp. were probed with 32P-labeled pMGD296. Twenty-nine probe-positive isolates were identified; of these, 28 contained a plasmid with a restriction profile identical to that of pMGD296. One isolate from untreated hay contained a 40-kb plasmid (pMGD150) that was homologous to pMGD296 but had a different restriction fragment pattern. Regions of homology between the two plasmids were identified by Southern blotting, and a 1.9-kb HindIII-PstI fragment of pMGD296 lacking strong homology to pMGD150 was cloned in pUC18. The cloned fragment hybridized only with isolates containing pMGD296 and was used to estimate populations of these isolates in treated and untreated hay

  13. Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Strain KB1, a Potential Biocontrol Agent against Phytopathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Jo, Sung Hee; Hong, Chi Eun; Park, Jeong Mee

    2016-01-01

    ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisis the most widely known microbial pesticide used in agricultural applications. Herein, we report a draft genome sequence of the endophytic bacterium ITALIC! Bacillus thuringiensisstrain KB1, which exhibits antagonism against phytopathogens. PMID:27103716

  14. Anthrax among heroin users in Europe possibly caused by same Bacillus anthracis strain since 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Grunow, R; Klee, SR; Beyer, W; George, M.; D. Grunow; Barduhn, A; Klar, S; D. Jacob; Elschner, M.; Sandven, Per; Kjerulf, A; Jensen, JS; Cai, W; Zimmermann, R; Schaade, L.

    2013-01-01

    Injection anthrax was described first in 2000 in a heroin-injecting drug user in Norway. New anthrax cases among heroin consumers were detected in the United Kingdom (52 cases) and Germany (3 cases) in 2009-10. In June 2012, a fatal case occurred in Regensburg, Bavaria. As of December 2012, 13 cases had been reported in this new outbreak from Germany, Denmark, France and the United Kingdom. We analysed isolates from 2009-10 and 2012 as well as from the first injection anthrax case in Norway i...

  15. Biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial action of lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by heavy metal tolerant strain Bacillus cereus NK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Muthu Irulappan; Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Deepak, Venkataraman; Gracerosepat, Raja; Srisakthi, Kandasamy; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

    2011-07-01

    Biosurfactants are worthful microbial amphiphilic molecules with efficient surface-active and biological properties applicable to several industries and processes. Among them lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. A heavy metal tolerant Bacillus strain has been isolated and the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial activity of biosurfactant produced by the strain have been studied. Biosurfactant production was confirmed by the conventional screening methods including hemolytic activity, drop collapsing test, oil displacement test, emulsification and lipase production assays. The biosurfactant produced by this strain was a lipopeptide and exhibited strong surface activity. The biosurfactant has been characterized using FTIR, TLC and HPLC. The minimum active dose of this biosurfactant when compared with the other chemical surfactants was found as 0.150±0.06 μg. The critical micelle concentration was found to be 45 mg/l. The biosurfactant was found to be stable and active over a wide range of pH, temperature and NaCl concentration. It was also able to emulsify a wide range of hydrocarbons and oils thereby extending its application for the bioremediation of oil contaminated sites. The biosurfactant exhibited significant reduction in biofilm formation by pathogens and showed potent antimicrobial activity against various gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. Agar diffusion assay for heavy metal resistance showed that the isolate was resistant to ferrous, lead and zinc. Considering the biofilm inhibition and antimicrobial property of biosurfactant, it can be utilized as a potential therapeutic molecule for numerous microbial infections. The heavy metal resistance of the strain can also be harnessed as an invaluable biological tool for in situ bioremediation. PMID:21458961

  16. Biodegradation of methyl red by Bacillus sp. strain UN2: decolorization capacity, metabolites characterization, and enzyme analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Sun, Peng-Fei; Du, Lin-Na; Wang, Guan; Jia, Xiao-Ming; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Azo dyes are recalcitrant and refractory pollutants that constitute a significant menace to the environment. The present study is focused on exploring the capability of Bacillus sp. strain UN2 for application in methyl red (MR) degradation. Effects of physicochemical parameters (pH of medium, temperature, initial concentration of dye, and composition of the medium) were studied in detail. The suitable pH and temperature range for MR degradation by strain UN2 were respectively 7.0-9.0 and 30-40 °C, and the optimal pH value and temperature were respectively 8.0 and 35 °C. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) (1 mM) were found to significantly accelerate the MR removal rate, while the enhancement by either Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) was slight. Under the optimal degradation conditions, strain UN2 exhibited greater than 98 % degradation of the toxic azo dye MR (100 ppm) within 30 min. Analysis of samples from decolorized culture flasks confirmed biodegradation of MR into two prime metabolites: N,N'dimethyl-p-phenyle-nediamine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. A study of the enzymes responsible for the biodegradation of MR, in the control and cells obtained during (10 min) and after (30 min) degradation, showed a significant increase in the activities of azoreductase, laccase, and NADH-DCIP reductase. Furthermore, a phytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that the germination inhibition was almost eliminated for both the plants Triticum aestivum and Sorghum bicolor by MR metabolites at 100 mg/L concentration, yet the germination inhibition of parent dye was significant. Consequently, the high efficiency of MR degradation enables this strain to be a potential candidate for bioremediation of wastewater containing MR. PMID:24474566

  17. [Species-specific sera against surface antigens of Bacillus anthracis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkova, I A; Barkov, A M; Alekseev, V V; Lipnitskiĭ, A V

    2010-11-01

    The species-related specificity of sera against 94-KD proteins isolated from culture filtrates of B. anthracis strains with different levels of virulence plasmids was studied to determine whether they might be used to identify the pathogen of anthrax. Sera against fractions 1 of culture filtrates of B. anthracis strains CTI (pXO1+ pXO2-), 81/1TR (pXO1- pXO2-), Davies (pXO1- pXO) separated by gel chromatography on Sephacryl S-300 were examined. In the gel immunodiffusion test with growing cultures, the sera exhibited non-identical antigens and differed in the presence of antibodies to antigens of related bacilli. The sera against fractions 1 of culture filtrates of toxin-producing and plasmidless strains displayed antigens produced only by B. anthracis strains into nutrient agar. Electroimmunotransblotting revealed that they contained antibodies mainly to 94-kD proteins and failed to react with B. cereus proteins with a molecular weight of 94 kD and with B. thuringiensis proteins with a molecular weight of 97 kD, which were extracted from autonomous cells. In the immunofluorescence test, immunoglobulins of sera against fractions 1 of culture filtrates of three strains stained autonomous cells and spores of 23 B. anthracis strains with different levels of virulence plasmids. In working dilutions, they did not react with antigens of 18 strains of related bacilli, which presents a possibility of using them for species identification of B. anthracis. PMID:21319392

  18. Biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strains enhance oil recovery in laboratory sand-pack columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Pereira, Jorge F B; Costa, Rita; Coutinho, João A P; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2013-10-15

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) technology uses microorganisms and their metabolites to retrieve unrecoverable oil from mature reservoirs. In situ stimulation of biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading microorganisms reduces the capillary forces retaining the oil inside the reservoir and decreases its viscosity, thus promoting oil flow and consequently production. In this work, a sand-pack column model was designed to simulate oil recovery operations and evaluate mobilization of residual oil by the selected microorganisms. Four different hydrocarbon mixtures and three Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from crude oil samples were used. Additional oil recoveries ranged from 6 to 24% depending on the hydrocarbon mixture and microorganism used. Biosurfactant production was observed with all the microorganisms and hydrocarbon mixtures studied. The oils recovered after incubation with B. subtilis isolates showed a reduction in the percentage of long-chain n-alkanes and lower viscosity when compared with the original oils. The results obtained suggest that stimulation of the selected B. subtilis strains in situ can contribute to mobilize entrapped oil in mature reservoirs. PMID:23911831

  19. Biotransformation of colchicinoids into their corresponding 3-O-glucosyl derivatives by selected strains of Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzone, Cesare; Berlanda, Davide; Donzelli, Fabio; Acquati, Valter; Ciulla, Rosalba; Negrini, Alberto; Rovati, Marco; Evangelista, Douglas; Fata, Emilio; Ciceri, Daniele; Perterlongo, Federico; Cabri, Walter

    2014-07-01

    Natural colchicinoids and their semisynthetic derivatives are important active ingredients for pharmaceutical applications. Thiocolchicoside (3-demethoxy-3-glucosyloxythiocolchicine) is used in several countries as standard therapy for the treatment of diseases of the muscle-skeletal system, due to its potent antiinflammatory and myorelaxant properties. Manufacturing of thiocolchicoside requires a key step, the regioselective demethylation and glucosylation of chemically derivative thiocolchicine. High selectivity and efficiency of this transformation cannot be achieved in a satisfactory way with a chemical approach. In particular, the chemical demethylation, a part from requiring toxic and aggressive reagents, generates a complex mixture of products with no industrial usefulness. We report herein an efficient, direct and green biotransformation of thiocolchicine into thiocolchicoside, performed by a specific strain of Bacillus megaterium. The same process, with minor modifications, can be used to convert the by-product 3-O-demethyl-thiocolchicine into thiocolchicoside. In addition, we describe the B. megaterium strain selection process and the best conditions for this effective double biotransformation. The final product has a pharmaceutical quality, and the process has been industrialised. PMID:24553816

  20. Expression Analysis of Ni- and V-Associated Resistance Genes in a Bacillus megaterium Strain Isolated from a Mining Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierros Romero, Grisel; Rivas Castillo, Andrea; Gómez Ramírez, Marlenne; Pless, Reynaldo; Rojas Avelizapa, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Bacillus megaterium strain MNSH1-9K-1 was isolated from a mining site in Guanajuato, Mexico. This B. megaterium strain presented the ability to remove Ni and V from a spent catalyst. Also, its associated metal resistance genes nccA, hant, VAN2, and smtAB were previously identified by a PCR approach. The present study reports for the first time, in B. megaterium, the changes in the expression of the genes nccA (Ni-Co-Cd resistance); hant (high-affinity nickel transporter); smtAB, a metal-binding protein gene; and VAN2 (V resistance) after exposure to 200 ppm of Ni and 200 ppm of V during the stationary phase of the microorganism in PHGII liquid media. The data presented here may contribute to the knowledge of the genes involved in the Ni and V resistances of B. megaterium, and the possible pathways implicated in the Ni-V removal processes, which may be potentiated for the biological treatment of high metal content residues. PMID:27107759

  1. EFEKTIVITAS Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 STRAIN LOKAL DALAM BUAH KELAPA TERHADAP LARVA Anopheles sp dan Culex sp di KAMPUNG LAUT KABUPATEN CILACAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blondine Ch. P

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Bacillus thuringiensis serotipe H-14 strain lokal adalah bakteri patogen bersifat target spesifiknya larva nyamuk, aman bagi mamalia dan lingkungan. Penelitian bertujuan menentukan efektivitas B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal yang dikembangbiakkan dalam buah kelapa untuk pengendalian larva Anopheles sp dan Culex sp. Rancangan eksperimental semu, terdiri dari kelompok perlakuan dan kontrol. Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal dikembangbiakan dalam10 buah kelapa umur 6–8 bulan, dengan berat kira-kira 1 kg, telah berisi air kelapa sekitar 400-500 ml/buah kelapa yang diperoleh dari Desa Klaces, Kampung Laut, Kabupaten Cilacap. Diinkubasi selama 14 hari pada temperatur kamar dan ditebarkan di 6 kolam yang menjadi habitat perkembangbiakan larva nyamuk dengan luas berkisar 3–100 m2.Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan efektivitas B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal terhadap larva Anopheles sp dan Culex sp selama 1 hari sesudah penebaran kematian larva berturut-turut sebesar 80–100% dan 79,31–100%. Sedangkan pada hari ke-14 sebesar 69,30–76,71% dan 67,69–86,04%. Buah kelapa dapat digunakan sebagai media lokal alternatif untuk pengembangbiakan B. thuringiensis H-14 strain lokal Kata kunci: B. thuringiensis H-14,  strain  lokal, buah kelapa, pengendalian larva Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis serotype H-14 local strain is pathogenic bacteria which specific  target to mosquito larvae. It is safe for mammals and enviroment. The aims of this study was to determine the effectivity of B. thuringiensis H-14 local strain which culturing in thecoconut wates against Anopheles sp and Culex sp mosquito larvae. This research is quasi experiment which consist of treated  and control groups. Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 local strain was cultured in 10 coconuts with 6–8 months age with weight around 1 kg that contained were approximately 400-500 ml/coconut were taken from Klaces village, Kampung Laut. After that the coconuts incubated for 14

  2. Screening and characterization of extracelluar L-asparaginase producing Bacillus subtilis strain hswx88, isolated from Taptapani hotspring of Odisha, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biswaprakash Pradhan; Sashi K Dash; Sabuj Sahoo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To screen and isolate an eco-friendly, a thermophilic and potent L-asparaginase producing bacterium, with novel immunological properties that may obviates hypersensitivity reactions. Methods: In the present study bacterial strain isolated for extracellular L-asparaginase production from hotspring, identified by morphological, biochemical and physiological tests followed by 16S rDNA technology and the L-asparaginase production ability was tested by both semi quantitative and quantitative enzymatic assay. Result:The bacterial strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis strain hswx88 (GenBank Accession Number: JQ237656.1). The extracellular enzyme yielding capacity isolate Bacillus subtilis strain hswx88 (23.8 IU/mL) was found to be 1.7 and 14.5 times higher than the reference organism Pectobacterium carotovorum MTCC 1428 (14.2 IU/mL) and Bacillus sp. BCCS 034 (1.64 IU/mL). Conclusion: The isolate is eco-friendly and useful to produce bulk quantity of extracellular, thermophilic L-asparaginase for the treatment of various tumor cases and for preparation of acrylamide free fry food preparation.

  3. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  4. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumelzu, E.; Cabezas, C.; Schoebitz, R.; Ugarte, R.; Rodriguez, E.D.; Rios, J. [Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  5. Characterization and genomic analysis of chromate resistant and reducing Bacillus cereus strain SJ1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Minyan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromium is a toxic heavy metal, which primarily exists in two inorganic forms, Cr(VI and Cr(III. Chromate [Cr(VI] is carcinogenic, mutational, and teratogenic due to its strong oxidizing nature. Biotransformation of Cr(VI to less-toxic Cr(III by chromate-resistant and reducing bacteria has offered an ecological and economical option for chromate detoxification and bioremediation. However, knowledge of the genetic determinants for chromate resistance and reduction has been limited so far. Our main aim was to investigate chromate resistance and reduction by Bacillus cereus SJ1, and to further study the underlying mechanisms at the molecular level using the obtained genome sequence. Results Bacillus cereus SJ1 isolated from chromium-contaminated wastewater of a metal electroplating factory displayed high Cr(VI resistance with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of 30 mM when induced with Cr(VI. A complete bacterial reduction of 1 mM Cr(VI was achieved within 57 h. By genome sequence analysis, a putative chromate transport operon, chrIA1, and two additional chrA genes encoding putative chromate transporters that likely confer chromate resistance were identified. Furthermore, we also found an azoreductase gene azoR and four nitroreductase genes nitR possibly involved in chromate reduction. Using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR technology, it was shown that expression of adjacent genes chrA1 and chrI was induced in response to Cr(VI but expression of the other two chromate transporter genes chrA2 and chrA3 was constitutive. In contrast, chromate reduction was constitutive in both phenotypic and gene expression analyses. The presence of a resolvase gene upstream of chrIA1, an arsenic resistance operon and a gene encoding Tn7-like transposition proteins ABBCCCD downstream of chrIA1 in B. cereus SJ1 implied the possibility of recent horizontal gene transfer. Conclusion Our results indicate that expression of the chromate

  6. Degradation of proteins during the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) by strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for production of Soumbala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, L.I.I.; Rechinger, K.B.; Barkholt, Vibeke;

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To examine isolates of Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus predominant in Soumbala for their ability to degrade African locust bean proteins (ALBP).Methods and Results: Agar diffusion test in casein and ALBP agar was used for screening of isolates. The profiles of water-soluble proteins and free...... amino acids (FAA) during the fermentation of ALBP by the Bacillus isolates were studied by SDS-PAGE and cation exchange chromatography. The profile of soluble proteins changed with the fermentation time and varied depending on the isolate. The quantity of total FAA and essential FAA such as lysine was...... increased sharply between 24 and 48 h of fermentation and differed among the isolates. Simultaneously, a pH increase was observed. Cysteine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalaline appeared during fermentation.Conclusion: The Bacillus isolates studied degraded ALBP leading to a profile...

  7. Properties of the Bacillus Cereus strain used in probiotic CenBiot Propriedades da cepa de Bacillus cereus utilizada no probiótico CenBiot

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Gil-Turnes; Andrea Freitas dos Santos; Flávia Weykamp da Cruz; Alegani Vieira Monteiro

    1999-01-01

    Bacillus cereus CenBiot fulfilled the requirements to be used as probiotic. The spores showed D80 of 14 hs, inhibited Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis after 24 hs in associative culture, were innocuous for suckling and adult mice and were not inhibited by antibiotics at low concentrations.Bacillus cereus CenBiot possui as características necessárias para ser utilizada como probiótico. Os esporos apresentaram D80 de 14 hs, inibiram Escherichia coli e Yersinia pseudotuberculosis...

  8. Effect of ionization and nisin on the Bacillus strains and Salmonella Enteritidis inoculated Stearothermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antimicrobial effect of nisin (at 1000UI/g), and irradiation (at 1, 3 and 5kGy), against the growth of Salmonella enteritidis (106 ufc/ml) and Bacillus Stearothermophilus (106 ufc/ml), inoculated in turkey salami, was studied during storage at 4 degree for 21 days. Treatment of turkey salami with nisin at 1000UI/g did not show any antimicrobial activity against S. Enteritidis with 6.7 pour cent and 0.8 pour cent of reduction after 0 and 21 days of storage respectively, and seems to be insufficient to inhibit B. Stearothermophilus with 23 pour cent and 21 pour cent of reduction after 0 and 21 days of storage respectively. Antimicrobial activities of irradiation were better and proportional to irradiation doses; it shows a reduction of 27 pour cent, 55 pour cent and 67 pour cent by D1, D2 and D3 respectively. The combination of nisin with irradiation at 5kGy showed stronger antimicrobial activities than those obtained by its combination with the first and the second irradiation dose.

  9. Methanol-based cadaverine production by genetically engineered Bacillus methanolicus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naerdal, Ingemar; Pfeifenschneider, Johannes; Brautaset, Trygve; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-03-01

    Methanol is regarded as an attractive substrate for biotechnological production of value-added bulk products, such as amino acids and polyamines. In the present study, the methylotrophic and thermophilic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus was engineered into a microbial cell factory for the production of the platform chemical 1,5-diaminopentane (cadaverine) from methanol. This was achieved by the heterologous expression of the Escherichia coli genes cadA and ldcC encoding two different lysine decarboxylase enzymes, and by increasing the overall L-lysine production levels in this host. Both CadA and LdcC were functional in B. methanolicus cultivated at 50°C and expression of cadA resulted in cadaverine production levels up to 500 mg l(-1) during shake flask conditions. A volume-corrected concentration of 11.3 g l(-1) of cadaverine was obtained by high-cell density fed-batch methanol fermentation. Our results demonstrated that efficient conversion of L-lysine into cadaverine presumably has severe effects on feedback regulation of the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway in B. methanolicus. By also investigating the cadaverine tolerance level, B. methanolicus proved to be an exciting alternative host and comparable to the well-known bacterial hosts E. coli and Corynebacterium glutamicum. This study represents the first demonstration of microbial production of cadaverine from methanol. PMID:25644214

  10. Identification, genetic diversity and cereulide producing ability of Bacillus cereus group strains isolated from Beninese traditional fermented food condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk; Hounhouigan, D. Joseph; Jakobsen, Mogens

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato is often detected in spontaneously fermented African foods but is rarely identified to species level. Only some of the B. cereus group species are reported to be pathogenic to humans and identification to species level is necessary to estimate the safety of these products....... In the present study, a total of 19 Bacillus cereus group spp. isolated from afitin, iru and sonru, three spontaneously fermented African locust (Parkia biglobosa) bean based condiments produced in Benin, were investigated. The strains were isolated at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h fermentation time. By...... using phenotypic and genotypic methods all of the isolates could be identified as B. cereus sensu stricto. The isolates were grouped according to their PM13 PCR (random amplification of polymorphic DNA PCR) fingerprint and formed two major clusters, one of which contained eight strains isolated from...

  11. Evaluation of the Toxicity and Toxicokinetics of Cereulide from an Emetic Bacillus cereus Strain of Milk Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yifang; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Xiaoye; Xia, Xi; Ding, Shuangyang; Zhu, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic foodborne agent causing food poisoning and many infectious diseases. The heat-stable emetic toxin cereulide is one of the most prevalent toxins produced by pathogenic B. cereus, resulting in symptoms such as emesis and liver failure. In the present work, the toxicity and toxicokinetics of cereulide from an emetic B. cereus isolate (CAU45) of raw milk were evaluated. The production of cereulide was tested by a cytotoxicity test and enzyme immunoassay, and confirmed by the presence of the ces (cereulide synthetase) gene and the ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. All results showed that the amount and toxicity of cereulide produced by CAU45 was 7 to 15.3 folds higher than the reference emetic B. cereus DSMZ 4312. Cereulide in plasma was collected at different time points after a single intravenous injection to evaluate its toxicokinetics in rabbits. The maximum concentration of cereulide was achieved in 2.6 ± 3.4 h after administration, with the elimination half-life of 10.8 ± 9.1 h, which expands our understanding of the toxic effects of cereulide. Together, it suggests that urgent sanitary practices are needed to eliminate emetic toxins and emetic B. cereus in raw milk. PMID:27275834

  12. Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC3963, a Stress-Resistant Strain Isolated in a Chinese Traditional Solid-State Liquor-Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qun; Peng, Suqin; Yu, Yao; Li, Yixue; Xu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC3963 is an important mao-tai flavor-producing strain. It was isolated from the starter (Daqu) of a Chinese mao-tai-flavor liquor fermentation process with solid-state fermentation. We report its genome of 4,525,096 bp here. Many potential insertion genes that are responsible for the unique properties of B. licheniformis CGMCC3963 in mao-tai-flavor liquor production were identified.

  13. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosalia Contreras; Jesus Paniagua-Michel; Leonel Ochoa; Jorge Olmos

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydra...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis Strain T01-328, a Brazilian Isolate That Produces a Soluble Pesticide Protein, Cry1Ia

    OpenAIRE

    Varani, Alessandro M; Lemos, Manoel V.F.; Fernandes, Camila C.; Eliana G. M. Lemos; Alves, Eliane C. C.; Desidério, Janete A.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis var. thuringiensis strain T01-328, isolated from Cubatão county (São Paulo State, Brazil), produces a soluble pesticide protein, Cry1Ia, during vegetative growth. Here, we report the 7.089-Mbp draft genome sequence, composed of a 5.5-Mb chromosome and 14 plasmids, which is the largest B. thuringiensis genome sequenced to date.

  15. The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gutierrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; de Vicente, Antonio; Përez-García, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide addit...

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Agroindustrial Byproducts for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Wild and Mutant Strains of Bacillus subtilis in Submerged and Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhtar, Hamid; Haq, Ikramul

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72EMS8. During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the b...

  17. Non-Sterilized Fermentative Production of Polymer-Grade L-Lactic Acid by a Newly Isolated Thermophilic Strain Bacillus sp. 2–6

    OpenAIRE

    Jiayang Qin; Bo Zhao; Xiuwen Wang; Limin Wang; Bo Yu; Yanhe Ma; Cuiqing Ma; Hongzhi Tang; Jibin Sun; Ping Xu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably because of its use as a monomer for the synthesis of polylactic acid (PLA), which is a promising and environment-friendly alternative to plastics derived from petrochemicals. Optically pure L-lactic acid is essential for polymerization of PLA. The high fermentation cost of L-lactic acid is another limitation for PLA polymers to compete with conventional plastics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Bacillus sp. strain 2-6 f...

  18. Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00, a new strain isolated from gut of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) produces chymotrypsin-like proteases

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde, Ashok A.; Shaikh, Faiyaz K.; Padul, Manohar V.; Kachole, Manvendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring bacterial communities with proteolytic activity from the gut of the Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) insect pests was the purpose of this study. As initial efforts to achieve this goal here we report the isolation of new Bacillus subtillis RTSBA6 6.00 strain from the gut of H. armigera and demonstrated as proteases producer. Zymographic analysis revealed 12 proteolytic bands with apparent molecular weights ranging from 20 to 185 kDa. Although some activity was ...

  19. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Akinpelu, David A.; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A.; Akinpelu, Oluseun F.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged betw...

  20. Degradation of proteins during the fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) by strains of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for production of Soumbala

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, L.I.I.; Rechinger, K.B.; Barkholt, Vibeke; Diawara, B.; Traore, A.S.; Jakobsen, M.

    2003-01-01

    amino acids (FAA) during the fermentation of ALBP by the Bacillus isolates were studied by SDS-PAGE and cation exchange chromatography. The profile of soluble proteins changed with the fermentation time and varied depending on the isolate. The quantity of total FAA and essential FAA such as lysine was...

  1. In vitro effect of Bacillus thuringiensis strains and Cry proteins in phytopathogenic fungi of paddy rice-field Efeito in vitro de cepas e proteínas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis em fungos fitopatogênicos da cultura do arroz irrigado

    OpenAIRE

    Neiva Knaak; Angelise Ana Rohr; Lidia Mariana Fiuza

    2007-01-01

    Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac strains and proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki were assessed in the following phytopathogens: Rhizoctonia solani,Pyricularia grisea,Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani, which had their micelial growth decreased after incubation in the presence of the bacterial strains. As to Cry proteins, there were no inhibition halo development in the assessed concentrations.As cepas e proteínas Cry1Ab e Cry1Ac sintetizadas por Bacillus ...

  2. Gamma Radiation to Increase Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis Thai Strain for Insect Pets Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates JCPT16 and JCPT68 were gamma-irradiated at 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy. The efficiency of these Bt isolates on S. litura control was also undertaken. It was found that the 4 kGy irradiated JCPT16 isolate had lowest LC50 of 6.6x103 spore/ml while the non-irradiated JCPT 16 isolate had LC50 of 6.2x103 spore/ml. Whereas the irradiated JCPT68 isolate at 8 kGy was noticed to have the lowest LC50 of 2.7 x 103 spores/ml, the non-irradiated JCPT68 had LC50 of 1.8x103 spores/ml. The efficiency test of B. thuringiensis isolate on S. exigua showed that the 2 kGy irradiated JCPT16 isolate had the lowest LC50 of 2.52x104 spores/ml while the non-irradiated JCPT16 isolate had LC50 of 6.04x103 spores/ml. The irradiated JCPT68 isolate at 4 kGy had the lowest LC50 of 5.41x104 spores/ml, the non irradiated JCPT68 had LC50 of 1.51x104 spores/ml. According to LC50 values, there were no significant differences of efficiency on S. litura and S. exigua control among Bt isolates irradiated at various concentrations. The isolate JCPT16, JCPT35, JCPT50 and JCPT68 irradiated at dose of 10 kGy showed higher UV tolerance. After expose by UV ray, most of irradiated isolates still displayed high efficiency of controlling S. litura, S. exigua and Plutella xylostell.

  3. Optimization of water absorbing exopolysaccharide production on local cheap substrates by Bacillus strain CMG1403 using one variable at a time approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammadi; Afzal, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Optimum culture conditions, and carbon and nitrogen sources for production of water absorbing exopolysaccharide by Bacillus strain CMG1403 on local cheap substrates were determined using one variable at a time approach. Carbon source was found to be sole substrate for EPS biosynthesis in the presence of yeast extract that supported the growth only and hence, indirectly enhanced the EPS yield. Whereas, urea only coupled with carbon source could enhance the EPS production but no effect on growth. The maximum yield of EPS was obtained when Bacillus strain CMG1403 was grown statically in neutral minimal medium with 25% volumetric aeration at 30°C for 10 days. Under these optimum conditions, a maximum yield of 2.71±0.024, 3.82±0.005, 4.33±0.021, 4.73±0.021, 4.85±0.024, and 5.52±0.016 g/L culture medium was obtained with 20 g (sugar) of sweet whey, glucose, fructose, sucrose, cane molasses and sugar beet the most efficient one respectively as carbon sources. Thus, the present study showed that under optimum culture conditions, the local cheap substrates could be superior and efficient alternatives to synthetic carbon sources providing way for an economical production of water absorbing EPS by indigenous soil bacterium Bacillus strain CMG1403. PMID:24390837

  4. Microbial dynamics during shelf-life of industrial Ricotta cheese and identification of a Bacillus strain as a cause of a pink discolouration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattin, E; Andreani, N A; Carraro, L; Fasolato, L; Balzan, S; Novelli, E; Squartini, A; Telatin, A; Simionati, B; Cardazzo, B

    2016-08-01

    Dairy products are perishable and have to be preserved from spoilage during the food chain to achieve the desired shelf-life. Ricotta is a typical Italian soft dairy food produced by heat coagulation of whey proteins and is considered to be a light and healthy product. The shelf-life of Ricotta could be extended, as required by the international food trade market; however, heat resistant microflora causes spoilage and poses issues regarding the safety of the product. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) applied to the Ricotta samples defined the composition of the microbial community in-depth during the shelf-life. The analysis demonstrated the predominance of spore-forming bacteria throughout the shelf-life, mostly belonging to Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium genera. A strain involved in spoilage and causing a pink discolouration of Ricotta was isolated and characterised as Bacillus mycoides/weihenstephanensis. This is the first report of a food discolouration caused by a toxigenic strain belonging to the Bacillus cereus group that resulted the predominant strain in the community of the defective ricotta. These results suggest that the processing of raw materials to eliminate spores and residual microflora could be essential for improving the quality and the safety of the product and to extend the shelf-life of industrial Ricotta. PMID:27052696

  5. Cadmium- and mercury-resistant Bacillus strains from a salt marsh and from Boston Harbor.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, I; Levinson, H. S.; Wang, Y.; Halvorson, H O

    1986-01-01

    Bacteria resistant to cadmium or mercury or both were isolated from the Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, Mass.) and from Boston Harbor. Many of these metal-resistant isolates were gram-positive aerobic sporeformers, although not necessarily isolated as spores. Although several of the isolated strains bore plasmids, cadmium and mercury resistances appeared to be, for the most part, chromosomally encoded. DNA sequence homology of the gram-positive cadmium- and mercury-resistant isolates was ...

  6. Characterization of Extracellular Penicilin G Acylase Produced by A New Local Strain of Bacillus subtilis BAC4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUPARTONO

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Penicillin G acylase (PGA which catalyses penicillin G hydrolysis reaction is a key enzyme for the industrial production of penicilin G derivatives used in therapeutics. A new local strain of Bacillus subtilis BAC4 was found capable of producing extracellular PGA. However, characteristics of this extracellular PGA are not known. The goal of this research was to characterize the extracellular PGA produced by B. subtilis BAC4. Enzyme production was carried out by batch fermentation, followed by enzyme purification and characterization of the PGA. The PGA activity was determined by the Kornfeld method, with optimal activity for hydrolysing penicillin G observed at 43 oC and pH 8.5. The activation energy of penicillin G hydrolysis by the PGA of B. subtilis BAC4 was determined as 4.9 kcal.mol-1 and Vmax and Km values were found to be 0.7 µmole.min-1.mg-1 and 3.5 mM respectively. PGA catalytic activity was competitively inhibited by phenylacetic acid with an inhibition constant, Ki(PAA, of 347.2 mM. It was concluded that the extracellular PGA of B. subtilis BAC4 can hydrolyse penicillin G efficiently.

  7. Production, purification and characterization of thermostable α-amylase from soil isolate Bacillus sp. strain B-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Nath Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A bacterial strain B-10 that produces α-amylase was isolated from compost and kitchen waste receiving agricultural soil. Based on microbiological and biochemical tests the isolate B-10 was identified as Bacillus sp. Alpha-amylase produced by this isolate was purified by (NH42SO4 precipitation and DEAE cellulose ion-exchange chromatography showing 15.91 and 48.21 fold purification, respectively. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme confirmed the purification and monomeric nature of the enzyme. The purified α-amylase showed maximum activity at pH 7 and temperature 50°C. The enzyme was significantly active in the temperature range of 30-60°C for the studied period of 2 h. During the incubation of purified enzyme at pH ranging from 5 to 10 for 24 h the maximum stability was observed at pH 7 followed by pH 8, whereas at extreme pH, the stability was very poor. Km and Vmax were found to be 1.4 mg/mL and 6.2 U/mL, respectively.

  8. Differential susceptibility to experimental glaucoma among 3 mouse strains using bead and viscoelastic injection

    OpenAIRE

    Cone, Frances E.; Gelman, Scott E.; Son, Janice L.; Pease, Mary E.; Quigley, Harry A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to test the susceptibility to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon loss and RGC layer cell loss from experimental glaucoma among 3 mouse strains, and between younger and older mice. We obstructed the mouse aqueous outflow channels by injecting 2 μL of 6 μm diameter, polystyrene beads followed by 3 μL of viscoelastic solution into the anterior chamber with a glass micropipette. We evaluated intraocular pressure (IOP) and damage to RGC as measured by optic nerve a...

  9. Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeats Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 20 markers was previously described. It has considerable discrimination power, reproducibility, and low cost, especially since the markers proposed can be typed by agarose-gel electrophoresis. However in an emergency situation, faster genotyping and access to representative databases is necessary. Results Genotyping of B. anthracis reference strains and isolates from France and Italy was done using a 25 loci MLVA assay combining 21 previously described loci and 4 new ones. DNA was amplified in 4 multiplex PCR reactions and the length of the resulting 25 amplicons was estimated by automated capillary electrophoresis. The results were reproducible and the data were consistent with other gel based methods once differences in mobility patterns were taken into account. Some alleles previously unresolved by agarose gel electrophoresis could be resolved by capillary electrophoresis, thus further increasing the assay resolution. One particular locus, Bams30, is the result of a recombination between a 27 bp tandem repeat and a 9 bp tandem repeat. The analysis of the array illustrates the evolution process of tandem repeats. Conclusion In a crisis situation of suspected bioterrorism, standardization, speed and accuracy, together with the availability of reference typing data are important issues, as illustrated by the 2001 anthrax letters event. In this report we describe an upgrade of the previously published MLVA method for genotyping of B. anthracis and apply the method to the typing of French and Italian B. anthracis strain collections. The increased number of markers studied compared to reports using only 8 loci greatly improves the discrimination power of the technique. An Italian strain belonging to the

  10. Immunological Properties of Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Strain Expressing Fusion Protein IL-2-ESAT-6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong-Lin FAN; Ting-He YU; Qian GAO; Wei YAO

    2006-01-01

    The live vaccine Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) provides variable efficacy against adult pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Recombinant BCG, expressing either immunodominant antigens or Thl cytokines, is a promising trategy for developing a new TB vaccine. However, not much is known about whether the introduction of cytokine and specific antigen genes concurrently into the BCG strain could improve the munogenicity of BCG. In this study, a recombinant BCG strain (rBCG) expressing the fusion protein human interleukin (IL)-2 and ESAT-6 (early secreted antigenic target-6 kDa) antigen of ycobacterium tuberculosis was constructed. Six weeks after BALB/c mice (H-2d) were immunized with 106 colony forming units (CFUs) BCG or rBCG, splenocyte proliferation was determined with MTT[3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay, IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ produced by plenocytes were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA,) and the cytotoxicity of splenocytes from immunized mice to P815 cells (H-2d) expressing ESAT-6 protein was measured using CytoTox 96 Non-Radioactive Cytotoxicity Assay. Compared with native BCG-vaccinated mice, rBCG induced stronger Th1 responses that were confirmed by high lymphoproliferative responses and IFN-γ production to culture filtrate protein (CFP) or ESAT-6 protein. Moreover, rBCG induced significant enhanced CTL responses against P815-ESAT-6 cells. Results from rBCG-immunized mice demonstrated that introducing the il-2 and esat-6 genes into BCG could enhance Th1 type immune responses to ESAT-6. Further investigation is needed by introducing other Th1 cytokines and antigens into BCG to optimize the protective efficacy against TB.

  11. Studies onBacillus thuringiensis H-14 strains isolated in Egypt-III. Selection of media for δ-endotoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hameed, A; Carlberg, G; El-Tayeb, O M

    1990-09-01

    Several medium ingredients locally available in Egypt were investigated for their ability to support δ-endotoxin production by two mosquito-toxic strains ofBacillus thuringiensis H-14 usingCulex pipiens for the bioassay of δ-endotoxin. Soya beans, black-eyed beans, common peas and lentils supported good production of toxin whereas peanuts, fodder yeast, cheese whey and corn steep liquor gave only low amounts of toxin. Molasses as the sole carbon source at 2 and 3% (w/v) with soya (or Proflo) as the sole nitrogen source at 3% gave the best yields of toxin for strain M1 and S128 respectively. PMID:24430072

  12. Three bioactive cyclic dipeptides from the Bacillus sp. N strain associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishanth, Sasidharan Kumar; Nambisan, Bala; Dileep, C

    2014-03-01

    In continuation of our search for new bioactive secondary metabolites from Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), three cyclic dipeptides (CDPs), cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) (1), cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-L-Leu) (2), and cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro) (3) were purified from the ethyl acetate extract of B. cereus. The chemical structure of the compounds was identified by 1D, 2D NMR and HR-ESI-MS. Cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) recorded best antifungal activity and the highest activity was recorded against Cryptococcus neoformans (1 μg/mL), which is better than the standard antifungal agent amphotericin B. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used for finding cell proliferation inhibition and cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) recorded significant activity against breast cancer cell line (MDAM-B231) (IC50 value: 25 μM) and the three cyclic dipeptides recorded no toxicity against normal human cell (fore skin (FS) normal fibroblast) up to 50 μM except cyclo(L-Val-L-Pro). Cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) induced significant morphological changes and DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis in MDAM-B231 cells by acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining and flow cytometry analysis. Out of three cyclic dipeptides tested only cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-L-Leu) recorded significant antioxidant activity. The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of cyclo(2-hydroxy-Pro-L-Leu) is greater than BHA, the standard antioxidant agent. Cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) was isolated for the first time from a natural source with a d-arginine residue. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the bioactivity of the isolated cyclic dipeptides is reported against medically important fungi and cancer cells. This study is a significant contribution to the knowledge of cyclo(L-Leu-D-Arg) from B. cereus as potential sources of new drugs in the pharmacological industry, especially as potent antifungal and anticancer agent. PMID:24291459

  13. The characteristics exosporium antigens from different vaccine strains of bacillus antracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop of both test-systems for rapid detection and identification of B. anthracis spores and a new subunit vaccine the antigens on the spore surface should be characterized. Exosporium consists of two layers-basal and peripheral and has been form by protein, amino- and neutral polysaccharides, lipids and ash. Number of anthrax exosporium proteins was described and identified: glycoprotein BclA, BclB, alanine racemase, inosine hydrolase, glycosyl hydrolase, superoxid dismutase, ExsF, ExsY, ExsK,CotB,CotY and SoaA. So far no glycosylated proteins other then highly immunogenic glycoproteins BclA, BclB were detected in the B. anthracis spore extract although several exosporium-specific glycoprotein have been described in other members of the B.cereus family- B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. Although EA1 protein originally described as main component of S-layer from vegetative cells he can regular observed in different exosporium preparations and additionally some anti- EA1 monoclonal antibodies able to recognize spore surface. We have revealed that EA1 isolated from spore of Russians strain STI-1contain carbohydrate which determine immunogenicity of this antigen. Because some time ago we have found that exosporium protein's pattern variable among B. anthracis strains we investigated exosporium from spore of different strains of B. anthracis including STI-1, Ames, Stern and others. We have comparative characterized antigens by using Western Blotting, Two-Dimensional electrophoresis and Mass Spec analysis. The results of analysis will be presented and discussed.(author)

  14. Next-Generation Bacillus anthracis Live Attenuated Spore Vaccine Based on the htrA(-) (High Temperature Requirement A) Sterne Strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitlaru, Theodor; Israeli, Ma'ayan; Bar-Haim, Erez; Elia, Uri; Rotem, Shahar; Ehrlich, Sharon; Cohen, Ofer; Shafferman, Avigdor

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax is a lethal disease caused by the gram-positive spore-producing bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Live attenuated vaccines, such as the nonencapsulated Sterne strain, do not meet the safety standards mandated for human use in the Western world and are approved for veterinary purposes only. Here we demonstrate that disrupting the htrA gene, encoding the chaperone/protease HtrA (High Temperature Requirement A), in the virulent Bacillus anthracis Vollum strain results in significant virulence attenuation in guinea pigs, rabbits and mice, underlying the universality of the attenuated phenotype associated with htrA knockout. Accordingly, htrA disruption was implemented for the development of a Sterne-derived safe live vaccine compatible with human use. The novel B. anthracis SterneΔhtrA strain secretes functional anthrax toxins but is 10-10(4)-fold less virulent than the Sterne vaccine strain depending on animal model (mice, guinea pigs, or rabbits). In spite of this attenuation, double or even single immunization with SterneΔhtrA spores elicits immune responses which target toxaemia and bacteremia resulting in protection from subcutaneous or respiratory lethal challenge with a virulent strain in guinea pigs and rabbits. The efficacy of the immune-protective response in guinea pigs was maintained for at least 50 weeks after a single immunization. PMID:26732659

  15. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  16. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

  17. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS TEQUILENSIS STRAINS CSGAB0139 ISOLATED FROM SPOILT COTTAGE CHEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna K

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An alkaline protease producing strain was isolated from spoilt cottage cheese sample which was identified as Bacillus tequilensis strain SCSGAB0139 on the basis of morphological, cultural, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Primary screening for protease production was carried out by observing for zone of hydrolysis on skim milk agar, GYEA milk agar and gelatin agar plates. Physicochemical parameters like pH of the medium, incubation time and temperature, aeration and composition of the medium were optimized for maximum protease production by this isolate. Maximum yield of protease (85.67U/ml was obtained in a medium containing peptone (5% w/v, maltose (5% w/v and KNO3, 0.5%; K2HPO4, 0.4%; trisodium citrate, 0.4; CaCl2, 0.0002%; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.05%; Na2CO3, 1%.; 1% (v/v of a trace element solution (NH46MO7O24, 0.01%; FeSO4·7H2O, 0.2%; CuSO4·5H2O, 0.02%; ZnCl2, 0.02% having pH 10, inoculated with 1%(v/v of pre-grown cell mass and incubated at 30°C on a rotary shaker (100rpm for 48hrs. Absence of any one of the following salts viz. KNO3, K2HPO4, tri-sodium citrate; MgSO4, CaCl2 and Na2CO3 from optimized medium reduced the protease production by 80% to 40%. The enzyme has an optimum pH of 9 and maintained its stability over a broad pH range between 6 and 10. Its optimum temperature is 30°C, and exhibited a stability of up to 65°C. Among metal ions only Ca2+ and Mg2+ions enhanced the enzyme activity up to 105% and 107% respectively while other metal ions reduced the activity by 40% where as EDTA exhibited the least inhibitory effect upon the enzyme. Protease activity was enhanced in the presence of isopropanol and marginally reduced in the presence of other organic solvents studied. The crude enzyme showed stability towards various surfactants such as Tween-20, Tween- 80, SDS and Triton X-100. It also showed excellent stability and compatibility with commonly used laundry detergents (Ariel, Surf excel and Surf Blue. The

  18. Ocorrência de Bacillus cereus em leite integral e capacidade enterotoxigênica das cepas isoladas Occurrence of Bacillus cereus in Whole milk and enterotoxigenic potential of the isolated strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.M. Rezende-Lago

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se a presença de Bacillus cereus e a produção de enterotoxinas produzidas por esses microrganismos em 120 amostras de diversos tipos de leite. Bacillus cereus foi isolado e identificado em 22 (73,3%, 15 (50,0%, 29 (96,7% e quatro (13,3% amostras de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT (longa vida, respectivamente. Para a detecção de enterotoxinas pela técnica da alça ligada de coelho, foram positivos, respectivamente, três (13,6%, um (7,1% e 10 (35,7% microrganismos isolados das amostras de leite em pó, leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Pelo teste de aumento de permeabilidade vascular, dois (9,1%, um (7,1%, um (3,6% e um (4,0% microrganismos isolados de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT apresentaram-se enterotoxigênicos, respectivamente. O uso da técnica de aglutinação passiva em látex demonstrou a produção da toxina diarréica por três (33,3%, sete (63,6%, quatro (30,8% e oito (80,0% microrganismos isolados, respectivamente, de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT. Os resultados indicam um risco potencial, podendo colocar em risco a saúde dos consumidores desses produtos.A hundred and twenty samples of different types of milk were examined to the presence of Bacillus cereus and the enterotoxigenic potential of the isolated strains. Bacillus cereus was isolated and identified in 22 (73.0%, 15 (50.0%, 29 (96.7% and four (13.3% samples of powder, raw, pasteurized and UHT milk, respectively. The enterotoxigenicity detection using the rabbit ileal loop assay showed positive, respectively, three (13.6%, one (7.1% and 10 (35.7% isolated strains from powder, raw and pasteurized milk. Using vascular permeability activity assay two (9.1%, one (7.1%, one (3.6% and one (4.0% isolated strains from powder, raw, pasteurized and UHT milk were positive, respectively. The reversed passive latex agglutination test showed diarrheal toxin production by three (33.3%, seven (63.6%, four (30.8% and eight (80.0% strains isolated from

  19. Comparative Analysis Of The Development Of Swarming Communities Of Bacillus Subtilis In Case Of Pta And ComXP Mutant Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassem Hamze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Swarming Experiments were carried on with Bacillus subtilis strains to identify the activity of certain genes in the swarming ability and surfactin production. We will examine the effect of comXP as well as pta mutations on the capability of swarming. In different experiments we showed that strain OMG 903 that carries mutation in comXP managed to produce surfactin but showed attenuated defective and random swarming pattern strain OMG 928 that carries mutation in pta gene managed to produce surfactin and showed normal swarming pattern meanwhile double mutation in comXP and pta in strain OMG 929 lead to the absence of surfactin production and didnt manage Thesetoswarmdatashowed. that a threshold of surfactin production is necessary for a normal swarming pattern.

  20. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  1. Study of the Antifungal Ability of Bacillus subtilis Strain PY-1 in Vitro and Identification of its Antifungal Substance (Iturin A)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng GONG; Jiang-Dong WANG; Jing ZHANG; Hao YANG; Xiao-Feng LU; Yan PEI; Jing-Qiu CHENG

    2006-01-01

    A Bacillus strain, denoted as PY- 1, was isolated from the vascular bundle of cotton. Biochemical,physiological and 16S rDNA sequence analysis proved that it should belong to Bacillus subtilis. The PY-1 strain showed strong ability against many common plant fungal pathogens in vitro. The antibiotics produced by this strain were stable in neutral and basic conditions, and not sensitive to high temperature. From the culture broth of PY- 1 strain, five antifungal compounds were isolated by acidic precipitation, methanol extraction, gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC. Advanced identification was performed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These five antifungal compounds were proved to be the isomers of iturin A: A2, A3, A4, A6 and A7. In fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry collision-induced dissociation spectra, fragmentation ions from two prior linear acylium ions were observed, and the prior ion, Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ser-βAA-Asn-CO+, was first reported.

  2. The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Indigenous B. thuringiensis exhibited highly accumulation ability to U(VI) in the absence of additional nutrients. • The amorphous uranium compound would transformed into crystalline nano-uramphite by B. thuringiensis. • The chemical nature of formed U-species were monitored. • The cell-free extracts of B. thuringiensis had better uranium-immobilization ability than its cell debris. • Provided the understanding of the uranium transformation mechanism. - Abstract: The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains was investigated in the present work. Our data showed that the bacteria isolated from uranium mine possessed highly accumulation ability to U(VI), and the maximum accumulation capacity was around 400 mg U/g biomass (dry weight). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyzes indicated that the U(VI) was adsorbed on the bacterial surface firstly through coordinating with phosphate, −CH2 and amide groups, and then needle-like amorphous uranium compounds were formed. With the extension of time, the extracellular crystalline substances were disappeared, but some particles were appeared in the intracellular region, and these particles were characterized as tetragonal-uramphite. Moreover, the disrupted experiment indicated that the cell-free extracts had better uranium-immobilization ability than cell debris. Our findings provided the understanding of the uranium transformation process from amorphous uranium to crystalline uramphite, which would be useful in the regulation of uranium immobilization process

  3. The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhi [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen, Fanbing [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Cheng, Yangjian [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Lin, Zhang, E-mail: zlin@fjirsm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Design and Assembly of Functional Nanostructures, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guan, Xiong, E-mail: guanxfafu@126.com [Key Lab of Biopesticide and Chemical Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Ministry of Education & Fujian–Taiwan Joint Center for Ecological Control of Crop Pests, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Indigenous B. thuringiensis exhibited highly accumulation ability to U(VI) in the absence of additional nutrients. • The amorphous uranium compound would transformed into crystalline nano-uramphite by B. thuringiensis. • The chemical nature of formed U-species were monitored. • The cell-free extracts of B. thuringiensis had better uranium-immobilization ability than its cell debris. • Provided the understanding of the uranium transformation mechanism. - Abstract: The mechanism of uranium transformation from U(VI) into nano-uramphite by two indigenous Bacillus thuringiensis strains was investigated in the present work. Our data showed that the bacteria isolated from uranium mine possessed highly accumulation ability to U(VI), and the maximum accumulation capacity was around 400 mg U/g biomass (dry weight). X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyzes indicated that the U(VI) was adsorbed on the bacterial surface firstly through coordinating with phosphate, −CH{sub 2} and amide groups, and then needle-like amorphous uranium compounds were formed. With the extension of time, the extracellular crystalline substances were disappeared, but some particles were appeared in the intracellular region, and these particles were characterized as tetragonal-uramphite. Moreover, the disrupted experiment indicated that the cell-free extracts had better uranium-immobilization ability than cell debris. Our findings provided the understanding of the uranium transformation process from amorphous uranium to crystalline uramphite, which would be useful in the regulation of uranium immobilization process.

  4. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEASES AND AMYLASES PRODUCING Bacillus licheniformis STRAIN EMBS026 BY 16S rRNA GENE SEQUENCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuraj N.S., Sabnani M.K., Mukesh Yadav, Jyotsana K., Deepika S., Rachna C. and Jyoti Sahu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of natural antimicrobial strategies has always attracted researchers, as disease outbreaks are recognized as important constraints to living organisms because of the development of antibiotic resistance in microorganisms. Use of probiotic bacteria has been in practice as alternatives to antimicrobials in disease control as microbial control agents. Probiotics, the natural and beneficial micro flora has been widely accepted and used in farming and aquaculture because of its diversified applications. It improves water and pond sediment quality which inturn improves aquatic life. Bacterial pathogenicity and virulence can be controlled without using excessive antibiotics which help to minimize the risk of multiple antibiotic resistances. Probiotic help in increased productivity and profits when used properly as they produce antagonistic compounds that are inhibitory toward pathogens, compete with harmful microorganisms for nutrients and energy, compete with deleterious species for adhesion sites, enhance the immune response of the animal, improve water quality, and interact with phytoplankton. Among the large number of probiotic products in use today are bacterial spore formers, mostly of the genus Bacillus. The genus Bacillus is widely used as probiotic products because of its extremely resistant spores which provide exceptional longevity and release exoenzymes. The current investigation is to identify a novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis by application of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The approach is to identify a novel, proteases and amylases producing bacteria which is used for detergent production. The sample was isolated from near Gudiwada, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subsequently the sample was serially diluted and the aliquots were incubated for a suitable time period following which the suspected colony was subjected to 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed the isolate to be a novel, high alkaline protease

  5. A Study on Effect of different culture media on amylase enzyme production by a native strain of Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    ziba Akbari; Hashem Nayeri; Keivan Beheshtimaal

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Amylases are among the most important enzymes and have great significance in present-day biotechnology. Amylase with commercial applications is mainly derived from the genus Bacillus. The main purpose of this study is identification and isolatation amylase enzyme producer Bacillus, determining the amylase enzyme activity and affecting a number of culture medium on amylase enzyme production. Materials and methods: Soil, water and wastewater samples were collected from agricul...

  6. Rapid Focused Sequencing: A Multiplexed Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Strain Typing of Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis

    OpenAIRE

    Turingan, Rosemary S.; Thomann, Hans-Ulrich; Zolotova, Anna; Tan, Eugene; Selden, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The intentional release of Bacillus anthracis in the United States in 2001 has heightened concern about the use of pathogenic microorganisms in bioterrorism attacks. Many of the deadliest bacteria, including the Class A Select Agents Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, and Yersinia pestis, are highly infectious via the pulmonary route when released in aerosolized form. Hence, rapid, sensitive, and reliable methods for detection of these biothreats and characterization of th...

  7. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes with Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch, Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-...

  8. [Comparative Sensitivity of the Luminescent Photobacterium phosphoreum, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis Strains to Toxic Effects of Carbon-Based Nanomaterials and Metal Nanoparticles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryabina, D G; Efremova, L V; Karimov, I F; Manukhov, I V; Gnuchikh, E Yu; Miroshnikov, S A

    2016-01-01

    A comparative analysis of the four commercially available and laboratory luminescent sensor strains to the toxic effect of 10 carbon-based nanomatherials (CBNs) and 10 metal nanoparticles (MNPs) was carried out in this study. The bioluminescence inhibition assays with marine Photobacterium phosphoreum and recombinant Escherichia coli strains were varied in minimal toxic concentrations and EC50 values but led to well correlated biotoxicity evaluation for the most active compounds were ranked as Cu > (MgO, CuO) > (fullerenol, graphene oxide). The novel sensor strain Bacillus subtilis EG 168-1 exhibited the highest sensitivity to CBNs and MNPs that increased significantly number of toxic compounds causing the bacterial bioluminescence inhibition effect. PMID:27476206

  9. Genomic analysis of three African strains of Bacillus anthracis demonstrates that they are part of the clonal expansion of an exclusively pathogenic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouli, L; MBengue, M; Robert, C; Ndiaye, M; La Scola, B; Raoult, D

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is classified as a 'Category A' biological weapon. Six complete genomes of B. anthracis (A0248, Ames, Ames Ancestor, CDC684, H0491, and Sterne) are currently available. In this report, we add three African strain genomes: Sen2Col2, Sen3 and Gmb1. To study the pan-genome of B. anthracis, we used bioinformatics tools, such as Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and performed phylogenetic analysis. We found that the three African strains contained the pX01 and pX02 plasmids, the nonsense mutation in the plcR gene and the four known prophages. These strains are most similar to the CDC684 strain and belong to the A cluster. We estimated that the B. anthracis pan-genome has 2893 core genes (99% of the genome size) and 85 accessory genes. We validated the hypothesis that B. anthracis has a closed pan-genome and found that the three African strains carry the two plasmids associated with bacterial virulence. The pan-genome nature of B. anthracis confirms its lack of exchange (similar to Clostridium tetani) and supports its exclusively pathogenic role, despite its survival in the environment. Moreover, thanks to the study of the core content single nucleotide polymorphisms, we can see that our three African strains diverged very recently from the other B. anthracis strains. PMID:25566394

  10. Genomic analysis of three African strains of Bacillus anthracis demonstrates that they are part of the clonal expansion of an exclusively pathogenic bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rouli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax and is classified as a ‘Category A’ biological weapon. Six complete genomes of B. anthracis (A0248, Ames, Ames Ancestor, CDC684, H0491, and Sterne are currently available. In this report, we add three African strain genomes: Sen2Col2, Sen3 and Gmb1. To study the pan‐genome of B. anthracis, we used bioinformatics tools, such as Cluster of Orthologous Groups, and performed phylogenetic analysis. We found that the three African strains contained the pX01 and pX02 plasmids, the nonsense mutation in the plcR gene and the four known prophages. These strains are most similar to the CDC684 strain and belong to the A cluster. We estimated that the B. anthracis pan‐genome has 2893 core genes (99% of the genome size and 85 accessory genes. We validated the hypothesis that B. anthracis has a closed pan‐genome and found that the three African strains carry the two plasmids associated with bacterial virulence. The pan‐genome nature of B. anthracis confirms its lack of exchange (similar to Clostridium tetani and supports its exclusively pathogenic role, despite its survival in the environment. Moreover, thanks to the study of the core content single nucleotide polymorphisms, we can see that our three African strains diverged very recently from the other B. anthracis strains.

  11. Influence of nutritional and physicochemical variables on PHB production from raw glycerol obtained from a Colombian biodiesel plant by a wild-type Bacillus megaterium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Paalo; Yañez, Camilo; Cardozo, Nilo Sérgio Medeiros; Escalante, Humberto; Combariza, Marianny Y; Guzman, Carolina

    2015-12-25

    Biodegradable polymers are currently viable alternatives to traditional synthetic polymers. For instance, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is intracellularly produced and accumulated by Bacillus species, among others. This study reports several wild-type Bacillus strains with the ability to accumulate PHB using raw glycerol from biodiesel production as the sole carbon source. Out of 15 strains from different sources, B. megaterium B2 was selected as the most promising strain for further statistical optimization of the medium composition. Plackett-Burman and central composite designs were used to establish key variables and optimal culture conditions for PHB production using both 250-mL shake flasks and a 7.5-L bioreactor. Temperature and concentrations of glycerol and Na2HPO4 are the experimental variables with the most significant influence on PHB production by B2. After 14 hours of fermentation in shake flasks with optimized medium, B2 produced 0.43 g/L of PHB with a 34% accumulation in the cells. In contrast, under the same conditions, a maximum PHB concentration of 1.20 g/L in the bioreactor was reached at 11 hours. These values correspond to a 48% and 314% increase in PHB production compared to the initial culture conditions. These results suggest the potential of B2 as a PHB producer using raw glycerol, which is an inexpensive, abundant and readily available carbon source. PMID:25982267

  12. Bacillus sp. strain P38: an efficient producer of L-lactate from cellulosic hydrolysate, with high tolerance for 2-furfural.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lili; Wang, Limin; Che, Chengchuan; Yang, Ge; Yu, Bo; Ma, Yanhe

    2013-12-01

    In this study, efficient polymer-grade L-lactic acid production was achieved with the strain Bacillus sp. P38 by using cellulosic hydrolysate as the sole carbon source. In fed-batch fermentation, 180 g L(-1)L-lactic acid was obtained with a volumetric productivity of 2.4 g L(-1)h(-1) and a yield of 0.96 g g(-1) total reducing sugars. No D-isomer of lactic acid was detected in the broth. Strain P38 tolerated up to 10 g L(-1) 2-furfural, and lactate production was sharply inhibited only when the 2-furfural concentration was higher than 6 g L(-1). Moreover, strain P38 also tolerated high concentrations (>6 g L(-1)) of other fermentation inhibitors in cellulosic hydrolysate, such as vanillin and acetic acid, although it was slightly sensitive to formic acid. The efficient L-lactic acid production, combined with high inhibitor tolerance and efficient pentose utilization, indicate that Bacillus sp. P38 is a promising producer of polymer-grade L-lactic acid from cellulosic biomass. PMID:24096283

  13. Non-sterilized fermentative production of polymer-grade L-lactic acid by a newly isolated thermophilic strain Bacillus sp. 2-6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayang Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The demand for lactic acid has been increasing considerably because of its use as a monomer for the synthesis of polylactic acid (PLA, which is a promising and environment-friendly alternative to plastics derived from petrochemicals. Optically pure L-lactic acid is essential for polymerization of PLA. The high fermentation cost of L-lactic acid is another limitation for PLA polymers to compete with conventional plastics. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Bacillus sp. strain 2-6 for production of L-lactic acid was isolated at 55 degrees C from soil samples. Its thermophilic characteristic made it a good lactic acid producer because optically pure L-lactic acid could be produced by this strain under open condition without sterilization. In 5-liter batch fermentation of Bacillus sp. 2-6, 118.0 g/liter of L-lactic acid with an optical purity of 99.4% was obtained from 121.3 g/liter of glucose. The yield was 97.3% and the average productivity was 4.37 g/liter/h. The maximum L-lactic acid concentration of 182.0 g/liter was obtained from 30-liter fed-batch fermentation with an average productivity of 3.03 g/liter/h and product optical purity of 99.4%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With the newly isolated Bacillus sp. strain 2-6, high concentration of optically pure L-lactic acid could be produced efficiently in open fermentation without sterilization, which would lead to a new cost-effective method for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production from renewable resources.

  14. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided. PMID:27030978

  15. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA delta-endotoxins in a laboratory-selected Heliothis virescens strain is related to receptor alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M K; Rajamohan, F; Gould, F; Dean, D H

    1995-11-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis toxin-binding properties of midgut epithelial cells from two strains of Heliothis virescens were compared. One H. virescens strains (YHD2) which was selected against CryIAc toxin had over 10,000-fold resistance to CryIAc toxin relative to the susceptible strain and was cross-resistant to CryIAa and CryIAb. The second H. virescens strain (YDK) was susceptible to these toxins in the order CryIAc > CryIAb > CryIAa. Receptor-binding properties of CryIAa, CryIAb, and CryIAc toxins were compared between the susceptible and resistant strains. Saturation and competition-binding experiments were performed with brush border membrane vesicles prepared from midguts of the susceptible and resistant insects and 125I-labeled toxins. In the susceptible strain, saturable, specific, and high-affinity binding of all three toxins was observed. The relative binding-site concentration was directly correlated with toxicity (CryIAc > CryIAb > CryIAa). In the resistant strains, the binding affinities of CryIAb and CryIAc were similar to that observed with the susceptible strain and ony minor differences in binding-site concentration (Bmax) were observed. The major difference between the two strains was the total lack of binding of CryIAa toxin to the brush border membrane vesicles of the resistant strain. Heterologous competition-binding experiments and ligand blot analysis supported the hypothesis that there were multiple binding sites for the toxins. On the basis of results of the present study, we propose that alterations in binding proteins shared by all three toxins are a major factor in resistance. This suggests that not all receptors of CryIAc might be involved in toxic function. PMID:8526494

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC GROWTH OF BACILLUS MOJAVENSIS STRAIN JF-2 FOR THE PURPOSE OF IMPROVED ANAEROBIC BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.J. McInerney; M. Folmsbee; D. Nagle

    2004-05-31

    Our work focuses on the use of microorganisms to recover petroleum hydrocarbons that remain entrapped after current recovery technologies reach their economic limit. Capillary forces between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are largely responsible for trapping the hydrocarbons in the pores of the rock and large reductions in the interfacial tension between the hydrocarbon and aqueous phases are needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (1-3, 10, 11). Microorganisms produce a variety of biosurfactants (4), several of which generate the ultra low interfacial tensions needed for hydrocarbon mobilization (4, 5, 8). In particular, the lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by Bacillus mojavensis strain JF-2 reduces the interfacial tension between hydrocarbon and aqueous phases to very low levels (<0.016 mN/m) (8) (9). B. mojavensis JF-2 grows under the environmental conditions found in many oil reservoirs, i. e., anaerobic, NaCl concentrations up to 80 g l{sup -1}, and temperatures up to 45 C (6, 7), making it ideally suited for in situ applications. However, anaerobic growth of B. mojavensis JF-2 was inconsistent and difficult to replicate, which limited its use for in situ applications. Our initial studies revealed that enzymatic digests, such as Proteose Peptone, were required for anaerobic growth of Bacillus mojavensis JF-2. Subsequent purification of the growth-enhancing factor in Proteose Peptone resulted in the identification of the growth-enhancing factor as DNA or deoxyribonucleosides. The addition of salmon sperm DNA, herring sperm DNA, E. coli DNA or synthetic DNA (single or double stranded) to Medium E all supported anaerobic growth of JF-2. Further, we found that JF-2 required all four deoxyribonucleosides (deoxyadeonosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine and thymidine) for growth under strict anaerobic conditions. The requirement for the deoxyribonucleosides did not occur under aerobic growth conditions. DNA was not used as a sole energy source; sucrose was required

  17. Biocontrol traits and antagonistic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a causal agent of canola stem rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuncheng; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 has shown antagonism of several phytopathogens in vitro, especially Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Both the broth culture and cell suspension of strain NJZJSB3 could completely protect the detached leaves of canola (Brassica napus) from S. sclerotiorum infection. In pot experiments, the application of strain NJZJSB3 cell suspension (10(8) CFU/ml) decreased the disease incidence by 83.3%, a result similar to commercially available fungicide (Dimetachlone). In order to investigate the potential biocontrol mechanisms of strain NJZJSB3, the nonvolatile antifungal compounds it produces were identified as iturin homologs using HPLC-ESI-MS. Antifungal volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detected volatiles toluene, phenol, and benzothiazole showed antifungal effects against S. sclerotiorum in chemical control experiments. Strain NJZJSB3 also produced biofilm, siderophores and cell-wall-degrading enzymes (protease and β-1,3-glucanase). These results suggest that strain NJZJSB3 can be a tremendous potential agent for the biological control of sclerotinia stem rot. PMID:24861342

  18. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

  19. Stress-driven speciation in novel strains of Bacillus isolated from a microbial community in the Mojave Desert, a Mars-analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, J.; Lera, M.; Marcu, O.

    2012-12-01

    Microbial communities are composed of complex multispecies that coevolve within the constraints of the environment over time. In the harsh, desiccated regions of the Mojave Desert, a Mars-analog, the microbial community in the surface layer is exposed to daily and seasonal fluctuations in temperature, humidity, nutrients, and UV index. Strategies of adaptation to physical factors in a microbial microenvironment determine the limits of adaptation and survival to sudden climate changes, with implications for planetary habitability. Here we show that novel strains of Bacillus niacini and B. thuringiensis isolated from the top soil of the Mojave Desert are differentially adapted to selective pressures imposed by caloric restriction and oxidative stress and show distinct social interactions. Metabolic profiling using Biolog plates for all isolates showed drastically different "metabolic fingerprints," with some only able to utilize very specific carbon sources in contrast to others that were able to breakdown most sources but for only a limited time. The stress response to hydrogen peroxide was also differential, with catalase activity levels of the Bacillus species from Mojave being much lower than the control species of soil Bacillus, suggesting that their survival may depend on other microbes from the same community for protection from oxidative damage. We also investigated the social communication and interaction of the four strains by spatial microenvironment assays, and uncovered unusual swarming and swimming abilities through motility assays. The cooperation and conflict in the microbial population reflect adaptations to oxidative stress and caloric restriction, which can be the driving forces for differences in phenotypes, interactions, metabolic ability, and ultimately, speciation. This study supports the theory of codependencies of organisms in a community for protection or access to "public goods" for survival in a harsh, fluctuating environment, and

  20. Genomic Analysis of a Mycobacterium Bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Strain Isolated from an Adult Patient with Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongqiang; Yu, Xia; Cao, Jun; Wang, Rui; Lv, Xinyan; He, Jin; Guo, Aizhen; Huang, Hairong; Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Siguo

    2015-01-01

    For years, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has served as the unique vaccine against tuberculosis and has generally been regarded as safe. However, a clinical strain labeled 3281 that was isolated from a TB patient was identified to be BCG. Via the combination of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and comparative genomic analysis, unique 3281 genetic characteristics were revealed. A region containing the dnaA and dnaN genes that is closely related to the initial chromosome replication was found to repeat three times on the BCG Pasteur-specific tandem duplication region DU1. Due to the minimum number of epitopes in BCG strains, 3281 was inferred to have a high possibility for immune evasion. Additionally, variations in the virulence genes and predictions for potential virulence factors were analyzed. Overall, we report a pathogen that has never previously been thought to be pathogenic and initial insights that are focused on the genetic characteristics of virulent BCG. PMID:25876043

  1. Purification, Biochemical Characterization and Self-assembled Structure of a Fengycin-like Antifungal Peptide from Bacillus thuringiensis strain SM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SantiM.Mandal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An antifungal lipopeptide fengycin, producing strain SM1 was isolated from farm land soil sample and identified as Bacillus thuringienesis strain SM1 by using 16S rDNA analysis. Fengycin detected in the culture extract was further purified using HPLC and showed a molecular mass of 1492.8 Da by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Purified fengycin was allowed to construct their self-assembled structure onto a hydrophobic surface showing a clear improvement of antibacterial activity. In self-assembly, fengycin adapts a spherical micelle core shell like structure. Self-assembled fengycin may be a successful antimicrobial compound modifying its action from confined antifungal function. Besides it can open up a new area of research in supramolecullar lipopeptide based compound making. This can revealed the mode of action of this unique self-assembled structure to fully evaluate its potential for use as an antimicrobial drug to control the emergence of bacterial infection.

  2. Genomic analysis of a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus [corrected] Calmette-Guérin strain isolated from an adult patient with pulmonary tuberculosis..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuming; Chen, Liping; Zhu, Yongqiang; Yu, Xia; Cao, Jun; Wang, Rui; Lv, Xinyan; He, Jin; Guo, Aizhen; Huang, Hairong; Zheng, Huajun; Liu, Siguo

    2015-01-01

    For years, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has served as the unique vaccine against tuberculosis and has generally been regarded as safe. However, a clinical strain labeled 3281 that was isolated from a TB patient was identified to be BCG. Via the combination of next-generation sequencing (NGS) and comparative genomic analysis, unique 3281 genetic characteristics were revealed. A region containing the dnaA and dnaN genes that is closely related to the initial chromosome replication was found to repeat three times on the BCG Pasteur-specific tandem duplication region DU1. Due to the minimum number of epitopes in BCG strains, 3281 was inferred to have a high possibility for immune evasion. Additionally, variations in the virulence genes and predictions for potential virulence factors were analyzed. Overall, we report a pathogen that has never previously been thought to be pathogenic and initial insights that are focused on the genetic characteristics of virulent BCG. PMID:25876043

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of a thermostable organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Bacillus sp. strain 42

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallographic data of organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Bacillus sp. strain 42 was collected at 2.0 Å with unit-cell parameters a =117.41, b = 80.85, c = 99.44 Å, β=96.40°. The protein–solvent interactions will be studied since lipase 42 was stable in water-miscible solvent. An organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Bacillus sp. strain 42 was crystallized using the capillary-tube method. The purpose of studying this enzyme was in order to better understand its folding and to characterize its properties in organic solvents. By initially solving its structure in the native state, further studies on protein–solvent interactions could be performed. X-ray data were collected at 2.0 Å resolution using an in-house diffractometer. The estimated crystal dimensions were 0.09 × 0.19 × 0.08 mm. The crystal belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 117.41, b = 80.85, c = 99.44 Å, β = 96.40°

  4. Isolation of Bacillus sp. strains capable of decomposing alkali lignin and their application in combination with lactic acid bacteria for enhancing cellulase performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Choi, Dubok; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Effective biological pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was investigated. Two alkali lignin-degrading bacteria were isolated from forest soils in Japan and named CS-1 and CS-2. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that CS-1 and CS-2 were Bacillus sp. Strains CS-1 and CS-2 displayed alkali lignin degradation capability. With initial concentrations of 0.05-2.0 g L(-1), at least 61% alkali lignin could be degraded within 48 h. High laccase activities were observed in crude enzyme extracts from the isolated strains. This result indicated that alkali lignin degradation was correlated with laccase activities. Judging from the net yields of sugars after enzymatic hydrolysis, the most effective pretreatment method for enhancing cellulase performance was a two-step processing procedure (pretreatment using Bacillus sp. CS-1 followed by lactic acid bacteria) at 68.6%. These results suggest that the two-step pretreatment procedure is effective at accelerating cellulase performance. PMID:24316485

  5. Comparative evaluation of agroindustrial byproducts for the production of alkaline protease by wild and mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis in submerged and solid state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Hamid; Haq, Ikramul

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72(EMS8). During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the byproducts tested, soybean meal at a concentration of 20 g/L gave maximum production of the enzyme, that is, 5.74  ±  0.26 U/mL from wild and 11.28  ±  0.45 U/mL from mutant strain, during submerged fermentation. Different mesh sizes (coarse, medium, and fine) of the soybean meal were also evaluated, and a finely ground soybean meal (fine mesh) was found to be the best. In addition to the defatted seed meals, their alkali extracts were also tested for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus subtilis, but these were proved nonsignificant for enhanced production of the enzyme. The production of the enzyme was also studied in solid state fermentation, and different agro-industrial byproducts were also evaluated for enzyme production. Wheat bran partially replaced with guar meal was found as the best substrate for maximum enzyme production under solid state fermentation conditions. PMID:24294129

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Agroindustrial Byproducts for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Wild and Mutant Strains of Bacillus subtilis in Submerged and Solid State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mukhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72EMS8. During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the byproducts tested, soybean meal at a concentration of 20 g/L gave maximum production of the enzyme, that is, 5.74  ±  0.26 U/mL from wild and 11.28  ±  0.45 U/mL from mutant strain, during submerged fermentation. Different mesh sizes (coarse, medium, and fine of the soybean meal were also evaluated, and a finely ground soybean meal (fine mesh was found to be the best. In addition to the defatted seed meals, their alkali extracts were also tested for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus subtilis, but these were proved nonsignificant for enhanced production of the enzyme. The production of the enzyme was also studied in solid state fermentation, and different agro-industrial byproducts were also evaluated for enzyme production. Wheat bran partially replaced with guar meal was found as the best substrate for maximum enzyme production under solid state fermentation conditions.

  7. Isolation of proline-based cyclic dipeptides from Bacillus sp. N strain associated with rhabditid [corrected] entomopathogenic nematode and its antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nishanth; Mohandas, C; Nambisan, Bala; Kumar, D R Soban; Lankalapalli, Ravi S

    2013-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are well-known as biological control agents and are found to have associated bacteria which can produce a wide range of bioactive secondary metabolites. We report herewith isolation of six proline containing cyclic dipeptides cyclo(D-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Met), cyclo(D-Pro-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) and cyclo(L-Pro-D-Tyr) from ethyl acetate extract of the Luria Broth (LB) cell free culture filtrate of Bacillus sp. strain N associated with a new EPN Rhabditis sp. from sweet potato weevil grubs collected from Central Tuber Crops Research Institute farm. Antimicrobial studies of these 2,5-diketopiperazines (DKPs) against both medicinally and agriculturally important bacterium and fungi showed potent inhibitory values in the range of μg/mL. Cyclic dipeptides showed significantly higher activity than the commercial fungicide bavistin against agriculturally important fungi, viz., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Pencillium expansum. The highest activity of 2 μg/mL by cyclo(L-Pro-L-Phe) was recorded against P. expansum, a plant pathogen responsible for causing post harvest decay of stored apples and oranges. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the isolation of these DKPs from Rhabditis EPN bacterial strain Bacillus sp. PMID:23065379

  8. Effects of temperature, pH-values and sodium chloride concentrations on the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity by thermotolerant Bacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAZEM AQEL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen new isolated thermotolerant Bacillus strains and four known Bacillus species were used to evaluate the effect of growth temperature, pH-values and NaCl concentrations on the intracellular glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH activity. Results had shown a significant difference in G6PDH production among all species at all used temperatures (p<0.05. The response of individual new isolates and controls for production of G6PDH under growth conditions was variable. The optimal growth conditions did not correspond to the optimal cultivation conditions for maximum G6PDH production. The growth temperature showed the most significant effect on G6PDH activity. The combined effect of temperature and NaCl on the G6PDH activity was strongly pronounced in comparison with the combined effect of temperature and pH or pH and NaCl. Thermal stability at 53ºC and electrophoretic mobility were also investigated. G6PDH from HUTB41 was the most thermostable G6PDH enzyme with T50% of more than 360 minutes. Electrophoretic study demonstrated that G6PDH was composed of two isoenzymes for all strains except B. marinus and B. schlegelii that had three isoenzymes.

  9. A reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the rice delphacid, Tagosodes orizicolus (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Rebeca; Ibarra, Jorge E; Espinoza, Ana M

    2007-06-01

    A reliable bioassay procedure was developed to test ingested Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins on the rice delphacid Tagosodes orizicolus. Initially, several colonies were established under greenhouse conditions, using rice plants to nurture the insect. For the bioassay, an in vitro feeding system was developed for third to fourth instar nymphs. Insects were fed through Parafilm membranes on sugar (10 % sucrose) and honey bee (1:48 vol/vol) solutions, observing a natural mortality of 10-15 % and 0-5 %, respectively. Results were reproducible under controlled conditions during the assay (18+/-0.1 degrees C at night and 28+/-0.1 degrees C during the day, 80 % RH and a 12:12 day:light photoperiod). In addition, natural mortality was quantified on insect colonies, collected from three different geographic areas of Costa Rica, with no significant differences between colonies under controlled conditions. Finally, bioassays were performed to evaluate the toxicity of a Bt collection on T. orizicolus. A preliminary sample of twenty-seven Bt strains was evaluated on coarse bioassays using three loops of sporulated colonies in 9 ml of liquid diet, the strains that exhibited higher percentages of T. orizicolus mortality were further analyzed in bioassays using lyophilized spores and crystals (1 mg/ml). As a result, strains 26-O-to, 40-X-m, 43-S-d and 23-O-to isolated from homopteran insects showed mortalities of 74, 96, 44 and 82% respectively while HD-137, HD-1 and Bti showed 19, 83 and 95% mortalities. Controls showed mortalities between 0 and 10% in all bioassays. This is the first report of a reliable bioassay procedure to evaluate per os toxicity for a homopteran species using Bacillus thuringiensis strains. PMID:19069752

  10. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon-Hee Han

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control.

  11. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joon-Hee; Shim, Hongsik; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2015-06-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near the western sea of South Korea. Five bacterial strains, LB01, LB14, HM03, HM17, and LB15, were characterized as having antifungal properties in the presence of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The three Bacillus atrophaeus strains, LB14, HM03, and HM17, produced large quantities of chitinase and protease enzymes, whereas the B. amyloliquefaciens strain LB01 produced protease and cellulase enzymes. Two important antagonistic traits, siderophore production and solubilization of insoluble phosphate, were observed in the three B. atrophaeus strains. Analyses of disease suppression revealed that LB14 was most effective for suppressing the incidence of anthracnose symptoms on pepper fruits. LB14 produced antagonistic compounds and suppressed conidial germination of C. acutatum and C. gloeosporioides. The results from the present study will provide a basis for developing a reliable alternative to fungicides for anthracnose control. PMID:26060435

  12. community Participation for culturing Local Strain of bacillus Thuringiensis H-14 in coconut Medium to controlanopheles Sundaicus Larvae at kampung Laut, cilacap regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Trapsilowati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background: Community participation was necessary for culturinglocal strain of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 in coconut medium and adoption this bioinsecticide to control Anopheles sundaicus. This study aimed to evaluate community participation for culturing local strain of B. thuringiensis H-14 using coconut media and spreading the results of inoculation against Anopheles sundaicus larvae. Methods: The study design was a quasi-experiment. Reseach was conducted in February-November 2007 in Kampung Laut, Cilacap. Samples were 30 person which were choosed purposively. The sample criterias were at least 15 years of age and have a pond. Community participation was evaluated for 6 times using checklist. results: Results showed that all respondents (> 80% could have on every element of 9 elements properly. Ninety percent of respondents could prepare coconut independently and made local strains of B. thuringiensis H-14 inoculation in coconuts properly (96. 67%. The density of An. sundaicuslarvae was decreased by 80–100% after 1 day spreading with culture of local strain of B. thuringiensis H-14. conclusion: Communities could participate independently for culturinglocal strain of B. thuringiensis H-14 in coconuts to control An. sundaicus larvae. The inoculation capable todecrease An. sundaicus larvae density 80–100% after 1 day. Further research was recomended to calculate cost benefit and cost effectiveness.

  13. Adverse reactions to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine in new-born infants-an evaluation of the Danish strain 1331 SSI in a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Birk, Nina Marie; Kjærgaard, Jesper;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adverse reactions of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Statens Serum Institut (SSI) (Danish strain 1331) used as intervention in a randomized clinical trial. DESIGN: A randomized clinical multicenter trial, The Danish Calmette Study, randomizing newborns to BCG or no inter......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adverse reactions of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Statens Serum Institut (SSI) (Danish strain 1331) used as intervention in a randomized clinical trial. DESIGN: A randomized clinical multicenter trial, The Danish Calmette Study, randomizing newborns to BCG...

  14. Isolation and characterization of a novel native Bacillus thuringiensis strain BRC-HZM2 capable of degrading chlorpyrifos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wu, S.; Peng, Y.; Huang, Z.; Huang, Z.; Xu, L.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Zhang, L.; Zou, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2015), s. 389-397. ISSN 0233-111X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * biopesticide * biodegradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.823, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jobm.201300501/epdf

  15. Effect of pretreatments on enhanced degradation of polyisoprene rubber by newly isolated bacillus sp, strain S10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigation was conducted to isolate polyisoprene rubber (latex gloves) degrading microorganisms from soil. Twelve bacterial species were isolated through enrichment technique and were screened for their capacity to degrade rubber. Best growth was observed with Bacillus sp. S 10 in terms of diameter of the spot on latex overlay mineral salt agar plates and increase in optical density as determined at 600 nm for liquid culture. The effect of different pretreatments like extraction of rubber pieces with organic solvent (acetone), pretreatment with UV and sunlight, effect of temperature and pH were optimized for Bacillus sp. S10 in liquid MSM with pieces of gloves as the only source of carbon In case of pretreated rubber best growth was observed in case of acetone pretreated rubber shown by increase in optical density. Bacillus sp. S10 grew best at pH 7 at 37 degree C Qualitative analysis of degradation of pretreated rubbers, after incubation in liquid MSM with Bacillus sp. S I 0 was done through FTIR which showed marked differences in transmittance spectra of test and control due to changes in the functional groups Present study on biodegradation may provide an opportunity for further studies on the applications of biotechnological processes as a tool for rubber waste management. (author)

  16. Reduced levels of membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase are common to lepidopteran strains resistant to Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Development of insect resistance is one of the main concerns with the use of transgenic crops expressing Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Biomarkers for development of sensitive DNA-based methods to detect and monitor evolution of resistance to Bt toxins are currently needed. ...

  17. The introduction of integrated pest management in the Ethiopian horticultural sector : Bacillus thuringiensis strains and its toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Elderson, J.

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction As hazards of conventional broad acting pesticides are documented, researchers, poli cymakers and growers look for pesticides that are toxic only to the target pest, have no impact on other such as beneficial species, and have fewer environmental effects. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) i

  18. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus azotoformans MEV2011, a (Co-) denitrifying strain unable to grow with oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Maja; Schreiber, Lars; Finster, Kai; Schramm, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus azotoformans MEV2011, isolated from soil, is a microaerotolerant obligate denitrifier, which can also produce N2 by co-denitrification. Oxygen is consumed but not growth-supportive. The draft genome has a size of 4.7 Mb and contains key genes for both denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium.

  19. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  20. De-hairing protease production by an isolated Bacillus cereus strain AT under solid-state fermentation using cow dung: Biosynthesis and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Ponnuswamy; Lazarus, Sophia; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Agro-industrial residues and cow dung were used as the substrate for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus cereus strain AT. The bacterial strain Bacillus cereus strain AT produced a high level of protease using cow dung substrate (4813 ± 62 U g(-1)). Physiological fermentation factors such as the incubation time (72 h), the pH (9), the moisture content (120%), and the inoculum level (6%) played a vital role in the enzyme bioprocess. The enzyme production improved with the supplementation of maltose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram analysis of the purified protease indicated an estimated molecular mass of 46 kDa. The protease enzyme was stable over a temperature range of 40-50 °C and pH 6-9, with maximum activity at 50 °C and pH 8. Among the divalent ions tested, Ca(2+), Na(+) and Mg(2+) showed activities of 107 ± 0.7%, 103.5 ± 1.3%, and 104.6 ± 0.9, respectively. The enzyme showed stability in the presence of surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate and on various commercially available detergents. The crude enzyme effectively de-haired goat hides within 18 h of incubation at 30 °C. The enzymatic properties of this protease suggest its suitable application as an additive in detergent formulation and also in leather processing. Based on the laboratory results, the use of cow dung for producing and extracting enzyme is not cumbersome and is easy to scale up. Considering its cheap cost and availability, cow dung is an ideal substrate for enzyme bioprocess in an industrial point of view. PMID:24596497

  1. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Chitinase-Deficient Bacillus licheniformis Strains Capable of Deproteinization of Shrimp Shell Waste To Obtain Highly Viscous Chitin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldeck, Jens; Daum, Gabriele; Bisping, Bernward; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2006-01-01

    Proteolytic but chitinase-deficient microbial cultures were isolated from shrimp shell waste and characterized. The most efficient isolate was found to be a mixed culture consisting of two Bacillus licheniformis strains, which were first determined microscopically and physiologically. Molecular characterization was carried out by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of both strains. According to the residual protein and ash content, the chitin obtained by fermentation of such a mixed culture was found to be comparable to a commercially available, chemically processed product. However, the strikingly high viscosity (80 versus 10 mPa of the commercially available sample) indicates its superior quality. The two strains differed in colony morphology and in their secretion capabilities for degradative extracellular enzymes. Sequencing of the loci encoding amylase, cellulase, chitinases, and proteases, as well as the degS/degU operon, which is instrumental in the regulation of degradative enzymes, and the pga operon, which is responsible for polyglutamic acid production, revealed no differences. However, a frameshift mutation in chiA, encoding a chitinase, was validated for both strains, providing an explanation for the ascertained absence of chitinolytic activities and the concomitant possibility of producing highly viscous chitin in a fermentational deproteinization process. PMID:17028230

  2. Effect of organic fertilizers prepared from organic waste materials on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds by two biocontrol Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Wei, Zhong; Ling, Ning; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-06-10

    Three organic fertilizers made of different animal and plant waste materials (BOFs) were evaluated for their effects on the production of antibacterial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by two Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains SQR-9 and T-5 against the tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). Both strains could produce VOCs that inhibited the growth and virulence traits of RS; however, in the presence of BOFs, the production of antibacterial VOCs was significantly increased. The maximum inhibition of growth and virulence traits of RS by VOCs of T-5 and SQR-9 was determined at 1.5% BOF2 and 2% BOF3, respectively. In case of strain T-5, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene, benzothiazole, and butylated hydroxy toluene and in case of strain SQR-9, 2-nonanone, nonanal, xylene and 2-undecanone were the main antibacterial VOCs whose production was increased in the presence of BOFs. The results of this study reveal another significance of using organic fertilizers to improve the antagonistic activity of biocontrol agents against phytopathogens. PMID:27067079

  3. A biosurfactant-producing and oil-degrading Bacillus subtilis strain enhances oil recovery under simulated reservoir conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gudiña, Eduardo J.; Pereira, J. F.; Costa, Rita; L. R. Rodrigues; Coutinho, João A. P.; J.A. Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) is potentially useful to increment oil recovery from reservoirs beyond primary and secondary recovery operations using microorganisms and their metabolites. In situ stimulation of microorganisms that produce biosurfactants and degrade heavy oil fractions reduces the capillary forces that retain the oil inside the reservoir and decreases oil viscosity, thus promoting its flow and increasing oil production. Bacillus subtilis #573, isolated from crude oil s...

  4. Purification and properties of thermostable xylanase and beta-xylosidase produced by a newly isolated Bacillus stearothermophilus strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Nanmori, T; Watanabe, T.; Shinke, R; Kohno, A; Kawamura, Y.

    1990-01-01

    We isolated a thermophilic bacterium that produces both xylanase and beta-xylosidase. Based on taxonomical research, this bacterium was identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus. Each extracellular enzyme was separated by hydrophobic chromatography by using a Toyopearl HW-65 column, followed by gel filtration with a Sephacryl S-200 column. Each enzyme in the culture was further purified to homogeneity (62-fold for xylanase and 72-fold for beta-xylosidase) by using a fast protein liquid chroma...

  5. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus azotoformans MEV2011, a (Co-) denitrifying strain unable to grow with oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Maja; Schreiber, Lars; Finster, Kai; Schramm, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus azotoformans MEV2011, isolated from soil, is a microaerotolerant obligate denitrifier, which can also produce N2 by co-denitrification. Oxygen is consumed but not growth-supportive. The draft genome has a size of 4.7 Mb and contains key genes for both denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1944-3277-10-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  6. Development of a powder formulation based on Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain B25 spores for biological control of Fusarium verticillioides in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Álvarez, Juan C; Castro-Martínez, Claudia; Sánchez-Peña, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E

    2016-05-01

    Maize is an economically important crop in northern Mexico. Different fungi cause ear and root rot in maize, including Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg. Crop management of this pathogen with chemical fungicides has been difficult. By contrast, the recent use of novel biocontrol strategies, such as seed bacterization with Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain B25, has been effective in field trials. These approaches are not without their problems, since insufficient formulation technology, between other factors, can limit success of biocontrol agents. In response to these drawbacks, we have developed a powder formulation based on Bacillus B25 spores and evaluated some of its characteristics, including shelf life and efficacy against F. verticillioides, in vitro and in maize plants. A talc-based powder formulation containing 1 × 10(9) c.f.u. g(-1) was obtained and evaluated for seed adherence ability, seed germination effect, shelf life and antagonism against F. verticillioides in in vitro and in planta assays. Seed adherence of viable bacterial spores ranged from 1.0 to 1.41 × 10(7) c.f.u. g(-1). Bacteria did not display negative effects on seed germination. Spore viability for the powder formulation slowly decreased over time, and was 53 % after 360 days of storage at room temperature. This formulation was capable of controlling F. verticillioides in greenhouse assays, as well as eight other maize phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. The results suggest that a talc-based powder formulation of Bacillus B25 spores may be sufficient to produce inoculum for biocontrol of maize ear and root rots caused by F. verticillioides. PMID:27038945

  7. A novel keratinase from Bacillus tequilensis strain Q7 with promising potential for the leather bating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Rekik, Hatem; Ben Elhoul, Mouna; Zohra Rahem, Fatma; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Ben Aicha, Houda Slimene; Badis, Abdelmalek; Toumi, Abdessatar; Bejar, Samir; Jaouadi, Bassem

    2015-08-01

    The present paper reports on the purification and characterization of an extracellular keratinase (KERQ7) newly purified from Bacillus tequilensis Q7. Pure protein was obtained after ammonium sulfate fractionation (30-60%), followed by Mono S Sepharose cation-exchange chromatography. MALDI-TOF/MS analysis revealed that the purified enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 28,355.07-Da. The sequence of the 21 N-terminal residues of KERQ7 showed high homology with those of Bacillus keratinases. Optimal activity was achieved at pH 7 and 30°C. KERQ7 was completely inhibited by PMSF and DFP, which suggests that it belongs to the serine keratinase family. KERQ7 displayed higher levels of hydrolysis and catalytic efficiency than Basozym(®) CS 10, Koropon(®) SC 5K, and Pyrase(®) 250 MP. The kerQ7 gene encoding KERQ7 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)pLysS. The biochemical properties of the extracellular purified recombinant enzyme (rKERQ7) were similar to those of native KERQ7. The deduced amino acid sequence showed strong homology with other Bacillus keratinases. The highest sequence identity value (97%) was obtained with KERUS from Brevibacillus brevis US575, with only 7 aa of difference. These properties make KERQ7 a potential promising and eco-friendly enzymatically enhanced process for animal hide bating in the leather processing industry. PMID:26086793

  8. Identification and Characterization of a New Alkaline Thermolysin-Like Protease, BtsTLP1, from Bacillus thuringiensis Serovar Sichuansis Strain MC28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenghong; Hao, Helong; Tang, Zhongmei; Zou, Zhengzheng; Zhang, Keya; Xie, Zhiyong; Babe, Lilia; Goedegebuur, Frits; Gu, Xiaogang

    2015-08-01

    Thermolysin and its homologs are a group of metalloproteases that have been widely used in both therapeutic and biotechnological applications. We here report the identification and characterization of a novel thermolysin-like protease, BtsTLP1, from insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis serovar Sichuansis strain MC28. BtsTLP1 is extracellularly produced in Bacillus subtilis, and the active protein was purified via successive chromatographic steps. The mature form of BtsTLP1 has a molecule mass of 35.6 kDa as determined by mass spectrometry analyses. The biochemical characterization indicates that BtsTLP1 has an apparent Km value of 1.57 mg/ml for azocasein and is active between 20°C and 80°C. Unlike other reported neutral gram-positive thermolysin homologs with optimal pH around 7, BtsTLP1 exhibits an alkaline pH optimum around 10. The activity of BtsTLP1 is strongly inhibited by EDTA and a group of specific divalent ions, with Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) showing particular effects in promoting the enzyme autolysis. Furthermore, our data also indicate that BtsTLP1 has potential in cleaning applications. PMID:25824434

  9. Concomitant production of two proteases and alpha-amylase by a novel strain of Bacillus subtilis in a microprocessor controlled bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mukhtar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the simultaneous production of Bacillus subtilis based proteases and alpha amylase using a computer controlled laboratory scale 7.5 L batch bioreactor. The present strain is the first to be reported that concomitantly produces these two industrially important enzymes. The growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis was monitored and maximum production of alkaline protease and alpha amylase was found to coincide with maximum sporulation. Two types of proteases were detected in the fermentation broth; a neutral and an alkaline protease most active in a pH range of 7.0-8.0 and 8.0-10, respectively. Maximum production of proteases was observed at an incubation temperature of 37ºC while that of alpha amylase was observed at 40ºC. The optimum aeration and agitation levels for protease production were 0.6 L/L/min and 200rpm, respectively, and for alpha amylase were 0.6 L/L/min and 150 rpm. The kinetic parameters Yp/x and qp were also found to be significant at the given fermentation conditions.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of a family 10 alkali-thermostable xylanase from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain NG-27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A family 10 alkali-thermostable xylanase from Bacillus sp. NG-27 has been crystallized. A diffraction data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution. Xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) catalyze the hydrolysis of β-1,4-glycosidic linkages within xylan, a major hemicellulose component in the biosphere. The extracellular endoxylanase (XylnA) from the alkalophilic Bacillus sp. strain NG-27 belongs to family 10 of the glycoside hydrolases. It is active at 343 K and pH 8.4. Moreover, it has attractive features from the point of view of utilization in the paper pulp, animal feed and baking industries since it is an alkali-thermostable protein. In this study, XylnA was purified from the native host source and crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 174.5, b = 54.7, c = 131.5 Å, β = 131.2°, and diffract to better than 2.2 Å resolution

  11. Geno- and phenotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp. strains isolated from African indigenous fermented food products and their applications in the food and feed industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adimpong, David Bichala

    III). Analyses of the whole genome draft-sequence of Bacillus sonorensis strain L12 which was generated using the Illumina Hiseq platform revealed it encodes gene clusters for de novo biosyntheses of the non-ribosomal lipopeptides metabolites; bacitracin, iturin, plipastatin and fengycin which have...

  12. Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Karen K.; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Okinaka, Richard T.; Asay, Michelle; Blair, Heather; Bliss, Katherine A.; Laker, Mariam; Pardington, Paige E.; Richardson, Amber P.; Tonks, Melinda; Beecher, Douglas J.; Kemp, John D.; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Wong, Amy C. Lee; Keim, Paul

    2004-01-01

    DNA from over 300 Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis isolates was analyzed by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). B. thuringiensis and B. cereus isolates were from diverse sources and locations, including soil, clinical isolates and food products causing diarrheal and emetic outbreaks, and type strains from the American Type Culture Collection, and over 200 B. thuringiensis isolates representing 36 serovars or subspecies were from the U.S. D...

  13. Pathogenomic Sequence Analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates Closely Related to Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Cliff S.; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Bhotika, Smriti S.; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell, Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian sero...

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the rhamnogalacturonan lyase YesW from Bacillus subtilis strain 168, a member of polysaccharide lyase family 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the polysaccharide lyase family 11 rhamnogalacturonan lyase are presented. Rhamnogalacturonan lyases degrade rhamnogalacturonan I, a major component of pectin, through a β-elimination reaction. YesW from Bacillus subtilis strain 168 is a novel rhamnogalacturonan lyase classified into polysaccharide lyase family 11 (PL-11). The enzyme was crystallized at 293 K using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) as a precipitant. Preliminary X-ray analysis revealed that the YesW crystals belong to space group P21 and diffract to 2.40 Å resolution, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.7, b = 105.6, c = 101.4 Å, β = 94.9°. This is the first report on the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family PL-11 rhamnogalacturonan lyase

  15. Response of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum to the volatile organic compounds produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Yang, Liudong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    It is important to study the response of plant pathogens to the antibiosis traits of biocontrol microbes to design the efficient biocontrol strategies. In this study, we evaluated the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). The VOCs of SQR-9 significantly inhibited the growth of RS on agar medium and in soil. In addition, the VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation and tomato root colonization by RS. The strain SQR-9 produced 22 VOCs, but only nine VOCs showed 1–11% antibacterial activity against RS in their corresponding amounts; however, the consortium of all VOCs showed 70% growth inhibition of RS. The proteomics analysis showed that the VOCs of SQR-9 downregulated RS proteins related to the antioxidant activity, virulence, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein folding and translation, while the proteins involved in the ABC transporter system, amino acid synthesis, detoxification of aldehydes and ketones, methylation, protein translation and folding, and energy transfer were upregulated. This study describes the significance and effectiveness of VOCs produced by a biocontrol strain against tomato wilt pathogen. PMID:27103342

  16. Response of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum to the volatile organic compounds produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Waseem; Ling, Ning; Yang, Liudong; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    It is important to study the response of plant pathogens to the antibiosis traits of biocontrol microbes to design the efficient biocontrol strategies. In this study, we evaluated the role of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by a biocontrol strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR-9 on the growth and virulence traits of tomato wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum (RS). The VOCs of SQR-9 significantly inhibited the growth of RS on agar medium and in soil. In addition, the VOCs significantly inhibited the motility traits, production of antioxidant enzymes and exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation and tomato root colonization by RS. The strain SQR-9 produced 22 VOCs, but only nine VOCs showed 1-11% antibacterial activity against RS in their corresponding amounts; however, the consortium of all VOCs showed 70% growth inhibition of RS. The proteomics analysis showed that the VOCs of SQR-9 downregulated RS proteins related to the antioxidant activity, virulence, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, protein folding and translation, while the proteins involved in the ABC transporter system, amino acid synthesis, detoxification of aldehydes and ketones, methylation, protein translation and folding, and energy transfer were upregulated. This study describes the significance and effectiveness of VOCs produced by a biocontrol strain against tomato wilt pathogen. PMID:27103342

  17. A Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Marker Specific for the Bacillus cereus Group Is Diagnostic for Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara; Frova, Giuseppe; Gallo, Romina; Mori, Elena; Fani, Renato; Sorlini, Claudia

    1999-01-01

    Aiming to develop a DNA marker specific for Bacillus anthracis and able to discriminate this species from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides, we applied the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting technique to a collection of 101 strains of the genus Bacillus, including 61 strains of the B. cereus group. An 838-bp RAPD marker (SG-850) specific for B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. anthracis, and B. mycoides was identified. This fragment included a pu...

  18. Modification of rock/fluid and fluid/fluid interfaces during MEOR processes, using two biosurfactant producing strains of Bacillus stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 and Enterobacter cloacae: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafzadeh, Pegah; Zeinolabedini Hezave, Ali; Mohammadi, Sahar; Niazi, Ali; Ayatollahi, Shahab

    2014-05-01

    During any microbial enhanced oil recovery process, both cells and the metabolic products of bacteria govern the tertiary oil recovery efficiency. However, very accurate examination is needed to find the functionality of these tiny creatures at different reservoir conditions. In this regard, the effect of cell structure on ultimate microbial recovery efficiency which is the most dominant mechanism based on the microorganism types (gram-negative or gram-positive) was systematically investigated. At the first stage, possible different active mechanisms using Bacillus stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 strain were tested using specially designed injection protocol, in situ and ex situ core flooding experiments, interfacial tension, viscosity, pH and Amott wettability index measurements. At the second stage, comparing functionality of B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 (a gram-positive type) with the previously examined strain namely Enterobacter cloacae as a gram-negative type, proposed this hypothesis that the cell structure significantly affects the interfacial behaviors. New designed protocols were utilized to check the individual effects of cells, bioproducts and interaction of these together on the oil/water and also fluids/rock interfaces. The final results showed that the cells of B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 adhere more into the oil/water interface compared to E. cloacae and change its rheological properties; e.g. its elastic properties which affect the ultimate microbial oil recovery efficiency. Eventually, contradicting results revealed that biosurfactant produced by E. cloacae was able to considerably reduce the interfacial tension and alter the wettability of the rock (to neutral conditions) while biosurfactant produced by B. stearothermophilus SUCPM#14 was not very effective. PMID:24373916

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Commercial Textile Dye-Decolorizing and -Degrading Bacillus subtilis Strain C3 Isolated in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunadia, Khushbu; Nathani, Neelam M.; Kothari, Vishal; Kotadia, Rohit J.; Kothari, Charmy R.; Joshi, Anjali; Rank, Jalpa K.; Faldu, Priti R.; Shekar, M. Chandra; Viroja, Mitkumar J.; Patel, Priyank A.; Jadeja, Divyarajsinh; Reddy, Bhaskar; Pal Singh, Ravindra; Koringa, Prakash G.; Joshi, Chaitanya G.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis C3, a commercial textile dye-decolorizing and -degrading bacterium, was isolated from the common effluent treatment plant (CEPT) of the Jetpur textile dyeing and printing industrial sector situated in the district of Rajkot, Gujarat, India. Here, we present the annotated 4.18-Mb draft genome sequence of B. subtilis C3, providing information about the metabolic pathways involved in decolorization and degradation of several commercial textile azo dyes. Thus, we confirm B. subtilis C3 as a potential candidate for bioremediation of textile effluents. PMID:26966205

  20. Requirement of Simultaneous Assessment of Crystal- and Supernatant-Related Entomotoxic Activities of Bacillus thuringiensis Strains for Biocontrol-Product Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Costa Argôlo-Filho

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioinsecticides with lower concentrations of endospores/crystals and without loss of efficiency are economically advantageous for pest biocontrol. In addition to Cry proteins, other Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt toxins in culture supernatants (SN have biocontrol potential (e.g., Vip3A, Cry1I, Sip1, whereas others are unwanted (β-exotoxins, as they display widespread toxicity across taxa. A strain simultaneously providing distinct toxin activities in crystals and SN would be desirable for bioinsecticides development; however, strains secreting β-exotoxins should be discarded, independently of other useful entomotoxins. Entomotoxicity of crystals and SN from a Brazilian Bt tolworthi strain (Btt01 was tested against Spodoptera frugiperda to assess the potential for biocontrol-product development based on more than one type of toxin/activity. Tests showed that 107 endospores mL−1 caused >80% of larvae mortality, suggesting Btt01 may be used in similar concentrations as those of other Bt-based biopesticides. When it was applied to cornfields, a significant 60% reduction of larvae infestation was observed. However, bioassays with Btt01 SN revealed a thermostable toxic activity. Physicochemical characterization strongly suggests the presence of unwanted β-exotoxins, with isolate-specific temporal variation in its secretion. Knowledge of the temporal pattern of secretion/activity in culture for all forms of toxins produced by a single strain is required to both detect useful activities and avoid the potential lack of identification of undesirable toxins. These findings are discussed in the contexts of commercial Bt product development, advantages of multiple-activity strains, and care and handling recommended for large-scale fermentation systems.

  1. A promising HD133-like strain of Bacillus thuringiensis with dual efficiency to the two Lepidopteran pests: Spodoptera littoralis (Noctuidae) and Ephestia kuehniella (Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Driss, Fatma; Tounsi, Slim

    2016-08-01

    Isolation and identification of new strains with wide variety of target pests is an ever growing field. In this paper, a screening of 260 strains from Tunisian soil samples was conducted by dot-blot and PCR-sequencing analysis. The screening was done on the basis of the possession of cry1D-type genes and was followed by the evaluation of the insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis. BLB250 strain showed an LC50 value (56.2 μg g(-1)) against S. littoralis lower than those of the two Bacillus thuringiensis reference strains HD1 and HD133. An interesting LC50 (167.6 μg g(-1)) was also recorded against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. The strain was, thus, selected because of its qualification to be highly toxic, at once, for both Lepidopteran insects. In vitro time course of proteolytic processing of BLB250 and HD133 protoxins by the gut juices from the two insect larvae revealed that the differences in toxicity against E. kuehniella are most likely attributed to differences in the efficiency of the activation of the corresponding protoxins into toxins. An activation comparative study using commercial proteases suggested that the intestinal proteases of E. kuehniella contain trypsin-like activities. With its high efficiency and toxicity against, at once, two Lepidopteran insects having different susceptibilities towards kurstaki and aizawai subspecies, BLB250 could be useful when developing more efficient and economical B. thuringiensis-based pesticides. PMID:27130040

  2. Isolation and characterization of a β-propeller gene containing phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 for growth promotion of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashif eHanif

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate-solubilizing and phytate-mineralizing bacteria collectively termed as phosphobacteria provide a sustainable approach for managing P-deficiency in agricultural soils by supplying inexpensive phosphate to plants. A phosphobacterium Bacillus subtilis strain KPS-11 (Genbank accession no. KP006655 was isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. rhizosphere and characterized for potato plant growth promoting potential. The strain utilized both Ca-phosphate and Na-phytate in vitro and produced 6.48 µg mL-1 indole-3-acetic acid in tryptophan supplemented medium. P-solubilization after 240 h was 66.4 µg mL-1 alongwith the production of 19.3 µg mL-1 gluconic acid and 5.3 µg mL-1 malic acid. The extracellular phytase activity was higher (4.3 x 10-10 kat mg-1 protein than the cell-associated phytase activity (1.6 x 10-10 kat mg-1protein. B. subtilis strain KPS-11 utilized 40 carbon sources and showed resistance against 20 chemicals in GENIII micro-plate system demonstrating its metabolic potential. Phytase-encoding gene β-propeller (BPP showed 92% amino acid similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no.WP_014114128.1 and 83% structural similarity to BPP from B. subtilis (accession no 3AMR_A. Potato inoculation with B. subtilis strain KPS-11 increased the root/shoot length and root/shoot weight of potato as compared to non-inoculated control plants. Moreover, rifampicin-resistant derivative of KPS-11 were able to survive in the rhizosphere and on the roots of potato up to sixty days showing its colonization potential. The study indicates that B. subtilis strain KPS-11 can be a potential candidate for development of potato inoculum in P-deficient soils.

  3. Screening and characterization of endophytic Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant Lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Longfei; Xu, Yajun; Lai, Xin-He; Shan, Changjuan; Deng, Zhenshan; Ji, Yuliang

    2015-01-01

    strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth. PMID:26691455

  4. Screening and characterization of endophytic Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains from medicinal plant Lonicera japonica for use as potential plant growth promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Zhao

    2015-12-01

    endophytic bacterial strains were identified to be Paenibacillus and Bacillus strains based on the results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and their physiological and biochemical characteristics. Results indicate the promising application of endophytic bacteria to the biological control of pathogenic fungi and the improvement of wheat crop growth.

  5. Designing and comparison study of rapid detection methods of resistance to injectable drugs in clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salehi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this study, some molecular methods were designed for rapid detection of resistance to kanamycin and amikacin.Materials and methods: Among 120 clinical isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis, 70 strains were selected for evaluation of possible mutations. A PCR-RFLP method was designed for detection of wild type (using enzyme ajii and mutant from (BstFNI enzyme of the isolates. Furthermore, allele specific method (as PCR was designed for detection mutations in codons 1401 and 1402 gene rrs. Some selected isolates were sequenced.Results: In PCR-RFLP method, among the 70 strains examined by BstFNI enzyme, could detect 17 mutant strains among 24 phenotypicaly resistant and 44 non-mutant isolates from 46 susceptible isolates. The sensitivity of this method was %70.83 and specificity was %95.65 on the other hand, 12 mutant from 20 resistant strains and 29 non-mutant strains from 32 susceptible strains were detected by AjiI enzyme. The sensitivity and specificity of this method was 60 and %90.62, respectively. In MAS PCR, 3 mutants from 6 resistant strains and 12 non-mutants from 17 resistant strains were detected. The sensitivity of this method was 50 and specificity was 70.58. Results of sequencing method confirmed the results of molecular methods.Discussion and conclusion: PCR-RFLP method by BstFNI enzyme was the best method for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to second-line injectable drugs and was recommended for routine use.

  6. Whole Genome Sequencing and Phylogenetic Analysis of a Historical Collection of Bacillus anthracis Strains from Danish Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derzelle, Sylviane; Girault, Guillaume; Kokotovic, Branko;

    2015-01-01

    lineage in Europe is demonstrated for the first time, filling an historical gap within the phylogeography of the lineage. Comparative genome analyses of these strains with 41 isolates from other parts of the world revealed that the two Danish A.Br.008/011 strains were related to the heroin...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, a Strain Isolated from Bar-Headed Goose (Anser indicus) Feces on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Zheng, Si-Si; Sun, Hao; Cao, Jian; Yang, Fang; Wang, Xue-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a soil-inhabiting Gram-positive bacterium that is routinely used in industrial applications for recombinant protein production and bioremediation. Studies involving Bacillus megaterium isolated from waterfowl are scarce. Here, we report a 6.26-Mbp draft genome sequence of Bacillus megaterium BHG1.1, which was isolated from feces of a bar-headed goose. PMID:27174262

  8. Different toxicity of the novel Bacillus thuringiensis (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) strain LLP29 against Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, L.; Tang, B.; Huang, E.; Huang, Z.; Liu, Z.; Huang, T.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Xu, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 1098-1102. ISSN 0022-0493 Grant ostatní: National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31071745; National Natural Science Foundation of China(CN) 31201574; Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515110010; Ministry of Education of China(CN) 20093515120010; Agricultural Science and Technology Achievements(CN) 2010GB2C400212; National High Technology Research and Development Program 863(CN) 2011AA10A203; Universities of Fujian Province(CN) JA12092; Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University(CN) xjq201203; Universities for the Development of the West Strait(CN) 0b08b005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * receptor binding * ELISA Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.605, year: 2013 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1603/EC12308

  9. Mapping of internal monophosphate 5' ends of Bacillus subtilis messenger RNAs and ribosomal RNAs in wild-type and ribonuclease-mutant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiChiara, Jeanne M; Liu, Bo; Figaro, Sabine; Condon, Ciarán; Bechhofer, David H

    2016-04-20

    The recent findings that the narrow-specificity endoribonuclease RNase III and the 5' exonuclease RNase J1 are not essential in the Gram-positive model organism,Bacillus subtilis, facilitated a global analysis of internal 5' ends that are generated or acted upon by these enzymes. An RNA-Seq protocol known as PARE (Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends) was used to capture 5' monophosphorylated RNA ends in ribonuclease wild-type and mutant strains. Comparison of PARE peaks in strains with RNase III present or absent showed that, in addition to its well-known role in ribosomal (rRNA) processing, many coding sequences and intergenic regions appeared to be direct targets of RNase III. These target sites were, in most cases, not associated with a known antisense RNA. The PARE analysis also revealed an accumulation of 3'-proximal peaks that correlated with the absence of RNase J1, confirming the importance of RNase J1 in degrading RNA fragments that contain the transcription terminator structure. A significant result from the PARE analysis was the discovery of an endonuclease cleavage just 2 nts downstream of the 16S rRNA 3' end. This latter observation begins to answer, at least forB. subtilis, a long-standing question on the exonucleolytic versus endonucleolytic nature of 16S rRNA maturation. PMID:26883633

  10. Production of alpha amylase from a randomly induced mutant strain of bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its application as a desizer in textile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study is concerned with the improvement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain UNG-16 for alpha amylase production. The bacterial culture was exposed to UV irradiation at 1.6X102 J/m2/S for 15-60 min. However, UV induced viables did not give improved alpha amylase production; therefore chemical mutation using ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS 50-300 mu l/ml) was undertaken for 10-60 min. The mutant B. amyloliquefaciens EMS-6 gave 102.78+-2.22 U/ml/min enzyme activity which was 1.4 fold higher than the parental strain. In stirred fermentor, the incubation period was reduced from 72 to 48 h after inoculation. The production of alpha amylase was found to be maximal when the 60% volume, 2.0 vvm air supply and 400 rpm agitation rate was maintained during the fermentation period. The incubation temperature (37 deg. C) and size of inoculum (8.0 %) were also optimized. A 100% desizing of grey fabric (or starch removal) was obtained with 200-250 enzyme units at pH 6.5 at 60 deg. C in 1 h. (author)

  11. Preservation of Bacillus firmus Strain 37 and Optimization of Cyclodextrin Biosynthesis by Cells Immobilized on Loofa Sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Moriwaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of Bacillus firmus strain 37 cells by lyophilization was evaluated and response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD production by cells immobilized on loofa sponge. Interactions were studied with the variables temperature, pH and dextrin concentration using a central composite design (CCD. Immobilization time influence on β-CD production was also investigated. B. firmus strain 37 cells remained viable after one year of storage, showing that the lyophilization is a suitable method for preservation of the microorganism. From the three-dimensional diagrams and contour plots, the best conditions for β-CD production were determined: temperature 60 °C, pH 8, and 18% dextrin. Considering that the amount of dextrin was high, a new assay was carried out, in which dextrin concentrations of 10, 15, and 18% were tested and the temperature of 60 °C and pH 8 were maintained. The results achieved showed very small differences and therefore, for economic reasons, the use of 10% dextrin is suggested. Increasing the immobilization time of cells immobilized on synthetic sponge the β-CD production decreased and did not change for cells immobilized on loofa sponge. The results of this research are important for microorganism preservation and essential in the optimization of the biosynthesis of CD.

  12. Laboratory and field tests of spray-dried and granular formulations of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-García, Ninfa M

    2006-09-01

    Formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) with insecticidal activity against the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were developed and tested under laboratory and field conditions. The formulations were prepared using biodegradable polymers such as modified corn starch as an encapsulating agent, gelatin as an adherent, powdered sugarcane as a feeding stimulant and a Bt var. kurstaki GM-34 strain from a non-sugarcane region as the active ingredient. The spore-crystal complex of this strain was mixed at three different concentrations (30, 70 and 100 g kg(-1)) with the other ingredients. The blends were prepared as spray-dried and granular formulations, and then submitted to laboratory tests with two day old larvae of D. saccharalis and field tests in sugarcane crops with natural sugarcane borer infestation. Spray-dried formulations in laboratory bioassays caused mortality near 100% with all three concentrations, and granular formulations caused mortality around 84%. The field tests showed that spray-dried formulations at 70 and 100 g kg(-1) concentrations were as effective as a commercial bioinsectide (Lepinox), while granular formulations were ineffective. PMID:16786544

  13. Characterization of two antimicrobial peptides produced by a halotolerant Bacillus subtilis strain SK.DU.4 isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baindara, Piyush; Mandal, Santi M; Chawla, Niharika; Singh, Pradip Kumar; Pinnaka, Anil Kumar; Korpole, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    A bacterial strain producing two antimicrobial peptides was isolated from a rhizosphere soil sample and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on both phenotypic and 16S rRNA gene sequence phylogenetic analysis. It grew optimally up to 14% NaCl and produced antimicrobial peptide within 24 h of growth. The peptides were purified using a combination of chemical extraction and chromatographic techniques. The MALDI-TOF analysis of HPLC purified fractions revealed that the strain SK.DU.4 secreted a bacteriocin-like peptide with molecular mass of 5323.9 Da and a surface-active lipopeptide (m/z 1056 Da). The peptide mass fingerprinting of low-molecular-weight bacteriocin exhibited significant similarity with stretches of secreted lipoprotein of Methylomicrobium album BG8 and displayed 70% sequence coverage. MALDI MS/MS analysis elucidated the lipopeptide as a cyclic lipopeptide with a β-hydroxy fatty acid linked to Ser of a peptide with seven α-amino acids (Asp-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Asn-Ser) and assigned it to iturin-like group of antimicrobial biosurfactants. However, it differed in amino acid composition with other members of the iturin family. Both peptides were active against Gram-positive bacteria, suggesting that they had an additive effect. PMID:23289832

  14. Genetic Improvement of Bacillus licheniformis Strains for Efficient Deproteinization of Shrimp Shells and Production of High-Molecular-Mass Chitin and Chitosan ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Kerstin; Daum, Gabriele; Köster, Marina; Kulicke, Werner-Michael; Meyer-Rammes, Heike; Bisping, Bernward; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    By targeted deletion of the polyglutamate operon (pga) in Bacillus licheniformis F11, a derivative form, F11.1 (Δpga), was obtained that, along with lacking polyglutamate (PGA) formation, displayed enhanced proteolytic activities. The phenotypic properties were maintained in a strain in which the chiBA operon was additionally deleted: F11.4 (ΔchiBA Δpga). These genetically modified strains, carrying the Δpga deletion either alone (F11.1) or together with the ΔchiBA (F11.4) deletion, were used in fermentations (20-liter scale) aiming at the deproteinization of shrimp shells in order to obtain long-chain chitin. After chemical deacetylation, the resulting chitosan samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and viscometry and compared to a chitosan preparation that was produced in parallel by chemical methods by a commercial chitosan supplier (GSRmbH). Though faint lipid impurities were present in the fermented polysaccharides, the viscosity of the material produced with the double-deletion mutant F11.4 (Δpga ΔchiBA) was higher than that of the chemically produced and commercially available samples (Cognis GmbH). Thus, enhanced proteolytic activities and a lack of chitinase activity render the double mutant F11.4 a powerful tool for the production of long-chain chitosan. PMID:20971870

  15. In Vitro Screening for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Potent Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promoting Strains of Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    G. Praveen Kumar; Mir Hassan Ahmed, S. K.; Suseelendra Desai; Leo Daniel Amalraj, E.; Abdul Rasul

    2014-01-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been identified as a group of microbes that are used for plant growth enhancement and biocontrol for management of plant diseases. The inconsistency in performance of these bacteria from laboratory to field conditions is compounded due to the prevailing abiotic stresses in the field. Therefore, selection of bacterial strains with tolerance to abiotic stresses would benefit the end-user by successful establishment of the strain for showing desire...

  16. Human Monoclonal Antibody AVP-21D9 to Protective Antigen Reduces Dissemination of the Bacillus anthracis Ames Strain from the Lungs in a Rabbit Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Johnny W.; Comer, Jason E.; Baze, Wallace B.; Noffsinger, David M.; Wenglikowski, Autumn; Walberg, Kristin G.; Hardcastle, Jason; Pawlik, Jennifer; Bush, Kathryn; Taormina, Joanna; Moen, Scott; Thomas, John; Chatuev, Bagram M.; Sower, Laurie; Chopra, Ashok K.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Sawada, Ritsuko; Scholz, Wolfgang W.; Sircar, Jagadish

    2007-01-01

    Dutch-belted and New Zealand White rabbits were passively immunized with AVP-21D9, a human monoclonal antibody to protective antigen (PA), at the time of Bacillus anthracis spore challenge using either nasal instillation or aerosol challenge techniques. AVP-21D9 (10 mg/kg) completely protected both rabbit strains against lethal infection with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores, regardless of the inoculation method. Further, all but one of the passively immunized animals (23/24) were completely resistant to rechallenge with spores by either respiratory challenge method at 5 weeks after primary challenge. Analysis of the sera at 5 weeks after primary challenge showed that residual human anti-PA levels decreased by 85 to 95%, but low titers of rabbit-specific anti-PA titers were also measured. Both sources of anti-PA could have contributed to protection from rechallenge. In a subsequent study, bacteriological and histopathology analyses revealed that B. anthracis disseminated to the bloodstream in some naïve animals as early as 24 h postchallenge and increased in frequency with time. AVP-21D9 significantly reduced the dissemination of the bacteria to the bloodstream and to various organs following infection. Examination of tissue sections from infected control animals, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the Gram stain, showed edema and/or hemorrhage in the lungs and the presence of bacteria in mediastinal lymph nodes, with necrosis and inflammation. Tissue sections from infected rabbits dosed with AVP-21D9 appeared comparable to corresponding tissues from uninfected animals despite lethal challenge with B. anthracis Ames spores. Concomitant treatment with AVP-21D9 at the time of challenge conferred complete protection in the rabbit inhalation anthrax model. Early treatment increased the efficacy progressively and in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, AVP-21D9 could offer an adjunct or alternative clinical treatment regimen against inhalation anthrax. PMID:17452469

  17. Human monoclonal antibody AVP-21D9 to protective antigen reduces dissemination of the Bacillus anthracis Ames strain from the lungs in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Johnny W; Comer, Jason E; Baze, Wallace B; Noffsinger, David M; Wenglikowski, Autumn; Walberg, Kristin G; Hardcastle, Jason; Pawlik, Jennifer; Bush, Kathryn; Taormina, Joanna; Moen, Scott; Thomas, John; Chatuev, Bagram M; Sower, Laurie; Chopra, Ashok K; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Sawada, Ritsuko; Scholz, Wolfgang W; Sircar, Jagadish

    2007-07-01

    Dutch-belted and New Zealand White rabbits were passively immunized with AVP-21D9, a human monoclonal antibody to protective antigen (PA), at the time of Bacillus anthracis spore challenge using either nasal instillation or aerosol challenge techniques. AVP-21D9 (10 mg/kg) completely protected both rabbit strains against lethal infection with Bacillus anthracis Ames spores, regardless of the inoculation method. Further, all but one of the passively immunized animals (23/24) were completely resistant to rechallenge with spores by either respiratory challenge method at 5 weeks after primary challenge. Analysis of the sera at 5 weeks after primary challenge showed that residual human anti-PA levels decreased by 85 to 95%, but low titers of rabbit-specific anti-PA titers were also measured. Both sources of anti-PA could have contributed to protection from rechallenge. In a subsequent study, bacteriological and histopathology analyses revealed that B. anthracis disseminated to the bloodstream in some naïve animals as early as 24 h postchallenge and increased in frequency with time. AVP-21D9 significantly reduced the dissemination of the bacteria to the bloodstream and to various organs following infection. Examination of tissue sections from infected control animals, stained with hematoxylin-eosin and the Gram stain, showed edema and/or hemorrhage in the lungs and the presence of bacteria in mediastinal lymph nodes, with necrosis and inflammation. Tissue sections from infected rabbits dosed with AVP-21D9 appeared comparable to corresponding tissues from uninfected animals despite lethal challenge with B. anthracis Ames spores. Concomitant treatment with AVP-21D9 at the time of challenge conferred complete protection in the rabbit inhalation anthrax model. Early treatment increased the efficacy progressively and in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, AVP-21D9 could offer an adjunct or alternative clinical treatment regimen against inhalation anthrax. PMID:17452469

  18. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil Produção de ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase por novas cepas de Bacillus sp. isoladas de solo brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Menocci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40ºC. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55ºC. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40ºC. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0x10-3 and 2.2x10-3 U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4x10-3 and 3.0x10-3 U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4x10-3 U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4x10-3 U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins, thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and β-CD was liberated as a reaction product.Três linhagens de Bacillus sp (BACRP, BACNC- 1 e BACAR foram isoladas a partir de solo aderido em casca de mandioca. Foram utilizados amido de batata, amido de mandioca, maltodextrina e glicose como fonte de carbono, e temperaturas de crescimento de 25-55ºC, sendo que os três isolados apresentaram maior atividade específica de CGTase quando cultivados com amido de batata a 40ºC. Em pH 7,0 os isolados BACRP e BACAR apresentaram atividade específica de 4,0x 10-3 e 2,2x10-3 U/mg prot, respectivamente, quando cultivados em meios acrescidos de 2% de NaCl; em pH 10,0 suas atividades foram de 3,4x10-3 e 3,0x10-3 U/mg prot na mesma concentração de NaCl. Por outro

  19. Seleção e caracterização de estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas no controle da traça-das-crucíferas Plutella xylostella Selection and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective to control the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Teles Medeiros

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e caracterizar, no Banco de Germoplasma de Bacillus spp., da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, as estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis mais tóxicas à Plutella xylostella, por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. Das 203 estirpes testadas, sete causaram 100% de mortalidade e foram semelhantes à estirpe padrão utilizada, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Elas apresentaram proteínas de 130 kDa e 65 kDa, presença de genes cry1 e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e redondos. As estirpes selecionadas oferecem novas perspectivas de controle de P. xylostella.The aim of this work was to select and characterize the most toxic Bacillus thuringiensis strains, from the Germplasm Bank of Bacillus spp. of Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, against Plutella xylostella. Strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. It was observed that seven out of the 203 strains tested showed high toxicity compared to the standard used B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (HD-1, which showed 100% mortality. Selected strains showed features described for lepidoptera regarding the protein of 130 kDa and 65 kDa; profile and features were obtained through the PCR reactions, making possible to identify the presence of cry1 and cry2 genes. Moreover, the scanning electron microscopy showed the bipiramydal, cubed and round crystal forms. The selected strains offer new perspectives to control P. xylostella.

  20. [Construction of Bacillus thuringiensis labeled recombinant strain and horizontal transfer of its cry1Ac10 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Sun, Ming; Li, Lin; Yang, Zaiqing; Yu, Ziniu

    2005-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid pBMBZGC10 was obtained by the ligation of gfp-cry1Ac10 fusion gene and vector plasmid pAD4412, which was then introduced by gene pulser into acrystalliferous strain CryB, and a recombinant strain CryB(pBMBZGC10) was obtained. Different fermentative solutions of recombinant strain were used for multi-spraying on Brassica pekinesis, Ipomoea aquatica and Lycopersicon esculentum leaves. The results of fluorescent detection and PCR amplification revealed that cry1Ac10 gene did not transfer into indigenous bacteria, actinomyces and fungi in test soil, and could not be detected in roots, stems and leaves of test plants. PMID:15852975

  1. Non-cytotoxic antifungal agents: isolation and structures of gageopeptides A-D from a Bacillus strain 109GGC020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareq, Fakir Shahidullah; Lee, Min Ah; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Jong Seok; Hasan, Choudhury M; Islam, Md Tofazzal; Shin, Hee Jae

    2014-06-18

    Antifungal resistance and toxicity problems of conventional fungicides highlighted the requirement of search for new safe antifungal agents. To comply with the requirement, we discovered four new non-cytotoxic lipopeptides, gageopeptides A-D, 1-4, from a marine-derived bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The structures and stereochemistry of gageopeptides were determined by NMR data analysis and chemical means. Gageopeptides exhibited significant antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Colletotrichum acutatum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.02-0.06 μM. In addition, these lipopeptides showed significant motility inhibition and lytic activities against zoospores of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora capsici. These compounds also showed potent antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with MIC values of 0.04-0.08 μM. However, gageopeptides A-D did not exhibit any cytotoxicity (GI50 > 25 μM) against cancer cell lines in sulforhodamine B (SRB), 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and WST-1 ((4-[3-4-iodophenyl]-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio)-1,3-benzene disulfonate)) assays, demonstrating that these compounds could be promising candidates for the development of non-cytotoxic antifungal agents. PMID:24857413

  2. Identification and characterization of the endophytic plant growth prompter Bacillus Cereus strain mq23 isolated from Sophora Alopecuroides root nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Zhao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endophytes MQ23 and MQ23R isolated from Sophora alopecuroides root nodules were characterized by observing their ability to promote plant growth and employing molecular analysis techniques. Results showed that MQ23 and MQ23R are potential N2-fixing endophytes and belong to the same species as Bacillus cereus. MQ23 was shown to be able to produce siderophores, IAA, and demonstrate certain antifungal activity to plant pathogenic fungi. Co-inoculation with MQ23+MQ23II showed a more significant effect than inoculation alone in vitro for most of positive actions suggesting they have a cooperative interaction. Results of plant inoculation with endophytes indicated that the growth indexes of co-inoculated MQ23+MQ23II were higher than those of inoculated alone (p<0.05 (the exception being for root fresh weight when compared to negative control. There have been little of any studies of nonrhizobial putative endophytes with growth-promotion attributes in S. alopecuroides root nodules. This could be exploited as potential bio-inoculants and biocontrol agents in agriculture.

  3. Characteristics and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus strains isolated from Maari, a traditional West African food condiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Kando, Christine Kere; Sawadogo, Hagrétou;

    2015-01-01

    cereus occasionally occurs in Maari. This study characterizes succession patterns and pathogenic potential of B. cereus isolated from the raw materials (ash, water from a drilled well (DW) and potash), seed mash throughout fermentation (0-96h), after steam cooking and sun drying (final product) from two......Maari is a spontaneously fermented food condiment made from baobab tree seeds in West African countries. This type of product is considered to be safe, being consumed by millions of people on a daily basis. However, due to the spontaneous nature of the fermentation the human pathogen Bacillus...... production sites of Maari. Aerobic mesophilic bacterial (AMB) counts in raw materials were of 10(5)cfu/ml in DW, and ranged between 6.5×10(3) and 1.2×10(4)cfu/g in potash, 10(9)-10(10)cfu/g in seed mash during fermentation and 10(7) - 10(9) after sun drying. Fifty three out of total 290 AMB isolates were...

  4. Organic acids from root exudates of banana help root colonization of PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jun; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Qiwei; Raza, Waseem; Li, Rong; Vivanco, Jorge M; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    The successful colonization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizosphere is an initial and compulsory step in the protection of plants from soil-borne pathogens. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the role of root exudates in the colonization of PGPR. Banana root exudates were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) which revealed exudates contained several organic acids (OAs) including oxalic, malic and fumaric acid. The chemotactic response and biofilm formation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 were investigated in response to OA's found in banana root exudates. Furthermore, the transcriptional levels of genes involved in biofilm formation, yqxM and epsD, were evaluated in response to OAs via quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results suggested that root exudates containing the OAs both induced the chemotaxis and biofilm formation in NJN-6. In fact, the strongest chemotactic and biofilm response was found when 50 μM of OAs were applied. More specifically, malic acid showed the greatest chemotactic response whereas fumaric acid significantly induced biofilm formation by a 20.7-27.3% increase and therefore biofilm formation genes expression. The results showed banana root exudates, in particular the OAs released, play a crucial role in attracting and initiating PGPR colonization on the host roots. PMID:26299781

  5. Rhizobacterial Strain Bacillus megaterium BOFC15 Induces Cellular Polyamine Changes that Improve Plant Growth and Drought Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cheng; Ma, Zhongyou; Zhu, Lin; Xiao, Xin; Xie, Yue; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Jianfei

    2016-01-01

    Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria can improve plant growth, development, and stress adaptation. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unclear. We investigated the effects of Bacillus megaterium BOFC15 on Arabidopsis plants. BOFC15 produced and secreted spermidine (Spd), a type of polyamine (PA) that plays an important role in plant growth. Moreover, BOFC15 induced changes in the cellular PAs of plants that promoted an increase of free Spd and spermine levels. However, these effects were remarkably abolished by the addition of dicyclohexylamine (DCHA), a Spd biosynthetic inhibitor. Additionally, the inoculation with BOFC15 remarkably increased plant biomass, improved root system architecture, and augmented photosynthetic capacity. Inoculated plants also displayed stronger ability to tolerate drought stress than non-inoculated (control) plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) content was notably higher in the inoculated plants than in the control plants under drought stress and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-induced stress conditions. However, the BOFC15-induced ABA synthesis was markedly inhibited by DCHA. Thus, microbial Spd participated in the modulation of the ABA levels. The Spd-producing BOFC15 improved plant drought tolerance, which was associated with altered cellular ABA levels and activated adaptive responses. PMID:27338359

  6. Comparison of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related, spore forming soil bacteria. B. thuringiensis produces insecticidal crystal proteins during sporulation and these toxins are the most important biopesticides in the world today. Genomes of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were analysed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis after treatment of the DNA with the restriction enzyme NotI. The NotI fingerprint patterns varied both within the B. thuringiensis and the B. cereus strains. The size of the fragments varied between 15 and 1350 kb. When physical maps of the B. thuringiensis and B. cereus strains were compared, B. thuringiensis appeared to be as closely related to B. cereus as the B. cereus strains were to each other. Nine out of 12 B. thuringiensis strains and 18 out of 25 B. cereus strains produced enterotoxins. The close relationship between B. thuringiensis and B. cereus should be taken into consideration when B. thuringiensis is used as a biopesticide. (author). 10 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis of high cell density cultivations with two recombinant Bacillus megaterium strains for the production of a heterologous dextransucrase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deckwer Wolf-Dieter

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High cell density cultivations were performed under identical conditions for two Bacillus megaterium strains (MS941 and WH320, both carrying a heterologous dextransucrase (dsrS gene under the control of the xylA promoter. At characteristic points of the cultivations (end of batch, initial feeding, before and after induction the proteome was analyzed based on two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometric protein identification using the protein database "bmegMEC.v2" recently made available. High expression but no secretion of DsrS was found for the chemical mutant WH320 whereas for MS 941, a defined protease deficient mutant of the same parent strain (DSM319, not even expression of DsrS could be detected. The proteomic analysis resulted in the identification of proteins involved in different cellular pathways such as in central carbon and overflow metabolism, in protein synthesis, protein secretion and degradation, in cell wall metabolism, in cell division and sporulation, in membrane transport and in stress responses. The two strains exhibited considerable variations in expression levels of specific proteins during the different phases of the cultivation process, whereas induction of DsrS production had, in general, little effect. The largely differing behaviour of the two strains with regard to DsrS expression can be attributed, at least in part, to changes observed in the proteome which predominantly concern biosynthetic enzymes and proteins belonging to the membrane translocation system, which were strongly down-regulated at high cell densities in MS941 compared with WH320. At the same time a cell envelope-associated quality control protease and two peptidoglycan-binding proteins related to cell wall turnover were strongly expressed in MS941 but not found in WH320. However, to further explain the very different physiological responses of the two strains to the same cultivation conditions, it is necessary to identify the

  8. Identification, cloning and lactonase activity of recombinant protein of N-acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA from Bacillus thuringiensis 147-115-16 strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Mauricio Florez Escobar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Identificación, clonación y actividad lactonasa de la proteína recombinante de N-ácil homoserina lactonasa (AiiA de Bacillus thuringiensis cepa 147-115-16 Short title: N-acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA from Bacillus thuringiensis Abstract: The quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactonases are a family of bacterial metalloenzymes that participate in degradation of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs, disrupting the quorum sensing system of gram negative bacterial species. From a collection of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated in Colombia from plants and exhibiting toxic activity against lepidopteran insects, 310 bacterial isolates were tested to determine lactonase activity by using biosensor systems in presence of synthetic N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL and N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL. From them, 251 strains showed degrading activity to both C6-HSL and C8-HSL, 57% exhibited degrading activity to C6-HSL and 43% to C8-HSL. One B. thuringiensis strain, denoted as 147-115-16, that exhibit high degrading activity to C6-HSL and C8-HSL, was able to attenuate soft rot symptoms in infected potato slices with Pectobacterium carotovorum. This strain contains an homologous of the aiiA gene that was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Esherichia coli DE3. The recombinant protein AiiA147-11516 displays activity to C6-HSL, C8-HSL, N-(β-ketocaproyl (3-O-C6-HSL and N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl (3-O-C12-HSL. The recombinant strain in the presence of P. caratovorum cultures was able to attenuate the infection, suggesting that it interferes either with the accumulation or with the response to the AHLs signals. Acording to this data and based on previous report from recombinant AiiA147-11516, this enzyme exhibits activity to a wide range of catalytic substrates suggesting its industrial application in the disease control programs through plants transformation.Key words: lactones, Quorum sensing, Quorum quenching, Lactonases

  9. Anticorrosion/antifouling properties of bacterial spore-loaded sol-gel type coating for mild steel in saline marine condition: a case of thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Eduok, Ubong; Suleiman, Rami; Gittens, Jeanette; Khaled, Mazen; Smith, Thomas J.; Akid, Robert; El Ali, Bassam; Khalil, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    This work reports the performance of a sol-gel type coating encapsulated with biofilm of inoculums of protective thermophilic strain of Bacillus licheniformis endospores isolated from the Gazan hot springs- Saudi Arabia for the inhibition of marine fouling and corrosion protection of S36-grade mild steel in 3.5 wt% NaCl medium. In order to improve its anticorrosion properties, the hybrid sol-gel coating is further doped with zinc molybdate (MOLY) and zinc aluminum polyphosphate (Z...

  10. Proposal of Afipia gen. nov., with Afipia felis sp. nov. (formerly the cat scratch disease bacillus), Afipia clevelandensis sp. nov. (formerly the Cleveland Clinic Foundation strain), Afipia broomeae sp. nov., and three unnamed genospecies.

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, D. J.; Hollis, D G; Moss, C W; English, C K; Hall, G. S.; Vincent, J.; Radosevic, J; Birkness, K A; W.F. Bibb; Quinn, F D

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of phenotypic characterization and DNA relatedness determinations, the genus Afipia gen. nov., which contains six species, is described. The type species is Afipia felis sp. nov. (the cat scratch disease bacillus). Afipia clevelandensis sp. nov., Afipia broomeae sp. nov., and three unnamed not associated with cat-borne disease. All but one strain (Afipia genospecies 3) were isolated from human wound and respiratory sources. All Afipia species are gram-negative, oxidase-positive, ...

  11. Influence of culture medium pH on the production of CGTase by Bacillus firmus Strain No. 37 - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.15882

    OpenAIRE

    Jéssica Bravin Carmello; Gisella Maria Zanin; José Eduardo Olivo

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme cyclomaltodextrin-glucanotransferase (CGTase) is a transglicosidase able to convert corn starch into cyclodextrin (CD). CDs are widely applied in industry given the ability to form inclusion complexes with a great variety of organic molecules. Regarding the optimum pH of CGTase, values reported in the literature vary according to the enzyme producing microorganism, being 8.0 the optimum pH of CGTase produced by Bacillus firmus Strain No. 37. This work studied the influence of the p...

  12. Biochemical Properties of Pectate Lyases Produced by Three Different Bacillus Strains Isolated from Fermenting Cocoa Beans and Characterization of Their Cloned Genes▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara, Honoré G.; Reverchon, Sylvie; Niamke, Sébastien L.; Nasser, William

    2010-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes play an important role in cocoa fermentation. In this study, we characterized three extracellular pectate lyases (Pels) produced by bacilli isolated from fermenting cocoa beans. These enzymes, named Pel-22, Pel-66, and Pel-90, were synthesized by Bacillus pumilus BS22, Bacillus subtilis BS66, and Bacillus fusiformis BS90, respectively. The three Pels were produced under their natural conditions and purified from the supernatants using a one-step chromatography method. The...

  13. Identification of Bacillus cereus Group Species Associated with Food Poisoning Outbreaks in British Columbia, Canada▿

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, Lorraine; Bernard, Kathryn; Beniac, Daniel; Isaac-Renton, Judith L.; Naseby, David Craig

    2008-01-01

    Food poisoning laboratories identify Bacillus cereus using routine methods that may not differentiate all Bacillus cereus group species. We recharacterized Bacillus food-poisoning strains from 39 outbreaks and identified B. cereus in 23 outbreaks, B. thuringiensis in 4, B. mycoides in 1, and mixed strains of Bacillus in 11 outbreaks.

  14. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  15. Stem bark extract and fraction of Persea americana (Mill.) exhibits bactericidal activities against strains of bacillus cereus associated with food poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinpelu, David A; Aiyegoro, Olayinka A; Akinpelu, Oluseun F; Okoh, Anthony I

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL-12.5 mg/mL and 1.25-10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract's butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results. PMID:25558854

  16. Biological Control Activities of Rice-Associated Bacillus sp. Strains against Sheath Blight and Bacterial Panicle Blight of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishnu K; Karki, Hari Sharan; Groth, Donald E; Jungkhun, Nootjarin; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Potential biological control agents for two major rice diseases, sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, were isolated from rice plants in this study. Rice-associated bacteria (RABs) isolated from rice plants grown in the field were tested for their antagonistic activities against the rice pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Burkholderia glumae, which cause sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight, respectively. Twenty-nine RABs were initially screened based on their antagonistic activities against both R. solani and B. glumae. In follow-up retests, 26 RABs of the 29 RABs were confirmed to have antimicrobial activities, but the rest three RABs did not reproduce any observable antagonistic activity against R. solani or B. glumae. According to16S rDNA sequence identity, 12 of the 26 antagonistic RABs were closest to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, while seven RABs were to B. methylotrophicus and B, subtilis, respectively. The 16S rDNA sequences of the three non-antagonistic RABs were closest to Lysinibacillus sphaericus (RAB1 and RAB12) and Lysinibacillus macroides (RAB5). The five selected RABs showing highest antimicrobial activities (RAB6, RAB9, RAB16, RAB17S, and RAB18) were closest to B. amyloliquefaciens in DNA sequence of 16S rDNA and gyrB, but to B. subtilis in that of recA. These RABs were observed to inhibit the sclerotial germination of R. solani on potato dextrose agar and the lesion development on detached rice leaves by artificial inoculation of R. solani. These antagonistic RABs also significantly suppressed the disease development of sheath blight and bacterial panicle blight in a field condition, suggesting that they can be potential biological control agents for these rice diseases. However, these antagonistic RABs showed diminished disease suppression activities in the repeated field trial conducted in the following year probably due to their reduced antagonistic activities to the pathogens during the long-term storage in -70C, suggesting that

  17. Complete genome sequence of the Sporosarcina psychrophila DSM 6497, a psychrophilic Bacillus strain that mediates the calcium carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wenkai; Xiao, Xiang; Zhang, Yu

    2016-05-20

    Sporosarcina psychrophila DSM 6497 is a gram positive, spore-formation psychrophilic bacterial strain, widely distributed in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Here we report its complete sequence including one circular chromosome of 4674191bp with a GC content of 40.3%. Genes encoding urease are predicted in the genome, which provide insight information on the microbiologically mediated urea hydrolysis process. This urea hydrolysis can further lead to an increase of carbonate anion and alkalinity in the environment, which promotes the microbiologically induced carbonate precipitation with various applications, such as the bioremediation of calcium rich wastewater and bio-reservation of architectural patrimony. PMID:27015981

  18. 有机溶剂胁迫处理对菌株Bacillus subtilis OST23a产胞外多糖的影响%Effects of n-hexane stress on secretion of antioxidant exopolysaccharides from marine strain Bacillus subtilis OST23a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房耀维; 刘姝; 王淑军; 吕明生; 焦豫良; 陈丽; 曹纯

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] In this paper, the effects of organic solvent stresses on the yield of an-tioxidant exopolysaccharide (EPS) from Bacillus subtilis was evaluated and the best condition was also determined. [Methods] Marine strain Bacillus subtilis OST23a and mutant UM29, both with the ability to produce antioxidant exopolysaccharide (EPS), were used as the original strain. Based on the detection of the tolerance of the strains to the organic solvent, n-hexane was used to stress treatment. Effects of concentrations and treatment time of n-hexane on the exopolysaccharide excretion from Bacillus subtilis OST23a and strain UD292 were studied. [Results] The productivity of the EPS of Bacillus subtilis OST23a and strain UD292 were 52.97 mg/L and 201.81 mg/L respectively after stress treatment with 3% n-hexane for 6 h. There was no significant difference in the antioxidation activities of the extracellular polysac-charides between strains stress with n-hexane and the original strains. Moreover, the continuous passage experiment showed that the strains have high genetic stability. [Conclusion] The organic solvent stress could improve the productivity of the exopolysaccharide from bacteria, which possesses the potential application in microbial breeding.%[目的] 研究有机溶剂胁迫处理对菌株分泌胞外多糖的影响并确定最佳条件.[方法] 利用分泌抗氧化活性胞外多糖海洋细菌Bacillus subtilis OST23a及其突变菌株UD292为出发菌株,在考察菌株有机溶剂耐受性的基础上,测定不同浓度正己烷胁迫处理不同时间后该菌株抗氧化胞外多糖产量.[结果] 结果表明最佳胁迫处理浓度和时间分别为3%和6h,此时Bacillus subtilis OST23a和菌株UD292胞外多糖分泌量分别从9.02 mg/L和43.92 mg/L显著提高到52.97 mg/L和201.81 mg/L,且胞外多糖的抗氧化性能无显著变化.Bacillus subtilis OST23a和菌株UD292连续传代试验结果表明菌株遗传性状较稳定.[结论] 有机溶剂

  19. Cloning, characterization and expression of a novel haplotype cry2A-type gene from Bacillus thuringiensis strain SWK1, native to Himalayan valley Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz, A L; Arulselvi, P Indra

    2016-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a gram positive bacterium which is effectively being used in pest management strategies as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide. In the present study a new cry2A gene was cloned from a promising indigenous B. thuringiensis SWK1 strain previously characterized for its toxicity against Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera larvae. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cry2A gene pointed out that the open reading frame has 1902 bases encoding a polypeptide of 634 amino acid residues with a probable molecular weight of 70kDa. Homology comparisons showed that the deduced amino acid sequence of Cry2A had a similarity of 94% compared to that of the known Cry2Aa protein in the NCBI database and this gene has been named as cry2Al1 by the B. thuringiensis δ-endotoxin Nomenclature Committee. cry2Al1 was ligated into pET 22b vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS under the control of T7 promoter induced by isopropyl-beta-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the expression of cry2Al1 as ∼65kDa protein. Insect pest bioassays with neonate larvae of S. litura and H. armigera showed that the purified Cry2Al1 are toxic to S. litura and H. armigera with LC50 2.448μg/ml and H. armigera with 3.374μg/ml respectively. PMID:26906447

  20. Efficient open fermentative production of polymer-grade L-lactate from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by thermotolerant Bacillus sp. strain P38.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Peng

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is one of the top 30 potential building-block chemicals from biomass, of which the most extensive use is in the polymerization of lactic acid to poly-lactic-acid (PLA. To reduce the cost of PLA, the search for cheap raw materials and low-cost process for lactic acid production is highly desired. In this study, the final titer of produced L-lactic acid reached a concentration of 185 g·L(-1 with a volumetric productivity of 1.93 g·L(-1·h(-1 by using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate as the sole carbon source simultaneously with cottonseed meal as cheap nitrogen sources under the open fed-batch fermentation process. Furthermore, a lactic acid yield of 0.99 g per g of total reducing sugars was obtained, which is very close to the theoretical value (1.0 g g(-1. No D-isomer of lactic acid was detected in the broth, and thereafter resulted in an optical purity of 100%, which exceeds the requirement of lactate polymerization process. To our knowledge, this is the best performance of fermentation on polymer-grade L-lactic acid production totally using lignocellulosic sources. The high levels of optically pure L-lactic acid produced, combined with the ease of handling and low costs associated with the open fermentation strategy, indicated the thermotolerant Bacillus sp. P38 could be an excellent candidate strain with great industrial potential for polymer-grade L-lactic acid production from various cellulosic biomasses.

  1. Genetic Basis of Cry1F-Resistance in a Laboratory Selected Asian Corn Borer Strain and Its Cross-Resistance to Other Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yueqin; Wang, Yidong; Wang, Zhenying; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; He, Kanglai

    2016-01-01

    The Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn in China. Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin derived from Bacillus thuringiensis has been demonstrated for ACB, suggesting the potential for Cry1F inclusion as part of an insect pest management program. Insects can develop resistance to Cry toxins, which threatens the development and use of Bt formulations and Bt crops in the field. To determine possible resistance mechanisms to Cry1F, a Cry1F-resistant colony of ACB (ACB-FR) that exhibited more than 1700-fold resistance was established through selection experiments after 49 generations of selection under laboratory conditions. The ACB-FR strain showed moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac of 22.8- and 26.9-fold, respectively, marginally cross-resistance to Cry1Ah (3.7-fold), and no cross-resistance to Cry1Ie (0.6-fold). The bioassay responses of progeny from reciprocal F1 crosses to different Cry1 toxin concentrations indicated that the resistance trait to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry1F has autosomal inheritance with no maternal effect or sex linked. The effective dominance (h) of F1 offspring was calculated at different concentrations of Cry1F, showing that h decreased as concentration of Cry1F increased. Finally, the analysis of actual and expected mortality of the progeny from a backcross (F1 × resistant strain) indicated that the inheritance of the resistance to Cry1F in ACB-FR was due to more than one locus. The present study provides an understanding of the genetic basis of Cry1F resistance in ACB-FR and also shows that pyramiding Cry1F with Cry1Ah or Cry1Ie could be used as a strategy to delay the development of ACB resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27518813

  2. Coal swelling strain and permeability change with injecting liquid/supercritical CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2} at stress-constrained conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyama, Tamotsu; Ishijima, Yoji [Horonobe Research Institute for the Subsurface Environment, Northern Advancement Center for Science and Technology, 5-3, Sakaemachi, Horonobe-cho, Teshio-gun, Hokkaido (Japan); Nishimoto, Soshi [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Backend Research Center, Civil Engineering Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 1645, Abiko, Abiko-shi, Chiba (Japan); Fujioka, Masaji [Research and Development Dept., Japan Coal Energy Center, Tokyo (Japan); Xue, Ziqiu [Laboratory of Engineering Geology, Department of Civil and Earth Resources Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University (Japan); Pan, Zhejun; Connell, Luke D. [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, Ian Wark Laboratory, Clayton, Victoria (Australia)

    2011-01-01

    CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep unmineable coalbeds is regarded as a viable option for carbon storage. On the other hand, many uncertainties still remain due to the fact that coal interacts with CO{sub 2} in a variety of ways. In Japan, the first CO{sub 2} Enhanced Coalbed Methane Recovery field trials at Yubari were carried out. CO{sub 2} was injected from an injection well into a coalbed at a depth of 900 m, and coalbed methane was collected from an observation well. Since the CO{sub 2} injection rate was an order of magnitude lower than that estimated by preliminary analyses, N{sub 2} was injected in an attempt to improve it. However, this caused only a temporary increase in the CO{sub 2} injection rate. To better understand the phenomena observed in the Yubari field tests, two laboratory experiments were conducted under stress-constrained conditions. In Test I, liquid CO{sub 2} was injected into a water-saturated coal specimen and then heated and injected as supercritical CO{sub 2}. This was to simulate the initial stage of CO{sub 2} injection at Yubari when the coal seam was saturated with water. In Test II, supercritical CO{sub 2} was injected into a coal specimen saturated with N{sub 2}, and then N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} were repeatedly injected. This test was to simulate the case of N{sub 2} injection and CO{sub 2} re-injection at Yubari. In Test I, a volumetric swelling strain of 0.25 to 0.5% was observed after injecting liquid CO{sub 2}. However, in Test II, the swelling strain was about 0.5 to 0.8% after injecting supercritical CO{sub 2}. Following further injection of N{sub 2} in Test II, slow strain recovery was observed in the coal. At an effective stress of 2 MPa, the permeability of the water-saturated coal specimen was 2 x 10{sup -} {sup 6} darcy. In contrast, the permeability of the N{sub 2}-saturated coal specimen was originally 5 x 10{sup -} {sup 4} to 9 x 10{sup -} {sup 4} darcy, and after injection of supercritical CO{sub 2} it decreased to 2 x

  3. Bacillus coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, as a result, is often misclassified as lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus. In fact, some commercial products ... sporogenes or "spore-forming lactic acid bacterium." Unlike lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus or bifidobacteria, Bacillus coagulans forms ...

  4. Molecular Characterization and Mutation Breeding of a Polysaccharide Producing Bacillus Strain%1株产多糖芽胞杆菌的分子鉴定和诱变选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志红; 董晓芳; 佟建明; 张国庆

    2012-01-01

    With soil samples collected near ihe chicken house in Beijing Institute of Husbandry and Veterinary of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences as the materials, the strains were isolated from the samples, cultured and purified by diluted plate method. And the morphological identification and the polysaccharide content of isolated strains were determined. The isolated strain was mutated by UV and nitrosogudnidine ( NTG) . A polysaccharide producing Bacillus P-30 strain was isolated and identified as Bacillus brevis by analyses of its morphological, 16S rRNA sequence (Gene Bank Accession Number: HM185814) and phylogenetic tree analysis. Three mutation strains (N-05, N-11, and U-01) were obtained. They produced polysaccharide 1.44, 1.44 and 1.29 limes the yield of the P-30 strain respectively. The polysaccharide producing strains obtained in this study had good development outlook.%以中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所鸡舍附近土壤为材料,采用稀释平板法对其中的菌株进行分离与纯化培养,并对其进行形态学鉴定和粗多糖提取量的检测,同时对分离得到的菌株进行紫外线和亚硝基胍的诱变.从土壤中分离得到1株产多糖的芽胞杆菌(编号P-30),结合形态学鉴定、16S rRNA序列分析和系统发育树分析结果,确定该菌株为短短芽胞杆菌(Bacillus brevis).其16S rRNA GenBank登录号为HM185814.经过诱变选育后,获得3株(N-05、N-11、U-01)多糖产量为P-30的1.44、1.44和1.29倍的诱变菌株,具有良好的开发前景.

  5. Efficient transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis requires nonmethylated plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Macaluso, A; Mettus, A M

    1991-01-01

    The transformation efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis depends upon the source of plasmid DNA. DNA isolated from B. thuringiensis, Bacillus megaterium, or a Dam- Dcm- Escherichia coli strain efficiently transformed several B. thuringiensis strains, B. thuringiensis strains were grouped according to which B. thuringiensis backgrounds were suitable sources of DNA for transformation of other B. thuringiensis strains, suggesting that B. thuringiensis strains differ in DNA modification and restri...

  6. EXAFS investigation of uranium(VI) complexes formed at Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium(VI) complex formation at vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus was studied using uranium LII-edge and LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. A comparison of the measured equatorial U-O distances and other EXAFS structural parameters of uranyl species formed at the Bacillus strains with those of the uranyl structure family indicates that the uranium is predominantly bound as uranyl complexes with phosphoryl residues. (orig.)

  7. Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawlankar, Rahul; Thorat, Meghana N; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Dastager, Syed G

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain NIO-1130(T) was isolated from sediment sample taken from Chorao Island, Goa Province, India, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, and motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate within the genus Bacillus and strain NIO-1130(T) showed highest sequence similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) (98.4%) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T) (98.1%), whereas other Bacillus species showed <97.0% similarity. Tree based on gyrB gene sequence revealed that strain bacillus group. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The strain showed a DNA G+C content of 39.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that strain NIO-1130(T) exhibits 70% similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T). On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, we consider the isolate to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1130(T) (=NCIM 5461(T)=CCTCC AB 2011126(T)). PMID:26410293

  8. Influence of culture medium pH on the production of CGTase by Bacillus firmus Strain No. 37 - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i3.15882

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Bravin Carmello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme cyclomaltodextrin-glucanotransferase (CGTase is a transglicosidase able to convert corn starch into cyclodextrin (CD. CDs are widely applied in industry given the ability to form inclusion complexes with a great variety of organic molecules. Regarding the optimum pH of CGTase, values reported in the literature vary according to the enzyme producing microorganism, being 8.0 the optimum pH of CGTase produced by Bacillus firmus Strain No. 37. This work studied the influence of the pH of culture medium with different concentration of nutrients on the production of the enzyme CGTase by Bacillus firmus Strain No. 37. For this purpose, the microorganism was grown in three culture media with different concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. The pH control was performed by adding sodium carbonate. The fermentation process was analyzed by the following methods: Bradford (1976 method to determine soluble proteins, DNS method to analyze sugars, and the method of complexation with β-CD to analyze the enzyme activity. The best result for CGTase enzyme activity was 0.22 U mL-1, obtained with medium containing 2.0% soluble corn starch and yeast extract, and pH 8.3.  

  9. Molecular characterization and RNA interference of three midgut aminopeptidase N isozymes from bacillus thuringiensis-susceptible and -resistant strains of sugarcane borer diatraea saccharalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) proteins located at the midgut epithelium of some lepidopterous species have been implicated as receptors for insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis. cDNAs of three APN isoforms, DsAPN1, DsAPN2, and DsAPN3, from Cry1Ab-susceptible (Cry1Ab-SS) and -resistant (Cry1Ab-...

  10. Enhanced transformation efficiency of recalcitrant Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolates upon in vitro methylation of plasmid DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Nierop Groot, M.N.; Nieboer, F.; Abee, T.

    2008-01-01

    Digestion patterns of chromosomal DNAs of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains suggest that Sau3AI-type restriction modification systems are widely present among the isolates tested. In vitro methylation of plasmid DNA was used to enhance poor plasmid transfer upon electroporation to recalcitrant strains that carry Sau3AI restriction barriers.

  11. Quasi-Static and High Strain Rate Compressive Response of Injection-Molded Cenosphere/HDPE Syntactic Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath Kumar, B. R.; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Doddamani, Mrityunjay; Luong, Dung D.; Gupta, Nikhil

    2016-07-01

    High strain rate compressive properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix syntactic foams containing cenosphere filler are investigated. Thermoplastic matrix syntactic foams have not been studied extensively for high strain rate deformation response despite interest in them for lightweight underwater vehicle structures and consumer products. Quasi-static compression tests are conducted at 10-4 s-1, 10-3 s-1 and 10-2 s-1 strain rates. Further, a split-Hopkinson pressure bar is utilized for characterizing syntactic foams for high strain rate compression. The compressive strength of syntactic foams is higher than that of HDPE resin at the same strain rate. Yield strength shows an increasing trend with strain rate. The average yield strength values at high strain rates are almost twice the values obtained at 10-4 s-1 for HDPE resin and syntactic foams. Theoretical models are used to estimate the effectiveness of cenospheres in reinforcing syntactic foams.

  12. The T box regulatory element controlling expression of the class I lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Bacillus cereus strain 14579 is functional and can be partially induced by reduced charging of asparaginyl-tRNAAsn

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Foy, Niall

    2010-07-22

    Abstract Background Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is unique within the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family in that both class I (LysRS1) and class II (LysRS2) enzymes exist. LysRS1 enzymes are found in Archaebacteria and some eubacteria while all other organisms have LysRS2 enzymes. All sequenced strains of Bacillus cereus (except AH820) and Bacillus thuringiensis however encode both a class I and a class II LysRS. The lysK gene (encoding LysRS1) of B. cereus strain 14579 has an associated T box element, the first reported instance of potential T box control of LysRS expression. Results A global study of 891 completely sequenced bacterial genomes identified T box elements associated with control of LysRS expression in only four bacterial species: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Here we investigate the T box element found in the regulatory region of the lysK gene in B. cereus strain 14579. We show that this T box element is functional, responding in a canonical manner to an increased level of uncharged tRNALys but, unusually, also responding to an increased level of uncharged tRNAAsn. We also show that B. subtilis strains with T box regulated expression of the endogenous lysS or the heterologous lysK genes are viable. Conclusions The T box element controlling lysK (encoding LysRS1) expression in B. cereus strain 14579 is functional, but unusually responds to depletion of charged tRNALys and tRNAAsn. This may have the advantage of making LysRS1 expression responsive to a wider range of nutritional stresses. The viability of B. subtilis strains with a single LysRS1 or LysRS2, whose expression is controlled by this T box element, makes the rarity of the occurrence of such control of LysRS expression puzzling.

  13. The T box regulatory element controlling expression of the class I lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Bacillus cereus strain 14579 is functional and can be partially induced by reduced charging of asparaginyl-tRNAAsn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conant Gavin C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS is unique within the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family in that both class I (LysRS1 and class II (LysRS2 enzymes exist. LysRS1 enzymes are found in Archaebacteria and some eubacteria while all other organisms have LysRS2 enzymes. All sequenced strains of Bacillus cereus (except AH820 and Bacillus thuringiensis however encode both a class I and a class II LysRS. The lysK gene (encoding LysRS1 of B. cereus strain 14579 has an associated T box element, the first reported instance of potential T box control of LysRS expression. Results A global study of 891 completely sequenced bacterial genomes identified T box elements associated with control of LysRS expression in only four bacterial species: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Here we investigate the T box element found in the regulatory region of the lysK gene in B. cereus strain 14579. We show that this T box element is functional, responding in a canonical manner to an increased level of uncharged tRNALys but, unusually, also responding to an increased level of uncharged tRNAAsn. We also show that B. subtilis strains with T box regulated expression of the endogenous lysS or the heterologous lysK genes are viable. Conclusions The T box element controlling lysK (encoding LysRS1 expression in B. cereus strain 14579 is functional, but unusually responds to depletion of charged tRNALys and tRNAAsn. This may have the advantage of making LysRS1 expression responsive to a wider range of nutritional stresses. The viability of B. subtilis strains with a single LysRS1 or LysRS2, whose expression is controlled by this T box element, makes the rarity of the occurrence of such control of LysRS expression puzzling.

  14. Identification and characterization of the Sudanese Bacillus thuringiensis and related bacterial strains for their efficacy against Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorashi, N E; Tripathi, M; Kalia, V; Gujar, G T

    2014-06-01

    Forty-four isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis like bacteria from various sources in different locations from Sudan were tested for their insecticidal activity. The toxicity of these isolates ranged from 6.6 to 70% to the neonates of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera at 10 ppm concentration. The most effective ones are Kb-29, St-6 and Wh-1 comparable with HD-1. Toxicity of isolates to larvae of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum ranged from 20 to 100%. Isolates St-2 and St-23 gave 100% larval mortality within 15 days of exposure and were at par with Ab-8, Ab-12, Kb-26, Kb-30, Om-4, Po-2, Po-5, Po-7, Sa-8 and Wh-5 and were also comparable with E. coli clone expressing Cry3 toxin. The most effective five isolates viz., Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 belonged to B. thuringiensis. The St-6 isolate, which also showed high toxicity to T. castaneum larvae, had cry1 genes along with coleopteran active cry28 genes, but not cry3 genes. Of the 25 isolates characterized with 16s DNA sequencing, seven belonged to Paenibacillus spp., one Lysinibacillus sphaericus, one Bacillus pumilus, four Bacillus spp., and rest 12 belonged to B. thuringiensis. Biochemical characterization in each species showed variation. The present study shows potential of some isolates like Kb-29, St-2, St-6, St-23 and Wh-1 as promising bioinsecticides. PMID:24956895

  15. Isolation,Screening and Preliminary Identification of Biocontrol Strains of Bacillus spp.%生防芽孢杆菌的分离筛选与初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任士伟; 邢小霞; 董向丽

    2011-01-01

    30 Strains of Bacillus spp. were isolated from 7 soil samples using repeated plate streaking, and 4 strains of them had rivalry ability to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. They had also antagonism effect and broad spectrum to other plant pathogenic fungi proved by the method of plate test. We detected that the secondary metabolites of Bacillus spp. had fungistasis and could induce deformed growth of hyphae, the metabolites had water-solubility ability. The hyphae of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum et al. could be induced bulge, browning, tip dulled. produced sporule by zymotic fluid. A strain of Bacillus subtilis was preliminary identified through observation of its morphological features and culture characters and a series of biochemical experiments.%从不同环境中采集7份土壤样品用于芽孢杆菌的分离纯化,通过多次平板划线分离纯化得到30个菌落形态不同的菌株.以黄瓜枯萎病菌为指示菌对得到的菌株进行抑菌活性筛选,其中的4个菌株具有明显的抑菌作用.采用对峙生长法,测定4株芽孢杆菌对其它植物病原真菌的活性,结果显示4个芽孢杆菌均具有广谱抑菌性.进一步试验表明,4株芽孢杆菌的发酵液也具有明显的抑菌作用,说明对病原真菌有抑制作用的物质水溶性较大,大部分释放到发酵液中,并且发酵液可使黄瓜枯萎等植物病原真菌菌丝膨大、褐变、末端钝圆,促进镰刀菌产生小孢子.通过菌落形态特征、系列生化测定对其进行初步鉴定,结果表明其中一株为枯草芽孢杆菌.

  16. Regulation of Polyglutamic Acid Synthesis by Glutamate in Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Kambourova, Margarita; Tangney, Martin; Priest, Fergus G.

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of polyglutamic acid (PGA) was repressed by exogenous glutamate in strains of Bacillus licheniformis but not in strains of Bacillus subtilis, indicating a clear difference in the regulation of synthesis of capsular slime in these two species. Although extracellular γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) activity was always present in PGA-producing cultures of B. licheniformis under various growth conditions, there was no correlation between the quantity of PGA and enzyme activity. Moreo...

  17. Identification and Nematicidal Activity Assay on Root-knot Nematode of a Bacillus Strain%对根结线虫高毒力芽胞杆菌的鉴定及其活性测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余子全; 罗辉; 熊静; 尹佳; 胡胜标; 丁学知; 夏立秋

    2012-01-01

    为筛选高效安全的杀虫资源,从海底淤泥中分离到一株对根结线虫(Meloidogyne spp.)高毒力的芽胞杆菌YBf-10,PCR扩增16S rRAN基因,经测序、序列比对分析和系统进化树构建,发现其与坚强芽胞杆菌(Bacillus firmus)Z1-7菌株16S rDNA同源性为99%,初步确定所分离的菌株为坚强芽胞杆菌.将该菌株培养至芽胞成熟,离心取上清,10倍稀释后进行生物测定,发现其对北方根结线虫二龄幼虫有很高的毒力.处理24h校正死亡率达到50%以上,72h达到100%.对根结线虫虫卵进行毒力测定表明,作用48 h后能显著抑制虫卵孵化达到80%以上.在培养过程中分不同时段取样,并用所取样品上清进行生物测定,发现从稳定期开始表现出了对北方根结线虫的毒力,在整个稳定期毒力持续增强,直到衰亡期后期,毒力达到最高,表明坚强芽胞杆菌所产生的杀线虫活性物质主要是在稳定期合成的.将发酵上清80℃处理30 min毒力无明显变化,通过饱和硫酸铵沉淀上清中蛋白,该蛋白对线虫无明显毒力,但是去蛋白后的上清对线虫仍然具有与未经处理上清相似的杀线虫活性,表明坚强芽胞杆菌产生的杀线虫活性物质是一种非蛋白类的小分子化合物.研究结果提示,本研究所分离的坚强芽胞杆菌在稳定期能够大量合成对线虫具有毒杀活性的小分子化合物,对根结线虫表现出极高毒力,为利用该菌株开发植物寄生线虫生防制剂提供了杀虫资源.%For screening of high efficiency and safe nematicidal resource, a Bacillus strain YBf-10 which exhibits extreme toxicity to root-knot nematode was isolated from marine sediment. The 16S rRAN gene of this strain was amplified by PCR, then sequenced and analysed with Blast in NCBI. The result indicated that it showed 99% identity with the 16S rDNA of Bacillus firmus strain Zl-7. It means the isolated Bacillus strain is B. firmus. The YBf-10 strain was

  18. Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The events of 11 September 2001 and the subsequent anthrax outbreaks have shown that the West needs to be prepared for an increasing number of terrorist attacks, which may include the use of biological warfare. Bacillus anthracis has long been considered a potential biological warfare agent, and this review will discuss the history of its use as such. It will also cover the biology of this organism and the clinical features of the three disease forms that it can produce: cutaneous, gastrointe...

  19. Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    BOSERET, GÉRALDINE; Linden, Annick; Mainil, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    The literature describes several methods for detection of Bacillus anthracis based on application of specific bacteriophages. The following methods of pahoinpitely are used to identify the causative agent of anthrax: the reaction of bacteriophage titer growth (RBTG), the reaction of phage adsorption (RPA), fagoterapii method (FTM) and fluorescentserological method (FSM). The essence of RBTG consists in the following: if there is the researchform of bacteria presents in the test material, then...

  20. Demonstration of record-low injection-current variable optical attenuator based on strained SiGe with optimized lateral pin junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghyun; Fujikata, Junichi; Takahashi, Shigeki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate a strained SiGe variable optical attenuator (VOA) with a lateral pin junction which exhibits record-low injection-current for 20-dB attenuation. We optimize the distance between the highly doped p + and n + regions in the lateral pin junction to effectively inject electrons and holes, taking into account the propagation loss. In conjunction with the enhanced free-carrier absorption in strained SiGe, the SiGe VOA with the optimized lateral pin junction exhibits 20-dB attenuation by 20-mA/mm injection current, which is 1.5 times lower current density than that of the Si VOA. The SiGe VOA also shows better RF response than the Si VOA due to the short carrier lifetime in SiGe, allowing us to achieve efficient and fast attenuation modulation simultaneously. Furthermore, 2-GHz switching and error-free transmission of 4 × 12.5 Gbps WDM signal have been also achieved. PMID:25969320

  1. Immunization with a Recombinant, Pseudomonas fluorescens-Expressed, Mutant Form of Bacillus anthracis-Derived Protective Antigen Protects Rabbits from Anthrax Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Matthew D.; Wilder, Julie A.; Mega, William M.; Hutt, Julie A.; Kuehl, Philip J.; Valderas, Michelle W.; Chew, Lawrence L.; Liang, Bertrand C.; Squires, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA), one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax). Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively) supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse inject...

  2. Macrophages elicited with heat-killed bacillus Calomette-Guerin protect C57BL/6J mice against a syngeneic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    We have demonstrated that a murine cytotoxic peritoneal cell can be elicited by intraperitoneal immunization with heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis, strain Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). When these cells are injected together with cells of clone B(5)59 of B16 melanoma in a Winn- type transfer assay into syngeneic C57BL/6J mice, the tumorigenic potential of the melanoma is completely abrogated. Similarly, mice immunized intraperitoneally with dead BCG are protected against intraperitoneal chall...

  3. Microbial reduction of [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} by Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 strain isolated from a solar salt pan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paraneeiswaran, Arunachalam [Departartment of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry (India); Shukla, Sudhir K. [Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Prashanth, K. [Departartment of Biotechnology, Pondicherry University, Puducherry (India); Rao, T. Subba, E-mail: subbarao@igcar.gov.in [Biofouling and Biofilm Processes Section, Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC Facilities, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 was used in the bioremediation of [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −}. • The bacterial biomass adsorbed the Co–EDTA complex after its reduction. • [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} complex showed Bacillus spore inducing property. • B. licheniformis SPB-2 showed significantly radio-tolerance (D{sub 10} = 250 Gy). - Abstract: Naturally stressed habitats are known to be repositories for novel microorganisms with potential bioremediation applications. In this study, we isolated a [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reducing bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 from a solar salt pan that is exposed to constant cycles of hydration and desiccation in nature. [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} generated during nuclear waste management process is difficult to remove from the waste due to its high stability and solubility. It is reduced form i.e. [Co(II)–EDTA]{sup 2−} is less stable though it is toxic. This study showed that B. licheniformis SPB-2 reduced 1 mM [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} in 14 days when grown in a batch mode. However, subsequent cycles showed an increase in the reduction activity, which was observed up to four cycles. Interestingly, the present study also showed that [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} acted as an inducer for B. licheniformis SPB-2 spore germination. Vegetative cells germinated from the spores were found to be involved in [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reduction. More detailed investigations showed that after [Co(III)–EDTA]{sup −} reduction, i.e. [Co(II)–EDTA]{sup 2−} complex was removed by B. licheniformis SPB-2 from the bulk liquid by adsorption phenomenon. The bacterium showed a D{sub 10} value (radiation dose required to kill 90% cells) of ∼250 Gray (Gy), which signifies the potential use of B. licheniformis SPB-2 for bioremediation of moderately active nuclear waste.

  4. Microbial reduction of [Co(III)–EDTA]− by Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 strain isolated from a solar salt pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 was used in the bioremediation of [Co(III)–EDTA]−. • The bacterial biomass adsorbed the Co–EDTA complex after its reduction. • [Co(III)–EDTA]− complex showed Bacillus spore inducing property. • B. licheniformis SPB-2 showed significantly radio-tolerance (D10 = 250 Gy). - Abstract: Naturally stressed habitats are known to be repositories for novel microorganisms with potential bioremediation applications. In this study, we isolated a [Co(III)–EDTA]− reducing bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SPB-2 from a solar salt pan that is exposed to constant cycles of hydration and desiccation in nature. [Co(III)–EDTA]− generated during nuclear waste management process is difficult to remove from the waste due to its high stability and solubility. It is reduced form i.e. [Co(II)–EDTA]2− is less stable though it is toxic. This study showed that B. licheniformis SPB-2 reduced 1 mM [Co(III)–EDTA]− in 14 days when grown in a batch mode. However, subsequent cycles showed an increase in the reduction activity, which was observed up to four cycles. Interestingly, the present study also showed that [Co(III)–EDTA]− acted as an inducer for B. licheniformis SPB-2 spore germination. Vegetative cells germinated from the spores were found to be involved in [Co(III)–EDTA]− reduction. More detailed investigations showed that after [Co(III)–EDTA]− reduction, i.e. [Co(II)–EDTA]2− complex was removed by B. licheniformis SPB-2 from the bulk liquid by adsorption phenomenon. The bacterium showed a D10 value (radiation dose required to kill 90% cells) of ∼250 Gray (Gy), which signifies the potential use of B. licheniformis SPB-2 for bioremediation of moderately active nuclear waste

  5. Integrative Cloning, Expression, and Stability of the cryIA(c) Gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki in a Recombinant Strain of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis

    OpenAIRE

    Lampel, Jay S.; Canter, Gayle L.; Dimock, Michael B.; Kelly, Jeffrey L.; Anderson, James J.; Uratani, Brenda B.; Foulke, James S.; Turner, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A bacterial endophyte was engineered for insecticidal activity against the European corn borer. The cryIA(c) gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was introduced into the chromosome of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis by using an integrative plasmid vector. The integration vectors pCG740 and pCG741 included the replicon pGEM5Zf(+), which is maintained in Escherichia coli but not in C. xyli subsp. cynodontis; tetM as a marker for selection in C. xyli subsp. cynodontis; and a chrom...

  6. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis study of Bacillus sphaericus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Zahner

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE has been used in the study of some Bacillus species. In this work we applied MLEE and numerical analysis in the study of the Bacillus sphaericus group. B. sphaericus can be distinguished from other entomopathogenic Bacillus by a unique allele (NP-4. Within the species, all insect pathogens were recovered in the same phenetic cluster and all of these strains have the same band position (electrophoresis migration on the agarose gel (ADH-2. The entomopathogenic group of B. sphaericus seems to be a clonal population, having two widespread frequent genotypes (zymovar 59 and zymovar 119.

  7. Genetic relationships between sympatric populations of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, as revealed by rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula S Peruca; Vilas-Bôas, Gislayne T.; OMN Arantes

    2008-01-01

    The bacterial strain Bacillus cereus is closely related to Bacillus thuringiensis, although any genetic relationship between the two strains is still in debate. Using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting, we established the genetic relationships between Brazilian sympatric populations of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis simultaneously collected from two geographically separate sites. We observed the formation of both B. thuringiensis and B. cereus clusters, as well as strains of B. cereus that are mo...

  8. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  9. Epidemiology of bacillus cereus implied in food contaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacillus Cereus is an opportunistic pathogen. It is a causative agent in both gastrointestinal and in non gastrointestinal infections. In this study, 41 strains of Bacillus Cereus were isolated on Polymixin-Mannitol-Egg-Yolk Phenol red Agar (PMYPA) from foods (milk products, pasta, meat). These isolates were characterised and identified by biochemical and molecular tests. Pcr was performed for detection and characterisation of toxins genes in bacillus cereus. (author). 108 refs

  10. A novel recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin strain expressing human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis early secretory antigenic target 6 complex augments Th1 immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoling Yang; Lang Bao; Yihao Deng

    2011-01-01

    Since Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin strain (BCG) fails to protect adults from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), there is an urgent need for developing a new vaccine. In this study, we constructed a novel recombinant BCG strain (rBCG) expressing human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT6) of Mycobacteriutn tuberculosis, named rBCG:GE (expressing GMCSFESAT6 complex), and evaluated the immunogenicity of the construct in BALB/c mice. Our results indicated that the rBCG:GE was able to induce higher titer of antibody than the conventional BCG, the rBCG:G (expressing GM-CSF)and the rBCG:E (expressing ESAT6). Moreover, the rBCG:GE also elicited a longer-lasting and stronger Thl cellular immune responses than the other groups, which was confirmed by the incremental proliferation of splenocytes, the increased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of spleen, the elevated level of interferon-γ in splenocyte culture after tuberculin-purified protein derivative stimulation, and the increased concentration of GM-CSF in serum. The data presented here suggested the possibility that the recombinant BCG:GE might be a good vaccine candidate to TB.

  11. Effect of Biaxial Stretching at Temperatures and Strain Histories Comparable to Injection Stretch Blow Moulding on Tensile Modulus for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, C. W.; Menary, G. H.; Harkin-Jones, E. M. A.; Armstrong, C. G.; Martin, P. J.

    2007-04-01

    This study is particularly relevant to the injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) process where PET material is typically biaxially stretched to form bottles for the water and carbonated soft drinks industry. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of biaxial stretching on the mechanical properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a custom built biaxial testing machine. An initially amorphous PET sample was prepared via injection moulding to form a square sample (76mm × 76mm) suitable for stretching on the machine. This sample was then subjected to a series of biaxial tests (simultaneous and sequential) within a temperature range between 85°C and 110 °C, strain rates in the range of 1s-1 to 32s-1 and stretch ratios in the range of 1.5 to 3. Specimens were subsequently cut from the biaxial stretched sheets and used to measure the tensile modulus. Results showed that there is almost no effect found for strain rate and temperature on modulus development whilst stretch ratio and mode of deformation played the most important role on modulus development on PET under biaxial deformation.

  12. Growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation among 56 Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa, Brassica juncea and Brassica napus grown in a contaminated field in Fukushima: Effect of inoculation with a Bacillus pumilus strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedidi, Salem; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-06-01

    Fifty six local Japanese cultivars of Brassica rapa (40 cultivars), Brassica juncea (10 cultivars) and Brassica napus (6 cultivars) were assessed for variability in growth and (137)Cs uptake and accumulation in association with a Bacillus pumilus strain. Field trial was conducted at a contaminated farmland in Nihonmatsu city, in Fukushima prefecture. Inoculation resulted in different responses of the cultivars in terms of growth and radiocesium uptake and accumulation. B. pumilus induced a significant increase in shoot dry weight in 12 cultivars that reached up to 40% in one B. rapa and three B. juncea cultivars. Differences in radiocesium uptake were observed between the cultivars of each Brassica species. Generally, inoculation resulted in a significant increase in (137)Cs uptake in 22 cultivars, while in seven cultivars it was significantly decreased. Regardless of plant cultivar and bacterial inoculation, the transfer of (137)Cs to the plant shoots (TF) varied by a factor of up to 5 and it ranged from to 0.011 to 0.054. Five inoculated cultivars, showed enhanced shoot dry weights and decreased (137)Cs accumulations, among which two B. rapa cultivars named Bitamina and Nozawana had a significantly decreased (137)Cs accumulation in their shoots. Such cultivars could be utilized to minimize the entry of radiocesium into the food chain; however, verifying the consistency of their radiocesium accumulation in other soils is strongly required. Moreover, the variations in growth and radiocesium accumulation, as influenced by Bacillus inoculation, could help selecting well grown inoculated Brassica cultivars with low radiocesium accumulation in their shoots. PMID:26986237

  13. Preliminary researches on preparation technology of bacillus coagulans strain applied to animal%畜禽用凝结芽孢杆菌菌剂制备工艺的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高书锋; 刘惠知; 胡新旭; 周映华; 缪东; 吴胜莲; 周小玲

    2012-01-01

    试验对畜禽用凝结芽孢杆菌的菌剂制备工艺进行了研究,结果表明:最适吸附载体为麦麸,发酵液经离心吸附菌体损失率较高,最适干燥方式为40℃恒温干燥,制剂生产过程中粉碎时间应严格控制在15s内,在当前益生菌和抗生素联用的客观背景下,建议和金霉素联合使用,紫外吸收剂2(3,5-二叔丁基-2-羟苯基)-5氯苯并三唑对凝结芽孢杆菌制剂在紫外环境下保护作用最佳.%The article has done researches on agents prepared techology about bacillus coagulan strain applied to animal.The results showed that optimum adsorbent carrier was wheat bran. The loss rate of living bacteria was high by absorption after centrifugation, optimum drying method was constant temperature 40 ℃, the time pulverized was controlled strictly within 15 s on the agent production process. In the objective causes of union application between probiotics and antibiotics, it was to be advised to use together with aureomycin, the protective effects of ultraviolet absorber 2-(3,5-Di-tert-butyl-2-hydrox-yphenyI)-5-chlorobenzotr iazole on bacillus coagulan agent at ultraviolet ray were best.

  14. Geomechanical Modeling of CO2 Injection Site to Predict Wellbore Stresses and Strains for the Design of Wellbore Seal Repair Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolik, S. R.; Matteo, E. N.; Dewers, T. A.; Newell, P.; Gomez, S. P.; Stormont, J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will present the results of large-scale three-dimensional calculations simulating the hydrological-mechanical behavior of a CO2 injection reservoir and the resulting effects on wellbore casings and sealant repair materials. A critical aspect of designing effective wellbore seal repair materials is predicting thermo-mechanical perturbations in local stress that can compromise seal integrity. The DOE-NETL project "Wellbore Seal Repair Using Nanocomposite Materials," is interested in the stress-strain history of abandoned wells, as well as changes in local pressure, stress, and temperature conditions that accompany carbon dioxide injection or brine extraction. Two distinct computational models comprise the current modeling effort. The first is a field scale model that uses the stratigraphy, material properties, and injection history from a pilot CO2 injection operation in Cranfield, MS to develop a stress-strain history for wellbore locations from 100 to 400 meters from an injection well. The results from the field scale model are used as input to a more detailed model of a wellbore casing. The 3D wellbore model examines the impacts of various loading scenarios on a casing structure. This model has been developed in conjunction with bench-top experiments of an integrated seal system in an idealized scaled wellbore mock-up being used to test candidate seal repair materials. The results from these models will be used to estimate the necessary mechanical properties needed for a successful repair material. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under Grant Number DE-FE0009562. This project is managed and administered by the University of New Mexico and funded by DOE/NETL and cost-sharing partners. This work was funded in part by the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of

  15. Purification of Aminopeptidase N Protein and Differences in cDNAs Encoding APN1 Between Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera Strains to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Ge-mei; WANG Gui-rong; XU Guang; WU Kong-ming; GUO Yu-yuan

    2004-01-01

    The brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) in midgut of Helicoverpa armigera were successfully separated, and most of the Aminopeptidase N (APN) activities in BBMV were preserved. The 3-[(3-chlor-amidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-l-propane-sulphonate (CHAPS)can enhance the dissolution of BBMV, and phosphatidylinositol-specific phosopholipase C (PI-PLC) can cleave the APN from midgut membrane. The APN was primarily purified using a Mono-Q column. The results of immunoblotting showed that the 120 and 170 kDa proteins in the BBMV could bind CrylAc, and 120kDa APN was a glycosylphosphalidylinositol(GPI)anchored protein. Two Bt-resistant strains (Bt-P, Bt-M) were obtained after being selected for more than five years in laboratory using Bt insecticides and Bt transgenic cotton incorporated into diet separately. The resistance of Bt-P and Bt-M were 1 083.3and 48.7 times that of susceptible strain. The genes encoding APN1 in midgut of susceptible and resistant H.armigera were cloned by PCR and RACE techniques. The inferred amino acid sequences of APN1 possessed the common character of APN family in insects. In comparison with APN1 in susceptible strain, three nucleotide mutations were observed in the APN1 of Bt-M strain and resulted in two amino acid replace in the putative protein sequences, and eight nucleotide mutations were observed in Bt-P strain and resulted in five amino acid replace.

  16. Enhanced transformation efficiency of recalcitrant Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolates upon in vitro methylation of plasmid DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop Groot, M.N.; Nieboer, F.; Abee, T.

    2008-01-01

    Digestion patterns of chromosomal DNAs of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains suggest that Sau3AI-type restriction modification systems are widely present among the isolates tested. In vitro methylation of plasmid DNA was used to enhance poor plasmid transfer upon electroporation

  17. Virulence, Immunogenicity, and Protective Efficacy of Two Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Strains Expressing the Antigen ESAT-6 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Lang; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Huidong; Wang, Xiaoying

    2003-01-01

    We constructed two recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG (rBCG) strains expressing ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, named rBCG-1 and rBCG-2. rBCG-1 contained the ESAT-6 gene linked to BCG hsp60 and expressed a fusion protein, while rBCG-2, with a secretory sequence, could secret ESAT-6 into the culture medium. There was no evidence for increased virulence of the two rBCG strains when we made a comparison between them and BCG with regard to organ bacterial loads, lung histology, and surviva...

  18. A Sequential Statistical Approach towards an Optimized Production of a Broad Spectrum Bacteriocin Substance from a Soil Bacterium Bacillus sp. YAS 1 Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Embaby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins, ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, display potential applications in agriculture, medicine, and industry. The present study highlights integral statistical optimization and partial characterization of a bacteriocin substance from a soil bacterium taxonomically affiliated as Bacillus sp. YAS 1 after biochemical and molecular identifications. A sequential statistical approach (Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken was employed to optimize bacteriocin (BAC YAS 1 production. Using optimal levels of three key determinants (yeast extract (0.48% (w/v, incubation time (62 hrs, and agitation speed (207 rpm in peptone yeast beef based production medium resulted in 1.6-fold enhancement in BAC YAS 1 level (470 AU/mL arbitrary units against Erwinia amylovora. BAC YAS 1 showed activity over a wide range of pH (1–13 and temperature (45–80°C. A wide spectrum antimicrobial activity of BAC YAS 1 against the human pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterococcus sp., Proteus sp., Klebsiella sp., and Salmonella typhimurium, the plant pathogen (E. amylovora, and the food spoiler (Listeria innocua was demonstrated. On top and above, BAC YAS 1 showed no antimicrobial activity towards lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, L. casei, L. lactis, and L. reuteri. Promising characteristics of BAC YAS 1 prompt its commercialization for efficient utilization in several industries.

  19. PRODUCTION OF CALCIUM- AND IRON-BINDING PEPTIDES BY PROBIOTIC STRAINS OF Bacillus subtilis, B. clausii AND B. coagulans GBI-30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Reyes-Méndez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunas cepas de Bacillus subtilis, B. clausii y B. coagulans se utilizan comercialmente como probióticos y su actividad proteolítica es de sobra conocida. El objetivo de este trabajo fue la evaluación de estos microorganismos debido a su capacidad para producir péptidos fijadores de calcio y hierro cuando son cultivados en medios con diferentes fuentes de nitrógeno. Los medios para la fermentación incluyeron caldos con soya y triptona (ST, peptona de case´ına (PC, peptona de soya (PS y, un extracto crudo de ficobiliproteína (ECF. Se obtuvieron sobrenadantes libres de células (SLC a partir de los caldos de fermentación y se determinó el grado de hidrólisis (GH y la bioactividad fijadora para calcio y hierro. El GH y la actividad fijadora de minerales fue mayor cuando se emplearon inóculos preparados a partir de un medio diseñado para la producción de proteasas alcalinas (AP. El mejor resultado para el GH y la bioactividad fijadora de calcio se obtuvo con B. subtilis y B. coagulans cultivados en caldo con ECF como fuente de nitrógeno. Se observaron resultados similares para la actividad fijadora de hierro, sin embargo, también se obtuvieron buenos resultados con B. clausii cuando se utilizaron para su crecimiento los caldos ST, PC y PS.

  20. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a marine-derived Bacillus strain for use as an in-feed probiotic for newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Maria Luz; O'Sullivan, Laurie; Tan, Shiau Pin; McLoughlin, Peter; Hughes, Helen; O'Donovan, Orla; Rea, Mary C; Kent, Robert M; Cassidy, Joseph P; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2014-01-01

    Forty eight individual pigs (8.7±0.26 kg) weaned at 28±1 d of age were used in a 22-d study to evaluate the effect of oral administration of a Bacillus pumilus spore suspension on growth performance and health indicators. Treatments (n = 16) were: (1) non-medicated diet; (2) medicated diet with apramycin (200 mg/kg) and pharmacological levels of zinc oxide (2,500 mg zinc/kg) and (3) B. pumilus diet (non-medicated diet + 10(10) spores/day B. pumilus). Final body weight and average daily gain tended to be lower (P = 0.07) and feed conversion ratio was worsened (Ppigs on the medicated treatment compared to those on the non-medicated or B. pumilus treatments. Pigs on the B. pumilus treatment had lower overall lymphocyte and higher granulocyte percentages (Ppigs on either of the other two treatments or the non-medicated treatment, respectively. However, histopathological examination of the small intestine, kidneys and liver revealed no abnormalities. Overall, the B. pumilus treatment decreased ileal E. coli counts in a manner similar to the medicated treatment but without the adverse effects on growth performance, Lactobacillus counts, cecal SCFA concentration and possible liver toxicity experienced with the medicated treatment. PMID:24586349

  1. Partial purification, characterization, and kinetic studies of a low-molecular-weight, alkali-tolerant chitinase enzyme from Bacillus subtilis JN032305, A potential biocontrol strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Srividya; Karmali, Anika Nayak; Ruhimbana, Charles

    2014-01-01

    A new alkalophilic low-molecular-mass chitinase of 14 kD from the potent biocontrol agent Bacillus subtilis JN032305 was partially purified and enzymology of the chitinase was studied. The enzyme showed optimal pH of 9.0 and temperature of 50°C. The enzyme was found stable during the 60-min incubation at 50 °C. The chitinase was inhibited by group specific agents like IAA, DAN, TLCK, and SDS and metal ions Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Ba(2+), and Hg(2+), whereas Zn(2+) did not show significant inhibitory effect against the chitinase. PMSF partially inhibited the enzyme. Substrates specificity tests indicated that the enzyme showed 75% of relative activity on glycol chitin, 58% on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 33% on chitin flakes, and 166% laminarin compared to that on colloidal chitin. The enzyme also hydrolyzed 4-methylumbelliferyl-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminide, indicating its chitobiase activity. The chitinase of this study has broad specificity, which could hydrolyze not only the glycosidic bond in GlcNAc-GlcNAc but also that of related carbohydrates with glycosidic linkages. The partially purified chitinase not only showed antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, two potent phytopathogens of chilli, but also increased the germination of chilli seeds when infected with the two potent phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:24499366

  2. Purification and characterization of a naringinase from a newly isolated strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 11568 suitable for the transformation of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunping; Jia, Huiyong; Xi, Menglu; Xu, Liya; Wu, Shaoming; Li, Xiuting

    2017-01-01

    An intracellular naringinase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 11568 isolated from soil was purified, identified, and characterized. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the purified enzyme gave a single protein band corresponding to a molecular mass of 32kDa. The optimum pH and temperature for naringinase and its α-l-rhamnosidase and β-d-glucosidase activities were pH 7.5 and 45°C, respectively. The enzymes were stable below 45°C between pH 3.5 and 8.5. The Km and the Vmax of the isolated naringinase were 0.95mmol/L and 3847.3mmol/(L·min), respectively. The isolated naringinase was capable of hydrolyzing naringin, neohesperidin, and other glycosides. Additionally, a concentration of 4U/mL of the enzyme in citrus juice was sufficient to remove the naringin and alleviate the bitterness of the juice. These results provide an in-depth insight into the structure of the naringinase and the hydrolysis of naringin and other flavonoids. PMID:27507445

  3. Differentiation between spores of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus by a quantitative immunofluorescence technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, A. P.; Martin, K L; Broster, M G

    1983-01-01

    A quantitative immunofluorescence assay based on fiber optic microscopy was used to measure the reaction of formalized spores of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus isolates with fluorescein conjugates prepared by hyperimmunization with B. anthracis Vollum spores. The spores of 11 of the 20 B. cereus strains reacted with the anti-anthrax conjugate to such an extent that they were indistinguishable from the spores of the several B. anthracis isolates tested. However, absorption of the conju...

  4. Expression and immunogenicity of recombinant Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin strains secreting the antigen ESAT-6 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-mei; SHI Chang-hong; FAN Xiong-lin; XUE Ying; BAI Yin-lai; XU Zhi-kai

    2007-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of human death. Currently, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only available vaccine against tuberculosis but its efficacy is highly variable. Thus, developing new tuberculosis vaccines becomes an urgent task. In this study, we evaluated in BALB/c mice the humoral and cellular immune responses of recombinant BCG expressing the antigen ESAT-6 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Methods Escherichia coli-BCG shuttle plasmid named pDE22-esat-6 was constructed by inserting the BamHI/EcoRI digested esat-6 gene PCR product into the similarly digested parental plasmid pDE22. BCG cells were transformed with pDE22-esat-6, which was named recombinant BCG (rBCG). BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously on the back with 100 μl normal saline containing 106 CFU of BCG or rBCG. They were sacrificed after 4 weeks to detect their humoral and cellular responses.Results There was no any significant differences in the growth characteristics between the conventional BCG and rBCG. In immunized mice, the IgG antibody titres of rBCG group were as high as 1:8000, which was significantly higher than that in BCG group (1:1400, P<0.05). The elicited IFN-γ level of rBCG group was (1993±106) pg/ml, which was also significantly higher than that in BCG group ((1463±105) pg/ml, P<0.05). The splenocyte proliferation index of rBCG group reached 4.34±0.31, which was higher than that of BCG group (3.79±0.24, P<0.05).Conclusion rBCG secreted expressing antigen ESAT-6 stimulated stronger humoral and cellular immune responses than BCG did, and, therefore may be the better vaccine against mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  5. Effect of varying temperature on growth, morphology and soluble protein content of div I and div II mutant strains of bacillus sub tills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In B.subtilis, cell division is controlled by div-genes which have been mapped on its circular chromosome. In the present work, div-mutant strains 1A316(div II), 1A317 and 1A318 (div I) were studied. These strains exhibited temperature sensitive cell division mutations. Colony morphology, cell morphology, staining behavior, growth rate and protein content of PY79 (wild type) and div-mutant strains (1A316, 1A317, 1A318) was studied at different temperatures ( 25 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. with varying incubation periods(4, 16, 24, 48, 72,96 hrs). div-mutants differ from wild type (PY79) in colony morphology. Colony margin in PY79 was entire while in the div strains it is undulate. Staining behavior of cells as well as cell morphology i.e., cell size, cell types, formation of filaments/minicells were affected by high temperature. At higher temperature (42 deg. Centi grade), div-mutants undergo more severe lysis and degeneration as compare to wild type (PY79). Defective spores were produced by div-mutants at 25 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. Centi grade. Tetrazolium overlay test was performed at 37 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. Centi grade to check the spore germination ability of wild type and div-mutants. In 1A318, defective spores were produced at 37 deg. Centi grade, div-mutant was checked after 24 and 96 hrs at different temperatures (25, 37 and 42 deg. Centi grade). At all temperatures protein content were more in PY79 as compare to div-mutants. Also at 25 and 42 deg. Centi grade, protein content was more as compare to 37 deg. Centi grade. Protein contents was reduced at sporulation stages. Thus cell division mutations affect cell morphology, sporulation and germination processes in B.subtilis and thus are multifaceted mutations. (author)

  6. Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Joon-Hee; Shim, Hongsik; Shin, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2015-01-01

    Anthracnose is a fungal disease caused by Colletotrichum species that is detrimental to numerous plant species. Anthracnose control with fungicides has both human health and environmental safety implications. Despite increasing public concerns, fungicide use will continue in the absence of viable alternatives. There have been relatively less efforts to search antagonistic bacteria from mudflats harboring microbial diversity. A total of 420 bacterial strains were isolated from mudflats near th...

  7. Toxicity and binding analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis toxin Vip3A in Cry1Ac-resistant and-susceptible strains of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qian; CHEN Li-zhen; LU Qiong; ZHANG Yan; LIANG Ge-mei

    2015-01-01

    The Bacil us thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal protein, Vip3A, represents a new family of Bt toxin and is currently ap-plied to commercial transgenic cotton. To determine whether the Cry1Ac-resistant Helicoverpa armigera is cross-resistant to Vip3Aa protein, insecticidal activities, proteolytic activations and binding properties of Vip3Aa toxin were investigated using Cry1Ac-susceptible (96S) and Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera strain (Cry1Ac-R). The toxicity of Vip3Aa in Cry1Ac-R slightly reduced compared with 96S, the resistance ratio was only 1.7-fold. The digestion rate of ful-length Vip3Aa by gut juice extracts from 96S was little faster than that from Cry1Ac-R. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed there was no signiifcant difference between the binding afifnity of Vip3Aa and BBMVs between 96S and Cry1Ac-R strains, and there was no signiifcant competitive binding between Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac in susceptible or resistant strains. So there had little cross-resistance between Vip3Aa and Cry1Ac,Vip3A+Cry proteins maybe the suitable pyramid strategy to control H. armigera in China in the future.

  8. The antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 also confers protection to melon plants against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gutiérrez, Laura; Zeriouh, Houda; Romero, Diego; Cubero, Jaime; de Vicente, Antonio; Pérez-García, Alejandro

    2013-05-01

    Biological control of plant diseases has gained acceptance in recent years. Bacillus subtilis UMAF6639 is an antagonistic strain specifically selected for the efficient control of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera fusca, which is a major threat to cucurbits worldwide. The antagonistic activity relies on the production of the antifungal compounds iturin and fengycin. In a previous study, we found that UMAF6639 was able to induce systemic resistance (ISR) in melon and provide additional protection against powdery mildew. In the present work, we further investigated in detail this second mechanism of biocontrol by UMAF6639. First, we examined the signalling pathways elicited by UMAF6639 in melon plants, as well as the defence mechanisms activated in response to P. fusca. Second, we analysed the role of the lipopeptides produced by UMAF6639 as potential determinants for ISR activation. Our results demonstrated that UMAF6639 confers protection against cucurbit powdery mildew by activation of jasmonate- and salicylic acid-dependent defence responses, which include the production of reactive oxygen species and cell wall reinforcement. We also showed that surfactin lipopeptide is a major determinant for stimulation of the immune response. These results reinforce the biotechnological potential of UMAF6639 as a biological control agent. PMID:23302493

  9. Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokaeifar, Hadi; Babaei, Nahid; Saad, Che Roos; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, vegetative cell suspensions of two Bacillus subtilis strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU ml(-1) in the rearing water of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for eight weeks. Both probiotic groups showed a significant reduction of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate ions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and digestive enzymatic activity were significantly greater in the BM5 and BM8 groups. Significant differences for survival were recorded in the BM8 group as compared to the control. Eight weeks after the start of experiment, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 80%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 36.7% with MB8 and 50% with MB5. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan- binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was only significantly up-regulated in the BM5 group compared to the BM8 and control groups. These results suggest that administration of B. subtilis strains in the rearing water confers beneficial effects for shrimp aquaculture, considering water quality, growth performance, digestive enzymatic activity, immune response and disease resistance. PMID:24161773

  10. Effect of Injection Minimal Dosages of Depot Medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA to Body Weight and Blood Chemistry Male Rat Strain Sprague-Dawley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many family planning program focus more on men. Until now, vasectomy has been the commonly used method for male contraception. However, this method creates inconvenience such as irreversibility and psychological problems. One of the alternatives contraception is the combination of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA and androgen. The minimum dosage of DMPA could suppress testosterone level that leads to reduced spermatogenesis and sperm viability. Nevertheless, until now it is not known whether minimum dosages of DMPA have an effect to body weight and blood chemistry. Therefore, this research aimed at determinate the effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry using male rats (Rattus norvegicus L. strain Sprague-Dawley as model. This research using completely randomized design, unequal size sample, castration treatments and several doses DMPA (1.25, 0.625, and 0.313 milligram. Injecting of DMPA conducted intramuscularly on week 0 and week 12. Normality/homogeneity Data normality were analyzed before ANOVA test. Then, abnormal data were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test. The result shows that injection of DMPA in various doses do not have an effect on body weight and blood chemistry such as erytrocytes, haemoglobin, hematocrite, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, SGOT, SGPT and triglyseride (p>0,05. Furthermore, it is concluded that that no effect of minimal dosages of DMPA to body mass and blood chemistry of rat.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Bacillus anthracis: Determining the Correct Origin▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pilo, Paola; Perreten, Vincent; Frey, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed and compared strains of Bacillus anthracis isolated from husbandry and industrial anthrax cases in Switzerland between 1952 and 1981 with published data using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. Strains isolated from autochthonous cases of anthrax in cattle belong to genotype B2, together with strains from continental Europe, while human B. anthracis strains clustered with genotype A4. These strains could be traced back to outbreaks of human anthrax that occurre...

  12. 1株枯草芽胞杆菌的鉴定及其弹性蛋白酶结构研究%Bacillus subtilis Strain Identification and Its Enzyme Structure of Elastase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 陈启和; 倪辉; 李利君; 蔡慧农; 苏文金

    2012-01-01

    鉴定弹性蛋白酶产生菌株EL32,确定该酶的基本结构.采用分子生物学、形态学及生理生化性质对菌株EL32进行鉴定;用硫酸铵沉淀、离子交换层析和分子筛层析纯化酶蛋白;借助肚指纹图谱及酶基因克隆技术研究该酶的一级结构;利用同源建模的方法研究该酶的空间结构.菌株EL32的16S rDNA与枯草芽胞杆菌16S rDNA的同源性达到99%,其菌落呈乳白色,其细胞革兰染色阳性,具有芽胞;发酵葡萄糖试验产酸不产气,明胶水解试验呈阳性,能够水解淀粉,V-P反应呈阳性,鉴定为枯草芽胞杆菌.从菌株BL32发酵液中纯化得到了弹性蛋白酶,SDS-PAGE分析显示其分子量为31 ku.用LTQ-MS测定肽指纹图谱表明该弹性蛋白酶是枯草芽胞杆菌蛋白酶subtilisin,该酶的基因和蛋白质序列与枯草芽胞杆菌蛋白酶subtilisin的同源性都高达99%.菌株EL32弹性蛋白酶的三维结构含有6个α-螺旋,7个扭曲的平行β-折叠以及2个反平行的β-折叠,His、Asp和Ser是其活性中心的关键基团.鉴定了1株产弹性蛋白酶的枯草芽胞杆菌,确定了其弹性蛋白酶是蛋白酶subtilisin,为该枯草芽胞杆菌蛋白酶的应用提供了基础.%An elastase-produeing strain EL32 was identified and confirmed the structure of the enzyme. The strain EL32 was identified adopting molecular biology, morphology, and physio-biochemical characterization. It was purified with ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve. The enzyme was studied its primary structure with the aid of peptide fingerprint spectrum and enzymatic genetic clone; using homologous membrane establishment method to study its three dimensional structure. The 16S rDNA of strain EL32 had 99% homology with Bacillus sublilis. Its colonies were milky white. Its cell was Cram positive possessing gemma; producing acid but no gas in the glucose fermentation test. Gelatin hydrolysis test positive

  13. Diagnostic Oligonucleotide Microarray Fingerprinting of Bacillus Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Darrell P.; Alferov, Oleg; Chernov, Boris; Daly, Don S; Golova, Julia; Perov, Alexander; Protic, Miroslava; Robison, Richard; Schipma, Matthew; White, Amanda; Willse, Alan

    2006-01-01

    A genome-independent microarray and new statistical techniques were used to genotype Bacillus strains and quantitatively compare DNA fingerprints with the known taxonomy of the genus. A synthetic DNA standard was used to understand process level variability and lead to recommended standard operating procedures for microbial forensics and clinical diagnostics.

  14. What sets Bacillus anthracis apart from other Bacillus species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Tourasse, Nicolas J; Økstad, Ole Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the cause of anthrax, and two large plasmids are essential for toxicity: pXO1, which contains the toxin genes, and pXO2, which encodes a capsule. B. anthracis forms a highly monomorphic lineage within the B. cereus group, but strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. cereus exist that are genetically closely related to the B. anthracis cluster. During the past five years B. cereus strains that contain the pXO1 virulence plasmid were discovered, and strains with both pXO1 and pXO2 have been isolated from great apes in Africa. Therefore, the presence of pXO1 and pXO2 no longer principally separates B. anthracis from other Bacilli. The B. anthracis lineage carries a specific mutation in the global regulator PlcR, which controls the transcription of secreted virulence factors in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. Coevolution of the B. anthracis chromosome with its plasmids may be the basis for the successful development and uniqueness of the B. anthracis lineage. PMID:19514852

  15. Characterization of Emetic Bacillus weihenstephanensis, a New Cereulide-Producing Bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Munk Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kristian Fog;

    2006-01-01

    Cereulide production has until now been restricted to the species Bacillus cereus. Here we report on two psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains, MC67 and MC118, that produce cereulide. The strains are atypical with regard to pheno- and genotypic characteristics normally used for iden...

  16. Role of enzymes of homologous recombination in illegitimate plasmid recombination in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, R; Haijema, BJ; Haan, GJ; Venema, G; Bron, S

    1997-01-01

    The structural stability of plasmid pGP1, which encodes a fusion between the penicillinase gene (penP) of Bacillus licheniformis and the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, was investigated in Bacillus subtilis strains expressing mutated subunits of the ATP-dependent nuclease, AddAB, and strains lacking the

  17. 苏云金芽胞杆菌一新菌株的鉴定及其杀虫活性%Identification and toxicity evaluation of a new Bacillus thuringiensis strain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟鑫睿; 路杨; 刘艳微; 徐文静; 冯树丹; 张正坤

    2015-01-01

    为分离并鉴定对亚洲玉米螟具有高毒力的苏云金芽胞杆菌菌种,通过棋盘式采集法从吉林省农业科学院试验田土壤中分离获得野生菌株,进行了形态、生化特性、伴孢晶体观察及基因型鉴定,并测定了其对3种鳞翅目害虫的室内生物活性.结果显示:该菌株在LB培养基上为圆形、暗白色菌落,边缘不整齐,革兰氏染色阳性,产生的伴孢晶体形状多为不规则形.16S rDNA序列与苏云金芽胞杆菌属的NBRC 13865同源性达99%;该菌株为cry2+ cry9复合基因型,编码氨基酸序列与Cry2Ab和Cry9Ea蛋白同源性分别为94%和99%,鉴定为苏云金芽胞杆菌,命名为JN001.该菌株对亚洲玉米螟具有较高毒性,以1.0×109个/mL菌体浓度接种3龄幼虫72 h后,其校正死亡率为95.06%,致死中浓度(LC50)为4.12×103个/mL菌体,而对斜纹夜蛾和粘虫毒性较弱,接种72 h后校正死亡率分别为12.88%和7.34%.表明该菌株是1株对亚洲玉米螟具有较强毒力的苏云金芽胞杆菌新菌株,具有较好的开发利用潜力.%To isolate and identify new strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against Ostrinia fumacalis,a new wild strain was obtained from the experimental field of Jilin Academy of Agricultural Sciences by using chessboard sampling method.The bioactivity of the strain against important insects,O.fumacalis,Spodoptera litura and Mythimna separate were also tested in the laboratory.The results showed that the strain colony cultured on luria-bertani medium was circular and dark white with irregular edge.Furthermore,it was a gram-positive strain and produced irregular parasporal crystals.It was homologous to B.thuringiensis strain NBRC 13865 with 99% identity.In addition,cry2 and cry9 genes were identified from the strain,which encoded two Cry proteins sharing 94% and 99% identity with Cry2Ab and Cry9Ea,respectively.All these results indicated that the strain was a new member of B.thuringiensis,and it was

  18. Evaluación de Cepas Nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis Como una Alternativa de Manejo Integrado de la Polilla del Tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae en Chile Evaluation of Native Strains of Bacillus thuringiensis as an Alternative of Integrated Management of the Tomato Leaf Miner (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Niedmann Lolas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available La polilla del tomate (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae es la plaga más devastadora del cultivo del tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. en Chile, produciendo pérdidas del 60 al 100% en campos no tratados con insecticidas. Puesto que las plagas de insectos están desarrollando niveles de resistencia a los insecticidas convencionales, existe interés por estrategias de control que incluyen el empleo de biopesticidas. En el presente trabajo se estudió el potencial de aislados nativos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt con actividad tóxica contra esta plaga. Los aislados de Bt fueron colectados de muestras de suelo provenientes de la VII Región del país, y fueron caracterizados empleando diferentes criterios: morfología de la colonia y de la inclusión paraesporal, electroforesis en condiciones desnaturantes, análisis Western y bioensayos contra larvas de T. absoluta. Usando la técnica Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR se obtuvo una clasificación del contenido génico utilizando partidores específicos. Todas las cepas nativas seleccionadas poseían genes de la familia cry1. Dos aislados mostraron una actividad tóxica relevante contra la larva de T. absoluta y podrían constituir una alternativa para el control de esta plaga. Estas cepas resultaron ser más efectivas que el aislado obtenido desde el producto comercial Dipel (B.thuringiensis var. kurstaki The tomato moth (Tuta absoluta Meyrick; Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is the most devastating insect pest of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. crops in Chile, producing losses from 60 to 100% in non-insecticide treated fields. Because pests are evolving to resistance levels to convencional insecticides, there is interest for alternative strategies including the use of biopesticides. In this work the insecticidal potential of native Bacillusthuringiensis (Bt strains against this plague was studied. Bt isolates were collected from soil samples of the VII Region of Chile

  19. Phylogeny in aid of the present and novel microbial lineages: diversity in Bacillus.

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    Shalini Porwal

    Full Text Available Bacillus represents microbes of high economic, medical and biodefense importance. Bacillus strain identification based on 16S rRNA sequence analyses is invariably limited to species level. Secondly, certain discrepancies exist in the segregation of Bacillus subtilis strains. In the RDP/NCBI databases, out of a total of 2611 individual 16S rDNA sequences belonging to the 175 different species of the genus Bacillus, only 1586 have been identified up to species level. 16S rRNA sequences of Bacillus anthracis (153 strains, B. cereus (211 strains, B. thuringiensis (108 strains, B. subtilis (271 strains, B. licheniformis (131 strains, B. pumilus (83 strains, B. megaterium (47 strains, B. sphaericus (42 strains, B. clausii (39 strains and B. halodurans (36 strains were considered for generating species-specific framework and probes as tools for their rapid identification. Phylogenetic segregation of 1121, 16S rDNA sequences of 10 different Bacillus species in to 89 clusters enabled us to develop a phylogenetic frame work of 34 representative sequences. Using this phylogenetic framework, 305 out of 1025, 16S rDNA sequences presently classified as Bacillus sp. could be identified up to species level. This identification was supported by 20 to 30 nucleotides long signature sequences and in silico restriction enzyme analysis specific to the 10 Bacillus species. This integrated approach resulted in identifying around 30% of Bacillus sp. up to species level and revealed that B. subtilis strains can be segregated into two phylogenetically distinct groups, such that one of them may be renamed.

  20. Co-producing iturin A and poly-γ-glutamic acid from rapeseed meal under solid state fermentation by the newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain 3-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dehui; Ji, Zhixia; Wang, Changjun; Qi, Gaofu; Zhang, Lili; Ma, Xin; Chen, Shouwen

    2012-03-01

    The strain 3-10 was isolated from soil and identified as B. subtilis according to morphological and physiological characteristics and nucleotide sequence of 16S rRNA. It co-produced anti-fungal iturin A and fertilizer synergist of poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) under solid state fermentation (SSF) with rapeseed meal. The co-production of iturin A and γ-PGA reached 5.3 and 51.3 g/kg-dry weight culture, respectively, and the number of viable cells reached 1.9 × 10(10) CFU/g-dry weight culture. In pot tests, the shoot length and dry weight of watermelon seedlings treated by the SSF culture improved by 48.0 and 30.8%, respectively compared to the control; and its biocontrol effect on watermelon fusarium wilt achieved 89.6%. These results highlight a novel strategy to exploit the low-cost and widely available rapeseed meal as dual-functional bio-organic fertilizer under SSF by B. subtilis. PMID:22805819