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Sample records for bacillus sporothermodurans em

  1. Ocorrência de Bacillus sporothermodurans em leite UAT integral e desnatado Occurrence of Bacillus sporothermodurans in integral and skimmed UHT milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Busatta

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Por sua composição completa e balanceada, o leite é um substrato ideal para o desenvolvimento de diversos grupos de microrganismos. Bactérias, fungos, vírus e outros podem provocar significativas alterações no leite e derivados. Apesar do tratamento a Ultra Alta Temperatura a que o leite longa vida é submetido, constatou-se nos últimos anos, a presença de um novo tipo de bactéria altamente resistente ao calor, denominada Bacillus sporothermodurans, em função de sua capacidade de formação de esporos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos verificar a presença desta bactéria em leites UAT (Ultra Alta Temperatura integral e desnatado, comercializados na região do Alto Uruguai - RS e quantificar a capacidade de resistência à altas temperaturas das formas encontradas. Os resultados revelaram a presença desta bactéria em 54,5% das marcas analisadas, com 36,5% dos lotes analisados contaminados. A resistência térmica desta bactéria em relação ao teor de lipídios mostraram tendência a uma maior resistência em leite integral. Pode-se concluir que, embora esta bactéria seja descrita como não patogênica, é importante salientar a importância de novos estudos para obter maiores conhecimentos sobre suas características, uma vez que sua presença mostrou-se comum.Due to its full and balanced composition, milk comprises an ideal raw material for the development of a variety of groups of microorganisms. Bacteria, fungus, viruses and others can provoke significant alterations in milk and derivatives. Despite the UHT process, in which long-life milk is submitted, the presence of a new type, highly thermal-resistant bacterium, called Bacillus sporothermodurans, was verified in the last years, due possibly to its capacity of spores formation. This work is aimed at investigating the presence of this bacterium in both integral and skimmed UHT milk, commercialized in the north and neighbor region of Rio Grande do Sul state and to

  2. Ocorrência de Bacillus sporothermodurans em leite UAT/UHT brasileiro e a influência do tratamento térmico Occurrence of Bacillus sporothermodurans and the influence of the thermal processing procedure on its presence in brazilian UHT milk

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    Patrícia Blumer ZACARCHENCO

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O Bacillus sporothermodurans (BSP tem sido isolado em todo o mundo, principalmente nos países europeus, como um contaminante usual do leite processado pelo sistema UAT/UHT. Embora o BSP não seja patogênico, o leite contaminado fica fora dos padrões da legislação, que fixa o limite de contagem de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos em 100ufc/ml. Tal bacilo foi pesquisado em amostras de leite UAT produzido nas regiões Sul, Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil, processado pelos sistemas de aquecimento indireto (trocadores a placas ou tubulares e direto (injeção ou infusão de vapor. Foi analisado um total de 100 amostras, avaliadas quantitativamente pela técnica de espalhamento superficial no meio diferencial ágar infusão de cérebro e coração - esculina (ágar BHI-E. Na análise qualitativa as amostras foram submetidas a choque térmico (115ºC/7min, incubadas e plaqueadas no referido ágar. Os resultados revelaram um total de 45% de amostras com contagens acima do limite tolerável (100ufc/ml, oscilando entre 2x10(4 e 9,5x10(5ufc/ml. No entanto, em função do tipo de sistema de aquecimento, as variações foram muito acentuadas, sendo que na avaliação quantitativa os índices de rejeição foram de 71,4% nas amostras aquecidas indiretamente e naquelas processadas diretamente. Isto se deve, provavelmente, às condições mais drásticas de tratamento térmico utilizada pelos laticínios com sistema direto de aquecimento. Na análise qualitativa, os índices de rejeição foram de 71,7 e 22,2%, respectivamente. Trezentas culturas foram isoladas das amostras contaminadas, revelando características culturais, morfológicas e bioquímicas similares as de BSP, exceto pela capacidade de fermentação lenta da glicose evidenciada pela maioria delas. Deste total, 24 cepas tiveram seu DNA cromossômico avaliado pelo método PCR-RAPD, sendo que os perfis obtidos foram muito similares ao de BSP referência (DSMZ 10599 confirmando tratar-se de

  3. Development of a real-time PCR assay for direct detection and quantification of Bacillus sporothermodurans in ultra-high temperature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelnaga, M; Lamas, A; Miranda, J M; Osman, M; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

    2016-10-01

    In our study, a new and highly sensitive real-time PCR Taqman assay was developed for the direct and specific detection of Bacillus sporothermodurans in UHT milk. The target region was selected based on the 16S rRNA gene profiles of 11 B. sporothermodurans from GenBank. A standard curve was created using a reference strain of B. sporothermodurans, DSM 10599. A low limit of detection for B. sporothermodurans in UHT milk (10 cfu/mL) was obtained. Furthermore, a total of 110 UHT milk samples from several supermarkets were directly assessed to detect and quantify B. sporothermodurans using the real-time PCR Taqman developed. The B. sporothermodurans counts obtained were highly correlated with the microbial plate counts in the UHT milk samples. This is the first time that B. sporothermodurans has been quantified directly from UHT milk. This technique could be applicable as a routine tool for preventing the growth of these bacteria by allowing for the rapid screening of raw milk samples in dairy plants. As expected, the probability of bacterial growth in UHT milk packages increased with the B. sporothermodurans counts in the raw milk.

  4. The combined effect of nisin, moderate heating and high hydrostatic pressure on the inactivation of Bacillus sporothermodurans spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadhi, C; Simonin, H; Mejri, S; Maaroufi, A

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the combined effect of hydrostatic pressure (HP), moderate temperature and nisin on the inactivation of Bacillus sporothermodurans spores which are known to be contaminant of dairy products and to be extremely heat-resistant. A central composite experimental design with three factors, using response surface methodology, was used. By analysing the response surfaces and their corresponding contour plots, an interesting interaction with the three factors was observed. The inactivation observed was shown to be well fitted with values predicted by the quadratic equation, since the adjusted determination coefficient (R(adj)(2)) was 0·979. The optimum process parameters for a 5-log spores ml(-1) reduction of B. sporothermodurans spores were obtained, 472 MPa/53°C for 5 min in presence of 121 UI ml(-1) of nisin. Nisin and temperature treatments improve the effectiveness of pressure in the inactivation of highly heat-resistant spores of B. sporothermodurans. This study shows the potential of using high HP for a short time (5 min) in combination with moderate temperature and nisin to inactivate B. sporothermodurans spores in milk. Such treatments could be applied by the dairy industry to ensure the commercial sterility of UHT milk. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Inactivation of Bacillus sporothermodurans spores by nisin and temperature studied by design of experiments in water and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadhi, Chedia; Rouissi, Zeineb; Mejri, Slah; Maaroufi, Abderrazak

    2014-04-01

    Spores of Bacillus sporothermodurans are known to be a contaminant of dairy products and to be extremely heat-resistant. A central composite experimental design with three factors using response surface methodology was used to evaluate the effect of nisin (50-150 UI/mL), temperature (80-100 °C), and temperature-holding time (10-20 min) on the inactivation of B. sporothermodurans LTIS27 spores in distilled water, in skim milk and in chocolate milk. The experimental values were shown to be significantly in good agreement with the values predicted by the quadratic equation since the adjusted determination coefficients (Radj(2)) were around 0.97. By analyzing the response surfaces plots, the inactivation was shown to be higher in distilled water than in skim milk under all the conditions tested. Five-log cycle reductions of B. sporothermodurans spores were obtained after a treatment at 95 °C for 12 min in presence of 125 UI of nisin/mL in distilled water or at 100 °C for 13 min in presence of 134 UI of nisin/mL in skim milk or at 100 °C for 15 min in presence of 135 UI of nisin/mL in chocolate milk. This study showed the efficiency of nisin (15-184 UI/mL) in combination with temperature (73-106 °C) to inactivate spores of B. sporothermodurans in milk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolamento e caracterização de microrganismos em leite cru refrigerado e leite UHT no estado de Goiás e desenvolvimento de filme ativo antimicrobiano para inibição de Bacillus sporothermodurans

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    O leite por ser um alimento rico, constituí-se em um meio natural para o desenvolvimento de vários microrganismos, principalmente bactérias; desta forma, muito perecível. É necessário tratamento térmico o mais rápido possível, a fim de manter a qualidade. Uma nova tecnologia vem sendo utilizada na melhoria dos alimentos, denominada de embalagem ativa, como os filmes antimicrobianos, na intenção de controlar o desenvolvimento microbiano no produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi de avaliar a qu...

  7. Inhibitory effects of nisin and potassium sorbate alone or in combination on vegetative cells growth and spore germination of Bacillus sporothermodurans in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadhi, Chedia; Mejri, Slah; Maaroufi, Abderrazak

    2015-04-01

    The inhibitory activities of nisin or/and potassium sorbate on spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus sporothermodurans LTIS27, which are known to be a contaminant of dairy products and to be extremely heat-resistant, were investigated. First, the tested concentrations of nisin or potassium sorbate inhibited vegetative cell growth; with the minimum inhibitory concentrations were 5 × 10(3) IU/ml and 2% (w/v), respectively. Then, the behaviour of vegetative cells and spores in presence of sub-lethal concentrations of nisin (50 UI/ml) or/and potassium sorbate (0.2%), in milk at 37 °C for 5 days, were evaluated. In the absence of inhibitors, strain grew and sporulated at the end of the exponential phase. Nisin (50 UI/ml) was able to inhibit spore outgrowth but didn't affect their germination. It induced an immediate and transitory reduction (1.6log(10) after 1 h and 2.8log(10) after 6 h of incubation) of vegetative cell growth which reappeared between 10 h and 24 h. Potassium sorbate (0.2%) had a durable bacteriostatic effect (1.1log(10) after 6 h), on vegetative cells, followed by a slower regrowth. It was able to inhibit both germination and outgrowth of spores. Association of nisin and potassium sorbate, at sub-lethal concentrations, showed a synergistic effect and resulted in a total inhibition of cells growth after 5 days. The results illustrate the efficacy of nisin and potassium sorbate in combination, and the commercial potential of applying such treatment to decontaminate any product that has a problem with persistence of bacterial spores.

  8. <em>Bacillus anthracisem> Factors for Phagosomal Escape

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    Irene Zornetta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, <em>Bacillus anthracisem> undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, <em>B. anthracisem> secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of <em>B. anthracisem> toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  9. Bacillus cereus in Brazilian Ultra High Temperature milk Bacillus cereus em leite UHT brasileiro

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    Cristiana de Paula Pacheco-Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Ultra High Temperature (UHT milk consumption has increased during the last decade from 187 to 4,200 million liters. In the continuous UHT process, milk is submitted for 2-4 s to 130-150ºC, in a continuous flow system with immediate refrigeration and aseptical packing in hermetic packages. This research had the purpose to verify the incidence of B. cereus species from the B. cereus group, in UHT milk. In 1998 high indexes of these organisms were reported, reaching 34.14% of the analyzed samples. Beyond this fact, there was the need to establish methods and processes adjusted for correct identification of B. cereus. Thus, commercial sterility tests of 6,500 UHT milk packages were investigated in two assays, after ten days incubation at 37ºC and 7ºC to germinate all possible spores and/or to recuperate injured vegetative cells followed by pH measurement. Samples (1,300 packages each from five Brazilian UHT plants of whole UHT milk processed by direct steam injection, packaged in carton were investigated for the presence of Bacillus cereus through phenotypic and genetic (PCR tests. Values of pH were different for the samples, ranging between 6.57 and 6.73. After storage of the samples, only four packages with pH measurement below the lower limit of 6.5 were found and analyzed for the presence of B. cereus. This organism was not detected in any of the samples indicating that the five Brazilian UHT milk processors control pathogenic microorganisms and it can be said that the consumption of UHT milk does not present safety problems to consumers. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and PCR tests were efficient and must be adopted to confirm the biochemical series for B. cereus.O consumo de leite ultra-alta temperatura (UHT brasileiro aumentou, durante a última década, de 187 milhões de litros para 4,200 milhões de litros. No processo contínuo de leite UHT o leite é submetido por 2-4 seg a 130-150ºC, em sistemas de

  10. Effects of Two Varieties of <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> Maize on the Biology of <em>Plodia interpunctellaem>

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    Jean-Claude Grégoire

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On the market since 1996, genetically modified plants expressing an insecticidal toxin (Cry toxin stemmed from <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> target several lepidopteran and coleopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the impact of two varieties of <em>Bt em>maize producing different toxins (Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa, respectively on the biology of a storage pest: <em>Plodia interpunctella em>(Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. The Indianmeal moths were susceptible to both toxins but showed an escape behavior only from Cry1Fa. The weight of females issued from larvae reared on Cry1Ab increased with increasing toxin concentration, but adults of both sexes reared on Cry1Fa had decreased weight. Both toxins increased development time from egg to adult regardless of sex and had no impact on the male adult lifespan. Finally, we recorded a time lag between metamorphosis from the non-<em>Bt em>and the <em>Bt em>diets, which increased proportionally to Cry concentration in the <em>Bt em>diet.

  11. Expressão de uricase de Bacillus subtilis em Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Pfrimer, Pollyanna

    2007-01-01

    A uricase, uma enzima que converte ácido úrico em alantoína, é comumente usada em kits comerciais de dosagem de ácido úrico. Com a finalidade de produzir esta enzima em grande escala por técnicas de Engenharia Genética, o gene da uricase de Bacillus subtilis subtilis foi clonado e expresso em Escherichia coli. Para tanto, foi feita uma PCR utilizando-se como template o DNA cromossomal de B. subtilis e primers específicos para amplificação do gene pucLM. O amplicon foi sub-clonado seguindo-se ...

  12. Frequência de Bacillus spp. em solos de diferentes sistemas de cultivo de arroz irrigado em Cachoeirinha, RS

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    Leila Lucia Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacilos entomopatogênicos são bactérias observadas principalmente no solo, consideradas importantes agentes no controle biológico de doenças e pragas da agricultura. No entanto, existem poucos estudos que relatam a influência das práticas agrícolas nas populações de Bacillus spp. Essa pesquisa objetivou avaliar a freqüência de bactérias entomopatogênicas pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus obtidas de amostras de solo coletadas no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 de diferentes sistemas de cultivo de arroz irrigado da EEA-IRGA, Cachoeirinha (RS. Foram analisadas 36 amostras de solos, oriundas de três sistemas de plantio de arroz irrigado, pré-germinado (SPG, convencional (SPC, plantio direto (SPD e de uma área sem plantio de arroz (C. Para tanto, um grama de solo foi diluído, pasteurizado e inoculado em Ágar Nutriente (AN, incubado a 30 °C, por 24 horas. Todas as unidades formadoras de colônias bacterianas (UFC foram repicadas em meios seletivos e as espécies, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus e B. cereus, foram identificadas por microscopia de contraste de fase. Os resultados revelaram que não houve diferença significativa entre os sistemas de plantio analisados. Por outro lado, a frequência de Bacillus spp. variou entre as diferentes fases do plantio de arroz nos períodos amostrados. A irrigação foi o principal fator que contribuiu para a variação da frequência dos Bacillus em sistemas de plantio de arroz irrigado da EEA-IRGA.

  13. BACILLUS CEREUS EM PRODUTOS LÁCTEOS - UMA REVISÃO

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    Maike Taís Maziero

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus é uma bactéria termodúrica, formadora de esporos, capaz de se multiplicar em temperatura de refrigeração. Pode causar dois tipos de doenças de origem alimentar: a síndrome emética e a síndrome diarréica. Além do aspecto epidemiológico, B. cereus causa defeitos tecnológicos em produtos lácteos, relacionados com a produção de lipases e proteases. A presença de B. cereus em produtos lácteos vem sendo relatada por pesquisas feitas em vários países, bem como os defeitos tecnológicos associados à contaminação dos produtos por essa bactéria. Destacam-se, na presente revisão, os principais aspectos relacionados à presença de B. cereus em produtos lácteos. Para tanto, foram selecionados trabalhos relevantes e inovadores sobre B. cereus em várias bases de dados, entre elas, Science Direct, SciELO, Scirus e Google Acadêmico.

  14. Antagonismo de Trichoderma SPP. E Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 a Fusarium sambucinum em Pinus elliottii engelm

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    Caciara Gonzatto Maciel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus elliottii é uma espécie de importância no setor florestal e apresenta vulnerabilidade na qualidade sanitária de suas sementes, especialmente pela associação de Fusarium spp., responsável por perdas de plântulas no viveiro. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ação antagonista in vitro e in vivo dos agentes Trichoderma spp. e Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 no controle de Fusarium sambucinum, responsável por danos em plântulas de Pinus elliottii. O controle in vitro foi avaliado através da inibição do crescimento micelial (confronto pareado de culturas, após a incubação a 25±2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 h. Para os testes in vivo (desenvolvidos em condições de viveiro, as sementes inicialmente foram inoculadas com o patógeno e, na sequência, microbiolizadas com os agentes antagônicos, para posterior semeadura. Utilizaram-se as técnicas de contato com o biocontrolador em meio BDA por 48 h e peliculização, como formas de microbiolização. Tanto Trichoderma spp. quanto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 foram eficientes no controle in vitro de F. sambucinum, e no teste de biocontrole in vivo o produto Bacillus subtilis (UFV3918 destacou-se, reduzindo as perdas de plântulas causadas pelo patógeno, assim como potencializando as variáveis de comprimento de plântula, massa verde e massa seca.

  15. ENUMERATION OF Bacillus cereus IN “FUBÁ” OF CORN (Zea mays. L. ENUMERAÇÃO DE Bacillus cereus EM FUBÁ DE MILHO (Zea mays L.

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    Albenones José de Mesquita

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A hundred (100 samples of “fubá” were examined, in relation to the incidence of Bacillus cereus, obtained by different technological processes (common “fubá” and previously cooked “fubá” and sold in the retail market in Goiânia - GO. The results of the examination showed that 23% of the samples was contaminated, of this percentual, 39.1% of the contaminations occurred in samples of previously cooked “fubá” and 60.9% in samples of common “fubá”. This in relation of the two products clearly showed the more accurate technological process that the previously cooked “fubá” was brought under. It was also observed that the totality of the analyzed samples showed enumerations below the limit established by the Brazilian microbiologic standard that establishes a limit of 10³ cells of Bacillus cereus for a gram of the food.

    Foram examinadas 100 amostras de fubá de milho, em relação à incidência de Bacillus cereus, obtidas através de processamentos tecnológicos diferentes (fubá comum e fubá pré-cozido e comercializadas no mercado varejista de Goiânia - GO. Os resultados revelaram que 23% das amostras estavam contaminadas, deste percentual, 39,1% das contaminações ocorreram em amostras de fubá pré-cozido e 60,9%, em amostras de fubá comum. Esta considerável diferença, observada em termos percentuais em relação aos dois produtos evidenciou o processamento tecnológico mais rigoroso a que foi submetido o fubá pré-cozido. Observou-se, também, que a totalidade das amostras analisadas apresentou enumerações abaixo do limite estabelecido pelo padrão microbiológico brasileiro que determina um limite de 10³ células de B. cereus por gama do alimento.

  16. Consequences for <em>Protaphorura armataem> (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> (<em>Bt>) maize and non-<em>Bt> maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops on true soil dwelling non-target arthropods are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a 4-week exposure to two Bt maize varieties (Cry1Ab) Cascade and MEB307 on the collembolan Protaphorur...

  17. Characterization of Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 spores; putative indicator microorganism for optimisation of thermal processes in food sterilisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijlen, A.; Periago, P.M.; Amézquita, A.; Palop, A.; Brul, S.; Fernández, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Spore-forming bacteria with high heat resistance increasingly challenge industrial sterilisation processes in foods. To ensure stability of manufactured foods, generally worst case scenarios are applied often leading to unwanted over processing of foods. This means bigger requirements of energy and

  18. Effects of the electrolytic treatment on Bacillus subtilis Efeito do tratamento eletrolítico em Bacillus subtis

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    Rodolfo Tolentino-Bisneto

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional processes of water disinfection can generate toxic composites. It is the case of the trihalomethanes (carcinogenic formed in the contact of chlorine with organic substances present in the water. The electrolytic treatment can be a substitute for the chlorination process without the need for addition of chemical substances to the process. The effect of the electrolytic treatment using carbon cathode on the viability of the microorganism Bacillus subtilis was tested to determine the death process. By means of electronic microscopy, it was observed that the main cause of the microorganism's death was the cellular lysis due to the electroporation in the cell membrane.Processos convencionais de desinfecção de águas podem gerar compostos tóxicos. Esse é o caso dos trialometanos formados na reação do cloro com compostos orgânicos presentes na água. O tratamento eletrolítico pode ser um substituto à cloração com vantagem de não requer a adição de nenhum composto na água. O efeito do tratamento eletrolítico, utilizando eletrodos de carbono, na viabilidade de Bacillus subtilis foi testado para se determinar o mecanismo de morte. Através de microscopia eletrônica, foi possível evidenciar que a morte do microrganismo se deu pela lise celular, provavelmente provocada pela eletroporação irreversível da membrana celular.

  19. Preservation of <em>Bacillus firmusem> Strain 37 and Optimization of Cyclodextrin Biosynthesis by Cells Immobilized on Loofa Sponge

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    Cristiane Moriwaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The preservation of <em>Bacillus firmusem> strain 37 cells by lyophilization was evaluated and response surface methodology (RSM was used to optimize the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD production by cells immobilized on loofa sponge. Interactions were studied with the variables temperature, pH and dextrin concentration using a central composite design (CCD. Immobilization time influence on β-CD production was also investigated. <em>B. firmusem> strain 37 cells remained viable after one year of storage, showing that the lyophilization is a suitable method for preservation of the microorganism. From the three-dimensional diagrams and contour plots, the best conditions for β-CD production were determined: temperature 60 °C, pH 8, and 18% dextrin. Considering that the amount of dextrin was high, a new assay was carried out, in which dextrin concentrations of 10, 15, and 18% were tested and the temperature of 60 °C and pH 8 were maintained. The results achieved showed very small differences and therefore, for economic reasons, the use of 10% dextrin is suggested. Increasing the immobilization time of cells immobilized on synthetic sponge the β-CD production decreased and did not change for cells immobilized on loofa sponge. The results of this research are important for microorganism preservation and essential in the optimization of the biosynthesis of CD.

  20. Toxin profiles of <em>Bacillus cereusem> occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (<em>Parkia biglobosaem>)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk;

    of toxin genes related to food poisoning using PCR. Isolates harboring the emetic specific gene fragment EM1 where highly representative, being one out of ten isolates from afitin, one of one isolate from iru and five of eight isolates from sonru. Three of the isolates from afitin harbored the cytotoxin K...

  1. Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus promotores de crescimento de milho cultivado em solo autoclavado e natural Bioprospection of Bacillus isolates promoters of corn growth in natural and sterile soil

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    Fabio Fernando de Araujo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, selecionar isolados bacterianos do gênero Bacillus em amostras de solo da região oeste paulista e avaliar o efeito de sua inoculação em milho cultivado em duas condições de solo (natural e autoclavado. Trinta e oito isolados bacterianos, caracterizados como Bacillus sp. foram avaliados previamente quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de hormônio vegetal (auxinas em laboratório. Foram selecionados 14 isolados para inoculação de milho cultivado em vasos, em casa de vegetação durante 50 dias. As avaliações efetuadas durante a condução do experimento foram: altura de plantas; número de folhas desdobradas e biomassa seca produzida aos 50 dias após a semeadura. O cultivo do milho em solo autoclavado proporcionou maior número de folhas desdobradas e produção de biomassa na planta. Os isolados bacterianos BRG-2, CAS-2, NGR-1, PNP-2, PRP-2 e TAC-2, destacaram-se como promotores de crescimento do milho, avaliado pela produção de biomassa pela planta aos 50 dias de idade. Dos oito antagonistas avaliados apenas quatro foram promotores de crescimento do milho. A maior produção de AIA não foi uma característica principal dos melhores isolados bacterianos que promoveram o crescimento do milho.The objective of this work was to select bacterial isolates of the genus Bacillus in soil samples of West of the State of São Paulo and to assess the effect of their inoculation in corn growing in two soil conditions (natural and sterilized. 38 bacterial isolates characterized as belonging to the Bacillus genus were previously evaluated regarding their antagonism to phytopathogenic fungi and their production of plant hormones (auxines in the laboratory. The corn plants were inoculated with 14 Bacillus isolates and grown in in a greenhouse for 50 days. The evaluations made during the conduction of the trial were: plant height, number of leaves and biomass dry weight. The bacterial isolates

  2. Pesquisa de proteínas citotóxicas e nematicidas em isolados Bacillus thuringiensis dos Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Raimundo, Natacha Sofia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado, Ciências Biomédicas, 25 de Maio de 2016, Universidade dos Açores. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), pertencente à família Bacillaceae, é classificado como gram-positiva e tem despertado elevado interesse em várias áreas, destacando-se a aplicações na agricultura e na saúde. Os isolados de Bt são caracterizados pela sua capacidade de produzir inclusões cristalinas de origem proteica durante a fase de esporulação, as quais são conhecidas como proteínas δ-endotoxinas ou pr...

  3. Ocorrência de Bacillus cereus em leite integral e capacidade enterotoxigênica das cepas isoladas Occurrence of Bacillus cereus in Whole milk and enterotoxigenic potential of the isolated strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.M. Rezende-Lago

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se a presença de Bacillus cereus e a produção de enterotoxinas produzidas por esses microrganismos em 120 amostras de diversos tipos de leite. Bacillus cereus foi isolado e identificado em 22 (73,3%, 15 (50,0%, 29 (96,7% e quatro (13,3% amostras de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT (longa vida, respectivamente. Para a detecção de enterotoxinas pela técnica da alça ligada de coelho, foram positivos, respectivamente, três (13,6%, um (7,1% e 10 (35,7% microrganismos isolados das amostras de leite em pó, leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Pelo teste de aumento de permeabilidade vascular, dois (9,1%, um (7,1%, um (3,6% e um (4,0% microrganismos isolados de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT apresentaram-se enterotoxigênicos, respectivamente. O uso da técnica de aglutinação passiva em látex demonstrou a produção da toxina diarréica por três (33,3%, sete (63,6%, quatro (30,8% e oito (80,0% microrganismos isolados, respectivamente, de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT. Os resultados indicam um risco potencial, podendo colocar em risco a saúde dos consumidores desses produtos.A hundred and twenty samples of different types of milk were examined to the presence of Bacillus cereus and the enterotoxigenic potential of the isolated strains. Bacillus cereus was isolated and identified in 22 (73.0%, 15 (50.0%, 29 (96.7% and four (13.3% samples of powder, raw, pasteurized and UHT milk, respectively. The enterotoxigenicity detection using the rabbit ileal loop assay showed positive, respectively, three (13.6%, one (7.1% and 10 (35.7% isolated strains from powder, raw and pasteurized milk. Using vascular permeability activity assay two (9.1%, one (7.1%, one (3.6% and one (4.0% isolated strains from powder, raw, pasteurized and UHT milk were positive, respectively. The reversed passive latex agglutination test showed diarrheal toxin production by three (33.3%, seven (63.6%, four (30.8% and eight (80.0% strains isolated from

  4. Design of thermostable rhamnogalacturonan lyase mutants from <em>Bacillus licheniformisem> by combination of targeted single point mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Ines Isabel Cardoso Rodrigues; Jers, Carsten; Otten, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonan I lyases (RGI lyases) (EC 4.2.2.-) catalyze cleavage of α-1,4 bonds between rhamnose and galacturonic acid in the backbone of pectins by β-elimination. In the present study, targeted improvement of the thermostability of a PL family 11 RGI lyase from Bacillus licheniformis (DSM......, were obtained due to additive stabilizing effects of single amino acid mutations (E434L, G55V, and G326E) compared to the wild type. The crystal structure of the B. licheniformis wild-type RGI lyase was also determined; the structural analysis corroborated that especially mutation of charged amino...

  5. Volatile compounds profile and sensory evaluation of Beninese condiments produced by inocula of <em>Bacillus subtilisem>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azokpota, Paulin; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.; Annan, Nana T.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three Beninese food condiments (ABS124h, IBS248h and SBS348h) were produced by controlled fermentation of African locust beans using inocula of pure cultures of Bacillus subtilis, BS1, BS2 and BS3, respectively. Quantitative and qualitative assessments of the volatile compounds...... was similar.   CONCLUSION: The investigated B. subtilis, BS1, BS2 and BS3 can be considered as potential starter cultures for the fermentation of African locust beans to produce good quality of Beninese food condiments. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry...

  6. Field persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis on maize leaves (Zea mays L. Persistência de Bacillus thuringiensis em folhas de milho em condições de campo (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinéia de Lara Haddad

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The persistence slope of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt based products in the field is an important parameter to evaluate their efficacy. The half-life, estimated based on persistence slope parameters, is one of the most effective tools to select microbial pesticides. The aim of this research was to study the relationship between viability loss of Bt spores on maize leaves and their concentration, comparing it with field persistence. The experimental design was split-plot on time, composed by maize plants, in which three concentrations (half, normal and double doses of a Dipel commercial formulation were applied. In each plot three leaves in the upper part of three plants where randomly selected. Samples of these leaves were collected 3 to 72 hours after treatment, to count the number of viable spores in two foliar dishes with 1 cm in diameter. The field persistence was determined using an exponential model, linearized by a logarithmic transformation of viable spores number in time. Using the log linear method of confidence intervals, there were no significantly differences (P = 0.05 in half-lifes: 18.2 hours for half-dose, 16.5 hours for normal dose and 13.6 hours for double dose. Assuming a fictitious index of insect consumption equal to one, the effective doses according to concentrations were calculated. It was verified that 77%, 78% and 80.5% of the effective doses (viable spores remained on the leaf surface after the first day of treatment, respectively.A curva de persistência de produtos à base de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt no campo é um importante parâmetro para avaliar a sua eficiência. A meia-vida, baseada em estimativas dos parâmetros desta curva, é um aspecto importante na seleção de pesticidas microbianos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar a relação entre a perda de viabilidade de esporos de Bt em folhas de milho, e sua concentração, comparando-as com a persistência em campo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o

  7. Controle de tortricídeos em macieira com duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kustaki em Fraiburgo-SC Tortricid moth control in apple with two formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kustaki in Fraiburgo-SC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Bittencourt Monteiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapholita molesta e Bonagota cranaodes são duas importantes pragas de pomares de macieira controlada por inseticidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk para o controle desses tortricídeos. Parcelas de macieira 'Fuji' foram pulverizadas com Dipel PM e Dipel SC, nas concentrações de 100 ml por100 L de calda. A eficiência do Btk foi comparada com os inseticidas tebufenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 90 ml por 100 L e clorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 BR - 150 ml por 100 L. Duas vezes por semana, eram avaliadas as capturas de pragas em armadilha do tipo Delta. As avaliações de danos nos frutos foram realizadas antes e na colheita, sendo classificados os frutos em função do agrupamento em cachopa e a sua localização na planta. Os tratamentos com Btk tiveram mais danos do que os químicos. Houve uma tendência de maiores danos na parte interna, próximo ao tronco das macieiras e o agrupamento dos frutos não influenciou na presença de danos. Ambas as formulações de Dipel foram eficientes quando comparados com Mimic e Lorsban.Grapholita molesta and Bonagota cranaodes are two key pests in apple orchards controlled by insecticides. The objective of the present study was to test two formulas of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki to control these tortricid moths. Plot of 'Fuji' apple trees were sprayed with Dipel PM and Dipel SC, at a concentration of 100ml por 100 l liquid. The efficiency of Btk was compared with the insecticides tebuphenozide (Mimic 240 SC - 90 ml por 100 L and chlorpyrifos (Lorsban 480 BR - 150 ml por 100 L. The capture of pests in a Delta-type trap was assessed twice a week. Fruit damage was evaluated pre- and post- harvest and the fruit were classified by branch-end clustering and location on the plant. The treatments with B. thuringiensis were more damaged than those with chemical treatments. There tended to be more damage in the internal part, close to the apple tree

  8. Inactivation of Bacillus spores inoculated in milk by Ultra High Pressure Homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador Espejo, Genaro Gustavo; Hernández-Herrero, M M; Juan, B; Trujillo, A J

    2014-12-01

    Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments at 300 MPa with inlet temperatures (Ti) of 55, 65, 75 and 85 °C were applied to commercial Ultra High Temperature treated whole milk inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sporothermodurans, Bacillus coagulans, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus subtilis spores in order to evaluate the inactivation level achieved. Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization conditions at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 and 85 °C were capable of a spore inactivation of ∼5 log CFU/mL. Furthermore, under these processing conditions, commercial sterility (evaluated as the complete inactivation of the inoculated spores) was obtained in milk, with the exception of G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis treated at 300 MPa with Ti = 75 °C. The results showed that G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis have higher resistance to the Ultra High-Pressure Homogenization treatments applied than the other microorganisms inoculated and that a treatment performed at 300 MPa with Ti = 85 °C was necessary to completely inactivate these microorganisms at the spore level inoculated (∼1 × 10(6) CFU/mL). Besides, a change in the resistance of B. licheniformis, B. sporothermodurans, G. stearothermophilus and B. subtilis spores was observed as the inactivation obtained increased remarkably in treatments performed with Ti between 65 and 75 °C. This study provides important evidence of the suitability of UHPH technology for the inactivation of spores in high numbers, leading to the possibility of obtaining commercially sterile milk.

  9. Draft genome sequence of Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356 isolated from the termite Reticulitermes santonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Owusu-Darko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus oleronius strain DSM 9356 isolated from the termite Reticulitermes santonensis was sequenced to gain insights in relation to its closest phylogenetic neighbor Bacillus sporothermodurans. The draft genome of strain DSM 9356 contains 5,083,966 bp with an estimated G + C content of 35%, 4899 protein-coding genes, 116 tRNAs and 18 rRNAs. The RAST annotation assigned these genes into 462 subsystems, with the maximum number of genes associated with amino acids and derivatives metabolism (14.84%, followed by carbohydrates (13.89% and protein metabolism subsystems (9.10%. The draft genome sequence and annotation has been deposited at NCBI under the accession number MTLA00000000.

  10. Survival and conjugal transfer between Bacillus thuringiensis strains in aquatic environment Sobrevivência e conjugação de Bacillus thuringiensis em ambiente aquático

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    Luciana Furlaneto

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Field and laboratory studies were conducted to assess the survival of cells and spores and plasmid transfer between Bacillus thuringienis strains in aquatic environment. Results indicated that cells and spores of B. thuringiensis can survive for 10 days in water, without altering their number. The sporulation process began after 12-15 hours of inoculation of water. B. thuringiensis was able to transfer conjugative plasmids in the aquatic environment.O presente trabalho é um estudo sobre a sobrevivência e a conjugação de linhagens de Bacillus thuringiensis em água. Os experimentos conduzidos no laboratório mostram que as células e os esporos de B. thuringiensis podem persistir pelo menos 10 dias na água. A esporulação inicia-se 12-15 horas após a inoculação. O processo de conjugação foi demonstrado em diferentes ambientes aquáticos, tanto em condições de laboratório quanto no meio ambiente.

  11. Contaminação ambiental e perfil toxigênico de Bacillus cereus isolados em serviços de alimentação Environmental contamination and enterotoxigenic profile of Bacillus cereus isolated in food services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celina Mara Soares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da contaminação ambiental por Bacillus cereus foi realizada em 90 amostras de ar ambiente e em 96 amostras de superfícies de bancadas e de equipamentos, de dois restaurantes institucionais. O microrganismo foi detectado em 84,4% e 44,8% das amostras de ar ambiente e de superfícies, respectivamente. O potencial enterotoxigênico dos isolados foi investigado através da reação da polimerase em cadeia (PCR para os genes hblA, hblD e hblC (que codificam a hemolisina BL e para os genes nheA, nheB e nheC (que codificam a enterotoxina não hemolítica - NHE. De um total de 70 isolados investigados, 14,3% foram positivos para os três genes da HBL e 12,8% foram positivos para os três genes da NHE. A produção de NHE também foi verificada através do Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (kit BDE-VIA; Tecra. Os resultados obtidos com o kit revelaram que 61,4% dos 70 isolados são produtores de NHE.Ninety air samples and ninety six samples from benches and equipments surfaces were collected in two food services for investigation of Bacillus cereus contamination sources and characterization of strains toxin profiles. B. cereus was detected in 84.4% and 44.8% from air samples and samples from benches and equipments surfaces, respectively. The potential of enterotoxin production was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for genes hblA, hblD e hblC (encoding hemolysin BL and for genes nheA, nheB and nheC (encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin - NHE. From 70 isolates investigated 14.3% were positive for the three HBL encoding genes and 12.8% were positive for the three NHE encoding genes. The Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDE-VIA; Tecra also was used for NHE detection. The results obtained with BDE-VIA revealed that 61.4% from the 70 strains are NHE producers.

  12. Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi e Bacillus subtilis C-3102 em dietas para e alevinos de tilÃpia do Nilo, linhagem GIFT

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Menezes Albuquerque

    2011-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar qualidade de Ãgua, desempenho produtivo, sexagem fenotÃpica, Ãndices corpÃreos, composiÃÃo centesimal, macro micronutrientes, custos operacionais parciais (COP) e microbiologia intestinal de tilÃpia do Nilo, linhagem GIFT, alimentadas com raÃÃo formulada com probiÃticos Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi e Bacillus subtilis C-3102, durante 113 dias de cultivo nas fase de reversÃo sexual e alevinagem. Foram utilizados 1200 pÃs-larvas com peso mÃdio inicial de 24,7Â0,50 mg. Os pei...

  13. Contaminação ambiental por Bacillus cereus em unidade de alimentação e nutrição Food service environmental contamination by Bacillus cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Mendes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em uma Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição de uma universidade pública, em Viçosa, MG, tendo como objetivo contribuir para a avaliação de riscos a que se expõem os usuários de cozinhas institucionais semelhantes, por meio da avaliação do potencial que superfícies de bancadas de aço inox representam como fontes de contaminação dos alimentos por Bacillus cereus. A presença do microorganismo em superfícies de 24 bancadas que eventualmente entram em contato com alimentos crus e cozidos foi analisada em duas ocasiões distintas, por meio da técnica do swab e semeadura em placas contendo meio MYP. A presença do microorganismo não foi detectada em 73% das amostras. Entre aquelas a partir das quais o patógeno foi recuperado, foram observadas contagens de até 60 UFC/cm², valor registrado no setor de prépreparo de vegetais. A simples presença do patógeno reforça a necessidade de higienização adequada, especialmente em locais onde a contaminação pode atingir alimentos prontos para consumo, de forma a prevenir a ocorrência de surtos de doenças de origem alimentar devidas a esse microorganismo.This study reports an evaluation performed at Food Service Federal University Viçosa in Southeast Brazil, as a contribution to estimate the risks that users of similar public food services are exposed to, by identifying environmental surface areas from which Bacillus cereus may be transferred to food. Samples have been collected in order to evaluate the environmental contamination, using the "swab" technique and surface platting in MYP agar, for expressing the number of CFU/cm² in 24 stainless steel tables that may have contact with raw or cooked foods. Each table was analyzed twice. Although some samples did not exhibit contamination (73%, counts up to 60 CFU/cm² were found, with the higher values being obtained from the vegetable pre-preparation section samples. The presence of this pathogen reinforces

  14. Multiplicação de Bacillus subtilis em vinhaça e viabilidade no controle da meloidoginose, em cana-de-açúcar Multiplication of Bacillus subtilis in vinasse and viability to control root-knot in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Cardozo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar o controle da meloidoginose e o crescimento da cana-de-açúcar, em função da aplicação de Bacillus subtilis ao solo após multiplicação em vinhaça. Bioensaios foram conduzidos em laboratório com avaliação do crescimento de B. subtilis em meio líquido com interesse na melhor composição de meio de cultura, a partir da vinhaça. No experimento em casa de vegetação foi utilizado solo coletado em área de cultivo de cana com histórico de alta infestação com Meloidogyne spp. No solo acondicionado em vasos efetuou-se o plantio da variedade de cana-de-açúcar RB 72454, cujos tratamentos foram: controle; vinhaça pura (50 m³ ha-1; Bacillus subtilis em suspensão aquosa (50 m³ ha-1; B. subtilis multiplicado na vinhaça para 50 m³ ha-1 e 100 m³ ha-1. A multiplicação de Bacillus subtilis em meio de cultura à base de vinhaça (25% foi significativamente superior em comparação com o meio de cultura caldo nutriente. A aplicação de B. subtilis em suspensão aquosa promoveu o crescimento e a redução da reprodução dos nematóides em cana-de-açúcar durante o experimento. A aplicação de B. subtilis multiplicado na vinhaça não proporcionou os benefícios de estímulo ao crescimento e controle da meloidoginose na cana-de-açúcar, encontrados com a aplicação apenas da bactéria no solo.This work aimed to evaluate the control of root-knot nematodes and sugarcane growth in function of Bacillus subtilis in soil after multiplication in vinasse. Laboratory tests were developed to define the best concentration of vinasse on the composition of culture medium to optimize the growth of B. subtilis. For the experiment in the greenhouse, soil collected in the area of sugarcane cultivation was used. The following treatments were established: control, vinasse (50 m³ ha-1, Bacillus subtilis in aqueous suspension (50 m³ ha-1; B. subtilis multiplied in vinasse (50 and 100 m³ ha-1. The

  15. Identificação e caracterização de novos moduladores da divisão em Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Tavares

    2009-01-01

    Em procariotos, a principal forma de reprodução é a divisão binária, que permite à célula-mãe dar origem a duas outras células-filhas, com conteúdo genético idêntico ao da progenitora. Em Bacillus subtilis este processo acontece graças ao divisomo, um complexo formado por aproximadamente dezesseis proteínas, que leva à constrição da membrana e da parede, formando o septo de divisão. A montagem do divisomo é coordenada por FtsZ, um homólogo de tubulina, que polimeriza na região central da bact...

  16. Gamma radiation effect on Bacillus cereus spores inoculated in black pepper; Efeitos da radiacao gama sobre esporos de Bacillus cereus inoculados em pimenta-do-reino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froehlich, Angela; Axeredo, Raquel M.C.; Vanetti, Maria Cristina D. [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C. H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br

    2000-07-01

    It had been analyzed 37 samples of worn out black pepper and in 85% of these samples was observed the presence of Bacillus cereus in numbers of up to 4,6 x 10{sup 4} UFC/g. The population of aerobic mesofilis bacteria varied of 2,8 x 10{sup 5} the 1,9 x 10{sup 8} UFC/g. The black pepper used during the experiment was evaluated, evidencing the aerobic presence of one aerobic mesofilis microbiota of, approximately, 2,6 x 10{sup 6} UFC/g, consisting, mainly, for species of the Bacillus sort. It was observed that the absence of B. cereus, coliforms, filamentous fungus and leavenings. The evaluation of the irradiation of the black pepper inoculated with 10{sup 6} UFC/g of B. cereus spores of with doses of gamma radiation varying between 2 and 10 kGy evidenced that doses up to 5 kGy had been enough to reduce the counting of, approximately, 10{sup 6} UFC/g of aerobic mesofilis organisms and 10{sup 4} UFC/g of B. cereus spores the not detectable numbers by the used methodology. The dose of reduction decimal (D{sub 10}) for the inoculated B. cereus spores in black pepper was of 1,78 kGy.

  17. AÇÃO ANTILISTERIAL DO EXTRATO BRUTO DE Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens EM DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE PROTEÍNA, pH E SAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. PEREIRA

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O elevado índice de morbidade em função da contaminação dos alimentos tem aumentado a necessidade de metodologias alternativas para conservação dos mesmos. Nesse sentido, essa pesquisa teve por objetivo: (1 otimizar a ação antilisterial do extrato bruto produzido por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens em diferentes concentrações proteicas, pH e sal; (2 avaliar a ação do extrato bruto otimizado em ostras artificialmente contaminadas com Listeria monocytogenes. A ação do extrato bruto em diferentes concentrações de proteína (0,0; 5,0; 40; 80 µg/mL sobre o inóculo de 106 UFC.mL-1 de Listeria monocytogenes foi verificada em caldo TSB-YE previamente ajustado para pH 4,0 e 8,0 e concentrações de NaCl de 0; 2,5 e 4,5 % p/v. Os ensaios foram realizados à temperatura de 25ºC em estufa DBO. Para determinar a recuperação microbiana, realizaram-se contagens de Listeria monocytogenes a cada 4 h, por até 50 h. Dos tratamentos testados, a combinação de 80 g/mL de proteína do extrato bruto, pH 4,0 e 4,5 % de NaCl mostrou melhor performance quanto a atividade antimicrobiana, chegando a uma redução de até 5 ciclos logarítmicos de Listeria monocytogenes. Quando testada a ação do tratamento conjunto de 80 g/mL de extrato bruto, pH 4,0 e 4,5 % de NaCl sobre carne de ostra, obteve-se uma redução no número de Listeria monocytogenes de aproximadamente 3 ciclos logarítmicos, (3,0x106 para 1,5x103 UFC.mL-1, após 24 h de incubação a 25ºC. Esses resultados indicam a possível utilização do antimicrobiano produzido por Bacillus amyloliquefaciens como conservador de alimentos.

  18. Bacillus vini sp. nov. isolated from alcohol fermentation pit mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kedong; Chen, Xiaorong; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Huimin; Zhou, Shan; Song, Jinlong; Kong, Delong; Zhu, Jie; Dong, Weiwei; He, Mingxiong; Hu, Guoquan; Zhao, Bingqiang; Ruan, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated LAM0415(T), was isolated from an alcohol fermentation pit mud sample collected from Sichuan Luzhou-flavour liquor enterprise in China. The isolate was found to be able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 0-10 % (w/v) (optimum: 1.0 %), 10-50 °C (optimum: 30-35 °C) and pH 3.0-10.0 (optimum: 7.0-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the new isolate belonged to the genus Bacillus and was closely related to Bacillus sporothermodurans DSM 10599(T) and Bacillus oleronius DSM 9356(T), with 98.4 and 97.2 % sequence similarity, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain LAM0415(T) and the two reference strains were 33.3 ± 1.2 and 42.8 ± 0.8 %, respectively. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.2 mol% as determined by the T m method. The major fatty acids were determined to be iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK7 and MK8. The major polar lipids were found to be diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified glycolipids. The diagnostic amino acid of the cell wall peptidoglycan was determined to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. On the basis of its phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain LAM0415(T) (=ACCC 06413(T) = JCM 19841(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus vini sp. nov. is proposed.

  19. Phylogenetic relationships between Bacillus species and related genera inferred from 16s rDNA sequences Relações filogenéticas entre espécies de Bacillus e gêneros relacionados baseadas em sequencias 16S rDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Sun Wei Wang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neigh-borjoining, maximum-parsimony, minimum-evolution, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian trees constructed based on 16S rDNA sequences of 181 type strains of Bacillus species and related taxa manifested nine phylogenetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that Bacillus was not a monophyletic group. B. subtilis was in Group 1. Group 4, 6 and 8 respectively consisted of thermophiles, halophilic or halotolerant bacilli and alkaliphilic bacilli. Group 2, 4 and 8 consisting of Bacillus species and related genera demonstrated that the current taxonomic system did not agree well with the 16S rDNA evolutionary trees. The position of Caryophanaceae and Planococcaceae in Group 2 suggested that they might be transferred into Bacillaceae, and the heterogeneity of Group 2 implied that some Bacillus species in it might belong to several new genera. Group 9 was mainly comprised of the genera (excluding Bacillus of Bacillaceae, so some Bacillus species in Group 9: B. salarius, B. qingdaonensis and B. thermcloacae might not belong to Bacillus. Four Bacillus species, B. schlegelii, B. tusciae, B. edaphicus and B. mucilaginosus were clearly placed outside the nine groups.Árvores utilizando os métodos de neighbor-joining, máxima parcimônia, evolução mínima, máxima verossimilhança e bayesiana, construídas baseadas em seqüências de rDNA 16S de 181 linhagens-tipo de espécies de Bacillus e taxa relacionados, mostraram a formação de nove grupos filogenéticos. A análise filogenética mostrou que Bacillus não é um grupo monofilético. B. subtilis se colocou no Grupo 1. Grupos 4, 6 e 8, respectivamente, consistiram de bacilos termofílicos, halofílicos ou halotolerantes e alcalifílicos. Grupos 2, 4 e 8 consistindo de espécies de Bacillus e gêneros relacionados demonstraram que o sistema taxonômico corrente não concorda perfeitamente com as árvores evolucionárias por rDNA 16S. A posição de Caryophanaceae e Planococcaceae no Grupo 2 sugere

  20. Detecção e caracterização de proteínas parasporinas em Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Sabiá Júnior, Elias Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    A bactéria Gram-positiva Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) é amplamente conhecida devido à sua grande importância no controle biológico, graças à sua capacidade de produzir inclusões cristalinas formadas por proteínas inseticidas (Cry e Cyt), ativas contra um amplo espectro de insetos. Uma nova atividade foi relatada para cristais sem atividade inseticida, a citotoxicidade contra células cancerosas humanas. Essas proteínas citotóxicas, chamadas de Parasporinas (PS), não são hemolíticas e são estrut...

  1. Bacillus coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria. It is used similarly to lactobacillus and other probiotics as "beneficial" bacteria. People take Bacillus coagulans for diarrhea, including infectious types such as ...

  2. Identification and safety evaluation of <em>Bacillus species em>occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed...... no bacteria were detected after baking. A total of 180 B. cereus sensu lato isolates from four different primary starters, adapted starters and final doughs were further identified as B. cereus sensu stricto (118 isolates) and Bacillus thuringiensis (62 isolates). The safety of Gergoush was evaluated based...

  3. Effect of modified atmosphere and temperature abuse on the growth from spores and cereulide production of <em>Bacillus weihenstephanensisem> in a cooked chilled meat sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Koch, Anette Granly;

    2009-01-01

    demonstrates that MAP can be used to inhibit growth of a psychrotolerant toxin producing Bacillus spp. during chill storage at 8 °C, and substantially reduce the risk of emetic food poisoning at abuse condition. Results are of relevance for improving safety of ready to eat processed chilled foods of extended...... and temperature abuse for 1.5 h daily at 20 °C during 1 week resulted in increased cell counts and variable cereulide production in the meat sausage. A pre-history at 8 °C for 1 week inMAP with OTR of 1.3 or 40ml/m2/24 h and 2% O2 resulted in cereulide concentrations of 0.816-1.353 µg/gmeat sausage, while a pre-history...

  4. Contaminação por Bacillus cereus em superfícies de equipamentos e utensílios em unidade de alimentação e nutrição Contamination by Bacillus cereus on equipment and utensil surfaces in a food and nutrition service unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Aparecida Mendes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A constatação de que Bacillus cereus é um microrganismo que constitui problema especial em plantas de processamento de alimentos, dentre as quais se incluem restaurantes universitários, levou a realização deste trabalho, que teve como objetivo contribuir para a avaliação de riscos a que se expõem os usuários de cozinhas de grande porte, por meio da identificação de pontos do ambiente, a partir dos quais o microrganismo pode ser transferido aos alimentos. A presença de B. cereus foi detectada em 38,3% das amostras de equipamentos e utensílios estudados. As contagens atingiram até 5,7x10² UFC/cm², sendo que os valores mais elevados foram obtidos a partir de amostras dos setores de distribuição, indicando a importância destes locais como fontes potenciais de transmissão do microrganismo para os alimentos.The confirmation that Bacillus cereus is a microorganism that represents a special problem in food processing plants, such as university cafeterias, inspired this work, the scope of which was to evaluate the risks consumers are exposed to by identifying the contamination points from whence the microorganism can be transferred on to food. The presence of B. cereus was detected in 38.3% of the equipment and utensils studied. Counts of up to 5.7x10 ² CFU/cm² were found, with the highest values being found in samples from distribution sectors, indicating the importance of these areas as potential sources of microorganism transmission on to food.

  5. Identificação e caracterização de genes vip e cry coleóptero‑específicos em isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire de Cássia Alves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e caracterizar os genes cry3, vip1, vip2 e vip1/vip2 em uma coleção de 1.078 isolados de Bacillus thuringiensis potencialmente tóxicos para larvas de coleópteros. Foram utilizados pares de oligonucleotídeos iniciadores gerais obtidos a partir de regiões conservadas dos genes e do alinhamento de sequências consenso. Posteriormente, os isolados positivos foram caracterizados por meio da técnica de PCR‑RFLP, tendo-se utilizado enzimas de restrição específicas, para identificar novas subclasses de genes nos isolados. Cento e cinquenta e um isolados foram positivos para os genes avaliados, com maior frequência para o gene vip1/vip2 (139 isolados. Pela técnica de PCR‑RFLP, foram observados 14 perfis polimórficos, o que indica a presença de diferentes alelos e, consequentemente, de distintas subclasses desses genes.

  6. Residual effect of two Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis products assayed against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae in laboratory and outdoors at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Efeito residual de duas formulações de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis sobre Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae em condições de laboratório e em simulado de campo, no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of the dengue vector to temephos stimulated its substitution for Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti since 2001 in Brazil. The persistence of the two Bti formulations employed at that time by the Health Ministry, Vectobac G and Aquabac G, was assayed under laboratory and outdoor conditions. Both formulations were tested at 0.2 g/10 liters of water, the same concentration applied in the field for vector control. The tests were done against Ae. aegypti third instar larvae (Rockefeller strain. In the laboratory, Vectobac G and Aquabac G caused at least 95% mortality until 101 and 45 days after treatment, respectively. In the outdoor assays, test containers of different materials were treated with either formulation and placed in a shaded area. Larvae were introduced each 3-6 days and mortality was recorded 24 and 48 hours later. In the first set of assays, performed in June 2001, mortality levels of 70% or more were attained for 2-5 weeks for both formulations in all containers. The exception was for the iron one that rusted, resulting in low mortality after seven days. In the second set of assays (August 2001, 70% mortality was attained for just 1-2 weeks for all the containers and both formulations.RESUMO Resistência do vetor de dengue, Aedes aegypti, a temephos estimulou sua substituição por Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti desde 2001 no Brasil. A persistência de duas formulações de Bti empregadas naquele ano pelo Ministério da Saúde, Vectobac G e Aquabac G, foi testada em condições externas e de laboratório. Ambas formulações foram testadas a 0,2 g/10 litros de água, a mesma concentração recomendada para o controle do vetor no campo. Os testes foram realizados com larvas de Ae. aegypti de terceiro estádio (linhagem Rockefeller. No laboratório, Vectobac G e Aquabac G induziram pelo menos 95% de mortalidade até 101 e 45 dias depois do tratamento, respectivamente. Nos testes externos, recipientes

  7. Estudo da toxicidade de proteínas (Cry) recombinantes de Bacillus thuringiensis, utilizando o sistema de expressão baseado em baculovírus e células de inseto

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Os genes cry1Ca, cry2Ab e cry10Aa de diferentes estirpes brasileiras de Bacillus thuringiensis foram amplificados por PCR, clonados em um vetor de clonagem e seqüenciados. As análises das seqüências mostraram alta identidade com outros genes cry já descritos. Os genes foram removidos dos vetores de clonagem e introduzidos em um plasmídeo vetor de transferência (pSynXIVVI+X3) para construção de baculovírus recombinantes por recombinação homóloga. Os vírus recombinantes foram purificados por di...

  8. Suscetibilidade da traça-das-crucíferas a Bacillus thuringiensis em repolho no Distrito Federal - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v8i1.995

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    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Plutella xylostella é a mais importante praga das brássicas em todo o mundo. Com o objetivo de se estudar um método de controle desta praga mais eficiente e menos danoso ao meio ambiente, avaliou-se a eficiência de dois bioinseticidas a base de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt e um inseticida químico a base de deltametrina no controle de P. xylostella em repolho no Distrito Federal. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições. Cada parcela foi formada por quatro linhas com 20 plantas. Os bioinseticidas a base de Bt foram os mais eficientes no controle de P. xylostella. A testemunha e o tratamento químico não diferiram entre si e apresentaram resultados significativamente inferiores em relação ao percentual de cabeças comercializáveis quando comparado com os bioinseticidas. Este trabalho comprovou a eficiência dos bioinseticidas a base de Bt no controle de P. xylostella em repolho no Distrito Federal.

  9. Survival and conjugal transfer between Bacillus thuringiensis strains in aquatic environment Sobrevivência e conjugação de Bacillus thuringiensis em ambiente aquático

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Furlaneto; Halha Ostrensky Saridakis; Olívia Márcia Nagy Arantes

    2000-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to assess the survival of cells and spores and plasmid transfer between Bacillus thuringienis strains in aquatic environment. Results indicated that cells and spores of B. thuringiensis can survive for 10 days in water, without altering their number. The sporulation process began after 12-15 hours of inoculation of water. B. thuringiensis was able to transfer conjugative plasmids in the aquatic environment.O presente trabalho é um estudo sobre a sob...

  10. Biological control of Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, (Diptera, Culicidae through Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in laboratory and field conditions Controle biológico de Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, (Diptera, Culicidae através de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis em condições de laboratório e campo

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    João A. C. Zequi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 can become a problem in urban centers because they reproduce abundantly in ponds organically enriched. It is vector of the Plasmodium spp. and Crithidia ricadoi Sibajev et al. 1993. This research verifies the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on C. saltanensis in two temperature situations, both in laboratory and field conditions. LC50 for C. saltanensis immatures fourth instar, was 0.154 ppm and the LC95 was 0.248 ppm an average temperature of 25.7ºC. When exposed at a constant temperature of 12±1ºC and a photoperiod of 14L:10D, had its susceptibity decreased in 1.50 times in reation to LC50, when compared to room temperature. B. thuringiensis israelensis is highly efficient in the control of this mosquito in natural environment with a high level of polluants using the concentration of 2 liters/hectare, with applications every 15 days.Culex (Culex saltanensis Dyar, 1928 pode se tornar um problema nos centros urbanos, porque reproduz abundantemente em lagoas de tratamento de efluentes. Esse mosquito é vetor de Plasmodium spp. e Crithidia ricadoi Sibajev et al. 1993. O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi verificar a eficácia de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis sobre C. saltanensis em condições de temperatura no laboratório e campo. A CL50 para imaturos de quarto ínstar de C. saltanensis foi 0,154 ppm e a C19(5 foi 0,248 ppm em temperatura ambiente média de 25,7ºC. Quando o bioensaio foi conduzido à temperatura constante de 12±1ºC e fotoperíodo de 14L:10E, a suscetibilidade da larva diminui em 1,50 vezes em relação a CL50, quando comparado a temperatura ambiente. B. thuringiensis israelensis é eficiente no controle desse mosquito em seu ambiente natural com altos índices de matéria orgânica, usando 2 litros/hectare com aplicações a cada 15 dias.

  11. Characterisation of the arsenic resistance genes in Bacillus sp. UWC isolated from maturing fly ash acid mine drainage neutralised solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Cowan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available An arsenic resistant <em>Bacillus> sp. UWC was isolated from fly ash acid mine drainage (FA-AMD neutralised solids. A genomic library was prepared and screened in an arsenic sensitive mutant <em>Escherichia coliem> strain for the presence of arsenic resistance (<em>ars> genes. Sequence analysis of a clone conferring resistance to both sodium arsenite and sodium arsenate revealed homologues to the <em>arsR> (regulatory repressor, <em>arsB> (membrane located arsenite pump, <em>arsC> (arsenate reductase, <em>arsD> (second regulatory repressor and a metallochaperone and <em>arsA> (ATPase genes from known arsenic resistance operons. The <em>Bacillus> sp. UWC <em>arsRBCDA> genes were shown to be arranged in an unusual manner with the <em>arsDA em>genes immediately downstream of <em>arsC>.

  12. BpuAmI: a novel SacI neoschizomer from Bacillus pumilus discovered in an isolate from Amazon Basin, recognizing 5'-GAG¯CTC-3' BpuAmI: um novo neoesquisomero de SacI de Bacillus pumilus descoberta em um isolado oriundo da Bacia Amazônica, reconhecendo 5'-GAG¯CTC-3'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelei M. Chies

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A strain of Bacillus pumilus was isolated and identified from water samples collected from a small affluent of the Amazon River. Type II restriction endonuclease activity was detected in these bacteria. The enzyme was purified and the molecular weight of the native protein estimated by gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH, temperature and salt requirements were determined. Quality control assays showed the complete absence of "nonspecific nucleases." Restriction cleavage analysis and DNA sequencing of restriction fragments allowed the unequivocal demonstration of 5´GAG¯CTC3´ as the recognition sequence. This enzyme was named BpuAmI and is apparently a neoschizomer of the prototype restriction endonuclease SacI. This is the first report of an isoschizomer and/or neoschizomer of the prototype SacI identified in the genus Bacillus.Uma linhagem de Bacillus pumilus foi isolada e identificada de amostras de águas coletadas em um pequeno Igarapé do Rio Amazonas. Foi detectada atividade de restrição do tipo II nesta bactéria. A enzima foi purificada e o peso molecular da proteína nativa foi estimado por gel filtração e por eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida. Foram determinados, o pH e temperatura ótimos e as necessidades de sais. Os ensaios do controle de qualidade mostraram uma ausência completa de "nucleases não específicas". As analises das clivagens e o seqüenciamento do DNA dos fragmentos de restrição permitiram uma demonstração inequívoca de que 5´GAG¯CTC 3´ é a seqüência de reconhecimento da enzima. Esta enzima foi denominada de BpuAmI e aparentemente é um neoesquisômero da enzima protótipo SacI. Este é o primeiro relato de um isoesquisômero e/ou neoesquisômero da enzima protótipo SacI identificada no gênero Bacillus.

  13. Produção de material de referência para ensaio de proficiência de enumeração de Bacillus cereus em leite / Preparation of reference material for proficiency test for enumeration of Bacillus cereus in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Luiz Lima Brandão

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A participação em ensaios de proficiência é essencial para que um laboratório de ensaio possa ter seu desempenho avaliado por meio de uma comparação interlaboratorial. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir um material de referência (MR quantitativo para EP contendo Bacillus cereus em leite em pó. Uma solução estéril de leite desnatado a 10% contendo 100 mM de sacarose foi contaminada com uma cepa de B. cereus em uma concentração previamente determinada. A matriz foi homogeneizada, distribuída em frascos e liofilizada. O lote produzido foi considerado suficientemente homogêneo atribuindo-se um desvio-padrão alvo de 0,25 log10 UFC/mL. O MR apresentou-se estável a ≤ -70 ºC e (-20 ± 4 ºC durante 1.058 e 60 dias, respectivamente. Na avaliação da influência de diferentes temperaturas para o transporte deste material, o MR se apresentou estável a 4 ºC, 25 ºC e 35 ºC durante o período de quatro dias de estudo. Conclui-se que o lote produzido apresentou todos os requisitos necessários para ser utilizado como itens de EP. ---------------------------------------------------------------------- The participation in proficiency testing (PT is essential for testing laboratories to prove their technical competence. The aim of this study was to produce a quantitative reference material (RM for PT containing Bacillus cereus in milk powder. A sterile solution of 10% skim milk containing 100 mM sucrose was contaminated with a B. cereus strain in a specific concentration. The homogenized matrix was distributed into vials and freeze- -drying. The batch produced was considered sufficiently homogeneous assigning a target standard deviation of 0.25. The RM was stable at ≤ -70 ºC and (-20 ± 4 ºC for 1,058 and 60 days, respectively. In the evaluation of temperatures for the transport of material, the RM was stable at 4, 25 and 35 ºC during four days. It is concluded that the batch produced had all the necessary requirements to be

  14. In vitro effect of Bacillus thuringiensis strains and Cry proteins in phytopathogenic fungi of paddy rice-field Efeito in vitro de cepas e proteínas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis em fungos fitopatogênicos da cultura do arroz irrigado

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    Neiva Knaak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac strains and proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki were assessed in the following phytopathogens: Rhizoctonia solani,Pyricularia grisea,Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani, which had their micelial growth decreased after incubation in the presence of the bacterial strains. As to Cry proteins, there were no inhibition halo development in the assessed concentrations.As cepas e proteínas Cry1Ab e Cry1Ac sintetizadas por Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis e B. thuringiensis kurstaki, foram avaliadas nos fitopatógenos: Rhizoctonia solani,Pyricularia grisea,Fusarium oxysporum e F. solani, os quais tiveram seu crescimento micelial reduzido após a incubação na presença das cepas bacterianas. Em relação às proteínas Cry, não houve formação de halo de inibição nas concentrações avaliadas.

  15. Desempenho de Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae em ovos de Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae sob efeito de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Trichogramma pratissolii Querino & Zucchi (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae performance in Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae eggs affected by Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

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    Dirceu Pratissoli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar o efeito da bactéria entomopatogênica Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt sobre fêmeas adultas de Trichogramma pratissolii e sua progênie, este trabalho foi realizado com diferentes isolados de Bt e Bt kurstaki misturados ao alimento fornecido para o parasitóide antes de parasitar ovos de Anagasta kuehniella. Para tanto, suspensões de seis isolados de Bt E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 e o Bt kurstaki foram misturados em gotícula de mel (1:1, como fonte de alimento e mel puro como testemunha, e, em seguida, foram oferecidos simultaneamente cartelas com ovos do hospedeiro para o parasitismo. Foram utilizadas 20 repetições por tratamento. O experimento foi mantido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, UR 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14h. Foram avaliados os parasitismos diários, totais e acumulados; sobrevivência; emergência e razão sexual da progênie. Os tratamentos não afetaram o parasitismo, razão sexual e a longevidade, porém em alguns tratamentos (E-3, E-10, E-16 e E-20 foi observado efeito indireto sobre a emergência da progênie, o que implicaria a necessidade de mais liberações massais do parasitóide para alcançar os resultados esperados. Por outro lado, a aceleração do parasitismo verificada em todos os tratamentos sugere que adultos de T. pratissolii, quando submetidos à pressão de algum fator externo tendem a parasitar o mais rápido possível para assegurar a sobrevivência da progênie. Portanto, a combinação Bt + T. pratissolii pode favorecer a atuação do parasitóide em campo, principalmente em casos em que é necessária uma rápida redução dos níveis populacionais da praga.This work was carried out to detect at laboratory the possible side-effects provoked by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt strains on egg parasitoid Thichogramma pratissolii and its progeny. Six strains of Bt E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 and Bt kurstaki were assayed in honey drop to stimulate the feeding of the parasitoids in each

  16. Manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho em milho com formulações de nim e Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Management of fall armyworm in corn with commercial neem and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai

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    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda, principal praga do milho, é comumente controlada com inseticidas sintéticos. Assim, na busca de alternativas eficientes e de baixo impacto ambiental, testou-se em campo as formulações comerciais de nim Natuneem® (10mL L-1 em 2005 e 15mL L-1 em 2006 e Neemseto® (5 e 10mL L-1 em 2005, e 10 e 15mL L-1 em 2006 e do inseticida biológico Bta (Xentari® 10g L-1 em 2005 e 2006, aplicados aos 15, 30 e 45 e aos 15, 25 e 35 dias, após a emergência das plantas, em 2005 e 2006, respectivamente. Antes de cada pulverização foram atribuídas notas de 0 a 5 para as injúrias foliares. Em 2005, somente Neemseto® 10mL L-1 foi eficiente aos 30 dias. Em 2006, Neemseto® 15mL L-1 e Bta 10g L-1, com notas médias de 0,93 e 0,98, diferiram da testemunha, com nota 2,38, na avaliação realizada aos 35 dias. Em casa-de-vegetação, plantas de milho foram pulverizadas com os inseticidas Natuneem®, Neemseto® e Xentari® e posteriormente infestadas, artificialmente, com lagartas recém-eclodidas. Após 10 dias, verificou-se que os tratamentos foram igualmente eficientes, diferindo da testemunha, tanto em relação às notas, quando ao número de lagartas sobreviventes.The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda is the main pest of corn in Brazil and the use of synthetic insecticides is the most commonly applied method to its control. Thus, searching for efficient and low environment impact alternatives, commercial formulations of the neem Natuneem® (10mL L-1 in 2005 and 15mL L-1 in 2006 and Neemseto® (5 and 10mL L-1 in 2005, and 10 and 15mL L-1 in 2006 and biological insecticide Bta Xentari® (10g L-1 in 2005 and 2006 applied at 15, 30 and 45 and at 15, 25 and 35 days after plant emerge in 2005 and 2006, respectively, were tested. Evaluations consisted of using a scale of foliar injury from 0 to 5 r before each spray. In 2005, only Neemseto® 10mL L-1 was efficient at 30 days. In 2006, Neemseto® 15mL L-1 and Bta

  17. Eficiência e Persistência de Três Produtos Comerciais à Base de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis e Bacillus sphaericus no controle de Culicidae (Diptera em Lagoas de Tratamento de Efluentes

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    Jose Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. The hematofagic effect caused by females belonging to some species of Culicidae on humans and animals can be directly related to pathogen transmission, allergic reactions and uneasiness. The emergence of populations resistant to chemical insecticides has fostered the use of alternative methods, mainly biological control. The trials were conducted in three effluent treatment lagoons, on larvae of Culicidae to test the efficiency and persistence of commercial products whose active principles are based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner and Bacillus sphaericus Neide. The products tested were Vectolex (a granulated formulation of B. sphaericus, Sphaericus (a liquid formulation of B. sphaericus and Bt-horus (a liquid formulation of B. thuringiensis. The products were applied biweekly and evaluations were conducted 0, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after each application. The lagoons were colonized by Culex nigripalpus Theobald (1.5%, Culex saltanensis Dyar (2.25%, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (96.25%. Bt-horus reduced larvae by 89.06%, 83.97% and 89.96% at 24, 48 and 72 hours after product application, respectively. The granulated and the liquid formulations containing B. sphaericus reduced larvae by 98.89 % and 98.34% 24 hours after application, and by 99.79% and 99.78% after 48 hours, respectively. The products and the different formulations were effective in controlling larvae of all three Culicidae species in lagoons with high levels of organic matter, but the persistence was recorded in two and three days for products containing respectively B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis israelensis.

  18. Greenhouse evaluation of Bacillus subtilis AP-01 and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 in controlling tobacco diseases Avaliação em estufa de dois agentes biológicos de controle de doenças do tabaco

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    Monchan Maketon

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two biological control agents, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (LarminarTM and Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (TrisanTM alone or/in combination were investigated in controlling three tobacco diseases, including bacterial wilt (Ralstonia solanacearum, damping-off (Pythium aphanidermatum, and frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora nicotiana. Tests were performed in greenhouse by soil sterilization prior to inoculation of the pathogens. Bacterial-wilt and damping off pathogens were drenched first and followed with the biological control agents and for comparison purposes, two chemical fungicides. But for frogeye leaf spot, which is an airborne fungus, a spraying procedure for every treatment including a chemical fungicide was applied instead of drenching. Results showed that neither B. subtilis AP-01 nor T. harzianum AP-001 alone could control the bacterial wilt, but when combined, their controlling capabilities were as effective as a chemical treatment. These results were also similar for damping-off disease when used in combination. In addition, the combined B. subtilis AP-01 and T. harzianum AP-001 resulted in a good frogeye leaf spot control, which was not significantly different from the chemical treatment.Dois agentes de controle biológico, Bacillus subtilis AP-01 (Larminar® e Trichoderma harzianum AP-001 (Trisan® foram avaliados separadamente ou em combinação quanto à capacidade de controlar três doenças do tabaco: murcha bacteriana (bacterial wilt, Ralstonia solanacearum, tombamento de mudas (damping-off, Pythium aphanidermatum, e mancha olho-de-rã (frogeye leaf spot, Cercospora nicotiana. Os testes foram realizados em estufa, esterilizando-se o solo antes da inoculação dos patógenos. Os patógenos causadores da murcha bacteriana e tombamento de mudas foram inicialmente encharcados e acompanhados com os agentes de controle biológico e, para comparação, com um fungicida químico. Para a mancha olho-de-rã, causada por um fungo anem

  19. Caracterización molecular y desarrollo de métodos de PCR en tiempo real para evaluar y cuantificar genes de virulencia de enterococos en alimentos fermentados y no fermentados, y "Bacillus sporothermodurans" en leche UHT

    OpenAIRE

    Abouelnaga, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    La calidad y seguridad alimentaria es un asunto de vital importancia hoy en día en el campo de la alimentación tanto para los investigadores como para los consumidores. A pesar de los estudios realizados en la última decada en este campo, existen pocos datos disponibles acerca de la influencia del tipo de alimento en la transferencia de genes entre la microbiota presente en los mismos y en la dinámica de la generación de resistencias a antibióticos y los factores de virulencia dur...

  20. Bacillus probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Simon M

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial spore formers are being used as probiotic supplements for use in animal feeds, for human dietary supplements as well as in registered medicines. Their heat stability and ability to survive the gastric barrier makes them attractive as food additives and this use is now being taken forward. While often considered soil organisms this conception is misplaced and Bacilli should be considered as gut commensals. This review summarises the current use of Bacillus species as probiotics, their safety, mode of action as well as their commercial applications.

  1. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  2. Produção de proteases por Bacillus sp SMIA-2 crescido em soro de leite e água de maceração de milho e compatibilidade das enzimas com detergentes comerciais Production of proteases by Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 grow on whey and corn steep liquor and compatibility of the enzyme with commercial detergents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellingta Cristina Almeida do Nascimento

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de proteases por Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 cultivado em um meio de cultura contendo soro de leite e água de maceração de milho foi estudada. Além disso, a compatibilidade da enzima com detergentes comerciais foi também avaliada. A atividade máxima da enzima (70 U/mg proteína foi observada na fase estacionária de crescimento, com 32 h de incubação. Estudos sobre a caracterização da protease revelaram que a temperatura ótima para atividade desta enzima foi 70 °C e que a mesma manteve 91% de sua atividade quando incubada a 70 °C na presença do cálcio. O valor ótimo de pH encontrado para a protease foi 8,0, sendo que a enzima manteve 85% e 46% de sua atividade quando incubada por 1 h em pH 9 e pH 10 respectivamente. A protease manteve 64% e 50% de sua atividade quando incubada a 70 °C por 30 min com os detergentes Cheer® e Tide® respectivamente. A utilização da glicina juntamente com íons cálcio resultou em um aumento da estabilidade enzimática em todos os detergentes testados. Em presença dos detergentes Ultra bizz®, Cheer® e Tide®, a enzima manteve aproximadamente 100% de atividade, após 30 min de incubação a 70 °C.The production of protease by the thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2 cultivated in a medium containing whey and corn steep liquor was studied. In addition, the compatibility of the enzyme with commercial detergents was evaluated. The maximum activity of the enzyme (70 U/mg protein was observed in the phase stationary of growth, with 32 h of incubation. Studies on the protease characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of this enzyme was 70 °C and that it maintained 91% of its activity when incubated a 70 °C in the presence of calcium. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be 8.0 and the enzyme maintained 85% and 46% of its original activity when incubated for 1 h at pH 9 and pH 10 respectively. Protease retained 64% and 50% of its activity after 30 min incubation at 70 °C in

  3. Bioatividade de formulações de NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai em lagartas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss, 1797 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai formulations in larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcileyne Pessôa Leite de Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de inseticidas botânicos e bioinseticidas constitui uma alternativa promissora para o manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797, na cultura do milho. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de formulações comerciais de nim e de Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta sobre esta praga em laboratório. Lagartas de S. frugiperda com 10 dias de idade foram alimentadas com folhas de milho submersas na calda dos inseticidas Neemseto®, Natuneem® e Xentari® (B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai Bta nas concentrações 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10 mL ou g/L e testemunha (água. Os efeitos dos inseticidas dependeram da concentração utilizada, pois provocaram mortalidade crescente das lagartas, alongaram o período larval e reduziram o peso larval. Em alguns casos, também, reduziram o peso das pupas, a viabilidade pupal e a longevidade de adultos. Lagartas com 0-24 h de idade foram mais susceptíveis às concentrações de Neemseto® e Xentari® a 5 e 10 mL ou g/L, em relação às com 10 dias de idade. Com o aumento da concentração, os efeitos sobre o peso das pupas e viabilidade pupal foram, também, maiores em lagartas com 0-24 h de idade.The use of botanical and biological insecticides constitutes a promising alternative to control Spodoptera frugiperda on corn crop. Thus, the present work evaluated the effect of commercial formulations of neem (Natuneem® and Neemseto® and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai - Bta (Xentari® on this pest under laboratory conditions. Newly hatched and 10 days old fall armyworm larvae were fed with corn leaves treated with the insecticides at concentration of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mL or g/mL and control (water. An increased effect of the insecticides was found as function of increasing concentration, causing higher larval mortality, longer larval period and lower larval weight. In some cases, reduction of pupa weight, pupa viability and longevity of adults were also verified. Newly

  4. Controle biológico da podridão radicular (Pythium aphanidermatum e promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03 em alface hidropônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élida Barbosa Corrêa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Podridões radiculares causadas por espécies de Pythium são um importante problema em cultivos hidropônicos. Sintomas de subdesenvolvimento são observados nas plantas parasitadas pelo patógeno, sendo muitas vezes não diagnosticados pelo produtor. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o controle biológico da podridão radicular causada por Pythium aphanidermatum e a promoção de crescimento por Pseudomonas chlororaphis 63-28 e Bacillus subtilis GB03, reconhecidos agentes de controle biológico de doenças de plantas. A inoculação das plantas com P. aphanidermatum ocasionou o subdesenvolvimento, sendo essa diminuição de 20%. A adição dos agentes de biocontrole na solução nutritiva teve um efeito positivo no aumento da massa (6% a 13%, no número de folhas (4% a 7% e no teor de clorofila (3% das plantas de alface. Entretanto, maiores estudos devem ser realizados para melhorar a capacidade de controle da doença e de promoção de crescimento pelos agentes de biocontrole estudados no cultivo de alface hidropônica.

  5. INFLUÊNCIA DE BACILLUS SUBTILIS NA ECLOSÃO, ORIENTAÇÃO E INFECÇÃO DE HETERODERA GLYCINES EM SOJA

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Fábio Fernando de; SILVA,JOÃO FLÁVIO VELOSO; Araújo,Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de

    2002-01-01

    A utilização de microrganismos para fins de controle biológico de doenças em plantas tem sido muito estudada no mundo. No caso do nematóide de cisto da soja (Heterodera glycines), uma das principais doenças da soja, o controle biológico é de grande importância devido à ausência de controle químico eficiente. Para se estudar o efeito de Bacilllus subtilis sobre H. glycines, foram conduzidos alguns experimentos de casa de vegetação e laboratório. Nos trabalhos de laboratório, verificou-se, em c...

  6. Coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis em feijão-caupi e leucena: efeito sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento das plantas Co-inoculation rhizobia and Bacilus subtilis in cowpea and Leucaena: effects on nodulation, N2 fixation and plant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Sérgio Ferreira de Araújo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da associação entre o rizóbio e o Bacillus subtilis sobre a nodulação, a fixação de N2 e o crescimento do feijão-caupi (Vigna unguiculata e da leucena (Leucaena leucocephala cultivados em um Latossolo vermelho. Os tratamentos consistiram de: a testemunha; b fertilização com NPK; c inoculação com rizóbio + PK; e d inoculação com rizóbio + Bacillus subtilis + PK. Houve um aumento na nodulação do feijão-caupi com a coinoculação. A massa da parte aérea seca, o acúmulo de N e a leitura da clorofila em feijão-caupi foram maiores nos tratamentos fertilizados (NPK e no tratamento coinoculado. No caso da leucena, não houve diferenças entre os tratamentos NPK, inoculado e coinoculado. As massas das raízes secas do feijão-caupi e leucena aumentaram com a coinoculação. A coinoculação rizóbio e Bacillus subtilis favoreceu o aumento na nodulação em feijão-caupi e tem potencial para aumentar a fixação biológica do N2 e o crescimento das plantas.This research aimed to evaluate co-inoculation of Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis on nodulation, N2 fixation and growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata and leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala grown in a red Oxisol. Treatments consisted by: a control; b NPK; c inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + PK; d co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium + Bacillus subtilis + PK. There was an increase in nodulation of cowpea with co-inoculation. The shoot dry weight, N accumulation and chlorophyll were higher in both co-inoculated and fertilized (NPK treatments. For leucaena, there were not differences between NPK, inoculated and co-inoculated treatments. The dry weight roots of cowpea and leucaena increased with co-inoculation. The co-inoculation Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus subtilis favored the increase in nodulation of cowpea and it has potential to increase biological N2 fixation and plant growth.

  7. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    -hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producerswas also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar......The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...... and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCETRPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding´cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non...

  8. Controle de Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762 e Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823 através de formulados contendo Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis em temperaturas controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Zequi

    2011-11-01

    Abstract. Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti (Linnaeus and Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Say are important pathogen vectors in urban environments. This study was designed to evaluate commercial formulations containing Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis de Barjac for the control of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus and to assess their efficiency as compared to manufacturers´ claims. The tested products were the liquid formulation of Aquabac® XT 1200 ITU/mg, Teknar® 3000AAU/mg, and Vectobac® AS 1200 ITU/mg, and the solid products Vectobac® WDG 3000 ITU/mg, Vectobac® Tablet 2200 ITU/mg, and the trial formulation of Biouel 500 ITU/mg. All products were tested at 25±2°C temperature and the liquid formulations were also tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C, and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.73ºC. The experiments were conducted with 25 larvae at the early 4th stage, in 150 mL of distilled water; the dead larvae were counted 24 hours after product application. Results were analyzed using Probit to calculate CL50. The 25±2°C temperature, Vectobac WDG, and Vectobac Tablet were the most efficient in controlling Ae. aegypti, with CL50 of 0.10 (0.08 – 0.11 mg/L and 0.10 (0.09 – 0.11 mg/L, respectively. The most efficient products for Cx. quinquefasciatus were Vectobac WDG, Vectobac AS, Biouel, and Vectobac T. When the potency claimed by manufacturers was compared to our laboratory results, Biouel had the best performance for both species. Vectobac AS was the most efficient for both species of Culicidae tested at 15±2°C, 35±2°C and at room temperature (25.37 to 28.37°C. Lower product concentrations were required at 35±2°C room temperature to control Cx. quinquefasciatus than for Ae. aegypti.

  9. Antibody responses elicited in mice immunized with Bacillus subtilis vaccine strains expressing Stx2B subunit of enterohaemorragic Escherichia coli O157:H7 Resposta de anticorpos obtidas em camundongos imunizados com linhagens vacinais de Bacillus subtilis expressando a subunidade B da Stx2 de Escherichia coli O157:H7 enterohemorrágica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A.D.P. Gomes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available No effective vaccine or immunotherapy is presently available for patients with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS induced by Shiga-like toxin (Stx producedbyenterohaemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC strains, such as those belonging to the O157:H7 serotype. In this work we evaluated the performance of Bacillus subtilis strains, a harmless spore former gram-positive bacterium species, as a vaccine vehicle for the expression of Stx2B subunit (Stx2B. A recombinant B. subtilis vaccine strain expressing Stx2B under the control of a stress inducible promoter was delivered to BALB/c mice via oral, nasal or subcutaneous routes using both vegetative cells and spores. Mice immunized with vegetative cells by the oral route developed low but specific anti-Stx2B serum IgG and fecal IgA responses while mice immunized with recombinant spores developed anti-Stx2B responses only after administration via the parenteral route. Nonetheless, serum anti-Stx2B antibodies raised in mice immunized with the recombinant B. subtilis strain did not inhibit the toxic effects of the native toxin, both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, suggesting that either the quantity or the quality of the induced immune response did not support an effective neutralization of Stx2 produced by EHEC strains.Até o presente o momento, não há vacina ou imunoterapia disponível para pacientes com Síndrome Hemolítica Urêmica (SHU induzida pela toxina Shiga-like (Stx produzida por linhagens de Escherichia coli entero-hemorragica (EHEC, tais como as pertencentes ao sorotipo O157:H7. Neste trabalho, avaliamos a performance de Bacillus subtilis, uma espécie bacteriana gram-positiva não-patogênica formadora de esporos, como veículo vacinal para a expressão da subunidade B da Stx2B (Stx2B. Uma linhagem vacinal recombinante de B. subtilis expressando Stx2B, sob o controle de um promoter induzível por estresse, foi administrada a camundongos BALB/c por via oral, nasal ou subcutânea usando

  10. Atividade antibacteriana do extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens frente a diferentes indicadores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SCHULZ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo obter um extrato bruto de <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciensem>, padronizado pela dosagem de proteínas, e quantificar sua atividade antibacteriana pelo halo de inibição do crescimento de <em>Listeria monocytogenesem> NCTC 098630, <em>Escherichia coliem> ATCC 25922, <em>Salmonella typhimuriumem> ATCC 14028, <em>Staphylococcus aureusem> ATCC 25923, <em>Enterococcus faecalisem> ATCC 29212 <em>Enterobacter aerogenes em>ATCC 13048 e <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosaem> ATCC 9027. O extrato bruto de <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciensem> somente apresentou atividade antibacteriana frente <em>Listeria monocytogenesem> NCTC 098630. Constatou-se que a concentração responsável por 50% da máxima atividade antibacteriana foi 29,22 g do extrato bruto, com um halo de inibição de aproximadamente 4 mm.

  11. Avaliação da eficácia do Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis no controle de formas imaturas do Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti ( Linnaeus, 1762 em ambiente de laboratório.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Barreto Espindola

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAedes aegypti (L., 1762 é considerado um mosquito cosmopolita, com ocorrência nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais. No Brasil, está restrito às vilas e cidades, sempre com características domiciliares e peridomicíliares e, raramente é encontrado em ambientes onde a densidade populacional é baixa. Este mosquito é o único vetor do arbovírus da dengue e da febre amarela urbana em todo território nacional, e é considerado um dos vetores mais importantes na veiculação de patógenos a humanos. A grande resistência dos mosquitos a inseticidas químicos e a freqüente preocupação social com a poluição ambiental, resultou na procura de alternativas para o controle desses insetos, tais como a utilização de bactérias entomopatogênicas. Esse trabalho foi realizado objetivando mensurar a eficácia dessa bactéria no controle das formas imaturas de Ae. aegypti. Para a realização deste, foram criadas individualmente 350 larvas de geração F2 de Ae. aegypti em copos plásticos de 200 ml, contendo 100 ml de água não clorada. Na contaminação foi usado 5mg de Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis para cada estágio larval. A análise estatística foi realizada pelo teste de Mann-Whitney a 5%. A mortalidade das larvas contaminadas foi de 100%, 98%, 98%, 100% e 4% para o 2º, 3º, 4º estágio e pupa A média do número de dias de vida das larvas após contaminação no 1º, 2º, 3º, 4º estágio e pupa foi de 1,36; 2,46; 1,24; 1,22 e 3,46 dias respectivamente, exceto para a pupa, a duração dos estágios foi menor para os indivíduos contaminados, (P<0,05. O B. thuringiensis var. israelensis demonstrou ser um bioinseticida eficaz, causando mortalidade total de 99,5% das larvas contaminadas, embora para a fase de pupa não tenha sido eficaz. Desta forma ele representa uma boa opção para o controle de larvas de Ae. aegypti, entretanto para as pupas, outras alternativas devem ser estudadas.Evaluation of efficacy of Bacillus

  12. Methodology for fast evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein content

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Lúcia M. Carareto; Lemos Manoel V. F.

    2000-01-01

    O desenvolvimento da produção e uso do Bacillus thuringiensis no Brasil em escala comercial enfrenta certas dificuldades, entre elas o estabelecimento de metodologias para a quantificação de produtos tóxicos a serem comercializados. Atualmente, a quantidade de toxinas é expressa como porcentagem do total de proteínas presentes em amostras em consideração. Tal metodologia, entretanto, não mede a quantidade real de uma determinada proteína presente em um produto qualquer, além do fato de difere...

  13. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    <em>Bacillus cereus em>infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by <em>Bacillus sppem>. are mainly due to <em>B.cereus> and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by <em>B.cereus> in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. <em>Bacillus spp. em>was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as <em>B.cereus> using VITEK identification system

    It has been reported <em>Bacillus cereus em>septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  14. Custo adaptativo da indução de resistência em feijoeiro mediada pela rizobactéria Bacillus cereus ou acibenzolar-S-metil: atividade de enzimas, síntese de fenóis e lignina e biomassa Fitness cost of induced resistance in bean plants by the rhizobacteria Bacillus cereus or acibenzolar-S-methyl: enzymes activities, phenol and lignin synthesis, and biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odair José Kuhn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas que utilizam recursos para defesa na ausência de pragas ou patógenos, arcarão com custos energéticos que podem refletir na sua produtividade. Assim, teve-se por objetivo avaliar os custos adaptativos da indução de resistência, antes da chegada do patógeno, em feijoeiro induzido por um indutor biótico (Bacillus cereus e um abiótico (acibenzolar-S-metil, ASM, em 2, 3 ou 4 aplicações distribuídas ao longo do ciclo da cultura. Avaliou-se o efeito protetor contra a bactéria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli, além da atividade de peroxidase, quitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, síntese de lignina, fenóis e crescimento com base na matéria seca. Observou-se que os indutores protegeram a cultura contra X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli com base na redução da severidade. O ASM aumentou a atividade de peroxidase, quitinase e β-1,3-glucanase, enquanto que o B. cereus aumentou apenas a peroxidase. O ASM aumentou a síntese de lignina e B. cereus não, enquanto que ASM diminuiu teor de fenóis e B. cereus não. O ASM reduziu a biomassa da planta, o que não ocorreu em plantas induzidas por B. cereus. Portanto, a resistência induzida por ASM apresenta elevado custo associado, enquanto que por B. cereus apresenta baixo custo, necessitando a indução de resistência ser melhor explorada e estudada para potencializar seu uso em feijoeiro.Plants that use resources to defend themselves in the absence of pests or pathogens will pay off with energy costs that can reflect in the productivity. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the fitness costs of the resistance induced in bean plants, before the presence of the pathogen, by using biotic (Bacillus cereus and abiotic (acibenzolar-S-methyl, ASM inducers, applied 2, 3 or 4 times during the cycle of the culture. The protecting effect was evaluated against the bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli. The activities of peroxidase, chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase, lignin and phenol

  15. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus cereus from the dairy environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giffel, te M.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis the occurrence of <em>Bacillus cereusem> in the milk production and processing environment was investigated. Isolates were identified biochemically and by DNA probes based on the variable regions of 16S rRNA. Further characterization was carried out using bioche

  16. Isolation, identification and characterization of Bacillus cereus from the dairy environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giffel, te M.

    1997-01-01

    In this thesis the occurrence of <em>Bacillus cereusem> in the milk production and processing environment was investigated. Isolates were identified biochemically and by DNA probes based on the variable regions of 16S rRNA. Further characterization was carried out using

  17. Biological control of Culex (Culex) saltanensis Dyar, (Diptera, Culicidae) through Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in laboratory and field conditions Controle biológico de Culex (Culex) saltanensis Dyar, (Diptera, Culicidae) através de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis em condições de laboratório e campo

    OpenAIRE

    Zequi,João A. C.; José Lopes

    2007-01-01

    Culex (Culex) saltanensis Dyar, 1928 can become a problem in urban centers because they reproduce abundantly in ponds organically enriched. It is vector of the Plasmodium spp. and Crithidia ricadoi Sibajev et al. 1993. This research verifies the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis on C. saltanensis in two temperature situations, both in laboratory and field conditions. LC50 for C. saltanensis immatures fourth instar, was 0.154 ppm and the LC95 was 0.248 ppm an average temperature o...

  18. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  19. Characterization of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitary microorganism that may cause food borne disease. Pathogenicity, however, depends on various characteristics such as the ability to form (entero)-toxin(s) that can not be detected by microbiological methods. Further characterization of pathogenic properties is not only

  20. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  1. Expressão de proteína parasporina 2 (PS2) de bacillus thuringiensis em células de inseto e análise de sua toxicidade para células tumorais e de insetos

    OpenAIRE

    Lamar, Deborah da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis é uma bactéria Gram positiva, produtora de cristais protéicos ou δ-endotoxinas (toxinas Cry e Cyt) durante a fase de esporulação. As toxinas. Cry apresentam atividade inseticida específica, e as toxinas Cyt apresentam atividade citolítica inespecífica. Algumas proteínas produzidas por B. thuringiensis durante a fase de esporulação que não apresentam caráter inseticida, mas apresentam-se tóxica para células tumorais foram descritas. Essas proteínas receberam o nome de Pa...

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Alkaliphilic Bacillus Strains, Bacillus wakoensis JCM 9140T, Bacillus akibai JCM 9157T, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus JCM 9152T

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; OSHIDA, Yumi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the type strains of three cellulolytic or hemicellulolytic alkaliphilic Bacillus species: Bacillus wakoensis, Bacillus akibai, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus. The genome information for these three strains will be useful for studies of alkaliphilic Bacillus species, their evolution, and biotechnological applications for their enzymes.

  3. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; Reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617**T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618**T. Compara...

  4. Inactivation and ultrastructure analysis of Bacillus spp. and Clostridium perfringens spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantner, Christine A; Hannah, Ryan M; Burans, James P; Pope, Robert K

    2014-02-01

    Bacterial endospores are resistant to many environmental factors from temperature extremes to ultraviolet irradiation and are generally more difficult to inactivate or kill than vegetative bacterial cells. It is often considered necessary to treat spores or samples containing spores with chemical fixative solutions for prolonged periods of time (e.g., 1-21 days) to achieve fixation/inactivation to enable electron microscopy (EM) examination outside of containment laboratories. Prolonged exposure to chemical fixatives, however, can alter the ultrastructure of spores for EM analyses. This study was undertaken to determine the minimum amount of time required to inactivate/sterilize and fix spore preparations from several bacterial species using a universal fixative solution for EM that maintains the ultrastructural integrity of the spores. We show that a solution of 4% paraformaldehyde with 1% glutaraldehyde inactivated spore preparations of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Clostridium perfringens in 30 min, and Bacillus subtilis in 240 min. These results suggest that this fixative solution can be used to inactivate and fix spores from several major groups of bacterial spore formers after 240 min, enabling the fixed preparations to be removed from biocontainment and safely analyzed by EM outside of biocontainment.

  5. Antagonism of Bacillus spp. against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Monteiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism of eight Bacillus isolates was investigated against nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (causal agent of crucifers black rot to assess the role of lipopeptides in this process. Antimicrobial and hemolytic (surfactant activity tests were performed in vitro using agar diffusion methods. Antibiosis and hemolysis were positive for four Bacillus isolates against all X. campestris pv. campestris strains. The correlation observed between antimicrobial and hemolytic activities indicated that lipopeptides were involved in the antibiosis mechanism of the studied antagonists. Fermentation studies were carried out with the isolates that showed highest antimicrobial and hemolytic activities, to follow up growth and production of bioactive and surfactant compounds. Production of bioactive and surfactant compounds was observed during the late growth phase of the Bacillus isolates.Investigação sobre o antagonismo de oito isolados de Bacillus: B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. megaterium pv. cerealis C211, B. megaterium C116, Bacillus sp. RAB9, B. cereus C240, Bacillus sp. C11 e B. cereus C210, contra nove linhagens de X. campestris pv. campestris (bactéria responsável pela podridão negra das crucíferas foi realizada para se verificar a participação de lipopeptídeos neste mecanismo. Testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica (surfactante foram realizados, utilizando-se o método de difusão em ágar. Antibiose e hemólise foram positivas para quatro isolados de Bacillus: R14, RAB7, C116 e C210. A correlação observada entre as atividades antimicrobiana e a hemolítica indica que lipopeptídeos estão envolvidos no mecanismo de antibiose dos isolados investigados. As fermentações foram realizadas com os isolados que demonstraram melhores resultados nos testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica: R14, RAB7 e C116, para acompanhar o crescimento e a produção de compostos bioativos e

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Bacillus_subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=214 ...

  7. Efeitos da interação e toxicidade das proteínas Cry1 e Vip3Aa de Bacillus thuringiensis, Berliner em Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavani, Claudio Damasceno [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    A bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis é conhecida como uma das melhores opções no controle biológico de pragas devido à ação entomopatogênica e especificidade de suas proteínas. As proteínas Vip3, que são secretadas durante o crescimento vegetativo de B. thuringiensis e Cry1, que são produzidas durante a fase de esporulação, atuam no controle de importantes pragas de lepidópteros. Um dos principais riscos ambientais associados à utilização de inseticidas é o potencial para o desenvolvimento de gr...

  8. Bacillus subtilis em dietas de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação: resposta no desempenho, balanço nutricional, microbiológica e econômica

    OpenAIRE

    Nataly Villa Paulino da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Os probióticos são indicados como alternativa para reduzir a infecção de patógenos e melhorar a saúde e o desempenho animal. O estudo presente avaliou desempenho zootécnico, balanço nutricional, produção de metano fecal e avaliação econômica e microbiológica da ração e fezes de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação, alimentados com dieta contendo probiótico (Bacillus subtilis) comparando-se os resultados aos oriundos de dietas inclusas ou não de antimicrobianos. Constatou-se que além d...

  9. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermented food condiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H

    2008-06-10

    The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean (Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producers was also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar. Using RPLA, enterotoxin production was detected for three isolates of B. cereus in broth and all B. cereus (9) in fermented seeds. Using BDEVIA, enterotoxin production was detected in broth as well as in fermented seeds for all B. cereus isolates. None of the isolates belonging to the other Bacillus species was able to produce enterotoxins either by RPLA or BDEVIA. Nhe genes were detected in all B. cereus while Hbl and CytK genes were detected respectively in five and six B. cereus strains. A weak presence of Hbl (A, D) and CytK genes was detected in two isolates of B. subtilis and one of B. licheniformis but results were inconsistent, especially for Hbl genes. The emetic specific gene fragment EM1 was not detected in any of the isolates studied.

  10. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  11. Noncontiguous finished genome sequences and description of Bacillus massiliglaciei, Bacillus mediterraneensis, Bacillus massilinigeriensis, Bacillus phocaeensis and Bacillus tuaregi, five new species identified by culturomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cadoret

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culturomics, which investigates microbial diversity by combining diversified culture conditions, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA identification, allowed to identify five new species within the Bacillus genus. Bacillus massiliglaciei strain Marseille-P2600T, Bacillus mediterraneensis strain Marseille-P2384T, Bacillus massilinigeriensis strain Marseille-P2366T, Bacillus tuaregi strain Marseille-P2489T and Bacillus phocaeensis strain SIT16T are each the type strain of the corresponding bacterial species. These strains, the genomes of which are described here, are facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacilli. Here, we describe the main characteristics of each bacterium and present their complete genome sequence and annotation.

  12. Ecological aspects of Bacillus thuringiensis in an Oxisol Ecologia do Bacillus thuringiensis num Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandra Heck Paes Leme Ferreira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram positive, sporangial bacterium, known for its insecticidal habilities. Survival and conjugation ability of B. thuringiensis strains were investigated; vegetative cells were evaluated in non-sterile soil. Vegetative cells decreased rapidly in number, and after 48 hours the population was predominantly spores. No plasmid transfer was observed in non-sterile soil, probably because the cells died and the remaining cells sporulated quickly. Soil is not a favorable environment for B. thuringiensis multiplication and conjugation. The fate of purified B. thuringiensis toxin was analyzed by extractable toxin quantification using ELISA. The extractable toxin probably declined due to binding on surface-active particles in the soil.O comportamento de células vegetativas do Bacillus thuringiensis foi estudado em solo não esterilizado. Após o inóculo grande parte das células morrem e o restante esporula em 24 horas. Não foi observada conjugação provavelmente porque poucas células sobrevivem no solo e rapidamente esporulam, mostrando que este não é o ambiente propício para a multiplicação e conjugação desta bactéria. A toxina purificada, portanto livre de células, diminui rapidamente sua quantidade em solo não esterilizado. Provavelmente a ligação da toxina na fração argilosa do solo é a principal responsável por este fenômeno.

  13. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes with Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch, Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-...

  14. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  16. Nodulação e rendimento de soja co-infectada com Bacillus Subtilis e Bradyrhizobium Japonicum / Bradyrhizobium Elkanii Soybean nodulation and yield when co-inoculated with Bacillus Subtilis and Bradyrhizobium Japonicum / Bradyrhizobium Elkanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Fernando de Araújo

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O Bacillus subtilis pode favorecer o desempenho simbiótico do rizóbio, pelos efeitos na inibição de fitopatógenos ou pela exsudação de fitormônios. Com o objetivo de verificar a viabilidade da co-infecção de sementes de soja com Bradyrhizobium e Bacillus foram conduzidos três experimentos, no Paraná, em solos com população estabelecida de Bradyrhizobium, em que as estirpes de Bradyrhizobium SEMIA 5019 e SEMIA 5080 e suas variantes tolerantes aos metabólitos de Bacillus foram co-infectadas com duas estirpes de Bacillus (AP-3 e PRBS-1, ou seus metabólitos. Na safra 1993/94, em Londrina, o tratamento de co-inoculação de Bradyrhizobium com os metabólitos formulados de Bacillus incrementou, significativamente, em relação ao não-inoculado, o número de nódulos (59%, estádio V3, a ocupação dos nódulos pelas estirpes de Bradyrhizobium (76%, R2 e o rendimento de grãos (24%; em Ponta Grossa, esses incrementos foram de 60%, 145% e 22%, respectivamente. Nessa safra, em Londrina, a co-inoculação das variantes tolerantes com os metabólitos de Bacillus também aumentou o rendimento (26% e N total (17% dos grãos de soja e incrementos significativos foram constatados, na ocupação dos nódulos, pela co-inoculação das variantes tolerantes com as células de Bacillus (78%. Os resultados obtidos indicam a viabilidade da co-inoculação, em sementes de soja, de metabólitos brutos ou formulados ou, ainda, de células de Bacillus subtilis, para incrementar a contribuição do processo de fixação biológica do nitrogênio.Bacillus subtilis can improve rhizobial symbiotic performance by inhibiting plant pathogens or by the exudation of hormones. To verify the viability of co-inoculation of soybean seeds with Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, three experiments were performed, in the State of Paraná, Brazil, in soils with established population of Bradyrhizobium. The Bradyrhizobium strains SEMIA 5019 and SEMIA 5080, and their natural

  17. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H.; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  18. Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp. nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanparys, Bram; Logan, Niall A; Balcaen, An; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Felske, Andreas; De Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A group of 42 isolates were isolated from the soil of several disused hay fields, in the Drentse A agricultural research area (The Netherlands), that were taken out of production at different times. The group represents hitherto-uncultured Bacillus lineages that have previously been found, by a non-cultural method, to be predominant in soil. The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base-ratio determination, fatty acid analysis and morphological and biochemical characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained by (GTG)5-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, six clusters of similar strains could be recognized. A DNA-DNA relatedness study showed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies. Further analysis supported the proposal of five novel species in the genus Bacillus, namely Bacillus novalis sp. nov. (type strain IDA3307T=R-15439T=LMG 21837T=DSM 15603T), Bacillus vireti sp. nov. (type strain IDA3632T=R-15447T=LMG 21834T=DSM 15602T), Bacillus soli sp. nov. (type strain IDA0086T=R-16300T=LMG 21838T=DSM 15604T), Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1115T=R-16315T=LMG 21833T=DSM 15601T) and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1967T=R-16337T=LMG 21831T=DSM 15600T).

  19. substances by Bacillus thuringiensis BAR 3

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR CHARLES O.NWUCHE;Prof. A. R. Popoola

    KH2PO4 and MgSO4 on cell growth, sporulation, antibacterial ... was slowly added to the mixture and stirred for a further 30 min. ..... growth promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus thuringiensis ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop: An.

  20. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  1. Bacillus cereus acid stress responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous Gram-positive organism, which frequently causes foodborne illnesses. The widespread prevalence of B. cereus makes it a common contaminant in fresh foods where it also can cause spoilage. To prevent food-borne diseases and food spoilage, foods are often processed

  2. Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, You La; Yang, John Jeongseok; Kim, Min Jin; Lim, Gayoung; Cho, Sun Young; Park, Tae Sung; Suh, Jin-Tae; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Soo Cheol; Lee, Hee Joo

    2012-12-01

    Species of the genus Bacillus are a common laboratory contaminant, therefore, isolation of these organisms from blood cultures does not always indicate infection. In fact, except for Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, most species of the genus Bacillus are not considered human pathogens, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report an unusual presentation of bacteraemia and mediastinitis due to co-infection with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, which were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing, in a patient with an oesophageal perforation.

  3. Utilização de resíduos agroindustriais para a produção de proteases pelo termofílico Bacillus sp em fermentação submersa: otimização do meio de cultura usando a técnica de planejamento experimental Protease production using agroindustrial residues by thermophilic Bacillus sp in submerged fermentation: optimization of the culture medium using an experimental design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvania Alves Ladeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic Bacillus sp. SMIA-2, produced protease when grown on apple pectic, whey protein and corn step liquor medium, whose concentration was varied from 3 to 10 gL-1, according to the central composite design 2³. The experiments were conducted in shaker, at 50 °C, 150 rpm and initial pH 6.5. The results revealed that the culture medium affected both, cell growth and enzyme production. After graphical and numerical optimization procedure, the enzyme production reached its maximum value at 30 h fermentation, reaching, approximately, 70 U protein mg-1, suggesting that this process was partially associated to the growth.

  4. Screening of Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against mosquitoes Prospecção de estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra mosquitos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Gomes Monnerat

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate 210 Bacillus thuringiensis strains against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae to select the most effective. These strains were isolated from different regions of Brazil and are stored in a Bacillus spp. collection at Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia, Brasília, Brazil. The selected strains were characterized by morphological (microscopy, biochemical (SDS-PAGE 10% and molecular (PCR methods. Six B. thuringiensis strains were identified as mosquito-toxic after the selective bioassays. None of the strains produced the expected PCR products for detection of cry4, cry11 and cyt1A genes. These results indicate that the activity of mosquitocidal Brazilian strains are not related with Cry4, Cry11 or Cyt proteins, so they could be used as an alternative bioinsecticide against mosquitoes.Neste trabalho foram realizados testes de patogenicidade com 210 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis contra larvas de Aedes aegypti e Culex quinquefasciatus, a fim de se determinar as mais eficazes. Estas estirpes foram isoladas de diversas regiões do Brasil e estão armazenadas na coleção de Bacillus spp. da Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia. As estirpes selecionadas foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos (microscopia, bioquímicos (SDS-PAGE 10% e moleculares (Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase. Foram selecionadas seis estirpes entomopatogênicas de Bacillus thuringiensis. Nenhuma das estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis apresentou produtos de PCR esperados para a detecção dos genes cry4, cry11 e cyt1A. A patogenicidade das estirpes não está associada à presença das toxinas Cry4, Cry11 ou Cyt, assim, essas estirpes poderão ser utilizadas para a formatação de um bioinseticida alternativo contra mosquitos.

  5. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aiko Shirakawa; Maria Alba Cincotto; Daniel Atencio; Gaylarde,Christine C.; John,Vanderley M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in...

  6. Photothermal spectroscopy of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with microcantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wig, Andrew G [ORNL; Arakawa, Edward T [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Ferrell, Thomas L [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    Microcalorimetric optical and infrared spectroscopy is a method of determining the spectral absorption of small quantities of materials over a wide range of incident wavelengths. In this paper, the first spectroscopic results for microcantilevers coated with Bacillus anthracis (BA) are presented. These results, for B. anthracis from 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m, are compared with results from microcantilevers coated with Bacillus cereus (BC) and standard spectroscopic absorption data. The results demonstrate strong correlation between the deflection measurements and the reference spectroscopic absorption peaks. An advantage of this microcantilever-based method over traditional spectroscopy is that much smaller amounts of material (nanogram quantities) can be detected in comparison with the milligram amounts needed for standard methods. Another advantage is that the complete system can be relatively small without sacrificing spectral resolution.

  7. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  8. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Adamu KUTA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cereus (30.8%, Bacillus brevis (1.9% Bacillus polymyxa (3.8%, Bacillus lichenifomis (13.5%, Bacillus spherericus (7.7%, Bacillus mycoides (13.5%, Bacillus pumilus (7.7%, Bacillus subtilis (3.8%, Bacillus alvei (1.9%, Bacillus laterosporous (1.9%, Bacillus firmus (9.6% and Bacillus circulars (3.8%. Antibiotic production tests indicated that nine Bacillus species out of twelve isolated in this study could be used to produce antibiotics that had effect on the test organisms. However, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus laterosporous had little or no effect on the tested organisms. This study suggests that some Bacillus species have potential to produce high quality antibiotics that can be use to control microbial growth in future.

  9. Using sewage sludge from Municipal and Industrial Solid Wastes to produce a Bacillus thuringiensis Biopesticide

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Mário Brum

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado - Biotecnologia em Controlo Biológico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar que lamas têm capacidade para o desenvolvimento de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) com a intenção de produzir um biopesticida. Neste estudo, realizamos testes de crescimento bacteriano em lamas de estações de tratamento de águas residuais urbanas e industriais. A bactéria utilizada foi uma estirpe nativa de Bt isolada na ilha de São Miguel. Os totais de células viáveis, taxa de crescimento m...

  10. beta-Amylase production by some Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus polymyxa [correction of polymaxa] strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niziołek, S

    1997-01-01

    The production of extracellular beta-amylase by some Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus polymyxa [corrected] strains was investigated, and the maximal yields of the enzyme were 3.6; 9.3 and 20.4 U/mL of the culture fluid, respectively (U, 1 mumol of maltose equivalent per min at 30 degrees C). Several cultivation media were used for beta-amylase production. Bacillus cereus and some strains of Bacillus megaterium gave good yields of beta-amylase only in medium with the addition of nutrient broth. However, beta-amylase produced during growth in protein rich medium (nutrient broth) was highly unstable, probably due to inactivation by proteolytic enzymes co-existing in the culture fluid. Bacillus polymyxa [corrected] strains can produce good yields of beta-amylase on a semi-synthetic medium consisting of inorganic salts, potato starch and inexpensive soybean extract instead of costly peptone and meat extract. The most potential beta-amylase producer was the strain Bacillus polymyxa [corrected] NCIB 8524. The tested Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus polymyxa [corrected] strains were apparently differentiated by temperature cultivation (30 and 37 degrees C) suitable for beta-amylase amylase yield.

  11. Growth enhancement of black pepper (Piper nigrum) by a newly isolated Bacillus tequilensis NII-0943

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dastager, S.G.; Deepa, C.K.; Pandey, A.

    tequilensis NRRL B-41771 T (EU138487) Bacillus sp NII-0943(FJ897473) Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis NCIB 3610 T (ABQL01000001) Bacillus vallismortis DSM 11031 T (AB021198) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NBRC 15535 T (AB255669) Bacillus atrophaeus...

  12. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A new classification system of known and putative antimicrobial compounds of Bacillus by genome mining is presented in Chapter 2. Importantly, predicting, isolating and screening of Bacillus strains w...

  13. Microarray-based Resequencing of Multiple Bacillus anthracis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-17

    al.: Iden- tification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associ- ated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA...Norwegian Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001, 67:4863-4873. 26. Radnedge L, Agron PG, Hill KK, Jackson PJ...Ticknor LO, Keim P, Andersen GL: Genome differences that distinguish Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis . Appl

  14. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    .... We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus...

  15. Proteomic Profiling and Identification of Immunodominant Spore Antigens of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelVecchio, Vito G.; Connolly, Joseph P.; Alefantis, Timothy G.; Walz, Alexander; Quan, Marian A.; Patra, Guy; Ashton, John M.; Whittington, Jessica T.; Chafin, Ryan D.; Liang, Xudong; Grewal, Paul; Khan, Akbar S.; Mujer, Cesar V.

    2006-01-01

    Differentially expressed and immunogenic spore proteins of the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, which includes Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis, were identified. Comparative proteomic profiling of their spore proteins distinguished the three species from each other as well as the virulent from the avirulent strains. A total of 458 proteins encoded by 232 open reading frames were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis for all the species. A number of highly expressed proteins, including elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu), elongation factor G, 60-kDa chaperonin, enolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and others exist as charge variants on two-dimensional gels. These charge variants have similar masses but different isoelectric points. The majority of identified proteins have cellular roles associated with energy production, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, amino acid transport and metabolism, posttranslational modifications, and translation. Novel vaccine candidate proteins were identified using B. anthracis polyclonal antisera from humans postinfected with cutaneous anthrax. Fifteen immunoreactive proteins were identified in B. anthracis spores, whereas 7, 14, and 7 immunoreactive proteins were identified for B. cereus and in the virulent and avirulent strains of B. thuringiensis spores, respectively. Some of the immunodominant antigens include charge variants of EF-Tu, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase, Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, and a dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Alanine racemase and neutral protease were uniquely immunogenic to B. anthracis. Comparative analysis of the spore immunome will be of significance for further nucleic acid- and immuno-based detection systems as well as next-generation vaccine development. PMID:16957262

  16. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications.

  17. Pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraud, Olivier; Hidri, Nadia; Ly, Kim; Pichon, Nicolas; Manea, Petrus; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Garnier, Fabien

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of a pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. Antibiotic treatment was ineffective, and the pacemaker had to be removed. B. cereus was cultured from several blood samples and from the pacemaker electrodes. This case underlines the contribution of the rpoB gene for Bacillus species determination.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of Agroindustrial Byproducts for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Wild and Mutant Strains of Bacillus subtilis in Submerged and Solid State Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Mukhtar; Ikramul Haq

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72EMS8. During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the b...

  19. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores : the role of germination receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group forms a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus and comprises several species that are relevant for humans. Notorious is Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the often-lethal disease anthrax, while the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis is of economi

  20. TRANSFORMATION OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Darrel D.; Thorne, Curtis B.

    1964-01-01

    Gwinn, Darrel D. (Oregon State University, Corvallis), and Curtis B. Thorne. Transformation of Bacillus licheniformis. J. Bacteriol. 87:519–526. 1964.—When a series of 28 auxotrophic mutants of Bacillus licheniformis were screened for transformation, only three of them, M28 (glycine−), M30 (uncharacterized), and M33 (purine−), produced a detectable number of transformants. The screening method consisted of spreading auxotrophic cells and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from the prototrophic strain 9945A on minimal agar plates and observing the plates for development of prototrophic colonies. M28 transformed at a higher frequency than did the two other mutants, and it was studied in greater detail. Although up to 20% of the recipient cells spread on the plates in the presence of DNA gave rise to prototrophic colonies over a period of 72 hr, only about 10−3% of the cells produced transformants when they were incubated with DNA in liquid suspension for 1 hr. The most competent cultures of many tested were those grown on a shaker for 22 hr in a medium composed of nutrient broth, salts, and glycerol. When mutations resulting in requirements for histidine, leucine, serine, and trytophan were introduced singly into the glycine mutant, transformants for the leucine, serine, and histidine markers could be obtained at will, but transformants for the tryptophan marker were not detected even though all four of the double mutants could be transformed to glycine independence. PMID:14127566

  1. Culturas de bacilos ácido-álcool resistentes isolados de hematófagos infectados em leprosos: evidências de se tratar do bacilo de Hansen Isolation and cultures of acid-fast bacilli from Hematophagi infected in lepers: evidences that the Hansen bacillus is in cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. de Souza-Araújo

    1944-02-01

    Full Text Available The A. summarises the history of his first culture of acidfast bacillus isolated directly from leprosy lesions (Sample José and refers about two samples recovered from guinea pig and white rat inoculated with said culture. Then the A. completes his previous descriptions of four cultures of acidfast bacilli isolated by him from ticks (Amblyomma cajaennense and Boophilus microplus, two cultures from each species infected experimentally in lepers. The A. having found specimens of two species of Triatomidae (Triatoma infestans and Panstrongylus megistus naturally infected with HANSEN bacillus in huts habited by lepers in the State of Minas Gerais (Dec. 1942, started a series of experiments, using larvae and nymphs of T. infestans bred in laboratory at the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, to infect in active cases of leprosy, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, could obtain two new samples of cultures of acid-fast bacilli (Ns. 6 and 7 of his set. In this papaer the A. studies the biological properties of said cultures, proving that Penicilin has not effect upon them, like other substances. The sulphuric and acetic acids were used to purify some of the cultures, with good results, the cultures becoming more rich and growing faster. Potassium hydroxide Sodium (10% solution was also used with success to isolate and to purify the cultures, but it seems that it affects the bacilli in some way. In flud glycerinated media the majority of such cultures produce velum suitable for the preparation of antigens for skin tests and for therapeutical use. At last the A. says that he is becoming convinced that the HANSEN bacillus is in cause, especially after thee evidences of culturing the bacillus from one patient, in different opportunities.

  2. Interação de bactérias fluorescentes do gênero Pseudomonas e de Bacillus spp. com a rizosfera de diferentes plantas Interaction of Fluorescent Pseudomonads and Bacillus spp. with distinct plant rhizospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fontes Coelho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora haja muitos trabalhos na literatura com rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de plantas (RPCPs, existem poucos que expliquem seu mecanismo de ação. É possível que algumas rizosferas favoreçam a colonização radicular por RPCPs, facilitando o estabelecimento da interação planta-bactéria, como se houvesse certa especificidade entre ambas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a rizosfera de alface, em comparação com a de outras espécies vegetais, favorece o estabelecimento de bactérias fluorescentes do gênero Pseudomonas, em comparação com as do gênero Bacillus. Coletaram-se amostras do sistema radicular de alface, rúcula, chicória, salsa e tiririca em oito propriedades de produtores comerciais de hortaliças, na região de Campinas, SP. Foi feita a contagem de Pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes e de Bacillus spp. por diluição em série e plaqueamento. De maneira geral, observou-se maior crescimento de Pseudomonas spp. fluorescentes na rizosfera de alface-crespa em relação à de outras plantas, mas isso não ocorreu com Bacillus spp.Despite numerous reports on plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR, there are few of them explaining their mode of action. It is possible that some plants promote bacterial colonization in the rhizosphere to facilitate plant-bacterium interaction, as if there were a certain mutual specificity. The objective of this study was to verify if lettuce plants promote root colonization by fluorescent pseudomonads, in comparison with other plants and with Bacillus spp. Roots of lettuce and some other vegetables were sampled in different properties of small commercial producers in Campinas-SP, Brazil. Colony forming units (cfu of fluorescent pseudomonads and Bacillus spp. were counted by serial dilution and plating. The numbers of fluorescent pseudomonads were significantly higher in lettuce rhizosphere than in other plants, unlike the numbers of Bacillus spp.

  3. Isolation and partial characterization of a mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis producing melanin Isolamento e caracterização parcial de um mutante de Bacillus thuringiensis produtor de melanina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislayne T. Vilas-Bôas

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A mutant (407-P of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis strain 407 producing a melanin was obtained after treatment with the mutagenic agent ethyl-methane-sulfonate. Several microbiological and biochemical properties of the two strains were analyzed and the results were similar. The mutant 407-P was also incorporated into non-sterilized soil samples, recovered, easily identified, and quantified, what enables its use in ecology of B. thuringiensis.Um mutante (407-P da linhagem Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis 407 produtor de melanina foi obtido após tratamento com o agente mutagênico etil-metano-sulfonato. Diversas propriedades microbiológicas e bioquímicas das duas linhagens foram analisadas e os resultados foram similares. O mutante 407-P foi incorporado em amostras de solo não esterilizado, recuperado, facilmente identificado e quantificado, possibilitando seu uso em estudos de ecologia de B. thuringiensis.

  4. Evaluation of efficacy of preservatives associated with Achillea millefolium L. extract against Bacillus subtilis Avaliação da eficácia de conservantes associados a extrato de Achillea millefolium L. contra Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz E. Salvagnini

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial efficacy of three preservatives used in cosmetic formulations was evaluated. Phenova® and imidazolidinyl urea inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis when added to leaf extract of Achillea millefolium L., whereas 0.2% Nipagin®/ Nipasol® in propylene glycol did not.A eficácia antimicrobiana de conservantes empregados em formulações cosméticas foi avaliada usando Phenova® e Imidazolinidil uréia que inibiram o crescimento de Bacillus subtilis no extrato de Achillea millefolium L. e Nipagin®/ Nipasol® 0,2% em propilenoglicol não apresentaram efeito microbicida.

  5. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  6. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin).

  7. Bacillus cereus produtor de substâncias semelhantes a bacteriocinas (BLIS): isolamento, caracterização preliminar e aplicação de extrato semi-purificado contendo BLIS para inibição de Listeria monocytogenes em polpa de fruta

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Abigail Leite

    2012-01-01

    Mudanças nos hábitos alimentares dos consumidores têm aumentado a demanda por frutas frescas e polpas de frutas. Com isso, a busca por novos compostos com atividade antimicrobiana é de grande interesse, já que a aplicação de aditivos químicos convencionais em alimentos tem sido reavaliada devido à potencial toxicidade de alguns desses compostos. As bacteriocinas ou BLIS, produzidas por diferentes gêneros bacterianos, têm despertado grande interesse industrial para aplicação em alimentos em pr...

  8. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection.

  9. Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Preterm Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Waites, Ken B.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers o...

  10. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India Caracterização bioquímica e molecular de Bacillus pumilus isolado do ambiente costeiro de Cochin, Índia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammini Parvathi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR, antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus.As espécies de Bacillus constituem um grupo diversificado de bactérias amplamente distribuídas no solo e no ambiente aquático. Neste estudo, cepas de Bacillus isoladas do ambiente costeiro de Cochin, Índia, foram identificadas através de métodos bioquímicos convencionais, análise de ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos (FAME e sequenciamento de 16S rDNA. A análise dos dados revelou que Bacillus pumilus foi a espécie predominante na região estudada, seguido de B. cereus e B. sphaericus. Os isolados de B. pumilus foram caracterizados através da reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR, perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos e triagem por PCR de genes de toxinas associadas com Bacillus spp. Todos os isolados de B. pumilus foram bioquimicamente idênticos, apresentaram elevada atividade de protease e lipase e foram uniformemente sens

  11. Isolation, properties and kinetics of growth of a thermophilic Bacillus Isolamento, propriedades e cinética de crescimento de um Bacillus termofílico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Nunes de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A strictly aerobic, thermophilic, spore-forming bacteria was isolated from a soil sample collected in Campos dos Goytacazes City, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cells of this organism were Gram-positive, catalase positive, actively motile, 1.2 µm wide and 5.3 µm long. Growth occurred at pH values ranging from 6.5 to 9.0, and optimum growth occurred at about pH 7.0. The optimum temperature for growth was around 55ºC, and the upper temperature limit for growth was around 70ºC. Yeast extract stimulated growth on glucose and was obligately required at supraoptimal temperatures (65ºC. The results of 16S rRNA sequence comparisons indicated that the isolate was closely related to Bacillus caldoxylolyticus and Bacillus sp strain AK1, and these three organisms exhibited levels of ribossomal DNA sequence homology of 94%.Uma bactéria formadora de esporos, termofílica e aeróbica estrita foi isolada de amostras de solo coletadas na cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. As células deste organismo foram Gram-positivas, móveis e mediram 1,2 µm de largura e 5,3 µm de comprimento. O crescimento ocorreu a valores de pH variando de 6,5 a 9,0 e o crescimento ótimo ocorreu em torno de pH 7,0. A temperatura ótima de crescimento foi em torno de 55ºC e a máxima de 70ºC. O extrato de levedura estimulou o crescimento do organismo em glicose e foi obrigatoriamente requerido a supra-ótimas temperaturas (65ºC. Os resultados da comparação de seqüências de 16SrRNA indicaram que o isolado foi proximamente relacionado com o Bacillus caldoxylolyticus and Bacillus sp AK1 e estes três organismos exibiram níveis de homologia de 94% nas seqüências de DNA ribossomal

  12. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  13. Human Neutrophils Kill Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  14. Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  15. Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hurwitz, Robert; Brinkmann, Volker; Schmid, Monika; Jungblut, Peter; Weinrauch, Yvette; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2005-11-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  16. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  17. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  18. Diversity and applications of Bacillus bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Franz, Charles M A P; Ben Omar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Members of the genus Bacillus are known to produce a wide arsenal of antimicrobial substances, including peptide and lipopeptide antibiotics, and bacteriocins. Many of the Bacillus bacteriocins belong to the lantibiotics, a category of post-translationally modified peptides widely disseminated among different bacterial clades. Lantibiotics are among the best-characterized antimicrobial peptides at the levels of peptide structure, genetic determinants and biosynthesis mechanisms. Members of the genus Bacillus also produce many other nonmodified bacteriocins, some of which resemble the pediocin-like bacteriocins of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while others show completely novel peptide sequences. Bacillus bacteriocins are increasingly becoming more important due to their sometimes broader spectra of inhibition (as compared with most LAB bacteriocins), which may include Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts or fungi, in addition to Gram-positive species, some of which are known to be pathogenic to humans and/or animals. The present review provides a general overview of Bacillus bacteriocins, including primary structure, biochemical and genetic characterization, classification and potential applications in food preservation as natural preservatives and in human and animal health as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Furthermore, it addresses their environmental applications, such as bioprotection against the pre- and post-harvest decay of vegetables, or as plant growth promoters.

  19. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant <em>Eremosparton songoricuem>m>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dao-Yuan Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available <em>Eremosparton songoricum em>(Litv. Vass. (<em>E. songoricumem> is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various <em>E. songoricumem> plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions.<em> EsEFem> and <em>Esα-TUB> were sufficient for various stress conditions, <em>EsEF> and <em>EsACT> were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and <em>EsGAPDH>and <em>Es>UBQ em>were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The <em>Es18Sem> gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor <em>EsDREB2em>> em>verified the utility of<em> E. songoricumem> reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in <em>E. songoricumem>, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species.

  20. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  1. Controle de larvas de Aedes aegypti através da utilização de Bacillus thuringiensis em São Sebastião (DF, Brasil - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v10i2.1761

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Gomes Monnerat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue é uma doença grave, para a qual não existem medicamentos. O controle da doença, portanto, deve ser feito através da eliminação do seu vetor, o mosquito Aedes aegypti. A Embrapa em parceria com a Bthek Biotecnologia desenvolveu o produto Bt-horus SC capaz de controlar as larvas deste inseto. Este produto foi utilizado numa campanha de controle do A. aegypti em São Sebastião (DF, onde a população foi capacitada e participou ativamente do combate ao vetor.

  2. Controle de larvas de Aedes aegypti através da utilização de Bacillus thuringiensis em São Sebastião (DF), Brasil - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v10i2.1761

    OpenAIRE

    Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Anjos Santos, Mirian dos; Oliveira, Cristiane; Diretoria de Vigilância Ambiental/Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal; Cardoso, Cristina; Diretoria de Vigilância Ambiental/Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal; Lima, Luzia Helena Correa; Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; Praça, Lílian Botelho; Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; Martins, Érica Soares; Faculdades Integradas ICESP/Promove de Brasília; Dumas, Vinicius Fiúza; Universidade de Brasília – UnB; Queiroz, Paulo Roberto Martins; Centro Universitário de Brasília – Uniceub; Ramos, Felipe R. R.; Sujii, Edison; Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia

    2012-01-01

    Dengue é uma doença grave, para a qual não existem medicamentos. O controle da doença, portanto, deve ser feito através da eliminação do seu vetor, o mosquito Aedes aegypti. A Embrapa em parceria com a Bthek Biotecnologia desenvolveu o produto Bt-horus SC capaz de controlar as larvas deste inseto. Este produto foi utilizado numa campanha de controle do A. aegypti em São Sebastião (DF), onde a população foi capacitada e participou ativamente do combate ao vetor.

  3. Controle de larvas de Aedes aegypti através da utilização de Bacillus thuringiensis em São Sebastião (DF), Brasil - doi: 10.5102/ucs.v10i2.1761

    OpenAIRE

    Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Anjos Santos, Mirian dos; Oliveira, Cristiane; Diretoria de Vigilância Ambiental/Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal; Cardoso, Cristina; Diretoria de Vigilância Ambiental/Secretaria de Saúde do Distrito Federal; Lima, Luzia Helena Correa; Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; Praça, Lílian Botelho; Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia; Martins, Érica Soares; Faculdades Integradas ICESP/Promove de Brasília; Dumas, Vinicius Fiúza; Universidade de Brasília – UnB; Queiroz, Paulo Roberto Martins; Centro Universitário de Brasília – Uniceub; Ramos, Felipe R. R.; Sujii, Edison; Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia

    2012-01-01

    Dengue é uma doença grave, para a qual não existem medicamentos. O controle da doença, portanto, deve ser feito através da eliminação do seu vetor, o mosquito Aedes aegypti. A Embrapa em parceria com a Bthek Biotecnologia desenvolveu o produto Bt-horus SC capaz de controlar as larvas deste inseto. Este produto foi utilizado numa campanha de controle do A. aegypti em São Sebastião (DF), onde a população foi capacitada e participou ativamente do combate ao vetor.

  4. Properties of an amylase from thermophilic Bacillus SP. Propriedades de uma amilase de um termofílico Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Vieira de Carvalho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available alpha-Amylase production by thermophilic Bacillus sp strain SMIA-2 cultivated in liquid cultures containing soluble starch as a carbon source and supplemented with 0.05% whey protein and 0.2% peptone reached a maximum activity at 32 h, with levels of 37 U/mL. Studies on the amylase characterization revealed that the optimum temperature of this enzyme was 90ºC. The enzyme was stable for 1 h at temperatures ranging from 40-50ºC while at 90ºC, 66% of its maximum activity was lost. However, in the presence of 5 mM CaCl2, the enzyme was stable at 90ºC for 30 min and retained about 58% residual activity after 1 h. The optimum pH of the enzyme was found to be 8.5. After incubation of enzyme for 2 h at pH 9.5 and 11.0 was observed a decrease of about 6.3% and 16.5% of its original activity. At pH 6.0 the enzyme lost about 36% of its original activity. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Co2+, Cu2+ and Ba2+, but less affected by Mg2+, Na+ and K+. In the presence of 2.0 M NaCl, 63% of amylase activity was retained after 2 h incubation at 45ºC. The amylase exhibited more than 70% activity when incubated for 1 h at 50ºC with sodium dodecyl sulphate. However, very little residual activity was obtained with sodium hypochlorite and with hydrogen peroxide the enzyme was completely inhibited. The compatibility of Bacillus sp SMIA-2 amylase with certain commercial detergents was shown to be good as the enzyme retained 86%, 85% and 75% of its activity after 20 min incubation at 50ºC in the presence of the detergent brands Omo®, Campeiro® and Tide®, respectively.A produção de alfa-amilase por um termofilico, Bacillus sp SMIA-2, cultivado em meio líquido contendo amido solúvel como fonte de carbono, alcançou uma atividade máxima de 37 U/mL em 32 horas. Estudos sobre a caracterização da amilase revelaram que a temperatura ótima desta enzima foi 90ºC. A enzima foi estável por 1 hora a temperaturas de 40 e 50ºC enquanto a 90ºC, 66% da atividade

  5. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Aiko Shirakawa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS, as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials.

  6. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C; John, Vanderley M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials.

  7. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C.; John, Vanderley M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials. PMID:24031661

  8. The supercoiling of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Neil H.

    2003-03-01

    Cylindrical shaped cells of Bacillus subtilis (0.7 X 4 mm) grow with twist and when prevented from separating at cell division form long filaments that writhe and supercoil to produce plectonemic fibers. By repetition macrofibers arise consisting of structures mm in length with loops at both ends of a twisted shaft. The entire structure is topologically a single filament. All the cells in a macrofiber also grow with twist consequently as a fiber elongates its loop ends rotate about the axis of the fiber shaft in opposite directions relative to one another. This holds for both right and left-handed structures, with any degree of twist. Although the individual cells grow with constant twist, the rate of loop rotation increases as a function of fiber length. Theory suggests that there is a gradient of rotation rates along the length of a fiber ranging from maxima at the loop ends to zero at the center of its length. In fibers prevented from rotating at one end the rotation rate gradient ranges from zero at the blocked end to maximum at the free end as shown here. When loop rotation at both ends is blocked fibers supercoil and their loop ends move toward one another. Newly designed force gauges were used to measure the tension engendered by supercoiling of such fibers. The findings illustrate a micromachine -like behavior of macrofibers, powered by cell growth, twisting and supercoiling. Biological functions of the micromachine such as self-assembly, translational motions over solid surfaces, and the dragging objects over surfaces appear to utilize only a small fraction of the total power available from the macrofiber micromachine. Collaborators: J.J. Thwaites, P. Shipman, D. Roy, and L. Cheng.

  9. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.

  10. Bacillus cereus as a nongastrointestinal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Bacillus cereus to cause systemic infections is of serious concern. Apart from Gastrointestinal infections, it causes respiratory tract infections, nosocomial infections, eye infections, CNS infections, cutaneous infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and urinary tract infections. The potential of this bacterium to cause life threatening infections has increased. Trauma is an important predisposing factor for Bacillus cereus infections. The maintenance of skin and mucous membrane integrity limits infection by this micro-organism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 28-30

  11. Enterotoxin Production in Natural Isolates of Bacillaceae outside the Bacillus cereus Group

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Rebecca J.; McKillip, John L.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine Bacillus strains obtained from a variety of environmental and food sources were screened by PCR for the presence of five gene targets (hblC, hblD, hblA, nheA, and nheB) in two enterotoxin operons (HBL and NHE) traditionally harbored by Bacillus cereus. Seven isolates exhibited a positive signal for at least three of the five possible targets, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentimorbis, Bacillus pasteurii, and Bacillus thuringiensis su...

  12. Comparative analysis of two-component signal transduction systems of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, de M.W.H.J.; Francke, C.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group are ubiquitously present in the environment and can adapt to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. In bacteria, these adaptive responses are generally mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), which consist of a histidine kinase (HK) and

  13. Comparative analysis of two-component signal transduction systems of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, M.W.H.J. de; Francke, C.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group are ubiquitously present in the environment and can adapt to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. In bacteria, these adaptive responses are generally mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), which consist of a histidine kinase (HK) and

  14. Sinergismo Bacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Paenibacillus na simbiose Bradyrhizobium-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Suêldo Tavares de Lima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O feijão-caupi Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp. é a principal cultura de subsistência do semiárido brasileiro, sendo fonte de proteínas de baixo custo, notadamente, para populações carentes. A produção dessa cultura no Nordeste é baixa devido à não utilização de insumos agrícolas - entre eles, o fertilizante nitrogenado. Por outro lado, bactérias promotoras de crescimento em plantas (BPCPs vêm sendo estudadas, de forma a maximizar a fixação de N2, disponibilizar nutrientes como P ou fito-hormônios e inibir doenças. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram verificar a viabilidade da coinoculação das sementes de feijão-caupi usando Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus e, ou, Bacillus e Bradyrhizobium-caupi; caracterizar as estirpes quanto à produção de ácido indol acético (AIA e solubilização de fosfato; e avaliar o sinergismo entre os microrganismos como alternativa para otimizar a FBN. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em laboratório e em casa de vegetação do Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco (IPA, utilizando o feijão-caupi cv. "IPA - 206". As estirpes utilizadas foram: Bacillus sp. - 449, 450, 451, 461 e ANBE 31; B. cereus - 440; B. subtilis - 438, 441, 454, 455 e 459; B. pumilus - 444, 445 e 448; B. megaterium - 462; Brevibacillus brevis - 447; Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24, 172 e 177; P. graminis - MC 04.21, MC 22.13 e BR 60106; P. polymyxa - S21; e P. durus - RBN4. Os microrganismos não apresentaram capacidade para produzir AIA nem solubilizar fosfato. Ocorreu sinergismo das estirpes de Bacillus sp. (449 e Bacillus pumilus (444 coinoculadas com a estirpe de Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 no feijão-caupi.

  15. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of Cd (II Complex with <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine

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    Xishi Tai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trinuclear Cd (II complex [Cd3(L6(2,2-bipyridine3] [L =<em> Nem>-phenylsulfonyl-L>-leucinato] has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The results show that the complex belongs to the orthorhombic, space group<em> Pem>212121 with<em> aem> = 16.877(3 Å, <em>b> em>= 22.875(5 Å, <em>c em>= 29.495(6 Å, <em>α> em>= <emem>= <emem>= 90°, <em>V> em>= 11387(4 Å3, <em>Z> em>= 4, <em>Dc>= 1.416 μg·m−3, <emem>= 0.737 mm−1, <em>F> em>(000 = 4992, and final <em>R>1 = 0.0390, <em>ωR>2 = 0.0989. The complex comprises two seven-coordinated Cd (II atoms, with a N2O5 distorted pengonal bipyramidal coordination environment and a six-coordinated Cd (II atom, with a N2O4 distorted octahedral coordination environment. The molecules form one dimensional chain structure by the interaction of bridged carboxylato groups, hydrogen bonds and p-p interaction of 2,2-bipyridine. The luminescent properties of the Cd (II complex and <em>N-Benzenesulphonyl-L>-leucine in solid and in CH3OH solution also have been investigated.

  16. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  17. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens COMO POTENCIAL BIOCONSERVANTE DE ALIMENTOS: DETERMINAÇÃO DO PERFIL DE PROTEÍNAS E AMINOGRAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SCHULZ

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliou-se o perfil de proteínas em gel de poliacrilamida e o aminograma do extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. O extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens foi obtido por precipitação, centrifugação, diálise e esterilização por filtração. Como microrganismo indicador foi utilizado Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 098630 a 105 UFC/mL. Na determinação da composição global de aminoácidos em eletroforese SDS (10%/PAGE (7,5 a 20% foram constatadas seis bandas com pesos moleculares aparentes de: 14,8; 20; 29; 30; 34 e 56,2 kDa e composto principalmente de aminoácidos hidrofóbicos (não polares, incluindo a prolina (446,77 ppm, leucina (11,03 ppm, valina (6,27 ppm, isoleucina (4,59 ppm, alanina (2,91 ppm e glicina (1,87 ppm. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que o extrato bruto de Bacillus amyloliquefaciens é composto principalmente de proteases e outras enzimas bacteriolíticas.

  18. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, D.; Heitefuss, S; Seifert, H S

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus anthracis and seven strains of Bacillus cereus were grown on complex medium and on synthetic medium. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acids of strains grown on complex medium gave nearly identical fatty acid patterns. Fatty acid patterns of strains grown on synthetic medium showed a high content of branched-chain fatty acids. Significant differences between the fatty acid patterns of the two species were found. Odd iso/anteiso fatty acid ratios were a...

  19. High Production of Thermostable β-Galactosidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    By cloning the β-galactosidase gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM11001 (ATCC 8005) into Bacillus subtilis, enzyme production was enhanced 50 times. β-Galactosidase could be purified to 80% homogeneity by incubating the cell extract of B. subtilis at 70°C for 15 min, followed by centrifugation to remove the denatured proteins. Because of its heat stability and ease of production, β-galactosidase is suitable for application in industrial processes.

  20. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  1. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...

  2. Type I signal peptidases of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalsma, Harold; Bolhuis, Albert; Bron, Sierd; Jongbloed, Jan; Meijer, Wilfried J.J.; Noback, Michiel; van Roosmalen, Maarten; Venema, Gerhardus; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hopsu Havu, VK; Jarvinen, M; Kirschke, H

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains at least three chromosomally-encoded type I signal peptidases (SPases; SipS, SipT, and SipU), which remove signal peptides from secretory proteins. In addition, certain B. subtilis (natto) strains contain plasmid-encoded type I SPases (SipP). The known type I SPases from

  3. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  4. Complete Genome of Bacillus subtilis Myophage Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Stanton Y.; Colquhoun, Jennifer M.; Perl, Abbey L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous Gram-positive model organism. Here, we describe the complete genome of B. subtilus myophage Grass. Aside from genes encoding core proteins pertinent to the life cycle of the phage, Grass has several interesting features, including an FtsK/SpoIIIE protein.

  5. Complete Genome of Bacillus thuringiensis Myophage Spock

    OpenAIRE

    Maroun, Justin W.; Whitcher, Kelvin J.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, sporulating soil microbe with valuable pesticide-producing properties. The study of bacteriophages of B. thuringiensis could provide new biotechnological tools for the use of this bacterium. Here, we present the complete annotated genome of Spock, a myophage of B. thuringiensis, and describe its features.

  6. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pookie

    OpenAIRE

    Ladzekpo, Tsonyake N.; DeCrescenzo, Andrew J.; Hernandez, Adriana C.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage Pookie is a novel podophage, isolated from soil, which infects Bacillus megaterium. B. megaterium is an important host for large-scale recombinant protein production. Here, we present the complete genome of phage Pookie and describe its core features.

  7. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  8. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis: source of the organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, D; Tuazon, C U; Levy, C; Curtin, J

    1982-01-01

    Serious infections with the "nonpathogenic" Bacillus species are increasingly being recognized, especially in drug abusers. Cases of panophthalmitis secondary to infection with Bacillus cereus, with and without associated bacteremia, have been reported. Three drug abusers with panophthalmitis seen in our hospitals during a three-year period are described, and the similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. The syndrome is characterized by an acute onset with a rapid fulminating course that eventually leads to enucleation or evisceration of the eye. The pathogenic mechanism is unknown, but is probably related to the production of toxin (lecithinase) by B. cereus. Clindamycin appears to be the antibiotic of choice in the treatment of this infection. In order to identify a possible source of the organism, 59 samples of heroin and injection paraphernalia were cultured. Twenty cultures yielded organisms; Bacillus species were the predominant isolates. Thirty-eight percent of the isolates were identified as B. cereus. Thus, infections caused by Bacillus species in drug abusers can probably be associated with intravenous heroin abuse because heroin mixtures and injection paraphernalia are frequently contaminated with this organism.

  9. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A n

  10. Controle em pós-colheita de Penicillium digitatum EM laranja-pera com microrganismos e tratamento térmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Forner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O mercado consumidor está exigindo alimentos sem a presença de resíduos de agrotóxicos. Assim, o trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o controle do bolor verde, em laranjas-Pera, com agentes de biocontrole (Bacillus subtilis e Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis (QST 713, associados ou não ao tratamento térmico. Para tanto, os frutos foram adquiridos em "packinghouse" antes do processamento, sendo lavados e desinfestados com hipoclorito de sódio. Os frutos submetidos a esses tratamentos foram armazenados, por 11 a 28 dias, em temperatura de 10 ºC e UR 90%±5 ou por oito dias a 20 ºC e UR 90%±5. De modo geral, o tratamento térmico reduziu a severidade da doença determinada pela área abaixo da curva do progresso da doença nos frutos e a incidência natural de doenças em pós-colheita de laranja-Pera. Por outro lado, os agentes de biocontrole não controlaram a doença, mostrando que os organismos testados não apresentaram atividade curativa contra o bolor verde.

  11. Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov., isolated from pebbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (>5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26 ± 1 % and 34 ± 3 %, respectively. Based on taxonomic data obtained using a polyphasic approach, strain JC267T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC267T ( = IBRC-M 10914T = KCTC 33579T).

  12. <em>α>-Glucosidase Inhibitory Constituents from <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harm Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Xue Kuang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new triterpene glycoside, 3-<em>O-[(α>-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→2]-[<em>β>-D-glucuronopyranosyl-6-<em>O>-methyl ester]-olean-12-ene-28-olic acid (1 and a new indole alkaloid, 5-methoxy-2-oxoindolin-3-acetic acid methyl ester (5 were isolated from the leaves of <em>Acanthopanax senticosusem> Harms along with six known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by means of 2D-NMR experiments and chemical methods. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their glycosidase inhibition activities and compound 6 showed significant <em>α>-glucosidase inhibition activity.

  13. Investigation of biosurfactant production by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shila khajavi shojaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are unique amphipathic molecules with extensive application in removing organic and metal contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate production of biosurfactant and determine optimal conditions to produce biosurfactant by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI. Materials and methods: In this study, effect of carbon source, temperature and incubation time on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil spreading, drop collapse, cell hydrophobicity and measurement of surface tension were used to detect biosurfactant production. Then, according to the results, the optimal conditions for biosurfactant production by and Bacillus subtilis WPI was determined. Results: In this study, both bacteria were able to produce biosurfactant at an acceptable level. Glucose, kerosene, sugarcane molasses and phenanthrene used as a sole carbon source and energy for the mentioned bacteria. Bacillus subtilis WPI produced maximum biosurfactant in the medium containing kerosene and reduced surface tension of the medium to 33.1 mN/m after 156 hours of the cultivation at 37°C. Also, the highest surface tension reduction by Bacillus pumilus 1529 occurred in the medium containing sugarcane molasses and reduce the surface tension of culture medium after 156 hours at 37°C from 50.4 to 28.83 mN/m. Discussion and conclusion: Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI had high potential in production of biosurfactant and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and Phenanthrene. Therefore, it could be said that these bacteria had a great potential for applications in bioremediation and other environmental process.

  14. Molecular identification and safety of Bacillus species involved in the fermentation of African oil beans (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) for production of Ugba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Anyogu, A; Njoku, O H; Odu, N N; Sutherland, J P; Ouoba, L I I

    2013-03-01

    Molecular identification of Bacillus spp. involved in the fermentation of African oil bean seeds for production of Ugba, as well as ability of the Bacillus spp. isolated to produce toxins, were investigated. Forty-nine bacteria were isolated from Ugba produced in different areas of South Eastern Nigeria and identified by phenotyping and sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoB genes. Genotypic diversities at interspecies and intraspecies level of the isolates were screened by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR). The ability of the bacteria to produce toxins was also investigated by detection of genes encoding production of haemolysin BL (HblA, HblC, HblD), non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC), cytotoxin K (CytK) and emetic toxin (EM1) using PCR with specific primers. Moreover, a Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCET-RPLA) was used to screen ability of the isolates to produce haemolysin in broth and during fermentation of African oil bean seeds. The isolates were characterized as motile, rod-shaped, endospore forming, catalase positive, Gram-positive bacteria. They were identified as Bacillus cereus sensu lato (42), Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus (3), Bacillus clausii (1), Bacillus licheniformis (1), Bacillus subtilis (1), and Bacillus safensis (1). B. cereus was the predominant Bacillus species and was present in all samples studied. Using ITS-PCR, interspecies diversity was observed among isolates, with six clusters representing each of the pre-cited species. Rep-PCR was more discriminatory (eight clusters) and allowed further differentiation at intraspecies level for the B. cereus and L. xylanilyticus isolates with two genotypes for each species. Genes encoding production of non-haemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and cytotoxin K (CytK) genes were detected in all B. cereus isolates, while Hbl genes (HblA, HblC, HblD) were

  15. Genetic diversity among Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains using repetitive element polymorphism-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumlik, Michael J; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Zakowska, Dorota; Liang, Xudong; Spalletta, Ronald A; Patra, Guy; Delvecchio, Vito G

    2004-01-01

    Repetitive element polymorphism-PCR (REP-PCR) is one of the tools that has been used to elucidate genetic diversity of related microorganisms. Using the MB1 primer, REP-PCR fingerprints from 110 Bacillus strains within the "B. cereus group" have identified eighteen distinct categories, while other more distantly related bacterial species fell within six additional categories. All Bacillus anthracis strains tested were found to be monomorphic by fluorophore-enhanced REP-PCR (FERP) fingerprinting using the MB1 primer. In contrast, other non- B. anthracis isolates displayed a high degree of polymorphism. Dendrogramic analysis revealed that the non- B. anthracis strains possessing the Ba813 chromosomal marker were divided into two clusters. One of the clusters shared identity with the B. cereus strains examined.

  16. Resistance to antimicrobials and acid and bile tolerance of Bacillus spp isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, Clarisse S.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Diawara, Brehima

    2013-01-01

    In the aim of selecting starter cultures, thirteen species of Bacillus spp. including six Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, four Bacillus licheniformis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum isolated from traditional Bikalga were investigated. The study included, for all isolates, gen...

  17. Studies on the stability of protease from Bacillus sp. and its compatibility with commercial detergent Estudos sobre a estabilidade de uma protease de Bacillus sp. e sua compatibilidade com detergentes comerciais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellingta Cristina Almeida do Nascimento

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes, and particularly proteases, have become an important and indispensable part of industrial processes such as laundry detergents, pharmaceuticals and food products. Detergents such as Tide®, Ariel® and Biz® contain proteolytic enzymes, most of them produced by members of the genus Bacillus. This paper describes the compatibility of protease produced by the thermophilic Bacillus sp, with commercial laundry detergent. Stability studies indicated that this enzyme retained about 95% and 74% of its maximum activity after 1h at 60ºC in the presence of glycine in combination with MnSO4 and CaCl2, respectively. No inhibitory effect was observed at 1.0-5.0 mM of EDTA. Triton X-100 inhibited the enzyme in all the concentrations tested. The enzyme was unstable in a 5% (v/v concentration of peroxide solution. The protease retained more than 80% and 65% of its activity after 30 min incubation at 60ºC in the presence of Tide® and Cheer® detergents, respectively. After supplementation of CaCl2 (10 mM and glycine (1 mM, the enzyme in Tide® detergent retained more than 85% of its activity after 1h. Based on these findings, Bacillus sp. protease shows a good potential for application in laundry detergents.As enzimas, principalmente as proteases, têm uma participação importante e indispensável em muitos processos industriais tais como na indústria farmacêutica, de alimentos e de detergentes. Alguns detergentes como Tide®, Ariel® e Biz® contem enzimas proteolíticas em sua formulação, sendo a maioria produzida por bactérias do gênero Bacillus sp. Neste artigo, foi avaliada a compatibilidade de uma protease produzida por um microrganismo termofílico, Bacillus sp., com alguns detergentes comerciais. Estudos sobre a estabilidade mostraram que a enzima reteve cerca de 95% e 74% de sua máxima atividade após 1h a 60ºC na presença de glicina em combinação com MnSO4 e CaCl2 respectivamente. A enzima não foi inibida em presença de 1

  18. Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov., a round-spore-forming bacillus isolated from the Mars Odyssey spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Duc, Myron T.; Satomi, Masataka; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2004-01-01

    A round-spore-forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium was isolated from the surface of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and is a Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, endospore-forming eubacterium. Ultrathin sections of the spores showed the presence of an exosporium, spore coat, cortex and core. 16S rDNA sequence similarities between this strain, Bacillus fusiformis and Bacillus silvestris were approximately 96% and DNA-DNA reassociation values with these two bacilli were 23 and 17%, respectively. Spores of the novel species were resistant to desiccation, H2O2 and UV and gamma radiation. Of all strains tested, the spores of this strain were the most consistently resistant and survived all of the challenges posed, i.e. exposure to conditions of desiccation (100% survival), H2O2 (26% survival), UV radiation (10% survival at 660 J m(-2)) and gamma radiation (0.4% survival). The name proposed for this novel bacterium is Bacillus odysseyi sp. nov.; the type strain is 34hs-1T (=ATCC PTA-4993T=NRRL B-30641T=NBRC 100172T).

  19. Three New Myrsinol Diterpenes from <em>Euphorbia proliferaem> and Their Neuroprotective Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanqiang Guo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new myrsinol diterpenes were isolated from the roots of<em> em>>Euphorbia proliferaem>. Their structures were elucidated as 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-14<em>α-O>-benzoyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (1, 2<em>α-O>-isobutyryl-3<em>β-O>-propion-yl-5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-tetra-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (2, and 2<em>α>,14<em>α-di-O>-benzoyl-3<em>β>,5<em>α>,7<em>β>,10,15<em>β-penta-O>-acetyl-10,18-dihydromyrsinol (3 on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR. Their neuroprotective activities were evaluated and compounds 1 and 2 showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  20. Mutations determining mitomycin resistance in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, V N

    1966-12-01

    Iyer, V. N. (Microbiology Research Institute, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada). Mutations determining mitomycin resistance in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1663-1669. 1966.-The pattern of development of genetic resistance in Bacillus subtilis to mitomycin C was studied, and spontaneous single and multistep mutants were obtained. The transmission and expression of these mutations in sensitive strains proved possible by means of genetic transformation. The mutations were genetically studied in relation to a chromosomal mutation, mac-1, which confers resistance to the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin and which has been previously localized in the early-replicating segment of the B. subtilis chromosome. The results indicate that all of three primary mutations studied in this manner, as well as a secondary and tertiary mutation derived from one of the primary mutations, are clustered in this early-replicating segment. It appears that the secondary and tertiary mutations enhance the resistance conferred by the primary mutation, apparently without themselves conferring any resistance.

  1. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  2. Induced calcium carbonate precipitation using Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifan, Mostafa; Samani, Ali Khajeh; Berenjian, Aydin

    2016-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is an emerging process for the production of self-healing concrete. This study was aimed to investigate the effects and optimum conditions on calcium carbonate biosynthesis. Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sphaericus, yeast extract, urea, calcium chloride and aeration were found to be the most significant factors affecting the biomineralization of calcium carbonate. It was noticed that the morphology of microbial calcium carbonate was mainly affected by the genera of bacteria (cell surface properties), the viscosity of the media and the type of electron acceptors (Ca(2+)). The maximum calcium carbonate concentration of 33.78 g/L was achieved at the optimum conditions This value is the highest concentration reported in the literature.

  3. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54...

  4. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Special Feature: Remediation Transport of Bacillus Thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites Sheila Van Cuyk, Lee Ann B. Veal, Beverley Simpson, and...evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as...used is a water-based slurry containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). This bacterium produces a toxin that is lethal to gypsy moth

  5. Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R; Mueller, A; Wehler, M; Neureiter, D; Fischer, E; Gramatzki, M; Hahn, E G

    2001-09-01

    We present a case of a rapidly progressive pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in a 52-year-old woman with severe aplastic anemia. Bacillus cereus was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, blood cultures, and pseudomembrane biopsy specimens; despite intensive antibiotic treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a B. cereus infection that has caused pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, possibly because of the production of bacterial toxins.

  6. Bacillus cereus Biofilms—Same, Only Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins that target nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Jun-Zhi; Hale, Kristina; Carta, Lynn; Platzer, Edward; Wong, Cynthie; Fang, Su-Chiung; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins are pore-forming toxins used as insecticides around the world. Previously, the extent to which these proteins might also target the invertebrate phylum Nematoda has been mostly ignored. We have expressed seven different crystal toxin proteins from two largely unstudied Bt crystal protein subfamilies. By assaying their toxicity on diverse free-living nematode species, we demonstrate that four of these crystal proteins are active against multiple nem...

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D H

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and o...

  9. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Matseliukh; N. A. Nidialkova; V. V. Krout'; L. D. Varbanets; A. V. Kalinichenko; V. F. Patyka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kh...

  10. Disinfection of Vegetative Cells of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    and the fate of vegetative cells resulting from augmented germination . In this study, data were generated on the inactivation of vegetative B...all the dilutions. First, a solution of 1000 mg chlorine solution was prepared in two steps . Sodium hypochlorite solution was diluted 1:5, and then 1... Germinant -Enhanced Decontamination of Bacillus Spores Adhered to Iron and Cement-Mortar Drinking Water Infrastructures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2012, 78

  11. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    Full Text Available Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  12. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  13. BACILLUS CEREUS: ISOLATION IN JENNET MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Scatassa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jennet milk as human food is hypoallergenic for patients affected by Cow Milk Protein Allergy and multiple food allergies. For these pathologies, jennet milk represents the best alternative to other types of milk. Therefore, jennet milk consumers are very sensible to the effects of pathogens' contaminations, and several hygienic practices during the milk production need to be adopted. During regular monitoring in one Sicilian jennet farm, Bacillus cereus in the milk was detected. In 3 bulk milk samples (maximum concentration: 1.2 x 103 ufc/ml, in 3 individual milk samples (10, 20 e 60 ufc/ml, in the milk filter (5 ufc/cm2, in the soil (maximum concentration: 1.5 x 103 ufc/g, on the hands and the gloves of two milkers, on the animal hide (from 1 to 3 ufc/cm2. No spores were detected. A total of 8 Bacillus cereus s.s. strains were analyzed for diarrhoic toxin, and 6 strains producing enterotoxins resulted. The improvement of environmental and milking hygienic conditions reduced Bacillus cereus concentration.

  14. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  15. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman-Igra, Y; Lavochkin, J; Schwartz, D; Konforti, N

    1983-06-01

    A patient with meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus is described. The patient had transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for chromophobe adenoma, complicated by rhinorrhea, which was corrected by subarachnoid drainage. Three weeks after removal of the drain, the patient presented with meningitis and died the following day. The causative organism was identified as B. cereus. The literature on Bacillus infections is reviewed with special attention to severe infections. A modified classification is proposed, dividing infections into superficial, closed-space and systemic ones. Sixty-one previously reported cases of systemic Bacillus infections are reviewed according to type of infection (endocarditis, meningitis or pulmonary infection), and the underlying conditions, ways of acquiring the infection, clinical picture and mortality are discussed.

  16. Neonatal Phosphate Nutrition Alters <em>in em>Vivo> and <em>in em>Vitro> Satellite Cell Activity in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad H. Stahl

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite cell activity is necessary for postnatal skeletal muscle growth. Severe phosphate (PO4 deficiency can alter satellite cell activity, however the role of neonatal PO4 nutrition on satellite cell biology remains obscure. Twenty-one piglets (1 day of age, 1.8 ± 0.2 kg BW were pair-fed liquid diets that were either PO4 adequate (0.9% total P, supra-adequate (1.2% total P in PO4 requirement or deficient (0.7% total P in PO4 content for 12 days. Body weight was recorded daily and blood samples collected every 6 days. At day 12, pigs were orally dosed with BrdU and 12 h later, satellite cells were isolated. Satellite cells were also cultured <em>in vitroem> for 7 days to determine if PO4 nutrition alters their ability to proceed through their myogenic lineage. Dietary PO4 deficiency resulted in reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 sera PO4 and parathyroid hormone (PTH concentrations, while supra-adequate dietary PO4 improved (<em>P> < 0.05 feed conversion efficiency as compared to the PO4 adequate group. <em>In vivoem> satellite cell proliferation was reduced (<em>P> < 0.05 among the PO4 deficient pigs, and these cells had altered <em>in vitroem> expression of markers of myogenic progression. Further work to better understand early nutritional programming of satellite cells and the potential benefits of emphasizing early PO4 nutrition for future lean growth potential is warranted.

  17. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Andersen, Sigrid R

    2005-01-01

    Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eat food products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains...... had at least one gene or component involved in human diarrhoeal disease, while emetic toxin was related to only one B. cereus strain. A new observation was that 31 out of the 40 randomly selected B. cereus-like strains could be classified as Bacillus thuringiensis due to crystal production and...

  18. Bacillus luteus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-05-01

    Two bacterial strains (JC167T and JC168) were isolated from a soil sample collected from Mandpam, Tamilnadu, India. Colonies of both strains were orange and cells Gram-stain-positive. Cells were small rods, and formed terminal endospores of ellipsoidal to oval shape. Both strains were positive for catalase, oxidase and hydrolysis of starch/gelatin, and negative for chitin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production and nitrate reduction activity. Major fatty acids of both strains (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:0 with minor (1%) amounts of iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0 B/iso-C17:0 I and C16:1ω11c. Diphosphatydilglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids of both strains. Cell wall amino acids were L-alanine, D-alanine, D-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. β-Carotene and five unidentified carotenoids were present in both strains. Mean genomic DNA G+C content was 53.4±1 mol% and the two strains were closely related (mean DNA-DNA hybridization>90%). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons of both strains indicated that they represent species of the genus Bacillus within the family Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes. Both strains had a sequence similarity of 97.6% with Bacillus saliphilus 6AGT and Bacillus. Sequence similarity between strain JC167T and 168 was 100%. Strain JC167T showed 25.8±1% reassociation (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with B. saliphilus DSM 15402T (=6AGT). Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC167T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC167T (=KCTC 33100T=LMG 27257T).

  19. Constituents from <em>Vigna em>vexillata> and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of <em>Vigna em>genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of<em> V. vexillata em>demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of <em>V. vexillataem>. One new sterol (1 and two new isoflavones (2,3 were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23, abscisic acid (25, and quercetin (40 displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release.

  20. Consequences for <em>Protaphorura armataem> (Collembola: Onychiuridae) following exposure to genetically modified <em>Bacillus thuringiensisem> (<em>Bt>) maize and non-<em>Bt> maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckmann, L.-H.; Griffiths, B. S.; Caul, S.

    2006-01-01

    armata. For comparison three non-Bt maize varieties, Rivaldo (isogenic to Cascade), Monumental (isogenic to MEB307) and DK242, and two control diets based on baker's yeast (uncontaminated and contaminated with Bt toxin Cry1Ab) were also tested. Due to a lower C:N ratio, individuals reared on yeast...

  1. Emetic toxin-producing strains of Bacillus cereus show distinct characteristics within the Bacillus cereus group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlin, Frédéric; Fricker, Martina; Pielaat, Annemarie; Heisterkamp, Simon; Shaheen, Ranad; Salonen, Mirja Salkinoja; Svensson, Birgitta; Nguyen-the, Christophe; Ehling-Schulz, Monika

    2006-01-01

    One hundred representative strains of Bacillus cereus were selected from a total collection of 372 B. cereus strains using two typing methods (RAPD and FT-IR) to investigate if emetic toxin-producing hazardous B. cereus strains possess characteristic growth and heat resistance profiles. The strains

  2. Nano-Mechanical Properties of Heat Inactivated Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    olecule Force Microscopy.” Langmuir. 4 1-4081 ( 02). A-Hassan, Emad, Willi m F. Heinz, Matthew D. Antonik, Neill P. D’Costa, Soni e a-Ann... Alexander J. Malkin. “Archit he High-Resolution Architecture and Structural Dynamics of Bacillus Spores.” Biophysical Journal. 88: Plomp, Marco

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus tequilensis Strain FJAT-14262a

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qian-Qian; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-hong; Wang, Jie-ping; Che, Jian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus tequilensis FJAT-14262a is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Here, we report the 4,038,551-bp genome sequence of B. tequilensis FJAT-14262a, which will provide useful information for genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus tequilensis Strain FJAT-14262a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian-Qian; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Wang, Jie-Ping; Che, Jian-Mei

    2015-11-12

    Bacillus tequilensis FJAT-14262a is a Gram-positive rod-shaped bacterium. Here, we report the 4,038,551-bp genome sequence of B. tequilensis FJAT-14262a, which will provide useful information for genomic taxonomy and phylogenomics of Bacillus.

  5. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esther Diomande

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The large bacterial genus genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbour pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Siphophage Silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Jonathan A; Farmer, Nicholas G; Cahill, Jesse L; Rasche, Eric S; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-10-08

    Silence is a newly isolated siphophage that infects Bacillus megaterium, a soil bacterium that is used readily in research and commercial applications. A study of B. megaterium phage Silence will enhance our knowledge of the diversity of Bacillus phages. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence and annotated features of Silence. Copyright © 2015 Solis et al.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Siphophage Silence

    OpenAIRE

    Solis, Jonathan A.; Farmer, Nicholas G.; Cahill, Jesse L.; Rasche, Eric S.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Silence is a newly isolated siphophage that infects Bacillus megaterium, a soil bacterium that is used readily in research and commercial applications. A study of B. megaterium phage Silence will enhance our knowledge of the diversity of Bacillus phages. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence and annotated features of Silence.

  8. Quantitative immunofluorescence studies of the serology of Bacillus anthracis spores.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    A fluorescein-conjugated antibody against formalin-inactivated spores of Bacillus anthracis Vollum reacted only weakly with a variety of Bacillus species in microfluorometric immunofluorescence assays. A conjugated antibody against spores of B. anthracis Sterne showed little affinity for spores of several B. anthracis isolates including B. anthracis Vollum, indicating that more than one anthrax spore serotype exists.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage Smudge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Jessica L; Breslin, Eileen; Schuhmacher, Zachary; Himelright, Madison; Berluti, Cassandra; Boyd, Charles; Carson, Rachel; Del Gallo, Elle; Giessler, Caris; Gilliam, Benjamin; Heatherly, Catherine; Nevin, Julius; Nguyen, Bryan; Nguyen, Justin; Parada, Jocelyn; Sutterfield, Blake; Tukruni, Muruj; Temple, Louise

    2016-08-18

    Smudge, a bacteriophage enriched from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis DSM-350 as the host, had its complete genome sequenced. Smudge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 292 genes and was identified as belonging to the C1 cluster of Bacillus phages.

  10. Non-peptide metabolites from the genus Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdache, Ahlem; Lamarti, Ahmed; Aleu, Josefina; Collado, Isidro G

    2011-04-25

    Bacillus species produce a number of non-peptide metabolites that display a broad spectrum of activity and structurally diverse bioactive chemical structures. Biosynthetic, biological, and structural studies of these metabolites isolated from Bacillus species are reviewed. This contribution also includes a detailed study of the activity of the metabolites described, especially their role in biological control mechanisms.

  11. Transformation of undomesticated strains of Bacillus subtilis by protoplast electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego; Pérez-García, Alejandro; Veening, Jan-Willem; de Vicente, Antonio; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2006-09-01

    A rapid method combining the use of protoplasts and electroporation was developed to transform recalcitrant wild strains of Bacillus subtilis. The method described here allows transformation with both replicative and integrative plasmids, as well as with chromosomal DNA, and provides a valuable tool for molecular genetic analysis of interesting Bacillus strains, which are hard to transform by conventional methods.

  12. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis1 Katherine C. Brittingham,* Gordon Ruthel,* Rekha G...germination and dissemination of spores. Found in high frequency throughout the respiratory track, dendritic cells (DCs) routinely take up foreign...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dendritic cells endocytose Bacillus anthracis spores: implications for anthrax pathogenesis, The Journal of

  13. Intractable Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Anna B; Razak, Eissa A S A; Razak, Emad E M H; Al-Naqeeb, Niran; Dhar, Rita

    2007-04-01

    Although often regarded as a contaminant, Bacillus spp. have been implicated in serious systemic infections. The incidence of such infections is low with only a few cases reported in the literature. We describe the clinical course of early-onset Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin.

  14. The Antimicrobial Efficacy of <em>Elaeis guineensisem>: Characterization, <em>in Vitroem> and <em>in Vivoem> Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The urgent need to treat multi-drug resistant pathogenic microorganisms in chronically infected patients has given rise to the development of new antimicrobials from natural resources. We have tested <em>Elaeis guineensis em>Jacq> em>(Arecaceae methanol extract against a variety of bacterial, fungal and yeast strains associated with infections. Our studies have demonstrated that <em>E. guineensisem> exhibits excellent antimicrobial activity <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivoem> against the bacterial and fungal strains tested. A marked inhibitory effect of the <em>E. guineensisem> extracts was observed against <em>C. albicansem> whereby <em>E. guineensisem> extract at ½, 1, or 2 times the MIC significantly inhibited <em>C. albicansem> growth with a noticeable drop in optical density (OD of the bacterial culture. This finding confirmed the anticandidal activity of the extract on <em>C. albicansem>. Imaging using scanning (SEM and transmission (TEM electron microscopy was done to determine the major alterations in the microstructure of the extract-treated <em>C. albicansem>. The main abnormalities noted via SEM and TEM studies were the alteration in morphology of the yeast cells. <em>In vivoem> antimicrobial activity was studies in mice that had been inoculated with <em>C. albicansem> and exhibited good anticandidal activity. The authors conclude that the extract may be used as a candidate for the development of anticandidal agent.<em> em>

  15. Compatibility and survival of beneficial microorganisms for agricultural use (Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Bacillus thuringiensis in compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villacís-Aldaz Luis Alfredo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Compatibility and survivorship of beneficial microorganism in compost were evaluated in order to provide new alternatives to clean production in agriculture. The study was conducted at the Ecological Farm belonging to the Consejo Provincial de Tungurahua, Ecuador. Four treatments were considered related to dose of several beneficial microorganisms (EMs. After an interval of 30 or 60 days after composting process, analysis of nutritional biological content showed compatibility and survivorship of the EMs, which live together and reproduce on the organic fertilizer. Concerning physic-chemical analysis higher organic matter content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium and calcium were evidenced in T1: 100 cc Beauveria bassiana - 100 cc Bacillus thuringiensis - 100 cc Paecilomyces lilacinus. From the results obtained will offer the possibility of using beneficial microorganisms to optimize their performance in obtaining compost of better nutritional and biological quality, so that gradually reduce the use of agrochemicals.

  16. Bioprospecção de isolados de Bacillus spp. como potenciais promotores de crescimento de Eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ligia de Lima Moreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar características bioquímicas de interesse agronômico e correlação com a promoção de crescimento de plantas em isolados de Bacillus sp. originários da rizosfera de eucalipto. O trabalho foi conduzido em laboratório e casa de vegetação. A partir do isolamento de bactérias da rizosfera de plantas, oriundas de diferentes municípios da região oeste paulista, conseguiu-se 127 isolados de Bacillus spp. Foram realizados testes bioquímicos para caracterização dos isolados bacterianos quanto ao antagonismo a fungos fitopatogênicos, produção de auxinas, produção de amônia e atividade enzimática. Na etapa final foi avaliado o potencial dos isolados, caracterizados previamente em condições de laboratório, para promoção de crescimento de plantas, utilizando-se a inoculação das bactérias em mudas de eucalipto e cultivo das plantas em casa de vegetação durante 90 dias. Avaliou-se variáveis de crescimento do eucalipto objetivando-se selecionar os melhores isolados e também correlacionar as diferentes variáveis analisadas no trabalho. O protocolo de bioprospecção de Bacillus sp. na rizosfera foi válido para se encontrar rizobactérias promissoras no aumento do crescimento do eucalipto. Foram selecionados cinco isolados como promissores para ação no crescimento de eucalipto. O potencial antagônico a fungos fitopatogênicos e produção de amônia apresentados pelos isolados de rizobactérias foi útil na fase inicial de seleção de rizobactérias promotoras do crescimento de eucalipto, pois apresentou correlação significativa com o crescimento das plantas.

  17. Bacillus oryzisoli sp. nov., isolated from rice rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Gao, Ju-Sheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Cai-Wen; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The taxonomy of strain 1DS3-10T, a Gram-staining-positive, endospore-forming bacterium isolated from rice rhizosphere, was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strain was grouped with established members of the genus Bacillus and appeared to be closely related to the type strains Bacillus benzoevorans DSM 5391T (97.9 %), Bacillus circulans DSM 11T (97.7 %), Bacillus novalis JCM 21709T (97.3 %), Bacillus soli JCM 21710T (97.3 %), Bacillus oceanisediminis CGMCC 1.10115T (97.3 %) and BacillusnealsoniiFO-92T (97.1 %). The fatty acid profile of strain 1DS3-10T, which showed a predominance of iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0, supported the allocation of the strain to the genus Bacillus. The predominant menaquinone was MK-7 (100 %). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unknown aminolipids. Cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 1DS3-10T and the type strains of closely related species were 25-33 %, which supported that 1DS3-10T represented a novel species in the genus Bacillus. The results of some physiological and biochemical tests also allowed the phenotypic differentiation of strain 1DS3-10T from the most closely related recognized species. On the basis of the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, strain 1DS3-10T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus oryzisoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of the novel species is 1DS3-10T (=ACCC 19781T=DSM 29761T).

  18. Natural phytosanitary products effects on Bacillus Thuringiensis SUBSP. Kurstaki (BerlinerEfeito de produtos fitossanitários naturais sobre Bacillus Thuringiensis subesp. Kurstaki (Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton Ricardi Lozano da Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the effect of natural phytossanitary products (NPP on spores and crystal toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki – HD1 (Btk. For this commercial products (Agromos, Biogermex, Bovemax, Bordeaux mixture, Ecolife®, Dalneen, Matan Plus, Pyronin and Stüble-Aid® were used at three different concentrations. The effect of NPP on spores was assessed by comparing a suspension of Btk + NPP with sterile distilled water (SDW and another suspension with nutrient broth (NB, inoculated on nutrient agar (NA in Petri dishes to quantify the number of CFU/mL, 18 h after inoculation and incubation. The effect of NPP on crystals was evaluated with a suspension of Btk+SDW+NPP added to the artificial diet supplied for Anticarsia gemmatalis Hub. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae quantifying the number of dead larvae at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Matan Plus was the only natural product that did not present effect on spores. All other products, regardless of concentration, decreased significantly CFU/mL Regarding crystals, Bordeaux mixture was the only one that reduced significantly Btk insecticidal activity at three concentrations. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito dos produtos fitossanitários naturais (PFN sobre esporos e sobre a toxicidade dos cristais de Bacillus thuringiensis subespécie kurstaki – HD1 (Btk. Para tal foram usados os produtos comerciais (Agromos, Biogermex, Bovemax, Calda Bordalesa, Ecolife®, Dalneen, Matan Plus, Pironin e Stüble –Aid® em três diferentes concentrações. O efeito dos PFN sobre esporos foi avaliado comparando-se suspensões de Btk + PFN com água destilada esterelizada (ADE e suspensões com caldo nutriente (CB, inoculadas em agar nutriente (AN, em placas de Petri quantificando-se o número de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC / mL, 18 h após a inoculação e incubação. O efeito dos PFN sobre cristais foi avaliado com suspensões de Btk + ADE + PFN adicionados à dieta artificial

  19. Occurrence of natural Bacillus thuringiensis contaminants and residues of Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides on fresh fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristine; Rosenquist, Hanne; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    A total of 128 Bacillus cereus-like strains isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables for sale in retail shops in Denmark were characterized. Of these strains, 39% (50/128) were classified as Bacillus thuringiensis on the basis of their content of cry genes determined by PCR or crystal proteins...

  20. Enhanced transformation efficiency of recalcitrant Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis isolates upon in vitro methylation of plasmid DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierop Groot, M.N.; Nieboer, F.; Abee, T.

    2008-01-01

    Digestion patterns of chromosomal DNAs of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains suggest that Sau3AI-type restriction modification systems are widely present among the isolates tested. In vitro methylation of plasmid DNA was used to enhance poor plasmid transfer upon electroporation

  1. Novel cloning vectors for Bacillus thuringiensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, J A; Coyle, D M; Gilbert, M P; Jany, C S; Gawron-Burke, C

    1990-01-01

    Seven replication origins from resident plasmids of Bacillus thuringienis subsp. kurstaki HD263 and HD73 were cloned in Escherichia coli. Three of these replication origins, originating from plasmids of 43, 44, and 60 MDa, were used to construct a set of compatible shuttle vectors that exhibit structural and segregational stability in the Cry- strain B. thuringiensis HD73-26. These shuttle vectors, pEG597, pEG853, and pEG854, were designed with rare restriction sites that permit various adapt...

  2. Features of Bacillus cereus swarm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senesi, Sonia; Salvetti, Sara; Celandroni, Francesco; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2010-11-01

    When propagated on solid surfaces, Bacillus cereus can produce differentiated swarm cells under a wide range of growth conditions. This behavioural versatility is ecologically relevant, since it allows this bacterium to adapt swarming to environmental changes. Swarming by B. cereus is medically important: swarm cells are more virulent and particularly prone to invade host tissues. Characterisation of swarming-deficient mutants highlights that flagellar genes as well as genes governing different metabolic pathways are involved in swarm-cell differentiation. In this review, the environmental and genetic requirements for swarming and the role played by swarm cells in the virulence this pathogen exerts will be outlined.

  3. Bacillus anthracis factors for phagosomal escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonello, Fiorella; Zornetta, Irene

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, B. anthracis secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of B. anthracis toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  4. Regulation of protoxin synthesis in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    OpenAIRE

    Minnich, S A; Aronson, A I

    1984-01-01

    A derivative of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki (HD-1) formed parasporal inclusions at 25 degrees C, but not at 32 degrees C. This strain differed from the parent only in the loss of a 110-megadalton (Md) plasmid, but plasmid and chromosomal copies of protoxin genes were present in both strains. On the basis of temperature shift experiments, the sensitive period appeared to be during midexponential growth, long before the time of protoxin synthesis at 3 to 4 h after the end of exponent...

  5. Bacillus crescens sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivani, Y; Subhash, Y; Dave Bharti, P; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-08-01

    Two bacterial strains (JC247T and JC248) were isolated from soil samples collected from Rann of Kutch, Gujarat, India. Colonies of both strains were creamy white. Cells were Gram-stain-positive, rods-to-curved rods (crescent-shaped), and produced centrally located oval-shaped endospores. Major (>5 %) fatty acids of both strains were iso-C16  :  0, iso-C14  :  0, iso-C15  :  0, C16  :  1ω11c and C16  :  0, with minor ( 1 %) amounts of anteiso-C15  :  0, anteiso-C17  :  0, iso-C16  :  1 H, iso-C17  :  0, iso-C18  :  0, C14  :  0, C17  :  0, C18  :  0, C18  :  1ω9c, iso-C17  :  1ω10c and anteiso-C17  :  0B/isoI. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids of both strains. Cell-wall amino acids were l-alanine, d-alanine, d-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strains JC247T and JC248 was 48.2 and 48.1 mol%, respectively. Both strains were closely related with mean DNA-DNA hybridization >90 %. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of both strains indicated that they are members of the genus Bacillus within the family Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes. Both strains had a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 96.93 % with Bacillus firmus NCIMB 9366T and Bacillus. Sequence similarity between strain JC247T and JC248 was 100 %. Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strains JC247T and JC248 as representatives of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacilluscrescens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC247T ( = KCTC 33627T = LMG 28608T).

  6. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of <em>Chlamydomonas> reinhardtiiem> <em>npq2em> Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from<em> Chlorella zofingiensisem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herminia Rodríguez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella zofingiensisem> (<em>Czzep> has been isolated<em>. em>This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czzep> has been found in the <em>C. zofingiensisem> genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of <em>Czzep> were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of <em>Czzep> gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the <em>Chlamydomonas> mutant <em>npq2em>, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The <em>Czzep> gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in <em>npq2em>. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm. These results show that <em>Chlamydomonas> can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications.

  7. Dermatoses em renais cronicos em terapia dialitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Batista Peres

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: As desordens cutâneas e das mucosas são comuns em pacientes em hemodiálise a longo prazo. A diálise prolonga a expectativa de vida, dando tempo para a manifestação destas anormalidades. Os objetivos deste estudo foram avaliar a prevalência de problemas dermatológicos em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC em hemodiálise. Métodos: Cento e quarenta e cinco pacientes com doença renal crônica em hemodiálise foram estudados. Todos os pacientes foram completamente analisados para as alterações cutâneas, de cabelos, mucosas e unhas por um único examinador e foram coletados dados de exames laboratoriais. Os dados foram armazenados em um banco de dados do Microsolft Excel e analisados por estatística descritiva. As variáveis contínuas foram comparadas pelo teste t de Student e as variáveis categóricas utilizando o teste do qui-quadrado ou o teste Exato de Fischer, conforme adequado. Resultados: O estudo incluiu 145 pacientes, com idade média de 53,6 ± 14,7 anos, predominantemente do sexo masculino (64,1% e caucasianos (90,0%. O tempo médio de diálise foi de 43,3 ± 42,3 meses. As principais doenças subjacentes foram: hipertensão arterial em 33,8%, diabetes mellitus em 29,6% e glomerulonefrite crônica em 13,1%. As principais manifestações dermatológicas observadas foram: xerose em 109 (75,2%, equimose em 87 (60,0%, prurido em 78 (53,8% e lentigo em 33 (22,8% pacientes. Conclusão: O nosso estudo mostrou a presença de mais do que uma dermatose por paciente. As alterações cutâneas são frequentes em pacientes em diálise. Mais estudos são necessários para melhor caracterização e manejo destas dermatoses.

  8. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Identification of Cytotoxic Compounds from <em>Gymnosperma> <em>glutinosum> Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts of<em> Gymnosperma glutinosumem> (Asteraceae leaves, collected in North Mexico, afforded the known compounds hentriacontane (1 and (+-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-<em>ent>-labd-7-ene (2, as well as the new <em>ent>-labdane diterpene (−-13<em>S>,14<em>R>,15-trihydroxy-7-oxo-<em>ent>-labd-8(9-ene (3. In addition, D-glycero-D-galactoheptitol (4 was isolated from the methanolic extract of this plant. Their structures were established on the basis of high-field 1D- and 2D NMR methods supported by HR-MS data. The cytotoxic activity was determined by using the <em>in vitroem> L5178Y-R lymphoma murine model. Hentriacontane (1 and the new <em>ent>-labdane 3 showed weak cytotoxicity, whereas the <em>ent>-labdane 2 showed significant (<em>p> < 0.05 and concentration dependent cytotoxicity (up to 78% against L5178Y-R cells at concentrations ranging from 7.8 to 250 µg/mL.

  9. Antimicrobial Effects of Honey on Bacillus Cereus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This paper should be cited as: Javadzadeh M, Najafi M, Rezaei M, Dastoor M, Behzadi AS, Amiri A . [ Antimicrobial Effects of Honey on Bacillus Cereus ]. MLJ. 201 4 ; 8 ( 2 : 55 - 61 [Article in Persian] Javadzadeh, M. (MSc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Honey is a healthy and nutritious food that has been used for a long time as a treatment for different diseases. One of the applied properties of honey is its antimicrobial effect, which differs between different types of honey due to variation of phenolic and antioxidant compositions. This study aimed to assess antimicrobial effect of honey on Bacillus cereus, considering its chemical properties. Material and Methods: Three samples of honey (A1 and A2 of Khorasan Razavi Province and A3 of South Khorasan province (were prepared and studied in terms of chemical parameters .The antibacterial effect of honey was surveyed throughTurbidimeter using spectrometer with incubator time of 2, 4, 6, and 8hrs. the level of turbidity caused by bacterium growth was measured at different times with a wavelength of 600nm. Results: According to the study, the samples containing higher concentration of polyphenol has more antimicrobial activity. The samples of A2, A3, and A1 had the highest concentration of polyphenol, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicate the prebiotic effect of honey that can be justified by the presence of fructo-oligosacharids and vitamin B. Keywords: Honey, Bacillus Cereus, Antibacterial, Turbidimetry.

  10. Synthesis of lipoteichoic acids in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garufi, Gabriella; Hendrickx, Antoni P; Beeri, Karen; Kern, Justin W; Sharma, Anshika; Richter, Stefan G; Schneewind, Olaf; Missiakas, Dominique

    2012-08-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a glycerol phosphate polymer, is a component of the envelope of Gram-positive bacteria that has hitherto not been identified in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. LTA synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus and other microbes is catalyzed by the product of the ltaS gene, a membrane protein that polymerizes polyglycerol phosphate from phosphatidyl glycerol. Here we identified four ltaS homologues, designated ltaS1 to -4, in the genome of Bacillus anthracis. Polyglycerol phosphate-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to detect LTA in the envelope of B. anthracis strain Sterne (pXO1(+) pXO2(-)) vegetative forms. B. anthracis mutants lacking ltaS1, ltaS2, ltaS3, or ltaS4 did not display defects in growth or LTA synthesis. In contrast, B. anthracis strains lacking both ltaS1 and ltaS2 were unable to synthesize LTA and exhibited reduced viability, altered envelope morphology, aberrant separation of vegetative forms, and decreased sporulation efficiency. Expression of ltaS1 or ltaS2 alone in B. anthracis as well as in other microbes was sufficient for polyglycerol phosphate synthesis. Thus, similar to S. aureus, B. anthracis employs LtaS enzymes to synthesize LTA, an envelope component that promotes bacterial growth and cell division.

  11. em arquitetura e urbanismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Sala Minucci Martins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Está sendo desenvolvido projeto de pesquisa denominado Geometria Fractal e suas Aplicações em Arquitetura e Urbanismo, com o fito de estudar e desenvolver ferramentas analíticas e propositivas para serem aplicadas em arquitetura e urbanismo, com base em conceitos provenientes da geometria fractal.

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Geranium Oil against Clinical Strains<em> em>of <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sienkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the antibacterial properties of geranium oil obtained from <em>Pelargonium graveolensem> Ait. (family <em>Geraniaceae>, against one standard <em>S. aureus em>strain ATCC 433000 and seventy clinical <em>S. aureusem> strains. The agar dilution method was used for assessment of bacterial growth inhibition at various concentrations of geranium oil. Susceptibility testing of the clinical strains to antibiotics was carried out using the disk-diffusion and E-test methods. The results of our experiment showed that the oil from <em>P. graveolensem> has strong activity against all of the clinical <em>S. aureusem> isolates—including multidrug resistant strains, MRSA strains and MLSB-positive strains—exhibiting MIC values of 0.25–2.50 μL/mL.

  13. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  14. Real-Time PCR Identification of Unique Bacillus anthracis Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, P; Knap, J; Kolodziej, M; Mirski, T; Joniec, J; Graniak, G; Zakowska, D; Winnicka, I; Bielawska-Drózd, A

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, Gram-positive microorganism. It is a causative agent of anthrax, a highly infectious disease. It belongs to the "Bacillus cereus group", which contains other closely related species, including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus pseudomycoides. B. anthracis naturally occurs in soil environments. The BA5345 genetic marker was used for highly specific detection of B. anthracis with TaqMan probes. The detection limit of a real-time PCR assay was estimated at the level of 16.9 copies (CI95% - 37.4 to 37.86, SD = 0.2; SE = 0.118). Oligonucleotides designed for the targeted sequences (within the tested locus) revealed 100 % homology to B. anthracis strain reference sequences deposited in the database (NCBI) and high specificity to all tested B. anthracis strains. Additional in silico analysis of plasmid markers pag and cap genes with B. anthracis strains included in the database was carried out. Our study clearly indicates that the BA5345 marker can be used with success as a chromosomal marker in routine identification of B. anthracis; moreover, detection of plasmid markers indicates virulence of the examined strains.

  15. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (Pbiological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  16. Toxin profiles of <em>Bacillus cereusem> occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (<em>Parkia biglobosaem>)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk;

    to be potentially pathogenic by harboring and expressing enterotoxin and emetic genes. Isolates from afiitin were the most cytotoxic as detected by a Vero-cell assay, while an isolate from sonru was a potent cereulide producer. Interestingly B. cereus food poisoning frm the consumption of the fermented condiments...

  17. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Adamu KUTA; Lohya NIMZING; Priscilla Yahemba ORKA’A

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cer...

  18. An Optical Biosensor for Bacillus Cereus Spore Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengquan; Tom, Harry W. K.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate a new transduction scheme for optical biosensing. Bacillus cereus is a pathogen that may be found in food and dairy products and is able to produce toxins and cause food poisoning. It is related to Bacillus anthracis (anthrax). A CCD array covered with micro-structured glass coverslip is used to detect the optical resonant shift due to the binding of the antigen (bacillus cereus spore) to the antibody (polyclonal antibody). This novel optical biosensor scheme has the potential for detecting 10˜100 bioagents in a single device as well as the potential to test for antigens with multiple antibody tests to avoid ``false positives.''

  19. Flow-cytometric Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Kamboj

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Flow-cytometric technique has been established as a powerful tool for detection andidentification of microbiological agents. Unambiguous and rapid detection of Bacillus anthracisspores has been reported using immunoglobulin G-fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate againstlive spores. In addition to the high sensitivity, the present technique could differentiate betweenspores of closely related species, eg, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis using fluorescenceintensity. The technique can be used for detection of live as well as inactivated spores makingit more congenial for screening of suspected samples of bioterrorism.

  20. Expression, purification, and characterization of a thermophilic neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus in Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The gene coding for a thermophilic neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus was expressed in Bacillus subtilis DB104, under the control of the sacB gene promoter. This was followed by either the native signal peptide sequence of this protease or the signal peptide sequence of the sacB gene. The protease was purified 3.8-fold, with a specific activity of 16530 U mg-1. As analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass of the expressed protease was about 35 kDa, and the optimal temperature and pH of the protease were 65℃ and 7.5, respectively. Moreover, it still had about 80% activity after 1 h reaction at 65 ℃ .

  1. Expression, purification, and characterization of a thermophilic neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus in Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The gene coding for a thermophilic neutral protease from Bacillus stearothermophilus was expressed in Bacillus subtilis DB104, under the control of the sacB gene promoter. This was followed by either the native signal peptide sequence of this protease or the signal peptide sequence of the sacB gene. The protease was purified 3.8-fold, with a specific activity of 16530 U mg-1. As analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass of the expressed protease was about 35 kDa, and the optimal temperature and pH of the protease were 65℃ and 7.5, respectively. Moreover, it still had about 80% activity after 1 h reaction at 65℃.

  2. EM International. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    It is the intent of EM International to describe the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management`s (EM`s) various roles and responsibilities within the international community. Cooperative agreements and programs, descriptions of projects and technologies, and synopses of visits to international sites are all highlighted in this semiannual journal. Focus on EM programs in this issue is on international collaboration in vitrification projects. Technology highlights covers: in situ sealing for contaminated sites; and remote sensors for toxic pollutants. Section on profiles of countries includes: Arctic contamination by the former Soviet Union, and EM activities with Germany--cooperative arrangements.

  3. Bacillus cereus un patógeno importante en el control microbiológico de los alimentos / Bacillus cereus an important pathogen the microbiological control of food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Sánchez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Bacillus cereus es una bacteria genéticamente diversa que se encuentra comúnmente en el ambiente. Contamina los alimentos afectando la salud humana, al ingerir el microorganismo y/o sus toxinas, la emética o las enterotoxinas. En Colombia son escasos los reportes de intoxicación por B. cereus y se estima que hay un gran subregistro. Por lo anterior, se recomienda aumentar la vigilancia de este patógeno y realizar estudios sobre aspectos relevantes que permitan aplicar medidas de control para disminuir las intoxicaciones por B. cereus. El objetivo de esta revisión bibliográfica es presentar información actualizada sobre B. cereus, que incluye aspectos de su biología, taxonomía, toxinas, alimentos que contamina y metodologías para detectar, prevenir y controlar este microorganismo. La información presentada es de utilidad para el público en general, especialmente personas vinculadas al sector de alimentos, inocuidad alimentaria y control de procesos. / Abstract Bacillus cereus is a genetically diverse bacterium commonly found in the environment. It contaminates food, thus affecting human health upon ingestion of the microorganism and/or its toxins, the emetic or enterotoxins. In Colombia, reports of intoxication by B. cereus are scarce and under-registration is presumed. Because of this, it is recommended to increase surveillance of this pathogen and to develop studies on relevant aspects that allow the application of control measures to reduce intoxications by B. cereus. The aim of this review is to present current information on B. cereus, including aspects of its biology, taxonomy, toxins, food that it contaminates and methodologies for the detection, prevention and control of this microorganism. This information is useful for the general public, especially people involved with the food sector, food safety and process control.

  4. Estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis efetivas contra insetos das ordens Lepidoptera, Coleoptera e Diptera Bacillus thuringiensis strains effective against insects of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Diptera orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Botelho Praça

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar entre 300 estirpes de Bacillus thuringiensis as efetivas simultaneamente contra larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith e Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus e Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Foram selecionadas duas estirpes de B. thuringiensis, denominadas S234 e S997, que apresentaram atividade contra as três ordens de insetos. As estirpes foram caracterizadas por métodos morfológicos, bioquímicos e moleculares. As mesmas apresentaram duas proteínas principais de 130 e 65 kDa, produtos de reação em cadeia da polimerase de tamanho esperado para a detecção dos genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B e cry2 e cristais bipiramidais, cubóides e esféricos.The aim of this work was to select among 300 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis those which are simultaneously effective against larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae. Two strains of B. thuringiensis were selected, S234 and S997, which presented activity against those three insect orders. Both strains were characterized by morphological, biochemical and molecular methods. They have presented two main proteins with 130 and 65 kDa, polimerase chain reaction products with expected sizes for detection of the genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B and cry2 and bipiramidal, cubical and spherical crystals.

  5. Multilocus sequence analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis reveals a common phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufiane, Brahim; Baizet, Mathilde; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group sensu lato includes six closely-related bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. B. thuringiensis is distinguished from the other species mainly by the appearance of an inclusion body upon sporulation. B. weihenstephanensis is distinguished based on its psychrotolerance and the presence of specific signature sequences in the 16S rRNA gene and cspA genes. A total of seven housekeeping genes (glpF, gmK, ilvD, pta, purH, pycA and tpi) from different B. thuringiensis serovars and B. weihenstephanensis strains were amplified and their nucleotide sequences determined. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from comparisons of the concatenated sequences. B. thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis clustered not with the other B. thuringiensis serovars but rather with the B. weihenstephanensis strains, indicative of a common phylogeny. In addition, specific signature sequences and single nucleotide polymorphisms common to B. thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis and the B. weihenstephanensis strains, and absent in the other B. thuringiensis serovars, were identified.

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis Inhibit the Growth of Phytopathogenic Verticillium Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Wemheuer, Franziska; Harting, Rebekka; Kolarzyk, Anna M.; Diaz Valerio, Stefani M.; Poehlein, Anja; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta B.; Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2017-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum. In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis in aerosol research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jenia A M; Calfee, M Worth; Lee, Sang Don; Ryan, Shawn P

    2014-05-01

    Characterization of candidate surrogate spores prior to experimental use is critical to confirm that the surrogate characteristics are as closely similar as possible to those of the pathogenic agent of interest. This review compares the physical properties inherent to spores of Bacillus anthracis (Ba) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that impact their movement in air and interaction with surfaces, including size, shape, density, surface morphology, structure and hydrophobicity. Also evaluated is the impact of irradiation on the physical properties of both Bacillus species. Many physical features of Bt and Ba have been found to be similar and, while Bt is considered typically non-pathogenic, it is in the B. cereus group, as is Ba. When cultured and sporulated under similar conditions, both microorganisms share a similar cylindrical pellet shape, an aerodynamic diameter of approximately 1 μm (in the respirable size range), have an exosporium with a hairy nap, and have higher relative hydrophobicities than other Bacillus species. While spore size, morphology, and other physical properties can vary among strains of the same species, the variations can be due to growth/sporulation conditions and may, therefore, be controlled. Growth and sporulation conditions are likely among the most important factors that influence the representativeness of one species, or preparation, to another. All Bt spores may, therefore, not be representative of all Ba spores. Irradiated spores do not appear to be a good surrogate to predict the behavior of non-irradiated spores due to structural damage caused by the irradiation. While the use of Bt as a surrogate for Ba in aerosol testing appears to be well supported, this review does not attempt to narrow selection between Bt strains. Comparative studies should be performed to test the hypothesis that viable Ba and Bt spores will behave similarly when suspended in the air (as an aerosol) and to compare the known microscale characteristics

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis Inhibit the Growth of Phytopathogenic Verticillium Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Wemheuer, Franziska; Harting, Rebekka; Kolarzyk, Anna M; Diaz Valerio, Stefani M; Poehlein, Anja; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta B; Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Braus, Gerhard H; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum. In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities

  9. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance for Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 To Include Residues of Bacillus subtilis... Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 in or on all food commodities by including residues of Bacillus...

  10. Microsatellite Loci in the Gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatum em>(Brassicaceae, and Transferability to Other <em>Lepidieae>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gabriel Segarra-Moragues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for the Ibero-North African, strict gypsophyte <em>Lepidium subulatumem> to unravel the effects of habitat fragmentation in levels of genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow among its populations. Using 454 pyrosequencing 12 microsatellite loci including di- and tri-nucleotide repeats were characterized in <em>L. subulatumem>. They amplified a total of 80 alleles (2–12 alleles per locus in a sample of 35 individuals of <em>L. subulatumem>, showing relatively high levels of genetic diversity, <em>H>O = 0.645, <em>H>E = 0.627. Cross-species transferability of all 12 loci was successful for the Iberian endemics <em>Lepidium cardaminesem>, <em>Lepidium stylatumem>, and the widespread, <em>Lepidium graminifoliumem> and one species each of two related genera, <em>Cardaria drabaem> and <em>Coronopus didymusem>. These microsatellite primers will be useful to investigate genetic diversity, population structure and to address conservation genetics in species of <em>Lepidium>.

  11. Synergy between toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Jiannino, Joshua A; Federici, Brian A; Walton, William E

    2004-09-01

    Synergistic interactions among the multiple endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac play an important role in its high toxicity to mosquito larvae and the absence of insecticide resistance in populations treated with this bacterium. A lack of toxin complexity and synergism are the apparent causes of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus Neide in particular Culex field populations. To identify endotoxin combinations of the two Bacillus species that might improve insecticidal activity and manage mosquito resistance to B. sphaericus, we tested their toxins alone and in combination. Most combinations of B. sphaericus and B. t. subsp. israelensis toxins were synergistic and enhanced toxicity relative to B. sphaericus, particularly against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae resistant to B. sphaericus and Aedes aegypti (L.), a species poorly susceptible to B. sphaericus. Toxicity also improved against susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus. For example, when the CytlAa toxin from B. t. subsp. israelensis was added to Bin and Cry toxins, or when native B. t. subsp. israelensis was combined with B. sphaericus, synergism values as high as 883-fold were observed and combinations were 4-59,000-fold more active than B. sphaericus. These data, and previous studies using cytolytic toxins, validate proposed strategies for improving bacterial larvicides by combining B. sphaericus with B. t. subsp. israelensis or by engineering recombinant bacteria that express endotoxins from both strains. These combinations increase both endotoxin complexity and synergistic interactions and thereby enhance activity and help avoid insecticide resistance.

  12. Partial purification and characterization of protease enzyme from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Elif; Omay, Didem; Güvenilir, Yüksel

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to isolate and partially purify protease enzyme from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis. Protease enzyme is obtained by inducing spore genesis of bacteria from Bacillus species in suitable nutrient plates. The partial purification was realized by applying, respectively, ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, and DEAE-cellulose ion-exchange chromatography to the supernatant that was produced later. Optimum pH, optimum temperature, pH stability, and temperature stability were determined, as well as the effects of pH, temperature, substrate concentration, reaction time, and inhibitors and activators on enzyme activity. In addition, the molecular mass of the obtained enzyme was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The specific activity of partially purified enzyme from B. subtilis was determined to be 84 U/mg. The final enzyme preparation was eight-fold more pure than the crude homogenate. The molecular mass of the partially purified enzyme was found to be 45 kDa by using SDS-PAGE. The protease enzyme that was partially purified from B. cereus was purified 1.2-fold after ammonium sulfate precipitation. The molecular mass of the partially purified enzyme was determined to be 37 kDa by using SDS-PAGE.

  13. New Trifluoromethyl Triazolopyrimidines as Anti-<em>Plasmodium> <em>falciparum> Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núbia Boechat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization, half of the World’s population, approximately 3.3 billion people, is at risk for developing malaria. Nearly 700,000 deaths each year are associated with the disease. Control of the disease in humans still relies on chemotherapy. Drug resistance is a limiting factor, and the search for new drugs is important. We have designed and synthesized new 2-(trifluoromethyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine derivatives based on bioisosteric replacement of functional groups on the anti-malarial compounds mefloquine and amodiaquine. This approach enabled us to investigate the impact of: (i ring bioisosteric replacement; (ii a CF3 group substituted at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine scaffold and (iii a range of amines as substituents at the 7-position of the of heterocyclic ring; on <em>in vitroem> activity against <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>. According to docking simulations, the synthesized compounds are able to interact with <em>P. falciparumem> dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (<em>Pf>DHODH through strong hydrogen bonds. The presence of a trifluoromethyl group at the 2-position of the [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-<em>a>]pyrimidine ring led to increased drug activity. Thirteen compounds were found to be active, with IC50 values ranging from 0.023 to 20 µM in the anti-HRP2 and hypoxanthine assays. The selectivity index (SI of the most active derivatives 5, 8, 11 and 16 was found to vary from 1,003 to 18,478.

  14. Screening and Analysis of the Potential Bioactive Components in Rabbit Plasma after Oral Administration of Hot-Water Extracts from Leaves of <em>B>ambusa em>>textilis em>McClure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Bambusa textilisem> McClure is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant belonging to the Bambusoideae subfamily and used to treat chronic fever and infectious diseases. To investigate the bioactive compounds absorbed in the rabbit blood after oral administration of hot-<em>water extractem>>s from em>>the leaves of em>>B. textilisem> McClure, a validated chromatographic fingerprint method was established using LC-Q-TOF-MS. Twenty compounds in bamboo leaves and three potential bioactive compounds in rabbit plasma were detected. Of the twenty detected compounds <em>in vitroem>, fifteen of which were tentatively identified either by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with that of reference compounds or by reviewing the literature. Three potential bioactive compounds, including (<em>E-p>-coumaric acid, (<em>Z-p>-coumaric acid, and apigenin-8-<em>C>-β-D-(2"-<em>O>-α-L-rhamnosyl-gluco-pyranoside, were detected in both <em>the leaves of em>>B. textilis em>McClure and rabbit plasma. Of the three compounds, apigenin-8-<em>C>-β-D-(2"-<em>O>-α-L-rhamnosylglucopyranoside was identified based on its UV, MS, and NMR spectra. This study provides helpful chemical information for further pharmacology and active mechanism research on <em>B. textilisem> McClure.

  15. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  16. Bacillus phytases: Current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Mohamed Ali; Boudebbouze, Samira; Mkaouar, Héla; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2015-01-01

    Phytases catalyze the hydrolysis of phytic acid in a stepwise manner to lower inositol phosphates, myo-inositol (having important role in metabolism and signal transduction pathways), and inorganic phosphate. These enzymes have been widely used in animal feed in order to improve phosphorus nutrition and to decrease pollution in animal waste. Compared to previously described phytases, the phytase (PhyL) from Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 14580 has attractive biochemical properties which can increase the profitability of several biotechnological procedures (animal nutrition, humain health…etc). Due to its amino acid sequence with critical substitutions, the PhyL could be a model to enhance other phytases features, in terms of thermal stability and high activity. Otherwise, an engineered PhyL, with low pH optimum, will represent a challenge within the class of β- propeller phytases.

  17. Sludge based Bacillus thuringiensis biopesticides: viscosity impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, S K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2005-08-01

    Viscosity studies were performed on raw, pre-treated (sterilised and thermal alkaline hydrolysed or both types of treatment) and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) fermented sludges at different solids concentration (10-40 g/L) for production of biopesticides. Correlations were established among rheological parameter (viscosity), solids (total and dissolved) concentration and entomotoxicity (Tx) of Bt fermented sludges. Exponential and power laws were preferentially followed by hydrolysed fermented compared to raw fermented sludge. Soluble chemical oxygen demand variation corroborated with increase in dissolved solids concentration on pre-treatments, contributing to changes in viscosity. Moreover, Tx was higher for hydrolysed fermented sludge in comparison to raw fermented sludge owing to increased availability of nutrients and lower viscosity that improved oxygen transfer. The shake flask results were reproducible in fermenter. This study will have major impact on selecting fermentation, harvesting and formulation techniques of Bt fermented sludges for biopesticide production.

  18. Germination Requirements of Bacillus macerans Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, L. E.; Thompson, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    2-Phenylacetamide is an effective germinant for spores of five strains of Bacillus macerans, particularly in the presence of fructose. Benzyl penicillin, the phenyl acetamide derivative of penicillin, and phenylacetic acid are also good germinants. l-Asparagine is an excellent germinant for four strains. α-Amino-butyric acid is moderately effective. Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, adenine, and 2,6-diaminopurine are potent germinants for NCA strain 7X1 only. d-Glucose is a powerful germinant for strain B-70 only. d-Fructose and d-ribose strongly potentiate germination induced by other germinants (except l-asparagine) but have only weak activity by themselves. Niacinamide and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, inactive by themselves, are active in the presence of fructose or ribose. Effects of pH, ion concentration, and temperature are described. PMID:4251279

  19. Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Paul; Kaufmann, Arnold F.; Keys, Christine; Smith, Kimothy L.; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Inouye, Sakae; Kurata, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    In July 1993, a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis was aerosolized from the roof of an eight-story building in Kameido, Tokyo, Japan, by the religious group Aum Shinrikyo. During 1999 to 2001, microbiologic tests were conducted on a liquid environmental sample originally collected during the 1993 incident. Nonencapsulated isolates of B. anthracis were cultured from the liquid. Multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat analysis found all isolates to be identical to a strain used in Japan to vaccinate animals against anthrax, which was consistent with the Aum Shinrikyo members’ testimony about the strain source. In 1999, a retrospective case-detection survey was conducted to identify potential human anthrax cases associated with the incident, but none were found. The use of an attenuated B. anthracis strain, low spore concentrations, ineffective dispersal, a clogged spray device, and inactivation of the spores by sunlight are all likely contributing factors to the lack of human cases. PMID:15112666

  20. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatem, G; Merritt, J C; Cowan, C L

    1979-03-01

    Two healthy young black men developed panophthalmitis after intravenous heroin injections. Bacillus cereus, considered to be a relatively noncommon pathogen for man, was found to be the causative agent as it was recovered from the anterior chamber and viterous cavity of both cases. The ocular findings were unilateral in each case, and neither patient had any sistemic involvement from the bacteremia. The onset of visual symptoms varied from 24 to 36 hours after the last intravenous injection with the eye becoming rapidly blind. Photographs of the early fundus lesions included preretinal hypopyon-like lesions and peculiar changes in the blood vasculature. Intracameral gentamicin and steroids did not alter the cause, and treatment was enucleation.

  1. Antagonistic competition moderates virulence in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Jennie; Bonsall, Michael B; Wright, Denis J; Raymond, Ben

    2011-08-01

    Classical models of the evolution of virulence predict that multiple infections should select for elevated virulence, if increased competitiveness arises from faster growth. However, diverse modes of parasite competition (resource-based, antagonism, immunity manipulation) can lead to adaptations with different implications for virulence. Using an experimental evolution approach we investigated the hypothesis that selection in mixed-strain infections will lead to increased antagonism that trades off against investment in virulence. Selection in mixed infections led to improved suppression of competitors in the bacterial insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. Increased antagonism was associated with decreased virulence in three out of four selected lines. Moreover, mixed infections were less virulent than single-strain infections, and between-strain competition tended to decrease pathogen growth in vivo and in vitro. Spiteful interactions among these bacteria may be favoured because of the high metabolic costs of virulence factors and the high risk of mixed infections.

  2. Characterization of Bacillus anthracis persistence in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Jenkins

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores initiates inhalational anthrax, a life-threatening infection. It is known that dormant spores can be recovered from the lungs of infected animals months after the initial spore exposure. Consequently, a 60-day course antibiotic treatment is recommended for exposed individuals. However, there has been little information regarding details or mechanisms of spore persistence in vivo. In this study, we investigated spore persistence in a mouse model. The results indicated that weeks after intranasal inoculation with B. anthracis spores, substantial amounts of spores could be recovered from the mouse lung. Moreover, spores of B. anthracis were significantly better at persisting in the lung than spores of a non-pathogenic Bacillus subtilis strain. The majority of B. anthracis spores in the lung were tightly associated with the lung tissue, as they could not be readily removed by lavage. Immunofluorescence staining of lung sections showed that spores associated with the alveolar and airway epithelium. Confocal analysis indicated that some of the spores were inside epithelial cells. This was further confirmed by differential immunofluorescence staining of lung cells harvested from the infected lungs, suggesting that association with lung epithelial cells may provide an advantage to spore persistence in the lung. There was no or very mild inflammation in the infected lungs. Furthermore, spores were present in the lung tissue as single spores rather than in clusters. We also showed that the anthrax toxins did not play a role in persistence. Together, the results suggest that B. anthracis spores have special properties that promote their persistence in the lung, and that there may be multiple mechanisms contributing to spore persistence.

  3. Global network reorganization during dynamic adaptations of Bacillus subtilis metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical...

  4. Two Genes Encoding Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Are Present in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Andersen, Paal S.

    1995-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) catalyzes the key reaction in the salvage of uracil in many microorganisms. Surprisingly, two genes encoding UPRTase activity were cloned from Bacillus subtilis by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The genes were sequenced, and the putative...

  5. Effects of probiotic Bacillus species in aquaculture – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Teodor BURUIANĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of a large amount of certain types of beneficial bacteria can reduce the multiplication and development of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. A “probiotic” is a product that contains live microorganisms which positively influence the host intestinal microbiota by preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth and development of beneficial bacteria. Bacillus spp. are Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria with beneficial effects in aquaculture industry. The dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. in fish culture improved especially growth performance, immune response and the disease resistance of fish against pathogenic bacterial infections. The objective of the current paper is to review the recent published investigations reported in the scientific literature on the use of probiotic Bacillus spp. in aquaculture, focusing on their beneficial effects on the host. This review includes the main effects of Bacillus spp. administration in shrimp culture, carp culture, tilapia culture, and other fish culture.

  6. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smear; Mycobacteria Culture; TB NAAT Formal name: Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis ... used to detect several different types of acid-fast bacilli, but it is most commonly used to ...

  7. The Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis AlHakam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challacombe, Jean F.; Altherr, Michael R.; Xie, Gary; Bhotika,Smriti S.; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S.; Campbell,Mary L.; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A.; Fawcett, John J.; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Green, Lance D.; Han, Cliff S.; Hill, Karen K.; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J.; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; Martinez, Diego; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J.; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L.; Mundt, Mark; Munk,A. Christine; Okinaka, Richard T.; Parson-Quintana, B.; Reilly, LeePhilip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L.; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders,Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G.; Thayer, Nina; Thompson,Linda S.; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Wills, Patti L.; Gilna, Paul; Brettin, Thomas S.

    2007-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen that is widelyused as a biopesticide (3). Here we report the finished, annotated genomesequence of B. thuringiensis Al Hakam, which was collected in Iraq by theUnited Nations Special Commission (2).

  8. Isolation of a novel mutant from Bacillus subtilis natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    For the construction of strains with full probiotics function in intestines, deoxycholate resistant mutants were isolated from Bacillus subtilis natto. The partial characterization of the mutants was carried out and described.

  9. Bioinsecticide activity of Bacillus thuringiensis isolates on tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    4th instar) from tomato cultivated ... the genus Bacillus based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. According to the ..... studies showed the presence of voids in the cells of the ... Culex quinque fasciatus treated with B. thuringiensis.

  10. Lantibiotics, class I bacteriocins from the genus Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Hae-Yeong

    2011-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides exhibit high levels of antimicrobial activity against a broad range of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Compared with bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria, antimicrobial peptides from the genus Bacillus have been relatively less recognized despite their broad antimicrobial spectra. These peptides can be classified into two different groups based on whether they are ribosomally (bacteriocins) or nonribosomally (polymyxins and iturins) synthesized. Because of their broad spectra and high activity, antimicrobial peptides from Bacillus spp. may have great potential for applications in the food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical industries to prevent or control spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. In this review, we introduce ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides, the lantibiotic bacteriocins produced by members of Bacillus. In addition, the biosynthesis, genetic organization, mode of action, and regulation of subtilin, a well-investigated lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis, are discussed.

  11. Isolation and characterization of a novel Bacillus subtilis WD23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-08-23

    Aug 23, 2010 ... Key words: Bacterial laccase, Bacillus subtilis, spore, decolorization. INTRODUCTION ... 10.3.2) are multi-copper proteins that can oxidize a wide range of inorganic ..... Function and molecular evolution of multicopper blue ...

  12. Antifungal activity of Bacillus sp. isolated from compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczyk, K; Stachowiak, B; Trojanowska, K; Gulewicz, K

    2000-01-01

    Four strains of Bacillus isolated from lupine compost exhibited an antifungal activity against six plant fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum). It was significantly influenced by the composition of the cultivation media.

  13. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... Bacillus subtilis during recycling animal and plant wastes. Amira Hassan .... collected from farms in sterile plastic bags (Sonia Sethi et al.,. 2012). ... Effect of different waste concentrations on enzyme production. To test the best ...

  14. BOOK REVIEW: BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  15. Gene cloning of phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... 1College of Food Engineering and Biotechnology, Tianjin University of ... Bacillus subtilis and ligated with a shuttle vector YEp352 to generate a novel plasmid YPADC. ... phenolic acid decarboxylase activity and its functions.

  16. Global Network Reorganization During Dynamic Adaptations of Bacillus subtilis Metabolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu; Uhr, Markus; Muntel, Jan; Botella, Eric; Hessling, Bernd; Kleijn, Roelco Jacobus; Le Chat, Ludovic; Lecointe, Francois; Maeder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Piersma, Sjouke; Ruegheimer, Frank; Becher, Doerte; Bessieres, Philippe; Bidnenko, Elena; Denham, Emma L; Dervyn, Etienne; Devine, Kevin M; Doherty, Geoff; lhe, Samuel; Felicori, Liza; Fogg, Mark J; Goelzer, Anne; Hansen, Annette; Harwood, Colin R; Hecker, Michael; Hubner, Sebastian; Hultschig, Claus; Jarmer, Hanne; Klipp, Edda; Leduc, Aurelie; Lewis, Peter; Molina, Frank; Noirot, Philippe; Peres, Sabine; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Pohl, Susanne; Rasmussen, Simon; Rinn, Bernd; Schaffer, Marc; Schnidder, Julian; Schwikowski, Benno; Van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Veiga, Patrick; Walsh, Sean; Wilkinson, Anthony J; Stelling, Joerg; Aymerich, Stephane; Sauer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    .... For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and model-based data analyses of dynamic transcript, protein, and metabolite abundances and promoter activities...

  17. Activity of cellulase from Thermoactinomycetes and Bacillus spp. isolated from Brassica waste compost Atividade de celulase de Termoactinomicetos e Bacillus spp. isolados de resíduos derivados de compostos de Brassica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chin Chang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant wastes present a high cellulose content, which is an ideal organic material for composting. Five strains of thermophiles from processed Brassica waste were isolated, and the hydrolytic activity on various cellulosic biomass substrata and their temperature profiles were determined. 16S rRNA sequencing identified these strains as Thermoactinomyces and Bacillus spp. Maximal cellulase activity corresponded to 2.3 U mL-1 of enzyme. The application of these strains on Brassica rapa residues demonstrates increased total nitrogen content. TA-3, a Thermoactinomycetes sp. strain, performs best among all inoculants, increasing the nitrogen content from 0.74 to 0.91%, and decreasing the carbon content from 15.4 to 12.2%, showing its high efficiency and bioactivity during compositing.Resíduos vegetais apresentam alta concentração de celulose, que é um material orgânico ideal para preparação de composto. Cinco linhagens de termófilos foram isoladas de resíduos processados de Brassica e a atividade hidrolítica em vários substratos contendo celulose e seus padrões de temperatura foram determinados. O seqüenciamento de rRNA 16S permitiu a identificação dessas isolados como Thermoactinomyces e Bacillus spp. A atividade máxima de celulase foi determinada como de 2,3 U mL-1 de enzima. O uso dessas linhagens em resíduos de Brassica rapa resultou em um aumento total do conteúdo de nitrogênio. TA-3, uma linhagem de Thermoactinomycetes sp., apresentou melhor desempenho entre os inoculantes, aumentando o conteúdo de nitrogênio de 0,74 para 0,91%, e diminuindo o conteúdo de carbono de 15,4 para 12,2%, mostrando sua alta eficiência e bioatividade durante a compostagem.

  18. Genotoxicity of <em>Euphorbia hirtaem>: An <em>Allium cepaem> Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of <em>Euphorbia hirta em>which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using <em>Allium cepaem> assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of <em>A. cepaem>. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of <em>E. hirtaem> extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of <em>E. hirta em>exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  19. Regulation of cry Gene Expression in Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Deng; Qi Peng; Fuping Song; Didier Lereclus

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis differs from the closely related Bacillus cereus group species by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions. The production of these crystals mainly results from the expression of the cry genes, from the stability of their transcripts and from the synthesis, accumulation and crystallization of large amounts of insecticidal Cry proteins. This process normally coincides with sporulation and is regulated by various factors operating at the transcriptional, post-transcr...

  20. Transformation of undomesticated strains of Bacillus subtilis by protoplast electroporation

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Diego; Perez-Garcia, Alejandro; Veening, Jan-Willem; Vicente, Antonio; Oscar P. Kuipers; Vicente A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid method combining the use of protoplasts and electroporation was developed to transform recalcitrant wild strains of Bacillus subtilis. The method described here allows transformation with both replicative and integrative plasmids, as well as with chromosomal DNA, and provides a valuable tool for molecular genetic analysis of interesting Bacillus strains, which are hard to transform by conventional methods. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacillus As Potential Probiotics: Status, Concerns, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. F. Elshaghabee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spore-forming bacilli are being explored for the production and preservation of food for many centuries. The inherent ability of production of large number of secretory proteins, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, vitamins, and carotenoids specifies the importance of bacilli in food chain. Additionally, Bacillus spp. are gaining interest in human health related functional food research coupled with their enhanced tolerance and survivability under hostile environment of gastrointestinal tract. Besides, bacilli are more stable during processing and storage of food and pharmaceutical preparations, making them more suitable candidate for health promoting formulations. Further, Bacillus strains also possess biotherapeutic potential which is connected with their ability to interact with the internal milieu of the host by producing variety of antimicrobial peptides and small extracellular effector molecules. Nonetheless, with proposed scientific evidences, commercial probiotic supplements, and functional foods comprising of Bacillus spp. had not gained much credential in general population, since the debate over probiotic vs pathogen tag of Bacillus in the research and production terrains is confusing consumers. Hence, it’s important to clearly understand the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of selective beneficial Bacillus spp. and their substantiation with those having GRAS status, to reach a consensus over the same. This review highlights the probiotic candidature of spore forming Bacillus spp. and presents an overview of the proposed health benefits, including application in food and pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the growing need to evaluate the safety of individual Bacillus strains as well as species on a case by case basis and necessity of more profound analysis for the selection and identification of Bacillus probiotic candidates are also taken into consideration.

  2. Efficient transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis requires nonmethylated plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Macaluso, A; Mettus, A M

    1991-01-01

    The transformation efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis depends upon the source of plasmid DNA. DNA isolated from B. thuringiensis, Bacillus megaterium, or a Dam- Dcm- Escherichia coli strain efficiently transformed several B. thuringiensis strains, B. thuringiensis strains were grouped according to which B. thuringiensis backgrounds were suitable sources of DNA for transformation of other B. thuringiensis strains, suggesting that B. thuringiensis strains differ in DNA modification and restri...

  3. Regulation of cry Gene Expression in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Deng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis differs from the closely related Bacillus cereus group species by its ability to produce crystalline inclusions. The production of these crystals mainly results from the expression of the cry genes, from the stability of their transcripts and from the synthesis, accumulation and crystallization of large amounts of insecticidal Cry proteins. This process normally coincides with sporulation and is regulated by various factors operating at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, metabolic and post-translational levels.

  4. Plant growth regulation of Bt-cotton through Bacillus species

    OpenAIRE

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Sultana, Tasleem; Vootla, Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Deccan plateau in India periodically experiences droughts due to irregular rain fall and the soil in many parts of the region is considered to be poor for farming. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are originally defined as root-colonizing bacteria, i.e., Bacillus that cause either plant growth promotion or biological control of plant diseases. The study aims at the isolation of novel Bacillus species and to assess the biotechnological potential of the novel species as a biofertilizer, wit...

  5. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Ran

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS, respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (P<0.05. A similar challenge experiment conducted in Vietnam with four of the five Bacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  6. Antagonism of Bacillus spp. against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Monteiro; Rosa de Lima Ramos Mariano; Ana Maria Souto-Maior

    2005-01-01

    The antagonism of eight Bacillus isolates was investigated against nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (causal agent of crucifers black rot) to assess the role of lipopeptides in this process. Antimicrobial and hemolytic (surfactant) activity tests were performed in vitro using agar diffusion methods. Antibiosis and hemolysis were positive for four Bacillus isolates against all X. campestris pv. campestris strains. The correlation observed between antimicrobial and hemolytic...

  7. <em>In Vitroem> Antioxidant Properties of Flavonoids and Polysaccharides Extract from Tobacco (<em>Nicotiana> em>tabacum> L. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Lu Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, antioxidant properties of flavonoids and polysaccharides from tobacco (<em>Nicotiana> tabacumem> L. leaves were evaluated in several <em>in vitroem> systems, e.g., scavenging activities on hydroxyl, superoxide anion, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals, and reducing power. Flavonoids showed much better activity than polysaccharides in scavenging activities on free radicals. When compared to the positive control, ascorbic acid, both showed weaker antioxidant potential. However, flavonoids possessed comparable superoxide anion, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities to ascorbic acid at high concentration (600 μg/mL. Meanwhile, it was found that flavonoids had prominent effects on the reducing power, which was equivalent to ascorbic acid, and was significantly higher than polysaccharides. These results clearly indicate that flavonoids are effective in scavenging free radicals and have the potential to be powerful antioxidants. Thus, tobacco leaves could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidants for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics or nutraceutical industries.

  8. Plant growth regulation of Bt-cotton through Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Sultana, Tasleem; Vootla, Praveen Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Deccan plateau in India periodically experiences droughts due to irregular rain fall and the soil in many parts of the region is considered to be poor for farming. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are originally defined as root-colonizing bacteria, i.e., Bacillus that cause either plant growth promotion or biological control of plant diseases. The study aims at the isolation of novel Bacillus species and to assess the biotechnological potential of the novel species as a biofertilizer, with respect to their plant growth promoting properties as efficient phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. Seven different strains of Bacillus were isolated from cotton rhizosphere soil near boys' hostel of Palamuru University which belongs to Deccan plateau. Among seven isolated strains, Bacillus strain-7 has shown maximum support for good growth of eight cotton cultivars. This bacterial species is named Bacillus sp. PU-7 based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis. Among eight cotton cultivars, Mahyco has shown high levels of IAA, proteins, chlorophyll, sugars and low level of proline. Efficacy of novel Bacillus sp. PU-7 with Mahyco cultivar has been checked experimentally at field level in four different cotton grown agricultural soils. The strains supported plant growth in almost all the cases, especially in the deep black soil, with a clear evidence of maximum plant growth by increased levels of phytohormone production and biochemical analysis, followed by shallow black soil. Hence, it is inferred that the novel isolate can be used as bioinoculant in the cotton fields.

  9. Clinical significance of Bacillus species isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

    1989-06-01

    To determine the clinical significance of blood isolates of Bacillus, we reviewed all blood cultures obtained at North Carolina Memorial Hospital between 1981 and 1985. Over the five-year study period the number of patients (incidence per 10,000 hospital admissions) from whom Bacillus was isolated increased from 4.97 in 1981 to 12.5 in 1985. The incidence per 1,000 blood cultures also increased from 1.12 in 1981 to 2.33 in 1985. Review of the medical records of 78 of the 95 patients (82%) with positive cultures allowed retrospective classification of five isolates (6.4%) as clinically significant, 33 isolates (42.3%) as possibly significant, and 40 isolates (51.3%) as nonsignificant. Underlying diseases in patients with clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia included burn trauma in two, leukemia in one, carcinoma in one, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in one. All isolates judged to be clinically significant and the majority of possibly significant isolates were B cereus. We conclude that the isolation of Bacillus species from blood cultures is clinically significant in 5% to 10% of cases, that the incidence of Bacillus bacteremia is increasing, and that burn trauma should be added to the list of conditions known to predispose to clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia.

  10. Mortality of adult Stomoxys calcitrans fed isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyk, T J; Kalischuk-Tymensen, L D; Selinger, L B

    2012-10-01

    We examined the ability of five isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner to cause mortality in adult stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). Isolates Bacillus thuringiensis tolworthi 4L3 (serotype 9), Bacillus thuringiensis darmstadiensis 4M1 (serotype 10a10b), Bacillus thuringiensis thompsoni 401 (serotype 12), Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis HD2 (serotype 1), and Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD945 (serotype 3a3b3c) were administered to adult flies in diets containing blood only, sugar only, and both sugar and blood combined. B. t. tolworthi 4L3 had no effect on adult mortality regardless of the feeding substrate. The remaining isolates tended to cause the greatest mortality when administered in blood alone. B. t. thompsoni 401 was the only isolate that consistently caused adult mortality when fed in blood at concentrations ranging from 0.21 to 50.0 microg of protein per ml of blood. This isolate also caused mortality when applied topically. The time to 50% mortality declined with dose and reached a lower asymptote at approximately equal to 1.3 d at an oral dose of 8.75 microg/ml and at a topical dose of 0.14 microg per fly.

  11. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisung eKim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 μm to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased 2-fold and the number of small speckles increased 7-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony.

  12. Draft Genome Sequences of Type Strains Bacillus drentensis DSM 15600T and Bacillus novalis DSM 15603T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Wang, Jie-Ping; Che, Jian-Mei; Chen, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-12-15

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Bacillus drentensis DSM 15600(T) and Bacillus novalis DSM 15603(T) with 5,305,306 bp and 5,667,584 bp, respectively, which will provide useful information for the functional gene mining and application of these two species. The average DNA G+C contents were 38.91% and 40.01%, respectively.

  13. Transfer of the toxin protein genes of Bacillus sphaericus into Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgouin, C.; Delécluse, A; de la Torre, F; Szulmajster, J.

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding the toxic determinants of Bacillus sphaericus have been expressed in a nontoxic and a toxic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. In both cases, the B. sphaericus toxin proteins were produced at a high level during sporulation of B. thuringiensis and accumulated as crystalline structures. B. thuringiensis transformants expressing B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins did not show a significant enhancement of toxicity against Aedes aegyp...

  14. Comparison of sampling methods to recover germinated Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis endospores from surface coupons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, T M; Shoe, J L; Hunter, M; Woodson, A M; Fritts, K A; Klimko, C P; Quirk, A V; Welkos, S L; Cote, C K

    2017-05-01

    In an attempt to devise decontamination methods that are both effective and minimally detrimental to the environment, we evaluated germination induction as an enhancement to strategies for Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination. To determine an optimal method for the recovery of germinating spores from different matrices, it was critical to ensure that the sampling procedures did not negatively impact the viability of the germinating spores possibly confounding the results and downstream analyses of field trial data. Therefore, the two main objectives of this study were the following: (i) development of an effective processing protocol capable of recovering the maximum number of viable germinating or germinated spores from different surface materials; and (ii) using a model system of spore contamination, employ this protocol to evaluate the potential applicability of germination induction to wide-area decontamination of B. anthracis spores. We examined parameters affecting the sampling efficiencies of B. anthracis and the surrogate species Bacillus thuringiensis on nonporous and porous materials. The most efficient extraction from all matrices was observed using PBS with 0·01% Tween 80 extraction buffer. The addition of a sonication and/or extended vortex treatment did not yield significant increases in spore or germinated spore recovery. Our data demonstrate that previous germination-induction experiments performed in suspension can be reproduced when Bacillus spores are deposited onto reference surfaces materials. Our proof of concept experiment illustrated that a germination pretreatment step significantly improves conventional secondary decontamination strategies and remediation plans. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  16. Label-free, non-invasive light scattering sensor for rapid screening of Bacillus colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atul K; Sun, Xiulan; Bai, Xingjian; Kim, Huisung; Abdalhaseib, Maha Usama; Bae, Euiwon; Bhunia, Arun K

    2015-02-01

    Bacillus species are widely distributed in nature and have great significance both as industrially beneficial microbes and as public health burdens. We employed a novel light-scattering sensor, BARDOT (bacterial rapid detection using optical scattering technology) for instant screening of colonies of Bacillus species on agar plates. A total of 265 Bacillus and non-Bacillus isolates from our collection were used to develop and verify scatter image libraries including isolates from food, environmental and clinical samples. All Bacillus species (n=118) were detected with a high positive predictive value, PPV (≥90%) while non-Bacillus spp. had very low PPV (Bacillus colonies on phenol red mannitol (PRM) generated the highest differential scatter patterns and were used in subsequent studies. Surface plot analysis of scatter patterns confirmed differences for Bacillus and non-Bacillus isolates. BARDOT successfully detected Bacillus from inoculated baby formula, cheese, and naturally contaminated bovine unpasteurized milk in 7-16h. Ten of 129 colonies (isolates) from seven milk samples were Bacillus and remainders were non-Bacillus spp. BARDOT results were confirmed by PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. This study demonstrates that BARDOT could be used as a screening tool to identify relevant Bacillus colonies from a community prior to genome sequencing.

  17. Role of electrostatic repulsion on colloidal stability of <em>Bacillus halmapalusem> alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Nymand; Andersen, Kim Bruno; Randolf, Theodor

    2009-01-01

    The colloidal stability of charged particles in suspension is often controlled by electrostatic repulsion, which can be rationalized in a semi-quantitative way by the DLVO theory. In the current study, we investigate this approach towards understanding irreversible protein aggregation, using Baci...

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Lycopene ε-Cyclase Gene of <em>Chlorella em>(Chromochloris> <em>zofingiensis>. Regulation of the Carotenogenic Pathway by Nitrogen and Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angeles Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and characterization of the lycopene ε-cyclase gene from the green microalga <em>Chlorella em>(Chromochloris> <em>zofingiensis> (<em>Czlcy-e> was performed. This gene is involved in the formation of the carotenoids α-carotene and lutein. <em>Czlcy-e> gene encoded a polypeptide of 654 amino acids. A single copy of <em>Czlcy-e> was found in <em>C. zofingiensisem>. Functional analysis by heterologous complementation in <em>Escherichia coliem> showed the ability of this protein to convert lycopene to δ-carotene. In addition, the regulation of the carotenogenic pathway by light and nitrogen was also studied in <em>C. zofingiensisem>. High irradiance stress did not increase mRNA levels of neither lycopene β<em>->cyclase gene (<em>lcy-b> nor lycopene ε-cyclase gene<em> em>(lcy-e> as compared with low irradiance conditions, whereas the transcript levels of <em>psy>, <em>pds>, <em>chyB> and <em>bkt> genes were enhanced, nevertheless triggering the synthesis of the secondary carotenoids astaxanthin, canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin and decreasing the levels of the primary carotenoids α-carotene, lutein, violaxanthin and β-carotene. Nitrogen starvation <em>per seem> enhanced mRNA levels of all genes considered, except <em>lcy-e and pdsem>, but did not trigger the synthesis of astaxanthin, canthaxanthin nor zeaxanthin. The combined effect of both high light and nitrogen starvation stresses enhanced significantly the accumulation of these carotenoids as well as the transcript levels of <em>bkt> gene, as compared with the effect of only high irradiance stress.

  19. Fatores de virulência de Bacillus thuringiensis: o que existe além das proteínas Cry

    OpenAIRE

    Gislayne Vilas-Bôas; Rita Alvarez; Clelton dos Santos; Laurival Vilas-Boas

    2012-01-01

    As proteínas Cry produzidas pela bactéria entomopatogênica Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner são bem conhecidas devido a alta citotoxicidade que exibem a uma variedade de insetos-alvo. O modo de ação destas proteínas é específico e torna os produtos à base de B. thuringiensis os mais amplamente utilizados em programas de controle biológico de pragas na agricultura e de importantes vetores de doenças humanas. Cont...

  20. Fatores de Virulência de Bacillus thuringiensis Berlinier: O Que Existe Além das Proteínas Cry?

    OpenAIRE

    Laurival A Vilas-Boas; Rita C. Alvarez; dos Santos, Clelton A.; Gislayne Trindade Vilas-Bôas

    2012-01-01

    As proteínas Cry produzidas pela bactéria entomopatogênica Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner são bem conhecidas devido a alta citotoxicidade que exibem a uma variedade de insetos-alvo. O modo de ação destas proteínas é específico e torna os produtos à base de B. thuringiensis os mais amplamente utilizados em programas de controle biológico de pragas na agricultura e de importantes vetores de doenças humanas. Contudo, embora as proteínas Cry sejam os fatores de virulência inseto-específico mais ...

  1. Non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpeth, Susan; Murdoch, David; Cabell, Christopher H; Karchmer, Adolf W; Pappas, Paul; Levine, Donald; Nacinovich, Francisco; Tattevin, Pierre; Fernández-Hidalgo, Núria; Dickerman, Stuart; Bouza, Emilio; del Río, Ana; Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana; de Oliveira Ramos, Auristela; Iarussi, Diana; Klein, John; Chirouze, Catherine; Bedimo, Roger; Corey, G Ralph; Fowler, Vance G

    2007-12-18

    Infective endocarditis caused by non-HACEK (species other than Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, or Kingella species) gram-negative bacilli is rare, is poorly characterized, and is commonly considered to be primarily a disease of injection drug users. To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis in a large, international, contemporary cohort of patients. Observations from the International Collaboration on Infective Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS) database. 61 hospitals in 28 countries. Hospitalized patients with definite endocarditis. Characteristics of non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis cases were described and compared with those due to other pathogens. Among the 2761 case-patients with definite endocarditis enrolled in ICE-PCS, 49 (1.8%) had endocarditis (20 native valve, 29 prosthetic valve or device) due to non-HACEK, gram-negative bacilli. Escherichia coli (14 patients [29%]) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11 patients [22%]) were the most common pathogens. Most patients (57%) with non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis had health care-associated infection, whereas injection drug use was rare (4%). Implanted endovascular devices were frequently associated with non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis compared with other causes of endocarditis (29% vs. 11%; P gram-negative bacilli was high (24%) despite high rates of cardiac surgery (51%). Because of the small number of patients with non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis in each treatment group and the lack of long-term follow-up, strong treatment recommendations are difficult to make. In this large, prospective, multinational cohort, more than one half of all cases of non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis were associated with health care contact. Non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis is not primarily a disease

  2. Digestibility and fecal characteristics of dogs fed with Bacillus subtilis in diet Digestibilidade e características das fezes de cães suplementados com Bacillus subtilis na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Portella Félix

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the benefice demonstrated by the modulating action of probiotics on the host intestinal microbiota, this study aimed to evaluate diet digestibility and fecal characteristics of dogs fed with diets supplemented with Bacillus subtilis (C-3102. Twelve young Beagle dogs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of two treatments: diet with no addition or with the addition of 0.01% Bacillus subtilis (C-3102. Dogs passed through 25 days of adaptation to the diets, and five days of total feces collection. The following fecal characteristics were evaluated: pH, fecal score (1 - watery feces; 5: dry and hard feces, and ammonia content. Diet mean digestibility was compared by the Tukey test, and fecal characteristics by the Tukey-Kramer test. Diet digestibility was not different between treatments, but dogs supplemented with the tested probiotic presented dryer feces (39.1% vs. 36.5% dry matter, higher fecal score (3.4 vs. 3.0 and lower fecal ammonia content (0.45% vs. 0.56%, than dogs fed with the control diet. The dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis (C-3102 improves fecal texture and odor in dogs.Em virtude da capacidade moduladora dos probióticos sobre a microbiota intestinal a favor da saúde do hospedeiro, objetivou-se, com este estudo, avaliar a digestibilidade e as características das fezes de cães suplementados com Bacillus subtilis (C-3102 na dieta. Foram utilizados 12 cães adultos da raça Beagle, os quais foram distribuídos inteiramente ao acaso, em dois tratamentos: dieta controle e dieta com adição de 0,01% de Bacillus subtilis (C-3102. Os animais passaram por 25 dias de adaptação às dietas e por cinco dias para colheita total de fezes. As características das fezes foram avaliadas por meio da matéria seca, do escore (1: fezes moles, malformadas a 5: fezes secas e duras, do pH, da amônia e da produção de fezes. Não houve diferença na digestibilidade; entretanto, os c

  3. Chemical Composition and <em>in Vitroem> Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of <em>Eucalyptus gillii em>Essential Oil and Extracts<em>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Couderc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, essential oil and various extracts (hexane, petroleum ether, acetone, ethanol, methanol and water of <em>Eucalyptus giliiem> were screened for their chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The essential oil chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID, respectively. Thirty four compounds were identified, corresponding to 99.5% of the total essential oil. Tannins [104.9–251.3 g catechin equivalent (CE/Kg dry mass], flavonoids [3.3–34.3 g quercetin equivalent (QE/Kg dry mass], phenolics [4.7–216.6 g gallic acid equivalent (GAE/Kg dry mass] and anthocyannins [1.2–45.3 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent (C3GE/Kg dry mass] of various extracts were investigated. Free radical scavenging capacity of all samples was determinedt. In the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay, the IC50 of essential oil was 163.5 ± 10.7 mg/L and in the 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS assay, it was 94.7 ± 7.1 mg/L. Among the various extracts, the water extract showed the best result (IC50 = 11.4 ± 0.6 mg/L in the DPPH assay which was comparable to vitamin C (IC50 = 4.4 ± 0.2 mg/L. The antimicrobial activities were evaluated against different bacterial and fungal strains. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more sensitive to the essential oil and extracts than Gram negative ones. Anthocyanins seem to have a major effect on the growth of <em>Bacillus subtilisem> (R2 = 0.79. A significant antifungal activity was observed against the yeast and fungi. Correlations between chemical composition and antioxidant activities were studied and R2 values were about 0.96 for the effect of phenolics on the DPPH assay.

  4. Distribution and identification of proteolytic Bacillus spp. in paddy field soil under rice cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K; Hayano, K

    1993-07-01

    Proteolytic bacteria in paddy field soils under rice cultivation were characterized and enumerated using azocoll agar plates. Bacillus spp. were the proteolytic bacteria that were most frequently present, comprising 59% of the isolates. They were always the numerically dominant proteolytic bacteria isolated from three kinds of fertilizer treatments (yearly application of rice-straw compost and chemical fertilizer, yearly application of chemical fertilizer, and no fertilizer application) and at three different stages of rice development (vegetative growth stage, maximal tillering stage, and harvest stage). Of the 411 proteolytic bacteria isolated, 124 isolates had stronger proteolytic activity than others on the basis of gelatin liquefaction tests and most of them were Bacillus spp. (100% in 1989 and 92.4% in 1991). Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus were the main bacteria of this group and Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus megaterium were also present. We conclude that these Bacillus spp. are the primary source of soil protease in these paddy fields.

  5. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  6. Bacillus anthracis diversity in Kruger National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K L; DeVos, V; Bryden, H; Price, L B; Hugh-Jones, M E; Keim, P

    2000-10-01

    The Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, has a recorded history of periodic anthrax epidemics causing widespread disease among wild animals. Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease primarily affecting ungulate herbivores. Worldwide there is little diversity among B. anthracis isolates, but examination of variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci has identified six major clones, with the most dissimilar types split into the A and B branches. Both the A and B types are found in southern Africa, giving this region the greatest genetic diversity of B. anthracis worldwide. Consequently, southern Africa has been hypothesized to be the geographic origin of B. anthracis. In this study, we identify the genotypic types of 98 KNP B. anthracis isolates using multiple-locus VNTR analysis. Two major types are evident, the A branch and the B branch. The spatial and temporal distribution of the different genotypes indicates that anthrax epidemic foci are independent, though correlated through environmental cues. Kruger B isolates were found on significantly higher-calcium and higher-pH soils than were Kruger type A. This relationship between genotype and soil chemistry may be due to adaptive differences among divergent anthrax strains. While this association may be simply fortuitous, adaptation of A types to diverse environmental conditions is consistent with their greater geographic dispersal and genetic dissimilarity.

  7. Ecological diversification in the Bacillus cereus Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebretière, Marie-Hélène; Thompson, Fabiano L; Sorokin, Alexei; Normand, Philippe; Dawyndt, Peter; Ehling-Schulz, Monika; Svensson, Birgitta; Sanchis, Vincent; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Vos, Paul

    2008-04-01

    The Bacillus cereus Group comprises organisms that are widely distributed in the environment and are of health and economic interest. We demonstrate an 'ecotypic' structure of populations in the B. cereus Group using (i) molecular data from Fluorescent Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism patterns, ribosomal gene sequences, partial panC gene sequences, 'psychrotolerant' DNA sequence signatures and (ii) phenotypic and descriptive data from range of growth temperature, psychrotolerance and thermal niches. Seven major phylogenetic groups (I to VII) were thus identified, with ecological differences that provide evidence for a multiemergence of psychrotolerance in the B. cereus Group. A moderate thermotolerant group (VII) was basal to the mesophilic group I, from which in turn distinct thermal lineages have emerged, comprising two mesophilic groups (III, IV), an intermediate group (V) and two psychrotolerant groups (VI, II). This stepwise evolutionary transition toward psychrotolerance was particularly well illustrated by the relative abundance of the 'psychrotolerant' rrs signature (as defined by Pruss et al.) copies accumulated in strains that varied according to the phylogenetic group. The 'psychrotolerant' cspA signature (as defined by Francis et al.) was specific to group VI and provided a useful way to differentiate it from the psychrotolerant group II. This study illustrates how adaptation to novel environments by the modification of temperature tolerance limits has shaped historical patterns of global ecological diversification in the B. cereus Group. The implications for the taxonomy of this Group and for the human health risk are discussed.

  8. Bacillus cereus cellulitis from contaminated heroin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancer, S J; McNair, D; Finn, P; Kolsto, A B

    2002-03-01

    Concern exists over recent unexplained deaths among intravenous drug users. This report describes a patient with crepitant cellulitis who was admitted complaining of severe pain in the right forearm. Ultrasonography demonstrated gas in the tissues and he was referred for early surgical debridement of the arm. He was treated with intravenous benzyl penicillin, gentamicin and metronidazole and made a full recovery. Aspirate samples grew Bacillus cereus, morphologically similar to the isolate obtained from a sample of the patient's own heroin. Antibiogram and API 50CHB profiles were also similar. Further typing included 'H' flagellar serotyping, which found both blood and heroin strains to be non-typable, and amplified fragment polymorphism analysis, which showed that the strains were indistinguishable. Genotyping of two selected genes from B. cereus confirmed almost certain identity between the two strains. This case illustrates the potential virulence of B. cereus when inoculated into tissues, and to our knowledge, is the first report to demonstrate a conclusive microbiological link between contaminated heroin and serious sepsis in a drug user due to B. cereus.

  9. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds.

  10. A pangenomic study of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yongjun; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Jiucheng; Shu, Changlong; Wang, Xumin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Duojun; Liu, Guiming; Hu, Songnian; Zhang, Jie; Al-Mssallem, Ibrahim; Yu, Jun

    2011-12-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. thuringiensis) is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium and its plasmid-encoded toxins (Cry) are commonly used as biological alternatives to pesticides. In a pangenomic study, we sequenced seven B. thuringiensis isolates in both high coverage and base-quality using the next-generation sequencing platform. The B. thuringiensis pangenome was extrapolated to have 4196 core genes and an asymptotic value of 558 unique genes when a new genome is added. Compared to the pangenomes of its closely related species of the same genus, B. thuringiensis pangenome shows an open characteristic, similar to B. cereus but not to B. anthracis; the latter has a closed pangenome. We also found extensive divergence among the seven B. thuringiensis genome assemblies, which harbor ample repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The identities among orthologous genes are greater than 84.5% and the hotspots for the genome variations were discovered in genomic regions of 2.3-2.8Mb and 5.0-5.6Mb. We concluded that high-coverage sequence assemblies from multiple strains, before all the gaps are closed, are very useful for pangenomic studies.

  11. A pangenomic study of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongjun Fang; Songnian Hu; Jie Zhang; Ibrahim A1-Mssallem; Jun Yu; Zhaolong Li; Jiucheng Liu; Changlong Shu; Xumin Wang; Xiaowei Zhang; Xiaoguang Yu; Duojun Zhao; Guiming Liu

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B.thuringiensis) is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium and its plasmid-encoded toxins (Cry) are commonly used as biological alternatives to pesticides.In a pangenomic study,we sequenced seven B.thuringiensis isolates in both high coverage and base quality using the next-generation sequencing platform.The B.thuringiensis pangenome was extrapolated to have 4196 core genes and an asymptotic value of 558 unique genes when a new genome is added.Compared to the pangenomes of its closely related species of the same genus,B.thuringiensis pangenome shows an open characteristic,similar to B.cereus but not to B.anthracis; the latter has a closed pangenome.We also found extensive divergence among the seven B.thuringiensis genome assemblies,which harbor ample repeats and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).The identities among orthologous genes are greater than 84.5% and the hotspots for the genome variations were discovered in genomic regions of 2.3-2.8 Mb and 5.0-5.6 Mb.We concluded that high-coverage sequence assemblies from multiple strains,before all the gaps are closed,are very useful for pangenomic studies.

  12. TOXINS AND ANTITOXINS OF BACILLUS DYSENTERIAE SHIGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olitsky, P K; Kligler, I J

    1920-01-01

    With the methods which have been described we have separated an exotoxin and an endotoxin from cultures of the Shiga dysenteric bacillus. The study of the nature and effect of the poison of this microorganism is thus simplified. The two toxins are physically and biologically distinct. The exotoxin is relatively heat-labile, arises in the early period of growth, and yields an antiexotoxic immune serum. The endotoxin, on the other hand, is heat-stable, is formed in the later period of growth, and is not neutralized by the antiexotoxic serum. The exotoxin exhibits a specific affinity for the central nervous organs in the rabbit, giving rise to a characteristic lesion-mainly, hemorrhages, necroses, and possibly a perivascular infiltration in the gray matter of the upper spinal cord and medulla. The endotoxin exerts a typical action on the intestinal tract, producing edema, hemorrhages, necroses, and ulcerations, especially in the large intestine. In dysentery in man the intestinal lesions predominate, but in severe epidemics paralysis and neuritis have been observed (Osler(17)). These facts become specially significant from the standpoint of the serum therapy of bacillary dysentery. A potent antidysenteric serum should contain antibodies against the exotoxin as well as the endotoxin. That such a serum can be produced in horses has been experimentally demonstrated.

  13. Novel cloning vectors for Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, J A; Coyle, D M; Gilbert, M P; Jany, C S; Gawron-Burke, C

    1990-11-01

    Seven replication origins from resident plasmids of Bacillus thuringienis subsp. kurstaki HD263 and HD73 were cloned in Escherichia coli. Three of these replication origins, originating from plasmids of 43, 44, and 60 MDa, were used to construct a set of compatible shuttle vectors that exhibit structural and segregational stability in the Cry- strain B. thuringiensis HD73-26. These shuttle vectors, pEG597, pEG853, and pEG854, were designed with rare restriction sites that permit various adaptations, including the construction of small recombinant plasmids lacking antibiotic resistance genes. The cryIA(c) and cryIIA insecticidal crystal protein genes were inserted into these vectors to demonstrate crystal protein production in B. thuringiensis. Introduction of a cloned cryIA(c) gene from strain HD263 into a B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain exhibiting good insecticidal activity against Spodoptera exigua resulted in a recombinant strain with an improved spectrum of insecticidal activity. Shuttle vectors of this sort should be valuable in future genetic studies of B. thuringiensis as well as in the development of B. thuringiensis strains for use as microbial pesticides.

  14. Specific identification of Bacillus anthracis strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Thaiya; Deshpande, Samir; Hewel, Johannes; Liu, Hongbin; Wick, Charles H.; Yates, John R., III

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of human pathogens is the initial vital step in treating the civilian terrorism victims and military personnel afflicted in biological threat situations. We have applied a powerful multi-dimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT) along with newly generated software termed Profiler to identify the sequences of specific proteins observed for few strains of Bacillus anthracis, a human pathogen. Software termed Profiler was created to initially screen the MudPIT data of B. anthracis strains and establish the observed proteins specific for its strains. A database was also generated using Profiler containing marker proteins of B. anthracis and its strains, which in turn could be used for detecting the organism and its corresponding strains in samples. Analysis of the unknowns by our methodology, combining MudPIT and Profiler, led to the accurate identification of the anthracis strains present in samples. Thus, a new approach for the identification of B. anthracis strains in unknown samples, based on the molecular mass and sequences of marker proteins, has been ascertained.

  15. Cannibalism stress response in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfler, Carolin; Heckmann, Judith; Fritsch, Anne; Popp, Philipp; Gebhard, Susanne; Fritz, Georg; Mascher, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    When faced with carbon source limitation, the Gram-positive soil organism Bacillus subtilis initiates a survival strategy called sporulation, which leads to the formation of highly resistant endospores that allow B. subtilis to survive even long periods of starvation. In order to avoid commitment to this energy-demanding and irreversible process, B. subtilis employs another strategy called 'cannibalism' to delay sporulation as long as possible. Cannibalism involves the production and secretion of two cannibalism toxins, sporulation delaying protein (SDP) and sporulation killing factor (SKF), which are able to lyse sensitive siblings. The lysed cells are thought to then provide nutrients for the cannibals to slow down or even prevent them from entering sporulation. In this study, we uncovered the role of the cell envelope stress response (CESR), especially the Bce-like antimicrobial peptide detoxification modules, in the cannibalism stress response during the stationary phase. SDP and SKF specifically induce Bce-like systems and some extracytoplasmic function σ factors in stationary-phase cultures, but only the latter provide some degree of protection. A full Bce response is only triggered by mature toxins, and not by toxin precursors. Our study provides insights into the close relationship between stationary-phase survival and the CESR of B. subtilis.

  16. Hydrocarbon degradation abilities of psychrotolerant Bacillus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Kolsal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradation requires identification of hydrocarbon degrading microbes and the investigation of psychrotolerant hydrocarbon degrading microbes is essential for successful biodegradation in cold seawater. In the present study, a total of 597 Bacillus isolates were screened to select psychrotolerant strains and 134 isolates were established as psychrotolerant on the basis of their ability to grow at 7 °C. Hydrocarbon degradation capacities of these 134 psychrotolerant isolate were initially investigated on agar medium containing different hydrocarbons (naphthalene, n-hexadecane, mineral oil and 47 positive isolates were grown in broth medium containing hydrocarbons at 20 °C under static culture. Bacterial growth was estimated in terms of viable cell count (cfu ml–1. Isolates showing the best growth in static culture were further grown in presence of crude oil under shaking culture and viable cell count was observed between 8.3 × 105–7.4 × 108 cfu ml–1. In the final step, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH (chrysene and naphthalene degradation yield of two most potent isolates was determined by GC-MS along with the measurement of pH, biomass and emulsification activities. Results showed that isolates Ege B.6.2i and Ege B.1.4Ka have shown 60% and 36% chrysene degradation yield, respectively, while 33% and 55% naphthalene degradation yield, respectively, with emulsification activities ranges between 33–50%. These isolates can be used to remove hydrocarbon contamination from different environments, particularly in cold regions.

  17. Biomineralization of Se Nanoshpere by Bacillus Licheniformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqiang Yuan; Jianming Zhu; Congqiang Liu; Shen Yu; Lei Lei

    2015-01-01

    Biological dissimilatory reduction of selenite (SeO32-) to elemental selenium (Se0) is com-mon, but the mineral formation and the biogenic process remain uncertain. In this study, we examined the Se0 formation during the selenite bioreduction by Bacillus licheniformis SeRB-1 through transmis-sion electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) techniques. Results showed that the reduction process occurred mostly during the exponential phase and early stationary phase, whilst the elemental selenium was produced in these pe-riods. From the TEM images and polyacrylamide gel electropheresis, it is known that the Se0 granule formation is a biologically-induced type, and the cell envelopes are the main biomineralization positions, and particles may go through a process from nucleation to crystallization, under the control of mi-crobes. In fact, the minerals are spherical nanoparticles, occurring as a microcrystal or amorphous form. It is vital to recognize which kinds of proteins and/or polysaccharides act as a template to direct nanoparticle nucleation and growth? This should focus for further studies. This study may shed light on the process of formation of Se(0) nanosphere.

  18. Bacillus cereus, a volatile human pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottone, Edward J

    2010-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that is widely distributed environmentally. While B. cereus is associated mainly with food poisoning, it is being increasingly reported to be a cause of serious and potentially fatal non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. The pathogenicity of B. cereus, whether intestinal or nonintestinal, is intimately associated with the production of tissue-destructive exoenzymes. Among these secreted toxins are four hemolysins, three distinct phospholipases, an emesis-inducing toxin, and proteases. The major hurdle in evaluating B. cereus when isolated from a clinical specimen is overcoming its stigma as an insignificant contaminant. Outside its notoriety in association with food poisoning and severe eye infections, this bacterium has been incriminated in a multitude of other clinical conditions such as anthrax-like progressive pneumonia, fulminant sepsis, and devastating central nervous system infections, particularly in immunosuppressed individuals, intravenous drug abusers, and neonates. Its role in nosocomial acquired bacteremia and wound infections in postsurgical patients has also been well defined, especially when intravascular devices such as catheters are inserted. Primary cutaneous infections mimicking clostridial gas gangrene induced subsequent to trauma have also been well documented. B. cereus produces a potent beta-lactamase conferring marked resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobials noted to be effective in the empirical management of a B. cereus infection while awaiting antimicrobial susceptibility results for the isolate include ciprofloxacin and vancomycin.

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugation in Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuls, Elise; van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0-g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1-g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  20. Transferrin Impacts Bacillus thuringiensis Biofilm Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Garner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of transferrin on Bacillus thuringiensis biofilms. Three commercial strains, an environmental strain (33679, the type strain (10792, and an isolate from a diseased insect (700872, were cultured in iron restricted minimal medium. All strains produced biofilm when grown in vinyl plates at 30°C. B. thuringiensis 33679 had a biofilm biomass more than twice the concentration exhibited by the other strains. The addition of transferrin resulted in slightly increased growth yields for 2 of the 3 strains tested, including 33679. In contrast, the addition of 50 μg/mL of transferrin resulted in an 80% decrease in biofilm levels for strain 33679. When the growth temperature was increased to 37°C, the addition of 50 μg/mL of transferrin increased culture turbidity for only strain 33679. Biofilm levels were again decreased in strain 33679 at 37°C. Growth of B. thuringiensis cultures in polystyrene resulted in a decrease in overall growth yields at 30°C, with biofilm levels significantly decreased for 33679 in the presence of transferrin. These findings demonstrate that transferrin impacts biofilm formation in select strains of B. thuringiensis. Identification of these differences in biofilm regulation may be beneficial in elucidating potential virulence mechanisms among the differing strains.

  1. <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> in red foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and badgers (<em>Meles melesem> from Central and Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, 189 foxes (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> and 6 badgers (<em>Meles melesem> were collected in different areas of Central Northern Italy (Piedmont, Liguria and Tuscany and examined for <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly different in the areas considered, with the highest values in the district of Imperia (80%, Liguria and in Montezemolo (70%, southern Piedmont; the prevalence in Tuscany was 7%. One badger collected in the area of Imperia turned out to be infected, representing the first report of the parasite in this species in Italy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role played by fox populations as reservoirs of infection and the probability of its spreading to domestic dogs.
    Riassunto <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem> nella volpe (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e nel tasso (<em>Meles melesem> in Italia centro-settentrionale. Nel 2004-2005 e 2007-2008, 189 volpi (<em>Vulpes vulpesem> e 6 tassi (<em>Meles melesem> provenienti da differenti aree dell'Italia settentrionale e centrale (Piemonte, Liguria Toscana, sono stati esaminati per la ricerca di <em>Angiostrongylus vasorumem>. La prevalenza del nematode è risultata significativamente diversa nelle varie zone, con valori elevati nelle zone di Imperia (80% e di Montezemolo (70%, provincia di Cuneo; la prevalenza in Toscana è risultata del 7%. Un tasso proveniente dall'area di Imperia è risultato positivo per A. vasorum; questa è la prima segnalazione del parassita in tale specie in Italia. Ulteriori studi sono necessari per valutare il potenziale della volpe come serbatoio e la possibilità di diffusione della parassitosi ai cani domestici.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4442

  2. Molecular signatures for Bacillus species: demarcation of the Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus clades in molecular terms and proposal to limit the placement of new species into the genus Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Vaibhav; Ahmod, Nadia Z; Shah, Haroun N; Gupta, Radhey S

    2013-07-01

    The genus Bacillus is a phylogenetically incoherent taxon with members of the group lacking a common evolutionary history. Comprising aerobic and anaerobic spore-forming bacteria, no characteristics are known that can distinguish species of this genus from other similar endospore-forming genera. With the availability of complete genomic data from over 30 different species from this group, we have constructed detailed phylogenetic trees to determine the relationships among Bacillus and other closely related taxa. Additionally, we have performed comparative genomic analysis for the determination of molecular markers, in the form of conserved signature indels (CSIs), to assist in the understanding of relationships among species of the genus Bacillus in molecular terms. Based on the analysis, we report here the identification of 11 and 6 CSIs that clearly differentiate a 'Bacillus subtilis clade' and a 'Bacillus cereus clade', respectively, from all other species of the genus Bacillus. No molecular markers were identified that supported a larger clade within this genus. The subtilis and the cereus clades were also the largest observed monophyletic groupings among species from the genus Bacillus in the phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and those based upon concatenated sequences for 20 conserved proteins. Thus, the relationships observed among these groups of species through CSIs are independently well supported by phylogenetic analysis. The molecular markers identified in this study provide a reliable means for the reorganization of the currently polyphyletic genus Bacillus into a more evolutionarily consistent set of groups. It is recommended that the genus Bacillus sensu stricto should comprise only the monophyletic subtilis clade that is demarcated by the identified CSIs, with B. subtilis as its type species. Members of the adjoining cereus clade (referred to as the Cereus clade of bacilli), although they are distinct from the subtilis clade, will

  3. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  4. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  5. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahner, Viviane; Silva, Ana Carolina Telles de Carvalho e; de Moraes, Gabriela Pinhel; McIntosh, Douglas; de Filippis, Ivano

    2013-01-01

    Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST) was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR). Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap), encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species. PMID:23440117

  6. Architecture and High-Resolution Structure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus Spore Coat Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T; Wheeler, K; Malkin, A

    2005-02-18

    We have utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM) to visualize the native surface topology and ultrastructure of Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus cereus spores in water and in air. AFM was able to resolve the nanostructure of the exosporium and three distinctive classes of appendages. Removal of the exosporium exposed either a hexagonal honeycomb layer (B. thuringiensis) or a rodlet outer spore coat layer (B. cereus). Removal of the rodlet structure from B. cereus spores revealed an underlying honeycomb layer similar to that observed with B. thuringiensis spores. The periodicity of the rodlet structure on the outer spore coat of B. cereus was {approx}8 nm, and the length of the rodlets was limited to the cross-patched domain structure of this layer to {approx}200 nm. The lattice constant of the honeycomb structures was {approx}9 nm for both B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores. Both honeycomb structures were composed of multiple, disoriented domains with distinct boundaries. Our results demonstrate that variations in storage and preparation procedures result in architectural changes in individual spore surfaces, which establish AFM as a useful tool for evaluation of preparation and processing ''fingerprints'' of bacterial spores. These results establish that high-resolution AFM has the capacity to reveal species-specific assembly and nanometer scale structure of spore surfaces. These species-specific spore surface structural variations are correlated with sequence divergences in a spore core structural protein SspE.

  7. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Zahner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR. Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap, encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.

  8. Chitinase production by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus licheniformis: their potential in antifungal biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2012-02-01

    Thirty bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants collected from Egypt and screened for production of chitinase enzymes. Bacillus thuringiensis NM101-19 and Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17 had the highest chitinolytic activities amongst those investigated. The production of chitinase by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis was optimized using colloidal chitin medium amended with 1.5% colloidal chitin, with casein as a nitrogen source, at 30°C after five days of incubation. An enhancement of chitinase production by the two species was observed by addition of sugar substances and dried fungal mats to the colloidal chitin media. The optimal conditions for chitinase activity by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis were at 40°C, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. Na(+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+) caused enhancement of enzyme activities whereas they were markedly inhibited by Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+). In vitro, B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis chitinases had potential for cell wall lysis of many phytopathogenic fungi tested. The addition of B. thuringiensis chitinase was more effective than that of B. licheniformis in increasing the germination of soybean seeds infected with various phytopathogenic fungi.

  9. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products.

  10. Microbiota mesófila aeróbia contaminante do leite UHT

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    Juliana Ramos Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A produção nacional de leite tratado por ultra-alta temperatura (UHT em 2011 foi de 5,81 bilhões de litros, representando assim 78% do leite fluido consumido no Brasil. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos (AM em leite UHT, verificando o atendimento a padrões microbiológicos legais, classificando os grupos encontrados segundo suas características morfo-tintoriais e discutindo a metodologia de enumeração determinada pela Instrução Normativa 62 do Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Das 60 amostras estudadas, 23 (38,3% apresentaram resultados acima do padrão de 100 UFC/mL estabelecido pela IN 370 do MAPA para micro-organismos AM. Quando o Bacillus sporothermodurans foi considerado, as contagens máximas aumentaram 71,2% nas amostras integrais e 31,0% nas amostras desnatadas. Considerando-se as maiores diluições semeadas em que se obteve crescimento, foi possível o isolamento de 462 colônias de AM que, na coloração de Gram representaram 64,3% de bactérias Gram positivas e 9,5%, de bactérias Gram negativas. Fungos filamentosos e leveduras somaram 26,2%. Entre os Gram positivos predominaram cocos, B. sporothermodurans e, outros bacilos. Entre os Gram negativos predominaram os cocobacilos e os bacilos. Como as amostras representam lotes de leite UHT de importantes marcas do sul do país, os resultados demonstram que 11 das 15 marcas estudadas apresentaram excesso de AM, quando comparadas com o parâmetro legal. Os grupos de microrganismos presentes, sobretudo os Gram negativos que são sensíveis à temperatura, indicam possíveis falhas no processamento e/ou contaminação pós-processamento.

  11. The probiotics (Pediococcus acidilactici and Bacillus subtilis evaluation after weaning and effects on the piglets performance/ Avaliação de probióticos (Pediococcus acidilactici e Bacillus subtilis após o desmame e efeitos no desempenho dos leitões

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinícius Briganó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted with the goal to evaluate the use of rations with Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus acidilactici plus Bacillus subtilis as probiotics to weaned piglets (21 days and the effects on the performance until 63 day of age. 210 piglets were submitted to the folowing treatments: T1- ration with Pediococcus acidilactici; T2- ration with Pediococcus acidilactici + Bacillus subtilis; and T3- ration without probiotic. Were evaluated the daily weight gain, daily feed intake and the conversion rate, the dirrohea ocurrence and the mortality rate. The experimental design was a randomized blocks,with 3 treatments and 7 replications, been the means compared by Duncan’s Test. At the end of the experiment the animals that received the ration with Pediococcus acidilactici and the ration with Pediococcus acidilactici plus Bacillus subtilis (T1 and T2 presented a better conversion rate (PO experimento foi conduzido visando avaliar o uso das bactérias probióticas Pediococcus acidilactici associada ou não ao Bacillus subtilis em rações para leitões recém-desmamados (21 dias e seus efeitos no desempenho até os 63 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 210 animais submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: T1- ração com Pediococcus acidilactici; T2 – ração com Pediococcus acidilactici + Bacillus subtilis; e T3 – ração isenta de probiótico. Foram avaliados o ganho diário de peso, o consumo diário de ração, a conversão alimentar, a ocorrência de diarréias e a taxa de mortalidade. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com 3 tratamentos e 7 repetições, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Duncan. Observou-se ao final do experimento que animais que receberam o Pediococcus acidilactici associada ou não ao Bacillus subtilis (T1 e T2 apresentaram melhor conversão alimentar (P < 0,05 com relação ao grupo controle. A utilização destas bactérias não determinou ocorrência de diarréias. Os probi

  12. Simple detection of Bacillus anthracis spores by precipitation method with goat antibody anti anthrosa

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bacillus anthracis has a potential for biological weapon or bioterorism. Attack of Bacillus anthracis is very fatal, and the distribution is very easy and cheap through the spores. The aim of this was study to detect the spores of Bacillus anthracis. Methods: Bacillus anthracis isolates were grown on serum agar and then sheep blood medium, to stimulate capsule formation. Spores which formed painted using the method of Schaefer and Fultton. The methods of precipitation and immun...

  13. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

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    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  14. Studies on the characterisation of Biosealant properties of Bacillus sphaericus

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    Kantha D.Arunachalam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In previous works Bacillus pasteurii was the only well known species used to precipitate the calcium carbonate. Bacillus spharecius was yet another partially characterized species with similar entity, having the capability of precipitating calcium carbonate. Earlier researchers have shown very less implementation of the organism inremediation aspect. Bacillus spharecius was sub cultured and temperature, pH were optimized at 7.4 and 37°C. Growth curve for Bacillus spharecius showed that the log phase was between 4-11 hours and after 21 hours the bacterial growth was inhibited. EDTA titration was performed to find out the amount of CaCO3 precipitate and itwas highest at pH 8. The broth culture was subjected to Atomic Force Microscope studies. The analysis confirmed the presence of calcite in both the bacterial solution and dry scrapes. Optimum nickel ion concentration for calcium carbonate precipitation was found to be 80μm. The cubes were treated for 5 days in laboratory scale and to pilot scale in the second phase for 25 days. At the end of the study, the potential of Bacillus pasteurii in Bio-concrete was well established.

  15. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin; Metcalf, Jordan Patrick

    2012-12-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness.

  16. The Bacillus anthracis Exosporium: What's the Big "Hairy" Deal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozue, Joel A; Welkos, Susan; Cote, Christopher K

    2015-10-01

    In some Bacillus species, including Bacillus subtilis, the coat is the outermost layer of the spore. In others, such as the Bacillus cereus family, there is an additional layer that envelops the coat, called the exosporium. In the case of Bacillus anthracis, a series of fine hair-like projections, also referred to as a "hairy" nap, extends from the exosporium basal layer. The exact role of the exosporium in B. anthracis, or for any of the Bacillus species possessing this structure, remains unclear. However, it has been assumed that the exosporium would play some role in infection for B. anthracis, because it is the outermost structure of the spore and would make initial contact with host and immune cells during infection. Therefore, the exosporium has been a topic of great interest, and over the past decade much progress has been made to understand its composition, biosynthesis, and potential roles. Several key aspects of this spore structure, however, are still debated and remain undetermined. Although insights have been gained on the interaction of exosporium with the host during infection, the exact role and significance of this complex structure remain to be determined. Furthermore, because the exosporium is a highly antigenic structure, future strategies for the next-generation anthrax vaccine should pursue its inclusion as a component to provide protection against the spore itself during the initial stages of anthrax.

  17. Bacillus terrae sp. nov. isolated from Cistus ladanifer rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Méndez, Alexandra; Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Santín, Primitivo Julio; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2017-05-01

    A bacterial strain designated RA9T was isolated from a root of Cistus ladanifer in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate into the genus Bacillus with its closest relatives being Bacillus fortis R-6514T and Bacillus fordii R-7190T with 98.2 % similarity in both cases. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed mean relatedness values of 29 and 30 %, respectively, between strain RA9T and the type strains of B. fortis and B. fordii. Cells of the isolate were Gram-stain-positive, motile, sporulating rods. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Gelatin, starch and casein were not hydrolysed. Menaquinone MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentifed glycolipid and one unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RA9T should be considered as representing a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA9T (=LMG 29736T=CECT 9170T).

  18. Bacillus filamentosus sp. nov., isolated from sediment sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonalkar, Vidya V; Mawlankar, Rahul; Venkata Ramana, V; Joseph, Neetha; Shouche, Yogesh S; Dastager, Syed G

    2015-02-01

    A novel Gram-stain positive, endospore-forming bacterium, designated SGD-14(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample in Goa Province, India. Cells of the isolate were found to be strictly aerobic. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SGD-14(T) showed a similarity of 99.5 % with Bacillus endophyticus and similarities to other Bacillus type strains were below 96 %. The whole-cell sugar pattern was found to consist of ribose, xylose and glucose. The predominant menaquinone was identified as MK-7 and the major fatty acids as anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C17:0, C16:0 and iso-C14:0. The strain was found to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. DNA G + C content was determined to be 39.6 mol%. The phospholipid pattern was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. DNA-DNA hybridization studies between strain SGD-14(T) and B. endophyticus CIP106778(T) showed that strain SGD-14(T) exhibited Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus filamentosus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Bacillus filamentosus is SGD-14(T) = (=NCIM 5491(T) = DSM 27955(T)).

  19. Controle em pós-colheita de Penicillium digitatum EM laranja-pera com microrganismos e tratamento térmico Postharvest control of Penicillium digitatum in pera orange trees with microorganisms and heat treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Forner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O mercado consumidor está exigindo alimentos sem a presença de resíduos de agrotóxicos. Assim, o trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o controle do bolor verde, em laranjas-Pera, com agentes de biocontrole (Bacillus subtilis e Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis (QST 713, associados ou não ao tratamento térmico. Para tanto, os frutos foram adquiridos em "packinghouse" antes do processamento, sendo lavados e desinfestados com hipoclorito de sódio. Os frutos submetidos a esses tratamentos foram armazenados, por 11 a 28 dias, em temperatura de 10 ºC e UR 90%±5 ou por oito dias a 20 ºC e UR 90%±5. De modo geral, o tratamento térmico reduziu a severidade da doença determinada pela área abaixo da curva do progresso da doença nos frutos e a incidência natural de doenças em pós-colheita de laranja-Pera. Por outro lado, os agentes de biocontrole não controlaram a doença, mostrando que os organismos testados não apresentaram atividade curativa contra o bolor verde.The consumer market demands food without pesticide residues. Therefore, this study focused on evaluating the control of green mold in Pera orange trees with biocontrol agents (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis (QST 713, associated or not with heat treatment. The fruit was obtained in packinghouse before processing, being washed and disinfected with the use of Sodium Hypochlorite. Fruits submitted to these treatments were stored from 11 to 28 days at temperature of 10 ºC and RH 90%±5 or for eight days at 20 ºC and 90%±5. In general, the heat treatment reduced the disease severity determine by the area under the disease progress curve in the fruit and the incidence of natural postharvest disease in Pera oranges. On the other hand, biocontrol agents did not control the disease, showing that the organisms tested did not present curative activity against the green mold.

  20. <em>An entem>-Kaurane-Type Diterpene in <em>Croton antisyphiliticusem> Mart.

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    Ana Maria Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available <em>Croton antisyphiliticus em>is a medicinal plant widely used in the treatment of microbial infections, especially those affecting the genital tract. Crude extract, fractions and pure compound isolated from roots of this species were investigated to validate their antimicrobial activity against <em>Escherichia coliem> and <em>Staphylococcus aureusem>. The compound <em>ent>-kaur-16-en-18-oic acid was isolated as a major component (0.7% of crude extract, and its MIC value determined against <em>S. aureusem> (ATCC 6538 was 250 μg/mL. This is the first phytochemical work on the species monitored with antimicrobial assay.

  1. Susceptibilidade de larvas de Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae a Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin e Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner Susceptibility of Cerotoma arcuata Olivier (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae larvae to Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuillemin, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorokin and Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia França Teixeira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Larvas de 2° instar de Cerotoma arcuata foram avaliadas em relação à susceptibilidade aos fungos entomopatogênicos Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae e a bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis com as toxinas Cry3. Os insetos adultos foram mantidos em gaiolas e alimentados com plântulas de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. e as larvas em "gerbox" com cotilédones de plântulas de feijão recém-germinadas. Das oito estirpes de B. bassiana avaliadas, CG 156 e CG 213 causaram 100% de mortalidade das larvas, as duas estirpes de M. anisopliae CG 210 e CG 321 foram patogênicas, eliminando 80 e 100% das larvas de C. arcuata, e, das cinco estirpes de B. thuringiensis testadas, o isolado CG 940 causou 70% de mortalidade das larvas.Second instar larvae of Cerotoma arcuata were evaluated concerning the susceptibility to fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae and Bacillus thuringiensis strains containing Cry3 toxin. Adults of C. arcuata were kept in large cages and fed on bean seedlings and the larvae were reared in ‘gearbox’ feeding on germinated Phaseolus bean cotyledons. Strains CG 156 and CG 213 of B. bassiana killed 100% of the insect larvae and strains CG 210 and CG 321 of M. anisopliae killed 80 and 100% of the insect larvae. Strain CG 940 of B. thuringiensis killed 70% of the insect larvae.

  2. Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti larvae to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis in integrated control Susceptibilidade de larvas de Aedes aegypti ao tratamento integrado com temephos e Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando S. de Andrande

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of field collected Aedes aegypti larvae was evaluated in terms of median lethal time (LT50 and final mortality, when treated with temephos, Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis as well as mixtures of these two agents. Third instar larvae were shown to be more susceptible than early and late fourth instar ones to the entomopathogen. Survival of some individuals when exposed to temephos suggest possible resistance. Temporal synergism in early fourth instar larvae was detected when they were exposed to mixtures of Bti-temephos. The possibility of this integrated treatment is commented on.A susceptibilidade de larvas de Aedes aegypti coletadas no campo foi avaliada em termos do tempo letal mediano (TL50 e da mortalidade final, quando tratadas com temephos, Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis ou misturas desses dois agentes. As larvas de terceiro estádio mostraram-se mais suceptíveis ao patógeno do que aquelas no início ou no fim do quarto estádio. A sobrevivência de alguns indivíduos aos tratamentos com temephos permite sugerir a possibilidade de resistência. Foi detectada a existência de sinergismo temporal, quando larvas no início do quarto estádio foram tratadas com as misturas do Bti com o temephos. A possibilidade do tratamento integrado é comentada.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1107 - Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delta endotoxin of Bacillus... From Tolerances § 180.1107 Delta endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into... Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki encapsulated into killed Pseudomonas fluorescens is exempt from...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a...

  5. 77 FR 2910 - Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a... establishment of an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (formerly known as Bacillus subtilis variant amyloliquefaciens strain D747). This document...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1282 - Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1282 Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a..., for residues of Bacillus firmus I-1582 when used as a soil application or seed treatment....

  7. 78 FR 35147 - Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in... residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 under the FFDCA. DATES: This regulation is effective June...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1012 - α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus... preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) α-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained from the culture... Bacillus stearothermophilus. Its characterizing enzyme activity is α-amylase (1,4 α-D...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption...

  13. Malate dehydrogenases from actinomycetes: structural comparison of Thermoactinomyces enzyme with other actinomycete and Bacillus enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Malate dehydrogenases from bacteria belonging to the genus Thermoactinomyces are tetrameric, like those from Bacillus spp., and exhibit a high degree of structural homology to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase as judged by immunological cross-reactivity. Malate dehydrogenases from other actinomycetes are dimers and do not cross-react with antibodies to Bacillus malate dehydrogenase.

  14. 76 FR 28689 - Microbiology Devices; Classification of In Vitro Diagnostic Device for Bacillus Species Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... devices for Bacillus spp. detection (Ref. 1). A. Identification FDA is proposing the following identification based on the Panel's recommendation and the available information. An in vitro diagnostic device... diagnostic device for Bacillus spp. detection. (a) Identification. An in vitro diagnostic device for Bacillus...

  15. Evaluation of in situ valine production by Bacillus subtilis in young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Canibe, Nuria; Assadi Soumeh, Elham;

    2016-01-01

    Mutants of Bacillus subtilis can be developed to overproduce Val in vitro. It was hypothesized that addition of Bacillus subtilis mutants to pig diets can be a strategy to supply the animal with Val. The objective was to investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis mutants on growth performance an...

  16. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis July 2012...WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT If a Bacillus anthracis incident occurs in the United States or within its territories, the public health and

  17. Avaliação de produtos à base de Bacillus thuringiensis no controle da traça-das-crucíferas Evaluation of insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis in the control of the diamondback moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia T Medeiros

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se em dois experimentos a suscetibilidade da traça-das-crucíferas a inseticidas à base de Bacillus thuringiensis em repolho cv. Itiban. O delineamento do primeiro experimento (de julho a setembro/03, em área de plantio comercial em Brazlândia (DF, foi de blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e dez repetições; os bioinseticidas utilizados foram B. thuringiensis kurstaki (S1450CO, B. thuringiensis aizawai comercial (Bta e três produtos formulados com as estirpes S1450BB, S811BB, S845BB de B. thuringiensis pertencentes ao Banco de Bacillus spp. da Embrapa Recursos Genéticos e Biotecnologia. No segundo experimento, realizado no campo experimental da Embrapa (DF, de outubro/03 a janeiro/04, o delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições; os inseticidas utilizados foram os mesmos do primeiro experimento, com a adição de Spinosad, e retirado o tratamento S811BB. Os produtos foram aplicados quando foi atingido o nível de dano de seis furos nas quatro folhas centrais do repolho. O Bta comercial foi o produto mais eficaz no primeiro experimento, tendo sido aplicado cinco vezes e diferiu estaticamente dos demais produtos. Os formulados S845BB e S1450BB não apresentaram diferenças quando comparados ao produto comercial S1450 e foram aplicados seis vezes. O produto S811BB também foi aplicado seis vezes, mas sua eficácia foi inferior aos demais produtos e não diferiu da testemunha. Já no segundo experimento, o S1450 comercial foi aplicado cinco vezes e os demais produtos à base de Bt, seis vezes. Todos os produtos utilizados não diferiram entre si, diferindo apenas no número de aplicações.Two experiments were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of the diamondback moth to insecticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis in cabbage cv. Itiban. The first experiment was carried out from July to September 2003, in a production area in Brazlândia (DF, Brazil. Randomized blocks with six

  18. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kealy Peak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition.

  19. Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and selection of a high-producing mutant, Bacillus subtilis HB-32, with enhanced acetoin yield and productivity. The mutant was obtained by the protoplast fusion of a Bacillus subtilis mutant TH-49 (Val− producing acetoin and Bacillus licheniformis AD-30 producing α-acetolactate decarboxylase, with the fusogen polyethylene glycol and after the regeneration and selection, etc. of the fusant. The acetoin production reached 49.64 g/L, which is an increase of 61.8% compared to that of B. subtilis strain TH-49. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed to determine the mutagenic and protoplast fusion effects and the genomic changes in the acetoin high-producing strain compared to the parent strains at the molecular level. The constructed strain was shown to be promising for large-scale acetoin production. Future studies should focus on the application of the mutant strain in practice.

  20. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  1. Genomic characterization of six novel Bacillus pumilus bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laura; Lins, Bridget; Barrett, Jonathan; Montgomery, Andrew; Trapani, Stephanie; Schindler, Anne; Christie, Gail E; Cresawn, Steven G; Temple, Louise

    2013-09-01

    Twenty-eight bacteriophages infecting the local host Bacillus pumilus BL-8 were isolated, purified, and characterized. Nine genomes were sequenced, of which six were annotated and are the first of this host submitted to the public record. The 28 phages were divided into two groups by sequence and morphological similarity, yielding 27 cluster BpA phages and 1 cluster BpB phage, which is a BL-8 prophage. Most of the BpA phages have a host range restricted to distantly related strains, B. pumilus and B. simplex, reflecting the complexities of Bacillus taxonomy. Despite isolation over wide geographic and temporal space, the six cluster BpA phages share most of their 23 functionally annotated protein features and show a high degree of sequence similarity, which is unique among phages of the Bacillus genera. This is the first report of B. pumilus phages since 1981.

  2. A novel secreted metzincin metalloproteinase from Bacillus intermedius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirova, Albina R; Rudakova, Natalya L; Balaban, Nelly P; Ilyinskaya, Olga N; Demidyuk, Ilya V; Kostrov, Sergey V; Rudenskaya, Galina N; Sharipova, Margarita R

    2010-11-05

    The mprBi gene from Bacillus intermedius 3-19 encoding a novel secreted metalloproteinase was identified. The mpriBi gene was expressed in an extracellular proteinase-deficient Bacillus subtilis BG 2036 strain and the corresponding protein was characterized biochemically. The 19 kDa MprBi protein was purified to homogeneity and sequenced by mass spectroscopy and Edman degradation methods. Amino acid sequence analysis of MprBi identified an active site motif HEYGHNFGLPHD and a conserved structural component Met-turn, both of which are unique features of the metzincin clan. Furthermore, MprBi harbors a number of distinct sequence elements characteristic of proteinase domains in eukaryotic adamalysins. We conclude that MprBi and similar proteins from other Bacillus species form a novel group of metzincin metalloproteinases in prokaryotes.

  3. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Seyed-Mohamadi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Bacillus anthracis is one of the most homogenous bacteria ever described. Bacillus anthracis 17JB is a laboratory strain. It is broadly used as a challenge strain in guinea pigs for potency test of anthrax vaccine.Material and Methods: This work describes genetic characterization of B. anthracis 17 JB strain using the SNPs and MLVA genotyping.Results and Conclusion: In SNPs typing, the originally French 17JB strain represented the A. Br. 008/009 subgroup. In Levy's genotyping method, 843, 451 and 864 bp long fragments were identified at AA03, AJ03 and AA07 loci, respectively. In the vaccine manufacturer perspective these findings are much valuable on their own account, but similar research is required to extend molecular knowledge of B. anthracis epidemiology in Persia.Keywords: Bacillus anthracis 17JB, Genetic characterization, SNPs typing

  4. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus strains by microarray-based resequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Zwick

    Full Text Available The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a "one reaction" genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing.

  5. Genotyping of Bacillus cereus strains by microarray-based resequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Michael E; Kiley, Maureen P; Stewart, Andrew C; Mateczun, Alfred; Read, Timothy D

    2008-07-02

    The ability to distinguish microbial pathogens from closely related but nonpathogenic strains is key to understanding the population biology of these organisms. In this regard, Bacillus anthracis, the bacterium that causes inhalational anthrax, is of interest because it is closely related and often difficult to distinguish from other members of the B. cereus group that can cause diverse diseases. We employed custom-designed resequencing arrays (RAs) based on the genome sequence of Bacillus anthracis to generate 422 kb of genomic sequence from a panel of 41 Bacillus cereus sensu lato strains. Here we show that RAs represent a "one reaction" genotyping technology with the ability to discriminate between highly similar B. anthracis isolates and more divergent strains of the B. cereus s.l. Clade 1. Our data show that RAs can be an efficient genotyping technology for pre-screening the genetic diversity of large strain collections to selected the best candidates for whole genome sequencing.

  6. Proteínas Cry1 e Vip3A de Bacillus thuringiensis: sinergismo e efeito sub-letal no controle de Heliothis virescens

    OpenAIRE

    Lemes, Ana Rita Nunes [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    A bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) possui a capacidade de produzir inclusões protéicas (proteína Cry) e proteínas vegetativas (Vip). Estas proteínas podem ser tóxicas para insetos e por meio de transgenia, a expressão em plantas, podem também proporcionar controle de importantes pragas agrícolas. Nesse sentido, esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar o potencial de controle das proteínas Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Vip3A(1), Vip3A(2) e Vip3A(3) em uma população brasileira da lagarta-da-maçã, ...

  7. Expression of Selected <em>Ginkgo em>>biloba em>Heat Shock Protein Genes After Cold Treatment Could Be Induced by Other Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (HSPs play various stress-protective roles in plants. In this study, three <em>HSP> genes were isolated from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library of <em>Ginkgo bilobaem> leaves treated with cold stress. Based on the molecular weight, the three genes were designated <em>GbHSP16.8em>, <em>GbHSP17em> and <em>GbHSP70em>. The full length of the three genes were predicted to encode three polypeptide chains containing 149 amino acids (Aa, 152 Aa, and 657 Aa, and their corresponding molecular weights were predicted as follows: 16.67 kDa, 17.39 kDa, and 71.81 kDa respectively. The three genes exhibited distinctive expression patterns in different organs or development stages. <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em> showed high expression levels in leaves and a low level in gynoecia, <em>GbHSP17em> showed a higher transcription in stamens and lower level in fruit. This result indicates that <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70 em>may play important roles in <em>Ginkgo> leaf development and photosynthesis, and <em>GbHSP17em> may play a positive role in pollen maturation. All three <em>GbHSPs> were up-regulated under cold stress, whereas extreme heat stress only caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em>, UV-B treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP17em>, wounding treatment resulted in up-regulation of <em>GbHSP16.8em> and <em>GbHSP70em>, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment caused up-regulation of <em>GbHSP70em> primarily.

  8. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  9. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Celandroni

    Full Text Available The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  10. Production and Characterization of Bacillus firmus pectinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roosdiana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is enzyme which functions to hydrolyze pectin become D-galacturonic acid unit. This enzyme is potential in various industries, especially in fruit juice industry.  Pectinase can be derived from various microorganisms resulting in different pectinase character. The aims of this research were to determine the optimum condition of pectinase production and to characterize the resulted pectinase including optimum condition of pectinase activity and the influence of metal ion.  The optimum condition of pectinase production was carried out by growing Bacillus firmus on basal media containing pectin as inducer at various  pH (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50 oC and fermentation time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 hours. while the optimum pectinase activity was done at various pH ( 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 , temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50 oC and reaction time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 minutes. The influence of Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ at 2-10 mM to pectinase activity were also investigated. The result showed that optimum condition of pectinase production occurred at pH7-8, temperature 40-50 oC and fermentation time 18hours, while the optimum condition of pectinase activity was pH 7, temperature 50 oC and reaction time 30 minutes. The existence of Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ ions  affected significantly to pectinase activity.  Mg2+ acted as non competitive inhibitor; however K+ and Zn2+ acted as un competitive inhibitor.

  11. [Antifungal mechanism of Bacillus marinus B-9987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Tian, Li; Zhou, Junying; Shi, Zhenping; Zheng, Li; Cui, Zhisong; Li, Yuanguang

    2009-11-01

    We studied the antifungal effect of the metabolite BMME-1 from Bacillus marinus B-9987, to reveal its antifungal mechanism. The permeability of the Alternaria solani was tested by spectrophotometer after the treating the crude extracts of B-9987. The composition of cell wall and the sterol components of the fungal plasmalemma of Alternaria solani were analyzed with Infrared Spectrum and GC-MS, respectively. We found that the metabolites of B-9987 had strong antifungal activity with MIC50 and MFC value being 6.2mg/L and 50mg/L. The absorbance in extracellular fluid detection showed that the tegument of the fungi was impaired. The detection of glucan and chitin indicated the change in the structure of the cell wall. The absorption peak of the carbon-hydrogen bond, beta-glucosidic bond, carbon--oxygen bond was attenuated but the hydroxyl, carbonyl absorption was enhanced on the contrary. There were only one peak change in chitin chromatogram on the absorption of amide linkage comparing to the control. These changes on the structure may affect the stability of the fungal cell wall. Ergosterol was the predominant component of sterol with the proportion of 62.52 +/- 3.31% in control cells, but showed a decline during treatment with BMME-1 at a concentration of 56.36 +/- 2.52%. Accumulation of coprostanol, the precursor of ergosterol, was found in the test. From the result we can conclude that the antifungal mechanism of the crude extracts was interfering of ergosterol synthesis resulting in the change on permeability, and also mainly changed the structure of the cell wall, mainly acting on the glucan synthesis.

  12. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Matseliukh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kherson, Odesa, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhiia regions of Ukraine. Purification of enzymes with elastase activity isolated from above mentioned strains was performed by gel-chromatography and insecticide activity was studied on the 3–4 larvae instar of Colorado beetle. The ability of a number of B. thuringiensis strains to synthesize the proteases with elastase activity has been established. The most active were enzymes obtained from strains IMV B-7465, IMV B-7324 isolated from sea water, and strains 9, 902, Bt-H and 0-239 isolated from Colorado beetles. The study of the physicochemical properties of the partially purified proteases of these strains showed that they belonged to enzymes of the serine type. Peptidases of a number of B. thuringiensis strains (IMV B-7324, IMV B-7465, 902, 0-239, 9 are metal-dependent enzymes. Optimal conditions of action of all tested enzymes are the neutral and alkaline рН values and the temperatures of 30–40 °С. The studies of influence of the complex enzyme preparations and partially purified ones of B. thuringiensis strains on the larvae instar of Colorado beetles indicated that enzymes with elastase activity could be responsible for insecticide action of the tested strains.

  13. Pesquisando em fontes visuais

    OpenAIRE

    Proença, Caio Carvalho; FFCH

    2012-01-01

    O presente ensaio pretende demonstrar reflexões sobre os usos da fotografia como fonte. Na primeira parte do ensaio procura-se demonstrar a experiência de um primeiro contato com a fonte visual, em especial a fotografia, para posteriormente entrar em contato com as diferentes formas metodológicas presente na pesquisa desta fonte. Em um segundo momento mostra-se alguns apontamentos sobre o método de pesquisa voltado à fonte visual fotográfica que auxiliam a pesquisa, contemplando a discussão s...

  14. Meteorologia em linha

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    DISPOSITIVO TÉCNICO-PEDAGÓGICO: CURSO DE METEOROLOGIA EM LINHA. Designamos por curso o sistema que resulta da relação entre um conjunto de componentes, dando unidade e identidade ao mesmo, incorporados na plataforma Versal: conjunto de 30 lições em vídeo, recursos complementares, valorização e contextualização do curso, orientação e acompanhamento desenhados e previstos, interação com os utilizadores do curso a partir do momento da sua edição aberta em linha. (https://versal.com/c/1fzwaz/m...

  15. A hipnose em triatletas

    OpenAIRE

    Szenészi, Daniela Scharamm

    2005-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia. Esta pesquisa objetivou investigar em atletas de triatlon a percepção das características da visualização da prova de Ironman e os seus componentes psicofisiológicos durante o transe hipnótico. Foram estudados 7 atletas do sexo masculino em 6 sessões de hipnose. Após cada sessão foi feita uma entrevista semi-estruturada e aplicado um questionário...

  16. Osteoartrites em equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Francisco José Martins

    2008-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária A Osteoartrite (OA) é a principal causa de claudicação no cavalo de desporto e lazer, sendo uma afecção que tem grandes repercussões económicas. Este trabalho descreve algumas das características importantes da estrutura articular, bem como da sua fisiologia. Define a OA e todas as estruturas envolvidas no seu processo. Os mecanismos fisiopatológicos põem em evidência os factores de risco em causa e que determinam tod...

  17. Literatura em quadrinhos

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira,Tânia Regina

    2015-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Literatura, Florianópolis, 2015. O objetivo desta tese é fazer o estudo do desfecho do romance de Lima Barreto, Triste fim de Policarpo Quaresma - (centenário de publicação em livro 1915-2015) - adaptado para as quatro versões homônimas em quadrinhos por: Edgar Vasques e Flávio Braga (Desiderata, 2010); Cesar Lobo e Luiz Antonio Aguiar (Ática, 2010); Lailson de Holanda...

  18. Melhores medicamentos em Pediatria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Existem actualmente muitos medicamentos que são utilizados em crianças sem terem sido suficientemente estudados nas diferentes sub-populações pediátricas, com consequências preocupantes. O reconhecimento deste facto levou à criação de regras específicas na investigação de medicamentos pediátricos nos EUA, já em 1997. De igual forma, o Regulamento de Medicamentos para Uso Pediátrico aprovado em De zembro de 2006 pelo Parlamento Europeu, tem como objectivo a resolução deste problema no ...

  19. Analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerovuo, J.; Rouvinen, J.; Hatzack, Frank-Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP(6)) hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase (PhyC) was studied. The enzyme hydrolyses only three phosphates from phytic acid. Moreover, the enzyme seems to prefer the hydrolysis of every second phosphate over that of adjacent ones. Furthermore, it is very...... a reaction mechanism different from that of other phytases. By combining the data presented in this study with (1) structural information obtained from the crystal structure of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens phytase [Ha, Oh, Shin, Kim, Oh, Kim, Choi and Oh (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 147-153], and (2) computer...

  20. Aerobic granulation of pure bacterial strain Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil S ADAV; Duu-Jong LEE

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to cultivate aer-obic granules by pure bacterial strain, Bacillus thuringien-sis, in a sequencing batch reactor. Stable granules sized 2.0-2.2 mm were formed in the reactor after a five-week cultivation. These granules exhibited excellent settling attributes, and degraded phenol at rates of 1.49 and concentration, respectively. Confocal laser scanning microscopic test results show that Bacillus thuringiensis was distributed over the initial small aggregates, and the outer edge of the granule was away from the core regime in the following stage.

  1. Cloning of the Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    of the complicated precedents of duplicate toxin genes in chro- muumm mosomall and plasmid DNA of B. thuringiensis (Schnepf and Whitely, 1981; Klier...OiL V4. 34. S-W7. SW 1v 99 CwI 0193 by MT 0 009-7483/06O-002.00/0 mU"- - 1*;)-0Cloning of the Protective Antigen Gene OCT 19 MI L Sof Bacillus ...Sumnler uncertain, it is probably caused by other Bacillus antigens, 4 t which may include LF and EF. PA produced from recom- A The - "w t of a

  2. Interação entre inimigos naturais: Trichogramma e Bacillus thuringiensis no controle biológico de pragas agrícolas = Interaction between natural enemies: Trichogramma and Bacillus thuringiensis in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos adversos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt nos parasitóides de ovos Trichogramma pratissolii e Trichogramma pretiosum. Suspensões de 6 isolados de Bt: E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, E-20 e Bt kurstaki foram misturadas com mel (1:1, como fonte de alimento, e cartelas com ovos de Anagasta kuehniella foram fornecidas para o parasitismo. O experimento foi mantido em BOD a 25 + 1ºC, umidade relativa de 70+ 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Foram analisados a longevidade, os parasitismos diário, acumulado e total. Não houve influência dos tratamentos sobre a longevidade e todos ostratamentos em T. pratissolii e E-3, E-10, E-16 e E- 19 em T. pretiosum diminuíram o tempo necessário para os parasitóides atingirem 80% de parasitismo. Apesar dessa aceleração do parasitismo, o Bt não influenciou o total de ovos parasitados, mostrando-se como tática de controle que pode ser usada com Trichogramma em programas de MIP.The goal of this work was to detect the possible side-effectsprovoked by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt strains on eggs parasitoids Thichogramma pratissolii and Trichogramma pretiosum. Six strains of Bt: E-3, E-10, E-15, E-16, E-19, and E-20 and Bt kurstaki were assayed in honey drop to stimulate the feeding of the parasitoids in each treatment and offered simultaneously displays with Anagasta kuehniella eggs. The experiment was maintained in a climatized chamber at 25+ 1ºC, RH 70+ 10%, and photophase of 14 hours. The longevity, the daily, the accumulated, and the total parasitism were observed. No treatments affected the longevity of both parasitoids. All treatments in T. pratissolii and E-3, E-10, E-16, and E-19 in T. pretiosum decreased the time necessary to reach 80% of parasitism. The lack of deleterious effects of Bt on these parasitoids suggests that these natural enemies can be used together in IPM programs.

  3. Highly thermostable and alkaline α-amylase from a halotolerant-alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. AB68 α-amilase alcalina termoestável de Bacillus sp AB68 halotolerante-alcalifílico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashabil Aygan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An alkaliphilic and highly thermostable α-amylase producing Bacillus sp. was isolated from Van soda lake. Enzyme synthesis occurred at temperatures between 25ºC and 40ºC. Analysis of the enzyme by SDS-PAGE revealed a single band which was estimated to be 66 kDa. The enzyme was active in a broad temperature range, between 20ºC and 90ºC, with an optimum at 50ºC; and maximum activity was at pH 10.5. The enzyme was almost completely stable up to 80ºC with a remaining activity over 90% after 30 min pre-incubation. Thermostability was not increased in the presence of Ca2+. An average of 75% and 60ºC of remaining activity was observed when the enzyme was incubated between pH 5 and 9 for 1 h and for 2 h, respectively. The activity of the enzyme was inhibited by SDS and EDTA by 38% and 34%, respectively.Bacillus sp AB68 alcalifílico produtor de α-amilase alcalina termoestável foi isolado do lago Van soda. A síntese da enzima ocorreu entre 25ºC e 40ºC. A análise da enzima por SDS-PAGE revelou uma única banda estimada em 66 kDa. A enzima foi ativa em uma ampla faixa de temperatura, entre 20ºC e 90ºC, com um ótimo a 50ºC. A atividade máxima foi em pH 10,5. A enzima foi estável até 80ºC, mantendo 90% de atividade após 30 min de pré-incubação. A termoestabilidade não aumentou na presença de Ca2+. Quando incubada em pH entre 5 e 9 por 1h e por 2h, a enzima manteve 75% e 60% de atividade, respectivamente. SDS e EDTA causaram redução de 38% e 34% na atividade da enzima, respectivamente.

  4. Characterization of <em>Erysiphe necatorem>-Responsive Genes in Chinese Wild <em>Vitis> <em>quinquangularis>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew (PM, caused by fungus <em>Erysiphe necatorem>, is one of the most devastating diseases of grapevine. To better understand grapevine-PM interaction and provide candidate resources for grapevine breeding, a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH cDNA library was constructed from <em>E. necatorem>-infected leaves of a resistant Chinese wild <em>Vitis quinquangularisem> clone “Shang-24”. A total of 492 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs were obtained and assembled into 266 unigenes. Gene ontology (GO analysis indicated that 188 unigenes could be assigned with at least one GO term in the biological process category, and 176 in the molecular function category. Sequence analysis showed that a large number of these genes were homologous to those involved in defense responses. Genes involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, transport and signal transduction were also enriched in the library. Expression analysis of 13 selected genes by qRT-PCR revealed that most were induced more quickly and intensely in the resistant material “Shang-24” than in the sensitive <em>V. pseudoreticulata em>clone “Hunan-1” by<em> E. necatorem> infection. The ESTs reported here provide new clues to understand the disease-resistance mechanism in Chinese wild grapevine species and may enable us to investigate <em>E. necatorem>-responsive genes involved in PM resistance in grapevine germplasm.

  5. Osteomyelitis due to Bacillus cereus in an adolescent: case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schricker, M E; Thompson, G H; Schreiber, J R

    1994-06-01

    Non-anthracis Bacillus species associated with clinical infections are usually dismissed as contaminants or nonpathogens. As opportunists, however, Bacillus organisms can cause significant systemic infections including bacteremia, endophthalmitis, and pneumonia. Osteomyelitis with non-anthracis Bacillus organisms has been described in adults, although to our knowledge it has been described only once in a child. We report a case of chronic osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus and superinfection with Bacillus cereus in a 13-year-old adolescent. A Bacillus isolate should be considered a true pathogen in children with chronic osteomyelitis who have a poor clinical response to antistaphylococcal therapy.

  6. Synthesis, Reactions and Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Some 4-(<em>p>-Halophenyl-4<em>H>-naphthopyran, Pyranopyrimidine and Pyranotriazolopyrimidine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. F. Abd El-Wahab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of naphthopyran derivatives 3a–f were prepared. Reaction of <em>2-em>amino-4-(<em>p>-chlorophenyl-7-methoxy-4<em>H>-naphtho[2,1-<em>b>]pyran-3-carbonitrile (3b with Ac2O afforded two products, 2-acetylamino-7-methoxy-4-(<em>p>-chlorophenyl-4<em>H>-naphtho-[2,1-<em>b>]pyran-3-carbonitrile (4 and 10,11-dihydro-3-methoxy-9-methyl-12-(<em>p>-chloro-phenyl-12<em>H>-naphtho[2,1-<em>b>]pyran[2,3-<em>d>]pyrimidine-11-one (5 and treatment of 3b with benzoyl chloride gave the pyranopyrimidin-11-one derivative 6. While treatment of 3b with formamide afforded 11-amino-3-methoxy-12-(<em>p>-chlorophenyl-12<em>H>-naphtho[2,1-<em>b>]pyrano[2,3-<em>d>]pyrimidine (7. Reaction of 3b with triethyl orthoformate gave the corresponding 2-ethoxymethyleneamino-7-methoxy-4-(<em>p>-chlorophenyl-4<em>H>-naphtho-[2,1-<em>b>]pyran-3-carbonitrile (8. Hydrazinolysis of 8 in EtOH at room temperature yielded 10-amino-10,11-dihydro-11-imino-3-methoxy-12-(<em>p>-chlorophenyl-12<em>H>-naphtho[2,1-b]pyrano-[2,3-d]pyrimidine (9, while aminolysis of 8 with methylamine or dimethylamine gave the corresponding pyranopyrimidine and <em>N,N>-dimethylaminomethylene derivatives 10 and 11. Condensation of 9 with some carboxylic acid derivatives afforded triazolopyrimidine derivatives 12–16, while reaction of 9 with benzaldehyde gave 10-benzalamino-10,11-dihydro-11-imino-3-methoxy-12-(<em>p>-chlorophenyl12<em>H>-naphtho[2,1-<em>b>]pyrano[2,3-<em>d>]pyrimidine (17. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral data. The

  7. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  8. Identification and Classification of bcl Genes and Proteins of Bacillus cereus Group Organisms and Their Application in Bacillus anthracis Detection and Fingerprinting▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Leski, Tomasz A.; Caswell, Clayton C.; Pawlowski, Marcin; Klinke, David J.; Bujnicki, Janusz M.; Hart, Sean J.; Lukomski, Slawomir

    2009-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group includes three closely related species, B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis, which form a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus. One of these species, B. anthracis, has been identified as one of the most probable bacterial biowarfare agents. Here, we evaluate the sequence and length polymorphisms of the Bacillus collagen-like protein bcl genes as a basis for B. anthracis detection and fingerprinting. Five genes, designated bclA to bclE, are p...

  9. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom;

    2004-01-01

    Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...... exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system....... Access to on-line medical advice of a physician is not available; (2) Finland: the autonomy of the individual municipalities and their responsibility to cover for primary and specialised health care, as well as the EMS, and the lack of supporting or demanding legislation regarding the EMS; (3) Iceland...

  10. PCR screening for the surfactin (sfp) gene in marine Bacillus strains and its molecular characterization from Bacillus tequilensis NIOS11

    OpenAIRE

    POROB, Seema; NAYAK, Sagar; FERNANDES, Areena; PADMANABHAN, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    The sfp gene responsible for surfactin production was screened from the DNA extracts of 37 Bacillus spp. whose identity was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. PCR screening revealed amplification of sfp gene fragments in a total of 25 isolates. Several isolates belonging to Bacillus tequilensis were found to be positive for this gene. A gene fragment coding for the sfp gene was amplified and cloned from genomic DNA of the isolate B. tequilensis NIOS11. The cloned gene has an open r...

  11. Supervivencia y mejoramiento de los bacilos entomopatógenos : Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis y Bacillus sphaericus

    OpenAIRE

    Cucchi, Adriana

    1997-01-01

    El uso de los bioinsecticidas representa una ventajosa alternativa desde el punto de vista ecológico y toxicológico en el control de enfermedades y plagas.% Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) y Bacillus sphaericus (Bf) son especies bacterianas empleadas como bioinsecticidas en la lucha contra los agentes de transmisión del paludismo, la fiebre amarilla y el dengue entre otras enfermedades. Sin embargo su uso se ve restringido debido a la alta especificidad y sedimentación de los pr...

  12. Preconceito em disfarce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Almeida

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    0 presente estudo pretende analisar os significados básicos do texto "Preto e Branco", de F. Sabino, valendo-se de alguns modelos teóricos lingüísticos, principalmente de Greimas e de Pottier, em seqüência que vai da estrutura da narrativa e do percurso gerativo de sentido até as relações sêmicas, em especial.

  13. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  14. BACTERIOCINAS E ENZIMAS PRODUZIDAS POR Bacillus spp. PARA CONSERVAÇÃO E PROCESSAMENTO DE ALIMENTOS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. SCHULZ

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Alguns microrganismos possuem a capacidade de produzir substâncias que podem influenciar no desenvolvimento de outros microrganismos. Desde os anos 50 é relatada a capacidade de várias espécies de bactérias do gênero Bacillus de produzir substâncias com atividade antimicrobiana como peptídeos, também denominados de bacteriocinas e enzimas como a subtilisina, subtilina, as proteases e as termolisinas. Muitos desses peptídeos e enzimas têm sido caracterizados bioquimicamente e geneticamente. Embora sejam conhecidas, a função estrutural, a biossíntese e modo de ação de alguns peptídeos antimicrobianos e enzimas, muitos aspectos desses compostos ainda permanecem desconhecidos. Esse artigo descreve uma revisão sobre as principais bacteriocinas e enzimas produzidas por Bacillus spp., bem como suas aplicações em alimentos. Alguns dados de segurança de bacteriocinas e enzimas produzidas por Bacillus spp. também são relatados. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bacteriocinas; enzimas; Bacillus spp.; alimentos.

  15. The Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 Reveals Metabolic Adaptations and a Large Plasmid Related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    R.L. and Waites,K.B. (2003) Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate. J. Clin. Microbiol., 41, 3441±3444. 9. Ginsburg,A.S., Salazar,L.G., True... bacteremia and pneumonia due to Bacillus cereus . J. Clin. Microbiol., 35, 504±507. 12. Okinaka,R., Cloud,K., Hampton,O., Hoffmaster,A., Hill,K., Keim,P...The genome sequence of Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987 reveals metabolic adaptations and a large plasmid related to Bacillus anthracis pXO1 David A. Rasko

  16. <em>In Vitro em>and <em>in em>Vivo> Antitumor Effect of Trachylobane-360, a Diterpene from<em> Xylopia langsdorffianaem>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Lima Rodrigues Pita

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Trachylobane-360 (<em>ent>-7α-acetoxytrachyloban-18-oic acid was isolated from <em>Xylopia langsdorffianaem>. Studies have shown that it has weak cytotoxic activity against tumor and non-tumor cells. This study investigated the <em>in vitroem>> em>and <em>in vivoem> antitumor effects of trachylobane-360, as well as its cytotoxicity in mouse erythrocytes. In order to evaluate the <em>in vivoem> toxicological aspects related to trachylobane-360 administration, hematological, biochemical and histopathological analyses of the treated animals were performed. The compound exhibited a concentration-dependent effect in inducing hemolysis with HC50 of 273.6 µM, and a moderate <em>in vitroem>> em>concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the proliferation of sarcoma 180 cells with IC50 values of 150.8 µM and 150.4 µM, evaluated by the trypan blue exclusion test and MTT reduction assay, respectively. The <em>in vivoem> inhibition rates of sarcoma 180 tumor development were 45.60, 71.99 and 80.06% at doses of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg of trachylobane-360 and 25 mg/kg of 5-FU, respectively. Biochemical parameters were not altered. Leukopenia was observed after 5-FU treatment, but this effect was not seen with trachylobane-360 treatment. The histopathological analysis of liver and kidney showed that both organs were mildly affected by trachylobane-360 treatment. Trachylobane-360 showed no immunosuppressive effect. In conclusion, these data reinforce the anticancer potential of this natural diterpene.

  17. Virulence of Bacillus cereus: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnaard, J; Delfederico, L; Vasseur, V; Hollmann, A; Rolny, I; Semorile, L; Pérez, P F

    2007-05-10

    Biological activity and presence of DNA sequences related to virulence genes were studied in 21 strains of the Bacillus cereus group. The activity of spent culture supernatants and the effect of infection by vegetative bacterial cells were assessed on cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells). The effect of extracellular factors on the detachment, necrosis and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity of cultured human enterocytes was studied. Hemolytic activity on rabbit red blood cells was also evaluated and the effect of direct procaryotic-eucaryotic interactions was assessed in infection assays with vegetative bacterial cells. Concerning virulence genes, presence of the DNA sequences corresponding to the genes entS, entFM, nhe (A, B and C), sph, hbl (A, B, C and D), piplC and bceT was assessed by PCR. Ribopatterns were determined by an automated riboprinting analysis after digestion of the DNA with EcoRI. Principal component analysis and biplots were used to address the relationship between variables. Results showed a wide range of biological activities: decrease in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity, necrosis, cell detachment and hemolytic activity. These effects were strain-dependent. Concerning the occurrence of the DNA sequences tested, different patterns were found. In addition, ribotyping showed that strains under study grouped into two main clusters. One of these clusters includes all the strains that were positive for all the DNA sequences tested. Positive and negative correlations between variables under study were evidenced. Interestingly, high detaching strains were positively correlated with the presence of the sequences entS, nheC and sph. Within gene complexes, high correlation was found between sequences of the hbl complex. In contrast, sequences of the nhe complex were not correlated. Some strains clustered together in the biplots. These strains were positive for all the DNA sequences tested and they were able to detach enterocytes upon infection

  18. Rational improvement of the engineered isobutanol-producing Bacillus subtilis by elementary mode analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shanshan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isobutanol is considered as a leading candidate for the replacement of current fossil fuels, and expected to be produced biotechnologically. Owing to the valuable features, Bacillus subtilis has been engineered as an isobutanol producer, whereas it needs to be further optimized for more efficient production. Since elementary mode analysis (EMA is a powerful tool for systematical analysis of metabolic network structures and cell metabolism, it might be of great importance in the rational strain improvement. Results Metabolic network of the isobutanol-producing B. subtilis BSUL03 was first constructed for EMA. Considering the actual cellular physiological state, 239 elementary modes (EMs were screened from total 11,342 EMs for potential target prediction. On this basis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC were predicted as the most promising inactivation candidates according to flux flexibility analysis and intracellular flux distribution simulation. Then, the in silico designed mutants were experimentally constructed. The maximal isobutanol yield of the LDH- and PDHC-deficient strain BSUL05 reached 61% of the theoretical value to 0.36 ± 0.02 C-mol isobutanol/C-mol glucose, which was 2.3-fold of BSUL03. Moreover, this mutant produced approximately 70 % more isobutanol to the maximal titer of 5.5 ± 0.3 g/L in fed-batch fermentations. Conclusions EMA was employed as a guiding tool to direct rational improvement of the engineered isobutanol-producing B. subtilis. The consistency between model prediction and experimental results demonstrates the rationality and accuracy of this EMA-based approach for target identification. This network-based rational strain improvement strategy could serve as a promising concept to engineer efficient B. subtilis hosts for isobutanol, as well as other valuable products.

  19. Modeling Radiation Effectiveness for Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES Emily A. Knight, B.A., M.S. Major, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. William P. Baker Chair Dr. Larry W...linked to food poisoning and causes gastrointestinal diseases with symptoms ranging from mild nausea to frequent vomiting . However, as described above

  20. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black pigment producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a da...

  1. Development of Bacillus subtilis mutants to produce tryptophan in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Karin; Cantor, Mette D.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To generate tryptophan-overproducing Bacillus subtilis strains for in situ use in pigs, to reduce the feed cost for farmers and nitrogen pollution. Results A novel concept has been investigated—to generate B. subtilis strains able to produce tryptophan (Trp) in situ in pigs. Mutagenesis...

  2. Bacillusin A, an antibacterial macrodiolide from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (AP183) led to the discovery of a new macrocyclic polyene antibiotic, bacillusin A (1). Its structure was assigned by interpretation of NMR and MS spectroscopic data as a novel macrodiolide composed of dimer...

  3. Biodegradation of 2-hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) by Bacillus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V Subba; Reddy, B R; Tlou, M G

    2014-08-15

    An aerobic Gram +ve bacterial strain capable of utilizing 2-Hydroxyquinoxaline (2-HQ) as sole source of carbon and energy was isolated from Chrysanthemum indicum Indian agricultural soil and named as HQ2. On the basis of morphology, physico-biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, strain HQ2 was identified as Bacillus sp. The generation time of Bacillus sp. in log phase during growth on 2-HQ is 0.79 h or 47.4 min. The optimal conditions for 2-HQ degradation by Bacillus sp. were inoculum density of 1.0 OD, pH of 6-8, temperature of 37-45 °C and 2-HQ concentration of 500 ppm. Among the additional carbon and nitrogen sources, carbon sources did not influence the degradation rate of 2-HQ, but nitrogen sources-yeast extract marginally enhanced the rate of degradation of 2-HQ. GC-MS analysis of the culture Bacillus sp. grown on 2-HQ indicated the formation of dimers from 2 molecules of 2-hydroxyquinoxaline. The formation of dimer for degradation of 2-HQ by the culture appears to be the first report to our scientific knowledge.

  4. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  5. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome...

  6. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis 168 for increased nisin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wangari, Romilda; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2009-01-01

    . Bacillus subtilis had been suggested as a potential host for the biosynthesis of nisin but was discarded due to its sensitivity to the lethal action of nisin. In this study, we have reevaluated the potential of B. subtilis as a host organism for the heterologous production of nisin. We applied...

  7. A New Saponin Transformed from Ginsenoside Rhl by Bacillus subtilis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hong LI; Yue Mao SHEN; Ke Qin ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    A novel saponin was isolated from the transformed products of ginsenoside Rh1 by Bacillus subtilis. It's structure was determined to be 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20 (S)-protopanaxatriol on the basis of the spectral data.

  8. 14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media.

  9. Biodiversity of predominant Bacillus isolated from afitin, iru and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr GATSING

    Two hundred (200) presumptive isolates of Bacillus collected at different ... and others African locust or Soya bean–based .... and modified as follows was used to differentiate B. cereus group. The DNA .... from B. thuringiensis by 16S rDNA.

  10. The impact of manganese on biofilm development of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mhatre, Eisha; Troszok, Agnieszka; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Lindstädt, Stefanie; Hölscher, Theresa; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are dynamic and structurally complex communities, involving cell-to-cell interactions. In recent years, various environmental signals were identified that induce the complex biofilm development of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. These signaling molecules are often m

  11. Bacillus cereus: emetic toxin production and gamma hypothesis for growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesta-Peters, E.G.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a food spoilage microorganism and a pathogen. Growth of B. cereus can be prevented or delayed by adding growth limiting compounds to the food product or by altered storage conditions. Combinations of growth limiting factors

  12. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to elimina

  13. Nucleotide Sequence of the Protective Antigen Gene of Bacillus Anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-02

    Montie, S. Kadis, and S. I. Ajl (ed.), Microbial toxins, vol. 3. Academic Press, Inc., New York. 23. Little, S. F., and G. B. Knudaon. 1986...Takkinen, and L. Kaariainen. 1981. Nucleotide sequence of the promoter and NHa-terminal signal peptide region of the a- amylase gene from Bacillus

  14. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54 strains) was the most common species isolated, followed by B. megaterium (13 strains), B. polymyxa (5 strains), B. pumilus (4 strains), B. subtilis (4 strains), B. circulans (3 strains), B. amyloliquefaciens (2 strains), B. licheniformis (1 strain), and Bacillus spp. (3 strains). Microdilution MIC susceptibility tests revealed all B. cereus strains to be susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin. Non-B. cereus strains were most susceptible to imipenem, vancomycin, LY146032, and ciprofloxacin. Disk susceptibility testing suggested that B. cereus was rarely susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, or cephalosporins with the exception of mezlocillin. In contrast, many non-B. cereus strains were susceptible to penicillins, semisynthetic penicillins, and cephalosporins, but marked variability was noted among species. PMID:3395100

  15. Successful treatment of Bacillus cereus infection with ciprofloxacin.

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoigne, A.D.; Richards, J.; Gould, K.; Gibson, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is rarely a pulmonary pathogen but may cause pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. A patient with bronchiectasis and no recognisable immunodeficiency had this organism isolated during two infective exacerbations, once from respiratory secretions and once by blood culture. Ciprofloxacin treatment was effective on both occasions.

  16. Starch hydrolysing Bacillus halodurans isolates from a Kenyan soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Suhaila O; Delgado, Osvaldo; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Mulaa, Francis J; Mattiasson, Bo

    2004-05-01

    Fourteen obligate alkaliphilic and halotolerant bacterial isolates, exhibiting extracellular amylase activity at 55 degrees C and pH 10, were isolated from hot springs around Lake Bogoria, Kenya. From 16S rDNA sequence analysis, nine isolates shared 100% identity with Bacillus halodurans strain DSM 497T, while the rest shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. PCR of the intergenic spacer region between 16S and 23S rRNA genes (ISR-PCR) divided the isolates into two groups, while tDNA-PCR divided them into three groups. Bacillus halodurans DSM 497T had a different ISR pattern from the isolates, while it had a tDNA-PCR profile similar to the group that shared 99% identity with alkaliphilic Bacillus species A-59. All isolates hydrolysed soluble starch as well as amylose, amylopectin and pullulan. The amylase activity (1.2-1.8 U ml(-1)) in the culture broths had an optimum temperature of 55-65 degrees C, was stimulated by 1 mm Ca2+, and was either partially (16-30%) or completely inhibited by 1 mM EDTA. Activity staining of the cell-free culture supernatant from the isolates revealed five alkaline active amylase bands.

  17. Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki Strain HD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Dyer, David; Bulla, Lee

    2014-07-17

    We report here the complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki strain HD-1, which serves as the primary U.S. reference standard for all commercial insecticidal formulations of B. thuringiensis manufactured around the world. Copyright © 2014 Day et al.

  18. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  19. A new Bacillus pasteurii urease inhibitor from Euphorbia decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodhi, Muhammad Arif; Hussain, Javid; Abbasi, Muhammad Athar; Jassbi, Amir Reza; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Ahmad, Viqar Uddin

    2006-10-01

    Inhibition of Bacillus pasteurii urease enzyme by 3,7,15-tri-O-acetyl-5-O-nicotinoyl-13,14-dihydroxymyrsinol (1), a diterpene ester with a myrsinol-type skeleton, isolated from Euphorbia decipiens Boiss. and Buhse, was un-competitive consistent with the molecular docking results. The Ki value was 117.40 +/- 0.7 microM.

  20. Binding Affinity of Glycoconjugates to BACILLUS Spores and Toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasol, Aveen; Eassa, Souzan; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Early recognition of Bacillus cereus group species is important since they can cause food-borne illnesses and deadly diseases in humans. Glycoconjugates (GCs) are carbohydrates covalently linked to non-sugar moieties including lipids, proteins or other entities. GCs are involved in recognition and signaling processes intrinsic to biochemical functions in cells. They also stimulate cell-cell adhesion and subsequent recognition and activation of receptors. We have demonstrated that GCs are involved in Bacillus cereus spore recognition. In the present study, we have investigated whether GCs possess the ability to bind and recognize B. cereus spores and Bacillus anthracis recombinant single toxins (sTX) and complex toxins (cTX). The affinity of GCs to spores + sTX and spores + cTX toxins was studied in the binding essay. Our results demonstrated that GC9 and GC10 were able to selectively bind to B. cereus spores and B. anthracis toxins. Different binding affinities for GCs were found toward Bacillus cereus spores + sTX and spores + cTX. Dilution of GCs does not impede the recognition and binding. Developed method provides a tool for simultaneous recognition and targeting of spores, bacteria toxins, and/or other entities.

  1. Environmental regulation of alcohol metabolism in thermotolerant methylotrophic Bacillus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arfman, N.; Moezelaar, H.R.; Attwood, M.M.; Robinson, G.K.; Geel, M. van; Dijkhuizen, L.

    1992-01-01

    The thermotolerant methylotroph Bacillus sp. C1 possesses a novel NAD-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH), with distinct structural and mechanistic properties. During growth on methanol and ethanol, MDH was responsible for the oxidation of both these substrates. MDH activity in cells grown on met

  2. The fate of Bacillus cereus in the gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Wijnands LM; Takumi K; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a mathematical dynamical model for the behaviour of Bacillus cereus in the gastro-intestinal tract. Biological processes and system dynamics are simultaneously incorporated in this mechanistic model. Variability in growth characteristics and physical traits of different B. cereu

  3. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Ganz

    Full Text Available Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales, featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  4. Purification and characterization of two polyhydroxyalcanoates from Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi-Maaloul, Emna; Trabelsi, Imen; Elleuch, Lobna; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2013-10-01

    This work aimed to study the potential of 155 strains of Bacillus sp., isolated from a collection of Tunisian microorganisms, for polyhydroxyalcanoates production. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests commonly used for determining bioplastic properties. The findings revealed that two of the isolates, namely Bacillus US 163 and US 177, provided red excitations at a wavelength of approximately 543 nm. The polyhydroxyalcanoates produced by the two strains were purified. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize the two biopolymers. Bacillus US 163 was noted to produce a poly methyl-3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (P-3HTD) with an average molecular weight of 455 kDa, a completely amorphous homopolymer without crystallinity. The US 177 strain produced a homopolymer of methyl-3-hydroxy octadecanoic acid (P3-HOD) with an average molecular weight of 555 kDa. Exhibiting the highest performance, US 163 and US 177 were submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the results revealed that they belonged to the Bacillus cereus species. Overall, the findings indicated that the Bacilli from petroleum soil have a number of promising properties that make them promising candidates for bioplastic production.

  5. Global Network Reorganization During Dynamic Adaptations of Bacillus subtilis Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu; Uhr, Markus; Muntel, Jan; Botella, Eric; Hessling, Bernd; Kleijn, Roelco Jacobus; Le Chat, Ludovic; Lecointe, Francois; Maeder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Piersma, Sjouke; Ruegheimer, Frank; Becher, Doerte; Bessieres, Philippe; Bidnenko, Elena; Denham, Emma L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Devine, Kevin M.; Doherty, Geoff; Drulhe, Samuel; Felicori, Liza; Fogg, Mark J.; Goelzer, Anne; Hansen, Annette; Harwood, Colin R.; Hecker, Michael; Hubner, Sebastian; Hultschig, Claus; Jarmer, Hanne; Klipp, Edda; Leduc, Aurelie; Lewis, Peter; Molina, Frank; Noirot, Philippe; Peres, Sabine; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Pohl, Susanne; Rasmussen, Simon; Rinn, Bernd; Schaffer, Marc; Schnidder, Julian; Schwikowski, Benno; Van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Veiga, Patrick; Walsh, Sean; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Stelling, Joerg; Aymerich, Stephane; Sauer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and

  6. Bacillus subtilis Spores Germinate in the Chicken Gastrointestinal Tract▿

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen T Cartman; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Woodward, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    A number of poultry probiotics contain bacterial spores. In this study, orally administered spores of Bacillus subtilis germinated in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of chicks. Furthermore, 20 h after spores were administered, vegetative cells outnumbered spores throughout the GI tract. This demonstrates that spore-based probiotics may function in this host through metabolically active mechanisms.

  7. Global Network Reorganization During Dynamic Adaptations of Bacillus subtilis Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu; Uhr, Markus; Muntel, Jan; Botella, Eric; Hessling, Bernd; Kleijn, Roelco Jacobus; Le Chat, Ludovic; Lecointe, Francois; Maeder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Piersma, Sjouke; Ruegheimer, Frank; Becher, Doerte; Bessieres, Philippe; Bidnenko, Elena; Denham, Emma L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Devine, Kevin M.; Doherty, Geoff; Drulhe, Samuel; Felicori, Liza; Fogg, Mark J.; Goelzer, Anne; Hansen, Annette; Harwood, Colin R.; Hecker, Michael; Hubner, Sebastian; Hultschig, Claus; Jarmer, Hanne; Klipp, Edda; Leduc, Aurelie; Lewis, Peter; Molina, Frank; Noirot, Philippe; Peres, Sabine; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Pohl, Susanne; Rasmussen, Simon; Rinn, Bernd; Schaffer, Marc; Schnidder, Julian; Schwikowski, Benno; Van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Veiga, Patrick; Walsh, Sean; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Stelling, Joerg; Aymerich, Stephane; Sauer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and mo

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Myophage Mater

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, Jacob C.; Hodde, Mary K.; Hernandez, Adriana C.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus megaterium is a ubiquitous, soil inhabiting Gram-positive bacterium that is a common model organism and is used in industrial applications for protein production. The following reports the complete sequencing and annotation of the genome of B. megaterium myophage Mater and describes the major features identified.

  9. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Holly H; Law, Christina; Schmuki, Martina; Eichenseher, Fritz; Calendar, Richard; Loessner, Martin J; Getz, Wayne M; Korlach, Jonas; Beyer, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales), featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure) and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis) and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus megaterium Myophage Moonbeam

    OpenAIRE

    Cadungog, Joshua N.; Khatemi, Brontee E.; Hernandez, Adriana C.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Moonbeam is a newly isolated myophage of Bacillus megaterium, a common Gram-positive bacterium that is routinely used for large-scale protein production. Bacteriophages have potential to be useful tools for industrial applications. Here, we describe the complete genome of Moonbeam and describe its features.

  11. Bilirubin Oxidase Activity of Bacillus subtilis CotA

    OpenAIRE

    Sakasegawa, S; Ishikawa, H.; Imamura, S.; Sakuraba, H.; Goda, S.; Ohshima, T.

    2006-01-01

    The spore coat protein CotA from Bacillus subtilis was previously identified as a laccase. We have now found that CotA also shows strong bilirubin oxidase activity and markedly higher affinity for bilirubin than conventional bilirubin oxidase. This is the first characterization of bilirubin oxidase activity in a bacterial protein.

  12. Transformation of undomesticated strains of Bacillus subtilis by protoplast electroporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, Diego; Perez-Garcia, Alejandro; Veening, Jan-Willem; de Vicente, Antonio; Kuipers, Oscar P.; de, Vicente A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid method combining the use of protoplasts and electroporation was developed to transform recalcitrant wild strains of Bacillus subtilis. The method described here allows transformation with both replicative and integrative plasmids, as well as with chromosomal DNA, and provides a valuable tool

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Strain 407 Cry-

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlein, Anja; Liesegang, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen that has been used widely as a biopesticide. Here, we report the genome sequence of strain 407 Cry-, which is used to study the genetic determinants of pathogenicity. The genome consists of a 5.5-Mb chromosome and nine plasmids, including a novel 502-kb megaplasmid.

  14. Bacillus subtilis Biosensor Engineered To Assess Meat Spoilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daszczuk, Alicja; Dessalegne, Yonathan; Drenth, Ismael; Hendriks, Elbrich; Jo, Emeraldo; van Lente, Tom; Oldebesten, Arjan; Parrish, Jonathon; Poljakova, Wlada; Purwanto, Annisa A.; van Raaphorst, Renske; Boonstra, Mirjam; van Heel, Auke; Herber, Martijn; van der Meulen, Sjoerd; Siebring, Jeroen; Sorg, Robin A.; Heinemann, Matthias; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Here, we developed a cell-based biosensor that can assess meat freshness using the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a chassis. Using transcriptome analysis, we identified promoters that are specifically activated by volatiles released from spoiled meat. The most strongly activated

  15. Bacillus subtilis Vegetative Catalase Is an Extracellular Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Naclerio, G; Baccigalupi, L; Caruso, C; De Felice, M; Ricca, E

    1995-01-01

    Strong catalase activity was secreted by Bacillus subtilis cells during stationary growth phase in rich medium but not in sporulation-inducing medium. N-terminal sequencing indicated that the secreted activity was due to the vegetative catalase KatA, previously considered an endocellular enzyme. Extracellular catalase protected B. subtilis cells from oxidative assault.

  16. Thermostable, Raw-Starch-Digesting Amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Nanmori, Takashi; Shinke, Ryu

    1989-01-01

    An endospore-forming thermophilic bacterium, which produced amylase and was identified as Bacillus stearothermophilus, was isolated from soil. The amylase had an optimum temperature of 70°C and strongly degraded wheat starch granules (93%) and potato starch granules (80%) at 60°C.

  17. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the germi

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis-based Products for Insect Pest Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt, as it has become generally known) is one of the oldest and widely used biological control agents and has a long history of use. Bt and a number of related bacteria produce a variety of toxins, mostly—but not exclusively- localized in the parasporal crystals, which are,

  19. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together wi

  20. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  1. Induction of natural competence in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mironczuk, Aleksandra M.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Kuipers, O.P.

    2008-01-01

    Natural competence is the ability of certain microbes to take up exogenous DNA from the environment and integrate it in their genome. Competence development has been described for a variety of bacteria, but has so far not been shown to occur in Bacillus cereus. However, orthologues of most proteins

  2. The impact of manganese on biofilm development of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mhatre, Eisha; Troszok, Agnieszka; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Lindstädt, Stefanie; Hölscher, Theresa; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are dynamic and structurally complex communities, involving cell-to-cell interactions. In recent years, various environmental signals were identified that induce the complex biofilm development of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. These signaling molecules are often

  3. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  4. Progress in food-related research focussing on Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Y.P.; Voort, van der M.; Schaik, van W.; Hornstra, L.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium that occurs ubiquitously and is frequently isolated from soil and food products. When B. cereus is present in foods, it can cause spoilage and poisoning. The work of our group is focussed on several properties of B. cereus t

  5. Domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins involved in insecticidal activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.J.; Schipper, B.; Kleij, van der H.; Maagd, de R.A.; Stiekema, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    The expected increase in application of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in crop protection makes it necessary to anticipate the development of Bt-resistant insects. To safeguard the long-term use of Bt-based insecticides, we studied the mode of action of Bt crystal proteins. CryIA(b), CryIC and CryIE ar

  6. Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activities <em>in Vitroem>> em>and <em>in Vivoem> of the Polysaccharides from <em>Boletus edulisem> Bull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble polysaccharide (BEBP was extracted from <em>Boletus edulis em>Bull using hot water extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. The polysaccharide BEBP was further purified by chromatography on a DEAE-cellulose column, giving three major polysaccharide fractions termed BEBP-1, BEBP-2 and BEBP-3. In the next experiment, the average molecular weight (Mw, IR and monosaccharide compositional analysis of the three polysaccharide fractions were determined. The evaluation of antioxidant activities both <em>in vitroem> and <em>in vivo em>suggested that BEBP-3 had good potential antioxidant activity, and should be explored as a novel potential antioxidant.

  7. Sulla presenza di <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, <em>Neomys anomalusem> (Insectivora, Soricidae e <em>Talpa caecaem> (Insectivora, Talpidae in Umbria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Paci

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del contributo è di fornire un aggiornamento sulla presenza del Toporagno del Vallese <em>Sorex antinoriiem>, del Toporagno acquatico di Miller <em>Neomys anomalusem> e della Talpa cieca <em>Talpa caecaem> in Umbria, dove le specie risultano accertate ormai da qualche anno. A tal fine sono stati rivisitati i reperti collezionati e la bibliografia conosciuta. Toporagno del Vallese: elevato di recente a livello di specie da Brünner et al. (2002, altrimenti considerato sottospecie del Toporagno comune (<em>S. araneus antinoriiem>. È conservato uno di tre crani incompleti (mancano mandibole ed incisivi superiori al momento prudenzialmente riferiti a <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>antinorii>, provenienti dall?Appennino umbro-marchigiano settentrionale (dintorni di Scalocchio - PG, 590 m. s.l.m. e determinati sulla base della pigmentazione rossa degli ipoconi del M1 e M2; Toporagno acquatico di Miller: tre crani (Breda in Paci e Romano op. cit. e un esemplare intero (Paci, ined. sono stati trovati a pochi chilometri di distanza gli uni dall?altro tra i comuni di Assisi e Valfabbrica, in ambienti mediocollinari limitrofi al Parco Regionale del M.te Subasio (Perugia. In provincia di Terni la specie viene segnalata da Isotti (op. cit. per i dintorni di Orvieto. Talpa cieca: sono noti una femmina e un maschio raccolti nel comune di Pietralunga (PG, rispettivamente in una conifereta a <em>Pinus nigraem> (m. 630 s.l.m. e nelle vicinanze di un bosco misto collinare a prevalenza di <em>Quercus cerrisem> (m. 640 s.l.m.. Recentemente un terzo individuo è stato rinvenuto nel comune di Sigillo (PG, all?interno del Parco Regionale di M.te Cucco, sul margine di una faggeta a 1100 m s.l.m. In entrambi i casi l?areale della specie è risultato parapatrico con quello di <em>Talpa europaeaem>.

  8. Glycosylation of Vanillin and 8-Nordihydrocapsaicin by Cultured <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of vanilloids such as vanillin and 8-nordihydrocapsaicin by cultured plant cells of <em>Eucalyptus perrinianaem> was studied. Vanillin was converted into vanillin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside, vanillyl alcohol, and 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranosylvanillyl alcohol by <em>E. perriniana em>cells. Incubation of cultured <em>E. perrinianaem> cells with 8-nor- dihydrocapsaicin gave 8-nordihydrocapsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-glucopyranoside and 8-nordihydro- capsaicin 4-<em>O>-b-D-gentiobioside.

  9. A specimen of <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> in Barn Owl's pellets from Murge plateau (Apulia, Italy / Su di un <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> (Insectivora, Soricidae rinvenuto in borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge (Puglia, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferrara

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a lot of Barn Owl's pellets from the Murge plateau a specimen of <em>Sorex> sp. was detected. Thank to some morphological and morphometrical features, the cranial bones can be tentatively attributed to <em>Sorex samniticusem> Altobello, 1926. The genus <em>Sorex> was not yet included in the Apulia's fauna southwards of the Gargano district; the origin and significance of the above record is briefly discussed, the actual presence of a natural population of <em>Sorex> in the Murge being not yet proved. Riassunto Viene segnalato il rinvenimento di un esemplare di <em>Sorex> cfr. <em>samniticus> da borre di <em>Tyto albaem> delle Murge. Poiché il genere non era stato ancora segnalato nella Puglia a sud del Gargano, viene discusso il significato faunistico del reperto.

  10. Toxin profile, antibiotic resistance, and phenotypic and molecular characterization of Bacillus cereus in Sunsik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Jin; Hyeon, Ji-Yeon; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2012-10-01

    Sunsik, a ready-to-eat food in Korea, is comprised of various agricultural and marine products, and has been an important concern in Bacillus cereus food poisoning. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxin profiles, genotypic and phenotypic patterns as well as antibiotic resistance of B. cereus strains isolated from Sunsik. A subtyping method known as automated repetitive sequence-based PCR system (DiversiLab™) was used to assess the intraspecific biodiversity of these isolates. Thirty-five B. cereus strains were isolated from 100 commercial Sunsik samples, all of which harbored at least 1 enterotoxin gene. The detection rates of nheABC, hblCDA, cytK, and entFM enterotoxin gene among all isolates were 97%, 86%, 77%, and 100%, respectively. Most strains also produced corresponding enterotoxins such as HBL (83%) and NHE (94%). One strain (2.9%) carried the emetic toxin genes, including ces and EM1, and was positive for the HEp-2 cell emetic toxin assay. Most strains were positive for various biochemical tests such as salicin hydrolysis (86%), starch fermentation (89%), hemolysis (89%), motility test (100%) and lecithinase hydrolysis (89%). All isolates were susceptible to most antibiotics although they were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics. By using the automated rep-PCR system, all isolates were successfully differentiated, indicating the diversity of B. cereus strains present in Sunsik.

  11. Study of the <em>in Vitroem> Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial and Antitrypanosomal Activities of Medicinal Plants from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal M. Al-Musayeib

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the <em>in vitroem> antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened <em>in vitroem> against erythrocytic schizonts of <em>Plasmodium falciparumem>, intracellular amastigotes of <em>Leishmania infantum em>and <em>Trypanosoma cruzi em>and free trypomastigotes of<em> T. bruceiem>. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity<em>. em>The criterion for activity was an IC50 < 10 µg/mL (4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the<em> em>extracts of<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem> and <em>Punica granatumem>. Antileishmanial activity<em> em>against <em>L. infantumem> was demonstrated in <em>Caralluma sinaicaem> and <em>Periploca aphylla.em> Amastigotes of<em> T. cruzi em>were affected by the methanol extract of<em> em>>Albizia lebbeckem>> em>pericarp, <em>Caralluma sinaicaem>,> Periploca aphylla em>and <em>Prosopius julifloraem>. Activity against<em> T. brucei em>was obtained in<em> em>>Prosopis julifloraem>. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC50 < 10 µg/mL and hence non-specific activities were observed for<em> em>>Conocarpus lancifoliusem>.>

  12. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Knols, B.G.J.; Becker, N.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of new water-dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringienis var. israelensis (Bti; VectoBac?) and B. sphaericus (Bs; VectoLex?, Valent BioScience Corp., Illinois, USA) for the control of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Giles mosquitoes in a malaria-end

  13. Glycosylation of BclA Glycoprotein from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis Exosporium Is Domain-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Emmanuel; Krzewinski, Frederic; Garenaux, Estelle; Lequette, Yannick; Coddeville, Bernadette; Trivelli, Xavier; Ronse, Annette; Faille, Christine; Guerardel, Yann

    2016-04-29

    The spores of the Bacillus cereus group (B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis) are surrounded by a paracrystalline flexible yet resistant layer called exosporium that plays a major role in spore adhesion and virulence. The major constituent of its hairlike surface, the trimerized glycoprotein BclA, is attached to the basal layer through an N-terminal domain. It is then followed by a repetitive collagen-like neck bearing a globular head (C-terminal domain) that promotes glycoprotein trimerization. The collagen-like region of B. anthracis is known to be densely substituted by unusual O-glycans that may be used for developing species-specific diagnostics of B. anthracis spores and thus targeted therapeutic interventions. In the present study, we have explored the species and domain specificity of BclA glycosylation within the B. cereus group. First, we have established that the collagen-like regions of both B. anthracis and B. cereus are similarly substituted by short O-glycans that bear the species-specific deoxyhexose residues anthrose and the newly observed cereose, respectively. Second we have discovered that the C-terminal globular domains of BclA from both species are substituted by polysaccharide-like O-linked glycans whose structures are also species-specific. The presence of large carbohydrate polymers covering the surface of Bacillus spores may have a profound impact on the way that spores regulate their interactions with biotic and abiotic surfaces and represents potential new diagnostic targets.

  14. Comparative genomics analysis of the companion mechanisms of Bacillus thuringiensis Bc601 and Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 in bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus endophyticus both act as the companion bacteria, which cooperate with Ketogulonigenium vulgare in vitamin C two-step fermentation. Two Bacillus species have different morphologies, swarming motility and 2-keto-L-gulonic acid productivities when they co-culture with K. vulgare. Here, we report the complete genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis Bc601 and eight plasmids of B. endophyticus Hbe603, and carry out the comparative genomics analysis. Consequently, B. thuringiensis Bc601, with greater ability of response to the external environment, has been found more two-component system, sporulation coat and peptidoglycan biosynthesis related proteins than B. endophyticus Hbe603, and B. endophyticus Hbe603, with greater ability of nutrients biosynthesis, has been found more alpha-galactosidase, propanoate, glutathione and inositol phosphate metabolism, and amino acid degradation related proteins than B. thuringiensis Bc601. Different ability of swarming motility, response to the external environment and nutrients biosynthesis may reflect different companion mechanisms of two Bacillus species. Comparative genomic analysis of B. endophyticus and B. thuringiensis enables us to further understand the cooperative mechanism with K. vulgare, and facilitate the optimization of bacterial consortium.

  15. Influência das diferentes condições de cultivo na produção de ácido poli-y-glutâmico por Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    O Bacillus subtilis é um microrganismo que possui a capacidade de biossintetizar o ácido poli-γ-glutâmico (γ-PGA). Este biopolímero é de grande interesse, devido ao potencial de aplicações em vários campos industriais. A fim de melhorar a produtividade do γ-PGA é importante investigar parâmetros físicos e químicos relevantes para produção. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência das diferentes condições de cultivo na produção de ácido poli-γ-glutâmico por Bacillus...

  16. Isolation and characterization of protease from Bacillus subtilis 1012M15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELFI SUSANTI

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A local strain of Bacillus sp. BAC4, is known to produce penicillin G acylase (PGA enzyme with relatively high activity. This strain secretes the PGA into the culture medium. However, it has been reported that PGA activity fall and rise during culture, and the activity plummets during storege at –200C, which probably due to usage protease activity of Bacillus sp. BAC4. To study the possible use of Bacillus subtilis 1012M15 as a host cell for cloning the pga gene from Bacillus sp. BAC4, the protease activity of Bacillus subtilis 1012M15 were studied. Protease activity was determined by Horikoshi method. In this experiment, maximum protease activity in Bacillus subtilis 1012M15 culture was obsereved after 8 hours. At this optimum condition, protease activity of Bacillus sp. BAC4 is five time higher than that of Bacillus subtilis 1012M15. This situation promised the possible usage of Bacillus subtilis 1012M15 as a host cell for pga expression. For protease characterization, the bacterial culture had been separated from the cell debris by centrifugation. The filtrate was concentrated by freeze drying, fractionated by ammonium sulphate, dialyzed in selovan tube, and then fractionated by ion exchance chromatography employing DEAE-cellulose. The five peaks resulted indicated the presence of five protease. Based on inhibitor and activator influence analysis, it could be concluded that proteases from Bacillus subtilis 1012M15 contained of serin protease as well as metalloprotease and serin protease mixture.

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis: legado para el siglo XXI Bacillus thuringiensis: the legacy to the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orduz S.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los insecticidas basados en la bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis son el principal renglón productivo del mercado mundial de biopesticidas. La investigación dedicada a esta área, promovida por la urgente necesidad de resolver problemas agrícolas y de salud pública, ha dado lugar a un conocimiento exhaustivo de su biología. La diversidad de cepas diferentes de B. thuringiensis ha permitido desarrollar productos principalmente, pero no exclusivamente, para el control de insectos. Con los nuevos desarrollos de la biología molecular, se ha logrado comprender su mecanismo de acción a nivel molecular y también se ha logrado extender sus capacidades entomopatógenas. Como producto de su amplio uso en muchos países, se han presentado casos de resistencia en poblaciones de insectos susceptibles. Con esta revisión se pretende elaborar un contexto teórico del estado actual de la investigación sobre B. thuringiensis, describiendo brevemente el conocimiento sobre esta bacteria, haciendo hincapié en los fenómenos biológicos que subyacen su actividad tóxica y la problemática que se avecina en el próximo siglo con los fenómenos de resistencia cada vez más comunes, todo esto analizado desde una perspectiva biotecnológica.

    Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides are the main production line of the biopesticides world market. The research devoted to this area, promoted by the necessity to solve problems in agriculture and public health has resulted in an exhaustive knowledge of its biology. The diversity of the B. thuringiensis strains has permitted to develop several products mainly, but not exclusively, for insect control. With the new developments in the field of molecular biology, it has been possible to understand the molecular basis of the mode of action and to increase the range of activity as well. As a result

  18. Isolamento, seleção de bactérias e efeito de Bacillus spp. na produção de mudas orgânicas de alface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Andréa M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolados bacterianos epifíticos e endofíticos, obtidos de plantas sadias de alface, foram avaliados para promoção de crescimento de mudas e plantas, respectivamente em estufa e campo de cultivo orgânico (Chã Grande-PE. Nos experimentos em estufa, foi utilizada a cultivar Verônica e em campo, as cultivares Verdinha e Verônica. Os isolados foram aplicados por bacterização simultânea nas sementes e substrato. Em campo, foram utilizados os isolados mais eficientes, C25 (Bacillus thuringiensis subvar. kenyae e C116 (Bacillus pumilus, separadamente e em mistura, após teste de compatibilidade. Em estufa, foram avaliadas a matéria fresca de raízes (MFR, da parte aérea (MFPA e total (MFT, 21 dias após a bacterização. Em campo, foi determinado o peso da matéria fresca total de plantas comercializáveis 21 e 28 dias após o transplante, respectivamente para as cultivares Verdinha e Verônica. Os mecanismos de ação de BPCP analisados foram produção de ácido indol acético, ácido cianídrico, solubilização de fosfatos e alterações dos teores foliares dos macronutrientes, N, P, K, Ca e Mg. Em estufa, as mudas apresentaram aumento significativo em relação à testemunha para MFR, MFPA e MFT quando foi utilizado o isolado C116 e para MFR e MFT utilizando-se o C25. No campo, não houve promoção significativa no crescimento nas plantas das cultivares Verdinha e Verônica, tratadas com C25 e C116 separadamente ou em mistura. Dos mecanismos de ação analisados verificou-se apenas elevação significativa (P=0,05 do teor foliar de N pelo isolado C25.

  19. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens. PMID:22207744

  20. Expression of the neutral protease gene from a thermophilic Bacillus sp BT1 strain in Bacillus subtilis and its natural host : Identification of a functional promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecerek, B; Venema, G

    2000-01-01

    The expression of the neutral protease gene (npr) from the thermophilic Bacillus sp. BT1 strain was studied in its natural host and in mesophilic Bacillus subtilis. In the thermophilic BT1 strain, the transcription of the protease gene is initiated from its own promoter, just 5' to the gene. In cont

  1. EMS in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalanjaona, Georges; Brogan, Gerald X

    2009-02-01

    Mauritius lies in the southwest Indian Ocean about 1250 miles from the African coast and 500 miles from Madagascar. Mauritius (estimated population 1,230,602) became independent from the United Kingdom in 1968 and has one of the highest GDP per capita in Africa. Within Mauritius there is a well established EMS system with a single 999 national dispatch system. Ambulances are either publicly or privately owned. Public ambulances are run by the Government (SAMU). Megacare is a private subscriber only ambulance service. The Government has recently invested in new technology such as telemedicine to further enhance the role of EMS on the island. This article describes the current state of EMS in Mauritius and depicts its development in the context of Government effort to decentralise and modernise the healthcare system.

  2. Effect of the medium composition on formation of amylase by Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana de Oliveira. Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the alpha -amylase synthesis was carried out with a moderately thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic Bacillus sp, isolated from soil samples. The cells were cultivated in a complex medium containing soluble starch or maltose as carbon source. The levels of the alpha -amylaseactivity detected in culture supernatants varied greatly with the type of carbon source used. Maltose, soluble starch and citrate stimulated alpha -amylaseformation. Addition of exogenous glucose repressed formation of alpha -amylase, demonstrating that a classical glucose effect was operative in this organism. The concentration of yeast extract was found to be important factor in the alpha -amylase synthesis bythe isolate.The activity of the enzyme increased between 2 and 5 g/L yeast extract concentration and then fell very rapidly beyond this point. The best concentration of peptone to alpha-amylase formation was found to be around 10g/L.Estudos sobre a síntese de alfa -amilase foram realizados com uma bactéria termofílica moderada e facultativa anaeróbica, isolada de amostras de solo. As células foram cultivadas em um meio complexo contendo amido solúvel ou maltose como fonte de carbono. Os níveis da atividade de alfa -amilase detectados no sobrenadante da cultura variaram grandemente com o tipo da fonte de carbono utilizada. Amido solúvel, maltose e citrato estimularam a formação de alfa -amilase. A adição de glicose as culturas reprimiu a formação da alfa -amilase, demonstrando que o clássico efeito glicose foi operativo neste organismo. A concentração de extrato de levedura foi um fator importante na formação de alfa -amilase pelo isolado. A atividade da enzima aumentou entre concentrações de 2 a 5 g/L e então caiu muito rapidamente em torno deste ponto. A melhor concentração de peptona para a formação da alfa -amilase foi em torno de 10 g/L.

  3. Acidose ruminal em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, José Diogo de Oliveira e silva Ribeiro da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Com este trabalho pretendeu-se fazer uma revisão acerca da acidose ruminal em caprinos, visto haver pouca bibliografia sobre o tema. Este trabalho foi baseado na revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos e completado através da observação de casos clínicos ocorridos durante o estágio curricular. O objectivo deste estudo foi realizar uma breve revisão da anatomia e fisiologia do tracto gastrointestinal dos caprinos assim com...

  4. Ulisses em Kafka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Mosès

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ResumoEm sua introdução para Exegese de uma lenda, Stéphane Mosès afirma que a obra de Kafka não necessita de novas interpretações, mas sim de uma “análise rigorosa de sua lógica subjacente”. Assim, em “Ulisses em Kafka”, investigandoa dialética formal de “O silêncio das sereias”, Mosès procura expor a estrutura narrativa que comandaria esse breve texto em que o escritor tcheco acrescenta à astucia de Ulisses a ingenuidade como elemento de salvação.Palavras-chave: Kafka; dialética; salvação.AbstractIn his introduction to Exegèse d’une légende, Stéphane Mosès affirms that Kafka’s works are not in need of new interpretations, but rather, of a “rigorous analysis of their underlying logic”. Thus, in “Ulisses chez Kafka”, by investigating the formal dialectic of “Das Schweigen der Sirenen”, Mosès seeks to exhibit the narrative structure that would supposedly guide this short text in which the Czech author adds naïveté to Ulisses’s cunning intelligence as an element of salvation.Keywords: Kafka; dialectic; salvation.Stéphane Mosès foi professor emérito da Universidade Hebraica de Jerusalém, onde ensinou Literatura Alemã e Comparada, entre os seus principais interesses estavam o pensamento de Franz Rosenzweig e de Walter Benjamin e as literaturas de Franz Kafka e de Paul Célan. Autor de diversos livros, entre eles: L'ange de l'histoire. Rosenzweig, Benjamin, Scholem, Exégèse d'une légende, lectures de Kafka, e Rêves de Freud. Six lectures.Rodrigo Ielpo é doutor em literatura francesa pela UFRJ e em História e Semiologia do texto e da imagem pela Université Paris VII, com pós-doutorado em Teoria Literária pela UNICAMP. Professor Adjunto do Departamento de Letras Neolatinas da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, possui publicações e traduções nos seguintes temas: teoria e literatura francesa contemporâneas, escrita e processos de subjetivação.rodrigoielpo@gmail.com 

  5. International EMS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhelle, Audun; Lossius, Hans Morten; Silfvast, Tom

    2004-01-01

    exist, however, especially within the ground and air ambulance service, and the EMS systems face several challenges. Main problems and challenges emphasized by the authors are: (1) Denmark: the dispatch centres are presently not under medical control and are without a national criteria based system......Emergency medicine service (EMS) systems in the five Nordic countries have more similarities than differences. One similarity is the involvement of anaesthesiologists as pre-hospital physicians and their strong participation for all critically ill and injured patients in-hospital. Discrepancies do...

  6. Frenectomia em foco

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Joana Isabel Monteiro de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    Projeto de Pós Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária O freio é uma estrutura anatómica oral classificada em freio labial (médio maxilar ou mandibular, lateral maxilar ou mandibular) ou lingual que se pode tornar num problema quando a sua inserção cria impedimentos estruturais e dificuldades a vários níveis. Um freio labial anormal pode causar algumas anomalias ou problemas, tais como u...

  7. Cyberbullying em adolescentes brasileiros

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Guilherme Welter

    2012-01-01

    O cyberbullying é entendido como uma forma de comportamento agressivo que ocorre através dos meios eletrônicos de interação (computadores, celulares, sites de relacionamento virtual), sendo realizado de maneira intencional por uma pessoa ou grupo contra alguém em situação desigual de poder e, ainda, com dificuldade em se defender. Os estudos disponíveis até o presente momento destacam que o cyberbullying é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de sintomas de ansiedade, depressão, ideação s...

  8. Corantes vitais em cromovitrectomia

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Eduardo; Rodrigues,Eduardo Büchelle; Maia, Maurício [UNIFESP; Meyer, Carsten H; Penha, Fernando Marcondes [UNIFESP; Furlani, Bruno de Albuquerque [UNIFESP; Costa, Elaine de Paula Fiod [UNIFESP; Farah, Michel Eid

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo do artigo é apresentar os dados atuais da aplicação de corantes vitais durante cirurgia vitreorretiniana, "cromovitrectomia", bem como uma revisão da literatura atual sobre o assunto no tocante às técnicas de aplicação, indicações e complicações em cromovitrectomia. Um grande número de publicações tem abordado o perfil tóxico da indocianina verde na cromovitrectomia. Dados experimentais mostram uma toxicidade dose-dependente da mesma em várias populações de células retinianas. Nova...

  9. O recasamento em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Lobo, Cristina; Conceição, Cristina Palma

    2003-01-01

    Identificar tendências do fenómeno do recasamento em Portugal, nas duas últimas décadas, constitui o objectivo principal deste artigo. Para essa identificação contribuiu o conhecimento da amplitude do próprio fenómeno, isto é, a percentagem de recasamentos no total dos casamentos em Portugal, e ainda um conjunto de variáveis que permitiu conhecer a caracterização social dos protagonistas do recasamento, por um lado, e delinear a diversidade dos seus trajectos conjugais após um divórcio, por o...

  10. Frenectomia em foco

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Joana Isabel Monteiro de Paiva

    2012-01-01

    Projeto de Pós Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária O freio é uma estrutura anatómica oral classificada em freio labial (médio maxilar ou mandibular, lateral maxilar ou mandibular) ou lingual que se pode tornar num problema quando a sua inserção cria impedimentos estruturais e dificuldades a vários níveis. Um freio labial anormal pode causar algumas anomalias ou problemas, tais como u...

  11. Acidose ruminal em caprinos

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, José Diogo de Oliveira e silva Ribeiro da

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária Com este trabalho pretendeu-se fazer uma revisão acerca da acidose ruminal em caprinos, visto haver pouca bibliografia sobre o tema. Este trabalho foi baseado na revisão bibliográfica de artigos científicos e completado através da observação de casos clínicos ocorridos durante o estágio curricular. O objectivo deste estudo foi realizar uma breve revisão da anatomia e fisiologia do tracto gastrointestinal dos caprinos assim com...

  12. Normal microbiota of the perialveolar region of incisors of rats Microbiota normal da região perialveolar de incisivos em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R.G. Araújo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificou-se a microbiota normal da região peri-alveolar de incisivos em 72 ratos Wistar, com 70-90 dias de idade e 280-330g de peso. As bactérias foram coletadas com suabes embebidos em solução salina. Do material depositado em tubo contendo 460µl de Brain Heart Infusion e diluído em 1:10, retirou-se 1µl para semeadura em placas de Petri. O crescimento médio foi 1,4x10(6 ± 2,6x10(5UFC/ml. Segundo a ordem das freqüências, as bactérias encontradas foram: Bacillus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus viridans, Corynebacterium sp., Staphylococcus coagulase negativa, Enterococcus sp., Staphylococcus saprophyticcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae e Serratia liquefaciens. De todas as bactérias isoladas, as Gram-positivas e as Gram-negativas compreenderam 91,2% e 8,8%, respectivamente. Dentre as Gram-positivas, a mais freqüente foi Bacillus sp.(31,2% e a menos, Staphylococcus saprophyticcus (3,0%. Quanto às bactérias Gram-negativas, a mais encontrada foi Escherichia coli (50,1% e a menos, Serratia liquefaciens (6,2%.

  13. Estudos sobre a esporulação de uma amostra de bacillus: IV - Outras evidências sobre a atividade do íon Mn[2+] na esporulação endotrófica Studies on the sporulation of a Bacillus strain: IV - Further evidences of the Mn[2+] ion activity in the endotrophic sporulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Rabinovitch

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram feitas experimentações om o intuito de se buscar mais evidências sobre a participação do íon Mn[2+] no mecanismo esporogenético de uma amostra de Bacillus licheniformis. Quando as formas vegetativas desta bactéria eram depositadas em um meio mineral, carente de fonte de carbono utilizável, em conjunto com um agente seqüestrante de metais como EDTA, a esporulação endotrófica deixava de ocorrer. Entretanto, a esporulação pôde ser protegida quando as células eram previamente saturadas com um excesso de Mn[2+] exógeno. As formas esporuladas obtidas nas condições estudadas mostraram termorresistência a 85ºC durante 20 minutos.In the present paper the authors bring out more evidences concerning the influence of Mn[2+] ion on the endotrophic sporulation of Bacillus licheniformis-2390. Vegetative cells of this bacteria could not sporulate if they were submited to a sufficient concentration of EDTA. Otherwise, this sporulatio ocurred when the vegetative forms were first protected by an excess of exogenous Mn[2+] of Zn[2+], Fe[2+] and Mg[2+]. Those spores obtained shown thermoresistence to 85ºC during 20 minutes.

  14. Horizontal Transmission of the Entomopathogen Fungus <em>Metarhizium anisopliae em>in <em>Microcerotermes diversusem> Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saied Mossadegh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out in order to investigate fungal conidia transmission of <em>Metarhizium anisopliae em>(Metschnikoff> em>Sorokin from vector (donor to healthy <em>Microcerotermes diversusem> Silvestri (Iso.: Termitidae and determine the best donor/concentration ratio for transmission. After preliminary trials, concentrations of 3.1 × 104, 3.9 × 105, 3.2 × 106 and 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 were selected for testing. The experiment was performed at three donor : Recipient ratios of 10, 30 and 50%. The highest mortality of recipient workers was observed after 14 days at the concentration of 3.5 × 108 conidia mL−1 and donor ratio of 50%. The mortality of recipient workers was less than 20% at all concentrations at a donor ratio of 10%. Our observations indicate social behavior of <em>M. diversusem>, such as grooming, can be effective in promoting epizootic outbreaks in a colony. While the current results suggest good potential for efficacy, the use of <em>M. anisopliaeem> as a component of integrated pest management of <em>M. diversusem> still needs to be proven under field conditions.

  15. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil Produção de ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase por novas cepas de Bacillus sp. isoladas de solo brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Menocci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40ºC. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55ºC. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40ºC. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0x10-3 and 2.2x10-3 U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4x10-3 and 3.0x10-3 U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4x10-3 U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4x10-3 U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins, thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and β-CD was liberated as a reaction product.Três linhagens de Bacillus sp (BACRP, BACNC- 1 e BACAR foram isoladas a partir de solo aderido em casca de mandioca. Foram utilizados amido de batata, amido de mandioca, maltodextrina e glicose como fonte de carbono, e temperaturas de crescimento de 25-55ºC, sendo que os três isolados apresentaram maior atividade específica de CGTase quando cultivados com amido de batata a 40ºC. Em pH 7,0 os isolados BACRP e BACAR apresentaram atividade específica de 4,0x 10-3 e 2,2x10-3 U/mg prot, respectivamente, quando cultivados em meios acrescidos de 2% de NaCl; em pH 10,0 suas atividades foram de 3,4x10-3 e 3,0x10-3 U/mg prot na mesma concentração de NaCl. Por outro

  16. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures.

  17. Bacillus composti sp. nov. and Bacillus thermophilus sp. nov., two thermophilic, Fe(III)-reducing bacteria isolated from compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiqin; Chen, Ming; Yu, Zhen; Lu, Qin; Zhou, Shungui

    2013-08-01

    Two novel thermophilic bacteria, designated SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T), were isolated from compost. Cells of the two strains were catalase-positive, endospore-forming and Gram-staining-positive rods. Strain SgZ-9(T) was oxidase-positive and non-motile, and strain SgZ-10(T) was oxidase-negative and motile. The highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity for both strains SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was observed with Bacillus fortis (97.5 % and 96.9 %, respectively). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SgZ-9(T) formed a cluster with B. fortis R-6514(T) and Bacillus fordii R-7190(T), and SgZ-10(T) formed a cluster with Bacillus farraginis R-6540(T). The DNA-DNA pairing studies showed that SgZ-9(T) displayed 41.6 % and 30.7 % relatedness to the type strains of B. fortis and B. fordii, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was 97.2 %, and the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between them was 39.2 %. The DNA G+C content of SgZ-9(T) and SgZ-10(T) was 45.3 and 47.9 mol%, respectively. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that both strains contained the menaquinone 7 (MK-7) as the predominant respiratory quinone. The major cellular fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 in SgZ-9(T) and iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 in SgZ-10(T). Based on the phenotypic characteristics, chemotaxonomic features, DNA-DNA hybridization with the nearest phylogenetic neighbours and phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were determined to be two distinct novel species in the genus Bacillus, and the names proposed are Bacillus composti sp. nov. SgZ-9(T) ( = CCTCC AB2012109(T) = KACC 16872(T)) and Bacillus thermophilus sp. nov. SgZ-10(T) (CCTCC AB2012110(T) = KACC 16873(T)).

  18. Clinical Relevance of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-Methylation in Serum of Cervical Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther K. Bonn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the DNA-methylation status of <em>E>-cadherin (<em>CDH1em> and <em>H>-cadherin (<em>CDH13em> in serum samples of cervical cancer patients and control patients with no malignant diseases and to evaluate the clinical utility of these markers. DNA-methylation status of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> was analyzed by means of MethyLight-technology in serum samples from 49 cervical cancer patients and 40 patients with diseases other than cancer. To compare this methylation analysis with another technique, we analyzed the samples with a denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC PCR-method. The specificity and sensitivity of <em>CDH1em> DNA-methylation measured by MethyLight was 75% and 55%, and for <em>CDH13em> DNA-methylation 95% and 10%. We identified a specificity of 92.5% and a sensitivity of only 27% for the <em>CDH1em> DHPLC-PCR analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that serum <em>CDH1em> methylation-positive patients had a 7.8-fold risk for death (95% CI: 2.2–27.7; <em>p> = 0.001 and a 92.8-fold risk for relapse (95% CI: 3.9–2207.1; <em>p> = 0.005. We concluded that the serological detection of <em>CDH1em> and <em>CDH13em> DNA-hypermethylation is not an ideal diagnostic tool due to low diagnostic specificity and sensitivity. However, it was validated that <em>CDH1em> methylation analysis in serum samples may be of potential use as a prognostic marker for cervical cancer patients.

  19. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mohamadi, Sakineh; Moradi Bidhendi, Soheila; Tadayon, Keyvan; Ghaderi, Rainak

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most homogenous bacteria ever described. Some level of diversity. Bacillus anthracis 17JB is a laboratory strain It is broadly used as a challenge strain in guinea pigs for potency test of anthrax vaccine. This work describes genetic characterization of B. anthracis 17 JB strain using the SNPs and MLVA genotyping. In SNPs typing, the originally French 17JB strain represented the A.Br. 008/009 subgroup. In Levy's genotyping method, 843, 451 and 864 bp long fragments were identified at AA03, AJ03 and AA07 loci, respectively. In the vaccine manufacturer perspective these findings are much valuable on their own account, but similar research is required to extend molecular knowledge of B. anthracis epidemiology in Persia.

  20. Bacillus atrophaeus Outer Spore Coat Assembly and Ultrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; Wheeler, K E; Pitesky, M E; Malkin, A J

    2005-11-21

    Our previous atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies successfully visualized native Bacillus atrophaeus spore coat ultrastructure and surface morphology. We have shown that the outer spore coat surface is formed by a crystalline array of {approx}11 nm thick rodlets, having a periodicity of {approx}8 nm. We present here further AFM ultrastructural investigations of air-dried and fully hydrated spore surface architecture. In the rodlet layer, planar and point defects, as well as domain boundaries, similar to those described for inorganic and macromolecular crystals, were identified. For several Bacillus species, rodlet structure assembly and architectural variation appear to be a consequence of species-specific nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the formation of the outer spore coat. We propose a unifying mechanism for nucleation and self-assembly of this crystalline layer on the outer spore coat surface.

  1. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  2. INCORPORATION OF BACTERIOPHAGE GENOME BY SPORES OF BACILLUS SUBTILIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKAHASHI, I

    1964-06-01

    Takahashi, I. (Microbiology Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada). Incorporation of bacteriophage genome by spores of Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 87:1499-1502. 1964-The buoyant density in a CsCl gradient of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from spores of Bacillus subtilis was found to be identical to that of DNA from vegetative cells. Density-gradient centrifugation of DNA of spores derived from cultures infected with phage PBS 1 revealed the presence of a minor band whose density corresponded to that of the phage DNA in addition to the spore DNA. No intermediate bands were present. The relative amount of the phage DNA present in the spores was estimated to be 11%, suggesting that spores of this organism may incorporate several copies of the phage genome. Although the possibility that true lysogeny may occur cannot be entirely eliminated, the results seem to indicate that the phage genomes incorporated into spores are not attached to the host chromosome in this system.

  3. The Bacillus cereus spoIIS programmed cell death system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana eMelnicakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death in bacteria is generally associated with two¬ component toxin antitoxin systems. The SpoIIS toxin-antitoxin system, consisting of a membrane bound SpoIISA toxin and a small, cytosolic antitoxin SpoIISB, was originally identified in Bacillus subtilis. In this work we describe the Bacillus cereus SpoIIS system which is a three-component system, harbouring an additional gene spoIISC. Its protein product serves as an antitoxin, and similarly as SpoIISB, is able to bind SpoIISA and abolish its toxic effect. Our results indicate that SpoIISC seems to be present not only in B. cereus but also in other Bacilli containing a SpoIIS toxin antitoxin system. In addition, we show that B. cereus SpoIISA can form higher oligomers and we discuss the possible role of this multimerization for the protein’s toxic function.

  4. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  5. Production of Protocatechuic Acid in Bacillus Thuringiensis ATCC33679

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca L. Garner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic acid, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, is produced by both soil and marine bacteria in the free form and as the iron binding component of the siderophore petrobactin. The soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679, contains the asb operon, but does not produce petrobactin. Iron restriction resulted in diminished B. thuringiensis kurstaki ATCC 33679 growth and the production of catechol(s. The gene product responsible for protocatechuic acid (asbF and its receptor (fatB were expressed during stationary phase growth. Gene expression varied with growth temperature, with optimum levels occurring well below the Bacillus anthracis virulence temperature of 37 °C. Regulation of protocatechuic acid suggests a possible role for this compound during soil growth cycles.

  6. Novel routes for improving biocontrol activity of Bacillus based bioinoculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming eWu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of biocontrol agents.

  7. Solid Culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Gangadharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen different agroresidues were screened for alpha amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842. Among them, wheat bran (WB and groundnut oil cake (GOC in mass ratio of 1:1 was proved as the best substrate source. Supplementation with 0.01 M KH2PO4 and 1 % soluble starch enhanced the enzyme yield considerably. Maximum enzyme recovery from the solid mass was obtained when extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH=5.0. Maximum enzyme titer expressed as units per mass of dry substrate obtained was 62 470 U/g after 72 hours of fermentation at 37 °C by using the above solid substrate mixture (5 g with the initial moisture of 85 % and inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of 2·109 CFU/mL.

  8. Bacillus cereus immune escape: a journey within macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Seav-Ly; Ramarao, Nalini

    2013-10-01

    During bacterial infection, professional phagocytes are attracted to the site of infection, where they constitute a first line of host cell defense. Their function is to engulf and destroy the pathogens. Thus, bacteria must withstand the bactericidal activity of professional phagocytes, including macrophages to counteract the host immune system. Bacillus cereus infections are characterized by bacteremia despite the accumulation of inflammatory cells at the site of infection. This implies that the bacteria have developed means of resisting the host immune system. Bacillus cereus spores survive, germinate, and multiply in contact with macrophages, eventually producing toxins that kill these cells. However, the exact mechanism by which B. cereus evades immune attack remains unclear. This review addresses the interaction between B. cereus and macrophages, highlighting, in particular, the ways in which the bacteria escape the microbicidal activities of professional phagocytes.

  9. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM FROM PHOSPHOGYPSUM WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ADRIANA STEFANESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to characterize the bioaccumulation capacity of heavy metals by Bacillus megaterium from phosphogypsum waste. The Bacillus megaterium strain (BM30 was isolated from soil near the phosphogypsum (PG dump. For the bioaccumulation quantification produced by BM30 strain were used three experimental treatments respectively with 2, 6 and 10 gL-1 PG. Cellular biomass samples were collected punctually at ages corresponding to the three stages of the development cycle of the microorganism: exponential phase, stationary phase and decline phase and the heavy metals concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The bioaccumulation yields in cell biomass, relative to the total amount of analyte introduced in the reaction medium were between 20 - 80 %, the lowest value was recorded by Cu and highest by Mn. The study results indicated that the isolated strain near the dump PG, BM30, bioaccumulate heavy metals monitored in cell biomass in the order Cu > Fe > Zn = Mn.

  10. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  11. Biodegradation of furfural by Bacillus subtilis strain DS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Bao, Jianguo; Lu, Jueming; Lv, Quanxi

    2015-07-01

    An aerobic bacterial strain DS3, capable of growing on furfural as sole carbon source, was isolated from actived sludge of wastewater treatment plant in a diosgenin factory after enrichment. Based on morphological physiological tests as well as 16SrDNA sequence and Biolog analyses it was identified as Bacillus subtilis. The study revealed that strain DS3 utilized furfural, as analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Under following conditions: pH 8.0, temperature 35 degrees C, 150 rpm and 10% inoculum, strain DS3 showed 31.2% furfural degradation. Furthermore, DS3 strain was found to tolerate furfural concentration as high as 6000 mg(-1). The ability of Bacillus subtilis strain DS3 to degrade furfural has been demonstrated for the first time in the present study.

  12. The site-specific deoxyribonuclease from Bacillus pumilus (endonuclease R.Bpu1387).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, S; Shibata, T; Ando, T

    1976-12-01

    A new site-specific endonuclease (DNase) was isolated from the cells of Bacillus pumilus AHU 1387 strain. This enzyme (endonuclease R.Bpu 1387) introduced double-stranded scissions at unique sites on DNA's of coli phage lambda, lambdadvl, coli phage T7, Bacillus phage phi105C, Bacillus phage SP10, and Simian Virus 40, in the presence of magnesium ion. The activity was stimulated by the presence of NaCl.

  13. Indirect Detection Of Bacillus Anthracis (Anthrax) Using Amplified Gamma Phage-Based Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Figure 3.3 Pasteur Institute TEM of Bacillus surface 31 Bacillus anthracis is taxonomically aligned with B. cereus , B. thuringiensis and B...None of the DNA from bacteria (B. anthracis, B. cereus , Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, and Neisseria gonorrhea), yeast, blood , or...49-54. 59. Ryzhov, V., Y. Hathout, and C. Fenselau, Rapid Characterization of Spores of Bacillus Cereus Group Bacteria by Matrix-assisted Laser

  14. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    Bacillus cereus group of bacteria, are attributed to poly- γ-D-glutamate acid (PGA) capsule, lethal toxin (LT) and edema toxin (ET) [10-12]. These toxins...M, Hellman M, Muhie S, et al. (2013) Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro...author and source are credited. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Exposed to Bacillus anthracis in vitro Rasha

  15. Achieving Consistent Multiple Daily Low-Dose Bacillus anthracis Spore Inhalation Exposures in the Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    daily low-dose Bacillus anthracis spore inhalation exposures in the rabbit model Roy E. Barnewall 1, Jason E. Comer 1, Brian D. Miller 1, BradfordW...multiple exposure days. Keywords: Bacillus anthracis , inhalation exposures, low-dose, subchronic exposures, spores, anthrax, aerosol system INTRODUCTION... Bacillus Anthracis Spore Inhalation Exposures In The Rabbit Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  16. Effects of Mn2+ Levels on the Resistance Properties of Bacillus cereus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In contrast, Bacillus subtilis spores with over a 200-fold range of protoplast Mn levels exhibited no significant differences in resistance to...Bacillus megaterium by wet heat. Lett. Appl . Microbiol. 50:507-514. Daly MJ (2012) Death by protein damage in irradiated cells. DNA Repair 11:12-21...levels on resistance of Bacillus megaterium spores to heat, radiation and hydrogen peroxide. J. Appl . Microbiol. 111:663-670. Ghosh S, Setlow P (2010

  17. Bacillus gobiensis sp. nov., isolated from a soil sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Cetin, Sengonca; Schumann, Peter; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Chen, Qian-Qian

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium designated FJAT-4402T, was isolated from the weed rhizosphere soil of the Gobi desert in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the north-west of China. Isolate FJAT-4402T grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), pH 5-10 (optimum pH 7) and in 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, showed that isolate FJAT-4402T was a member of the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis DSM 13T (96.2 %). The isolate showed 33.3 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the closest reference isolate, B. licheniformis DSM 13T. The diagnostic diamino acid of the peptidoglycan of isolate FJAT-4402T was meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 (28.5 %), iso-C15 : 0 (20.1 %), anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.3 %), iso-C16 : 0 (9.6 %), C16 : 0 (8.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (6.2 %) and iso-C14 : 0 (4.7 %) and the DNA G+C content was 42.0 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic properties indicated that strain FJAT-4402T represents a novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus gobiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is FJAT-4402T ( = DSM 29500T = CGMCC 1.12902T).

  18. Cytolytic Toxin and Related Genes in Bacillus thuringiensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Dong-lai; LI Yi-dan; GAO Ji-guo

    2005-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a ubiquitous gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that forms parasporal crystal during the stationary phase of its growth cycle. These crystal proteins, including Cry and Cyt protein, are toxic to certain insects. Lately, some problems about Cyt classification, structural characteristic, action mechanism and resistance to Cyt toxin are becoming new hotspots. We review the progress of above problems in several foreign labs.

  19. Necrotizing gastritis due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scanff, J; Mohammedi, I; Thiebaut, A; Martin, O; Argaud, L; Robert, D

    2006-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is increasingly being acknowledged as a serious bacterial pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of acute necrotizing gastritis caused by B. cereus in a 37-year-old woman with acute myeloblastic leukemia, who recovered following total parenteral nutrition and treatment with imipenem and vancomycin. B. cereus was isolated from gastric mucosa and blood cultures. Up to now, no case of acute necrotizing gastritis due to this organism has been reported.

  20. 14C Analysis of Protein Extracts from Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappucio, Jenny A.; Sarachine Falso, Miranda J.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F14C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F14C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F14C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F14C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their 14C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate 14C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, 14C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. PMID:24814329