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Sample records for bacillus sphaericus cepa

  1. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops....

  2. Synergy between toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Jiannino, Joshua A; Federici, Brian A; Walton, William E

    2004-09-01

    Synergistic interactions among the multiple endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac play an important role in its high toxicity to mosquito larvae and the absence of insecticide resistance in populations treated with this bacterium. A lack of toxin complexity and synergism are the apparent causes of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus Neide in particular Culex field populations. To identify endotoxin combinations of the two Bacillus species that might improve insecticidal activity and manage mosquito resistance to B. sphaericus, we tested their toxins alone and in combination. Most combinations of B. sphaericus and B. t. subsp. israelensis toxins were synergistic and enhanced toxicity relative to B. sphaericus, particularly against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae resistant to B. sphaericus and Aedes aegypti (L.), a species poorly susceptible to B. sphaericus. Toxicity also improved against susceptible Cx. quinquefasciatus. For example, when the CytlAa toxin from B. t. subsp. israelensis was added to Bin and Cry toxins, or when native B. t. subsp. israelensis was combined with B. sphaericus, synergism values as high as 883-fold were observed and combinations were 4-59,000-fold more active than B. sphaericus. These data, and previous studies using cytolytic toxins, validate proposed strategies for improving bacterial larvicides by combining B. sphaericus with B. t. subsp. israelensis or by engineering recombinant bacteria that express endotoxins from both strains. These combinations increase both endotoxin complexity and synergistic interactions and thereby enhance activity and help avoid insecticide resistance.

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism in the mosquito pathogen Bacillus sphaericus 2362.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, B L; Jelley, S A; Yousten, A A

    1989-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus 2362 is pathogenic for mosquito larvae and is being considered for large-scale production as a larvicide. The inability of the bacteria to metabolize carbohydrates requires that they be grown on proteinaceous media. This bacterium was found to be unable to transport glucose or sucrose into the cell, and it lacked glucokinase and hexokinase activity. In addition, it lacked phosphoglucose isomerase, phosphofructokinase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which are early ...

  4. Classification of Strains of Bacillus sphaericus by Different Statistical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    MERCAN, Nazime

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the sensitivies of 21 strains of Bacillus sphaericus to 20 different antibiotics were determined with the antibiotic disc susceptibility test. By measuring the diameters of the inhibition zones in terms of millimetres, the obtained values were analysed using the SPSS for Windows package and classifications were made. With these analyses, 21 strains were clustered into 5 groups. In our study, strains IAB 59 and 2297 were placed into a separate class. In addition, those antibioti...

  5. Transfer of the toxin protein genes of Bacillus sphaericus into Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and their expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgouin, C.; Delécluse, A; de la Torre, F; Szulmajster, J.

    1990-01-01

    The genes encoding the toxic determinants of Bacillus sphaericus have been expressed in a nontoxic and a toxic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. In both cases, the B. sphaericus toxin proteins were produced at a high level during sporulation of B. thuringiensis and accumulated as crystalline structures. B. thuringiensis transformants expressing B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis toxins did not show a significant enhancement of toxicity against Aedes aegyp...

  6. Physiologic and genetic characterization of Bacillus sphaericus native strains

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    Jenny Dussen Garzón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pathogenic native strains of Bacillus sphaericus that were pathogens to mosquito larvae were isolated from different Colombia regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate at physiological and molecular level pathogenic strains and to compare them with the reference 2362 one. Cellular growth, sporulation percentage, pathogenic activity against third instar larvae of Culex quinquejasciaius, the presence of toxigenic proteins, the size of native plasmids and the genetic polymorphism among pathogenic and non pathogenic isolations was evaluated. The evaluated strains of Bs presented a latency stage ranging from 2 to 3 h and one logarithmic phase of 7 h; the sporulation in BHI was lower than 1% to 40 h of incubation, in NYSM medium was obtained ten times more production of biomass and spores, 26% of the population showed sporulation percentage higher than 90%; the isolations were classified in three groups of pathogenicity with [Formula] and [Formula]. Punctual mutations on the genes which encoding for native toxins were detected and was found a exclusive protein of 30 kDa in pathogenic native strains. The isolations of Bs presented a plasmid of 118Kb that was not related to the toxicity; pathogenic strains are a homogenous group with a similarity between 90 to 100%, whereas non-pathogenic ones are genetically heterogeneous group and conform a cluster aside. The native strains have a great potential in biological control of mosquito larvae that transmitting diseases such as dengue, malaria, encephalitis and filariasis among others.

  7. Efficient mosquitocidal toxin production by Bacillus sphaericus using cheese whey permeate under both submerged and solid state fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bendary, Magda A; Moharam, Maysa E; Foda, M S

    2008-05-01

    Whey permeate (WP) was used efficiently for production of mosquitocidal toxin by Bacillus sphaericus 2362 (B. sphaericus 2362) and the Egyptian isolate, B. sphaericus 14N1 (B. sphaericus 14N1) under both submerged and solid state fermentation conditions. Under submerged fermentation, high mosquitocidal activity was produced by B. sphaericus 2362 and B. sphaericus 14N1 at 50-100% and 25-70% WP, respectively. Initial pH of WP was a critical factor for toxin production by both tested organisms. The highest toxicity was obtained at initial pH 7. Egyptian isolate, B. sphaericus 14N1 was tested for growth and toxin production under solid state fermentation conditions (SSF) by using WP as moistening agent instead of distilled water. The optimum conditions for production of B. sphaericus 14N1 on wheat bran-WP medium were 10 g wheat bran/250 ml flask moistened with 10-70% WP at 50% moisture content, inoculum size ranged between 17.2x10(7) and 34.4x10(7) and 6 days incubation under static conditions at 30 degrees C. Preliminary pilot-scale production of B. sphaericus 14N1 under SSF conditions in trays proved that wheat bran-WP medium was efficient and economic for industrial production of mosquitocidal toxin by B. sphaericus.

  8. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Knols, B.G.J.; Becker, N.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of new water-dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringienis var. israelensis (Bti; VectoBac?) and B. sphaericus (Bs; VectoLex?, Valent BioScience Corp., Illinois, USA) for the control of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Giles mosquitoes in a malaria-end

  9. Allelic diversity and population structure of Bacillus sphaericus as revealed by multilocus sequence typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yong; Hu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Dasheng; Wu, Yiming; Yuan, Zhiming

    2011-08-01

    The genetic diversity of 35 Bacillus sphaericus strains was analyzed by a newly developed multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme, toxin gene pool survey, and mosquito bioassay. The results demonstrated that strains assigned to the same sequence type (ST) had the same occurrence of toxin genes. Further sequence analysis revealed that toxic strains presented a nearly clonal population structure, whereas nontoxic strains had a high level of heterogeneity and were significantly distinct from toxic strains.

  10. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Aiko Shirakawa; Maria Alba Cincotto; Daniel Atencio; Gaylarde,Christine C.; John,Vanderley M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in...

  11. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis

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    Márcia Aiko Shirakawa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS, as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials.

  12. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C; John, Vanderley M

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials.

  13. Effect of culture medium on biocalcification by Pseudomonas Putida, Lysinibacillus Sphaericus and Bacillus Subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Márcia Aiko; Cincotto, Maria Alba; Atencio, Daniel; Gaylarde, Christine C.; John, Vanderley M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of calcium carbonate bioprecipitation by Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas putida, obtained from the Coleção de Culturas do Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS), as a first step in determining their potential to protect building materials against water uptake. Two culture media were studied: modified B4 containing calcium acetate and 295 with calcium chloride. Calcium consumption in the two media after incubation with and without the bacterial inoculum was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Modified B4 gave the best results and in this medium Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 produced the highest calcium carbonate precipitation, followed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus INQCS 414; the lowest precipitation was produced by Bacillus subtilis INQCS 328. In this culture medium XRD analysis showed that Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtilis precipitated calcite and vaterite polymorphs while Lysinibacillus sphaericus produced only vaterite. The shape and size of the crystals were affected by culture medium, bacterial strain and culture conditions, static or shaken. In conclusion, of the three strains Pseudomonas putida INQCS 113 in modified B4 medium gave the best results precipitating 96% of the calcium, this strain thus has good potential for use on building materials. PMID:24031661

  14. Bacillus sphaericus LMG 22257 is physiologically suitable for self-healing concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianyun; Jonkers, Henk M; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2017-04-01

    The suitability of using a spore-forming ureolytic strain, Bacillus sphaericus, was evaluated for self-healing of concrete cracks. The main focus was on alkaline tolerance, calcium tolerance, oxygen dependence, and low-temperature adaptability. Experimental results show that B. sphaericus had a good tolerance. It can grow and germinate in a broad range of alkaline pH. The optimal pH range is 7 ∼ 9. High alkaline conditions (pH 10 ∼ 11) slow down but not stop the growth and germination. Oxygen was strictly needed during bacterial growth and germination, but not an essential factor during bacterial urea decomposition. B. sphaericus also had a good Ca tolerance, especially at a high bacterial concentration of 10(8) cells/mL; no significant influence was observed on bacterial ureolytic activity of the presence of 0.9M Ca(2+). Furthermore, at a low temperature (10 °C), bacterial spores germinated and revived ureolytic activity with some retardation. However, this retardation can be counteracted by using a higher bacterial concentration and by supplementing yeast extract. It can be concluded that B. sphaericus is a suitable bacterium for application in bacteria-based self-healing concrete.

  15. Development of a Bacillus sphaericus tablet formulation and its evaluation as a larvicide in the biological control of Culex quinquefasciatus

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia P Morais de Medeiros; Maria Alice Varjal de Melo Santos; Leda Regis; Eugênia M Maranhão Rios; Pedro J. Rolim Neto

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the final fermentation culture of Bacillus sphaericus 2362, standardize it and develop an active tablet formulation for use in urban mosquito breeding sites. It was performed in three phases: analysis and standardization of a B. sphaericus fermented culture; physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the active powder (solubility, residual humidity, particle size, resting angle, flowing off time, compacted density, and biological activity against Culex quinquef...

  16. Polymeric macroporous formulations for the control release of mosquitocidal Bacillus sphaericus ISPC-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anuj; Hadapad, Ashok B; Hire, Ramesh S; Melo, Jose S; D'Souza, Stanislaus F

    2013-12-10

    Bio-polymeric mosquitocidal formulations were developed for the control release of Bacillus sphaericus ISPC-8 by the immobilization of its spore-crystal complex onto the macroporous polymeric matrices. The biodegradable formulations were synthesized at sub-zero temperature using natural polymeric substrates like agarose, alginate, cellulose, non-adsorbent cotton, wooden cork powder and also magnetite nanoparticles. The obtained polymeric matrices were morphologically characterized, which showed 85-90% porosity, uniform pores distribution, high permeability and controlled degradation (19-30%) in 4 weeks depending upon the composition of formulations. Further, the polymeric macroporous formulations were tested for persistence of mosquitocidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Unformulated B. sphaericus ISPC-8 spores retained 54% of larvicidal activity after 7 days, which completely reduced after 35 days of treatment. However, the immobilized B. sphaericus spores in agarose-alginate formulations showed high larvicidal activity on day 7 and retained about 45% activity even after 35 days of treatments. Studies on UV-B and pH dependent inactivation of toxins and spore viability showed that these formulations were significantly protecting the spores as compared to the unformulated spores, which suggest its potential application for the mosquito control program.

  17. Studies on the characterisation of Biosealant properties of Bacillus sphaericus

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    Kantha D.Arunachalam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In previous works Bacillus pasteurii was the only well known species used to precipitate the calcium carbonate. Bacillus spharecius was yet another partially characterized species with similar entity, having the capability of precipitating calcium carbonate. Earlier researchers have shown very less implementation of the organism inremediation aspect. Bacillus spharecius was sub cultured and temperature, pH were optimized at 7.4 and 37°C. Growth curve for Bacillus spharecius showed that the log phase was between 4-11 hours and after 21 hours the bacterial growth was inhibited. EDTA titration was performed to find out the amount of CaCO3 precipitate and itwas highest at pH 8. The broth culture was subjected to Atomic Force Microscope studies. The analysis confirmed the presence of calcite in both the bacterial solution and dry scrapes. Optimum nickel ion concentration for calcium carbonate precipitation was found to be 80μm. The cubes were treated for 5 days in laboratory scale and to pilot scale in the second phase for 25 days. At the end of the study, the potential of Bacillus pasteurii in Bio-concrete was well established.

  18. Evaluation of entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus isolated from Lombok beach area against mosquito larvae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bambang Fajar Suryadi; Bagyo Yanuwiadi; Tri Ardyati; Suharjono Suharjono

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate, characterize and evaluate toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus(B. sphaericus) from beach area of Lombok Island.Methods: Soil was collected from determined locations and suspended in sterile physiological saline water. After heat shock was applied, suspension was spread on NYSM agar medium. Colonies grown were then observed and isolated. Colony, cell morphology,and biochemical/physiological characteristics were tested and compared to B. sphaericus2362 as standard. Initial toxicity testing was done against three species of mosquito larvae(Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles aconitus and Aedes aegypti) and isolates that showed more than 50% larvae killing will be assayed to obtain LC50 and LC90values within 48 h.PCR technique were conducted to obtain 16 s r DNA amplicon for sequencing and to detect toxin-expressing genes(using multiplex PCR).Results: Twenty isolates of B. sphaericus have been collected from 20 determined locations and their characteristics were in agreement with standard B. sphaericus characteristics. Bioassay testing showed that four isolates(namely isolate MNT, SLG, TJL2 and PLG) were mildly toxic against all larvae. The rests were either low toxic or non-toxic at all.Phylogenetic analysis showed that all four isolates were clustered with other known mildly and highly toxic strains. The multiplex PCR result showed four toxic isolates owned 1–2bands from Bin toxin genes and three bands from Mtx toxin genes, whereas 16 isolates with low to non-toxic characteristics showed only three bands from Mtx toxin genes.Conclusions: Four toxic isolates of B. sphaericus were isolated from beach area of Lombok Island. They showed mild toxicity against larvae of three mosquito species.

  19. Polyhydroxybutyrate production using agro-industrial residue as substrate by Bacillus sphaericus NCIM 5149

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    Nisha V. Ramadas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB using agro- industrial residues as the carbon source. Seven substrates, viz., wheat bran, potato starch, sesame oil cake, groundnut oil cake, cassava powder, jackfruit seed powder and corn flour were hydrolyzed using commercial enzymes and the hydrolyzates assessed for selecting the best substrate for PHB production. Jackfruit seed powder gave the maximum production of PHB under submerged fermentation using Bacillus sphaericus (19% at the initial pH of 7.5.

  20. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  1. Screening of Bacterial Strains for Polygalacturonase Activity: Its Production by Bacillus sphaericus (MTCC 7542

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    Ranveer Singh Jayani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At present almost all the pectinolytic enzymes used for industrial applications are produced by fungi. There are a few reports of pectinase production by bacterial strains. Therefore, in the present study, seventy-four bacterial strains, isolated from soil and rotten vegetable samples, were screened for polygalacturonase production. The strain PG-31, which gave maximum activity, was identified as Bacillus sphaericus (MTCC 7542. Maximal quantities of polygalacturonase were produced when a 16-hours-old inoculum was used at 7.5% (v/v in production medium and incubated in shaking conditions (160 rpm for 72 hours. The optimal temperature and pH for bacterial growth and polygalacturonase production were found to be 30∘C and 6.8, respectively. Maximum enzyme production resulted when citrus pectin was used as the carbon source at a concentration of 1.25% (w/v, whereas other carbon sources led to a decrease (30%–70% in enzyme production. Casein hydrolysate and yeast extract used together as organic nitrogen source gave best results, and ammonium chloride was found to be the most suitable inorganic nitrogen source. The supplementation of media with 0.9% (w/v D-galacturonic acid led to a 23% increase in activity. Bacillus sphaericus, a bacterium isolated from soil, produced good amount of polygalacturonase activity at neutral pH; hence, it would be potentially useful to increase the yield of banana, grape, or apple juice.

  2. Larvicidal potentiality, longevity and fecundity inhibitory activities of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV on vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Arjunan Nareshkumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention measures to control the transmission of vector-borne diseases include control of the vector population. In mosquito control, synthetic insecticides used against both the larvae (larvicides and adults (adulticides create numerous problems, such as environmental pollution, insecticide resistance and toxic hazards to humans. In the present study, a bacterial pesticide, Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV, was used to control the dengue and filarial vectors, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV was very effective against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, showing significant larval mortality. Evaluated lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 were age-dependent, with early instars requiring a lower concentration compared with later stages of mosquitoes. Culex quinquefasciatus was more susceptible to Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV than was Aedes aegypti. Fecundity rate was highly reduced after treatment with different concentrations of Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV. Larval and pupal longevity both decreased after treatment with Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV, total number of days was lower in the B. sphaericus treatments compared with the control. Our results show the bacterial pesticide Bacillus sphaericus (Bs G3-IV to be an effective mosquito control agent that can be used for more integrated pest management programs.

  3. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF Bacillus sphaericus 2362 AGAINST Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles darlingi AND Anopheles braziliensis (DIPTERA, CULICIDAE

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    RODRIGUES Iléa Brandão

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this present study, preliminary data was obtained regarding the mortality rate of the Amazonian anophelines, Anopheles nuneztovari, Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles braziliensis when subjected to treatment with Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362, the WHO standard strain. Initially, experiments were conducted to test the mortality rate of the three species of anopheline larvae. The third larval instar of An. nuneztovari and the second and third larval instars of An. darlingi proved to be the least susceptible. In other experiments, the same three mosquito species were tested with the standard strain 2362, An. nuneztovari was the least susceptible to this insect pathogen, while An. braziliensis was the most susceptible. This latter species showed a difference in the level of LC50 concentration, when compared to the former, of 2.4, 2.5 and 1.8 in readings taken 24, 48 and 72 hours after exposure to the bacillus.

  4. Development of a Bacillus sphaericus tablet formulation and its evaluation as a larvicide in the biological control of Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Flávia P Morais de Medeiros

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the final fermentation culture of Bacillus sphaericus 2362, standardize it and develop an active tablet formulation for use in urban mosquito breeding sites. It was performed in three phases: analysis and standardization of a B. sphaericus fermented culture; physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the active powder (solubility, residual humidity, particle size, resting angle, flowing off time, compacted density, and biological activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae; and the development of fast-disintegrating tablets. Five formulations with differing compositions were developed and a UV protector was added to the selected formulation. The formulation products with or without UV protector, as well as the active powder caused 100% larval mortality from 1 day to 2 months after a single treatment under simulated field conditions. These results show that the UV protector does not affect the initial larvicide activity of B. sphaericus, nor its persistence over a period of two months.

  5. Development of a Bacillus sphaericus tablet formulation and its evaluation as a larvicide in the biological control of Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Flávia P Morais de; Santos, Maria Alice Varjal de Melo; Regis, Leda; Rios, Eugênia M Maranhão; Rolim Neto, Pedro J

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the final fermentation culture of Bacillus sphaericus 2362, standardize it and develop an active tablet formulation for use in urban mosquito breeding sites. It was performed in three phases: analysis and standardization of a B. sphaericus fermented culture; physical, chemical, and biological analysis of the active powder (solubility, residual humidity, particle size, resting angle, flowing off time, compacted density, and biological activity against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae); and the development of fast-disintegrating tablets. Five formulations with differing compositions were developed and a UV protector was added to the selected formulation. The formulation products with or without UV protector, as well as the active powder caused 100% larval mortality from 1 day to 2 months after a single treatment under simulated field conditions. These results show that the UV protector does not affect the initial larvicide activity of B. sphaericus, nor its persistence over a period of two months.

  6. Mtx toxins synergize Bacillus sphaericus and Cry11Aa against susceptible and insecticide-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Yang, Yangkun; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A; Berry, Colin

    2007-10-01

    Two mosquitocidal toxins (Mtx) of Bacillus sphaericus, which are produced during vegetative growth, were investigated for their potential to increase toxicity and reduce the expression of insecticide resistance through their interactions with other mosquitocidal proteins. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were fused with glutathione S-transferase and produced in Escherichia coli, after which lyophilized powders of these fusions were assayed against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Both Mtx proteins showed a high level of activity against susceptible C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes, with 50% lethal concentrations (LC(50)) of Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 of 0.246 and 4.13 microg/ml, respectively. The LC(50)s were 0.406 to 0.430 microg/ml when Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 was mixed with B. sphaericus, and synergy improved activity and reduced resistance levels. When the proteins were combined with a recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis strain that produces Cry11Aa, the mixtures were highly active against Cry11A-resistant larvae and resistance was also reduced. The mixture of two Mtx toxins and B. sphaericus was 10 times more active against susceptible mosquitoes than B. sphaericus alone, demonstrating the influence of relatively low concentrations of these toxins. These results show that, similar to Cyt toxins from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, Mtx toxins can increase the toxicity of other mosquitocidal proteins and may be useful for both increasing the activity of commercial bacterial larvicides and managing potential resistance to these substances among mosquito populations.

  7. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceae) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus, against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William

    2012-01-01

    The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212

  8. UJI COBA LARVISIDA SPHERIFIX (Bacillus sphaericus VCRC B 42 TERHADAP LARVA Anopheles sundaicus Di GERUMBUL KLACES, UJUNG ALANG - KABUPATEN CILACAP

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    Umi Widyastuti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A biological larvicide spherifix containing Bacillus sphaericus VCRC B 42 was investigated against Anopheles sundaicus in Klaces hamlet, Cilacap regency. This study was conducted to determine the effectivity of spherifix on An. sundaicus larvae at a dosage of 2.5 kg/Ha. Observations were conducted one day before application of the larvicide, 24, 36, 48 hours, day 4, 7, and 14 after application. The larval reduction rates were calculated using the formula of Mulia et al, 1971, and a reduction of the results were 16.69 % after 24 hours, 20.95 % after 36 hours, 34.07 % after 48 hours, 65.08 % after 4 days, 85.98 % after 7 days, and 90.81 % after 14 days. B. sphaericus has capabilities to function as a biological larvicide.

  9. ON THE USE OF FROTH FLOTATION IN THE RECOVERY OF Bacillus sphaericus SPORES

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    E.M. RIOS

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The recovery of Bacillus sphaericus strain 2362 spores from fermented medium by batch flotation was tested under different conditions. Flotation kinetic studies were performed at 800 rpm and 3 l air/min. The pH values were adjusted at the following set of values: 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0. The results showed that the spore removal rate is influenced by the pH value. At pH equal to 5.0 we observe an adverse effect on the spore concentrate obtention. In this situation the maximum value of the concentration factor was 1.4 when the recuperation percentage was 99%. At pH equal to 7.0 the concentration factor reached the highest value, 7.0, but the recuperation percentage stayed around 96%. Field experiments with the floated material demonstrated that its larvicide activity was sufficient to keep a Culex quinquefasciatus larvae population under control at in a breeding site, during 3 months with 2 applications

  10. Fate and persistence of Bacillus sphaericus used as a mosquito larvicide in dairy wastewater lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matanmi, B A; Federici, B A; Mulla, M S

    1990-09-01

    The fate and persistence of the mosquitocidal bacterium, Bacillus sphaericus, in dairy wastewater lagoons was evaluated in conjunction with trials of its larvicidal efficacy against Culex stigmatosoma. Two commercial formulations, BSP-2 (at 4.48 kg/ha) and ABG-6184 (at 2.24 kg/ha) gave about 90% reduction for up to 4 weeks, although surface water lost its insecticidal activity by 3 days posttreatment. Spores settled to the bottom within 3 days of treatment, but could be recovered in surface water after reflooding. Spore concentrations in bottom water varied widely, yet insecticidal activity remained high for from 3 days (BSP-2 at 4.48 kg/ha) to 2 weeks (ABG-6184 at 2.24 kg/ha). Spores persisted in the mud throughout the study period. These results indicate the extended control obtained was due primarily to the ingestion of spores from bottom water and mud by larvae, which routinely inhabit the shallow areas toward the edge of the pond and browse at the pond bottom.

  11. Effect of Bacillus sphaericus Neide on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae and associated insect fauna in fish ponds in the Amazon

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    Francisco Augusto da Silva Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTWe analyzed the effects of Bacillus sphaericus on Anopheles larvae and on the associated insect fauna in fish farming ponds. Five breeding sites in the peri-urban area of the city of Manaus, AM, Brazil, were studied. Seven samples were collected from each breeding site and B. sphaericus was applied and reapplied after 15 days. The samples were made at 24 h before application, 24 h post-application and 5 and 15 days post-application. We determined abundance, larval reduction and larval density for Anopheles, and abundance, richness, Shannon diversity index and classified according to the functional trophic groups for associated insect fauna. A total of 904 Anopheles larvae were collected and distributed into five species. Density data and larval reduction demonstrated the rapid effect of the biolarvicide 24 h after application. A total of 4874 associated aquatic insects belonging to six orders and 23 families were collected. Regression analysis of diversity and richness indicated that the application of the biolarvicide had no influence on these indices and thus no effect on the associated insect fauna for a period of 30 days. B. sphaericus was found to be highly effective against the larvae of Anopheles, eliminating the larvae in the first days after application, with no effect on the associated insect fauna present in the fish ponds analyzed.

  12. Characterization and biological activity of a brazilian isolate of Bacillus sphaericus (Neide highly toxic to mosquito larvae

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    Paulo de Tarso Ribeiro Vilarinhos

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary powders of Bacillus sphaericus strain S2 isolated from soil samples in Brazil, and strain 2362 were produced in a 14 liter fermentor. Growth patterns and sporulation observed in three trials with strains S2 and 2362 in the fermentor were similar. Second-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles quadrimaculatus, and Aedes aegypti exposed for 48 hr to strain S2 responded with LC50 values of 0.25, 5.95, 12.28 and 140.0 ppb of lyophilized primary powder, respectively. Under the same conditions, strain 2362 resulted in LC50 values of 0.39, 7.16, 16.93 and 307.0 ppb of lyophilized primary powder, respectively, in those mosquito larvae. Statistical analysis of the bioassay data did not show significant differences among LC50 values observed in B. sphaericus strains S2 and 2362, at the 0.05 level. Toxins of strains S2 and 2362 were extracted at pH 12 with NaOH. Electrophoresis of the extracts in polyacrylamide gel under denaturing conditions revealed the 51 and 42 kDa toxins in both S2 and 2362 B. sphaericus strains. The presence of the 42 kDa peptide in the extracts was confirmed by Western blot and Elisa, with anti-42 kDa IgG previously prepared from strain 2362.

  13. Spectroscopic characterization of gold nanoparticles formed by cells and S-layer protein of Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merroun, M. [Institute of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)]. E-mail: m.merroun@fz-rossendorf.de; Rossberg, A. [Institute of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Hennig, C. [Institute of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Scheinost, A.C. [Institute of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Selenska-Pobell, S. [Institute of Radiochemistry, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    The strain Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12, isolated from a uranium mining waste pile near the town of Johanngeorgenstadt, is capable of selective and reversible accumulation of U, Cu, Pb, Al, and Cd from uranium waste waters. The cells of this strain are enveloped by a surface layer protein (S-layer). The highly regular structure of this S-layer with many pores of identical size offers good binding sites for different kinds of molecules and provides nucleation sites for the formation of metal nanoclusters or minerals. In this study we demonstrate that B. sphaericus JG-A12 cells and their purified S-layer protein were capable to reduce Au to metallic nanoclusters in the presence of reducing agents such as molecular H{sub 2}. The gold nanoparticles were regularly distributed and sized according to the pores of the protein lattice. The metallic nature of the clusters was confirmed by different techniques such as extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near edge (XANES) spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The size of the gold nanoparticles was estimated to be almost 1 nm. Our results demonstrate that B. sphaericus JG-A12 can be used to prepare gold nanoparticles tailor-made for industrial applications.

  14. The histidine-phosphocarrier protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sugar phosphotransferase system of Bacillus sphaericus self-associates.

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    Rosa Doménech

    Full Text Available The phosphotransferase system (PTS is involved in the use of carbon sources in bacteria. Bacillus sphaericus, a bacterium with the ability to produce insecticidal proteins, is unable to use hexoses and pentoses as the sole carbon source, but it has ptsHI genes encoding the two general proteins of the PTS: enzyme I (EI and the histidine phosphocarrier (HPr. In this work, we describe the biophysical and structural properties of HPr from B. sphaericus, HPr(bs, and its affinity towards EI of other species to find out whether there is inter-species binding. Conversely to what happens to other members of the HPr family, HPr(bs forms several self-associated species. The conformational stability of the protein is low, and it unfolds irreversibly during heating. The protein binds to the N-terminal domain of EI from Streptomyces coelicolor, EIN(sc, with a higher affinity than that of the natural partner of EIN(sc, HPr(sc. Modelling of the complex between EIN(sc and HPr(bs suggests that binding occurs similarly to that observed in other HPr species. We discuss the functional implications of the oligomeric states of HPr(bs for the glycolytic activity of B. sphaericus, as well as a strategy to inhibit binding between HPr(sc and EIN(sc.

  15. Influence de facteurs biotiques et abiotiques, induits et naturels, sur l'efficacité larvicide de Bacillus sphaericus Neide, 1904

    OpenAIRE

    Monteny, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    Après les problèmes apparus suite à l'utilisation des insecticides chimiques (résistance, pollution), l'alternative de la lutte biologique s'est imposée. #Bacillus sphaericus$ est une bactérie entomopathogène active essentiellement sur des larves du genre #Culex$. Son utilisation en milieu naturel révèle une perte d'efficacité imputable à des facteurs environnementaux. L'analyse de l'effet inactivant de diverses bandes spectrales de l'énergie solaire attribue ce rôle aux rayons U.V.A. (315 à ...

  16. Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of whole plant ethanolic extracts of Leucas aspera and of Bacillus sphaericus was determined for larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. When larvae were exposed to one of five concentrations of plant extract (6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) for 24 h, mortality in 4th instars ranged from 1...

  17. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillinger, Ulrike; Knols, Bart G J; Becker, Norbert

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of new water-dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringienis var. israelensis (Bti; VectoBac) and B. sphaericus (Bs; VectoLex), Valent BioScience Corp., Illinois, USA) for the control of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Giles mosquitoes in a malaria-endemic area around Lake Victoria, Western Kenya. WDG and powder formulations were compared in laboratory bioassays and followed by efficiency and residual effect assessments of both WDG formulations in open field experiments. LC50 and LC95 values for the Bti/Bs strains and their formulations show high susceptibility of A. gambiae sensu stricto under laboratory conditions. The larvae proved more susceptible to Bs than to Bti and the WDG formulations were slightly superior to the powder formulations. High efficiency was also shown in the open field trials, and a minimum dosage of 200 g/ha Bti WDG, representing the LC95 of the laboratory tests, was sufficient to fully suppress emergence of mosquitoes when applied at weekly intervals. Bti WDG did not show a residual effect, irrespective of the concentration applied. The Bs WDG formulation, however, showed significant larval reductions up to 11 days post-treatment at application doses of either 1 or 5 kg/ha. We conclude that the main malaria vector in our study area is highly susceptible to these microbial control agents. Minimum effective dosages to achieve elimination of the larval population in a given habitat are extremely low and environmental impact is negligible. Microbial products for larval control have therefore great potential within Integrated Vector Management programmes and may augment control efforts against adult vector stages, such as the use of insecticide-treated bednets, in many parts of Africa.

  18. Evolution of resistance to the Bacillus sphaericus Bin toxin is phenotypically masked by combination with the mosquitocidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2010-05-01

    Two insecticidal bacteria are used as larvicides to control larvae of nuisance and vector mosquitoes in many countries, Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis and B. sphaericus. Field studies show both are effective, but serious resistance, as high as 50 000-fold, has evolved where B. sphaericus is used against Culex mosquitoes. To improve efficacy and deal with even greater potential problems of resistance, we previously developed several recombinant larvicidal bacteria that combine the best mosquitocidal proteins of these bacteria. In the present study, we report laboratory selection studies using our best recombinant strain against larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. This recombinant, Bti/BsBin, is a strain of B. thuringiensis ssp. israelensis engineered to produce a large amount of the B. sphaericus binary (Bin) toxin, which makes it more than 10-fold as mosquitocidal as the its parental strains. Here we show that larvae exposed to Bti/BsBin failed to develop significant resistance after 30 successive generations of heavy selection pressure. The highest level of resistance obtained at the LC(95) level was 5.2-fold, but declined to less than two-fold at the 35th generation. Testing the selected populations against B. sphaericus alone showed resistance to Bin evolved, but was masked by combination with B. thuringiensis ssp. israelensis. These results suggest that recombinant bacterial strains have improved mosquito and vector management properties compared with the wild-type strains used in current commercial formulations, and should prove useful in controlling important human diseases such as malaria and filariasis on a long-term basis, even when used intensively under field conditions.

  19. A Two-Component Monooxygenase Catalyzes Both the Hydroxylation of p-Nitrophenol and the Oxidative Release of Nitrite from 4-Nitrocatechol in Bacillus sphaericus JS905

    OpenAIRE

    Kadiyala, Venkateswarlu; Spain, Jim C.

    1998-01-01

    Bacteria that metabolize p-nitrophenol (PNP) oxidize the substrate to 3-ketoadipic acid via either hydroquinone or 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (THB); however, initial steps in the pathway for PNP biodegradation via THB are unclear. The product of initial hydroxylation of PNP could be either 4-nitrocatechol or 4-nitroresorcinol. Here we describe the complete pathway for aerobic PNP degradation by Bacillus sphaericus JS905 that was isolated by selective enrichment from an agricultural soil in India...

  20. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus spores in urban catch basins after simultaneous application against mosquito larvae.

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    Valeria Guidi

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsph are extensively used in mosquito control programs. These biocides are the active ingredients of a commercial larvicide. Quantitative data on the fate of both Bti and Lsph applied together for the control of mosquitoes in urban drainage structures such as catch basins are lacking. We evaluated the dynamics and persistence of Bti and Lsph spores released through their concomitant application in urban catch basins in southern Switzerland. Detection and quantification of spores over time in water and sludge samples from catch basins were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR targeting both cry4A and cry4B toxin genes for Bti and the binA gene for Lsph. After treatment, Bti and Lsph spores attained concentrations of 3.76 (± 0.08 and 4.13 (± 0.09 log ml(-1 in water, then decreased progressively over time, reaching baseline values. For both Bti and Lsph, spore levels in the order of 10(5 g(-1 were observed in the bottom sludge two days after the treatment and remained constant for the whole test period (275 days. Indigenous Lsph strains were isolated from previously untreated catch basins. A selection of those was genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, revealing that a subset of isolates were members of the clonal population of strain 2362. No safety issues related to the use of this biopesticide in the environment have been observed during this study, because no significant increase in the number of spores was seen during the long observation period. The isolation of native Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging to the same clonal population as strain 2362 from catch basins never treated with Lsph-based products indicates that the use of a combination of Bti and Lsph for the control of mosquitoes does not introduce non-indigenous microorganisms in this area.

  1. STUDI KOMPARATIF EFEK RESIDUAL Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 DAN Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b TERHADAP LARVA Aedes aegypti PADA BEBERAPA TIPE TEMPAT PENAMPUNG AIR

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    Salamun Salamun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 and Bacillus sphaericus H-5a5b are microbial agents showing high potency for vector control. They are highly specific to target insect, and do not produce any adverse environmental impact. Such agents would be very promising agents for vector control, especially vector of dengue haemorrhagic fever in Indonesia.   The present studies aimed at observing the residual effects of B. thuringiensis H-14 (VCRC B17 and B. sphaericus H-5a5b (VCRC B42 on the larvae of Aedes aegypti in some types of water container.   Two steps of the studies were carried out under laboratory conditions. First steps were bioassays to determine of VCRC B17 and VCRC B42 potencies. Second steps were residual effect testings to determine of the residual activities of both VCRC Bl 7 and VCRC B42 in the cemented, clay, and plastic containers.   Bioassays of VCRC B17 and VCRC B42 on Ae. aegypti larvae showed that the Lethal Concentrations 50% were 117.9 ug/l and 790.6 ug/l respectively. Residual effect of VCRC B17 on Ae. aegypti larvae at the concentrations ranging from 1 to 125 mg per litres, in the cemented container was 34 to 91 days, in the clay container was 28 to 49 days, and in the plastic container was 21 to 66 days. Similar studies of VCRC B42 on the same species of mosquito larvae and the same concentration range, the residual effects were 3 to 26 days, 3 to 14 days, and 2 to 16 days respectively in the cemented, clay, and plastic containers.

  2. Eficiência e Persistência de Três Produtos Comerciais à Base de Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis e Bacillus sphaericus no controle de Culicidae (Diptera em Lagoas de Tratamento de Efluentes

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    Jose Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Abstract. The hematofagic effect caused by females belonging to some species of Culicidae on humans and animals can be directly related to pathogen transmission, allergic reactions and uneasiness. The emergence of populations resistant to chemical insecticides has fostered the use of alternative methods, mainly biological control. The trials were conducted in three effluent treatment lagoons, on larvae of Culicidae to test the efficiency and persistence of commercial products whose active principles are based on Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner and Bacillus sphaericus Neide. The products tested were Vectolex (a granulated formulation of B. sphaericus, Sphaericus (a liquid formulation of B. sphaericus and Bt-horus (a liquid formulation of B. thuringiensis. The products were applied biweekly and evaluations were conducted 0, 24, 48, 72, and 120 hours after each application. The lagoons were colonized by Culex nigripalpus Theobald (1.5%, Culex saltanensis Dyar (2.25%, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (96.25%. Bt-horus reduced larvae by 89.06%, 83.97% and 89.96% at 24, 48 and 72 hours after product application, respectively. The granulated and the liquid formulations containing B. sphaericus reduced larvae by 98.89 % and 98.34% 24 hours after application, and by 99.79% and 99.78% after 48 hours, respectively. The products and the different formulations were effective in controlling larvae of all three Culicidae species in lagoons with high levels of organic matter, but the persistence was recorded in two and three days for products containing respectively B. sphaericus and B. thuringiensis israelensis.

  3. Evaluación de la actividad insecticida de un producto granulado a base de Bacillus sphaericus sobre larvas de Anopheles albimanus y Culex quinquefasciatus en condiciones experimentales

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    Estrella Cárdenas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Culex quinquefasciatus causa alergias por las picaduras y ha sido asociado con la encefalitis equina, mientras que Anopheles albimanus es vector de malaria. El objetivo fue evaluar la toxicidad de un producto granulado a base de Bacillus sphaericus sobre larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus. El estudio fue realizado sobre larvas de C. quinquefasciatus (Sibaté y Villavicencio y An albimanus (Cartagena y Barranquilla. Las concentraciones ensayadas de B. sphaericus fueron: 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 y 500 ppm para larvas de An. albimanus y para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus fueron: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 y 16 ppm. Se utilizaron 20 larvas en tres repeticiones por cada concentración del producto y el tiempo de exposición fue de 48 horas. El producto de B. sphaericus mostró alta mortalidad (entre 80 y 100% a bajas concentraciones (8 y 12 ppm para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus; mientras que para larvas de An. albimanus a concentraciones más altas (entre 40 y 200 ppm la mortalidad no superó el 50%. La CL50 Logit fue 176 ppm y la Probit fue 192 ppm de B. sphaericus para larvas de An. albimanus; mientras que para larvas de C. quinquefasciatus la CL50 Logit fue 1, 9 ppm y la Probit fue 2, 2 ppm. Se concluye que las larvas de C. quinquefasciatus fueron más susceptibles a bajas concentraciones (2 a 12 ppm de B. sphaericus, mientras que las larvas de An. albimanus mostraron alta toxicidad a concentraciones de 500 ppm.

  4. Partial analysis of the central domain of the Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12 S-layer protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnorpfeil, M.; Raff, J.; Flemming, K.; Selenska-Pobell, S.

    2002-05-01

    310 amino acids from the central domain of the B. sphaericus JG-A12 S-layer were analyzed. In contrast to the N-terminal domain of this protein, which possesses a unique structure, the part studied in this work shares a significant identity with the corresponding parts of several other B. sphaericus S-layers. (orig.)

  5. [Biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus-2362(GRISELESF) for the control of malaria in a health area of the Republic of Honduras].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sergio D Blanco; Colombi, Elide; Flores, Luis Nery; Canales, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The results of the application of biolarvicide Bacillus sphaericus-2362(GRISELESF) for the reduction of larval densities of Anopheles albimanus as the impact on the epidemiological situation of the disease in health area 2, Sanitary Region 1 of the Ministry of Health Care of Honduras. The biolarvicide was applied in 1999 in five health units which were the most affected by this tropical disease (Ojo del Agua, Villa de San Francisco, San Juan de Flores, Moroceli and El Jicarito). The dose used was 10 ml per square meter of effective breeding area; larval densities were estimated during biological pre- and post-treatment phases. The product showed 100 % effectiveness and a lasting effect up to four months after treatment in the 11 monitored breeding sites. This entomological impact led to a significantly statistical reduction (p < 0,01) of annual parasite incidence in 1999 (21,45) as compared with 1998(45,64) in the five treated units. It was also observed that this product was harmless to Anopheles almimanus larva-eating fish and insects (Coleóptera, Hemiptera and Odonata. The satisfactory entomological and epidemiological results in this health area allowed recommending this biological method as part of the comprehensive programs for the control of malarial vectors in the Republic of Honduras.

  6. Cloning, functional characterization, and mode of action of a novel insecticidal pore-forming toxin, sphaericolysin, produced by Bacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Hisashi; Nakashima, Kenta; Ishida, Chiharu; Kawamura, Tadayuki; Matsuda, Kazuhiko

    2007-05-01

    An insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus sphaericus A3-2 was purified to elucidate its structure and mode of action. The active principle purified from the culture broth of A3-2 was a protein with a molecular mass of 53 kDa that rapidly intoxicated German cockroaches (Blattela germanica) at a dose of about 100 ng when injected. The insecticidal protein sphaericolysin possessed the undecapeptide motif of cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and had a unique N-terminal sequence. The recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli was equally as potent as the native protein. Sphaericolysin-induced hemolysis resulted from the protein's pore-forming action. This activity as well as the insecticidal activity was markedly reduced by a Y159A mutation. Also, coapplication of sphaericolysin with cholesterol abolished the insecticidal action, suggesting that cholesterol binding plays an important role in insecticidal activity. Sphaericolysin-lysed neurons dissociated from the thoracic ganglia of the German cockroaches. In addition, sphaericolysin's activity in ganglia was suppressed by the Y159A mutation. The sphaericolysin-induced damage to the cockroach ganglia was greater than the damage to the ganglia of common cutworms (Spodoptera litura), which accounts, at least in part, for the higher sensitivity to sphaericolysin displayed by the cockroaches than that displayed by cutworms.

  7. EFIKASI LARVASIDA BACILLUS SPHAERICUS DAN BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SEROTYPE H-14 (BTI H-14 TERHADAP LARVA NYAMUK ANOPHELES SUNDAICUS DAN PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP BENUR UDANG

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    Lukman Hakim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study in efficacy of Vectolex (containing of Bacillus sphaericus, Vectobac WDG and Vectobac 12 AS (containing of B. thuringiensis biological larvicide's against mosquito larvae of Anopheles sundaicus and their implication for shrimp fry. This study consist of two steps, the first step is laboratory scale aimed to obtain LD90 concentration for each type of larvicide's and this study was carried out in Vector Borne Diseases Research Unit Laboratory. The second step is field trial aimed to examine LD90 concentration and recommended concentration and to obtain residual effect of those larvicide's and their implication for shrimp fry. The second step was carried out in fishpond area located in Sukaresik Village Ciamis District - West Java Province. The result shows that from those larvicides, all of them were effectively for death of An. sundaicus mosquito larvae and there is not implication for shrimp fry, it means that larvicide's safe for shrimp fry. Based on statistical calculation, both of recommended and LD90 concentration were not significantly different for An. sundaicus mosquito larvae, therefore further analyze was conducted only for recommended concentration. Another result of statistical calculation shows even though all of larvicide's were effectively, however there is not significantly different each other. According to probil analyze shows that residual effect of Vectolex has longer rather than other larvicides. The times spend of residual for LD90 of Vectolex is 10.805 days and for LD 50 reached 24.444 days. In line for LD90 of Vectobac WDG reached 6.20 days and reached 16.005 days. Furthermore for LD90 and LD50 of Vectobac 12 AS reached 5.773 days and 13.149 days respectively. For the conclusion, the most effective of larvicide's for An. sundaicus mosquito larvae control is Vectolex in recommended concentration (500 grams/hectare. Keywords: Anopheles sundaicus, Bacillus spbaericus, Bacillus thuriogiensis, Biological

  8. Tolerance to individual and joint effects of arsenic and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis or Lysinibacillus sphaericus in Culex mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogren, Christina L; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2014-08-01

    Arsenic contamination of global water supplies has come to the forefront in policy decisions in recent decades. However, the effects of arsenic on lower trophic levels of insects inhabiting contaminated ecosystems are not well understood. One approach to document both acute and sublethal effects of toxicants like arsenic is to assay them in combination with microbial pathogens to evaluate shifts in survival curves of the test organisms. Larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis were reared in water containing 0 or 1 000 μg/L of arsenate or arsenite. Fourth instars were then exposed to a range of doses of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) or Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Ls), with shifts in lethal concentrations determined. Arsenic accumulation in 4th instars was also quantified, and a relative growth index (RGI) calculated for the treatments and compared to controls. Larvae of both species accumulated between 4 447 ± 169 ng As/g and 6 983 ± 367 ng As/g, though RGI values indicated accumulation did not affect growth and development. In all cases, the LC50 's and LC90 's of Cx. quinquefasciatus exposed jointly with arsenic and Bti/Ls were higher than Cx. tarsalis. Cx. tarsalis reared in arsenite showed a significant reduction in their Bti LC90 values compared to the control, indicating a sublethal effect of Bti. When exposed jointly with Ls, arsenite was more toxic than arsenate in Cx. tarsalis. Overall, these results indicate tolerance of these Culex species to arsenic exposures, and why this may occur is discussed.

  9. Duration of activity of the microbial larvicide VectoLex CG (Bacillus sphaericus) in Illinois catch basins and waste tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, J P; Novak, R J

    1999-09-01

    The duration of activity of a formulation of Bacillus sphaericus, VectoLex CG, for control of Culex species was evaluated in 338 catch basins in Urbana, IL, and compared to Altosid in 346 catch basins in Champaign, IL. The activity of VectoLex in car and truck waste tires was evaluated in a tire dump located in Pembroke Township, IL. In catch basins, 1 g of VectoLex per catch basin gave the same control as one Altosid briquet. Both larvicides were effective against Culex sp. in catch basins for 1 month, and the duration of control with VectoLex lasted 44 days in one catch basin. VectoLex was considerably cheaper to apply than Altosid briquets, at 0.64 cents per catch basin compared to 90.75 cents, respectively. However, the Altosid briquets were judged to be easier to apply from a vehicle than VectoLex granules. VectoLex (22.6 kg) was used to treat approximately 6,000 car and truck tires; some of the tires were in direct sunlight whereas others were shaded. Aedes triseriatus was the dominant species in these tires. Tires treated with VectoLex contained significantly fewer mosquitoes than control tires, and even 65 days after application, control tires were 16.7 times more likely to contain larvae. We conclude that VectoLex was effective when used in Illinois catch basins and tire dumps, and emphasize that it is more appropriate to base tire treatment rates on the total number of tires present than on a kilogram per hectare basis.

  10. Impact of slow-release Bacillus sphaericus granules on mosquito populations followed in a tropical urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovmand, Ole; Ouedraogo, Thierry D A; Sanogo, Edith; Samuelsen, Helle; Toé, Lea P; Baldet, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    A floating, slow-release, granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus (Neide) was used to control mosquito larvae in two suburban areas of two tropical cities: Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A circular area of 2 km2, diameter 1,600 m, was treated in each city using a similar, smaller area 1 km away as an untreated control. Mosquito captures were made in houses in four concentric circles, from the periphery to the center; each circle was 50 m in width. Mosquitoes were captured in CDC light traps or from human landings. More than 95% of the mosquitoes were Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). The human landing catches provided twice as many mosquitoes as did the CDC traps/night/house. The treatments resulted in important reductions relative to the control area and to preintervention captures. The reduction was more prominent in the inner circle (up to 90%) than in the outer circle (50-70%), presumably because of the impact of immigrating mosquitoes from nontreated breeding sites around the intervention area. This effect was more pronounced for light trap catches than from human landings. The impact of treatment was also measured as the mean ratio of mosquito density in the two outer circles to that of the two inner circles. This ratio was approximately 1:1 before the intervention and reached 1:0.43 during the intervention. This comparison does not depend on the assumption that, in the absence of intervention, the mosquito population development in the two areas would have been identical, but does depend on the homogeneity of the intervention area. The study showed that it is possible to organize mosquito control in a tropical, urban environment by forming and rapidly training teams of young people to carry out the mosquito control mostly using a biopesticide that can be applied without any tools except an iron bar to lift lids on some cesspits.

  11. Growth Kinetics of Diazotrophic Bacillus sphaericus UPMB10 Cultured Using Different Types and Concentrations of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources

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    Ooi, T. C.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth kinetics of newly isolated diazotrophic Bacillus sphaericus UPMB10 grown in various carbon (lactate, acetate, glycerol, malate, fructose, xylose and sucrose and nitrogen (glutamate, yeast extract, arginine, hystadine, glycine, polypeptone, tryptophan, lysine, NH4Cl and urea sources was investigated using 2 L stirred tank fermenter. The highest growth was obtained in a medium containing lactate as a carbon source, which gave the highest maximum cell concentration of 2.30 g/L, which is corresponding to maximum viable cell count of 4.60 x 10^9 cfu/mL. However, the highest cell yield (1.06 g cell/g carbon consumed was obtained in cultivation using glycerol though slightly lower maximum viable cell count was obtained (3.22 x 10^9 cfu/mL. In addition, cost for the production of live cell using glycerol was about 15 times lower than the cost using lactate. Growth performance of this bacterium when yeast extract was used as a nitrogen source was comparable to the use of pure amino acid. The medium containing 1.8 g/L glycerol and 2 g/L yeast extract was suggested as optimal for growth of this bacterium, which gave carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N of 10:1. The maximum viable cell count obtained in cultivation using optimised medium in 2 L stirred tank fermenter was 3.34 x 10^9 cfu/mL and the cells maintained its capacity for N2 fixation at 18 nmol C2H2/h.mL.

  12. Synergism between wild-type Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. sphaericus strains: a study based on isobolographic analysis and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreshty, M Asha Latha; Kumar, K Pranay; Murty, U S N

    2011-04-01

    Prevention is the best resistance management strategy in integrated vector control programs. Combined use of insecticides of different classes that interact synergistically and show multi-site actions within the insect is recognized as a potential key strategy to be implemented even before the onset of resistance. The present study is aimed at harvesting the benefits of synergism between the wild-type Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-H14 (Bti) and Bacillus sphaericus-2362 (Bs) strains by evaluating six different combinations of mixtures toxic to Aedes and Culex mosquito larvae. Isobolographic analysis was performed to distinguish the synergistic combinations of Bti and Bs, followed by determination of the degree of synergism through synergy and improvement factors. Furthermore, the speed of activity of Bs when combined with Bti is studied by histopathological investigations on the fate of midgut muscles of mosquito larvae upon exposure to individual wild-type strains as well as their mixtures.

  13. Proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico Proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico

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    A. Sáez Vega

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de cuatro fuentes de nitrógeno sobre la actividad enzimática de proteasas alcalinas, secretadas por una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico, cultivada a diferentes concentraciones de LMF (Licor de Maíz Fermentado. El crecimiento de la cepa no es afectado por los pH de inoculación de 7,0; 8,5 y 9,5; en contraste con la actividad enzimática y producción de proteína verdadera, que tuvieron sus mejores resultados a pH inicial de 8,5. A este pH se evaluaron dos fuentes de nitrógeno orgánico (extracto de levadura y peptona y dos inorgánicos (NH4Cl y NaNO3The effect of four nitrogen sources on the enzymatic activity of alkaline proteases from a wild strain of Alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated to different concentrations from CSL (Corn Steep Liquor. was evaluated. The growth of the strain is not affected by pH of inoculation of 7,0, 8,5 and 9,5, in contrast to the enzymatic activity and true protein production, that had their better results to initial pH of 8,5. To this initial pH of 8,5; two organic nitrogen sources (yeast extract and peptone and two inorganic ones were evaluated (NH4Cl and NaNO3. With peptone the best enzymatic activity to a relation appeared to molar C/N between 1 and 2 was found. For the studied interval of % CSL (0,5 to 2% p/v the concentration of the CSL does not affect the enzymatic activity.

  14. Mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn. (Family:Euphorbiaceae) andBacillus sphaericus against Anopheles stephensiListon. (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C Panneerselvam; K Murugan; K Kovendan; P Mahesh Kumar; J Subramaniam

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the larvicidal and pupicidal activity ofEuphorbia hirta (E. hirta)leaf extract andBacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) against the malarial vector,Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods:The larvicidal and pupicidal activity was assayed againstAn. stephensiat various concentrations ranging from (75-375 ppm) under the laboratory as well as field conditions. TheLC50 andLC90value of theE. hirta leaf extract was determined by probit analysis.Results:The plant extract showed larvicidal effects after24 h of exposure; however, the highest larval mortality was found in the methanol extract ofE. hirta against the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=137.40,172.65,217.81,269.37 and332.39 ppm;B. sphaericusagainst the first to fourth instars larvae and pupae of valuesLC50=44.29,55.83,68.51,82.19 and95.55 ppm, respectively. Moreover, combined treatment of values ofLC50=79.13,80.42,86.01,93.00 and98.12 ppm, respectively. No mortality was observed in the control.Conclusions:These results suggest methanol leaf extracts ofE. hirta andB. sphaericus have potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the malarial vector,An. stephensi as target species of vector control programs. This study provides the first report on the combined mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity of this plant crude extract and bacterial toxin againstAn. stephensimosquitoes.

  15. Determinación de la presencia de genes cry en cepas nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Chaparro Giraldo Luis Alejandro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir de dos tipos de muestras, suelo asociado a cultivos de papa (Solanum tuberosum y polvo asociado a sitios de almacenamiento de granos (cereales colectado en las centrales de Corabastos y Paloquemao en Bogotá, se aislaron 88 cepas nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis bacilo
    grampositivo patógeno de insectos plaga de cultivos agrícolas. De las 88 cepas obtenidas 57 de ellas se escogieron para separarlas posteriormente mediante subcultivos en virtud a sus características fenotípicas al interior de la colonia llevando esto a obtener un número de 145 cepas nuevas para un total de 176 cepas de B. thuringiensis caracterizadas  morfológicamente y por su patrón de formas de las ICPs mediante microscopía de contraste de fases, y de las proteínas Cry arrojado por los perfiles de SDS-PAGE; en el total de cepas hubo presencia predominante de ICPs con forma romboide acompañadas por al menos otras dos formas distintas, y mostraron perfiles electroforéticos de proteínas de peso molecular entre el rango de 130, 116 y 60 kDa. Del total de cepas B. thuringiensis nativas aisladas en este estudio, 59 (30 de suelos y 29 de polvo fueron analizadas mediante la técnica PCR, encontrando que 100% de ellas son portadoras de alguno de los seis tipos de genes cry1 estudiados cry1Aa5 (71,2%, cry1Ab9 (66,1%, cry1Ac5 (45,8%, cry1Ba1 (39%, cry1Ca3 (49,1%, y cry1Da1 (71,2%; adicionalmente se observó la presencia de productos génicos inespecíficos, posiblemente nuevos, amplificados por la PCR y relacionados con los genes cry1C (55,9%, cry1B (30,5% y otros genes cry1 no estudiados por este método en al menos el 50% de las cepas estudiadas. De acuerdo con estos resultados se estableció un total de 19 genotipos diferentes según los genes cry1 estudiados, presentados por las cepas nativas en estudio determinando que estos son diferentes en composición genética según la fuente de procedencia del aislamiento, permitiendo establecer estrecha correlaci

  16. Biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Usta, Canan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2007-01-09

    The biosorption of copper(II), lead(II), iron(III) and cobalt(II) on Bacillus sphaericus-loaded Diaion SP-850 resin for preconcentration-separation of them have been investigated. The sorbed analytes on biosorbent were eluted by using 1 mol L(-1) HCl and analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influences of analytical parameters including amounts of pH, B. sphaericus, sample volume etc. on the quantitative recoveries of analytes were investigated. The effects of alkaline, earth alkaline ions and some metal ions on the retentions of the analytes on the biosorbent were also examined. Separation and preconcentration of Cu, Pb, Fe and Co ions from real samples was achieved quantitatively. The detection limits by 3 sigma for analyte ions were in the range of 0.20-0.75 microg L(-1) for aqueous samples and in the range of 2.5-9.4 ng g(-1) for solid samples. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the certified standard reference materials (NRCC-SLRS 4 Riverine Water, SRM 2711 Montana soil and GBW 07605 Tea). The presented method was applied to the determination of analyte ions in green tea, black tea, cultivated mushroom, boiled wheat, rice and soil samples with successfully results.

  17. Evaluation of Melanotaenia duboulayi (Atheriniformes: Melanotaeniidae), Hypseleotris galli (Perciformes: Eleotridae), and larvicide VectoLex WG (Bacillus sphaericus) for integrated control of Culex annulirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Timothy P; Brown, Michael D; Kay, Brian H; Ryan, Peter A

    2006-09-01

    Australian freshwater fish species Melanotaenia duboulayi and Hypseleotris galii were selected for a small plot field evaluation of an integrated pest management strategy using native fish and VectoLex WG (Bacillus sphaericus) for the control of Culex annulirostris Skuse, the principal freshwater vector of arbovirus Ross River virus in Australia. When tested alone, the level of control afforded by M. duboulayi and H. galii was highly dependent on the prerelease density of mosquito larvae; and even when stocking rates as high as 10 g per pond (>30 kg/ha) were used, larval abundance was too high to attain adequate control from fish alone. In contrast, treatment with VectoLex WG at 500 g/ha resulted in 100% mortality of Cx. annulirostris immatures, but no residual activity was evident. The delayed reduction of Cx. annulirostris immatures in ponds stocked with fish alone, and the recolonization by Cx. annulirostris in ponds after treatment with B. sphaericus, did not occur when both treatments were combined.

  18. Production and characterization of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate from crude glycerol by Bacillus sphaericus NII 0838 and improving its thermal properties by blending with other polymers

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    Raveendran Sindhu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB under nitrogen limited conditions by Bacillus sphaericus NII 0838 using crude glycerol from biodiesel industry as sole carbon source. Effect of various process parameters on PHB production such as glycerol concentration, inoculum size and pH of the medium were optimized. Characterization of extracted PHB was carried out by FT-IR, ¹H and 13C NMR. Results showed that the bacterial culture accumulated about 31% PHB in crude glycerol medium. The extracted PHB was blended with other polymers to improve its physical characteristics. The thermal properties of the polymer like melting temperature (Tm and heat of fusion (ΔHf were determined using DSC.

  19. EFECTIVIDAD DE CEPAS DE Azotobacter sp. Y Bacillus sp. PARA EL CONTROL DE ESPECIES FÚNGICAS ASOCIADAS A HORTALIZAS

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    Janet Rodríguez Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los géneros Azotobacter y Bacillus tienen la potencialidad de fijar nitrógeno atmosférico, solubilizar elementos minerales y producir un grupo de sustancias estimuladoras del crecimiento vegetal. Bacillus se reconoce, además, por su actividad antagonista. Estas razones justifican su selección como principios activos de productos biofertilizantes. La presencia de enfermedades causadas por hongos en los cultivos hortícolas, constituye un problema en la agricultura cubana. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la actividad antagonista de cepas de los géneros Azotobacter y Bacillus contra hongos que causan enfermedades a cultivos hortícolas. Para ello se emplearon las especies Fusarium chlamydosporum, Corynespora cassiicola y Cladosporium oxysporum . Todas las cepas pertenecen a las colecciones del INIFAT. Para desarrollar este trabajo se utilizó el Método de “Enfrentamiento de Cultivos Duales”, que permitió seleccionar aquellas que poseen dicha actividad y describir, a la vez, las principales afectaciones que provocan a las estructuras fúngicas. Los resultados arrojaron que dentro de los dos géneros hay cepas que logran inhibir el crecimiento micelial. Dentro de las cepas de Azotobacter cinco resultaron promisorias contra Cladosporium oxysporum, dos responden frente a Fusarium chlamydosporum y una sola resultó efectiva contra Corynespora cassiicola. La actividad mostrada por el género Bacillus fue mayor. En este caso, dos cepas muestran efectividad contra Corynespora casiicola; seis contra Cladosporium oxysporum y ocho contra Fusarium chlamydosporum. Se comprobó que existen cepas de Azotobacter capaces de inhibir a más de una especie fúngica, lo que resulta novedoso por encontrarse poco citada la actividad del género contra patógenos de hortalizas

  20. A two-component monooxygenase catalyzes both the hydroxylation of p-nitrophenol and the oxidative release of nitrite from 4-nitrocatechol in Bacillus sphaericus JS905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, V; Spain, J C

    1998-07-01

    Bacteria that metabolize p-nitrophenol (PNP) oxidize the substrate to 3-ketoadipic acid via either hydroquinone or 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (THB); however, initial steps in the pathway for PNP biodegradation via THB are unclear. The product of initial hydroxylation of PNP could be either 4-nitrocatechol or 4-nitroresorcinol. Here we describe the complete pathway for aerobic PNP degradation by Bacillus sphaericus JS905 that was isolated by selective enrichment from an agricultural soil in India. Washed cells of PNP-grown JS905 released nitrite in stoichiometric amounts from PNP and 4-nitrocatechol. Experiments with extracts obtained from PNP-grown cells revealed that the initial reaction is a hydroxylation of PNP to yield 4-nitrocatechol. 4-Nitrocatechol is subsequently oxidized to THB with the concomitant removal of the nitro group as nitrite. The enzyme that catalyzed the two sequential monooxygenations of PNP was partially purified and separated into two components by anion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Both components were required for NADH-dependent oxidative release of nitrite from PNP or 4-nitrocatechol. One of the components was identified as a reductase based on its ability to catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitroblue tetrazolium. Nitrite release from either PNP or 4-nitrocatechol was inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor methimazole. Our results indicate that the two monooxygenations of PNP to THB are catalyzed by a single two-component enzyme system comprising a flavoprotein reductase and an oxygenase.

  1. A two-component monooxygenase catalyzes both the hydroxylation of p-nirophenol and the oxidative release of nitrite from 4-nitrocatechol in Bacillus sphaericus JS905

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadiyala, V.; Spain, J.C. [Air Force Research Lab., Tyndall AFB, FL (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Bacteria that metabolize p-nitrophenol (PNP) oxidize the substrate to 3-ketoadipic acid via either hydroquinone or 1,2,4-trihydroxybenzene (THB); however, initial steps in the pathway for PNP biodegradation via THB are unclear. The product of initial hydroxylation of PNP could be either 4-nitrocatechol or 4-nitroresorcinol. Here the authors describe the complete pathway for aerobic PNP degradation by Bacillus sphaericus JS905 that was isolated by selective enrichment from an agricultural soil in India. Washed cells of PNP-grown JS905 released nitrite in stoichiometric amounts from PNP and 4-nitrocatechol. Experiments with extracts obtained from PNP-grown cells revealed that the initial reaction is a hydroxylation of PNP to yield 4-nitrocatechol. 4-nitrocatechol is subsequently oxidized to THB with the concomitant removal of the nitro group as nitrite. The enzyme that catalyzed the two sequential monooxygenations of PNP was partially purified and separated into two components by anion-exchange chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. Both components were required for NADH-dependent oxidative release of nitrite from PNP or 4-nitrocatechol. One of the components was identified as a reductase based on its ability to catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and nitroblue tetrazolium. Nitrite release from either PNP or 4-nitrocatechol was inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitor methimazole. Their results indicate that the two monooxygenations of PNP to THB are catalyzed by a single two-component enzyme system comprising a flavoprotein reductase and an oxygenase.

  2. Comparison between diflubenzuron and a Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis- and Lysinibacillus sphaericus-based formulation for the control of mosquito larvae in urban catch basins in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-06-01

    A field test was conducted to evaluate a commercial biolarvicide based on Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus to control mosquitoes breeding in catch basins in southern Switzerland. The efficacy and residual activity of the microbial mosquito larvicide applied at the recommended rate of 10 g per catch basin was compared to the currently used larvicide diflubenzuron. Both products provided a very good control activity (> 97% of reduction) of late instars (3rd and 4th instars) and pupae for 4 wk. However, only the microbial formulation controlled immature stages during the whole period of the trial, with > 98% of larval reduction. A single application of the microbial larvicide applied at 10 g per catch basin significantly reduced the number of immature mosquitoes for at least 70 days. The quantity of rainfall in the 48-h period before each sampling and the water temperature did not influence the efficacy of the treatments. Under the environmental conditions encountered in southern Switzerland, the larvicide tested may be a valid alternative to diflubenzuron to control mosquitoes in urban catch basins. The long-lasting control by the microbial larvicide further reduces the number of treatments required to keep the population of mosquitoes at low levels.

  3. Nanoscale mono- and multi-layer cylinder structures formed by recombinant S-layer proteins of mosquitocidal Bacillus sphaericus C3-41.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Yang, Lingling; Hu, Xiaomin; Zheng, Dasheng; Yan, Jianpin; Yuan, Zhiming

    2013-08-01

    The mature surface layer (S-layer) protein SlpC of mosquitocidal Bacillus sphaericus C3-41 comprises amino acids 31-1,176 and could recrystallize in vitro. The N-terminal SLH domain is responsible for binding function. Deletion of this part, S-layer proteins could not bind to the cell wall sacculi. To investigate the self-assembly ability of SlpC from B. sphaericus, nine truncations were constructed and their self-assembly properties were compared with the recombinant mature S-layer protein rSlpC₃₁₋₁,₁₇₆. The results showed that rSbsC₃₁₋₁,₁₇₆ and truncations rSlpC₂₁₁₋₁,₁₇₆, rSlpC₂₇₈₋₁,₁₇₆, rSlpC₃₁₋₁,₁₀₀, and rSlpC₃₁₋₁,₀₅₀ could assemble into multilayer cylinder structures, while N-terminal truncations rSlpC₃₃₈₋₁,₁₇₆, rSlpC₄₃₈₋₁,₁₇₆, and rSlpC₄₉₈₋₁,₁₇₆ mainly showed monolayer cylinders in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Growth phase analysis of the self-assembly process revealed that rSlpC₄₉₈₋₁,₁₇₆ mainly formed monolayer cylinders in the early stage (0.5 and 1 h induction of expression), but few double-layer or multilayer cylinders were also found with the cells growing, while rSlpC₃₁₋₁,₁₇₆ could formed multilayer cylinders in all the growth stage in the E. coli cells. It is concluded that the deletion of the C-terminal 126 aa or the N-terminal 497 aa did not interfere with the self-assembly process, the fragment (amino acids 278 to 337) is essential for the multilayer cylinder formation in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells in the early stage and the fragment (amino acids 338 to 497) is related to monolayer cylinder formation. The information is important for further studies on the assembly mechanism of S-layer proteins and forms a basis for further studies concerning surface display and nanobiotechnology.

  4. Larval control of Anopheles (Nyssorhinchus darlingi using granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus in abandoned gold-miners excavation pools in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

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    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Use of a Bacillus sphaericus based mosquito larvicide was evaluated as an intervention for malaria vector control at a mining site in Amapá, Brazil. Impacts on larval and adult densities of the primary vector Anopheles darlingi were measured over the course of a 52 week study period. METHODS: In Calçoene, State of Amapá, gold mining activity occurs in 19 mining sites in gold-miners of Lourenço. Large pools are formed in mining sites and naturally colonized by Anopheles darlingi. During one year, the impact of applications of VectoLex(r CG to these larval sources was evaluated. Applications of 20kg/ha were made as needed, based on 10 immature (3rd, 4th instars and pupae surveillance of health and established thresholds. RESULTS: One hundred percent initial control was observed 48h after each treatment. The pools received from 2-10 (5.3±1.6 treatments during the year. The average re-treatment interval in productive pools was 9.4±4.3 weeks. During weeks 3-52 of the study, mean density of late stage larvae was 78% and pupae were 93% lower in the treated pools than in untreated pools (p< 0.0001, n=51 while reduction of adult mosquitoes was 53% in comparison to the untreated area during the last five months of the study, which were the rainy season (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VectoLex(r CG reduced immature Anopheles darlingi infestation levels during the entire study period, and reduced adult mosquito populations during the rainy season.

  5. Larval control of Anopheles (Nyssorhinchus darlingi using granular formulation of Bacillus sphaericus in abandoned gold-miners excavation pools in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Kardec Ribeiro Galardo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Use of a Bacillus sphaericus based mosquito larvicide was evaluated as an intervention for malaria vector control at a mining site in Amapá, Brazil. Impacts on larval and adult densities of the primary vector Anopheles darlingi were measured over the course of a 52 week study period. METHODS: In Calçoene, State of Amapá, gold mining activity occurs in 19 mining sites in gold-miners of Lourenço. Large pools are formed in mining sites and naturally colonized by Anopheles darlingi. During one year, the impact of applications of VectoLex(r CG to these larval sources was evaluated. Applications of 20kg/ha were made as needed, based on 10 immature (3rd, 4th instars and pupae surveillance of health and established thresholds. RESULTS: One hundred percent initial control was observed 48h after each treatment. The pools received from 2-10 (5.3±1.6 treatments during the year. The average re-treatment interval in productive pools was 9.4±4.3 weeks. During weeks 3-52 of the study, mean density of late stage larvae was 78% and pupae were 93% lower in the treated pools than in untreated pools (p< 0.0001, n=51 while reduction of adult mosquitoes was 53% in comparison to the untreated area during the last five months of the study, which were the rainy season (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: VectoLex(r CG reduced immature Anopheles darlingi infestation levels during the entire study period, and reduced adult mosquito populations during the rainy season.

  6. Biosorption of uranium and copper by Bacillus Sphaericus JG-A12 cells, spores and S-layer proteins embedded in sol-gel ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raff, J.; Soltmann, U.; Boettcher, H. [Arbeitsgruppe Funktionelle Schichten, GMBU e.V., Dresden (Germany); Matys, S.; Pompe, W. [Inst. fuer Materialwissenschaft, Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Selenska-Pobell, S.

    2002-05-01

    Vegetative cells, spores and stabilized S-layer sheets of B. sphaericus JG-A12 were embedded in SiO{sub 2} bulk particles using sol-gel techniques. In sorption experiments the metal binding capacity of the free biocomponents and the corresponding biological ceramics were compared. (orig.)

  7. Mortalidad en larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus (díptera: culicidae, causada con un producto de Bacillus sphaericus (bacteria: bacillaceae en presentación granulada en condiciones experimentales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cárdenas Castro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue ensayar una serie de concentraciones de un producto granulado preparado con Bacillus sphaericus, sobre larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus y Anopheles albimanus en condiciones de laboratorio. Se utilizaron once concentraciones (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 y 500 ppm sobre larvas de An. albimanus, y ocho concentraciones diez veces menores (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 y 16 ppm sobre larvas de Cx. quinquefasciatus. Se utilizaron 60 larvas y un control con 20 larvas por concentración. El tiempo de exposición fue de 48 h, a una temperatura de 28 ± 2 ºC. Para estimar las concentraciones letales 50 y 95 se utilizó la prueba Probit. Se encontró una CL95 de B. sphaericus entre 6,45 y 7,28 ppm para larvas de Cx. quinquefasciatus; mientras que en larvas de An. albimanus se observó una CL95 entre 450,56 y 466,76 ppm.

  8. 球形芽孢杆菌杀蚊毒素蛋白及其遗传操作研究进展%MOSQUITO-LARVICIDAL TOXINS OF BACILLUS SPHAERICUS AND THEIR GENETIC MANIPULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志明; 张用梅

    1999-01-01

    Bacillus sphaericus is an ubiquitous, cosmopolitan, aerobic, spore-forming bacteria. Nine serotype strains among them are pathogenic for mosquito larvae. The most active strains produce a crystal toxin which is composed of two proteins of 51.4 and 41.9kD during sporulation. After larvae ingest the spore/crystal complex, the crystal toxin is hydrolyzed into active toxins and bind to a specific receptor on midgut brush-border membranes. The resulting damage of the midgut cells leads to the death of mosquitoes. During the vegetative growth, the low toxic and some high toxic strains synthesize mosquito-larvicidal proteins of 100, 31.5 and 35.8kD(Mtx toxins). It is proved that these toxins have no homology with the crystal toxin and other insecticidal toxins. For better control of mosquito larvae, cloning and expressing of the crystal and Mtx toxin genes in different hosts have been studied. In this paper, the recent progress and development on mosquito-larvicidal toxins of B.sphaericus and their genetic manipulation for mosquito control are reviewed.

  9. Evaluation of Bacillus sphaericus bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal as culture medium for the control of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus Avaliação do bioinseticida de Bacillus sphaericus, produzido com meio de cultivo de farelo branco de soja no controle de Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. A. Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Bioinsecticides are shown to be useful in control programs to prevent several diseases, based on their specificity and efficiency against insect vectors. In the current study a bioinsecticide based on Bacillus sphaericus was produced using a white soybean culture medium and applied to larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the susceptible species, and Aedes aegypti, the refractory species used as the negative control. Efficacy was compared with that of the product fermented with the Luria Bertani (LB reference medium. The experiments showed that C. quinquefasciatus was highly susceptible to the product prepared with white soybean meal, reaching 100% larval mortality even at 10mg/L, while A. aegypti failed to reach 70% mortality at a concentration of 1g/L. By comparison with the reference medium, the proposed culture medium showed high larvicidal power, reaching a LD90 of 2.26mg/L, while 4.37mg/L was needed for the LB medium to achieve the same mortality rate. Cost comparison between the formulations favored the use of the bioinsecticide produced with white soybean meal. After factoring in the LD90 value, the cost ratio favored the new raw material by nearly 1:220.A utilização de bioinseticidas tem se mostrado útil aos programas de prevenção de diversas enfermidades devido a sua especificidade e eficiência contra insetos vetores. No presente trabalho, o bioinseticida de Bacillus sphaericus foi produzido com um meio de cultivo composto de farelo branco de soja e aplicado em larvas de Culex quinquefasciatus, espécie susce-tível, e Aedes aegypti, espécie refratária, usada como controle negativo. O desempenho foi comparado com o do produto fermentado com o meio referência Luria Bertani (LB. Os experimentos constataram que C. quinquefasciatus apresentou uma alta suscetibilidade ao produto produzido com farelo branco de soja, alcançando mortalidade de 100% mesmo na diluição de 10mg/L, enquanto A. aegypti não atingiu 70% na concentração de 1

  10. Mosquitocidal toxins of Bacillus thuringieusis and Bacillus sphaericus and recombinants for effective biological control of mosquitoes%苏云金芽孢杆菌和球形芽孢杆菌杀蚊作用以及工程菌改造研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐建霞; 朱荫昌; 管晓虹

    2009-01-01

    苏云金芽孢杆菌和球形芽孢杆菌是应用最广泛的杀蚊幼虫的细菌,但还存在很多不足.苏云金芽孢杆菌产生两类杀蚊幼虫晶体蛋白,即内毒素晶体蛋白和溶细胞毒素,球形芽孢杆菌产生二元毒素和杀蚊毒素.研究不同毒素的不同杀蚊作用,以及通过DNA重组技术改造原有的菌种,扩大其杀蚊幼虫的活性和范围,有助于更有效地杀火媒介蚊虫和防治疟疾.%Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus have been widely used for the control of vector mosquitoes. However, the moderate efficacy has limited their use as mosquito larvicides. Mosquitocidal crystal protein and cytolysis toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis and binary toxin and mosquitoeidal toxin of Bacillus sphaeri-cus have been studied. Recently, recombinant DNA techniques have been used for improving insecticide effica-cy by enabling new endotoxin combinations to be produced within single strain from different bacteria. The a-vailability of these methods offers the potential for more effective control of mosquito vectors of malaria.

  11. La morfología de los cuerpos paraesporales y su relación con la actividad biológica en cepas cubanas de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha Carreras

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La principal característica de la bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis es la producción de cuerpos paraesporales (cristales proteicos, los cuales constituyen el principio activo de bioinsecticidas comerciales. La morfología de los cuerpos paraesporales es uno de los criterios más utilizados en la caracterización de cepas de B. thuringiensis. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue estudiar la morfología de los cuerpos paraesporales de tres cepas nativas de B. thuringiensis (LBT-87, LBT-99 y LBT-111 y determinar si existe una correlación entre este elemento y la toxicidad preferencial informada previamente para cada cepa. Las muestras de B.thuringiensis estudiadas procedieron de la colección de cepas del Instituto de Investigaciones de Sanidad Vegetal, Ciudad de La Habana. Las muestras de bacterias se analizaron mediante Microscopia Óptica y Microscopia Electrónica de Transmisión. Para Microscopia Óptica se estudiaron frotis de cultivos autolisados de B. thuringiensis teñidos con violeta cristal. Para Microscopia Electrónica de Transmisión, se analizaron cortes ultrafinos obtenidos a partir de precipitados de B. thuringiensis incluidos en resina Spurr. La morfología de los cristales estuvo en correspondencia con la actividad biológica informada para cada cepa. La cepa LBT-87, tóxica contra el insecto díptero D. melanogaster, presentó cristales irregulares con inclusiones en forma de barra. La cepa LBT-111, tóxica contra el insecto lepidóptero H. virescens, presentó cristales bipiramidales y cúbicos. La cepa LBT-99, tóxica contra el nemátodo M. incognita, presentó un cristal muy pequeño adherido a la espora.

  12. Gene cloning, expression, and purification of S-layer protein from Bacillus sphaericus%球形芽胞杆菌S层蛋白基因的克隆及原核表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨李; 周鹰; 王运刚; 马桂芳; 崔玉宝

    2012-01-01

    目的 克隆球形芽胞杆菌S层蛋白的编码基因,实现其原核表达并纯化表达产物. 方法 提取球形芽胞杆菌菌体基因组DNA,根据GenBank公布的核酸序列设计并合成引物,扩增S层蛋白编码基因sllB,与pMD19-T载体连接;测序验证后,构建原核表达质粒pET28 a (+)-sllB并转化BL21( DE3)中,经IPTG诱导表达,SDS-PAG和Western blot鉴定表达产物,亲和柱层析纯化重组蛋白. 结果 扩增获得S层蛋白编码基因sllB全长(3 306 bp),与参考序列同源性为97.5%.构建的原核表达质粒pET28 a (+)-sllB转化BL21( DE3)后,SDS-PAGE显示表达蛋白的分子质量为116 ku,与理论值相符.Western blot显示其全蛋白、可溶性蛋白和不溶性蛋白中均被鼠抗Penta-His抗体识别.结论 获得了球形芽胞杆菌S层蛋白编码基因sllB,并实现了其原核表达.%Objective To clone, express and purify surface layer protein from Bacillus sphaericus. Methods Ge-nomic DNA was extracted from B. sphaericus with primers designed in accordance with the nucleotide sequence registered in GenBank. The target gene was ligated to a pMD19-T plasmid. The fragment was then sequenced, 3ub-cloned into the plasmid pET28a ( + ), expressed in E. coli BL21, and purified by nickel-affinity chromatography. Results Full-length sllB cDNA coding for the surface layer protein of Bacillus sphaericus was amplified (3,306 bp) and had 97. 5% homology with the reference sequence (GenBank Accession No. AJ849550). SDS-PAGE and Western blotting showed a specific band of about 116 ku in the whole cell lysate, soluble protein fraction, and insoluble protein fraction. As estimated by chromatography, about 1. 8 mg of the recombinant product was obtained. Conclusion The gene sllB coding for surface layer protein was amplified from Bacillus sphaericus and successfully expressed in E. coli BL21

  13. 微生物转化淀粉废水制备生物灭蚊剂%Bioconversion of starch processing wastewater to mosquito biolarvicides by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷发懋; 卢娜; 王跃强; 周顺桂; 王颖

    2008-01-01

    采用摇瓶发酵试验探讨了淀粉废水为原料制备微生物灭蚊剂的可行性.结果表明,无需任何预处理工序,淀粉废水可作为微生物灭蚊菌株(Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis 187菌株和Bacillus sphaericus 2362菌株)的优良发酵培养基.Bti 187和Bs 2362菌株能在淀粉废水(含固率2.5%)为唯一原料的培养基中正常生长发育,并且产孢产毒.Bti 187和Bs 2362在淀粉废水发酵42 h,活菌数分别可达7.5×108、4.5×108 CFU·mL-1;抗热性芽孢数分别可达5.1×108、2.7×108 CFU·mL-1,均显著高于常规LB培养基.与LB培养基相比,淀粉废水培养基有利于提高芽孢产率、缩短发酵周期.毒力测定表明,淀粉废水培养42 h的Bti发酵液对淡色库蚊和白纹伊蚊的LC50分别为0.78、0.87 μg·mL-1,淀粉废水培养42 h的Bs发酵液对淡色库蚊和白纹伊蚊的LC50分别为0.70、16.06 μg·mL-1,淀粉废水明显有利于Bti 187与Bs 2362菌株的产毒.本研究不仅为淀粉废水提供了高附加值的处置新途径,而且可显著降低生物灭蚊剂的生产成本,具有广阔的应用前景.

  14. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on growth and enzymatic activity of a native strain of Bacillus sp Efecto de la aflatoxina B1 sobre el crecimiento y actividad proteolítica de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez Edna Judith

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different aflatoxin B1 (AFAB1 concentrations on alkaline protease growth and enzymatic activity was evaluated; a native strain of alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated in CSL (Corn Steep Liquor was used. It was found that the effect of AFAB1 on the strain inhibited its growth and enzymatic activity to 1 ppm, showing that the strain is highly sensible to AFAB1, meaning that medium obtained f rom Colombian corn contaminated with this mycotoxin cannot be easily used. Concentrations less than 0.1 ppm did not affect growth and enzymatic activity. Key words: Bacillus, aflatoxin, alkaline proteases.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de aflatoxina B1 (AFAB1 sobre el crecimiento y actividad enzimática de proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico cultivada en LAM (Licor Agotado de Maíz. Se encontró que la cepa inhibe su crecimiento y actividad enzimática a 1 ppm, lo que demuestra una alta sensibilidad de la cepa evaluada a la AFAB1 e imposibilita utilizar fácilmente medios obtenidos de maíz nacional contaminado con esta micotoxina. Las concentraciones inferiores a 0.1 ppm no tienen ningún efecto sobre el crecimiento y la actividad enzimática. Palabras clave: Bacillus, aflatoxina, proteasas alcalinas.

  15. Toxicidad biológica de cepas nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner en larvas de Tecia solanivora Povolny

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    Paola Martínez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available La biodiversidad microbiológica de los suelos del departamento de Boyacá aún no ha sido explorada en toda su magnitud y existen microorganismos, como en el caso de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt, que pueden emplearse para el desarrollo de estrategias biológicas de control de plagas en el futuro. Por lo anterior, el presente trabajo evaluó la actividad biológica, expresada como  toxicidad, de cepas nativas de B. thuringiensis en la Polilla Guatemalteca  de  la  papa  Tecia  solanivora Povolny, una de  las plagas más  limitantes en el cultivo de papa en la región andina colombiana. Esta  evaluación  se  realizó con  aislados de  Bt obtenidos y conservados por el Grupo de Manejo Biológico de Cultivos (GMBC en el Laboratorio de Control Biológico de la UPTC, colectados de muestras de  suelo en  la Provincia Centro de Boyacá y  previamente  caracterizados  macro  y microscópicamente.  La   toxicidad  se  evaluó mediante bioensayos con larvas de primer instar de  T.  solanivora,  utilizando  el método  decontaminación superficial de cubos de papa. Se evaluó  la mortalidad  ocho  días  después  de montado  el  bioensayo  y  se  determinó, igualmente,  la Concentración letal media (Cl 50 de las cepas que presentaron  la mayor actividad  tóxica en  los  bioensayos  iniciales.  Los  aislamientosGMBC-B054, GMBC-B071, GMBC-B076, GMBC- B098, GMBC-B111 y GMBC-B117 fueron  los más activos, con Cl 50 de 1.08x106, 4.24x106, 5.12x106, 4.36x103, 3.56x103  y  1.19x104  esporas  · mL-1,respectivamente.

  16. Evolution of Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) Selected With a Recombinant Bacillus thuringiensis Strain-Producing Cyt1Aa and Cry11Ba, and the Binary Toxin, Bin, From Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2015-09-01

    Fourth instars of Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae) were selected with a recombinant bacterial strain synthesizing the mosquitocidal proteins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Bin) and Cry11Ba and Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis. Selection was initiated in Generation 1 with a concentration of 0.04 μg/ml, which rose to a maximum selection concentration of 8.0 μg/ml in Generation 14, followed by an unexpected, rapid increase in mortality in Generation 15. Subsequently, a selection concentration of 0.8 μg/ml was determined to be survivable. During this same period, resistance rose to nearly 1,000-fold (by Generation 12) and declined to 18.8-fold in Generation 19. Resistance remained low and fluctuated between 5.3 and 7.3 up to Generation 66. The cross-resistance patterns and interactions among the component proteins were analyzed to identify possible causes of this unusual pattern of evolution. Poor activity in the mid-range concentrations and lower-than-expected synergistic interactions were identified as potential sources of the early resistance. These findings should be considered in the development of genetically engineered strains intended to control nuisance and vector mosquitoes.

  17. Purificación y caracterización de una œ- amilasa producida por la cepa nativa bacillus sp. bbm1

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    La cepa Bacillus sp. BBM1, productora de aamilasas, fue aislada a partir de una muestra de suelo de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín. La caracterización morfológica, bioquímica y molecular indica que esta bacteria está filogenéticamente relacionada con las especies B. subtilis o B. amyloliquefaciens. La amilasa producida (BBM1) fue purificada por precipitación con sulfato de amonio y su peso molecular fue estimado en 77.6 kDa por electroforésis SDSPAGE. Esta enzima es complet...

  18. Selección de cepas nativas con actividad Quitino-Proteolítica de Bacillus sp. aisladas de suelos tropicales Selecting native

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Adriana Rodas Junco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus sp. strains having chitinolytic and proteolytic activity which have been isolated from tropical soils Resumen: El objetivo de este trabajo fue la selección de cepas nativas del género Bacillus con actividad quitinolítica y proteolítica, en suelo tropical en la costa de Oaxaca, México. Se aislaron 150 cepas, de las cuales 22 fueron seleccionadas por presentar actividad quitinolítica y proteolítica. Dicha actividad se evaluó por la formación de halo de hidrólisis alrededor de la colonia en medios de cultivo suplementados con quitina coloidal al 5% y leche descremada al 1% respectivamente. Las cepas LUM B001, B003, B013, B015 y B065 presentaron mayor actividad quitinolítica y proteolítica, por lo que tienen el potencial para ser evaluadas en control biológico de hongos fitopatógenos. Se encontró al género Bacillus distribuido en suelos cultivados y no cultivados, no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas según el cultivo establecido (PPalabras clave: método de hidrólisis; quitina coloidal; quitinasas; proteasas.  Abstract: This work was aimed at selecting native strains from the Bacillus genus having chitinolytic and proteolytic activity from soil from the tropical coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. 150 strains were isolated, 22 of which were selected as they presented chitinolytic and proteolytic activity. Such activity was assessed by the formation of a hydrolysis halo around the colony in culture media supplemented with 5% colloidal chitin and 1% skimmed milk. The LUM B001, B003, B013, B015 and B065-chitin strains presented higher quitinolytic and proteolytic activity, thereby having the potential for being evaluated in the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi. The Bacillus genus was found in cultivated and uncultivated soils; no statistical differences were found according to established crop (p Key words: Hydrolysis method; colloidal chitin; chitinases; proteases.

  19. Cinética de degradación del naftaleno por células inmovilizadas húmedas de Bacillus alcalophilus cepa IDO-225

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rafael Núñez Moreira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas han sido las investigaciones sobre el estudio de la biorremediación para su aplicación en la lucha para combatir la contaminación ambiental por hidrocarburos. El Instituto de Oceanología del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología y Ambiente, ha trabajado desde 1988 en el aislamiento y conservaci ón de bacterias marinas que sean capaces de degradar el petróleo. Actualmente, cuenta con cuatro bioproductos degradadores de petróleo en medio marino denominados BIOIL, K-BIOIL, BIOIL-FC e IDO-225. En el presente trabajo, se demuestra por Espectroscopia Infrarroja de las muestras extraídas a los 3, 6, 9, 12 y 15 d de contacto de las células húmedas inmovilizadas de Bacillus alcalophilus cepa IDO-225 en el medio de degradación con el naftaleno, un hidrocarburo del petróleo, que estas son capaces de degradar el naflateno como única fuente de carbono y energía. La degradación de este hidrocarburo por las células inmovilizadas de esta cepa se lleva a cabo mediante un mecanismo que se basa en un modelo cinético de segundo orden correspondiente a un mecanismo de metil-oxidación y b-oxidación, al igual que las células libres de dicha cepa, pero con la diferencia de que en el caso de las células inmovilizadas, el término cuadrático (metil-oxidación es mayor y el término lineal (b-oxidación es menor que en las células libres. En este mecanismo se produce acetil-CoA, el cual se incorpora al ciclo de los acidos tricarboxílicos para formar dióxido de carbono, agua y coenzimas reducidas, las cuales se dirigen a la cadena de transporte electrónica para obtener energía en forma de ATP y garantizar la síntesis de compuestos esenciales y la obtención de energía.

  20. 球形芽孢杆菌Mtx1蛋白和苏云金杆菌Cyt1Aa晶体蛋白的协同作用%The synergism between Mtx1 from Bacillus sphaericus and Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis to Culex quinquefasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳坤; 蔡全信; 蔡亚君; 闫建平; 袁志明

    2007-01-01

    采用常规的生物测定方法确定了纯化的球形芽孢杆菌(Bacillus sphaericus)的缺失信号肽的97kDa营养期杀蚊毒素(Mosquitocidal toxin 1,Mtx1)蛋白和苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)27.3kDa的Cyt1Aa晶体蛋白对致倦库蚊(Culex quinquefasciatus)幼虫的杀虫活性.结果表明Mtx1和Cyt1Aa不同比例的混合物对致倦库蚊的毒力比单独毒素蛋白高,经统计分析表明两毒素蛋白对目标蚊幼虫具有明显的协同作用.在LC98处理浓度下,Mtxl和Cyt1Aa按3:1混合的混合物LT50值比单独Mtx1的提前了6.36h.表明Cyt1Aa和Mtx1对致倦库蚊具有协同毒杀作用,提高对目标蚊虫的毒力、缩短半致死时间.该结果为深入研究Mtx1和Cyt1Aa的杀蚊作用方式奠定了基础,同时为其在蚊虫防治中的应用提供了新的思路和方法.

  1. Properties of the Bacillus Cereus strain used in probiotic CenBiot Propriedades da cepa de Bacillus cereus utilizada no probiótico CenBiot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gil-Turnes

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus CenBiot fulfilled the requirements to be used as probiotic. The spores showed D80 of 14 hs, inhibited Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis after 24 hs in associative culture, were innocuous for suckling and adult mice and were not inhibited by antibiotics at low concentrations.Bacillus cereus CenBiot possui as características necessárias para ser utilizada como probiótico. Os esporos apresentaram D80 de 14 hs, inibiram Escherichia coli e Yersinia pseudotuberculosis após cultivadas associativamente por 24 hs, foram inócuos para camundongos lactentes e adultos e não foram inibidos por antibióticos a baixas concentrações.

  2. LSSP-PCR para la identificación de polimorfismos en el gen cry1B en cepas nativas de Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Martha Ilce Orozco Mera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: LSSP-PCR to identify polymorphisms in the gene cry1B of Bacillus thuringiensis native strain Resumen: Se estandarizó la técnica LSSP-PCR (reacción en cadena de la polimerasa con un único oligonucleótido en condiciones de baja astringencia, para identificar polimorfismos del gen cry1B en aislamientos nativos de Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. Se evaluaron 164 aislamientos nativos colombianos identificándose el gen cry1Ba en 11 de estos aislamientos. Los 11 fragmentos amplificados, junto con el de la cepa de referencia Bt subsp. aizawai HD137, se analizaron por LSSP-PCR y los patrones electroforéticos obtenidos se compararon cualitativamente. Con los productos amplificados mediante el oligonucleótido directo se construyó un dendrograma utilizando UPGMA que  mostró tres agrupamientos con similitud de 83, 79 y 68%. La agrupación con 68% de similaridad correspondió al aislamiento nativo BtGC120 que presentó el patrón de bandas más variable. Con el oligonucleótido reverso el aislamiento BtGC120 mostró una menor variabilidad (43%. La secuencia nucleotidica obtenida de este fragmento de 806 pares de bases mostró una identidad de 93% con la secuencia de los genes cry1Bc1 de Bt morrisoni y cry1Bb1 de la cepa BT-EG5847. Se predijo del marco de lectura +3 una proteína de 268 residuos aminoácidicos, con 88% de identidad con la proteína Cry1Bc. Esta  secuencia reveló dos dominios, una endotoxina N implicada en la formación del poro y otra endotoxina M relacionada en el reconocimiento del receptor. La evaluación biológica del aislamiento BtGC120 sobre larvas de primer instar del insecto plaga Spodoptera frugiperda, mostró una CL50 de 1,896 ng de proteína total por cm2. Este estudio muestra que la LSSP-PCR es una técnica que permite identificar de una manera específica variaciones en las secuencias de los genes cry de Bt, con potencialidad

  3. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil Produção de ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase por novas cepas de Bacillus sp. isoladas de solo brasileiro

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    Vivian Menocci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40ºC. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55ºC. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40ºC. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0x10-3 and 2.2x10-3 U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4x10-3 and 3.0x10-3 U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4x10-3 U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4x10-3 U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins, thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and β-CD was liberated as a reaction product.Três linhagens de Bacillus sp (BACRP, BACNC- 1 e BACAR foram isoladas a partir de solo aderido em casca de mandioca. Foram utilizados amido de batata, amido de mandioca, maltodextrina e glicose como fonte de carbono, e temperaturas de crescimento de 25-55ºC, sendo que os três isolados apresentaram maior atividade específica de CGTase quando cultivados com amido de batata a 40ºC. Em pH 7,0 os isolados BACRP e BACAR apresentaram atividade específica de 4,0x 10-3 e 2,2x10-3 U/mg prot, respectivamente, quando cultivados em meios acrescidos de 2% de NaCl; em pH 10,0 suas atividades foram de 3,4x10-3 e 3,0x10-3 U/mg prot na mesma concentração de NaCl. Por outro

  4. In vitro effect of Bacillus thuringiensis strains and Cry proteins in phytopathogenic fungi of paddy rice-field Efeito in vitro de cepas e proteínas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis em fungos fitopatogênicos da cultura do arroz irrigado

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    Neiva Knaak

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac strains and proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki were assessed in the following phytopathogens: Rhizoctonia solani,Pyricularia grisea,Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani, which had their micelial growth decreased after incubation in the presence of the bacterial strains. As to Cry proteins, there were no inhibition halo development in the assessed concentrations.As cepas e proteínas Cry1Ab e Cry1Ac sintetizadas por Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis e B. thuringiensis kurstaki, foram avaliadas nos fitopatógenos: Rhizoctonia solani,Pyricularia grisea,Fusarium oxysporum e F. solani, os quais tiveram seu crescimento micelial reduzido após a incubação na presença das cepas bacterianas. Em relação às proteínas Cry, não houve formação de halo de inibição nas concentrações avaliadas.

  5. Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus enhance mosquitocidal cry-toxin activity and suppress cry-resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Margaret C; Berry, Colin; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly Bacillus sphaericus) with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins and the influence of such interactions on Cry-resistance were evaluated in susceptible and Cry-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were observed to be active against both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes; however varying levels of cross-resistance toward Mtx toxins were observed in the resistant mosquitoes. A 1:1 mixture of either Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 with different Cry toxins generally showed moderate synergism, but some combinations were highly toxic to resistant larvae and suppressed resistance. Toxin synergy has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for enhancing activity and managing Cry-resistance in mosquitoes, thus Mtx toxins may be useful as components of engineered bacterial larvicides.

  6. Biochemical and molecular characterization of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India Caracterização bioquímica e molecular de Bacillus pumilus isolado do ambiente costeiro de Cochin, Índia

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    Ammini Parvathi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus species constitute a diverse group of bacteria widely distributed in soil and the aquatic environment. In this study, Bacillus strains isolated from the coastal environment of Cochin, India were identified by detailed conventional biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME analysis and partial 16S rDNA sequencing. Analysis of the data revealed that Bacillus pumilus was the most predominant species in the region under study followed by B. cereus and B. sphaericus. The B. pumilus isolates were further characterized by arbitrarily primed PCR (AP-PCR, antibiotic sensitivity profiling and PCR screening for known toxin genes associated with Bacillus spp. All B. pumilus isolates were biochemically identical, exhibited high protease and lipase activity and uniformly sensitive to antibiotics tested in this study. One strain of B. pumilus harboured cereulide synthetase gene cesB of B. cereus which was indistinguishable from rest of the isolates biochemically and by AP-PCR. This study reports, for the first time, the presence of the emetic toxin gene cesB in B. pumilus.As espécies de Bacillus constituem um grupo diversificado de bactérias amplamente distribuídas no solo e no ambiente aquático. Neste estudo, cepas de Bacillus isoladas do ambiente costeiro de Cochin, Índia, foram identificadas através de métodos bioquímicos convencionais, análise de ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos (FAME e sequenciamento de 16S rDNA. A análise dos dados revelou que Bacillus pumilus foi a espécie predominante na região estudada, seguido de B. cereus e B. sphaericus. Os isolados de B. pumilus foram caracterizados através da reação em cadeia da polimerase com primers arbitrários (AP-PCR, perfil de sensibilidade a antibióticos e triagem por PCR de genes de toxinas associadas com Bacillus spp. Todos os isolados de B. pumilus foram bioquimicamente idênticos, apresentaram elevada atividade de protease e lipase e foram uniformemente sens

  7. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de Bacillus spp. con actividad contra Tetranychus urticae Koch en cultivos comerciales de rosas

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    Isabel Larrea-Izurieta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the species of mites that cause considerable qualitative and quantitative losses in roses growing under greenhouses in Ecuador is Tetranychus urticae, where conventional agrochemicals control is not effective; therefore seeks to identify strains of Bacillus spp. Isolated from T. urticae and determine their anatomical pathogenic scenarios for future control with bacteria. The field phase took place in Naranjo Roses S.A. in Latacunga in a growing roses under organic conditions, where they were collected sheets of each third of six plants with presence of T. urticae Koch. The samples were taken to be processed in Plantsphere Laboratories (PSL in Quito. They were identified and quantified the different stages of the pest and some individuals were isolated for the presence of pathogenic strains of Bacillus spp., which were isolated, purified and identified. Check treatments of pathogenic were strains, distilled water (control and Bacillus thuringiensis biovar acari (positive control. Pathogenic events were evaluated in adult females of T. urticae by citohistochemistry, where breakout of the outer walls, precipitation of cell contents and cuticular malformations were reported. It was determined that the largest numbers of pest individuals are located in the lower third (59.4% with greater presence of eggs (63.3%. Using principal component analysis (PCA of the treatments, the PSL 104, 113, 114 and Bacillus thuringiensis biovar acari was determined as the most efficient Biocatalytic Effectors (EBc©.

  8. Lysinibacillus sphaericus S-layer protein toxicity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Lucía C; Ayala, Juan A; Dussán, Jenny

    2011-10-01

    The main toxicity mechanism of Lysinibacillus sphaericus, which is used in the control of mosquitoes, is its binary toxin produced during sporulation; additionally the Mtx1, Mtx2 and Mtx 3 toxins are expressed in vegetative cells. Mosquito larvicidal potency of the S-layer protein that is expressed in vegetative cells has been determined. The protein is similar to other S-layer proteins of mosquitocidal L. sphaericus strains. The LC50 values of the S-layer protein of the L. sphaericus OT4b25, OT4b26, and III(3)7 strains against third-instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus were 8.7, 24 and 0.68 μg/ml, respectively. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the mosquito larvicidal potency of the S-layer protein from Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

  9. Ocorrência de Bacillus cereus em leite integral e capacidade enterotoxigênica das cepas isoladas Occurrence of Bacillus cereus in Whole milk and enterotoxigenic potential of the isolated strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.C.M. Rezende-Lago

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisaram-se a presença de Bacillus cereus e a produção de enterotoxinas produzidas por esses microrganismos em 120 amostras de diversos tipos de leite. Bacillus cereus foi isolado e identificado em 22 (73,3%, 15 (50,0%, 29 (96,7% e quatro (13,3% amostras de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT (longa vida, respectivamente. Para a detecção de enterotoxinas pela técnica da alça ligada de coelho, foram positivos, respectivamente, três (13,6%, um (7,1% e 10 (35,7% microrganismos isolados das amostras de leite em pó, leite cru e leite pasteurizado. Pelo teste de aumento de permeabilidade vascular, dois (9,1%, um (7,1%, um (3,6% e um (4,0% microrganismos isolados de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT apresentaram-se enterotoxigênicos, respectivamente. O uso da técnica de aglutinação passiva em látex demonstrou a produção da toxina diarréica por três (33,3%, sete (63,6%, quatro (30,8% e oito (80,0% microrganismos isolados, respectivamente, de leite em pó, cru, pasteurizado e UAT. Os resultados indicam um risco potencial, podendo colocar em risco a saúde dos consumidores desses produtos.A hundred and twenty samples of different types of milk were examined to the presence of Bacillus cereus and the enterotoxigenic potential of the isolated strains. Bacillus cereus was isolated and identified in 22 (73.0%, 15 (50.0%, 29 (96.7% and four (13.3% samples of powder, raw, pasteurized and UHT milk, respectively. The enterotoxigenicity detection using the rabbit ileal loop assay showed positive, respectively, three (13.6%, one (7.1% and 10 (35.7% isolated strains from powder, raw and pasteurized milk. Using vascular permeability activity assay two (9.1%, one (7.1%, one (3.6% and one (4.0% isolated strains from powder, raw, pasteurized and UHT milk were positive, respectively. The reversed passive latex agglutination test showed diarrheal toxin production by three (33.3%, seven (63.6%, four (30.8% and eight (80.0% strains isolated from

  10. Estudos de parâmetros que influenciam na produção da enzima CGTase de Bacillus firmus, cepa nº 37 Study of parameters that influence the production of the enzyme CGTase from Bacillus firmus, strain no. 37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Maria Zanin

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available As ciclodextrinas (CDs são oligossacarídeos cíclicos formados por resíduos de glucopiranose unidos por ligação α-1,4. As mais comuns são α-, β- e γ-CD contendo 6, 7 e 8 resíduos de glucopiranose, respectivamente. Elas são produzidas a partir do amido pela ação da enzima ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase (CGTase. Freqüentemente, β-CD é produzida em maior quantidade. Um estudo da otimização da produção da CGTase de Bacillus firmus cepa nº 37 (β-CGTase foi realizado. A produção da enzima ocorreu durante a fase de crescimento exponencial do microrganismo e a máxima atividade foi observada com três dias de cultivo a 37ºC. O melhor rendimento na produção da enzima foi obtido quando da utilização de pré-inóculo com absorbância entre 0,5 e 1,0 (660 nm. O uso do substrato maltodextrina para produção da enzima proporcionou uma atividade enzimática ao redor de 31% menor que o substrato amido solúvel. Portanto, o substrato maltodextrina não é adequado para melhorar a produção da enzima estudada.The cyclodextrins (CDs are cyclic oligosaccharides formed by residues of glucopyranose linked by α-1,4. The most common are the α-, β- and γ-CD that present 6, 7 and 8 units of glucopyranose, respectively. They are produced from starch by the action of the enzyme cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase. Frequently, β-CD is produced in larger amount. A study of optimization of the production of the CGTase from Bacillus firmus, strain no. 37 (β-CGTase was performed. The production of the enzyme occurred during the phase of exponential growth of the microorganism and the maximum activity was observed within three days of cultivation at 37ºC. The best production of the enzyme was obtained with inoculum of optical density between 0.5 and 1.0 (660 nm. The use of the maltodextrin for production of the enzyme provided an enzymatic activity at 31% lower than the substrate, soluble starch. Therefore, the substrate

  11. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

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    Faruk Adamu KUTA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cereus (30.8%, Bacillus brevis (1.9% Bacillus polymyxa (3.8%, Bacillus lichenifomis (13.5%, Bacillus spherericus (7.7%, Bacillus mycoides (13.5%, Bacillus pumilus (7.7%, Bacillus subtilis (3.8%, Bacillus alvei (1.9%, Bacillus laterosporous (1.9%, Bacillus firmus (9.6% and Bacillus circulars (3.8%. Antibiotic production tests indicated that nine Bacillus species out of twelve isolated in this study could be used to produce antibiotics that had effect on the test organisms. However, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus laterosporous had little or no effect on the tested organisms. This study suggests that some Bacillus species have potential to produce high quality antibiotics that can be use to control microbial growth in future.

  12. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.; Umezurike, Gabriel M.

    1981-01-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. c...

  13. Identification of entomopathogenic Bacillus isolated from Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae larvae and adults

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    Cavados CFG

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic bacteria isolated from Simulium larvae and adults from breeding sites in the states of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were identified as 18 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis and one of B. sphaericus. Most of these strains were serotyped according to their flagellar antigens. However, nine of the B. thuringiensis samples, could not be serotyped and were designated as "autoagglutinating"; they were also shown to be toxic in preliminary tests against Aedes aegypti larvae. Additionally, B. sphaericus was also shown to be toxic towards Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

  14. Some environmental and biological factors influencing the activity of entomopathogenic Bacillus on mosquito larvae in Brazil

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    R. A. G. B Consoli

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environmental and biological factors on the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis and B. sphaericus as mosquito larvicides are reviewed. The importance of strain dependence, cultivating media/methods, mosquito species/specificity, formulations and their relation to mosquito feeding habits, as well as temperature, solar exposure, larval density and concomitant presence of other aquatic organisms are addressed with reference to the present status of knowledge in Brazil.

  15. Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombe, Christine; Davidson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Common Educational Proficiency Assessment (CEPA) is a large-scale, high-stakes, English language proficiency/placement test administered in the United Arab Emirates to Emirati nationals in their final year of secondary education or Grade 12. The purpose of the CEPA is to place students into English classes at the appropriate government…

  16. Extended longevity and robust early-stage development of Caenorhabditis elegans by a soil microbe, Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Junhyeok; Lee, Kang-Mu; Park, Yongjin; Yoon, Sang Sun

    2014-12-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, originally isolated from soil, is a nematode used in various fields of biological research including host–microbe interaction. While bacterial pathogens responsible for human infections have been actively studied in C. elegans, very few bacterial species that provide beneficial effects on C. elegans have been reported. Here, we tested several bacterial soil isolates and then characterized the effects of Lysinibacillus sphaericus on C. elegans growth-related phenotypes. Worms fed with L. sphaericus lived significantly longer than those growing with typical Escherichia coli OP50. Early- and juvenile-stage growth was also highly stimulated by L. sphaericus; body size at 28 h post-hatching was > 2 times larger than OP50-fed worms and L. sphaericus-fed worms moved through the larval stage development more rapidly than control worms. In addition, significantly elevated fertilization was observed in worms fed with L. sphaericus (∼ 8 h faster than the control group). Furthermore, growth with L. sphaericus resulted in the production of larger numbers of progeny than the control growth with OP50. Worms grown with L. sphaericus were highly resistant to oxidative, osmotic and infection stresses. Together, our results reveal a novel mode of growth that involves healthy ageing of nematodes.

  17. Ecological quality assessment of Dutch surface waters using a new bioassay with the cladoceran Chydorus sphaericus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, B.J.; Bosman-Meijerman, D.; Steenbergen, E.; van den Brandhof, E.J.; van Beelen, P.; van der Grinten, E.; Verweij, W.; Kraak, M.H.S.

    2008-01-01

    Routine chemical monitoring gives insight in the presence of contaminants in surface waters, but not in their joint ecological effects. Therefore ecological water quality is assessed with bioassays. Recently, a new bioassay using the chydorid Chydorus sphaericus has been developed. Working with smal

  18. Bacillus species isolated from tungrymbai and bekang, naturally fermented soybean foods of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, Rajen; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash

    2015-03-16

    Tungrymbai and bekang are naturally fermented soybean foods commonly consumed in Meghalaya and Mizoram states of India. A total of 39 samples of tungrymbai and 43 samples of bekang were collected from different villages and markets of Meghalaya and Mizoram, respectively and were analysed for microbial load. In both tungrymbai and bekang, the average population of Bacillus spp. was 8.2±0.1 log cfu/g. A total of 428 isolates of Bacillus were isolated from tungrymbai (211) and bekang (217) for detailed identification. On the basis of a combination of phenotypic and molecular characterisation using ARDRA, ITS-PCR and RAPD-PCR techniques, species of Bacillus isolated from tungrymbai were identified as Bacillus licheniformis (25.5%), Bacillus pumilus (19.5%) and Bacillus subtilis (55%), and species of Bacillus from bekang were Bacillus brevis (2%), Bacillus circulans (7.5%), Bacillus coagulans (6.5%), B. licheniformis (16.5%), B. pumilus (9.1%), Bacillus sphaericus (4.6%), B. subtilis (51.8%), and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (2%). The most dominant bacterium in both products was B. subtilis.

  19. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria from Allium cepa var. aggregatum and study of their probiotic properties

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    Nannu Shafakatullah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The shallot (Allium cepa var. aggregatum or the A. cepa Aggregatum Group is a botanical variety of the species Allium cepa, to which the multiplier onion also belongs. Shallots are called "small onions" in South India and are used extensively in cooking. The scientific use of shallots as a source of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB has not yet been examined. Indigenous knowledge revealed shallots as a good health source. An attempt has been made to find out the possibilities of LAB in fresh shallots. Four isolates were identified on the basis of their morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical tests and their probiotic properties were evaluated. These isolates were screened for resistance against bile salt, gastric juice, intestinal juice, different NaCl concentrations, acidic pH, ability to inhibit pathogens, antibiotic resistance, adherence capacity as well as survival under different storage temperatures. Isolated strains Bacillus coagulans (Lactobacillus sporogenes, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactococcus lactis showed satisfactory probiotic potentials.

  20. CEPA:物流业的机遇%CEPA:opportunities for logistics industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Chinese mainland/Hong Kong Closer Economic Partnership Arrangement (CEPA) became effective from zero hour Thursday, January 1,2004, with the support of the central government and joint efforts of the industry and commerce circles on both sides.

  1. Bacillus coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria. It is used similarly to lactobacillus and other probiotics as "beneficial" bacteria. People take Bacillus coagulans for diarrhea, including infectious types such as ...

  2. Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis on microbial functional groups in sorghum rhizosphere Efeito do Bacillus thuringiensis sobre grupos funcionais de microrganismos na rizosfera de sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Brasil

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of two strains of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on sorghum rhizosphere microorganisms. The strains were HD1, that produces the bioinsecticidal protein, and 407, that is a mutant non-producer. The strains do not influence microbial population, but reduce plant growth and improve mycorrhizal colonization and free living fixing N2 community.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de duas cepas de Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki sobre microrganismos na rizosfera do sorgo. As cepas foram a HD1, produtora do cristal bioinseticida, e a 407, uma mutante não-produtora. As duas cepas não influenciam a comunidade microbiana, mas reduzem o crescimento da planta. A colonização micorrízica e a população de fixadores de N2 de vida livre aumentaram.

  3. Aislamiento e identificación de diez cepas bacterianas desnitrificantes a partir de un suelo agrícola contaminado con abonos nitrogenados proveniente de una finca productora de cebolla en la Laguna de Tota, Boyacá, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    ostos ortiz, olga lucia; Benavides López de Mesa, Joaquín; Quintero, Gladys

    2006-01-01

    Este articulo presenta los resultados de la versatilidad adaptativa y tolerancia de una consorcio bacteriano constituido por 10 cepas bacterianas endémicas de un suelo agrícola contaminado, proveniente de una finca productora de cebolla ubicada en la laguna de Tota en Aquitania, Boyacá, Colombia, expuesto al uso incontrolado de fertilizantes nitrogenados. La consorcio bacteriano aislado del suelo está conformado por: Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Acinetoba...

  4. CEPA--opportunities for logistics industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    The Chinese mainland/HongKong CloserEconomic Partnership Arrangement(CEPA)became effective from zero hour Thursday,January 1,2004,with the support of the cen-tral government and joint efforts of the indus-try and commerce circles on both sides.

  5. Identification of multiple putative S-layer genes partly expressed by Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Franziska L; Weinert, Ulrike; Günther, Tobias J; Raff, Johannes; Weiß, Stephan; Pollmann, Katrin

    2013-06-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53 was isolated from the uranium mining waste pile Haberland near Johanngeorgenstadt, Germany. Previous studies have shown that many bacteria that have been isolated from these heavy metal contaminated environments possess surface layer (S-layer) proteins that enable the bacteria to survive by binding metals with high affinity. Conversely, essential trace elements are able to cross the filter layer and reach the interior of the cell. This is especially true of the S-layer of L. sphaericus JG-B53, which possesses outstanding recrystallization and metal-binding properties. In this study, S-layer protein gene sequences encoded in the genome of L. sphaericus JG-B53 were identified using next-generation sequencing technology followed by bioinformatic analyses. The genome of L. sphaericus JG-B53 encodes at least eight putative S-layer protein genes with distinct differences. Using mRNA analysis the expression of the putative S-layer protein genes was studied. The functional S-layer protein B53 Slp1 was identified as the dominantly expressed S-layer protein in L. sphaericus JG-B53 by mRNA studies, SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing. B53 Slp1 is characterized by square lattice symmetry and a molecular mass of 116 kDa. The S-layer protein B53 Slp1 shows a high similarity to the functional S-layer protein of L. sphaericus JG-A12, which was isolated from the same uranium mining waste pile Haberland and has been described by previous research. These similarities indicate horizontal gene transfer and DNA rearrangements between these bacteria. The presence of multiple S-layer gene copies may enable the bacterial strains to quickly adapt to changing environments.

  6. Contribution of S-layer proteins to the mosquitocidal activity of Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allievi, Mariana Claudia; Palomino, María Mercedes; Prado Acosta, Mariano; Lanati, Leonardo; Ruzal, Sandra Mónica; Sánchez-Rivas, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging the antigenic group H5a5b produce spores with larvicidal activity against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. C7, a new isolated strain, which presents similar biochemical characteristics and Bin toxins in their spores as the reference strain 2362, was, however, more active against larvae of Culex mosquitoes. The contribution of the surface layer protein (S-layer) to this behaviour was envisaged since this envelope protein has been implicated in the pathogenicity of several bacilli, and we had previously reported its association to spores. Microscopic observation by immunofluorescence detection with anti S-layer antibody in the spores confirms their attachment. S-layers and BinA and BinB toxins formed high molecular weight multimers in spores as shown by SDS-PAGE and western blot detection. Purified S-layer from both L. sphaericus C7 and 2362 strain cultures was by itself toxic against Culex sp larvae, however, that from C7 strain was also toxic against Aedes aegypti. Synergistic effect between purified S-layer and spore-crystal preparations was observed against Culex sp. and Aedes aegypti larvae. This effect was more evident with the C7 strain. In silico analyses of the S-layer sequence suggest the presence of chitin-binding and hemolytic domains. Both biochemical characteristics were detected for both S-layers strains that must justify their contribution to pathogenicity.

  7. Phylogeny of marine Bacillus isolates from the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefert, J. L.; Larios-Sanz, M.; Nakamura, L. K.; Slepecky, R. A.; Paul, J. H.; Moore, E. R.; Fox, G. E.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr

    2000-01-01

    The phylogeny of 11 pigmented, aerobic, spore-forming isolates from marine sources was studied. Forty-two biochemical characteristics were examined, and a 16S rDNA sequence was obtained for each isolate. In a phylogenetic tree based on 16S sequencing, four isolates (NRRL B-14850, NRRL B-14904, NRRL B-14907, and NRRL B-14908) clustered with B. subtilis and related organisms; NRRL B-14907 was closely related to B. amyloliquefaciens. NRRL B-14907 and NRRL B-14908 were phenotypically similar to B. amyloliquefaciens and B. pumilus, respectively. Three strains (NRRL B-14906, NRRL B-14910, and NRRL B-14911) clustered in a clade that included B. firmus, B. lentus, and B. megaterium. NRRL B-14910 was closely related phenotypically and phylogenetically to B. megaterium. NRRL B-14905 clustered with the mesophilic round spore-producing species, B. fusiformis and B. sphaericus; the isolate was more closely related to B. fusiformis. NRRL B-14905 displayed characteristics typical of the B. sphaericus-like organisms. NRRL B-14909 and NRRL B-14912 clustered with the Paenibacillus species and displayed characteristics typical of the genus. Only NRRL B-14851, an unusually thin rod that forms very small spores, may represent a new Bacillus species.

  8. Controlled green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata with strong antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Geetika; Panwar, Amit; Kaur, Balpreet

    2015-02-01

    A controlled "green synthesis" approach to synthesize silver nanoparticles by Allium cepa and Musa acuminata plant extract has been reported. The effect of different process parameters, such as pH, temperature and time, on synthesis of Ag nanoparticles from plant extracts has been highlighted. The work reports an easy approach to control the kinetics of interaction of metal ions with reducing agents, stabilized by ammonia to achieve sub-10 nm particles with narrow size distribution. The nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-Visible spectra and TEM analysis. Excellent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration of the nanoparticles was observed against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Fusarium oxysporum which may allow their exploitation as a new generation nanoproduct in biomedical and agricultural applications.

  9. Resistencia a biocidas de diferentes cepas de escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    López Aguayo, M. Carmen; Grande Burgos, M. José; Lucas López, R.; Gálvez-del-Postigo-Ruiz, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Los biocidas son herramientas de gran importancia para controlar la transmisión de microorganismos patógenos a través de la cadena alimentaria. En el presente estudio se ha determinado la resistencia a siete biocidas en una colección de nueve cepas de Escherichia coli, incluyendo cepas verotoxigénicas y cepas portadoras de resistencia a beta-lactámicos. Los biocidas más eficaces fueron triclosan, hexadecilpiridinio y cetrimida, seguido del cloruro de benzalconio. No se encon...

  10. Genotyping of starter cultures of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus for fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) to produce Soumbala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouoba, Labia Irène Ivette; Diawara, Bréhima; Amoa-Awua, Wisdom kofi; Traoré, Alfred Sababénedyo; Møller, Peter Lange

    2004-01-15

    Bacillus spp. are the predominant microorganisms in fermented African locust bean called Soumbala in Burkina Faso. Ten strains selected as potential starter cultures were characterised by PCR amplification of the16S-23S rDNA intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS-PCR), restriction fragment length polymorphism of the ITS-PCR (ITS-PCR RFLP), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and sequencing of the 968-1401 region of the 16S rDNA. In previous studies, the isolates were identified by phenotyping as Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. The phenotyping was repeated as a reference in the present study. The ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR RLFP allowed a typing at species level. The PFGE was more discriminative and allowed a typing at strain level. Full agreement with the phenotyping was observed in all cases. The sequencing of the 16S rDNA allowed the identification at species level with an identity from 97% to 100% comparing the sequences to those from the GenBank databases. The desired cultures of B. subtilis and B. pumilus from African locust bean fermentation were distinguished by ITS-PCR and ITS-PCR RLFP from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus sphaericus which sometimes occur in the beginning of the fermentation.

  11. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashutosh Bahuguna; Madhuri K. Lily; Ashok Munjal; Ravindra N. Singh; Koushalya Dangwal

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil.The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No.GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis.The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively.The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT.However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation.The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7.In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT.Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  12. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by a novel strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 isolated from diesel contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuguna, Ashutosh; Lily, Madhuri K; Munjal, Ashok; Singh, Ravindra N; Dangwal, Koushalya

    2011-01-01

    A new bacterial strain DMT-7 capable of selectively desulfurizing dibenzothiophene (DBT) was isolated from diesel contaminated soil. The DMT-7 was characterized and identified as Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 (NCBI GenBank Accession No. GQ496620) using 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The desulfurized product of DBT, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2HBP), was identified and confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis respectively. The desulfurization kinetics revealed that DMT-7 started desulfurization of DBT into 2HBP after the lag phase of 24 hr, exponentially increasing the accumulation of 2HBP up to 15 days leading to approximately 60% desulfurization of the DBT. However, further growth resulted into DBT degradation. The induced culture of DMT-7 showed shorter lag phase of 6 hr and early onset of stationary phase within 10 days for desulfurization as compared to that of non-induced culture clearly indicating the inducibility of the desulfurization pathway of DMT-7. In addition, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 also possess the ability to utilize broad range of substrates as sole source of sulfur such as benzothiophene, 3,4-benzo DBT, 4,6-dimethyl DBT, and 4,6-dibutyl DBT. Therefore, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DMT-7 could serve as model system for efficient biodesulfurization of diesel and petrol.

  13. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: An Allium cepa Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan Yuet Ping; Ibrahim Darah; Umi Kalsom Yusuf; Chen Yeng; Sreenivasan Sasidharan

    2012-01-01

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative ...

  14. Adsorption of Toxic Metals and Control of Mosquitos-borne Disease by Lysinibacillus sphaericus:Dual Benefits for Health and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier Edo.Vargas; Jenny Dussán

    2016-01-01

    Objective Assessment of the bacteriumL. sphaericusas a dual-action candidate for biological control of mosquito-borne diseases and bioremediation of toxic metals. Methods Larvae of the mosquito,C. quinquefasciatus, were first evaluated for metal tolerance and then exposed to 5 ppm cadmium, chromium, arsenic, and lead in assays together with seven strains of L. sphaericus. A probit regression analysis was used to estimate the LC50 of Cd, Cr, As, and Pb toC. quinquefasciatus.An analysis of covariance and multifactorial ANOVA examined the metal biosorption and larvicidal properties of the seven strains of L. sphaericus. Results We found that L. sphaericus adsorbed the toxic metal ions and was toxic against mosquito larvae. The L. sphaericus strain Ⅲ(3)7 resulted in a larvae mortality of over 80% for all the tested metals. This strain also exhibited the capacity to adsorb 76% of arsenic, 32% of lead, 25% of chromium, and 7%of cadmium. Conclusion This study found combined metal adsorption and larval toxicity associated with three strains ofL. sphaericus[Ⅲ(3)7, OT4b.31, and CBAM5]. This suggests that a combination of these strains shows strong dual potential forbiological control of mosquitosin heavy metal-contaminated areas and remediate the heavy metal contamination as well.

  15. Pectic Enzyme Activities of Bacteria Associated with Rotted Onions (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, S K; Umezurike, G M

    1981-10-01

    The aerobic bacteria associated with soft rot in onions (Allium cepa) were isolated and identified as a Vibrio sp., Micrococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas cepacia, an Acinetobacter sp., a Xanthomonas sp., Bacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium. With the cup-plate assay method, no pectin hydrolase could be detected from any of these isolates when they were cultured in pectin medium, but lyase and pectinesterases were detectable. Onion tissue cultures showed pectin hydrolase activity for P. cepacia and B. polymyxa and lyase and pectinesterase activities for all of the isolates, usually at higher levels of activity than those of the pectin medium culture filtrates. In both culture media, Vibrio sp. showed the highest lyase and pectinesterase activities. In the viscometric test, all of the isolates achieved at least a 50% decrease in viscosity for lyase enzyme, with M. epidermidis and Vibrio sp. recording viscosity decreases as high as 83%. The ability to cause soft rot in onion bulbs was demonstrated by P. cepacia and Xanthomonas sp. Benzoic acid at a concentration of 0.8 mg/ml caused total suppression of enzyme production, whereas sodium benzoate at this concentration reduced pectinesterase production by 71% and lyase production by 72%. The possible use of these preservatives in the control of soft rot in onions is noted.

  16. Mosquitocidal properties of Bacillus species isolated from mangroves of Vellar estuary, Southeast coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Indira, K; Srinivasan, M

    2015-09-01

    Samples collected from the mangroves of Vellar estuary yielded a mosquitocidal bacterium, whose secondary metabolites exhibited mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal activity. The bacterium was isolated using standard microbiological methods and identified using classical biochemical tests. The mosquitocidal bacterium was identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus cereus. Mosquitocidal metabolite(s) was separated from the culture supernatant of the bacterium and its efficacy was against the larval and pupal stages of two different species of mosquitoes and determined in terms of LC50 and LC90. Mosquito larvicidal activity in terms of LC50 against Anopheleus stephensi and Aedes aegypti was 4.374 and 7.406 μl/ml and its pupicidal activity was 4.928 and 9.865 μl/ml, respectively. The present study proved that the mosquitocidal properties of the Bacillus species isolated from mangroves of Vellar estuary was evaluated as target species of mosquito vectors. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the vector control programs.

  17. Binary Toxin Subunits of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Are Monomeric and Form Heterodimers after In Vitro Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Surya

    Full Text Available The binary toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus has been successfully used for controlling mosquito-transmitted diseases. An activation step shortens both subunits BinA and BinB before their interaction with membranes and internalization in midgut cells, but the precise role of this activation step is unknown. Herein, we show conclusively using three orthogonal biophysical techniques that protoxin subunits form only monomers in aqueous solution. However, in vitro activated toxins readily form heterodimers. This oligomeric state did not change after incubation of these heterodimers with detergent. These results are consistent with the evidence that maximal toxicity in mosquito larvae is achieved when the two subunits, BinA and BinB, are in a 1:1 molar ratio, and directly link proteolytic activation to heterodimerization. Formation of a heterodimer must thus be necessary for subsequent steps, e.g., interaction with membranes, or with a suitable receptor in susceptible mosquito species. Lastly, despite existing similarities between BinB C-terminal domain with domains 3 and 4 of pore-forming aerolysin, no aerolysin-like SDS-resistant heptameric oligomers were observed when the activated Bin subunits were incubated in the presence of detergents or lipidic membranes.

  18. The aggregation-mediated conjugation system of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis: host range and kinetics of transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, G B; Andrup, L; Wilcks, A; Smidt, L; Poulsen, O M

    1996-10-01

    The aggregation-mediated conjugation system in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis encoded on the plasmid pXO16 is characterized by the formation of aggregates when Agr+ and Agr- cells are socialized in exponential growth. Using the aggregation phenotypes, we have identified potential recipients of the aggregation-plasmid pXO16 among Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus sphaericus, and 24 subspecies of B. thuringiensis. We found 14 Agr- strains, i.e., potential recipients of the aggregation system encoded by plasmid pXO16. Five strains contained a conjugative apparatus of their own and were excluded from further examinations. To monitor the transfer of plasmid pXO16, we constructed a transposon insertion of the plasmid with Tn5401. The study of the plasmid transfer of pXO16::Tn5401 indicated the secretion of bacteriocins from both donor strain and recipient strains. Only one out of the nine strains examined was unable to receive the aggregation-plasmid pXO16 and express the aggregation phenotype and the conjugative abilities. It was found that the transfer of plasmid pXO16 to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Agr- strains was 100%. All recipients had acquired the aggregation-plasmid pXO16 and converted to the Agr+ phenotype.

  19. Forskolin: genotoxicity assessment in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Khalid Pasha; Aarey, Archana; Tamkeen, Shayesta; Jahan, Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Forskolin, a diterpene, 7β-acetoxy-8,13-epoxy-1α,6β,9α-trihydroxy-labd-14-en-11-one (C22H34O7) isolated from Coleus forskohlii, exerts multiple physiological effects by stimulating the enzyme adenylate cyclase and increasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations. Forskolin is used in the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure, eczema, and other diseases. A cytogenetic assay was performed in Allium cepa to assess possible genotoxic effects of forskolin. Forskolin was tested at concentrations 5-100 μM for exposure periods of 24 or 48 h. Treated samples showed significant reductions in mitotic index (p < 0.05) and increases in the frequency of chromosome aberrations (p < 0.01) at both exposure times. The treated meristems showed chromosome aberrations including sticky metaphases, sticky anaphases, laggard, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, polyploidy, fragments, breaks, and C-mitosis. Forskolin may cause genotoxic effects and further toxicological evaluations should be conducted to ensure its safety.

  20. Effects of cypermethrin on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Kaya, Arzu; Yilmaz, Fadime; Yalçin, Emine

    2012-10-01

    In this study, toxic effects of the cypermethrin in Allium cepa L. cells were investigated. For this aim, we investigated the changes in pigment contents, antioxidant enzymes, mitotic index and chromosomal abnormalities as indicators of toxicity. The seeds were treated with different doses (1.5, 3.0, 6.0 ppm) of cypermethrin for 72 h. The result showed that there was a significant alteration in the tested parameters depending on treatment dose in the seeds exposed to cypermethrin when compared to the control group. Cypermethrin exposure significantly reduced the carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b pigments in all treatment groups. The activity of superoxide dismutase showed a concentration-time dependent increase and the maximum increase was observed on day 15 of treatment at 6.0 ppm cypermethrin exposure. The activity of catalase increased gradually with increasing cypermethrin concentration, but a soft decrease in CAT activity was decreased after 15 days of 1.5 ppm and 3.0 ppm cypermethrin treatment. In the roots treated with 1.5, 3.0, and 6.0 ppm cypermethrin, the level of malondialdehyde was about 1.8, 2.4, and 3.4 times higher than the control group, respectively. It was also found that cypermethrin has a mitodepressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of cyprmethrin. All of the concentrations of cypermethrin induced chromosomal abnormalities and the most common abnormality observed in the present study was chromosome bridges.

  1. Nosocomial pseudoepidemic caused by Bacillus cereus traced to contaminated ethyl alcohol from a liquor factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, P R; Teng, L J; Yang, P C; Pan, H L; Ho, S W; Luh, K T

    1999-07-01

    From September 1990 to October 1990, 15 patients who were admitted to four different departments of the National Taiwan University Hospital, including nine patients in the emergency department, three in the hematology/oncology ward, two in the surgical intensive care unit, and one in a pediatric ward, were found to have positive blood (14 patients) or pleural effusion (1 patient) cultures for Bacillus cereus. After extensive surveillance cultures, 19 additional isolates of B. cereus were recovered from 70% ethyl alcohol that had been used as a skin disinfectant (14 isolates from different locations in the hospital) and from 95% ethyl alcohol (5 isolates from five alcohol tanks in the pharmacy department), and 10 isolates were recovered from 95% ethyl alcohol from the factory which supplied the alcohol to the hospital. In addition to these 44 isolates of B. cereus, 12 epidemiologically unrelated B. cereus isolates, one Bacillus sphaericus isolate from a blood specimen from a patient seen in May 1990, and two B. sphaericus isolates from 95% alcohol in the liquor factory were also studied for their microbiological relatedness. Among these isolates, antibiotypes were determined by using the disk diffusion method and the E test, biotypes were created with the results of the Vitek Bacillus Biochemical Card test, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns were generated by arbitrarily primed PCR. Two clones of the 15 B. cereus isolates recovered from patients were identified (clone A from 2 patients and clone B from 13 patients), and all 29 isolates of B. cereus recovered from 70 or 95% ethyl alcohol in the hospital or in the factory belonged to clone B. The antibiotype and RAPD pattern of the B. sphaericus isolate from the patient were different from those of isolates from the factory. Our data show that the pseudoepidemic was caused by a clone (clone B) of B. cereus from contaminated 70% ethyl alcohol used in the hospital, which we successfully traced to

  2. Synergistic Activity Between S-Layer Protein and Spore-Crystal Preparations from Lysinibacillus sphaericus Against Culex quinquefasciatus Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Lucía C; Dussán, Jenny

    2017-03-01

    Lysinibacillus sphaericus is used for the biological control of mosquitoes. The main toxicity mechanism of pathogenic strains is a binary toxin produced during sporulation. S-layer is a proteinaceous structure on the surface of bacteria; its functions have been involved in the interaction between bacterial cells and the environment, for example, as protective coats, surface recognition, and biological control. In L. sphaericus, S-layer protein (SlpC) is expressed in vegetative cells, and is also found in spore-crystal preparations; it has larvicidal activity in Culex spp. In this study, partial and completed sporulated culture toxicities were compared; also, S-layer protein and spore-crystal proteins were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae for possible interactions. Larvicidal activity obtained with a combination of SlpC and spore-crystal proteins from strain III(3)7 showed no significant interaction, whereas, combinations of both preparations from strain 2362 showed synergistic effect. The highest synergistic activity observed was between spore protein complex from strain 2362 and SlpC from III(3)7. S-layer protein could be considered a good alternative in formulation improvement, for biological control of mosquitoes.

  3. Bacillus probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Simon M

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial spore formers are being used as probiotic supplements for use in animal feeds, for human dietary supplements as well as in registered medicines. Their heat stability and ability to survive the gastric barrier makes them attractive as food additives and this use is now being taken forward. While often considered soil organisms this conception is misplaced and Bacilli should be considered as gut commensals. This review summarises the current use of Bacillus species as probiotics, their safety, mode of action as well as their commercial applications.

  4. Evidence for nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility between Allium fistulosum and A. cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-G, M; Corgan, J N; Dunford, M

    1995-04-01

    An F2 population (Allium fistulosum x A. cepa) of 20plants, 10 BC1,[(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa], and 50 BC2 plants, [(A. fistulosum x A. cepa) x A. cepa] x A. cepa were studied cytogenetically and characterized for four isozyme alleles plus various morphological characteristics. All of the progenies were in A. fistulosum (the bunching onion) cytoplasm. In the F2 population we observed non-random chromosomal and allelic segregation, suppression of bulb onion allelic expression, and abnormalities in mitosis and meiosis. Most BC2 plants resembled A. cepa (the bulbing onion) morphologically, but anthers, filaments, pistils, and petals were abnormal. Only 3 plants, and these were most nearly like the F1 hybrid morphologically, produced any seeds.The data and observations support the hypothesis of nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility interactions between the bunching and bulb onion species.

  5. Análisis genómico comparativo de cepas peruanas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tarazona

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Analizar comparativamente tres secuencias genómicas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB: INS-SEN,cepa sensible; INS-MDR, cepa multidrogorresistente e INS-XDR, cepa extensamente resistente, procedentes de la Ciudad de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se identificaron los polimorfismos de un solo nucleótido (SNPs específicos en las cepas INS-SEN, INS-MDR y INS-XDR mediante el criterio de inclusión/exclusión. Se compararon los tres genomas de MTB y se construyó una filogenia molecular con 27 cepas de MTB de otros estudios, disponibles de la base de datos Genbank. Los SNPs específicos en cada genoma fueron organizados en clústers de grupos ortólogos (COGs. Resultados. El análisis de genomas permitió identificar un conjunto de SNPs asociados a determinantes de virulencia (familia de proteínas mce, policetidos, phiRv1, transposasas, metiltransferasas y relacionados a síntesis de vitaminas principalmente. Se observa una estrecha relación entre la cepa INS-MDR y INS-XDR, con solo un 6,1% de SNPs diferentes, sin embargo, la cepa INS-SEN presenta un 50,2 y 50,3% de SNPs diferentes a las cepas MDR y XDR, respectivamente. La filogenia molecular agrupó a las cepas peruanas dentro del linaje LAM y cercanamente a las cepas F11 y KZN de Sudáfrica. Conclusiones. Se evidenció una alta similitud (99,9% de la cepa INS-SEN con la cepa sudafricana F11, de gran alcance mundial, mientras los análisis de las cepas INS-MDR e INS-XDR demuestran una probable expansión de la familia KZN, cepa de Sudáfrica con alta virulencia y patogenicidad.

  6. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  7. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  8. Furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Yuan, Ling; Ji, Teng-Fei; Yang, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ai-Guo; Su, Ya-Lun

    2014-12-01

    Allium cepa L. is one of the most widely cultivated and used plants. In addition to its bulb (onion), which is used as food in many cultures, the seeds of A. cepa L. are used as a traditional herbal medicine by the Uygur nationality in China to treat diarrhea and promote blood flow. In a bioactivity-screening, the ethanol extract of seeds of A. cepa L. showed inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with 81.1% inhibition. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of red onion (Allium cepa L.) seeds led to the isolation of eight new furostanol saponins, named ceparosides E-L (1-8). Their structures were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. Compounds 1-8 were screened for inhibitory effects on the PTP1B enzyme and cytotoxic activity against five human cells, including HCT-8, Bel-7402, BGC-823, A549 and A2780, but all were found to be inactive.

  9. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAGUNATHAN Irulappan; PANNEERSELVAM Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 μg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 μg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells.

  10. AISLAMIENTO Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE CEPAS DE Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoania Ríos Rocafull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus es un microorganismo endófito que presenta, dentro de sus características, mecanismos directos e indirectos de estimulación del crecimiento vegetal. A pesar de sus grandes perspectivas para constituir el principio activo de un bioproducto de uso agrícola, en Cuba no existe ninguno elaborado a partir de esta especie bacteriana. El aislamiento de cepas del microorganismo y su caracterización constituyen pasos importantes para la obtención de un biopreparado, pues permiten la selección inicial de cepas que tengan características adecuadas para la estimulación del crecimiento. En la presente investigación se purificaron 85 aislados de microorganismos endófitos, a partir de los diferentes órganos de 24 especies vegetales. Cuatro de ellos fueron identificados como Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, al comparar sus características con las de cepas patrones de la especie bacteriana. Los microorganismos seleccionados provenían de frutos de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. y mango (Mangifera indica L., así como de tallos de yuca (Manihot esculenta Crantz. y remolacha (Beta vulgaris L.. Se destacó la presencia del microorganismo en los dos primeros cultivos para Cuba y el aislamiento en la guayaba a nivel internacional. Las cuatro cepas mostraron diferencias en su capacidad de solubilizar fósforo, producir ácido indol acético y en su actividad antagonista frente a Fusarium moniliforme y Fusarium incarnatum. Al agruparse las cepas por sus características, se diferenciaron los microorganismos provenientes de mango y remolacha, los que se consideran promisorios para realizar estudios en condiciones in vivo del efecto de su interacción con otros cultivos.

  11. Valorización de residuos agroindustriales para la obtención de liquenisina por Bacillus licheniformis AL 1.1

    OpenAIRE

    Coronel León, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    La cepa bacteriana AL 1.1 se aisló de una muestra de suelo de la isla Decepción del continente Antártico. Inicialmente se observó que dicha cepa tenía la capacidad de reducir la tensión superficial del medio, por lo que fue seleccionada para realizar la presente tesis doctoral. Después de confirmar la identificación del aislado como un Bacillus licheniformis se caracterizó el biotensioactivo (BT) producido como liquenisina (LchAL1.1). El estudio de las propiedades físico-químicas de la Lc...

  12. Biochemical and molecular study of the Bacillus thuringiensis vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vip3A) mode of action in Spodoptera species

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Maissa

    2015-01-01

    Las proteínas insecticidas vegetativas (Vip) constituyen una nueva familia de toxinas producidas durante la fase de crecimiento vegetativo de diferentes cepas de Bacillus y principalmente por Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Esta familia de proteínas está representada por 4 miembros: Vip1, Vip2, Vip3 y la recientemente descrita Vip4. Las toxinas binarias Vip1 y Vip2 son activas contra coleópteros y homópteros; las proteínas Vip3 son activas contra lepidópteros, sin embargo, los insectos diana par...

  13. Ultrastructural localization of active genes in Allium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    By using the anti-RNA/DNA hybrid antibody as the probe, we labeled and analyzed the precise transcriptional sites of active genes in Allium cepa cells in situ. The results showed that the location of labeled signals appeared in mitochondrion was the same as that in chloroplast, generally concentrated at the central matrix space where there were no cristae and thylakoids. In the extranucleolar regions of nucleus, the labeled signals of transcriptional sites were situated at the perichromatin fibrils, which decondensed and stretched out from the chromosome territories. Our results also displayed the concentrations of labeled signals in a cer-tain region of nucleus, and this means that the gene tran-scription rich region actually existed in Allium cepa cells. In nucleolus, the synthetic sites of rRNA were localized not only to the periphery of fibrillar centers but also to the DFC near FC.

  14. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: an Allium cepa assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuet Ping, Kwan; Darah, Ibrahim; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Yeng, Chen; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-06-26

    The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  15. Fenoloxidasa Modificada: Clave para identificar cepas de Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Canelo D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans es la única levadura patógena capaz de sintetizar pigmentos como la melanina mediante la actividad de su enzima llamada fenoloxidasa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue implementar y estandarizar la prueba de la fenoloxidasa, como técnica complementaria en la identificación de cepas de C. neoformans. Se estudiaron 21 cepas, identificadas previamente con métodos convencionales. La prueba de la fenoloxidasa fue modificada debido a que su empleo originaba 9,6% (2/21 de falsa negatividad. Esta prueba modificada se optimizó a 28°C a partir de un medio con baja concentración de glucosa. Ningún aislamiento falso negativo fue encontrado luego de repetir tres veces el ensayo, y el pigmento melanina fue detectado con mayor rapidez.

  16. The Effect of CEPA is Showing up at the 700th Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nov. 30 is the 700th day that CEPA was implemented. At the forum on the Simp1ification of CEPA Trade and Custom Declaration, It is learned that after the execution of CEPA, the exchanges of logistics, Human Resources, capital and information between the mainland and Hong Kong and Macao are getting more and more frequent, which inputs new energy into the promotion of Hong Kong and Macao economic growth. At the same time, the effect is showing up.

  17. The effect of lead on Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerda, D

    1992-02-01

    The effect of lead on Allium cepa L. at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0, 10, 50, 100 and 200 ppm were studied. Analysis focused on root growth, frequency of mitosis in a meristematic zone, and chromosomal aberrations. It was observed that lead reduces root growth and the frequency of mitotic cells in meristematic zones, and increases the frequency of aberrant cells. The intensity of the effects is a function of lead concentration.

  18. CEPA and interrelationship between Chinese yuan and Hong Kong dollar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to explore the interrelated impacts of the economical communications between China and Hong Kong SAR, especially after the closer economic partnership arrangement (CEPA) and the Chinese yuan offshore financial business in Hong Kong banks in 2004, the exchange rates of the Chinese yuan and the Hong Kong dollar are investigated as well-performing market signals that should reflect this historical transformation. With vector autoregressive models (VAR), the Johansen cointegration test and the Granger ...

  19. Interaction of Natural Dye (Allium cepa) with Ionic Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Allium cepa is a natural dye that has been extracted from onion skin with the help of soxhlet apparatus. The pigment in the dye pelargonidin was found to be 2.25%. The interaction of the dye with ionic surfactants, namely, cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) and anionic (sodium lauryl sulphate) has been studied by spectrophotometrically, conductivity, and surface tension measurements. The thermodynamic and surface parameters have been evaluated for the interaction process. Th...

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins: An Overview of Their Biocidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies, including mosquitoes and blackflies. Bt also synthesizes insecticidal proteins during the vegetative growth phase, which are subsequently secreted into the growth medium. These proteins are commonly known as vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) and hold insecticidal activity against lepidopteran, coleopteran and some homopteran pests. A less well characterized secretory protein with no amino acid similarity to Vip proteins has shown insecticidal activity against coleopteran pests and is termed Sip (secreted insecticidal protein). Bin-like and ETX_MTX2-family proteins (Pfam PF03318), which share amino acid similarities with mosquitocidal binary (Bin) and Mtx2 toxins, respectively, from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, are also produced by some Bt strains. In addition, vast numbers of Bt isolates naturally present in the soil and the phylloplane also synthesize crystal proteins whose biological activity is still unknown. In this review, we provide an updated overview of the known active Bt toxins to date and discuss their activities. PMID:25514092

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis toxins: an overview of their biocidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-12-11

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies, including mosquitoes and blackflies. Bt also synthesizes insecticidal proteins during the vegetative growth phase, which are subsequently secreted into the growth medium. These proteins are commonly known as vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) and hold insecticidal activity against lepidopteran, coleopteran and some homopteran pests. A less well characterized secretory protein with no amino acid similarity to Vip proteins has shown insecticidal activity against coleopteran pests and is termed Sip (secreted insecticidal protein). Bin-like and ETX_MTX2-family proteins (Pfam PF03318), which share amino acid similarities with mosquitocidal binary (Bin) and Mtx2 toxins, respectively, from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, are also produced by some Bt strains. In addition, vast numbers of Bt isolates naturally present in the soil and the phylloplane also synthesize crystal proteins whose biological activity is still unknown. In this review, we provide an updated overview of the known active Bt toxins to date and discuss their activities.

  2. Neuroprotective effect of Allium cepa L. in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Tanveer; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2015-07-01

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the neuroprotective potential of Allium cepa (A. cepa) in aluminium chloride induced neurotoxicity. Aluminium chloride (50 mg/kg/day) was administered orally in mice supplemented with different doses of A. cepa hydroethanolic extract for a period of 60 days. Various behavioural, biochemical and histopathological parameters were estimated in aluminium exposed animals. Chronic aluminium administration resulted in significant motor incoordination and memory deficits, which were also endorsed biochemically as there was increased oxidative stress as well as elevated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aluminium levels in the brain. Supplementation with A. cepa in aluminium exposed animals significantly improved muscle coordination and memory deficits as well as reduced oxidative stress, AChE and decreased abnormal aluminium deposition in the brain. Histopathologically, there was marked deterioration visualized as decreased vacuolated cytoplasm as well as decreased pyramidal cells in the hippocampal area of mice brain which were found to be reversed with A. cepa supplementation. Administration of BADGE (PPARγ antagonist) in aluminium exposed animals reversed the neuroprotective potential of A. cepa as assessed with various behavioural, biochemical, neurochemical and histopathological estimations. In conclusion, finding of this study suggested significant neuroprotective potential of A. cepa in aluminium induced neurotoxicity. Further, the role of PPARγ receptor agonism has also been suggested as a putative neuroprotective mechanism of A. cepa, which needs further studies for confirmation.

  3. Rhodamine B induces long nucleoplasmic bridges and other nuclear anomalies in Allium cepa root tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Dehong; Bai, Bing; Jiang, Donghua; Shi, Lin; Cheng, Shunchang; Tao, Dongbing; Ji, Shujuan

    2014-03-01

    The cytogenetic toxicity of rhodamine B on root tip cells of Allium cepa was investigated. A. cepa were cultured in water (negative control), 10 ppm methyl methanesulfonate (positive control), and three concentrations of rhodamine B (200, 100, and 50 ppm) for 7 days. Rhodamine B inhibited mitotic activity; increased nuclear anomalies, including micronuclei, nuclear buds, and bridged nuclei; and induced oxidative stress in A. cepa root tissues. Furthermore, a substantial amount of long nucleoplasmic bridges were entangled together, and some nuclei were simultaneously linked to several other nuclei and to nuclear buds with nucleoplasmic bridges in rhodamine B-treated cells. In conclusion, rhodamine B induced cytogenetic effects in A. cepa root tip cells, which suggests that the A. cepa root is an ideal model system for detecting cellular interactions.

  4. Methylmercury as a mitosis disturbing agent. [Allium cepa; Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramel, C.

    1969-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the genetic effects of mercurials. These investigations included both cytological and genetical analyses. One of the main purposes of the investigations was to establish the lowest dose of the mercurials, which was genetically active. For the cytological work root tips cells of Allium cepa were used, while the genetical analyses were preformed on Drosophila melanogaster. The cytological tests on Allium included methyl mercury hydroxide, methyl mercury dicyandiamide, phenyl mercury hydroxide, and methoxyethylmercury chloride. The pesticide Panogen was also tested. The results from these studies are summarized.

  5. Selección de una cepa bacteriana y un medio de cultivo industrial para la producción de poli 3-hidroxibutirato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Núñez-Caraballo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un diseño estadístico de experimentos 32 con réplica en cada punto, con el objetivo de seleccionar una cepa y un medio de cultivo para la obtención de Poli 3- hidroxibutirato (PHB. Los resultados indicaron la selección de la cepa de Bacillus subtilis B/ 23-44-4 y un medio de cultivo compuesto por miel final de caña al 1 %, hidrolizado de levadura 1 g/l y sal común 2,5 g/l para la producción de poli-β-hidroxibutirato, con el que se logra la reducción de los costos de producción casi 6 veces por concepto de materias primas, a través de la sustitución de las fuentes de carbono y nitrógeno que hasta ahora se habían empleado.

  6. Isolation and Identification of a High Phytase-Producing Bacillus Strain from Soil%一株土壤源高产植酸酶芽孢杆菌的分离与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔志园; 丁轲; 余祖华; 王天奇; 闫文朝; 刘一尘

    2012-01-01

    对河南省不同地点采集的45份土样,利用分离培养基对产植酸酶芽孢杆菌进行分离和纯化,采用钒钼酸铵法测定其酶活,结合菌落和显微形态、生理生化试验和16SrDNA序列鉴定其种属.鉴定结果表明:从分离的80余株菌中筛选获得一株有较大植酸酶酶活的菌株B.Ld2-C,植酸酶酶活为552U/mL.经鉴定为纺锤形赖氨酸芽孢杆菌(B.sphaericus),能形成芽孢,而且该菌株能够耐受较强的酸、胆盐和高温,为研究其作为饲料添加剂菌种奠定了良好基础.%45 soil samples were collected from different areas in Henan province. More than 80 phytase-producing Bacillus strains were isolated and purified by isolation medium. The phytase activity of Bacillus was detected with vanadium-ammonium molybdate colorimetry, and the high phytase producing Bacillus was screened and identified by the colony, morphology, microscopic morphology in combination with the physiological and biochemical feature and 16S rDNA sequence. The results showed that the strain with the highest phytase activity of 552 U/mL,named B. Ld2-C,is obtained and identified as Bacillus sphaericus(B. spaericus) ,which can form spore and have the ability of anti-acid,ati-bile salt and high temperature. It has laid a good foundation as a probiotics feed additives.

  7. New Bacillus thuringiensis toxin combinations for biological control of lepidopteran larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Jihen; Zghal, Raida Zribi; Jemaà, Mohamed; Azzouz, Hichem; Tounsi, Slim; Jaoua, Samir

    2014-04-01

    Cyt1Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is known by its synergistical activity with B. thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus toxins. It is able to improve dipteran specific toxins activity and can prevent or overcome larval resistance to those proteins. The objective of the current study was to investigate the possible improvement of larvicidal activity of B. thuringiensis kurstaki expressing heterogeneous proteins Cyt1A and P20. cyt1A98 and p20 genes encoding the cytolytic protein (Cyt1A98) and the accessory protein (P20), respectively, were introduced individually and in combination into B. thuringiensis kurstaki strain BNS3. Immunoblot analysis evidenced the expression of these genes in the recombinant strains and hinted that P20 acts as molecular chaperone protecting Cyt1A98 from proteolytic attack in BNS3. The toxicities of recombinant strains were studied and revealed that BNS3pHTp20 exhibited higher activity than that of the negative control (BNS3pHTBlue) toward Ephestia kuehniella, but not toward Spodoptera littoralis. When expressed in combination with P20, Cyt1A98 enhanced BNS3 activity against E. kuehniella and S. littoralis. Thus, Cyt1Aa protein could enhance lepidopteran Cry insecticidal activity and would prevent larval resistance to the most commercialized B. thuringiensis kurstaki toxins.

  8. Radiation induction of multiaberrant cells in Allium cepa L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsokon, N.K.; Rashydov, N.M.; Grodzinsky, D.M.

    2008-07-01

    'Rogue' cells determined by human geneticists as the cells with many chromosome aberrations. The main enigma of this phenomenon is its levels are unexpected higher in many studies. Frequently, these cells emergence in human are linked with radiation or viruses. 'Rogue' cells supposed to be very important in mutagenesis, oncogenesis and even in evolution process. We use plant assay (Allium cepa L.) to analyze the induction of cells with many chromosome aberration of different types. Cytogenetic damage of gamma-irradiation as frequency of multiaberrant cells in the root tip cells of Allium was determined. The empiric numbers of cells with many aberrations were compared with those expected in theoretical distributions (Poisson, geometric and Pascal). The frequency of multiaberrant cells in root tip cells was increased up to 83,33 +- 10,76 % under gamma-irradiation in various doses. Gamma-irradiation induced more multiaberrant cells in A. cepa meristems than expected in theoretical distributions. We supposed dependency of chromosome aberrations origin in the same cell after irradiation. The data obtained elucidate that under gamma-irradiation accumulation of aberrations in aberrant cells are not random, the appearance of one aberration in cell induced the appearance of others in the same cell. (author)

  9. [Chromosomal organization of centromeric Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons in Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, A V; Kirov, I V; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report on the presence of Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons in the centromeric region of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The paper identifies the putative Ty3/gypsy centromeric retrotransposons (CR) among the DNA sequences of A. cepa present in the NCBI database and evaluates their copy number in the genomes of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum. The putative copy number of Ty3/gypsy CR constituted about 26000 for A. cepa and about 7000 for A. fistulosum. The chromosomal organization of Ty3/gypsy CR was analyzed with the help of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The 300-bp PCR products synthesized with genomic DNA of Allium cepa and Allium fistulosum and primers designed for the sequence ET645811 of A. cepa (Genome Survey Sequence database), displaying similarity to the reverse transcriptase of the CR Ty3/gypsy family, served as FISH hybridization probes. On the chromosomes of A. cepa, hybridization signals were mainly localized in the centromeric region. On the chromosomes of A. fistulosum the signals were less expressed in the centromeric regions, though they were abundant in other chromosomal regions. The pathways of evolution in these closely related species are discussed.

  10. Extracción de adn plasmidico de cepas de rhizobium leguminosarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y, Cortés L.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available S.e realizó una comparación simultánea de cuatro métodos para la extracción de ADN plasmídico. De los resultados experimentales se concluyó que únicamente con la técnica de Kronstad, en las condiciones ensayadas y con cultivos de cepas de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv Viceae en fase de crecimiento logarítmica temprana, se visualizaron 3 plásmidos para la cepa SEMIA 335 y un plásmido para la cepa B.

  11. Extracción de adn plasmidico de cepas de rhizobium leguminosarum

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    S.e realizó una comparación simultánea de cuatro métodos para la extracción de ADN plasmídico. De los resultados experimentales se concluyó que únicamente con la técnica de Kronstad, en las condiciones ensayadas y con cultivos de cepas de Rhizobium leguminosarum bv Viceae en fase de crecimiento logarítmica temprana, se visualizaron 3 plásmidos para la cepa SEMIA 335 y un plásmido para la cepa B.

  12. Analysis of self-assembly of S-layer protein slp-B53 from Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Falke, Sven; Drobot, Bjoern; Oberthuer, Dominik; Kikhney, Alexey; Guenther, Tobias; Fahmy, Karim; Svergun, Dmitri; Betzel, Christian; Raff, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The formation of stable and functional surface layers (S-layers) via self-assembly of surface-layer proteins on the cell surface is a dynamic and complex process. S-layers facilitate a number of important biological functions, e.g., providing protection and mediating selective exchange of molecules and thereby functioning as molecular sieves. Furthermore, S-layers selectively bind several metal ions including uranium, palladium, gold, and europium, some of them with high affinity. Most current research on surface layers focuses on investigating crystalline arrays of protein subunits in Archaea and bacteria. In this work, several complementary analytical techniques and methods have been applied to examine structure-function relationships and dynamics for assembly of S-layer protein slp-B53 from Lysinibacillus sphaericus: (1) The secondary structure of the S-layer protein was analyzed by circular dichroism spectroscopy; (2) Small-angle X-ray scattering was applied to gain insights into the three-dimensional structure in solution; (3) The interaction with bivalent cations was followed by differential scanning calorimetry; (4) The dynamics and time-dependent assembly of S-layers were followed by applying dynamic light scattering; (5) The two-dimensional structure of the paracrystalline S-layer lattice was examined by atomic force microscopy. The data obtained provide essential structural insights into the mechanism of S-layer self-assembly, particularly with respect to binding of bivalent cations, i.e., Mg(2+) and Ca(2+). Furthermore, the results obtained highlight potential applications of S-layers in the fields of micromaterials and nanobiotechnology by providing engineered or individual symmetric thin protein layers, e.g., for protective, antimicrobial, or otherwise functionalized surfaces.

  13. Cytogenetic evaluation of gold nanorods using Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshwari, A; Roy, Barsha; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2016-12-01

    The current study reveals the impact of gold nanorods (NRs) capped with CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) or PEG (polyethylene glycol) on Allium cepa. The morphology and surface charge of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were characterized by electron microscopic and zeta potential analyses. The chromosomal aberrations like clumped chromosome, chromosomal break, chromosomal bridge, diagonal anaphase, disturbed metaphase, laggard chromosome, and sticky chromosome were observed in the root tip cells exposed to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/mL) of CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs. We found that both CTAB- and PEG-capped gold NRs were able to induce toxicity in the plant system after 4-h interaction. At a maximum concentration of 10 μg/mL, the mitotic index reduction induced by CTAB-capped gold NRs was 40-fold higher than that induced by PEG-capped gold NRs. The toxicity of gold NRs was further confirmed by lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress analyses. The unbound CTAB also contributed to the toxicity in root tip cells, while PEG alone shows less toxicity to the cells. The vehicle control CTAB contributed to the toxic effects in root tip cells, while PEG alone did not show any toxicity to the cells. The results revealed that even though both the particles have adverse effects on A. cepa, there was a significant difference in the mitotic index and oxidative stress generation in root cells exposed to CTAB-capped gold NRs. Thus, this study concludes that the surface polymerization of gold NRs by PEG can reduce the toxicity of CTAB-capped gold NRs.

  14. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y diversidad genética en cepas de Shigella aisladas en Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez Álvarez, María Margarita

    2007-01-01

    El excesivo e inapropiado uso de los antimicrobianos en el tratamiento de las enfermedades diarreicas agudas, condujo al desarrollo de la resistencia bacteriana. La vigilancia sistemática realizada en Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia Enfermedades Diarreicas Agudas del Instituto “Pedro Kourí” entre 1990-2002, permitió seleccionar 3 350 cepas de Shigella procedentes de todo el país. Estas fueron caracterizadas mediante el serotipaje y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana. Se escogieron 60 cepas mul...

  15. Chromosomal Organization and Sequence Diversity of Genes Encoding Lachrymatory Factor Synthase in Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamura, Noriya; McCallum, John; Khrustaleva, Ludmila; Kenel, Fernand; Pither-Joyce, Meegham; Shono, Jinji; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) catalyzes the formation of lachrymatory factor, one of the most distinctive traits of bulb onion (Allium cepa L.). Therefore, we used LFS as a model for a functional gene in a huge genome, and we examined the chromosomal organization of LFS in A. cepa by multiple approaches. The first-level analysis completed the chromosomal assignment of LFS gene to chromosome 5 of A. cepa via the use of a complete set of A. fistulosum-shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group) monosomic addition lines. Subsequent use of an F(2) mapping population from the interspecific cross A. cepa × A. roylei confirmed the assignment of an LFS locus to this chromosome. Sequence comparison of two BAC clones bearing LFS genes, LFS amplicons from diverse germplasm, and expressed sequences from a doubled haploid line revealed variation consistent with duplicated LFS genes. Furthermore, the BAC-FISH study using the two BAC clones as a probe showed that LFS genes are localized in the proximal region of the long arm of the chromosome. These results suggested that LFS in A. cepa is transcribed from at least two loci and that they are localized on chromosome 5.

  16. Cepas nativas del bacterioneuston marino y su actividad inhibitoria de bacterias ictiopatógenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura científica, las bacterias marinas han sido consideradas con frecuencia como productores de sustancias antibacterianas. En este estudio, se investigó el potencial de actividad antibiótica in vitro de cepas nativas de bacterioneuston marino aisladas de las pozas intermareales de Montemar, Bahía de Valparaiso, Chile. Se aislaron 71 cepas neustónicas antagonistas a Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 11632. Veinticinco de ellas, productoras de sustancias fuertemente inhibitorias, fueron evaluadas por su antagonismo frente a una colección de 15 bacterias ictiopatógenas. Aplicando métodos clásicos para bacterias marinas, se caracterizaron fenotípicamente orientados a la identificación. Los resultados de antibiosis indican que la totalidad cle las ictiopatógenas en prueba son susceptibles a la actividad inhibitoria de las cepas neustónicas, siendo V anguillarum NCMB 2133, V ordalii 84/2559 y V tubiashii EX1 las más sensibles. Entre las cepas aisladas del neuston se identificaron miembros de los géneros Vibrio spp. (28%, Flavobacterium spp. (12%, Alteromonas-Marinomonas (12%, Pseudomonas spp (8% y Micrococcus spp, (4%. Nueve cepas (36% no fueron identificadas. Los resultados de actividades inhibitorias frente a ictiopatógenos sugieren que dichas cepas o sus productos pudieran ser útiles en actividades de cultivos intensivos de maricultura de peces, moluscos y crustáceos.

  17. Compatibilidad entre nueve cepas de Biomphalaria glabrata de áreas endémicas y no endémicas y una cepa de Schistosoma mansoni venezolanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Luz A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se infectaron experimentalmente 9 lotes de 32 caracoles B. glabrata (de 5 a 7mm de diámetro con miracidios de la cepa C5 de Schistosoma mansoni a razón de 5 miracidios por caracol, pertenecientes a las siguientes cepas: En el área endémica de transmisión de Esquistosomiasis mansoni a Sector Puerta Negra, Lago Valencia, b Cagua c Ingenio Bolívar (Estado Aragua d Mariara e Caserío El 25 f Güigüe (Estado Carabobo. Fuera del área endémica de transmisión g Anzoátegui (Estado Lara, h Chabasquén (Estado Portuguesa, i Sector La Elvira, Caripe (Estado Monagas. El período prepatente intramolusco, osciló entre 23 y 25 días, para las 9 cepas evaluadas. La duración total de la infección fue muy variable desde 20 días para la cepa Chabasquén, hasta 93 días para la de Güigüe.La producción total promedio de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión varió desde X = 74,4 para la cepa de Mariara, hasta X = 591,7 para la cepa de Chabasquén. Se evidenció la existencia de diferencias estadísticamente significativas (H = 97,4, P < 0,05 en la producción total de cercarias al tercer día de iniciada la emisión, detectándose diferencias estadísticamente significativas para casi todas las 36 combinaciones, excepto para las cuatro siguientes: Mariara/Ingenio Bolívar, Cagua/Caserío El 25, Lago de Valencia/Güigüe y Güigüe/Caripe.En lo que respecta al porcentaje de caracoles que presentaron cura espontánea, los valores mas elevados se obtuvieron en las cepas del Lago de Valencia (88,8%, Cagua (85,2%, Chabasquén (82,6%, Caripe (82,6% y Anzoátegui (80%. Mientras que el porcentaje mas bajo se obtuvo para la cepa de Güigüe (21,4%.

  18. Identification and characterization of a novel marine Bacillus cereus for mosquito control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poopathi, Subbiah; Mani, C; Thirugnanasambantham, K; Praba, V Lakshmi; Ahangar, Niyaz Ahmad; Balagangadharan, K

    2014-01-01

    Entomopathogenic bacteria to control mosquitoes are a promising environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides. In the present study, a novel mosquitocidal bacterium was isolated from marine soil collected from east coastal areas at Pondicherry (India). 16S rRNA gene sequence alignment depicted that this isolate belonged to Bacillus cereus VCRC-B520 (NCBI: KC-119192). Biochemical studies on bacterial growth, biomass, and toxin production have revealed that this strain could possibly be helpful in the production of a biopesticide in mosquito control. Toxicity assay with B. cereus against mosquito larvae has shown that the filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, is more susceptible than the other two species (Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti). The LC50 and LC90 values for C. quinquefasciatus were 0.30 and 2.21 mg/L, respectively. No effect of B. cereus was found on nontargeted organisms. SDS-PAGE analysis and protein purification result from the cell mass of B. cereus have shown that a well-perceptible polypeptide was the dependable factor (85 kDa) for mosquitocidal action. Protein characterization (M/S MALDI-TOF) has shown that it is an endotoxin-specific insecticidal protein, namely "Cry4Aa". Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequence from this marine isolate have revealed the presence of homology among closely related Bacillus strains. Therefore, considerable interest has been shown on the identification of a potential mosquitocidal bacterium from marine environment (B. cereus), which was not reported earlier in view of the current scenario of the rapid development of resistance to Bacillus sphaericus in mosquito vector control program.

  19. Frequência de Bacillus spp. em solos de diferentes sistemas de cultivo de arroz irrigado em Cachoeirinha, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lucia Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacilos entomopatogênicos são bactérias observadas principalmente no solo, consideradas importantes agentes no controle biológico de doenças e pragas da agricultura. No entanto, existem poucos estudos que relatam a influência das práticas agrícolas nas populações de Bacillus spp. Essa pesquisa objetivou avaliar a freqüência de bactérias entomopatogênicas pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus obtidas de amostras de solo coletadas no ano agrícola de 2006/2007 de diferentes sistemas de cultivo de arroz irrigado da EEA-IRGA, Cachoeirinha (RS. Foram analisadas 36 amostras de solos, oriundas de três sistemas de plantio de arroz irrigado, pré-germinado (SPG, convencional (SPC, plantio direto (SPD e de uma área sem plantio de arroz (C. Para tanto, um grama de solo foi diluído, pasteurizado e inoculado em Ágar Nutriente (AN, incubado a 30 °C, por 24 horas. Todas as unidades formadoras de colônias bacterianas (UFC foram repicadas em meios seletivos e as espécies, B. thuringiensis, B. sphaericus e B. cereus, foram identificadas por microscopia de contraste de fase. Os resultados revelaram que não houve diferença significativa entre os sistemas de plantio analisados. Por outro lado, a frequência de Bacillus spp. variou entre as diferentes fases do plantio de arroz nos períodos amostrados. A irrigação foi o principal fator que contribuiu para a variação da frequência dos Bacillus em sistemas de plantio de arroz irrigado da EEA-IRGA.

  20. Potencial probiótico de cepas nativas para uso como aditivos en la alimentación avícola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lara Mantilla

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Título en ingles: Probiotic potential of native strains, for as feed additives for poultry Resumen: Se evaluó in vitro el potencial probiótico de cepas nativas aisladas de las heces de pollos asilvestrados (Gallus gallus pertenecientes a los géneros Lactobacillus sp, Bacillus sp y levaduras tipo saccharomyces sp; se determinó la actividad probiótica mediante pruebas de resistencia al ácido (pH  3, 4, 5, 6, 7, sales de bilis (0,05, 0,1, 0,15, 0.3 %, tolerancia al NaCl (2, 4, 7, 10 %, actividad antagónica (Salmonella sp, E. coli, determinación del tipo de fermentación, crecimiento a temperaturas (28,37,43°C y capacidad de crecimiento. Las cepas con mayor tolerancia se identificaron a través de pruebas bioquímicas y fermentación de carbohidratos. Como resultado se observó que tres microorganismos: Saccharomyces sp. (3, Bacillus sp. (7 y Lactobacillus sp. (14 poseen propiedades probióticas. Palabras claves: Gallus gallus; Saccharomyces sp.;  Bacillus sp.; Lactobacillus sp.; aditivos  microbianos. Abstract: Was evaluated in vitro the probiotic potential of native strains isolated from feces of wild chickens (Gallus gallus belonging to the genera Lactobacillus sp., Bacillus sp. and

  1. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation.

  2. 76 FR 14289 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption From the... regulation extends a temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus... permissible level for residues of Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn. The temporary...

  3. 75 FR 34040 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 174 Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab Protein in Corn; Temporary Exemption from the... regulation establishes a temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus... Bacillus thuringiensis eCry3.1Ab protein in corn under the FFDCA. The temporary tolerance exemption...

  4. Caracterización de tres cepas bacterianas capaces de fijar nitrógeno y biodegradar hidrocarburos aisladas de un suelo de la Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Acuña

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar tres microorganismos capaces de biodegradar hidrocarburos en ausencia de nitrógeno aislados a partir de un suelo de la Patagonia con una larga historia de contaminación por petróleo y sus derivados. Para ello se aislaron tres cepas bacterianas de un suelo patagónico con baja concentración de nitrógeno y contaminado con hidrocarburos. Estos fueron identificados por ARNr 16S y ácidos grasos de membrana. También se estudiaron sus perfiles de biodegradación de hidrocarburos en presencia y en ausencia de nitrógeno con hidrocarburos alifáticos, cíclicos, aromáticos y poliaromáticos. La capacidad de realizar fijación biológica de nitrógeno se estudió por reducción de acetileno y detección del gen nifD. Por otro lado, se realizó un estudio por desarrollo en cultivo líquido para conocer la adaptación a diferentes pH, entre 5 y 9, temperatura, de 15 a 65 °C, y concentraciones crecientes de NaCl entre 0 y 3M. Los microorganismos aislados correspondieron a los géneros Pseudomonas, Bacillus y Gordonia, todos con capacidad de fijar nitrógeno. Las cepas biodegradaron casi la totalidad de los hidrocarburos ensayados en presencia y ausencia de nitrógeno y tuvieron una buena adaptación a los cambios de pH, temperatura y concentración de NaCl, demostrando una buena adaptación a los principales factores de estrés en los suelos patagónicos.

  5. Microstructure characterization of onion (A.cepa) peels and thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abodunrin, T.; Boyo, A.; Usikalu, M.; Obafemi, L.; Oladapo, O.; Kotsedi, L.; Yenus, Z.; Maaza, M.

    2017-03-01

    A.cepa peels are obtained from mature onion bulbs. Because of the continuous need for energy, alternative avenues for producing energy are gaining importance. The motivation for this work is based on an urgent need to source energy from readily available waste materials like domestic onion peels. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) fabricated via doctor blade method and high temperature sintering from waste (onion peels) are investigated for their ability to convert solar to electrical energy. The charge carriers were revealed under phytochemical screening. Functional groups of compounds present in A.cepa peel were analyzed with Fourier transform in infrared (FTIR). The influence of different electrolyte sensitizer is observed on the DSSCs under standard air mass conditions of 1.5 AM. The microstructure properties of these A.cepa DSSCs were explored using scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), x-ray diffraction and Fluorecence spectroscopy (XRF). The interfacial boundary between A.cepa dye, TiO2 framework of TiO2 and indium doped tin oxide (ITO) reveals several prominent anatase and rutile peaks. Photoelectric results, revealed dye-sensitized solar cells with a maximum power output of 126 W and incident photon to conversion energy (IPCE) of 0.13%.This work has established that A.cepa peels can be used as a source of micro-energy generation.

  6. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A. sativum ), leek ( A. porrum ) and bunching onion ( A. fistulosum ) are very important vegetable crops on a

  7. Biodegradación de DDT por dos cepas nativas de hongos de la podredumbre blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmel Domínguez

    2010-01-01

    Trametes maxima MUCL 44155, las cuales producen elevados niveles de las enzimas lacasa y MnP en el medio Kimura suplementado con diferentes concentraciones de DDT (5, 10 and 15 mg.L-1. El hecho de que nuestras cepas excreten estas enzimas es un resultado importante dado que las mismas presentan una estrecha relación con la degradación de DDT. La cromatografía gaseosa realizada a las muestras de DDT tratadas con ambas cepas confirmó la transformación del DDT y la aparición de productos de degradación en el tratamiento con la cepa B-18.

  8. Genotoxicity of five food preservatives tested on root tips of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Sifa

    2007-01-10

    The effects of the food preservatives sodium benzoate (SB), boric acid (BA), citric acid (CA), potassium citrate (PC) and sodium citrate (SC) have been studied on root tips of Allium cepa L. Roots of A. cepa were treated with a series of concentrations, ranging from 20 to 100 ppm for 5, 10 and 20 h. The results indicate that these food preservatives reduced mitotic division in A. cepa compared with the respective control. Mitotic index values were generally decreased with increasing concentrations and longer treatment times. Additionally, variations in the percentage of mitotic stages were observed. The total percentage of aberrations generally increased with increasing concentrations of these chemicals and the longer period of treatment. Different abnormal mitotic figures were observed in all mitotic phases. Among these abnormalities were anaphase bridges, C-mitosis, micronuclei, lagging, stickiness, breaks and unequal distribution.

  9. Evaluación en modelos animales de cepas vivas atenuadas de vibrio cholerae O139

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talena Ledón

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available CRC3222 y CRC3241 son mutantes mshA derivados de una cepa salvaje de Vibrio cholerae O139, estos fueron obtenidos mediante una serie de modificaciones genéticas que incluyó la deleción de los genes del fago CTXfi. Dichos clones además están marcados con el gen heterólogo celA, el cual se insertó en el locus de hapA. Estudios previos han demostrado que estas cepas poseen características adecuadas para ser empleadas como vacunas vivas contra cólera; la virulencia y capacidad colonizadora de CRC3222 y CRC3241 fueron estudiadas en el modelo de ratón lactante. En este trabajo se evalúa su desempeño en el modelo de conejo adulto, el cual se utilizó para estudiar el potencial inmunogénico de estas cepas. Luego de la inoculación intraduodenal con una simple dosis de 109 UFC de CRC3222, CRC3241 y sus cepas parentales, se determinó tanto el título de anticuerpos IgG anti-LPS O139, como el de anticuerpos con actividad vibriocida presentes en el suero de los conejos inmunizados. Estos estudios indicaron que ambas cepas generaron una buena respuesta inmune, ya que se detectó un incremento de más de cuatro veces en los títulos de anticuerpos bactericidas de todos los conejos vacunados, con relación al suero pre-inmune. No se detectaron diferencias significativas en la respuesta de los mutantes mshA, con relación a sus cepas parentales, independientemente de su fenotipo de motilidad. Este experimento demostró que CRC3222 y CRC3241 son potenciales candidatos vacunales contra la infección con Vibrio cholerae O139.

  10. Cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on root cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Mamta; Khan, S Sudheer; Pakrashi, Sunandan; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2011-06-15

    Increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) in consumer products may enhance its release into the environment. Phytotoxicity study is important to understand its possible environmental impact. Allium cepa (Onion bulb) is the best model organism to study genetic toxicology of nanoparticles. Here we have reported cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of ZnO NPs on the root cells of A. cepa. The effects of ZnO NPs on the mitotic index (MI), micronuclei index (MN index), chromosomal aberration index, and lipid peroxidation were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with the dispersions of ZnO NPs at four different concentrations (25, 50, 75, and 100 μg ml(-1)). With the increasing concentrations of ZnO NPs MI decreased with the increase of pycnotic cells, on the other hand MN and chromosomal aberration index increased. The frequency of micronucleated cells was higher in ZnO NPs treated cells as compared to control (deionized distilled water). The number of cells in each mitotic phase changed upon ZnO NPs treatment. The effect of ZnO NPs on lipid peroxidation as examined by measuring TBARS concentration was evident at all the concentrations compared to bulk ZnO. The TEM image showed internalization of ZnO NPs like particles. SEM image of treated A. cepa demonstrated that the internalized nanoparticles agglomerated depending on the physico-chemical environment inside the cell. Our results demonstrated that ZnO NPs can be a clastogenic/genotoxic and cytotoxic agent. In conclusion, the A. cepa cytogenetic test can be used for the genotoxicity monitoring of novel nanomaterials like ZnO NPs, which is used in many consumer products.

  11. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  12. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...

  13. Characterization of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitary microorganism that may cause food borne disease. Pathogenicity, however, depends on various characteristics such as the ability to form (entero)-toxin(s) that can not be detected by microbiological methods. Further characterization of pathogenic properties is not only

  14. Biodiversity in Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pielaat A; Fricker M; Nauta MJ; Leusden FM van; MGB

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have been performed by different partners to identify variability in properties of Bacillus cereus strains that contribute to the extent of their virulence as part of an EU project. To this end, 100 B. cereus strains were selected and screened for biological properties, such as toxin pro

  15. Smallpox and pan-Orthodox Virus Detection by Real-Time 3’-Minor Groove Binder TaqMan Assays Oil the Roche LightCycler and the Cepheid Smart Cycler Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Bacillus anthracis BA0068 Ames Sterne SPS 97.13.213 Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus macerans Bacillus ...megaterium Bacillus polymyxa Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus stearothermophilus Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus popilliae...HA-MGB assay presented here has been used to monitor the viral load in monkey blood and tissues after infection with

  16. Aislamiento y caracterización de cepas de Bordetella bronchiseptica de origen canino

    OpenAIRE

    Graciela Molina González; María Eugenia Rosales; Gabriela Bárcenas Morales; Juan Antonio Montaraz Crespo

    2006-01-01

    Se aislaron, identifi caron y caracterizaron cepas de Bordetella bronchiseptica de origen canino. Con ese propósito se tomaron exudados nasales de perros con semiótica de afecciones respiratorias y clínicamente sanos, con ayuda de hisopos impregnados con medio infusión cerebro-corazón. Éstos se cultivaron en agar Mac Conkey incubando a 37°C durante 48 h; las colonias presuntivas de Bordetella bronchiseptica se identifi caron por movilidad, tinción de Gram y pruebas bioquímicas. Las cepas se c...

  17. Configuration of nucleolarDNA in situ in nucleolus ofAllium cepa cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The location and configuration of nucleolar DNA have not beendetermined for a long time. In this paper, we have observed the nucleolar ultrastructure and the character of nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells by conventional electron microscopy and the cytochemical NAMA-Ur DNA specific staining method. Furthermore, we have properly improved the NAMA-Ur method so as to analyze the location and configuration of nucleolar DNA in situ. Our results indicated that the nucleolar DNA in Allium cepa cells is mainly located at the border between fibrillar centers and dense fibrillar component, especially distributed in the configuration of encircling the fibrillar centers.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. as photosensitizer of dye-sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutikno, Afrian, Noverdi; Supriadi, Putra, Ngurah Made Dharma

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and characterization of Allium cepa L. used as natural pigment for natural dye sensitizer of solar cell has successfully done and anthocyanin is extracted. Anthocynin is color pigment of plant which has characteristic absorption spectrum of photon and excites electrons up to pigment molecules. As the anthocyanin absorbed light increases the excited electrons increase as well. The generated current also increases and it leads to the efficiency increase. The energy conversion efficiency of the cells sensitized with dye of Allium cepa L. was 3,045 x 10-4%. A simple technique was taken to fabricate dye sensitizer solar cell is spincoating.

  19. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Alkaliphilic Bacillus Strains, Bacillus wakoensis JCM 9140T, Bacillus akibai JCM 9157T, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus JCM 9152T

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; OSHIDA, Yumi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the type strains of three cellulolytic or hemicellulolytic alkaliphilic Bacillus species: Bacillus wakoensis, Bacillus akibai, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus. The genome information for these three strains will be useful for studies of alkaliphilic Bacillus species, their evolution, and biotechnological applications for their enzymes.

  20. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; Reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617**T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618**T. Compara...

  1. Nano-Mechanical Properties of Heat Inactivated Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    NANO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT INACTIVATED BACILLUS ANTHRACIS AND BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ...GAP/ENP/08-M07 NANO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT INACTIVATED BACILLUS ANTHRACIS AND BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SPORES THESIS...AFIT/GAP/ENP/08-M07 NANO-MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HEAT INACTIVATED BACILLUS ANTHRACIS AND BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS SPORES Jessica

  2. Interactions of Bacillus spp. and plants--with special reference to induced systemic resistance (ISR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Devendra K; Johri, Bhavdish N

    2009-01-01

    Biological control of soil-borne pathogens comprises the decrease of inoculum or of the disease producing activity of a pathogen through one or more mechanisms. Interest in biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens has increased considerably in the last few decades, because it may provide control of diseases that cannot or only partly be managed by other control strategies. Recent advances in microbial and molecular techniques have significantly contributed to new insights in underlying mechanisms by which introduced bacteria function. Colonization of plant roots is an essential step for both soil-borne pathogenic and beneficial rhizobacteria. Colonization patterns showed that rhizobacteria act as biocontrol agents or as growth-promoting bacteria form microcolonies or biofilms at preferred sites of root exudation. Such microcolonies are sites for bacteria to communicate with each other (quorum sensing) and to act in a coordinated manner. Elicitation of induced systemic resistance (ISR) by plant-associated bacteria was initially demonstrated using Pseudomonas spp. and other Gram-negative bacteria. Several strains of the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, B. pasteurii, B. cereus, B. pumilus, B. mycoides, and B. sphaericus elicit significant reductions in the incidence or severity of various diseases on a diversity of hosts. Elicitation of ISR by these strains has been demonstrated in greenhouse or field trials on tomato, bell pepper, muskmelon, watermelon, sugar beet, tobacco, Arabidopsis sp., cucumber, loblolly pine, and two tropical crops (long cayenne pepper and green kuang futsoi). Protection resulting from ISR elicited by Bacillus spp. has been reported against leaf-spotting fungal and bacterial pathogens, systemic viruses, a crown-rotting fungal pathogen, root-knot nematodes, and a stem-blight fungal pathogen as well as damping-off, blue mold, and late blight diseases. This progress will lead to a more efficient use of these strains which

  3. 76 FR 57034 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...: Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis strain BMP 144 solids, spores and insecticidal toxins and Bacillus sphaericus. Proposed Use: Standing waters to control mosquitos. Contact: Kathleen...

  4. Evaluación del antagonismo de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus subtilis contra tres patógenos del ajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Astorga-Quirós

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La producción y calidad del cultivo del ajo criollo (Allium sativum se ven limitadas por diversas enfermedades de origen fungoso y bacterial, que llevan al productor a aplicar estrategias de control químico y en algunos casos abandonar la actividad por un incremento en las pérdidas. El control biológico es una estrategia útil para combatir este tipo de microorganismos. El objetivo de esta investigación consistió en evaluar el antagonismo in vitro de Trichoderma sp. y Bacillus subtilis contra tres de los principales patógenos del ajo: Sclerotium cepivorum, Penicillium sp. y Pseudomonas marginalis. Las especies mencionadas se aislaron e identificaron con pruebas bioquímicas y claves taxonómicas respectivamente y se determinó su actividad antagónica y efecto inhibitorio utilizando el crecimiento en platos duales. La cepa de B. subtilis mostró un potencial con valores bajos de PICR: 14,087 ante S. cepivorum y 3,328 ante Penicillium sp., por lo que se clasifica como un mal biocontrolador. Por su parte, Trichoderma presentó un potencial muy alto, con valores de PICR de 40,210 frente a S. cepivorum y de 45,034 ante Penicillium sp., lo que indica que es un muy buen controlador. Los resultados apoyan el potencial de las cepas de Trichoderma sp. como agentes de control biológico frente a la pudrición causada por Penicillium del ajo, la bacteriosis por P. marginalis y la pudrición blanca por S. cepivorum. No así Bacillus subtilis, pues la cepa aislada demostró poco potencial como biocontrolador.

  5. Indicadores fisiológicos de la respuesta al estrés en cepas Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcholeras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana García

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El fenómeno de tolerancia cruzada en levaduras se ha propuesto como indicador fisiológico útil en estudios de selección de cepas S. cerevisiae para la obtención de etanol. Se evalúa para cinco cepas de esta especie la relación entre resistencia a H2O2 3,2 M y a presiones hidrostáticas de 200 MPa durante 30 minutos y la actividad enzimática alcohol deshidrogenasa (ADH en presencia de etanol y glucosa. Solo el mutante auxótrofo XA3-1 no muestra un crecimiento apreciable ante el estrés oxidativo. Su cepa salvaje A3 es la única capaz de crecer hasta la mayor dilución a altas presiones hidrostáticas. Las cepas CM y 373 muestran patrones similares de actividad ADH en presencia de glucosa o etanol, mientras que las cepas A3 y su mutante presentan niveles de ADH superiores en presencia de 5% (v/v de etanol. Los resultados indican una estrecha vinculación entre la resistencia a estreses no necesariamente propios de la fermentación alcohólica y el comportamiento fermentativo en cepas S. cerevisiae, lo cual abre la posibilidad de emplear estos criterios para estudios de selección de cepas alcoholeras dirigidos a futuras estrategias de mejoramiento genético.

  6. Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation of Allium cepa L.: the production of transgenic onions and shallots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Khrustaleva, L.I.; Henken, G.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Kik, C.; Krens, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation protocol for onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) which can be used year-round. It is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, with three-week old callus, induced from mature zygotic embryos, as target tissue. For the development

  7. Corn gluten meal as an alternative organic preemergence herbicide for onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas and corn gluten meal (CGM) is an alternative organic preemergence herbicide. Successful onion production is dependent on reliable weed control because of the onion’s slow growth rate, short height, non-branchin...

  8. Caracterização da virulência da cepa de Escherichia coli - BK99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Benito Guimarães de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar a patogenicidade e resistência a antimicrobianos da cepa de E. coli BK99, foram utilizados alguns testes: aglutinação em lâmina para detecção da fímbria F5, produção de STa, ensaios para hemolisinas e colicinas, patogenicidade em leitões e antibiograma. A cepa BK99 apresentou o seguinte perfil: F1+, F5+, STa+, Col V+, Hly-, ST R, KA R, NO R, TT R SF R e foi capaz de provocar a doença clínica e morte em leitões inoculados; também foi possível o resgate dessa cepa de fezes diarréicas e do conteúdo intestinal dos leitões revelando, assim, alto índice de recuperação de colônias portadoras da fímbria F5+. Os resultados permitem concluir que a cepa de E. coli BK99 é produtora de fatores de virulência e reproduz experimentalmente a colibacilose suína neonatal.

  9. Hazardous phytotoxic nature of cobalt and zinc oxide nanoparticles assessed using Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodake, Gajanan; Seo, Yeong Deuk; Lee, Dae Sung

    2011-02-15

    The increasing use of nanotechnology requires the clarification of the behavior and the effects of nanoparticles (NPs) as they are released into the environment. This study was to investigate the phytotoxicity of cobalt and zinc oxide NPs using the roots of Allium cepa (onion bulbs) as an indicator organism. The effects of cobalt and zinc oxide NPs on the root elongation, root morphology, and cell morphology of a plant, as well as their adsorption potential, were determined through the hydroponic culturing of A. cepa. A. cepa roots were treated with dispersions of the cobalt and zinc oxide NPs having three different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μg ml(-1)). With increasing concentrations of the NPs, the elongation of the roots was severely inhibited by both the cobalt and the zinc oxide NPs as compared to that in the control plant (untreated A. cepa roots). Massive adsorption of cobalt oxide NPs into the root system was responsible for the phytotoxicity. Zinc oxide NPs caused damage because of their severe accumulation in both the cellular and the chromosomal modules, thus signifying their highly hazardous phytotoxic nature.

  10. Two new furostanol saponins from the seeds of Allium cepa L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Yuan; Teng Fei Ji; Ai Guo Wang; Jian Bo Yang; Ya Lun Su

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis of the n-BuOH extract from the seeds of Allium cepa L.led to isolation of four furostanol saponins,two of which were new compounds,named ceparoside A (1a) and ceparoside B (2a).The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated through a combination of NMR,MS spectral data and chemical analysis.

  11. Factors influencing induction, propagation and regeneration of mature zygotic embryo-derived callus from Allium cepa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study on the effects of subspecies, cultivar, basal medium, sucrose concentration and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentration on callus induction, propagation and subsequent plant regeneration in Allium cepa has been carried out. Mature zygotic embryos from two onion (cvs. Sturon a

  12. Biased chloroplast and mitochondrial transmission in somatic hybrids of Allium ampeloprasum L. and Allium cepa L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiteveld, J.; Kassies, W.; Geels, R.; Lookeren Campagne, van M.M.; Jacobsen, E.; Creemers-Molenaar, J.

    1998-01-01

    Somatic hybrid plants, produced by symmetric protoplast fusion between leek (Allium ampeloprasum) and cytoplasmic male sterile onion (Allium cepa), were analysed for their organelle composition. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analyses were performed using PCR amplification of the V7 region of the mitocho

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Bacillus_subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=214 ...

  14. Identificación de la cepa vacunal Brucella abortus S19 en muestras de leche de vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Luary Carolina Martínez Chavarría; Antonio Verdugo Rodríguez; Rigoberto Hernández Castro

    2006-01-01

    La brucelosis es una enfermedad infectocontagiosa de origen bacteriano que afecta tanto al humano como a diferentes especies animales domésticas y silvestres. En la década pasada, la vacuna que se usaba ampliamente en los bovinos era la cepa vacunal B. abortus S19, que tiene una deleción en dos de los genes del operón ery que participa en el catabolismo del eritritol. En México, desde 1997 se aprobó la cepa B. abortus RB51 como vacuna para el ganado. Esta cepa presenta una secuencia de inserc...

  15. Efectividad de la vacuna VA-MENGOC-BC® contra cepas heterólogas de meningococo B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Ochoa-Azze

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available La efectividad de las vacunas de vesículas de membrana externa de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B ha sido cuestionada por algunos investigadores, limitándola a la cepa vacunal. VA-MENGOC-BC® es una vacuna antimeningocócica basada en dicha tecnología. Presentamos un metaanálisis de estudios realizados en diferentes contextos epidemiológicos, evaluando su efectividad contra cepas heterólogas de meningococo B en varios grupos de edades. Se demuestra que la vacuna es efectiva contra cepas homólogas, heterólogas y de diferentes complejos clonales.

  16. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de Escherichia coli obtenidas de muestras de heces de cerdos destinados a Consumo Humano

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Enver; Falcon, Néstor; Flores, Cesar; Rebatta, Mónica; Guevara, José; Ramos, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli es la especie bacteriana más común de la flora intestinal. La infección de cerdos por parte de cepas de E. coli es un problema frecuente, por lo tanto el conocimiento sobre la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de estas cepas es importante, debido a que pueden llegar a infectar al ser humano produciendo enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos de difícil tratamiento. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la sensibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de E. coli aisladas de cerd...

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis: legado para el siglo XXI Bacillus thuringiensis: the legacy to the XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orduz S.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Los insecticidas basados en la bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis son el principal renglón productivo del mercado mundial de biopesticidas. La investigación dedicada a esta área, promovida por la urgente necesidad de resolver problemas agrícolas y de salud pública, ha dado lugar a un conocimiento exhaustivo de su biología. La diversidad de cepas diferentes de B. thuringiensis ha permitido desarrollar productos principalmente, pero no exclusivamente, para el control de insectos. Con los nuevos desarrollos de la biología molecular, se ha logrado comprender su mecanismo de acción a nivel molecular y también se ha logrado extender sus capacidades entomopatógenas. Como producto de su amplio uso en muchos países, se han presentado casos de resistencia en poblaciones de insectos susceptibles. Con esta revisión se pretende elaborar un contexto teórico del estado actual de la investigación sobre B. thuringiensis, describiendo brevemente el conocimiento sobre esta bacteria, haciendo hincapié en los fenómenos biológicos que subyacen su actividad tóxica y la problemática que se avecina en el próximo siglo con los fenómenos de resistencia cada vez más comunes, todo esto analizado desde una perspectiva biotecnológica.

    Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides are the main production line of the biopesticides world market. The research devoted to this area, promoted by the necessity to solve problems in agriculture and public health has resulted in an exhaustive knowledge of its biology. The diversity of the B. thuringiensis strains has permitted to develop several products mainly, but not exclusively, for insect control. With the new developments in the field of molecular biology, it has been possible to understand the molecular basis of the mode of action and to increase the range of activity as well. As a result

  18. Genome analysis shows Bacillus axarquiensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mojavensis; reclassification of Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans as heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus axarquiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Bowman, Michael J; Schisler, David A; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis were previously reported to be later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis, based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced draft genomes of Bacillus axarquiensis NRRL B-41617T and Bacillus malacitensis NRRL B-41618T. Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that while Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis are synonymous with each other, they are not synonymous with Bacillus mojavensis. In addition, a draft genome was completed for Brevibacterium halotolerans, a strain long suspected of being a Bacillus subtilis group member based on 16S rRNA similarities (99.8 % with Bacillus mojavensis). Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations showed that Brevibacterium halotolerans is synonymous with Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis. The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the three conspecific strains were all greater than 92 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. While the pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons of the three conspecific strains with Bacillus mojavensis were all less than 65 %. The combined results of our genotype and phenotype studies showed that Bacillus axarquiensis, Bacillus malacitensis and Brevibacterium halotolerans are conspecific and distinct from Bacillus mojavensis. Because the valid publication of the name Bacillus axarquiensis predates the publication of the name Bacillus malacitensis, we propose that Bacillus malacitensis be reclassified as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. In addition, we propose to reclassify Brevibacterium halotolerans as a synonym of Bacillus axarquiensis. An amended description of Bacillus axarquiensis is provided.

  19. Marcadores fenotípicos de atenuación en cepas de virus Junín recuperadas de individuos vacunados con la cepa Junín Candid#1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela S. Gamboa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La Fiebre Hemorrágica Argentina es una enfermedad producida por el virus Junín. Para la prevención de esta enfermedad se obtuvo una vacuna efectiva denominada Candid#1. Durante un ensayo clínico realizado en el INEVH, dos cepas de virus Junín fueron aisladas de sangre periférica de dos voluntarios mediante co-cultivo de células mononucleares. El objetivo de este trabajo fue comparar las características fenotípicas de atenuación de esas dos cepas recuperadas de humanos con las de la vacuna Candid#1 utilizando los indicadores de atenuación desarrollados por Contigiani y Sabattini en 1977. A tal fin se midieron los índices de letalidad, infección y protección en cobayos y ratones de diferentes edades. Las tres cepas investigadas resultaron letales para ratones recién nacidos pero no para ratones de 10 a 12 días, ratones adultos ni cobayos, aun a la más baja dilución inoculada. Los cobayos inoculados con las cepas recuperadas de humanos y con la cepa Candid#1 no presentaron síntomas de enfermedad y mostraron estar protegidos cuando fueron desafiados con una cepa patógena. Los índices de infección y de protección hallados indican que estas cepas poseen elevada capacidad infectante y protectora en las especies animales aquí estudiadas. Estos resultados demuestran que las cepas de virus Junín aisladas de voluntarios inmunizados con Candid#1 mantienen el mismo fenotipo atenuado de la vacuna Candid#1 después de un pasaje por humanos.

  20. Febre purpúrica brasileira: caracterização rápida das cepas invasoras de Haemophilus aegyptius

    OpenAIRE

    Brandileone,M. C. C.; Vieira,V. S. D.; M.L.C. Tondella; Sacchi, C T; I.M. Landgraf; R.C. Zanella; Bibb, W F; K. Irino

    1989-01-01

    Cepas de H. aegyptius isoladas em surtos de Febre Purpúrica Brasileira (FPB) no Brasil, foram caracterizadas pelo método de aglutinação em lâmina utilizando um anti-soro produzido com cepa de H. aegyptius isolada de cultura de sangue de paciente com FPB. Através desse método foi possível identificar cepas de H. aegyptius responsáveis por surtos de conjuntivite com características antigênicas iguais às cepas isoladas de FPB. A sensibilidade e especificidade da soroaglutinação em lâmina foi de ...

  1. The Cytogenetic Effects of Sodium Metabisulfite, a Food Preservative in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    RENCÜZOĞULLARI, Eyyüp

    2001-01-01

    The effects of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) on mitosis were investigated in Allium cepa L. The roots of A. cepa were treated with SMB concentrations of 7.5 mg/lt, 15 mg/lt and 30 mg/lt for 10- and 20-hour treatment periods. SMB significantly decreased the mitotic index (MI) at all concentrations and treatment periods. While the decreasing of the MI was dose-dependent at 10 hours treatment time, SMB increased the mitotic abnormalities dose dependently.

  2. Determinación de factores de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas spp., aisladas a partir de pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Suárez Q.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Investigar la incidencia de cinco marcadores fenotípicos de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas aisladas a partir de muestras de pescado expendido en Pamplona, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 47 cepas identificadas previamente. Se evaluaron: actividad hemolítica en agar sangre, suplementado con 5% de eritrocitos de cordero y agar sangre suplementado con 5% eritrocitos de sangre humana; actividad proteolítica en agar Mueller-Hinton suplementado al 10% (p/v con leche descremada, actividad lipolítica en agar tributirina; actividad desoxirribonucleasas en agar DNAsa. Resultados. Se encontró que las cepas de A. hydrophila, A. veronii GH 8, A. jandaei, A. veronii GH 10 y A. eucrenophila, demostraron capacidad hemolítica, proteolítica, lipolítica y nucleasa. Todas las cepas de A. popoffii fueron β-hemolíticas en agar sangre humana, proteolíticas y con actividad DNAsa. Las cepas de A. caviae, coincidieron en ser hemolíticas y lipolitícas, mientras que la cepa de A. schubertii, manifestó la presencia de actividad hemolítica y DNAsa. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de los factores de virulencia en las cepas estudiadas fue: el 87% demostraron producción de nucleasas; el 83% fueron β-hemolíticas sobre eritrocitos humanos; el 68% expresaron producción de lipasas, el 63% fueron proteolíticas y el 53% resultaron ser hemolíticas sobre eritrocitos de cordero, indicando estos datos el posible potencial patógeno de las cepas. Estos resultados mostraron que el pescado comercializado en Pamplona, puede ser una fuente importante de especies de Aeromonas que expresan factores asociados a la virulencia para el hombre.

  3. Ethanolic extract of Allium cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Sudeep; Pal, Savita; Maurya, Rakesh; Srivastava, Arvind K

    2015-02-01

    The present work was undertaken to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of the standardized ethanolic extract of Allium cepa (onion) on the glucose transport for controlling diabetes mellitus. A. cepa stimulates glucose uptake by the rat skeletal muscle cells (L6 myotubes) in both time- and dose-dependent manners. This effect was shown to be mediated by the increased translocation of glucose transporter typ 4 protein from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane as well as the synthesis of glucose transporter typ 4 protein. The effect of A. cepa extract on glucose transport was stymied by wortmannin, genistein, and AI½. In vitro phosphorylation analysis revealed that, like insulin, A. cepa extract also enhances the tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor-β, insulin receptor substrate-1, and the serine phosphorylation of Akt under both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions without affecting the total amount of these proteins. Furthermore, it is also shown that the activation of Akt is indispensable for the A. cepa-induced glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. Taken together, these findings provide ample evidence that the ethanolic extract of A. cepa stimulates glucose transporter typ 4 translocation-mediated glucose uptake by the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt dependent pathway.

  4. КАЧЕСТВЕННЫЙ АНАЛИЗ ФЕНОЛЬНЫХ СОЕДИНЕНИЙ RUBENS EXCORIO CEPA И FLAVIS EXCORIO CEPA (ALLIUM CEPA)

    OpenAIRE

    БИТУЕВА Э.Б.; ЦЫДЕНОВА Ю.Д.

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative study of phenolic compounds in the skins of two types of onions: Rubens excorio cepa and cepa excorio Flavis. The content of phenolic compounds in the vegetable raw materials held by the titration. Fotoèlektrokolorimetri methods in the vegetable raw materials identified flavonoids: quercetin, izoramnetin, Flavonols, anthocyanins. When processing received data recalculated by a factor corresponding to the connection. For the quantitative determination of tannins ...

  5. Cytotoxic effects of Reactive Blue 33 on Allium cepa determined using Taguchi's L₈ orthogonal array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Gonca; Özdemir, Utkan; Aksoy, Özlem

    2013-12-01

    In this study, Taguchi L₈ experimental design was applied to determine cytotoxic effects of Reactive Blue 33, which is the most toxic azo reactive dye species, on Allium cepa. With this aim, A. cepa test system was performed to achieve targeted experimental design with three factors (concentration of dye, pH and volume) in two different levels. Toxic conditions were determined considering calculated signal-to-noise ratios. "Smaller is better" approach was followed to calculate signal-to-noise ratios as it was aimed to obtain lower root lengths. In the work, toxic effects of azo dye were also predicted by using the Taguchi method. Taguchi model showed that experimental and predicted values were closer to each other demonstrating the success of Taguchi approach.

  6. Genotoxicity effects of Flusilazole on the somatic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozakca, Dilek Unal; Silah, Hulya

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the fungicide flusilazole on somatic cells of Allium cepa. For evaluation of cytogenetic effects, root meristem cells of A. cepa were treated with 10, 20, 30 and 45 ppm (EC50 concentration) for 24, 48 and 72 h. The mitotic index and different types of chromosomal abnormalities such as bridges, stickiness and laggards were determined in both control and test groups. Acridine orange/Ethidium bromide double staining and fluorescence microscope was used to determine the stability of chromosome structure. Data obtained from staining process indicated that ratio of necrotic cells significantly increased by the flusilazole presoaking. The RAPD-PCR method was used and the higher doses treated-group (45 ppm) was more distant to the control group compare with others.

  7. Biological and chemical investigation of Allium cepa L. response to selenium inorganic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Kacymirow, M; Kurek, E; Smolis, A; Wierzbicka, M; Bulska, E

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and chemical response of Allium cepa L. exposed to inorganic selenium compounds. Besides the investigation of the total content of selenium as well as its chemical speciation, the Allium test was used to evaluate the growth of onion roots and mitotic activity in the roots' meristem. The total content of selenium was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), coupled to ICP MS, was used for the selenium chemical speciation. Results indicated that A. cepa plants are able to biotransform inorganic selenium compounds into their organic derivatives, e.g., Se-methylselenocysteine from the Se(IV) inorganic precursor. Although the differences in the biotransformation of selenium are due mainly to the oxidation state of selenium, the experiment has also shown a fine effect of counter ions (H(+), Na(+), NH4 (+)) on the response of plants and on the specific metabolism of selenium.

  8. Variabilidad genética en cepas de Sporothrix schenckii aisladas en Abancay, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Holechek

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los genotipos de S. schenckii que circulan en 2 distritos de la provincia de Abancay, Perú. Material y Métodos: Se evaluaron 17 cepas procedentes de pacientes con lesiones linfocutáneas y lesión cutánea fija mediante la técnica del ADN Polimorfo Amplificado Aleatorio - Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (RAPD - PCR con el cebador GTG 5 (GTG GTG GTG GTG GTG. Resultados: Identificamos 6 genotipos, siendo el genotipo I el predominante en las áreas de estudio. No se logró asociar los genotipos obtenidos con caracteres clínicos y geográficos. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados evidencian que existe biodiversidad genética entre las cepas de S. schenckii que circulan en ambas zonas.

  9. Cytotoxic Effects of (5 Medicinal Plants on Mitosis in Allium cepa Root Tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Udo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the effects that plant extracts from 5 medicinal plants may have on mitosis in Allium cepa. Root of A .cepa were immersed in alcoholic extracts at the concentrations of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mg/mL, respectively for each of the following plants: Gnetum africanum Welw., Lasianther aafricana P. Beauv, Ocimum gratissimum Linn., Telfairia occidentalis Hook F. and Vernonia amygdalina Del. Leafy vegetable which are commonly used in herbal medicine. Results obtained show that the various concentrations of the extracts from test plants had toxic effects on the cells, which caused significant reduction (p<0.05 in the mitotic index when compared with the control. Other effects were prophase inhibition, the delay of mitosis and nuclear lesion. The cytotoxic effect makes a case for a precaution in the use of the leafy extracts in herbal medicine practice.

  10. Prevalência de sorotipos e resistência antimicrobiana de cepas invasivas do Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantese Orlando C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o perfil de sorotipos e a susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae obtidas em espécimes clínicos de pacientes com doença invasiva, bem como suas implicações na formulação de vacinas pneumocócicas. MÉTODOS: Cepas de pneumococo isoladas no Laboratório de Análises Clínicas do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia a partir de amostras clínicas de pacientes com doença invasiva foram identificadas e enviadas ao Instituto Adolfo Lutz em São Paulo para confirmação da identificação, sorotipagem e determinação da susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. RESULTADOS: De abril de 1999 a março de 2003, foram isoladas 148 cepas invasivas de pneumococo, sendo 84 (56,7% provenientes de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade variou de um dia a 88,83 anos, com média de 21,33+25,82 anos e mediana de 4,42 anos. Os diagnósticos clínicos mais comuns foram pneumonia (91 casos; 61,4%, meningite (32 casos; 21,6% e bacteremia sem foco evidente (15 casos; 10,1%. As principais fontes de recuperação foram sangue (76 amostras; 51,3%, líquido pleural (39; 26,3% e liquor (30; 20,2%. No total, foram identificados 23 diferentes sorotipos entre 143 amostras testadas, sendo os mais comuns os seguintes: 14, 3, 1, 5, 6A, 6B e 18C. Dentre 30 (20,2% cepas oxacilina-resistentes, 23 (15,5% confirmaram a resistência à penicilina (12,8% com nível intermediário e 2,7%, com nível pleno, que esteve restrita aos sorotipos 14, 23F, 19A e 6B, predominando em indivíduos com até dois anos de idade (p = 0,0008. Foi detectada susceptibilidade diminuída ao cotrimoxazol (63,4%, à eritromicina (8,3%, à clindamicina (8,7% e à ofloxacina (0,8%. A resistência à cefotaxima foi detectada em três das 30 cepas testadas (2% das 148, todas elas com resistência confirmada à penicilina. Não foi observada resistência a cloranfenicol, rifampicina ou vancomicina. CONCLUSÕES: A resistência

  11. Inhibitory activity against urease of quercetin glycosides isolated from Allium cepa and Psidium guajava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, Samah; Kawai, Azusa; Kai, Kenji; Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of edible plants and seaweeds were tested for their inhibitory activity against Jack bean urease. Quercetin-4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside was isolated from Allium cepa as a urease inhibitor with an IC(50) value of 190 microM-. Quercetin and two quercetin glycosides, avicularin and guaijaverin, were isolated from Psidium guajava as urease inhibitors with respective IC(50) values of 80 microM-, 140 microM-, and 120 microM-.

  12. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Abayomi, Louise Anike; Terry, Leon A.; White, S. F.; Warner, P J

    2006-01-01

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2–12 μmol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit...

  13. Efectos del gas ozono sobre cepas de Fusarium verticillioides y F. proliferatum productoras de fumonisinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Frisón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Las fumonisinas son producidas por especies de Fusarium, esencialmente por Fusarium verticillioides y F. proliferatum que se encuentran como contaminantes naturales en maíz y subproductos de maíz. Su consumo, se asocia con ciertas enfermedades en animales y humanos. La industria alimentaria apunta sus investigaciones al desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías y la aplicación de gas ozono, dado su elevado poder germicida y su descomposición espontánea a oxígeno, se ha convertido en un agente potencial para garantizar la seguridad microbiológica y la calidad de los alimentos. Debido a la importancia del consumo de maíz en Argentina y a la contaminación de este grano por cepas productoras de fumonisinas, se estudió la posibilidad de detoxificar maíz contaminado con esta toxina con gas ozono. Se aislaron cepas de Fusarium verticillioides y F. proliferatum de granos de maíz y de silaje. Se estudió la capacidad de producción de toxina de dichas cepas. La cuantificación de esta toxina se realizó mediante ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas (ELISA con el kit para fumonisinas RIDASCREEN®FAST Fumonisin siguiendo las instrucciones del fabricante. Se utilizó gas ozono a concentraciones de: 4500, 7500 y 25000 ppmv, por tiempos de exposición de 10 y 20 minutos. Todas las cepas de Fusarium estudiadas fueron buenas productoras de fumonisinas. A las concentraciones y tiempos evaluados, no se observó la eliminación o disminución de la concentración de toxina. Prevenir la contaminación con estos mohos es la mejor solución para el problema de las micotoxinas, debido a que una vez producida la toxina es difícil de erradicar.

  14. Efectos del gas ozono sobre cepas de Fusarium verticillioides y F. proliferatum productoras de fumonisinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Frisón

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Las fumonisinas son producidas por especies de Fusarium, esencialmente por Fusarium verticillioides y F. proliferatum que se encuentran como contaminantes naturales en maíz y subproductos de maíz. Su consumo, se asocia con ciertas enfermedades en animales y humanos. La industria alimentaria apunta sus investigaciones al desarrollo de nuevas tecnologías y la aplicación de gas ozono, dado su elevado poder germicida y su descomposición espontánea a oxígeno, se ha convertido en un agente potencial para garantizar la seguridad microbiológica y la calidad de los alimentos. Debido a la importancia del consumo de maíz en Argentina y a la contaminación de este grano por cepas productoras de fumonisinas, se estudió la posibilidad de detoxificar maíz contaminado con esta toxina con gas ozono. Se aislaron cepas de Fusarium verticillioides y F. proliferatum de granos de maíz y de silaje. Se estudió la capacidad de producción de toxina de dichas cepas. La cuantificación de esta toxina se realizó mediante ensayo por inmunoabsorción ligado a enzimas (ELISA con el kit para fumonisinas RIDASCREEN®FAST Fumonisin siguiendo las instrucciones del fabricante. Se utilizó gas ozono a concentraciones de: 4500, 7500 y 25000 ppmv, por tiempos de exposición de 10 y 20 minutos. Todas las cepas de Fusariumestudiadas fueron buenas productoras de fumonisinas. A las concentraciones y tiempos evaluados, no se observó la eliminación o disminución de la concentración de toxina. Prevenir la contaminación con estos mohos es la mejor solución para el problema de las micotoxinas, debido a que una vez producida la toxina es difícil de erradicar.

  15. Effect of refinery waste effluent on tocopherol, carotenoid, phenolics and other antioxidants content in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Ahmad, Masood

    2013-08-01

    Pollution in water used for irrigation is a major cause of stress generation in plant system. Under these stress conditions, reactive oxygen species derived from molecular oxygen can accumulate in plant, resulting in the oxidation of nucleic acids, lipids, chlorophyll and so on. This study was conducted in Allium cepa to analyze the alteration in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants as a consequence of Mathura refinery waste water (MRWW) exposure. The studied antioxidants were glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASC). Their determination was carried out in A. cepa bulbs exposed to different concentrations of MRWW that is 0.25×, 0.5×, 0.75× and 1.0×. A significant increase in the levels of these nonenzymatic antioxidants in onion bulbs upon treatment with MRWW suggested that these can serve as suitable biomarkers of toxicity. The toxicity of waste water was also tested on the level of tocopherol (Toc) and carotenoid (CAR) in onion bulbs, and in both the cases a high level of these metabolites was noticed. Phenolic content of A. cepa after the waste water insult was found to be increased, again a manifestation of adaptation against heavy metal and oxidative stress. It is clear from our findings that GSH, ASC, Toc and CAR in A. cepa system could serve as potential biomarkers for the presence of toxicants like heavy metals and its hazards in MRWW. The test waste water demonstrated profound effects on these parameters which is suggestive of the warrior strategies adopted by the plant system against the pollution-induced stress.

  16. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda L. Gindri; Ana Paula D. Coelho; Solange B. Tedesco; Athayde, Margareth L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L) and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quanti...

  17. El consumo de oxigeno de cepas de uta y espundia (Leishmania con monosacáridos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Aurazo R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha realizado un estudio comparativo de la respiración, y la acción de los monosacáridos (glucosa, fructosa, galactosa y manosa sobre el consumo de oxigeno entre dos cepas de Leishmania provenientes de casos clínicos de leishmaniosis cutánea pura (uta y de leishmaniosis cutáneo-mucosa (espundia del Perú.

  18. The impact of atmospheric H2S on growth and sulfur metabolism of Allium cepa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durenkamp, M; De Kok, LJ

    2002-01-01

    The impact of atmospheric H2S deposition on growth and sulfur metabolism has been studied in onion (Allium cepa L.). The H2S Uptake followed saturation kinetics with respect to the H2S concentration. The maximum H2S uptake rate (JH(2)S(max)) was approx. 1 mumol g(-1) FW h(-1) and the KH2S (H2S conce

  19. Suscetibilidade de biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a diferentes cepas de schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Candido de Souza Dias

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available Em condições experimentais foi estudada a suscetibilidade de Biomphalaria glabrata, B. straminea e B. tenagophila a quatro linhagens humanas (MAP, PTH, UPH, e OuH e duas de roedores silvestres (PTR e VPR do Schistosoma mansoni. Grupos de 50 moluscos foram expostos individualmente a 10 miracídios e observados durante 70 dias. Avaliou-se a suscetibilidade dos moluscos ao parasito por meio da % de animais com esporocistos, % de moluscos que eliminavam cercárias e mortalidade conjunta dos animais expostos e infectados. Exemplares de B. glabrata mineira infectaram-se com cepa simpátrica (MAP e com 5 alopátricas do Estado de São Paulo (PTH, VPH, OuH, PTR e VPR. B. glabrata paulista mostrou altas taxas de infecção com as cepas MAP, VPR e OuH do trematódeo. Quatro % dos exemplares B. straminea de São Paulo eliminavam cercárias de cepas simpátricas; com cepa mineira apenas 4% apresentaram esporocistos na vigência de 20 miracídios por molusco; as menores taxas de mortalidade foram registradas com essa espécie de molusco, não sendo maior do que 20%. B. tenagophila paulista foi suscetível apenas às linhagens simpáticas sendo 6% a maior taxa de moluscos que eliminaram cercárias. Os resultados indicam que os movimentos populacionais humanos dentro do território paulista e para fora dele são importantes na disseminação da esquistossomose mansônica.

  20. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes with Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D'Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch, Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-...

  1. Phytosteroids from tissue culture of Allium cepa L. and Trachyspermum ammi S prague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Chaturvedi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Production of secondary metabolites by cultured cells provides a particularly important benefit to manipulate and improve the production of desired compounds; thus biotechnological approaches to increase the concentrations of the metabolites are discussed. Present study deals with the production, isolation and identification of phytosterols from tissue culture of Allium cepa and from plant parts and tissue culture of Trachyspermum ammi. Steroidal analysis of plant parts showed the maximum amount of stigmasterol (0.240 mg/gdw which was comparatively little less than that of the amount of β- sitosterol (0.295 mg/gdw in the seeds of T. ammi . The maximum amount of stigmasterol was present in four weeks old tissue of T. ammi (0.249 mg/gdw whereas the highest content of β- sitosterol was observed in six weeks old tissue of A. cepa (0.315 mg/gdw However, lanosterol, was present only in the tissue of A. cepa which was maximum in six weeks old tissue (0.039 mg/gdw.

  2. Toxicological evaluation of landfill leachate using plant (Allium cepa) and fish (Leporinus obtusidens) bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Rodrigues, Marco Antonio Siqueira; da Silva, Luciano Basso

    2013-11-01

    The disposal of municipal waste in landfills may pose an environmental problem because the product of the decomposition of these residues generates large volumes of leachate, which may present high toxicity. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic and genotoxic effects of a sample of untreated leachate in fish (Leporinus obtusidens) and onions (Allium cepa). The leachate was collected in a landfill located in the region of Vale do Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. The fish were exposed to raw leachate, at concentrations of 0.5%, 1.0%, 5%, 10% and 20% for 6 days, while the bulbs of A. cepa were exposed to concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% for 48 h. For fish, the concentrations of 5%, 10% and 20% were lethal, thus indicating high toxicity; however, sublethal concentrations (0.5% and 1.0%) showed no genotoxicity by micronucleus test when compared with the control group. In the bioassays involving onions, high toxicity was observed, with significant reduction of root growth and mitotic index in bulbs exposed to the 100% concentration of the leachate. An increase in the frequency of chromosome abnormalities in the A. cepa root cells in anaphase-telophase was observed in accordance with the increase in the concentration of leachate (5%, 10%, 25% and 50%), with values significantly greater than the control, at the highest concentration. The results showed that the leachate contains toxic and genotoxic substances, thus representing a major source of environmental pollution if not handled properly.

  3. Physiological, anatomical, biochemical, and cytogenetic effects of thiamethoxam treatment on Allium cepa (amaryllidaceae) L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yalçin, Emine; Türkmen, Zafer; Yapar, Kürşad; Sağir, Saffet

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, toxic effects of active substance thiamethoxam of the insecticide Eforia were investigated on Allium cepa L. For this aim, we used the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, frequency of micronucleus (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and mitotic index (MI) as indicators of toxicity. Also, the changes in the root anatomy of A. cepa seeds treated with thiamethoxam were examined. The seeds in all the treatment groups were treated with three different doses (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) of thiamethoxam for 72 h. The results showed that there were significant alterations in the germination percentage, root length, weight gain, MDA level, MN, CAs, and MI frequency depending on application dose in the seeds exposed to thiamethoxam compared to control group. Thiamethoxam treatments significantly reduced the germination percentage, root length, and weight gain in all the treatment groups (P thiamethoxam has a mito-depressive action on mitosis, and the MI was decreased depending on the dose of applied-thiamethoxam (P thiamethoxam significantly enhanced the lipid peroxidation and caused an increase in MDA levels at each dose treatment (P thiamethoxam caused severe toxic effects on A. cepa cells, and the maximum toxic effect was observed at the dose level of 500 mg/kg.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE ETANOL UTILIZANDO CEPAS RECOMBINANTES DE Saccharomyces cerevisiae A PARTIR DE MELAZA DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA PEÑA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de etanol, el crecimiento celular y el consumo de sustrato de tres cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae: CBS8066 (control y dos recombinantes desarrolladas en la Unidad de Biotecnología Vegetal de CIB, GG570-CIBI y GG570-CIBII. Dichas cepas estuvieron bajo el efecto de dos concentraciones de sacarosa (170 y 250g/L y dos sustratos (industrial con melaza caña azúcar y sintético con sacarosa. Durante la fermentación en sustrato industrial se obtuvo mayor producción de etanol a concentración de 250g sacarosa/L. Bajo estas condiciones, la cepa GG570-CIBII produjo en promedio 2,34g etanol/L mas con respecto a la cepa control y en adición, a las 10h, produjo 8,02g/L por encima de la cepa control. Por otro lado, la cepa GG570- CIBI produjo 3,46g etanol/L menos que la cepa control. De esta forma, se encontró que la cepa GG570-CIBII es tolerante a alta concentración de sacarosa, y además, es capaz de producir una concentración mayor de etanol con respecto a la cepa control en melaza caña azúcar con 250g/L sacarosa.

  5. Huringiensis strategy to culture media design for the fermentation of bacillus thuringiensis Estrategia para el diseño de un medio de cultivo para la fermentación con bacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno N.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work was studied the culture medium for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation, the purpose was the production of biopesticide using as active ingredient native strains. The culture was developed in flasks of 1000 ml containing 100ml of culture medium, which was inoculated with 10ml of the bacteria, incubated at 29 ºC and 200 rpm. In this study we used an experimental design model for the strain HD1 of Bacillus thuringiensis, with glucose as carbon source, evaluating the concentration of mineral source in the culture medium. Additionally we evaluated the ratio of organic-inorganic nitrogen source in the culture medium, with the purpose of improving the insecticide crystal protein (ICP for a native strain.En este trabajo se estudio el medio de cultivo para la fermentación con Bacillus thuringiensis tendiente a la producción del ingrediente activo de un biopesticida que emplea cepas nativas de esta bacteria. Se realizaron fermentaciones en matraz de 1000 mL de volumen total con 100 mL de volumen de fermentación, utilizando 10 mL de inóculo bacteriano, una temperatura de 29ºC y una velocidad de agitación de 200 revoluciones por minuto (rpm. El estudio se realizó empleando un modelo de diseño experimental con glucosa como fuente de carbono evaluando la concentración de las fuentes de minerales en el medio de cultivo para la cepa HD1. También se evaluó la relación óptima entre el nitrógeno orgánico y el nitrógeno inorgánico en el medio de cultivo, para la producción de  proteína asociada al cristal para la cepa nativa Instituto de Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional (IBUN 28.5.

  6. Plasmidotipia y evaluación in vitro de la virulencia de cepas de Salmonella enteritidis de origen aviar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío Toro

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de caracterizar a nivel biológico y molecular cepas de Salmonella entérica, subespecie entérica serotipo Enteritidis (Salmonella enteritidis se obtuvieron y confirmaron bioquímica y serológicamente treinta cepas aisladas de aves clínicamente sanas. Las cepas fueron evaluadas mediante plasmidotipia y determinación de virulencia in vitro evaluando susceptibilidad antimicrobiana, actividad hemaglutinante manosa resistente y manosa sensible como indicativo de la presencia de adhesinas fimbriales y capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos. La extracción de plásmidos se realizó por la técnica de lisis alcalina. Se obtuvieron perfiles de restricción con las enzimas PstI y SmaI. La susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se determinó por la prueba de difusión de disco en agar. La actividad hemaglutinante en presencia y en ausencia de manosa fue evaluada frente a glóbulos rojos de ave, bovino, equino, humano (A+ y ovino. La capacidad de sobrevivencia en el interior de macrófagos se determinó valorando la viabilidad de las cepas 24 horas después de la ingestión por macrófagos de línea de origen murino. Veintinueve cepas (96.6% mostraron un plasmido cuyo tamaño corresponde al plasmido de virulencia asociado a serotipo. Veintisiete cepas (90% mostraron dos o más plasmidos. Perfiles de restricción realizados con las enzimas Pst I y Sma I permitieron establecer una alta asociación entre las cepas. Se determinó resistencia a uno o más antimicrobianos en catorce cepas de S. enteritidis (46.6%, se observó resistencia a oxitetraciclina, sulfatrimetroprim, estreptomicina y cloranfenicol. Ninguna cepa mostró resistencia a gentamicina y kanamicina. Se detectó actividad hemaglutinante manosa sensible como indicativo de adhesinas fimbriales tipo I en once cepas (36.6% de las treinta evaluadas. La totalidad de las cepas sobrevivieron en el interior de macrófagos de línea J774A.1 y fueron viables 24 horas después de la

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  8. Characterization of intracellular palladium nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus benzeovorans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omajali, Jacob B.; Mikheenko, Iryna P.; Merroun, Mohamed L.; Wood, Joseph; Macaskie, Lynne E.

    2015-06-01

    Early studies have focused on the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the periplasmic layer or on the outer membrane of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and on the S-layer protein of Bacillus sphaericus. However, it has remained unclear whether the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles also takes place in the bacterial cell cytoplasm. This study reports the use of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high-angle annular dark field detector and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry attachment to investigate the intracellular synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs). We show the intracellular synthesis of Pd NPs within cells of two anaerobic strains of D. desulfuricans and an aerobic strain of B. benzeovorans using hydrogen and formate as electron donors. The Pd nanoparticles were small and largely monodispersed, between 0.2 and 8 nm, occasionally from 9 to 12 nm with occasional larger nanoparticles. With D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8307 (but not D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8326) and with B. benzeovorans NCIMB 12555, the NPs were larger when made at the expense of formate, co-localizing with phosphate in the latter, and were crystalline, but were amorphous when made with H2, with no phosphorus association. The intracellular Pd nanoparticles were mainly icosahedrons with surfaces comprising {111} facets and about 5 % distortion when compared with that of bulk palladium. The particles were more concentrated in the cell cytoplasm than the cell wall, outer membrane, or periplasm. We provide new evidence for synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the cytoplasm of bacteria, which were confirmed to maintain cellular integrity during this synthesis.

  9. Characterization of intracellular palladium nanoparticles synthesized by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus benzeovorans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omajali, Jacob B., E-mail: JBO037@bham.ac.uk, E-mail: jbomajali@gmail.com; Mikheenko, Iryna P. [University of Birmingham, Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials, School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection (United Kingdom); Merroun, Mohamed L. [University of Granada, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Sciences (Spain); Wood, Joseph [University of Birmingham, School of Chemical Engineering (United Kingdom); Macaskie, Lynne E. [University of Birmingham, Unit of Functional Bionanomaterials, School of Biosciences, Institute of Microbiology and Infection (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Early studies have focused on the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the periplasmic layer or on the outer membrane of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and on the S-layer protein of Bacillus sphaericus. However, it has remained unclear whether the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles also takes place in the bacterial cell cytoplasm. This study reports the use of high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy with a high-angle annular dark field detector and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry attachment to investigate the intracellular synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs). We show the intracellular synthesis of Pd NPs within cells of two anaerobic strains of D. desulfuricans and an aerobic strain of B. benzeovorans using hydrogen and formate as electron donors. The Pd nanoparticles were small and largely monodispersed, between 0.2 and 8 nm, occasionally from 9 to 12 nm with occasional larger nanoparticles. With D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8307 (but not D. desulfuricans NCIMB 8326) and with B. benzeovorans NCIMB 12555, the NPs were larger when made at the expense of formate, co-localizing with phosphate in the latter, and were crystalline, but were amorphous when made with H{sub 2,} with no phosphorus association. The intracellular Pd nanoparticles were mainly icosahedrons with surfaces comprising {111} facets and about 5 % distortion when compared with that of bulk palladium. The particles were more concentrated in the cell cytoplasm than the cell wall, outer membrane, or periplasm. We provide new evidence for synthesis of palladium nanoparticles within the cytoplasm of bacteria, which were confirmed to maintain cellular integrity during this synthesis.

  10. AISLAMIENTO DE Bacillus SOLUBILIZADORES DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADOS AL CULTIVO DEL ARROZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berto Tejera-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la capacidad de bacterias del género Bacillus pro- venientes del cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa L. en solubilizar fosfatos. Los aislamientos se obtuvieron utilizando el modelo Microcosmos de los cultivares Iacuba 30 y Perla, en el año 2008 en Bauta, La Habana, Cuba. Hubo 58 aislados, tanto rizosféricos como endófitos de la raíz y de la parte aérea, que presentaban características distintivas del género Bacillus, como respuesta positiva a la tinción de Gram, forma bacilar y formación de endospora. Se realizó la detección cualitativa en cuanto a la capacidad de solubilización de fosfatos. Solo 19 aislamientos mostraron solubilización en medio sólido NBRIP y en algunos casos cambiaron la coloración del medio de azul a amarillo, lo que indica la producción de ácidos. Se seleccionaron los positivos para la cuantificación en medio líquido. Las cepas mostraron un comportamiento diferente cuando se midió el fosfato solubilizado a distintos tiempos, variando el máximo de solubilización.

  11. Febre purpúrica brasileira: caracterização rápida das cepas invasoras de Haemophilus aegyptius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.C. Brandileone

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Cepas de H. aegyptius isoladas em surtos de Febre Purpúrica Brasileira (FPB no Brasil, foram caracterizadas pelo método de aglutinação em lâmina utilizando um anti-soro produzido com cepa de H. aegyptius isolada de cultura de sangue de paciente com FPB. Através desse método foi possível identificar cepas de H. aegyptius responsáveis por surtos de conjuntivite com características antigênicas iguais às cepas isoladas de FPB. A sensibilidade e especificidade da soroaglutinação em lâmina foi de 97,7% e 89,6% respectivamente, podendo ser utilizado como método de triagem em estudos de conjuntivites purulentas, para detectar cepas invasivas de H. aegyptius associadas a FPB, possibilitando assim a implantação de medidas que ampliem a eficiência na prevenção e na vigilância epidemiológica da doença.

  12. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H.; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  13. Bacillus novalis sp. nov., Bacillus vireti sp. nov., Bacillus soli sp. nov., Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov., from the Drentse A grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanparys, Bram; Logan, Niall A; Balcaen, An; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Felske, Andreas; De Vos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A group of 42 isolates were isolated from the soil of several disused hay fields, in the Drentse A agricultural research area (The Netherlands), that were taken out of production at different times. The group represents hitherto-uncultured Bacillus lineages that have previously been found, by a non-cultural method, to be predominant in soil. The strains were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study, including (GTG)5-PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base-ratio determination, fatty acid analysis and morphological and biochemical characterization. By comparing the groupings obtained by (GTG)5-PCR and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, six clusters of similar strains could be recognized. A DNA-DNA relatedness study showed that these clusters represented five novel genospecies. Further analysis supported the proposal of five novel species in the genus Bacillus, namely Bacillus novalis sp. nov. (type strain IDA3307T=R-15439T=LMG 21837T=DSM 15603T), Bacillus vireti sp. nov. (type strain IDA3632T=R-15447T=LMG 21834T=DSM 15602T), Bacillus soli sp. nov. (type strain IDA0086T=R-16300T=LMG 21838T=DSM 15604T), Bacillus bataviensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1115T=R-16315T=LMG 21833T=DSM 15601T) and Bacillus drentensis sp. nov. (type strain IDA1967T=R-16337T=LMG 21831T=DSM 15600T).

  14. Screening and incorporation of rust resistance from Allium cepa into bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) via alien chromosome addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Tadayuki; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Shimazaki, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Naoko; Sakai, Takako; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2015-04-01

    Bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; 2n = 16), bulb onion (Allium cepa L. Common onion group), and shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) cultivars were inoculated with rust fungus, Puccinia allii, isolated from bunching onion. Bulb onions and shallots are highly resistant to rust, suggesting they would serve as useful resources for breeding rust resistant bunching onions. To identify the A. cepa chromosome(s) related to rust resistance, a complete set of eight A. fistulosum - shallot monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) were inoculated with P. allii. At the seedling stage, FF+1A showed a high level of resistance in controlled-environment experiments, suggesting that the genes related to rust resistance could be located on shallot chromosome 1A. While MAAL, multi-chromosome addition line, and hypoallotriploid adult plants did not exhibit strong resistance to rust. In contrast to the high resistance of shallot, the addition line FF+1A+5A showed reproducibly high levels of rust resistance.

  15. Report on the CEPA activities [Consorcio Educativo para la Proteccion Ambiental/Educational Consortium for Environmental Preservation] [Final report of activities from 1998 to 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Miriam

    2003-02-01

    This report compiles the instances of scientific, educational, and institutional cooperation on environmental issues and other activities in which CEPA was engaged during the past five years, and includes several annual reports and meeting summaries. CEPA is a collaborative international consortium that brings together higher education institutions with governmental agencies, research laboratories, and private sector entities. CEPA's mission is to strengthen the technical, professional, and educational environmental infrastructure in the United States and Latin America. The CEPA program includes curriculum development, student exchange, faculty development, and creation of educational materials, joint research, and other cooperative activities. CEPA's goals are accomplished by actively working with Hispanic-serving institutions of higher education in the United States, in collaboration with institutions of higher education in Latin America and other Consortium members to deliver competitive environmental programs.

  16. Cytogenetic studies of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa root tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Rajeshwari, A; Jadon, Pradeep Singh; Chaudhuri, Gouri; Mukherjee, Anita; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2015-12-01

    The current study evaluates the cytogenetic effects of chromium (III) oxide nanoparticles on the root cells of Allium cepa. The root tip cells of A. cepa were treated with the aqueous dispersions of Cr2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) at five different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100μg/mL) for 4hr. The colloidal stability of the nanoparticle suspensions during the exposure period were ascertained by particle size analyses. After 4hr exposure to Cr2O3 NPs, a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) from 35.56% (Control) to 35.26% (0.01μg/mL), 34.64% (0.1μg/mL), 32.73% (1μg/mL), 29.6% (10μg/mL) and 20.92% (100μg/mL) was noted. The optical, fluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopic analyses demonstrated specific chromosomal aberrations such as-chromosome stickiness, chromosome breaks, laggard chromosome, clumped chromosome, multipolar phases, nuclear notch, and nuclear bud at different exposure concentrations. The concentration-dependent internalization/bio-uptake of Cr2O3 NPs may have contributed to the enhanced production of anti oxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase to counteract the oxidative stress, which in turn resulted in observed chromosomal aberrations and cytogenetic effects. These results suggest that A. cepa root tip assay can be successfully applied for evaluating environmental risk of Cr2O3 NPs over a wide range of concentrations.

  17. Analyses of Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Potentials of Loranthus micranthus using the Allium cepa Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Iwalokun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus (LM is one of the Nigerian folk medicinal plants used chronically for the management of immuno-depressive illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and hypertension. There has not been report on the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of the plant. This study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxic, mitodepressive and genotoxic effects of LM against Allium cepa root cells. The roots of Allium cepa (onion bulb were exposed to different concentrations (2.5-40 mg/mL of L. micranthus aqueous leaf extract (LMAE using NaN3 (100 ug/mL and distilled water as positive and negative controls and examined macroscopically and microscopically for toxic effects. Phytochemical screening of the plant was also carried out using conventional methods. LMEA was found to significantly (p0.05 at 5 mg/mL compared to the control and did not display significant variation in activity between 20 and 40 mg/mL concentrations respectively (p>0.05. Furthermore, LMAE at 10 mg/mL was found to produce the highest number of aberrant cells but failed to elicit c-mitosis found only at 40 mg/mL. LMAE at 5 mg/mL produced the least number of aberrant cells and also failed to induce micronucleus and binucleated cell formation found mostly at 40 mg/mL. Chromosomal aberrations including stickiness, multipolar anaphase and lagging chromosomes, breaks and bridges were induced by all the extract concentrations tested but not dose-dependently. Tannins, alkaloids, saponins and flavonoids were also present in the extract. Our findings indicate that LM is cytotoxic, mitodepressive and genotoxic to Allium cepa especially at doses beyond pharmacological range in vitro and suggest for safety reasons, the continuous use of this plant at lower concentrations for human phytomedicine coupled with a need to conduct further in vivo genotoxic tests.

  18. Cell cycle arrest in antheridial extract-treated root meristems of Allium cepa and Melandrium noctiflorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maszewski, J; Kaźmierczak, A; Polit, J

    1998-01-01

    Previous results have demonstrated that extracts derived from maturing male sex organs of Chara tomentosa are capable of inducing profound structural and functional effects upon M-phase cells in the primary root meristems of Melandrium noctiflorum and Allium cepa. Evident changes produced by a putative factor engaged in morphogenesis of antheridial filaments are manifested by: (1) significant shortening of chromosomes, (2) decreased mitotic indices, and (3) altered proportions estimated for the prophase and telophase transit times. The present image analysis of late G2 phase nuclei in antheridial filaments of C. tomentosa supports the concepts that progressive changes of their functional activities correspond closely to the increasing proportion of condensed chromatin. Cytophotometric measurements of Feulgen-stained cell nuclei in root meristems after a prolonged incubation in antheridial extracts revealed that cells which previously divided asynchronously became preferentially arrested in G1 (M. noctiflorum) and G2 (A. cepa). The stages at which the cells arrest are supposed to counterpart restriction checkpoints that prevent the initiation of DNA synthesis and mitosis. This assumption has been confirmed by autoradiographic studies using 3H-thymidine. In terms of the "Principal Control Points" (PCP) hypothesis, the obtained results suggest that two PCPs regulate G1-->S and G2-->M transition in a nuclear structure-dependent and a species-specific manner. Although in antheridial extract-treated roots of both M. noctiflorum and A. cepa there are only slight changes in the levels of chromatin condensation, the relative proportions of G1- and G2-arrested cells and their nuclear density profiles differ, as compared with the control and carbohydrate-starved plants.

  19. Utilización de cepas de bacteroides spp. como probiótico en conejos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Rozas Ruiz de Gauna, Ana Mª; Castellà Gómez, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    La utilización de antimicrobianos, de forma metafiláxica, para mantener la salud de los animales en las granjas de producción, puede ser problemático en un futuro próximo, debido a las altas tasas de resistencias que se están observando. Esta situación obliga a replantearse medidas alternativas, las más habituales basadas en el uso de prebióticos, probióticos o la combinación de ambos (simbióticos). El objetivo principal de este trabajo ha sido el de seleccionar cepas de diferentes especies d...

  20. Utilización de cepas de bacteroides spp. como probiótico en conejos

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Rozas Ruiz de Gauna, Ana Mª

    2014-01-01

    La utilización de antimicrobianos, de forma metafiláxica, para mantener la salud de los animales en las granjas de producción, puede ser problemático en un futuro próximo, debido a las altas tasas de resistencias que se están observando. Esta situación obliga a replantearse medidas alternativas, las más habituales basadas en el uso de prebióticos, probióticos o la combinación de ambos (simbióticos). El objetivo principal de este trabajo ha sido el de seleccionar cepas de diferentes especi...

  1. Cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa de origen hospitalario multirresistentes a 21 antibióticos

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Castillo Vera; Rosa María Ribas Aparicio; Lourdes Osorio Carranza; Gerardo Aparicio

    2006-01-01

    Se llevó a cabo la determinación del perfil de resistencia a 21 antibióticos en 24 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa aisladas del Hospital de Infectología del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). Las muestras fueron colectadas durante un periodo de tres meses y correspondieron a 2 aislamientos por semana. Se realizó la identificación de las especies por procedimientos microbiológicos estándar. Se investigó la susceptibilidad a 21 antibióticos usando el método de difusión en agar utiliza...

  2. The cyto- and genotoxic effects induced by sulphates in Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Elena DOROFTEI; Maria-Mihaela ANTOFIE

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess the cyto- and genotoxic effects of sulphate on Allium cepa mitosis for root meristem. Three different concentrations of sodium sulphate (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5%) have been used, in which the onion bulbs were immersed for different periods of time such as 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique and using Schiff reagent. The cytotoxic effects of sulphate were investigated by ...

  3. Efecto Antimicótico in vitro de Origanum vulgare sobre cepas de Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Villavicencio Gastelú, Jorge Eleodoro; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Moromi Nakata, Hilda; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Salcedo- Moncada, Doris; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Pineda-Mejía, Martha; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Ramos Perfecto, Donald; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología.; Zambrano de la Peña, Livia Sonia; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Martínez Cadillo, Elba Estefanía; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Mendoza Rojas, Gilberto Alejandro; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Petkova-Gueorguieva, Marieta; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de Odontología; Bardales Álvarez, Roxana Margarita; Universidad Nacional San Agustín de Arequipa

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el efecto antimicótico in vitro de aceite esencial de Origanum vulgare, sobre cepa de Candida albicans ATCC 10231 Material y método: Se efectuó la selección de cuatro de diferentes geotipos de orégano, se obtuvo los aceites esenciales mediante proceso de destilación por arrastre con vapor de agua; se determinó su composición química cuantitativa por Cromatografía de Gases, Espectrometría de Masas (CG/EM). Se evaluó in vitro la actividad antimicótica de los aceites esenciales...

  4. Riesgo de aparición de cepas Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina en pacientes hospitalarios de un hospital del Perú, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo, Evaluar el riesgo de aparición de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina (VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE. Diseño, Análisis bivariado de datos de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Lugar, Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue de Lima-Perú. Participantes, pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2008. Intervenciones, Formato de registro del laboratorio del hospital. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativos, y medianas para variables cuantitativos, grado de asociación evaluado con odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados, Se encontró un 82,8% de cepas MRSA, mientras que en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI se encontró un 92,1% de ellas. No se que halló cepas VRSA. El aislamiento de cepas MRSA se asoció con la procedencia de la UTI (OR=3,38, con la procedencia de Neonatología (OR=0,19, con ser paciente adulto (OR=2,87 y con la muestra de tipo sanguinea (OR=0,35. El tiempo de permanencia de los pacientes con aislamientos de cepas MRSA fue mayor que en los pacientes con cepas sensibles (p<0,007. Conclusiones, No existe riesgo de aparición de cepas VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas MRSA y VRE en los pacientes hospitalarios de este nosocomio.

  5. Riesgo de aparición de cepas Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina en pacientes hospitalarios de un hospital del Perú, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giancarlo Alvarado-Gamarra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar el riesgo de aparición de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a vancomicina (VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina (MRSA y cepas de Enterococcus resistente a vancomicina (VRE. Diseño: Análisis bivariado de datos de un estudio descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo. Lugar: Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue de Lima-Perú. Participantes: pacientes hospitalizados durante el año 2008. Intervenciones: Formato de registro del laboratorio del hospital. Principales medidas de resultados: Frecuencias relativas y absolutas para variables cualitativos, y medianas para variables cuantitativos, grado de asociación evaluado con odds ratio (OR con un intervalo de confianza al 95%. Resultados: Se encontró un 82,8% de cepas MRSA, mientras que en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI se encontró un 92,1% de ellas. No se que halló cepas VRSA. El aislamiento de cepas MRSA se asoció con la procedencia de la UTI (OR=3,38, con la procedencia de Neonatología (OR=0,19, con ser paciente adulto (OR=2,87 y con la muestra de tipo sanguinea (OR=0,35. El tiempo de permanencia de los pacientes con aislamientos de cepas MRSA fue mayor que en los pacientes con cepas sensibles (p<0,007. Conclusiones: No existe riesgo de aparición de cepas VRSA a partir de la interacción de cepas MRSA y VRE en los pacientes hospitalarios de este nosocomio.

  6. RESISTENCIA ANTIMICROBIANA DE CEPAS DE Escherichia coli PROVENIENTES DE LECHONES LACTANTES CRIADOS EN UNA GRANJA TECNIFICADA DE LIMA.

    OpenAIRE

    Saldariraga T., Félix; Practica privada.; Calle E., Sonia; Laboratorio de Bacteriología, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Apdo. 41-0068; Camacho S., Carlos; Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Apdo. 41-0068

    2014-01-01

    En el presente estudio se determinó la frecuencia de resistencia a antimicrobianos de cepas de Escherichia coli procedentes de lechones lactantes de una granja tecnificada en Lurín (Lima - Perú). Las muestras fueron tomadas mediante hisopados rectales a 80 lechones. Cada muestra fecal fue cultivada en agar Mc Conckey en donde se aislaron cinco colonias (por sus características culturales) para su posterior identificación bioquímica. Se aislaron 340 (86%) cepas de E. coli de un total de 400 ce...

  7. Caracterización y purificación parcial de sustancias tipo bacteriocinas producidas por cepas de Enterococcus

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, María de las Mercedes Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Las bacterias ácido lácticas, que gozan del status de “Generalmente Reconocidas Como Seguras”, otorgado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, pueden producir sustancias antimicrobianas de naturaleza proteica, denominadas bacteriocinas, que actúan como bioconservantes alimentarios. Se investigó la capacidad bacteriocinogénica de la cepa de Enterococcus faecalis DBFIQ E24, aislada de leche cruda producida en la región santafesina. Esta cepa fue sensible a vancomicina y carente de capacidad...

  8. Determinación de factores de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas spp., aisladas a partir de pescado

    OpenAIRE

    William Suárez Q.; Fanny Herrera A.

    2012-01-01

    RESUMENObjetivo. Investigar la incidencia de cinco marcadores fenotípicos de virulencia en cepas de Aeromonas aisladas a partir de muestras de pescado expendido en Pamplona, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 47 cepas identificadas previamente. Se evaluaron: actividad hemolítica en agar sangre, suplementado con 5% de eritrocitos de cordero y agar sangre suplementado con 5% eritrocitos de sangre humana; actividad proteolítica en agar Mueller-Hinton suplementado al 10% (p/v) con lech...

  9. Estudio de la adaptación a estrés por etanol en cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Los mecanismos de tolerancia a etanol han sido ampliamente estudiados en la levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae debido a su importancia en el sector industrial de bebidas fermentadas y obtención de biocombustibles, siendo las cepas de laboratorio las más utilizadas en los estudios experimentales. A pesar del gran número de estudios llevados a cabo, nuestra comprensión de la respuesta transcripcional y fisiológica al etanol continúa siendo limitada debido al uso de cepas no adecuadas para este...

  10. Susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae procesadas en el instituto nacional de salud, Lima, Perú. 1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Portilla C

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar la frecuencia de susceptibilidad y resistencia in vitro de cepas de Neisseria gonorrhoeae, aisladas en el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, frente a los antimicrobianos de uso actual en el tratamiento de la infección por el gonococo; asimismo, conocer la frecuencia con que se presentan las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Material y Métodos: Estudio observacional descriptivo. En el Laboratorio de Bacterias de Transmisión Sexual del Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Perú, se recibieron 130 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae (49 en 1998 y 81 en 1999, procedentes de diferentes localidades del país para confirmación bacteriológica. El método de estudio de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana usado fue el de Concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM frente a la penicilina, espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima, ciprofloxacina y azitromicina. Resultados: La frecuencia de la resistencia de las cepas de N. gonorrhoeae in vitro a la penicilina fue en 15/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 15/81 cepas en el año 1999. Asimismo, la resistencia a la tetraciclina fue en 31/49 cepas en el año 1998 y 51/81 cepas en 1999. El 100% de las cepas estudiadas fueron sensibles a la espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. En el país, se reporta en 9/81 cepas de N. gonorrhoeae de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina. Entre los años 1998 y 1999, se reportaron 21/52 y 6/85, respectivamente de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae productoras de beta-lactamasas. Conclusiones: Se encontró resistencia in vitro de cepas de N. gonorrhoeae frente a la penicilina y tetraciclina. Los antibióticos que se deben usar para el tratamiento de la infección son: espectinomicina, ceftriaxona, cefotaxima y ciprofloxacina. Por primer vez se reporta en el país, cepas de susceptibilidad disminuida a la azitromicina.

  11. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  12. Diferenciação de cepas de Candida albicans pelo sistema killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celia Cândido

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito killer de 9 cepas padrão de leveduras sobre 146 amostras de Candida albicans isoladas dos seguintes espécimes clínicos: mucosa bucal, fezes, lavado brônquico, escarro, secreção vaginal, urina, lesão de pele, lesão de unha e sangue. Usando este sistema foi possível diferenciar 23 biotipos de C. albicans. Os biotipos 211, 111 e 811 foram os mais freqüentemente isolados. A maioria das amostras de C. albicans (98,6% foi sensível a pelo menos uma ou mais das 9 cepas killer. Empregando- se este sistema foi possível demonstrar que 2 pacientes albergavam mesmo biotipo killer, respectivamente, 111 e 211, em diferentes espécimes clínicos, e em outro paciente, o mesmo biotipo (211 foi isolado de hemoculturas realizadas em ocasiões distintas. O uso do sistema killer para diferenciar os tipos entre as espécies de leveduras patogênicas, pode ser um método útil para estabelecer a eventual fonte de infecção, constituindo uma ajuda valiosa para o controle e vigilância de infecções nosocomiais causadas por leveduras.

  13. Mutagenicity of two herbicides widely used on soybean crops by the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Maruhen Amir Datsch; Ribeiro, Diego Luis; Dos Santos, Thayná Assakawa; Vieira, Gabriela Maciel; Cechinato, Carlye Nicheli; Kazanovski, Michele; Grégio d'Arce, Luciana Paula

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the mutagenic effects of two herbicides: Clorimurom Nortox(®) and Imazaquim Ultra Nortox(®) widely used on soybean crops in Brazil. As a test system, Allium cepa assay was used, which analyzes the frequency of micronuclei (MN), chromosomal aberrations (CA) and the mitotic index (MI). Four concentrations of each herbicide (50, 75, 100 and 125 %) were tested in triplicate using distilled water (negative control) and methyl methanesulfonate (positive control) as controls. Three experimental repetitions were realized. Clorimurom Nortox(®) showed a significantly lower MI than the negative control for the concentrations of 75, 100 and 125 %, but the CA was significantly increased at all concentrations. There was no recovery for CA or MI. The 125 % concentration of Imazaquim Ultra Nortox(®) was cytotoxic and also exerted an effect on the other parameters. The concentration of 100 % showed a statistically increased MN and there was no recovery, while the 75 % concentration significantly affected CA, with recovery observed. The two herbicides showed mutagenic damage in Allium cepa cells, which implies a careful handling of these products, to minimize the risk of human and environmental contamination.

  14. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Hydropower reservoirs: cytotoxic and genotoxic assessment using the Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Cassiano Lazarotto; Zanotelli, Patrícia; Dalegrave, Daniela; De Nez, Dinara; Szczepanik, Jozimar; Carazek, Fábio; Franscescon, Francini; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Siebel, Anna Maria; Magro, Jacir Dal

    2017-02-17

    Hydropower offers a reliable source of electricity in several countries, and Brazil supplies its energy needs almost entirely through hydropower plants. Nevertheless, hydropower plants comprise large buildings and water reservoirs and dams, resulting in huge ecological disruptions. Here, we analyzed the impact of four hydropower reservoirs construction in metals and pesticides incidence and the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of sediment elutriate of rivers from southern Brazil. Our analyses have evidenced the elevated incidence of different metals (lead, iron, cadmium, and chrome) and pesticides (methyl parathion, atrazine, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid). We showed that Allium cepa exposed to sediment elutriates did not change the seed germination rate and mitotic index. However, roots from Allium cepa exposed to reservoirs sediment elutriates showed increased occurrence of chromosomal aberrations and nuclear abnormalities. Therefore, the results obtained in our study indicate that sediment from reservoirs present elevated concentration of metals and pesticides and a significant genotoxic potential. Taken together, our data support that hydropower reservoirs represent an environmental scenario that could impact surrounding wildlife and population.

  16. Cytogenetic effects of three commercially formulated pesticides on somatic and germ cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchy, Aashiq H; Wani, Aijaz A; Kamili, Azra N

    2016-04-01

    Cytological effects of Endosri-ES (endosulfan), Nuvan-NU (dichlorvos), and Kvistin-KS (carbendazim) were evaluated on mitotic and meiotic cells of Allium cepa. Test concentrations were chosen by calculating EC50 values of formulated ES, NU, and KS, which turned to be 60, 200, and 500 ppm (parts per million), respectively. Cytological studies were undertaken on root meristem cells of A. cepa using EC50, 1/2 × EC50, and 2 × EC50 of these pesticides for 24 and 48 h. Similarly, a meiotic study was conducted by applying the pesticides at the aforesaid concentrations from seedling to bud stage. A set of onion bulbs exposed to tap water was run parallel for negative control and maleic hydrazide (112.09 ppm) as positive control. During the study period, mitotic index (MI) decreased at all the pesticide concentrations compared to the negative control. Among various chromosomal aberrations, chromatin bridges, breaks, stickiness, laggard, vagrant chromosomes, fragments, C-mitosis, multipolarity, ring chromosome as well as micronuclei were observed in mitotic preparations. In contrast, meiotic aberrations revealed comparatively less frequency of chromosomal aberrations and the most frequent were lagging chromosome, stray bivalents, secondary association, chromatin bridge, disturbed anaphase, and stickiness. Comparative analysis of the pesticides showed that NU was highly toxic to plant cells than KS, while as ES showed intermediate effects between the two. Further, our study revealed that all the three pesticides produce genotoxic effects which can cause health risks to the human populations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. SELENIUM AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOL COMPOUNDS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

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    Judita Bystrická

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onions (Allium cepa L. are important source of bioactive compounds including polyphenols and have potential beneficial properties for human health. Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient that is required in small amounts. The aim of the research was to find out how selenium (Se treatment affects on the quality of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.The Se treatment increased the content of total polyphenols (TCA and antioxidant activity (AA. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 508.16±27.59 to 607.56±23.15. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 25.90±0.47 to 39.72±2.64.

  18. Genotoxicity of sulcotrione pesticide and photoproducts on Allium cepa root meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Eric; Sta, Chaima; Trivella, Aurélien; Goupil, Pascale; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard

    2014-07-01

    Contamination by toxic agents in the environment has become matters of concern to agricultural countries. Sulcotrione, a triketone herbicide used to control dicotyledonous weeds in maize culture is rapidly photolyzed on plant foliage and generate two main photoproducts the xanthene-1,9-dione-3,4-dihydro-6-methylsulfonyl and 2-chloro-4-mesylbenzoic acid (CMBA). The aim of this study was to analyze the potential toxicity of the herbicide and the irradiated herbicide cocktail. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione were investigated in Allium cepa test. The sulcotrione irradiation was monitored under sunlight simulated conditions to reach 50% of phototransformation. Concentrations of sulcotrione in the range 5 × 10(-)(9)-5 × 10(-)(5)M were tested. Cytological analysis of root tips cells showed that both non irradiated and irradiated sulcotrione caused a dose-dependent decrease of mitotic index with higher cytotoxicity for the irradiated herbicide which can lead to 24.2% reduction of mitotic index compared to water control. Concomitantly, chromosomal aberrations were observed in A.cepa root meristems. Both non irradiated sulcotrione and irradiated sulcotrione induced a dose-dependent increase of chromosomal abnormalities frequencies to a maximal value of 33.7%. A saturating effect in anomaly frequencies was observed in meristems treated with high concentrations of non irradiated sulcotrione only. These data suggest that photolyzed sulcotrione cocktail have a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule and question about the impact of photochemical process on environment.

  19. Genotoxicity of Euphorbia hirta: An Allium cepa Assay

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    Kwan Yuet Ping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential genotoxic effects of methanolic extracts of Euphorbia hirta which is commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseased conditions including asthma, coughs, diarrhea and dysentery was investigated using Allium cepa assay. The extracts of 125, 250, 500 and 1,000 µg/mL were tested on root meristems of A. cepa. Ethylmethanesulfonate was used as positive control and distilled water was used as negative control. The result showed that mitotic index decreased as the concentrations of E. hirta extract increased. A dose-dependent increase of chromosome aberrations was also observed. Abnormalities scored were stickiness, c-mitosis, bridges and vagrant chromosomes. Micronucleated cells were also observed at interphase. Result of this study confirmed that the methanol extracts of E. hirta exerted significant genotoxic and mitodepressive effects at 1,000 µg/mL.

  20. [Chromosome CPD(PI/DAPI)- and CMA/DAPI-banding patterns in Allium cepa L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E S; Punina, E O; Rodionov, A V

    2002-04-01

    Chromosome banding patterns of Allium cepa L. were obtained by using fluorochrome combinations chromomycin A3 (CMA) + 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), DAPI + actinomycin D (AMD) and propidium iodide (PI) + DAPI. In A. cepa, telomeric heterochromatin displayed dull fluorescence after staining with DAPI and DAPI/AMD. After staining with the GC-specific CMA and AT-specific DAPI, the CMA-positive fluorescence of the NOR region and the telomeric bands of C-heterochromatin was observed. In combination with DAPI, PI, a dye with low AT/GC specificity, produced almost uniform fluorescence of chromosomal arms and heterochromatin, whereas the NOR-adjoining regions displayed bright fluorescence. Denaturation of chromosomal DNA (95 degrees C for 1-3 min) followed by renaturation in the 2 x SSC buffer (37 degrees C, 12 h) altered the chromosome fluorescence patterns: specific PI-positive bands appeared and the contrast of CMA-banding increased. Bright fluorescence of the NOR and adjoining regions was also observed in the case. Three-minute denaturation led also to a bright PI-positive fluorescence of telomeric heterochromatin. The denaturation of chromosomal DNA before staining results in changes of the DAPI fluorescence pattern and in the appearance of DAPI fluorescence in GR-rich NOP regions. The mechanisms underlying the effects of denaturation/renaturation procedures on chromosome banding patterns obtained with different fluorochromes are discussed.

  1. POTASSIUM AND ITS EFFECT ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN ONION (ALLIUM CEPA L.

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    Petra Kavalcová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is rich of chemoprotective compounds as polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, vitamins, sulphur compounds which have potential beneficial properties for human health. Potassium as important mineral abundant plays many vital roles in plant nutrition (reduces respiration, activates enzyme. In generally, potassium increases crop yield and improves quality of onion bulbs. The objectives of this work were to compare and evaluate the impact of potassium on the content of total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of onion (Allium cepa L.. The content of the total polyphenols was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR. The absorbance was measured at 765 nm of wave length against blank. Antioxidant activity was measured using a compound DPPH˙ (2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl at 515.6 nm in the spectrophotometer. The content of total polyphenols in samples of onion during vegatation period moved in the range from 505.6 mg GAE/kg ±25.18 to 621.49 mgGAE/kg ±13.41. In this work was watched also the influence of potassium on antioxidant activity, where values were in interval from 32.20 %± 0.58 to 44.67 % ±0.68.

  2. Sistema de Lotes de Siembra de la cepa vacunal Vibrio cholerae 638

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    Carmen A. del Puerto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available En la producción de biológicos, especialmente en aquellos obtenidos a partir de microorganismos, resulta imprescindible contar con un suministro de células caracterizado y estable, como punto de partida para la producción. El concepto de Sistema de Lotes de Siembra en dos niveles, en el cual el Lote de Siembra de Referencia es usado para generar el Lote de Siembra de Trabajo, es considerado el enfoque más práctico para lograr este propósito. En este trabajo se elaboraron los Lotes de Siembra de Referencia y de Trabajo de la cepa vacunal Vibrio cholerae 638, primera etapa de la fabricación de una vacuna contra el cólera, cumpliendo con los requerimientos de Buenas Prácticas de Producción (BPP, lo que constituye una exigencia de las autoridades regulatorias nacionales e internacionales. La caracterización de los lotes demostró que se lograron adecuados niveles de viabilidad y se conservaron inalterables las características de la cepa original en cuanto a identidad, pureza, atenuación de su virulencia, capacidad de colonizar el intestino delgado de ratones lactantes y de inducir una respuesta inmune.

  3. The cyto- and genotoxic effects induced by sulphates in Allium cepa L.

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    Elena DOROFTEI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to assess the cyto- and genotoxic effects of sulphate on Allium cepa mitosis for root meristem. Three different concentrations of sodium sulphate (i.e. 0,1%; 1% and 5% have been used, in which the onion bulbs were immersed for different periods of time such as 6, 24 and 72 hours. In the end of the experiment the harvested root tips were prepared according to Feulgen’s squash technique and using Schiff reagent. The cytotoxic effects of sulphate were investigated by calculating the mitotic index and also through the analysis of chromosomes alterations during the mitosis. The phase ratio of cells undergoing mitosis in all the phases is estimated for all variants. For microscopy investigations it was used a Novex Holland B microscope with digital camera included. The cytological analysis realized on Allium cepa revealed a strong decrease in the mitotic index due to sulphate treatments which is more intense with the time of exposure. Moreover this phenomenon is associated with the appearance of different chromosomal complement alterations including the appearance of highly condensed chromatin. The mitotic index and genotoxic observations over the chromosomes can also be correlated with phase ratio of cells undergoing mitosis.

  4. Chromosomal aberrations induced by Glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells

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    N.Panneerselvam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glycidol is used as a stabilizer in the manufacture of vinyl polymers and natural oils and as an intermediate in the synthesis of glycerol, glycidyl ethers, and amines. It is also used as an alkylating agent,demulsifier, and dye-leveling agent and for sterilizing milk of magnesia. Glycidol is an alkylating agent which reacts readily with glutathione; it causes a decrease in glutathione content in rat liver, probably reflecting its binding to glutathione. It is a suspected reproductive toxicant and exposure to it has the potential to negatively affect the human reproductive system. The study investigated the cytotoxic effects of glycidol in Allium cepa L root meristem cells. Different concentrations of glycidol ranging 10, 20, 40 and 50μg/ml for 1, 2, 3 and 5h were treated with root meristem cells of Allium cepa L. Fuelgen squash technique was used to determine the aberrations in root tip cells. For each concentration 3000 well-spread cells were scored and cytological abnormalities such as break, gap, exchange, multiple breaks and chromosome fragments were observed. One way analysis of variance was used the study the significant different control and treatment exposed root tip cells.Significant difference between control and glycidol exposed cells were observed. Increasing concentrations increased the number of chromosomal aberrations.

  5. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica Antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus, Costa Rica

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    Víctor Hugo Alvarado

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar y comparar los perfiles de resistencia de cepas de S. aureus aisladas de quesos, producidos en la Zona Sur de Costa Rica y de un centro hospitalario de la misma región. Materiales y Métodos: Se analizaron 35 muestras de queso fresco, adquiridas durante los meses de setiembre y octubre del 2010 en la zona de San Vito de Coto Brus. A cada muestra se le realizaron recuentos de coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y Staphylococcus aureus. Adicionalmente se analizó presencia/ausencia de Listeria monocytogenes en 25 gramos del producto. A las cepas identificadas como S. aureus se les realizó la prueba de sensibilidad a los antibióticos mediante el sistema automatizado Vitek y la interpretación de los datos se realizó siguiendo las pautas del Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute antimicrobial susceptibility testing 2011. Adicional a esto se recolectaron datos acerca de la sensibilidad de las cepas de S. aureus aisladas e identificadas en el Hospital de San Vito de Coto Brus en el mismo período. Resultados: El promedio obtenido para el recuento de coliformes totales fue de 9,7 X 10(6 UFC/g, para coliformes fecales de 6,7 X 10(5 y para S. aureus de 2,8 X 10(5 UFC/g, obteniéndose un 83 % de muestras positivas por esta bacteria. En cuanto a la resistencia antimicrobiana, se obtuvieron porcentajes de resistencia mayores en las cepas de origen clínico. Se encontró también que 23 de las cepas (96% provenientes de muestras clínicas, presentaban resistencia a más de un antibiótico, mientras que siete de las obtenidas a partir de queso (27% presentaban esta característica. Con respecto a los betalactamicos (ampicilina, oxacilina y penicilina se observó la existencia de una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (pObjective: determined and compared the resistance patters of S. aureus strains isolated from cheese produced in the southern zone of Costa Rica and from clinical samples isolated at the hospital center

  6. Comportamiento de cepas argentinas del virus de la Coriomeningitis Linfocitaria en roedores Behavior of Argentine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus strains in rodents

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    María Del Cármen Saavedra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La actividad del virus LCM fue informada en Argentina a comienzos de la década del 70 y sólo han sido aisladas cinco cepas a partir del roedor Mus domesticus y dos de humanos. El objetivo de este trabajo consistió en investigar características biológicas de las cepas argentinas de virus LCM para compararlas entre sí y respecto a las cepas históricas WE y Armstrong. En células L 929 se obtuvieron placas bajo agarosa tanto con las cepas humanas como con las cepas de ratón, pero en células Vero sólo se obtuvieron placas con las cepas humanas. No se observó ninguna característica morfométrica de las placas que distinguiera nítidamente a las cepas históricas de las cepas argentinas, ni se observaron diferencias que se relacionen con las especies de origen de las cepas. Las cepas históricas y las cepas argentinas no fueron letales para ratón recién nacido (rrn generando una infección persistente, según se comprobó al inocular ratones recién nacidos (rrn por vía intracerebral con cepas de virus LCM y detectarse virus en los cerebros cosechados a diferentes días post inoculación. La única excepción fue la cepa Cba An 13065 que resultó virulenta para rrn ya que con sólo 0.026 UFP se logró 1 DL50. Todas las cepas resultaron letales en ratón adulto (rad, siendo las cepas de ratón más virulentas que las cepas de humanos. Estos resultados permitieron evidenciar el diferente comportamiento en cultivos celulares de las cepas de ratón con respecto a las cepas humanas, e identificar marcadores de virulencia mediante la respuesta a la inoculación por vía intracerebral del rad y del rrn.The activity of LCM virus was first reported in Argentina at the beginning of the seventies and only five strains have been isolated from rodents Mus domesticus and two from humans. The objective of this paper was to find differential biological characteristics of Argentine strains of LCM virus comparing them in relation to the historical

  7. Combined Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis infection in a patient with oesophageal perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, You La; Yang, John Jeongseok; Kim, Min Jin; Lim, Gayoung; Cho, Sun Young; Park, Tae Sung; Suh, Jin-Tae; Park, Yong Ho; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Soo Cheol; Lee, Hee Joo

    2012-12-01

    Species of the genus Bacillus are a common laboratory contaminant, therefore, isolation of these organisms from blood cultures does not always indicate infection. In fact, except for Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, most species of the genus Bacillus are not considered human pathogens, especially in immunocompetent individuals. Here, we report an unusual presentation of bacteraemia and mediastinitis due to co-infection with Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, which were identified by 16S RNA gene sequencing, in a patient with an oesophageal perforation.

  8. Disponibilidade hídrica e germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L. Water availability and germination of onion seeds (Allium cepa L.

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    Z. Piana

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência do teor de água do substrato na germinação de sementes de cebola (Allium cepa L., conduziu-se um ensaio sob condições de ambiente de laboratório. Os efeitos de cinco níveis de água no substrato solo x areia (3:1, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% da capacidade de retenção foram avaliados através da porcentagem de emergência no 14° dia da semeadura e pesos da matéria verde e seca das plântulas normais. Para tanto, 200 sementes do cultivar Pira Ouro por tratamento, em quatro repetições de 50, foram semeadas a 1,5 cm de profundidade, mantendo-se constantes os níveis de água no substrato. Os resultados possibilitaram concluir que os níveis de umidade do solo indicados para germinação de sementes de cebola são de 40% e 60% da capacidade de retenção do substrato, por possibilitarem uma melhor emergência, peso da matéria verde e seca das plântulas.One essay was conducted under laboratory conditions, in order to verify the influence of substrate water content on the germination of onion (Allium cepa L. seeds. The effect of five water levels in the medium soil x sand (3:1 - 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% retention capacity-were evaluated through the emergence percentage 14 days after seedling and the weight of fresh and dry matters of normal seedlings. For that purpose, 200 treated seeds of Pira Ouro cultivar were sown 1.5 cm deep in four replicátions of 50, with a constant water content in the medium. The best results showed that the soil moisture levels suggested for the germination of onion seeds were 40% to 60% of the substrate retention capacity, once they provide better emergence, weight of the fresh and dry matters of seedlings.

  9. Comportamento da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni, após passagem em hospedeiro humano infectado acidentalmente

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    Neusa Araújo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma auxiliar de laboratório infectou-se acidentalmente, com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios. Decorridos 5 meses, o exame parasitológico de fezes revelou 108 ovos/g . A pacientefoi tratada com oxamniquine, porém a infecção continuou ativa (6 ovos/g. Foi então obtido o isolado SSF mantido no modelo Biomphalaria glabrata - camundongo albino. Os resultados obtidos no estudo comparativo, entre o isolado SSF e a cepa LE, que lhe deu origem, mostraram que a duração do período pré-patente e o índice de infectividade em camundongos, bem como a resposta aos agentes esquistossomicidas (hycanthone, oxamniquine epraziquantel não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Por outro lado, o número de miracídios obtidos dos intestinos e fígados dos camundongos infectados foi o dobro com a cepa LE, quando comparados com aquele do isolado SSF. Também a variação do peso dos animais foi bastante diferente. Concluiu-se que apenas uma passagem pelo hospedeiro humano não mudou substancialmente as características da cepa estudada.

  10. The diversity and abundance of small arthropods in onion, Allium cepa, seed crops, and their potential role in pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M K; Howlett, B G; Wallace, A R; McCallum, J A; Teulon, D A J

    2011-01-01

    Onion, Allium cepa L. (Asparagales: Amaryllidaceae), crop fields grown for seed production require arthropod pollination for adequate seed yield. Although many arthropod species visit A. cepa flowers, for most there is little information on their role as pollinators. Small flower visiting arthropods (body width cepa seed fields in the North and South Islands of New Zealand using window traps revealed that small arthropods were highly abundant among all except one field. Insects belonging to the orders Diptera and Thysanoptera were the most abundant and Hymenoptera, Collembola, Psocoptera, Hemiptera, and Coleoptera were also present. To test whether small arthropods might contribute to pollination, seed sets from umbels caged within 3 mm diameter mesh cages were compared with similarly caged, hand-pollinated umbels and uncaged umbels. Caged umbels that were not hand-pollinated set significantly fewer seeds (average eight seeds/umbel, n = 10) than caged hand-pollinated umbels (average 146 seeds/umbel) and uncaged umbels (average 481 seeds/umbel). Moreover, sticky traps placed on umbels within cages captured similar numbers of small arthropods as sticky traps placed on uncaged umbels, suggesting cages did not inhibit the movement of small arthropods to umbels. Therefore, despite the high abundance of small arthropods within fields, evidence to support their role as significant pollinators of commercial A. cepa seed crops was not found.

  11. Genotypic variation in sulfur assimilation and metabolism of onion (Allium cepa L.) III. Characterization of sulfite reductase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic and cDNA sequences corresponding to a ferredoxin-sulfite reductase (SiR) have been cloned from bulb onion (Allium cepa L.) and the expression of the gene and activity of the enzyme characterised with respect to sulfur (S) supply. Cloning, mapping and expression studies revealed that onion ha...

  12. Immunolcocalization of actin in intact and DNA—and histone—depleted nuclei and chromosomes of allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANLIHONG; MIAOXING

    1998-01-01

    The presence of actin in eukaryotic nuclei and chromosomes,and especially in higher plant nuclei and chromosomes,has not been well established.We detected actin in meristematic cells of Allium cepa with indirect immunofluorescence technique and observed bright fluorescence in the intact nuclei and chromosomes,indicating that actin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of the higher plant.We labeld sections of the meristematic cells of A.cepa with immunogold technique,gold parti cles were concentrated in condensed chromatin and nucleoli,confirming the results of the immunofluoresence observations.We traeated the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa with DNase I and 2M NaCl and obtained DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chromosomes.Indirect immunofluorescence tests showed that the DNA-and histonedepleted nuclei and chromosomes reacted positively with the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that the anti-actin antibodies.These results demonstrate that actin exists not only in intact nuclei and chromosomes,but also in DNA-and histone-depleted nuclei and chrmosomes of the plant.In addition,our immuno-fluorescence tests indicate that tropomyosin is present in the nuclei and chromosomes of A.cepa.

  13. Determinación de la Variedad de Cepas de Cryptococcus Neoformans aisladas de pacientes con SIDA

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    C Canelo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans tiene 2 variedades: neoformans y gattii. El primero afecta a pacientes inmunosuprimidos y la variedad gattii produce enfermedad en individuos aparentemente sanos originando compromiso neurológico. En nuestro país no se realizan pruebas bioquímicas diferenciales, por lo que este estudio permitió estandarizar un método de tipificación de las variedades en cepas de C. neoformans de origen clínico mantenidas en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú (INS. Entre abril de 1997 y diciembre de 1998, el INS recibió 18 cepas de C. neoformans aisladas de pacientes con SIDA. La confirmación de las especies fue realizada según métodos convencionales: observación de levaduras encapsuladas, prueba de la urea, asimilación de carbohidratos y tolerancia a la temperatura. Adicionalmente se verificó la ausencia de la enzima nitrato reductasa y se realizó la prueba de la fenoloxidasa modificada. Las 18 cepas fueron tipificadas como variedad neoformans usando el agar CGB. No se encontró ninguna cepa de variedad gattii.

  14. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharadi, Geeta B; Patel, Kaksha J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, C B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only.

  15. 维药洋葱子质量标准研究%Research on quality specification of Allium cepa seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翡翠; 何强; 聂继红

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Allium cepa seed by setting up the quality control specification of Allium cepa seed. Methods: Collecting different origin of 10 batch Allium cepa seed samples.the original plant of which were identificated, the properties of which were described, the powder of which were microscopic identificated. And Allium cepa seed were identificated on TLC method in contrast to p -Sitosterol. Determination of the 10 batch Allium cepa seed of impurities, moisture, ash, peroxide value and extract according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version (Vol I ) of appendix K H and K. The fatty oil determination method of Allium cepa seed were inspected according to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 version (Vol I ) of appendix K N. Results: The origins, macroscopic and microscopic identification of Allium cepa seed are described, and the TLC identification method was formulated with thiacyclohexane-ethyl ether-ethyl acetate (20^5.5:2.5) as developing solvent, temporarily formulating impurities can not lead 1.4%, moisture can not lead 10.0%, total ashes can not lead 12.0%, acid-insoluble ashes can not lead 6.50%, peroxide value can not lead 0.13, extract not less 10.00%. Determine the fatty oil of Allium cepa seed shall be not less than 9.0% . Conclusion: Setting the Allium cepa seed quality control standard can be used to evaluate the quality of Allium cepa seed.%目的:建立维药洋葱子的质量控制标准.方法:于不同产地采集10批洋葱子样品,对其原植物进行鉴定,对其性状进行鉴别;对其粉末进行显微鉴别;以β-谷甾醇为对照品对洋葱子药材进行薄层色谱鉴别;按照《中国药典》2010年版(一部)附录测定10批洋葱子药材的杂质、水分、总灰分、酸不溶性灰分、过氧化值、浸出物;按照《中国药典》2010年版(一部)附录测定10批洋葱子药材的脂肪油含量.结果:对洋葱子药材的来源、性状进行了描

  16. Emergencia a la resistencia antibiótica en cepas de Campylobacter jejuni aisladas de carne de pollo

    OpenAIRE

    Giacoboni, Gabriela; Cerdá, Raúl Oscar; López, C.

    2001-01-01

    Se estudió la resistencia de Campylobacter jejuni a 2 de los antimicrobianos más utilizados para la terapia humana y animal (eritromicina y norfloxacina) a partir de cepas aisladas de carcasas y menudencias de pollo. En 42 (35%) de las 120 muestras procesadas se aisló la especie Campylobacter jejuni biotipo II de Lior. Se seleccionaron 28 cepas por su resistencia al ácido nalidíxico (disco de 30 µg) para probar la susceptibilidad a la norfloxacina y eritromicina. El 71,4% (20) de las cepas re...

  17. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo,Pablo

    2010-01-01

    [ES] La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína produ...

  18. Nuevas cepas de duganella aisladas de la rizosfera de olivo silvestre y cultivado y su uso en la producción de violaceína

    OpenAIRE

    Landa, Blanca B.; Aranda Ocampo, Sergio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Castillo Castillo, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere a unas cepas bacterianas de Duganella spp. obtenidas de la rizosfera de olivos silvestres y cultivados. Preferentemente las cepas son CECT 7779, CECT 7780 y CECT 7781 y más preferentemente la cepa bacteriana es CECT 7780. Además, la presente invención se refiere a sus combinaciones con otros microorganismos y a las composiciones que comprenden los productos anteriores, así como a un procedimiento para la producción de violaceína y a la violaceína producida par...

  19. CLASIFICACIÓN TAXONÓMICA DE LA CEPA DE HONGO MICORRIZÓGENO ARBUSCULAR INCAM-2 COMO Funneliformis mosseae, syn. Glomus mosseae

    OpenAIRE

    Yakelin Rodríguez; Yolande Dalpé; Sylvie Séguin

    2014-01-01

    Dentro de la colección de cepas de hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA) del INCA se destaca por su importancia económica y ecológica la cepa INCAM-2, al constituir la base de biopreparados que se aplican en diversos sistemas agrícolas y se comercializan ampliamente a nivel mundial. El objetivo de este trabajo fue confirmar la clasificación taxonómica preliminar realizada de dicha cepa, mediante taxonomía polifásica. Para ello se analizaron con mayor profundidad las características mor...

  20. Resistencia a beta-lactámicos mediada por plásmidos en cepas de pseudomonas aeruginosa de origen clínico

    OpenAIRE

    González Rizo, Aileen; Salazar Rodríguez, Daniel; Rojas Hernández, Nidia; Hernandez Carpio, Yasmín

    2003-01-01

    Se estudiaron 117 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa con el objetivo de determinar si la resistencia a beta-lactámicos se encontraba mediada por plásmidos, realizándoles el estudio de sensibilidad in vitro frente a azlocilina, carbenicilina, cefuroxima, cefotaxima y ceftazidima. El análisis plasmídico y la producción de beta-lactamasas se llevó a cabo con las 117 cepas. El experimento de transconjungación se realizó con aquellas cepas productoras de beta-lactamasas resistentes al menos a un anti...

  1. Efficacy assessment of acid mine drainage treatment with coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremias, Reginaldo; Bortolotto, Tiago; Wilhelm-Filho, Danilo; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with calcinated coal mining waste using Allium cepa L. as a bioindicator. The pH values and the concentrations of aluminum, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, lead and sulfate were determined before and after the treatment of the AMD with calcinated coal mining waste. Allium cepa L. was exposed to untreated and treated AMD, as well as to mineral water as a negative control (NC). At the end of the exposure period, the inhibition of root growth was measured and the mean effective concentration (EC(50)) was determined. Oxidative stress biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) in the fleshy leaves of the bulb, as well as the DNA damage index (ID) in meristematic cells, were evaluated. The results indicated that the AMD treatment with calcinated coal mining waste resulted in an increase in the pH and an expressive removal of aluminum, iron, manganese and zinc. A high sub-chronic toxicity was observed when Allium cepa L. was exposed to the untreated AMD. However, after the treatment no toxicity was detected. Levels of TBARS and PC, CAT activity and the DNA damage index were significantly increased (PAllium cepa L. exposed to untreated AMD when compared to treated AMD and also to negative controls. No significant alteration in the GSH content was observed. In conclusion, the use of calcinated coal mining waste associated with toxicological tests on Allium cepa L. represents an alternative system for the treatment and biomonitoring of these types of environmental contaminants.

  2. Avaliação in vitro de uma cepa de campo de Boophilus microplus (Acari : Ixodidae resistente à amitraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santamaría Vargas Minerva

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso dos acaricidas químicos ainda se constitui no principal instrumento de controle do carrapato bovino Boophilus microplus. No sul do Brasil, o amitraz aplicado por imersão e aspersão é o ingrediente ativo mais utilizado, nos últimos anos, contra as cepas de carrapatos resistentes aos organofosforados (OF e piretróides sintéticos (PS. Em conseqüência, torna-se importante a realização de investigações que possam contribuir para prolongar a vida útil desse ixodicida. No presente estudo, foi analisado o comportamento toxicológico de uma cepa de B. microplus colhida na localidade de Alegrete, Rio Grande do Sul, usando-se químicos da família dos OF, PS, misturas OF/PS, além do amitraz. Os resultados indicaram que a cepa denominada "Santa Luiza" apresentou fatores de resistência (FR que variaram entre 2,3 e 3,95 para OF, 23,3 e 147,56 para PS e de 3,76 a 21.57 para amitraz em testes realizados com larvas de carrapatos. A caracterização e purificação de uma cepa de B. microplus resistente ao amitraz permitem seu uso como cepa de referência para a avaliação biológica de ixodicidas alternativos, além de padronizar e validar métodos de diagnósticos toxicológicos que possam detectar resistência frente a esse acaricida.

  3. Dissection of Trichoderma longibrachiatum-induced defense in onion (Allium cepa L.) against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa by target metabolite profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Abdel-Motaal, Fatma; El-Sayed, Magdi; Jogaiah, Sudisha; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-ichi; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-05-01

    Trichoderma spp. are versatile opportunistic plant symbionts that can cause substantial changes in the metabolism of host plants, thereby increasing plant growth and activating plant defense to various diseases. Target metabolite profiling approach was selected to demonstrate that Trichoderma longibrachiatum isolated from desert soil can confer beneficial agronomic traits to onion and induce defense mechanism against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepa (FOC), through triggering a number of primary and secondary metabolite pathways. Onion seeds primed with Trichoderma T1 strain displayed early seedling emergence and enhanced growth compared with Trichoderma T2-treatment and untreated control. Therefore, T1 was selected for further investigations under greenhouse conditions, which revealed remarkable improvement in the onion bulb growth parameters and resistance against FOC. The metabolite platform of T1-primed onion (T1) and T1-primed onion challenged with FOC (T1+FOC) displayed significant accumulation of 25 abiotic and biotic stress-responsive metabolites, representing carbohydrate, phenylpropanoid and sulfur assimilation metabolic pathways. In addition, T1- and T1+FOC-treated onion plants showed discrete antioxidant capacity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) compared with control. Our findings demonstrated the contribution of T. longibrachiatum to the accumulation of key metabolites, which subsequently leads to the improvement of onion growth, as well as its resistance to oxidative stress and FOC.

  4. Isolation and Primary Identification of Salt-tolerant Bacillus in Northeast of China%东北地区耐盐芽胞杆菌筛选统计及初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜传英; 李海涛; 刘荣梅; 谢滨姣; 张金波; 高继国

    2014-01-01

    采用温度筛选与表面定向培养相结合的方法对东北地区土壤中可培养耐盐芽胞杆菌进行分离和筛选,得到137株芽胞杆菌,其中耐盐芽胞杆菌74株,占总芽胞杆菌数量的54%,最适盐浓度均为1%,耐盐能力在4%-14%之间.通过扩增耐盐菌株的16SrRNA基因序列,对其进行分子鉴定和分类,获得东北地区土壤中可培养的耐盐芽胞杆菌的多样性信息.通过同源性比对和耐盐性差异,确定36株差异耐盐芽胞杆菌,分属于芽胞杆菌属中的7个种.其中多数菌株为苏云金芽胞杆菌(Bacillusthuringiensis)(14株,占总数38.9%,最高耐盐性在4%-9%NaCl之间).其次依次为蜡样芽胞杆菌(Bacillus cereus)(7株,19.4%,4%-8%NaCl),枯草芽胞杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)(7株,19.4%,8%-11%NaCl),炭疽芽胞杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)(4株,11.1%,5%-7%NaCl),弯曲芽胞杆菌(Bacillus flexus)(2株,5.6%,9%-14%NaCl),球形芽胞杆菌(Bacillus sphaericus)(1株,2.8%,5%NaCl)和阿氏芽胞杆菌(Bacillus aryabhattai)(1株,2.8%,6%NaCl).弯曲芽胞杆菌和枯草芽胞杆菌的耐盐能力较好.从中选取3株代表菌株,明确了其培养特性、形态特征及生理生化特性,并对其分别进行了系统发育分析.

  5. Photothermal spectroscopy of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus with microcantilevers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wig, Andrew G [ORNL; Arakawa, Edward T [ORNL; Passian, Ali [ORNL; Ferrell, Thomas L [ORNL; Thundat, Thomas George [ORNL

    2006-03-01

    Microcalorimetric optical and infrared spectroscopy is a method of determining the spectral absorption of small quantities of materials over a wide range of incident wavelengths. In this paper, the first spectroscopic results for microcantilevers coated with Bacillus anthracis (BA) are presented. These results, for B. anthracis from 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m, are compared with results from microcantilevers coated with Bacillus cereus (BC) and standard spectroscopic absorption data. The results demonstrate strong correlation between the deflection measurements and the reference spectroscopic absorption peaks. An advantage of this microcantilever-based method over traditional spectroscopy is that much smaller amounts of material (nanogram quantities) can be detected in comparison with the milligram amounts needed for standard methods. Another advantage is that the complete system can be relatively small without sacrificing spectral resolution.

  6. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  7. Multitechnique study on a recombinantly produced Bacillus halodurans laccase and an S-layer/laccase fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner-Ortner-Bleckmann, Judith; Schrems, Angelika; Ilk, Nicola; Egelseer, Eva M; Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard

    2011-06-01

    Methods for organizing functional materials at the nanometer scale are essential for the development of novel fabrication techniques. One of the most relevant areas of research in nanobiotechnology concerns technological utilization of self-assembly systems, wherein molecules spontaneously associate into reproducible supramolecular structures. For this purpose, the laccase of Bacillus halodurans C-125 was immobilized on the S-layer lattice formed by SbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 either by (i) covalent linkage of the enzyme to the natural protein self-assembly system or (ii) by construction of a fusion protein comprising the S-layer protein and the laccase. The laccase and the S-layer fusion protein were produced heterologously in Escherichia coli. After isolation and purification, the properties of the proteins, as well as the specific activity of the enzyme moiety, were investigated. Interestingly, the S-layer part confers a much higher solubility on the laccase as observed for the sole enzyme. Comparative spectrophotometric measurements of the enzyme activity revealed similar but significantly higher values for rLac and rSbpA/Lac in solution compared to the immobilized state. However, rLac covalently linked to the SbpA monolayer yielded a four to five time higher enzymatic activity than rSbpA/Lac immobilized on a solid support. Combined quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and electrochemical measurements (performed in an electrochemical QCM-D cell) revealed that rLac immobilized on the SbpA lattice had an approximately twofold higher enzymatic activity compared to that obtained with the fusion protein.

  8. beta-Amylase production by some Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus polymyxa [correction of polymaxa] strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niziołek, S

    1997-01-01

    The production of extracellular beta-amylase by some Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus polymyxa [corrected] strains was investigated, and the maximal yields of the enzyme were 3.6; 9.3 and 20.4 U/mL of the culture fluid, respectively (U, 1 mumol of maltose equivalent per min at 30 degrees C). Several cultivation media were used for beta-amylase production. Bacillus cereus and some strains of Bacillus megaterium gave good yields of beta-amylase only in medium with the addition of nutrient broth. However, beta-amylase produced during growth in protein rich medium (nutrient broth) was highly unstable, probably due to inactivation by proteolytic enzymes co-existing in the culture fluid. Bacillus polymyxa [corrected] strains can produce good yields of beta-amylase on a semi-synthetic medium consisting of inorganic salts, potato starch and inexpensive soybean extract instead of costly peptone and meat extract. The most potential beta-amylase producer was the strain Bacillus polymyxa [corrected] NCIB 8524. The tested Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus polymyxa [corrected] strains were apparently differentiated by temperature cultivation (30 and 37 degrees C) suitable for beta-amylase amylase yield.

  9. Development of a disposable pyruvate biosensor to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abayomi, L A; Terry, L A; White, S F; Warner, P J

    2006-05-15

    A disposable prototype pyruvate biosensor was constructed using pyruvate oxidase immobilised on mediated meldolas blue electrodes to determine pungency in onions (Allium cepa L.). The optimum operating potential was +150 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). A strong correlation between the biosensor response and untreated onion juice of known pyruvate concentration 2-12 micromol/g fresh weight (FW) was demonstrated. The biosensor was able to differentiate between low and high pungency onions. The detection limit using 1 unit of pyruvate oxidase was 1-2 micromol/g FW. Optimum concentrations of co-factors TPP, FAD and MgSO4 comprising the enzyme cocktail were determined as being 0.04, 0.1 and 30 mM, respectively.

  10. Induction of microtubule damage in Allium cepa meristematic cells by pharmaceutical formulations of thiabendazole and griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Nancy B; Soloneski, Sonia; Larramendy, Marcelo L; Mudry, Marta D

    2014-09-15

    Microtubules (MT) are formed by the assembly of α- and β-tubulins and MT-associated proteins. We characterized the effects of pharmaceutical formulations containing the microtubule disruptors thiabendazole (TBZ) and griseofulvin (GF) on the mitotic machinery of plant (A. cepa) meristematic cells. GF concentrations between 10 and 250 μg/ml were tested. GF induced mitotic index inhibition and genotoxic effects, including chromosome fragments, bridges, lagged chromosomes, C-metaphases, tripolar cell division, disorganized anaphases and nuclear abnormalities in interphase cells. Efects on the mitotic machinery were studied by direct immunofluorescence with β-tubulin labeling and by DNA counterstaining with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Exposure of meristematic root cells to TBZ or GF, 100 μg/ml, caused microtubular damage which led to abnormal MT arrays. Our results suggest that GF induces abnormalities in spindle symmetry/polarity, while TBZ causes chromosome missegregation, polyploidy, and lack of cytokinesis.

  11. Arbuscular mycorrhiza improves yield and nutritional properties of onion (Allium cepa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozpądek, Piotr; Rąpała-Kozik, Maria; Wężowicz, Katarzyna; Grandin, Anna; Karlsson, Stefan; Ważny, Rafał; Anielska, Teresa; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Improving the nutritional value of commonly cultivated crops is one of the most pending problems for modern agriculture. In natural environments plants associate with a multitude of fungal microorganisms that improve plant fitness. The best described group are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These fungi have been previously shown to improve the quality and yield of several common crops. In this study we tested the potential utilization of Rhizophagus irregularis in accelerating growth and increasing the content of important dietary phytochemicals in onion (Allium cepa). Our results clearly indicate that biomass production, the abundance of vitamin B1 and its analogues and organic acid concentration can be improved by inoculating the plant with AM fungi. We have shown that improved growth is accompanied with up-regulated electron transport in PSII and antioxidant enzyme activity.

  12. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils.

  13. PNO-CEPA and MCSCF-SCEP calculations of transition probabilities in OH, HF + , and HCl +

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Hans-Joachim; Rosmus, Pavel; Schätzl, Wolfgang; Meyer, Wilfried

    1984-01-01

    Electronic transition moment functions for the A 2Σ+-X2Π transitions in OH, HF+, and HCl+ have been calculated using RHF, PNO-CI, PNO-CEPA, MCSCF, and MCSCF-SCEP wave functions. The vibrational band transition probabilities are obtained, and the resulting radiative lifetimes are compared with measured values. For OH and HCl+ the deviations are smaller than 10%, but the theoretical lifetimes for HF+ are larger by about 300% than the experimental values. For the electronic ground states of HF+ and HCl+ vibrational transition probabilities have been calculated from MCSCF-SCEP dipole moment functions. Both ions are predicted to be excellent absorbers and emitters in the infrared spectral region.

  14. Genotoxicity of tetrodotoxin from puffer fish tested in root meristem cells of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khora, S S; Panda, K K; Panda, B B

    1997-07-01

    Tetrodotoxin (TTX) extracted and purified from puffer fish Arothron nigropunctatus was tested for genotoxicity employing the root meristem cells of Allium cepa as the assay system. The genotoxicity endpoints investigated were mitotic index (MI), meta-anaphases with spindle aberrations, interphases with micronuclei (MNC) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in metaphase chromosomes. The results demonstrated that TTX inhibited mitosis at concentrations of > or = 30 microM as evident by the fall of MI, but failed to induce MNC at significant levels at any of the concentrations tested (10-100 microM). TTX was thus proved to be neither clastogenic nor aneugenic in the present study. It was, however, noteworthy that TTX at far lower concentrations, 0.1-5.0 microM, significantly enhanced the frequencies of SCE which indicated possible interference of the toxin in DNA replication and repair.

  15. Effects of cobalt (III) complexes of Schiff bases on root tip mitosis. [Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanu, T.; Krishna, B.A.; Dhananjoy, K.; Satyabrata, R.; Kamalendu, D.

    1984-01-01

    Cytological effects of two newly synthesized Cobalt (III) complexes, namely, (Co(BSOP)(NH/sub 3/)/sub 2/)(NO/sub 3/), (1) and (Co(BSOP)(PY)/sub 2/)(NO/sub 3/), (2) (where, BSOP = dianion of N,N-orthophenylenebis (salicylaldimine), Py = pyridine) were studied on Allium cepa root tip cells. Many interesting abnormalities, including diplochromatic structure, grouping, stickiness, beadedness, erosion, fragmentation and bridge formation of chromosomes and granulation of the interphase nucleus were observed under the influence of these cobalt (III) complexes. The mitotic index had been simulated at threshold concentrations, but affected at higher concentrations and prolonged treatment. The inhibitory action in prolonged treatment may be due to an accumulation effect. Mechanisms of such effects have been discussed qualitatively and are described as a non-delayed type. 4 figures, 2 tables.

  16. [On the effect of Chinese lacquer upon the cell division of root tip of Allium cepa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, H; Liang, W

    1997-01-01

    Chinese Lacquer, as a fine coating, has been studied and applied for thousands years. The allergic reaction in Chinese Lacquer on the human skin has also been known early. The reaction of Chinese Lacquer on mitosis of cell in plant meristem have not been reported yet and was carefully studied in this paper. The result showed that Chinese Lacquer induced severe abnormality of mitotic division in Allium cepa root tips. This was more obvious in the anaphase and telophase, especially in the former phase laggard chromosomes, chromosome bridges, acentric fragments and polypolar distribution could be seen frequently. A lot of polynuclear bodies were observed in the telophase. Therefore, we think that the Chinese Lacquer can be used as a plant cell mutagen, and suggest geneticists and physiologists to do more researches on the effects of Chinese Lacquer at the genetic variation, metabolism etc.

  17. Effects of bromine on mitosis in root-tips of Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chury, J.; Slouka, V.

    1949-01-01

    The root-tips of Allium cepa, 1.5-2 cm. long, were exposed to pure bromine vapor for five minutes. The root-tips were then washed for ten minutes in water, and kept in fresh-water at a temperature of 20-24/sup 0/C. Squash preparations were made and stained according to the method of Darlington and La Cour. Bromine acting for five minutes on the root-tips of Allium has a specific effect on the cell nucleus in the resting stage. The effects induced are shown thirty-six hours after treatment by spindle abnormalities in metaphase and anaphase, and result in polyploidy in a large number of cells. Bromine produces chromosome and chromatid fragmentation; the latter may be followed by reunion. The effect of the bromine is cumulative and depends on the time which elapses between treatment and fixation. The cytological effects induced by bromine strongly suggest that it is another specific mutafacient chemical.

  18. Economical and environmentally-friendly approaches for usage of onion (Allium cepa L.) waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Mahato, Neelima; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Lee, Eul Tal; Lee, Yong Rok

    2016-08-10

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most commonly cultivated crops across the globe, and its production is increasing every year due to increasing consumer demand. Simultaneously, huge amounts of waste are produced from different parts of the onion, which ultimately affect the environment in various ways. Hence, proper usage as well as disposal of this waste is important from the environmental aspect. This review summarizes various usage methods of onion waste material, and processes involved to achieve maximum benefits. Processing industries produce the largest amount of onion waste. Other sources are storage systems, domestic usage and cultivation fields. Particular emphasis has been given to the methods used for better extraction and usage of onion waste under specific topics: viz. organic synthesis, production of biogas, absorbent for pollutants and value added products.

  19. Isolamento de cepas de Mycobacterium avium em búfalos abatidos para consumo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freitas José de Arimatéa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas cepas micobacterianas, isoladas no parênquima pulmonar e linfonodo apical de búfalos abatidos para consumo, procedentes de criatórios localizados na Ilha de Marajó (PA e submetidas à identificação segundo ensaios recomendados para o gênero Mycobacterium, foram identificadas como pertencentes ao complexo Mycobacterium avium. Apresentaram-se considerações relativas à associação desses organismos com a Aids -- e o papel dos alimentos nessa associação --, discutindo-se o impacto que a condição de germes oportunistas das espécies desse complexo têm na pandemia do HIV, assim como o risco potencial representado pelas infecções produzidas nos animais.

  20. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas, em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim contribuir para o crescimento das raízes de A. cepa expostas às concentrações de 5-aminouracil estudadas. As células meristemáticas da raiz de A. cepa parecem suportar um certo nível de danos não reparados no DNA, os quais não impedem a divisão celular e o conseqüente crescimento dos tecidos. Esta flexibilidade genética do genoma de vegetais deve se constituir numa resposta metabólica adaptativa para sustentar condições ambientais adversas.Cytological preparations of Allium cepa meristematic cells were examined under a light microscope to evaluate the effect of prolonged exposure (at least two-cell cycle to 5-aminouracil (5-AU on mitotic cell division in the roots. The results are a cytological demonstration that a lower concentration of 5-AU than usually employed for synchronizing proliferating cells in A. cepa root meristems induces chromosomal abnormalities and formation of micronucleus but does not fully block the cell flow into mitosis, and that micronucleated cells can proceed in mitosis and contribute to the enhancement of root length values reported by other authors. A. cepa root tip cells seems to support a certain damage level in DNA (around 10% of micronucleated cells in mitosis without having any negative effect on cellular proliferation and growth of the roots. This genetic flexibility of vegetable genomes may permit an attenuation of the adaptative metabolic-response to sustained adverse environmental conditions.

  1. Uso do sistema teste de Allium cepa como bioindicador de genotoxicidade de infusões de plantas medicinais The use of Allium cepa test as a bioindicator of genotoxicity of medicinal plants infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarete Dulce Bagatini

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Mundialmente, muitas espécies de plantas medicinais são utilizadas para o tratamento de doenças. No entanto, a maioria dessas espécies não foram suficientemente estudadas, principalmente quanto à presença de substâncias citotóxicas/mutagênicas em sua composição ou decorrentes do próprio metabolismo e podem causar danos à saúde da população. A presença de substâncias mutagênicas nas espécies vegetais que causam alterações cromossômicas podem ser detectadas durante o ciclo celular de uma espécie. O sistema teste de Allium cepa é freqüentemente utilizado para avaliação do potencial genotóxico de extratos de plantas medicinais através da análise de células meristemáticas provenientes de pontas de raízes tratadas com infusões medicinais (chás. O conhecimento do potencial genotóxico destas espécies medicinais, através da análise do ciclo celular de Allium cepa serve como indicativo de segurança para a população que utiliza chás medicinais como única alternativa para o tratamento de doenças. Essa revisão, objetiva informar a respeito da importância do teste de Allium cepa para avaliação preliminar da genotoxicidade de infusões de plantas medicinais.All over the world, many species of medicinal plants are used for disease treatments. However, most of them were not deeply studied; and the presence of cytotoxic or mutagenic substances in their composition or resulting from their metabolism may be harmful to human beings. The mutagenic effects caused by such substances result in chromosomal changes which are detecTable during the cell cycle of a species through cytogenetic analysis. The Allium cepa test system is widely used for evaluating the genotoxic potential of infusions (tea made of medicinal plants, through the cell cycle analysis. The knowledge of the genotoxic potential of such species through the Allium cepa test serves as a warning and safety bioindicator for the population who uses medicinal

  2. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A new classification system of known and putative antimicrobial compounds of Bacillus by genome mining is presented in Chapter 2. Importantly, predicting, isolating and screening of Bacillus strains w...

  3. Microarray-based Resequencing of Multiple Bacillus anthracis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-17

    al.: Iden- tification of anthrax toxin genes in a Bacillus cereus associ- ated with an illness resembling inhalation anthrax. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA...Norwegian Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001, 67:4863-4873. 26. Radnedge L, Agron PG, Hill KK, Jackson PJ...Ticknor LO, Keim P, Andersen GL: Genome differences that distinguish Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis . Appl

  4. Cepas de Campylobacter jejuni resistentes a quinolonas aisladas de humanos, gallinas y pollos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Notario

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se compararon 8 aislamientos de Campylobacter jejuni provenientes de humanos con enfermedad diarreica aguda, con 23 aislamientos de cloaca de gallinas y pollos obtenidos de zonas próximas a la ciudad de Rosario, todos resistentes a la ciprofloxacina. Las muestras se sembraron en agar selectivo y se incubaron en microaerofilia a 42 °C. Las colonias se identificaron con el método tradicional. Los aislamientos se conservaron a -70 °C en caldo cerebro corazón con 17% v/v de glicerina. La clonalidad se determinó por RAPD-PCR, utilizando el primer 1254 (Stern NJ. Se interpretaron los aislamientos como clones distintos cuando diferían en una banda de amplificación. Se obtuvieron 5 clones diferentes. Los patrones I, II y V fueron aislados en criaderos industriales de pollos y en humanos (el II también en un establecimiento de gallinas ponedoras de huevos. En un gallinero familiar se obtuvo el patrón I. El patrón III sólo se obtuvo de humanos. El patrón IV se halló en uno de los criaderos pero no en humanos. Se pudo determinar que 93.5% de las cepas se aislaron tanto de animales como de humanos, por lo que se considera posible que la colonización de criaderos con cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos pudiera ser el origen de la infección de humanos.

  5. Biochemical and genetic analysis of carbohydrate accumulation in Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; McCallum, John; Shaw, Martin; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2008-05-01

    Onion and shallot (Allium cepa L.) exhibit wide variation in bulb fructan content, and the Frc locus on chromosome 8 conditions much of this variation. To understand the biochemical basis of Frc, we conducted biochemical and genetic analyses of Allium fistulosum (FF)-shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) alien monosomic addition lines (AALs; FF+1A-FF+8A) and onion mapping populations. Sucrose and fructan levels in leaves of FF+2A were significantly lower than in FF throughout the year, and the springtime activity of acid invertase was also lower. FF+8A showed significantly higher winter sucrose accumulation and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity. Inbred high fructan (Frc_) lines from the 'W202Ax Texas Grano 438' onion population exhibited significantly higher sucrose levels prior to bulbing than low fructan (frcfrc) lines. Sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity in these lines was correlated with leaf hexose content but not with Frc phenotype. Markers for additional candidate genes for sucrose metabolism were obtained by cloning a major SPS expressed in onion leaf and exhaustively mining onion expressed sequence tag resources. SPS and SuSy loci were assigned to chromosome 8 and 6, respectively, using AALs and linkage mapping. Further loci were assigned, using AALs, to chromosomes 1 (sucrose phosphate phosphatase), 2 (SuSy and three invertases) and 8 (neutral invertase). The concordance between chromosome 8 localization of SPS and elevated leaf sucrose levels conditioned by high fructan alleles at the Frc locus in bulb onion or alien monosomic additions of chromosome 8 in A. fistulosum suggest that the Frc locus may condition variation in SPS activity.

  6. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Han, Jeong Suk Hyeon; Vijayakumar, Harshavardhanan; Subramani, Boopathi; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-02-16

    Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT) encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7) with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231) with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis) and Hd3a (rice), with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day), LD (long-day), and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101) and LM (late maturation, 36122). The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  7. Exposure of Allium cepa root cells to zidovudine or nevirapine induces cytogenotoxic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwuamah, Chika K; Ekama, Sabdat O; Audu, Rosemary A; Ezechi, Oliver C; Poirier, Miriam C; Odeigah, Peter G C

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral drugs have proved useful in the clinical management of HIV-infected persons, though there are concerns about the effects of exposure to these DNA-reactive drugs. We investigated the potential of the plant model Allium cepa root tip assay to demonstrate the cytogenotoxicity of zidovudine and nevirapine and as a replace-reduce-refine programme amenable to resource-poor research settings. Cells mitotic index were determined in squashed root cells from Allium cepa bulbs exposed to zidovudine or nevirapine for 48 hr. The concentration of zidovudine and nevirapine inhibiting 50% root growth after 96 hr exposure was 65.0 µM and 92.5 µM respectively. Root length of all antiretroviral-exposed roots after 96 hr exposure was significantly shorter than the unexposed roots while additional root growth during a subsequent 48 hr recovery period in the absence of drug was not significantly different. By ANOVA, there was a significant association between percentage of cells in mitosis and zidovudine dose (p=0.004), but not nevirapine dose (p=0.68). Chromosomal aberrations such as sticky chromosomes, chromatin bridges, multipolar mitoses and binucleated cells were observed in root cells exposed to zidovudine and nevirapine for 48 hr. The most notable chromosomal aberration was drug-related increases in sticky chromosomes. Overall, the study showed inhibition in root length growth, changes in the mitotic index, and the induction of chromosomal aberrations in Allium bulbs treated for 96 hr or 48 hr with zidovudine and nevirapine. The study reveals generalized cytogenotoxic damage induced by exposure to zidovudine and nevirapine, and further show that the two compounds differ in their effects on mitosis and the types of chromosomal aberrations induced.

  8. Molecular and Functional Characterization of FLOWERING LOCUS T Homologs in Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Kumar Manoharan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Onion bulbing is an important agricultural trait affecting economic value and is regulated by flowering-related genes. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-like gene function is crucial for the initiation of flowering in various plant species and also in asexual reproduction in tuber plants. By employing various computational analysis using RNA-Seq data, we identified eight FT-like genes (AcFT encoding PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein domains in Allium cepa. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of FT-like proteins revealed six proteins that were identical to previously reported AcFT1-6 proteins, as well as one (AcFT7 with a highly conserved region shared with AcFT6 and another (comp106231 with low similarity to MFT protein, but containing a PEBP domain. Homology modelling of AcFT7 proteins showed similar structures and conservation of amino acids crucial for function in AtFT (Arabidopsis and Hd3a (rice, with variation in the C-terminal region. Further, we analyzed AcFT expression patterns in different transitional stages, as well as under SD (short-day, LD (long-day, and drought treatment in two contrasting genotypic lines EM (early maturation, 36101 and LM (late maturation, 36122. The FT transcript levels were greatly affected by various environmental factors such as photoperiod, temperature and drought. Our results suggest that AcFT7 is a member of the FT-like genes in Allium cepa and may be involved in regulation of onion bulbing, similar to other FT genes. In addition, AcFT4 and AcFT7 could be involved in establishing the difference in timing of bulb maturity between the two contrasting onion lines.

  9. Exposure of Allium cepa root cells to zidovudine or nevirapine induces cytogenotoxic changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika K Onwuamah

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral drugs have proved useful in the clinical management of HIV-infected persons, though there are concerns about the effects of exposure to these DNA-reactive drugs. We investigated the potential of the plant model Allium cepa root tip assay to demonstrate the cytogenotoxicity of zidovudine and nevirapine and as a replace-reduce-refine programme amenable to resource-poor research settings. Cells mitotic index were determined in squashed root cells from Allium cepa bulbs exposed to zidovudine or nevirapine for 48 hr. The concentration of zidovudine and nevirapine inhibiting 50% root growth after 96 hr exposure was 65.0 µM and 92.5 µM respectively. Root length of all antiretroviral-exposed roots after 96 hr exposure was significantly shorter than the unexposed roots while additional root growth during a subsequent 48 hr recovery period in the absence of drug was not significantly different. By ANOVA, there was a significant association between percentage of cells in mitosis and zidovudine dose (p=0.004, but not nevirapine dose (p=0.68. Chromosomal aberrations such as sticky chromosomes, chromatin bridges, multipolar mitoses and binucleated cells were observed in root cells exposed to zidovudine and nevirapine for 48 hr. The most notable chromosomal aberration was drug-related increases in sticky chromosomes. Overall, the study showed inhibition in root length growth, changes in the mitotic index, and the induction of chromosomal aberrations in Allium bulbs treated for 96 hr or 48 hr with zidovudine and nevirapine. The study reveals generalized cytogenotoxic damage induced by exposure to zidovudine and nevirapine, and further show that the two compounds differ in their effects on mitosis and the types of chromosomal aberrations induced.

  10. Synergistic effect of isopropanol on induction of mitotic aberrations in Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Meier, J.R.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and several other organic and inorganic compounds was remediated by treatment with a mobile solvent extraction system. The genotoxicity of the soil, as measured by the induction of anaphase aberrations in Allium cepa root tip cells, increased after the remediation process. This increase appeared to be due to synergism between the residual solvent and genotoxic components not removed by the solvent extraction process. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether isopropanol, at concentrations similar to residual amounts following remediation, induced a synergistic response with the known clastogen, 4-nitroquinoline n-oxide (4-NQO). Bulblets of Allium cepa (common onion) were exposed for 24 h to varying concentrations of isopropanol combined with 0.10 mg/14-NQO in aqueous solution. The root tips were examined for mitotic index (MI), and cells in late anaphase/early telophase were scored for mitotic aberrations (MA, i.e., bridges, fragments, and lagging chromosomes). MI and MA frequencies were transformed by the arcsin square root function prior to statistical analysis (ANOVA). Isopropanol by itself did not induce MA and did not affect the Ml, either alone or in combination with 4-NQO. However, isopropanol enhanced the 4-NQO induced MA response by 1.4 fold at 1.0 mg/ml (p-value = 0.13) and 2.0 fold at 1.2 mg/ml (p-value = 0.006). Lower concentrations of 0.3 and 0.1 mg/ml isopropanol had no effect. The results demonstrate that residual solvents can increase the genotoxicity of soils, presumably as a result of enhancing the bioavailability of genotoxic components.

  11. Resistencia a drogas de segunda línea en cepas peruanas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrogorresistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Barletta

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar los perfiles de resistencia de las quinolonas; ciprofloxacina (Cpx, ofloxacina (Ofx, gatifloxacina (Gfx y moxifloxacina (Mfx, y de los inyectables; kanamicina (Km, amikacina (Am y capreomicina (Cm en cepas multidrogorresistente (MDR. Se buscó la presencia de mutaciones en los genes rrs,tlyA y gyrA/B, y su posible asociación con la resistencia a inyectables y quinolonas. Materiales y métodos. En este estudio piloto descriptivo se seleccionaron cepas MDR aisladas durante junio a diciembre de 2004, que fueron criopreservadas en el banco de muestras del Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Alexander von Humboldt" en Lima, Perú. Se determinó la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMI para Cpx, Ofx, Gfx, Mfx, Km, Am y Cm. Se investigó las mutaciones presentes en los genes rrs, tlyA y gyrA/B a través de un PCR convencional y posterior secuenciamiento de los productos obtenidos. Resultados. Cuatro de los once aislados presentaron resistencia contra los inyectables y en todas se observó una alta CMI; >120 μg/mL para Km y >160 μg/mL para Am y Cm. Solo dos aislados presentaron resistencia a Ofx con un CMI = 4 μg/mL. Los resultados de secuenciamiento sugirieron que la mutación A1401T en rrs podría ser la causa molecular de resistencia a los inyectables; mientras que en este estudio no se halló ninguna mutación en tlyA ni en gyrA/B asociada a resistencia. Conclusiones. Este estudio sugiere una posible asociación entre la mutación en A1401G y la resistencia a los antibióticos inyectables.

  12. Cytotoxicity of Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings on Allim cepa L root meristems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their great importance for the food industry, flavorings, in general, raise a number of questions regarding their cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity, since, in the literature, there are few studies found evaluating the toxicity on the systemic and cellular level, of these chemical compounds. The root meristems of Allium cepa (onion are widely used for the assessment of toxicity of chemical compounds of interest. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate, in A. cepa meristematic cells, individually and in combination at the cellular level, the toxicity of synthetic Cheese and Cheddar Cheese food flavorings, identical to the natural, at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. In combination we used 0.5 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 0.5 mL of Cheddar flavor; and 1.0 mL of Cheese flavor associated with 1.0 mL of Cheddar flavor, at exposure times of 24 and 48 hours. For these evaluations, we used groups of five onion bulbs, which were first embedded in distilled water and then transferred to their respective doses. The root tips were collected and fixed in acetic acid (3:1 for 24 hours. The slides were prepared by crushing and were stained with 2% acetic orcein. Cells were analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control and exposure time. The mitotic indices calculated and cellular aberrations observed were subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test (p <0.05. No chromosomal abnormalities nor those of mitotic spindle were observed for the treatments performed. The results, both individually and in combination, showed that the flavorings under study significantly reduced the cell division rate of the test system cells used. Therefore, under the conditions studied, the two flavorings were cytotoxic.

  13. Factores de virulencia y monitoreo de resistencia antimicrobiana en cepas de Enterococcus faecalis recuperadas de muestras de carne picada

    OpenAIRE

    Sparo, Mónica; Schell, Celia María; Delpech, Gastón; De Luca, María Marta; Bernstein, Judith Celina; Pourcel, Gisela; Basualdo Farjat, Juan Ángel

    2010-01-01

    Se propone en este artículo detectar factores de virulencia y monitorear la resistencia antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Enterococcus spp. aisladas de muestras de carne picada provenientes de establecimientos agropecuarios del partido de Tandil.

  14. A selective chromogenic agar that distinguishes Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A; Gingras, Bruce A; Restaino, Lawrence; Frampton, Elon W

    2006-08-01

    A selective and differential plating medium, R & F anthracis chromogenic agar (ACA), has been developed for isolating and identifying presumptive colonies of Bacillus anthracis. ACA contains the chromogenic substrate 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indoxyl-choline phosphate that upon hydrolysis yields teal (blue green) colonies indicating the presence of phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) activity. Among seven Bacillus species tested on ACA, only members of the Bacillus cereus group (B. anthracis, B. cereus, and B. thuringiensis) produced teal colonies (PC-PLC positive) having cream rings. Examination of colony morphology in 18 pure culture strains of B. anthracis (15 ATCC strains plus AMES-1-RIID, ANR-1, and AMED-RIID), with one exception, required 48 h at 35 to 37 degrees C for significant color production, whereas only 24 h was required for B. cereus and B. thuringiensis. This differential rate of PC-PLC synthesis in B. anthracis (due to the truncated plcR gene and PlcR regulator in B. anthracis) allowed for the rapid differentiation on ACA of presumptive colonies of B. anthracis from B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in both pure and mixed cultures. Effective recovery of B. anthracis from a variety of matrices having both high (soil and sewage) and low microbial backgrounds (cloth, paper, and blood) spiked with B. anthracis ANR-1 spores suggests the probable utility of ACA plating for B. anthracis recovery in a diversity of applications.

  15. Seleccion de cepas de rizobios en suelos promisorios para el cultivo de la soya (Glycine max (L Merril en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Bradley Rosemary

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En el invernadero se evaluó la efectividad de las cepas preseleccionadas de B. japonicum (CIAT 199,209,3778,3874 y 3876 de la recomendada (CIAT51 y una de Rhizobium spp (CIAT 3779. En el suelo Fluventic Haplustoll, de reacción casi neutra, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. El tratamiento fertilizado con 150 kg de N/ha produjo el mayor rendimiento de N. Las cepas más efectivas fueron CIAT 3778 y 51, que también presentaron el mayor indice de efectividad a la inoculación (IEI. En el suelo Typic Pellustert,de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta significativa a la inoculación. El mayor rendimiento de N se obtuvo con las cepas CIAT 3778 y 51, que fueron además estadísticamente iguales a las cepas CIAT 199 y 3876 en cuanto al IEI. En el suelo Arenic Haplustalf, de reacción ligeramente ácida, hubo respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación y la cepa más efectiva fue la CJAT 199. En el suelo Fluventic Ustropept, de reacci6n ligeramente ácida, se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados. El mayor rendimiento de N se presentó en el tratamiento fertilizado con N. Las mejores cepas fueron CIAT 3778,3779 y 209. En el suelo Vertic Ustropept, de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. En cuanto al rendimiento de N no se encontraron diferencias entre el tratamiento fertilizado con N y las cepas CIAT 51, 209 y CIAT 3778, siendo también las más efectivas en cuanto al IEI, junto oon la cepa CIAT 199. En los suelos Tropentic Haplorthox y Typic Tropudult no se enoontró respuesta a la inoculación.Screening of Rhizobium strains in soils apt for soybean (Glycine max (L Merril cultivation in Colombia. Under greenhouse conditions were evaluated the effectivity of the preselected strains of the preselected strains of B. japonicum (CIAT 199, 209, 3778, 3874 and 3876, in addition to the recommended strain (CIAT 51 and one of

  16. Water quality of urban streams: the Allium cepa seeds/seedlings test as a tool for surface water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanásio, Camila Gonçalves; Prá, Daniel; Rieger, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the genotoxic, mutagenic, and cytotoxic potential of surface waters in urban streams using Allium cepa and analyzes the applicability of this assay for environmental monitoring. Water samples were collected from three streams located in the urban area of a municipality in the south of Brazil. For each stream, two samples were collected, one upstream and one downstream of the pollution discharge site. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had various degrees of environmental impact, but substantial impact was seen for the downstream samples of the Preto and Pedras streams. All samples increased the frequency of chromosome aberrations (P Allium cepa seeds/seedlings were shown to be extremely sensitive in detecting the genotoxicity of environmental water samples and can be applied as the first tool for environmental health hazard identification and prediction.

  17. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of five flavour enhancers (glutamates) on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Şifa

    2015-09-01

    The effects of different treatments with flavour enhancers monosodium glutamate, monopotassium glutamate, calcium diglutamate, monoammonium glutamate, and magnesium diglutamate on the cytology, DNA content, and interphase nuclear volume (INV) of A. cepa were investigated. Three concentrations of these additives - 20, 40, and 60 ppm - were applied for 6, 12, and 24 h. All the concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all the treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities, among them are micronuclei, c-mitosis, anaphase bridges, stickiness, binucleus, laggards, and breaks. The nuclear DNA content and INV decreased when compared with control groups.

  18. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory and antioxidant activities of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside isolated from Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Furuta, Shoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2011-01-01

    In the course of searching for new whitening agents, we have found that the methanol extract of dried skin of Allium cepa shows potent melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of quercetin-3'-O-beta-D-glucoside (1) from the methanol extract of dried skin of A. cepa, which inhibited melanin formation in B16 melanoma cells with an IC50 value of 38.8 microM and mushroom tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 6.5 microM using L-tyrosine and 48.5 microM using L-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrates, respectively. In addition, the antioxidant activity of 1 was evaluated in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay; it showed 3.04 micromol Trolox equivalents/mmol. 1 was shown to be a promising ingredient that could be useful for treating hyperpigmentation and for protecting against oxidative stress.

  19. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-28

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic.

  20. Evaluation of genotoxic effects of sodium propionate, calcium propionate and potassium propionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Sifa

    2008-06-01

    The effects of different treatments with food preservatives, sodium propionate (SP), calcium propionate (CP) and potassium propionate (PP), on the cytology and DNA content of Allium cepa were investigated. Five concentrations of these additives - 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, and 3000ppm - were applied for 24, 48, and 72h. All concentrations of these chemicals showed an inhibitory effect on cell division in root-tips of A. cepa and caused a decrease in mitotic index values. Additionally, all treatments changed the frequency of mitotic phases when compared with the control groups. These compounds increased chromosome abnormalities in test material. Among these abnormalities were C-mitosis, anaphase bridges, micronuclei, binucleated cells, stickiness, laggards, and chromosome breaks. The nuclear DNA contents decreased when compared with control groups.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of surfactants produced by Bacillus subtilis R14 against multidrug-resistant bacteria Atividade antimicrobiana de surfactantes produzidos por Bacillus subtilis R14 frente a bacterias multidroga-resistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo André Vicente Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipopeptides represent a class of microbial surfactants with increasing scientific, therapeutic and biotechnological interests. The genus Bacillus is a producer of these active compounds, and among them B. subtilis produces surfactin, the most potent biosurfactant known. These compounds can act as antibiotics, antivirals, antitumorals, immunomodulators and enzyme inhibitors. In this work, the antimicrobial activity of biosurfactants obtained by cultivation of B. subtilis R14 was investigated against multidrug-resistant bacteria. During cultivation in defined medium, the surface tension of the medium was reduced from 54 mN/m in the beginning of the microbial growth to 30 mN/m after 20 hours. A crude surfactant concentration of 2.0 g/L was obtained after 40 hours of cultivation. A preliminary characterization suggested that two surfactants were produced. The evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of these compounds was carried out against 29 bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis (11 strains, Staphylococcus aureus (6 strains and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7 strains and Escherichia coli CI 18 (1 strain displayed a profile of well defined drug resistance. All strains were sensitive to the surfactants, in particular Enterococcus faecalis. The results demonstrated that lipopeptides have a broad spectrum of action, including antimicrobial activity against microorganisms with multidrug-resistant profiles.Os lipopeptídeos representam uma classe de surfactantes microbiológicos com crescente interesse científico, terapêutico e biotecnológico. O gênero Bacillus é um dos maiores produtores destes compostos ativos. Dentre as espécies produtoras de biossurfactante, B. subtilis produz surfactina um dos mais conhecidos. Estes compostos atuam como antibióticos, antivirais, agente antitumorais, imunomoduladores e inibidores enzimáticos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a atividade antimicrobiana de biossurfactantes, obtidos pelo cultivo de B. subtilis R

  2. Pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraud, Olivier; Hidri, Nadia; Ly, Kim; Pichon, Nicolas; Manea, Petrus; Ploy, Marie-Cécile; Garnier, Fabien

    2012-11-01

    We report the case of a pacemaker-associated Bacillus cereus endocarditis in a nonimmunocompromised patient. Antibiotic treatment was ineffective, and the pacemaker had to be removed. B. cereus was cultured from several blood samples and from the pacemaker electrodes. This case underlines the contribution of the rpoB gene for Bacillus species determination.

  3. ESTUDIO DE LA ORGANIZACIÓN FUNCIONAL DE LOS GENES DE CAROTENOGENESIS DE CEPAS SOBREPRODUCTORAS DE CAROTENOIDES DE XANTHOPHYLLOMYCES DENDRORHOUS

    OpenAIRE

    LOZANO MORAGA, CARLA PAOLA

    2011-01-01

    Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous es una levadura basidiomicete de considerable interés biotecnológico debido a que sintetiza astaxantina como su principal carotenoide. La producción de carotenoides aumenta cuando la levadura se cultiva utilizando compuestos no fermentables como única fuente de carbono. Ello ha incrementado los esfuerzos por aumentar el rendimiento del pigmento producido por este microorganismo. En nuestro laboratorio se han obtenido cepas mutantes desreguladas en la síntes...

  4. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Izharul Haq; Vineeta Kumari; Sharad Kumar; Abhay Raj; Mohtashim Lohani; Ram Naresh Bhargava

    2016-01-01

    Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L.) were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC), biological oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to ...

  5. On the effects of secretions of saprophytic bacteria on the course of mitosis in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Kobierzyńska

    2015-01-01

    The influence of 21 strains of saprophytic bacteria isolated from onion cultures on the course of mitosis and on the level of chromosome aberrations in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L. was studied. Liquid cultures of all bacterial strains caused no changes in divisions of the cells. However, ten of the strains were responsible for disturbances in this process. The nature of these disturbances depended to a large extent on the kind of medium in which the bacteria were grown.

  6. Introductory studies of bacterial effects on the course of mitosis in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebrat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of spontaneous chromosome aberrations and other phenomena concomitant with mitoses in the meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. adventitious roots grown in water, depends to a large extent on the intensity of bacteria multiplication. From the water culture two strains of bacteria, which were most numerous, were isolated - Agrobacterium and Flavobacterium. A supernatant from bacteria grown on Davis medium induced chromosome sticking together, c-mitoses and the formation of polyploid nuclei in the roots of onion.

  7. On the effects of secretions of saprophytic bacteria on the course of mitosis in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kobierzyńska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of 21 strains of saprophytic bacteria isolated from onion cultures on the course of mitosis and on the level of chromosome aberrations in adventitious roots of Allium cepa L. was studied. Liquid cultures of all bacterial strains caused no changes in divisions of the cells. However, ten of the strains were responsible for disturbances in this process. The nature of these disturbances depended to a large extent on the kind of medium in which the bacteria were grown.

  8. Lesões cardíacas em ratos wistar inoculados com diferentes cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chapadeiro

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Ratos albinos Wistar infectados com diferentes inóculos das cepas Y, Colombiana (COL e São Felipe (12SF do Trypanosoma cruzi desenvolveram parasitemia elevada entre 14e21 dias, a qual tomou-se desprezível ou desapareceu completamente ao final da 4ª semana. As lesões do coração foram avaliadas, semiquantitativamente, pelo sistema de "scores", conforme a intensidade e a extensão da inflamação, nas diferentes estruturas do órgão, tendo sido observado que: a na fase inicial (aguda da infecção, os animais mortos espontaneamente ou em conseqüência de acidente anestésico apresentaram cardite de intensidade moderada à acentuada, não havendo diferença em relação às cepas utilizadas; as diferentes estruturas do coração estavam uniformemente comprometidas; b na fase crônica da infecção observou-se cardite degrau leve a moderado e as lesões foram mais freqüentes e intensas quanto maior o inoculo empregado; no entanto, inóculos baixos só produziram lesões quando a cepa utilizada foi a Colombiana. Trombose mural nos átrios e dilatação da ponta do ventrículo esquerdo foram observadas em 20% dos animais, independentemente da cepa. Na fase crônica 15% dos animais apresentaram miocardite crônica com fibrose, associada à hipertrofia das miocélulas. Os AA confirmam ser o rato albino suscetível à infecção chagásica e, portanto, um modelo útil no estudo das manifestações cardíacas da Doença de Chagas.

  9. Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of industrial effluents originated from different industrial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Hemachandra, Chamini K; De Silva, Nimal

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of Allium cepa test system for screening cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of treated effluents originated from four types of industrial activities (two textile industries, three rubber based industries, two common treatment plants of industrial zones, and two water treatment plants) was assessed. Physico-chemical parameters including the heavy metal/metalloid levels of the effluents varied depending on the industry profile, but most of the measured parameters in the effluents were within the specified tolerance limits of Sri Lankan environmental regulations for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. In the A. cepa test system, the undiluted effluents induced statistically significant root growth retardation, mitosis depression, and chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in most cases in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water signifying effluent induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Ethyl methane sulphonate (a mutagen, positive control) and all the effluents under 1:8 dilution significantly induced total chromosomal aberrations in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water and upstream water indicating inadequacy of expected 1:8 dilutions in the receiving waters for curtailing genotoxic impacts. The results support the use of a practically feasible A. cepa test system for rapid screening of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of diverse industrial effluents discharging into inland surface waters.

  10. Pre-apoptotic activity of aqueous extracts of Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede on cells of Allium cepa and human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyanathan, Neethu Kannan; Thoppil, John Ernest

    2016-11-01

    Cynanchum sarcomedium Meve & Liede is a member of Apocynaceae, seen in dry and rocky areas. The present study highlights the cytotoxic potential of C. sarcomedium mediated by apoptosis on cells of Allium cepa and human red blood cells (RBCs). Cytogenetic changes in A. cepa and in situ visualization of cell death were revealed through acetocarmine and Evans blue staining techniques. Quantitative estimation of cell death was carried out at 600 nm in a spectrophotometer. Membrane characteristics of RBC in response to the treatment were evaluated by May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell membrane damage is a major factor for assessing apoptosis which is observed in the present study (90.91 %). Cell shrinkage, cytoplasmic fragmentation, condensed chromatin and presence of apoptotic bodies were the common cytological changes in A. cepa associated with apoptosis. Blebs in RBC evidenced by SEM revealed the membrane damage potential of the plant. Results obtained hereby suggest that the plant is an effective source to be used in toxicological studies and anti-cancer therapy.

  11. Determination of genotoxic effects of Imazethapyr herbicide in Allium cepa root cells by mitotic activity, chromosome aberration, and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liman, Recep; Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Öztürk, Nur Serap

    2015-02-01

    Imazethapyr (IM) is an imidazolinone herbicide that is currently used for broad-spectrum weed control in soybean and other legume crops. In this study, cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of IM were investigated by using mitotic index (MI), mitotic phases, chromosomal abnormalities (CAs) and DNA damage on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. In Allium root growth inhibition test, EC50 value was determined as 20 ppm, and 0.5xEC50, EC50 and 2xEC50 concentrations of IM herbicide were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water and methyl methane sulfonate (MMS, 10 mg/L) were used as a negative and positive control, respectively. As A. cepa cell cycle is 24 hours, so, application process was carried out for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. All the applied doses decreased MIs compared to control group and these declines were found to be statistically meaningful. Analysis of the chromosomes showed that 10 ppm IM except for 48 h induced CAs but 40 ppm IM except for 72 h decreased CAs. DNA damage was found significantly higher in 20 and 40 ppm of IM compared to the control in comet assay. These results indicated that IM herbicide exhibits cytotoxic activity but not genotoxic activity (except 10 ppm) and induced DNA damage in a dose dependent manner in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  12. Evaluation of the Phytotoxic and Genotoxic Potential of Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent Using Vigna radiata and Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izharul Haq

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp and paper mill effluent induced phytotoxicity and genotoxicity in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and root tip cells of onion (Allium cepa L. were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics such as electrical conductivity (EC, biological oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total phenols of the pulp and paper mill effluent were beyond the permissible limit specified for the discharge of effluent in inland water bodies. Compared to control plants, seedling exposed to 100% effluent concentration showed a reduction in root and shoot length and biomass by 65%, 67%, and 84%, respectively, after 5 days of treatment. A. cepa root tip cells exposed to effluent concentrations ranging from 25 to 100% v/v showed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI from 32 to 11% with respect to control root tip cells (69% indicating effluent induced cytotoxicity. Further, the effluent induced DNA damage as evidenced by the presence of various chromosomal aberrations like stickiness, chromosome loss, anaphase bridge, c-mitosis, tripolar anaphase, vagrant chromosome, and telophase bridge and micronucleated and binucleated cell in A. cepa. Findings of the present study indicate that pulp and paper mill effluents may act as genotoxic and phytotoxic agents in plant model system.

  13. The scientific rationale behind data gathering for sections 199 and 200 for environmental emergency plans under CEPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin-Brown, P.; Ketcheson, K. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Section 199 of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) 199 is a new legislative mandate which requires Environment Canada to determine which substances on the List of Toxic Substances need and Environmental Emergency Plan. Section 200 of CEPA 199 ensures that appropriate risk management measures are adopted and implemented for all possible risks associated with the manufacture, storage and use of toxic and hazardous substances in Canada. This paper explained the scientific rationale for the information that has been collected to judge whether a chemical needs an environmental emergency plan under sections 199 and 200 under CEPA 199. The paper also highlights the major categories of information that are considered important in classifying the hazardous properties of a chemical. The main interest in compiling a hazard assessment are the physical characteristics affecting a substance's flammability, and if toxic, its ability to concentrate or disperse. These physical properties include state, solubility, specific gravity, boiling point, flash point, relative vapour density, ozone depleting potential, and reactivity. Bioaccumulation, persistence, acute toxicity and chronic toxicity have been reviewed for substance impact on air, water, and soils. 23 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. In Vivo Cytogenotoxicity of Electronic Waste Leachate from Iloabuchi Electronic Market, Diobu, Rivers State, Nigeria on Allium Cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolaji Babatunde

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human and environmental impact of electronic waste is increasing due to its careless disposal. Cytogenotoxicity of electronic waste from Iloabuchi electronic market, Diobu, Rivers State was investigated using the Allium cepa bioassay comprised of the root elongation and chromosome aberration tests. Leachate samples of e-waste analysed were above maximum permissible limits. Toxicity to root growth of A. cepa was evaluated at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% showed root growth inhibition at all concentrations of the samples compared to the control and root growth inhibition was concentration dependent. An effective concentration (EC50 at which root growth amounted to 50 % of control for the sample was 37.5%. Various morphological defects of the onion roots were observed including short, crochet roots, C-tumor roots and severe toxic effects where no growth was observed. In the in vivo genotoxity assay, all samples lowered the frequency of mitotic cells in the meristematic region of the roots at statistically significant levels (P < 0.05 compared to the control and mitotic inhibition was also concentration dependent. There was significant induction of aberrations at all concentrations tested compared to control. The high metal content of the e-waste leachate may be responsible for observed cytotoxicity in A. cepa roots cells.

  15. Effect of Allium cepa and Allium sativum on some immunological cells in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabeau, Tatfeng Y; Samson, Enitan S

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of some spices have been reported to play a contributory role in enhancing immune function. We evaluated and compared the effect(s) of single and combined oral administration of fresh aqueous onion (Allium cepa) and garlic (Allium sativum) extracts at different concentrations on some immunological determinants in rats. CD₄ cells of the rats were estimated using Partec flow cytometric technique, while total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts were estimated using the Sysmsex® automated haematology analyzing technique. Our findings revealed that, CD4 and total WBC counts were significantly increased (P≤0.05) in a dose-dependent manner in both onion (250mg/Kg/d: 349±11cell/ul and 2.75±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 389±10cells/µl and 3.05±0.05 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 600±11cell/µl and 3.25±0.05X10³cells/l) and garlic (250mg/Kg/d: 410±10cell/ul and 2.85±0.15X10³cell/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 494±32cells/µl and 3.30±0.10 X10³cell/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 684±11cell/µl and 3.55±0.05X10³cells/l) treated rats when compared to the zero control (200±11cells/µl and 1.55±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively). Extract of garlic at 750mg/Kg/d had significantly increased the CD4 cells and total white cell count when compared to other concentrations (P≤0.05). However, no significant effect was observed on these parameters when extracts were combined (250mg/Kg/d: 252±21cell/µl and 1.80±0.10X10³cells/l; 500mg/Kg/d: 315±21cells/ul and 2.10±0.10X10³cells/l; 750mg/Kg/d: 368±10cells/µl and 2.35±0.05X10³cells/l, respectively), the differential WBC count showed a significant increase in the proportion of cell types (lymphocytes, neutophils and monocytes) (P≤0.05). The results from this study revealed the immune boosting capabilities of Allium cepa and Allium sativum, but underscored their synergistic activities.

  16. La cepa de yogur en leche de vaca y cabra como suplemento en corderos de levante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia E. Flechas-F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La  obtención de  productos pecuarios  inocuos para la salud humana cobra cada vez más fuerza. Por esta razón surge la tendencia al empleo de probióticos  que  administrados  a  los  animales provocan  efectos  benéficos  mediante modificaciones en  la población microbiana de su tracto digestivo. Se realizó un estudio con 25 corderos en etapa de  levante, con el  fin de evaluar el  efecto  de  el  uso  de  la  cepa  de  yogur (Lactobacillus  bulgaricus  y  Streptococcus thermophylus  preparado  en  leche  de  vaca  y leche de cabra sobre el crecimiento y  la ganancia de peso, con una duración de 30 días, la dieta estuvo  conformada  por  forraje  a  voluntad  y suplementación  con maíz  y  concentrado.  Los tratamientos  fueron:  yogur a base de  leche de vaca, dosis de 10 y 20 cm3; yogur a base de  leche de cabra, dosis 10 y 20 cm3 y control agua como placebo, 10 cm3. Se suministro  la cepa cada 3 días  y  se  pesaron  los  animales  una  vez  por semana, se realizó química sanguínea al inicio y al  final del ensayo. El peso para  los diferentes

  17. Diferenciação de cepas de Candida albicans pelo sistema killer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celia Cândido

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o efeito killer de 9 cepas padrão de leveduras sobre 146 amostras de Candida albicans isoladas dos seguintes espécimes clínicos: mucosa bucal, fezes, lavado brônquico, escarro, secreção vaginal, urina, lesão de pele, lesão de unha e sangue. Usando este sistema foi possível diferenciar 23 biotipos de C. albicans. Os biotipos 211, 111 e 811 foram os mais freqüentemente isolados. A maioria das amostras de C. albicans (98,6% foi sensível a pelo menos uma ou mais das 9 cepas killer. Empregando- se este sistema foi possível demonstrar que 2 pacientes albergavam mesmo biotipo killer, respectivamente, 111 e 211, em diferentes espécimes clínicos, e em outro paciente, o mesmo biotipo (211 foi isolado de hemoculturas realizadas em ocasiões distintas. O uso do sistema killer para diferenciar os tipos entre as espécies de leveduras patogênicas, pode ser um método útil para estabelecer a eventual fonte de infecção, constituindo uma ajuda valiosa para o controle e vigilância de infecções nosocomiais causadas por leveduras.The authors studied the killer effect of nine standard strains of yeasts on 146 samples of Candida albicans isolated from the following clinical specimens: oral mucosa, feces, bronchial wash, sputum, vaginal secretion, urine, skin lesion, nail lesion and blood. Using this system it was possible to differentiate 23 biotypes of Candida albicans. The biotypes 211, 111 and 811 were most frequently isolated. Most of the samples of C. albicans (98.6% were sensitive to at least one or more of the nine killer strains. Using the killer system it was possible to show that two patients harbored the same killer biotypes, 111 and 211, respectively, in different clinical specimens and another patient harbored the same biotype (211 in blood cultures effected in different ocasions. The utilization of the killer system to differentiate types among species of pathogenic yeasts can be a useful method to stablish the eventual

  18. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  19. Conservación de cepas de Candida utilis en agua destilada estéril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidín Martínez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Algunos métodos han sido utilizados para el mantenimiento de la colección de levaduras. La elección de uno u otro tiene como objetivo garantizar la estabilidad de los cultivos; teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones y posibilidades económicas de la colección. En este trabajo se empleó la preservación de levaduras en agua destilada estéril por ser un método sencillo, económico, seguro y, capaz de garantizar la viabilidad de los cultivos por un período prolongado. Se conservaron 8 cepas de Candida utilis y se aseguró el 100% de supervivencia de las mismas en dicho sustrato durante tres años, a la vez que no se observaron cambios en las características fisiológicas y morfológicas de los cultivos. Palabras clave: preservación, levaduras, agua destilada.

  20. Evaluation of the cytogenotoxicity of textile effluents using Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Barbosa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the raw (EB and treated (ET effluents of two textile mills located in south of Minas Gerais State that have their effluents treated at the same Effluent Treatment Plant was investigated using the Allium cepa test system. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by the root elongation and mitotic index (MI endpoints and the genotoxicity was assessed by de determination of chromosome aberrations (CA.The effluent samples were tested at the concentrations 0 (ultrapure water, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % (v/v. A Completely Randomized Design with four replicates of 30 seeds was used. The effluent samples in almost all tested concentrations promoted an increase in root elongation compared to the negative control and this effect was probably related to nutrients levels and organic matter in effluent samples. A lower MI at all concentrations of ET compared to EB. The highest MI was observed at 100% (v/v concentration of both effluents. The highest rates of CA occurred at concentrations 75% (v/v of EB and 100% (v/v of both effluents. The effluent samples showed no cytotoxic effect, but cell division occurred disorderly, leading to increase rate of AC, revealing a genetoxic effect. Improvements in the wastewater treatment are needed to reduce environmental impacts.

  1. Biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles and its effect on actively dividing cells of mitosis in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaonkar, Dipali; Shende, Sudhir; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Nanobiotechnological application of copper nanoparticles has paved the way for advancement in agriculture owing to its bactericidal and fungicidal activities. Recently, researchers have focussed on bioinspired synthesis of copper nanoparticles as a viable alternative to existing physicochemical techniques. For the commercialization of nanocopper, the toxicity evaluation is a major issue. In this context, Citrus medica (L.) fruit extract-mediated copper nanoparticles were synthesized and its different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 µg mL(-1) ) were evaluated for its effect on actively dividing cells of Allium cepa. The study clearly revealed that copper nanoparticles increased mitotic index up to the concentration of 20 µg mL(-1) . In addition, a gradual decline in mitotic index and increase in abnormality index was observed as the concentration of copper nanoparticles and treatment duration were increased. Aberrations in chromosomal behavior such as sticky and disturbed chromosomes in metaphase and anaphase, c-metaphase, bridges, laggard, disturbed telophase, and vacuolated nucleus were also observed.

  2. Toxicity of CuO Nanoparticles to Structure and Metabolic Activity of Allium cepa Root Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fei; Wang, Shuling; Xin, Hua

    2016-11-01

    Roots of Allium cepa were exposed to six CuO NPs suspensions (0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 mg L(-1)) in this study. Results revealed that with the increase of CuO NPs concentration, the Cu content in roots increased significantly. Compared to control, onion roots treated with CuO NPs (except 5 mg L(-1) suspension) grew slowly after 24 h. The surface of the root cap and meristematic zone were obviously damaged. The apical meristem of roots treated by 10 mg L(-1) and above concentrations stopped division. The nucleus of meristematic cells deformed, and nucleoli number increased. The plasmolysis occurred, and the cell membrane and nuclear membrane fractured. With the increase of CuO NPs concentration, the MDA content increased, and the root activity decreased. When dealt with 80 mg L(-1) CuO NPs for 72 h, onion roots appeared to be corroded.

  3. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of extract of Amaranthus spinosus L. in Allium cepa and human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajitha, V; Thoppil, J E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examined the apoptosis inducing effects of Amaranthus spinosus L. aqueous extract in Allium cepa root meristematic cells and human erythrocytes. Cytogenetic assay revealed many apoptosis inducing cytogenetic aberrations viz., cytoplasmic breakage, cytoplasmic disintegration, cytoplasmic shrinkage, receding of cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuolation, enucleated cell, ghost cell, nuclear vacuolation, nuclear fragmentation and nuclear disintegration. A remarkable modification of red blood cell surface morphology was observed in the result of RBC assay. The treated RBCs show membrane blebbing and shrinkage, features typical for apoptosis in nucleated cells. Significant induction of cell death was observed in treated Allium root tip cells after Evans blue staining, disclosing the membrane damage potential of the plant extract. TTC assay results in reduced mitochondrial/metabolic activity in Allium root tip cells after treatment, designating the adverse effect of plant extract on mitochondrial respiratory chain. These results confirm the apoptosis inducing potential of A. spinosus extract. Confirming the present results by further in vitro studies, it can be effectively targeted against cell proliferation during cancer treatment by inducing apoptosis. Thus from the present investigation it can be concluded that the aqueous extract of A. spinosus exhibited apoptosis induction and cytotoxic activities.

  4. Toxicity of silver ions and differently coated silver nanoparticles in Allium cepa roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetko, Petra; Milošić, Anita; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Tolić, Sonja; Peharec Štefanić, Petra; Letofsky-Papst, Ilse; Tkalec, Mirta; Balen, Biljana

    2017-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the dominating nanomaterial in consumer products due to their well-known antibacterial and antifungal properties. To enhance their properties, different surface coatings may be used, which affect physico-chemical properties of AgNPs. Due to their wide application, there has been concern about possible environmental and health consequences. Since plants play a significant role in accumulation and biodistribution of many environmentally released substances, they are also very likely to be influenced by AgNPs. In this study we investigated the toxicity of AgNO3 and three types of laboratory-synthesized AgNPs with different surface coatings [citrate, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)] on Allium cepa roots. Ionic form of Ag was confirmed to be more toxic than any of the AgNPs applied. All tested AgNPs caused oxidative stress and exhibited toxicity only when applied in higher concentrations. The highest toxicity was recorded for AgNPs-CTAB, which resulted with increased Ag uptake in the roots, consequently leading to strong reduction of the root growth and oxidative damage. The weakest impact was found for AgNPs-citrate, much bigger, negatively charged NPs, which also aggregated to larger particles. Therefore, we can conclude that the toxicity of AgNPs is directly correlated with their size, overall surface charge and/or surface coating.

  5. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of Hancornia speciosa latex in Allium cepa root model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T P; Sousa, T R; Arruda, A S; Peixoto, N; Gonçalves, P J; Almeida, L M

    2016-02-01

    The latex obtained from Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Mangabeira tree) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including diarrhea, ulcer, gastritis, tuberculosis, acne and warts. In this study, the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of H. speciosa latex on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa were examined. Onion bulbs were exposed to different concentrations of latex and then submitted to microscopic analysis using Giemsa stain. Water was used as a negative control and sodium azide as a positive control. The results showed that, under the testing conditions, the mitotic index (MI) of the onion roots submitted to latex treatment did not differ significantly from the negative control, which suggests that the latex is not cytotoxic. Low incidence of chromosome aberrations in the cells treated with H. speciosa latex was also observed, indicating that the latex does not have genotoxic effect either. The MI and the chromosome aberration frequency responded to the latex concentration, requiring more studies to evaluate the dosage effect on genotoxicity. The results indicate that in tested concentrations H. speciosa latex is probably not harmful to human health and may be potentially used in medicine.

  6. Cloning and functional identification of the AcLFY gene in Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuicui; Ye, Yangyang; Song, Ce; Chen, Dian; Jiang, Baiwen; Wang, Yong

    2016-05-13

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the important vegetable crops in the world, usually with a two-year life cycle. The bulbs form in the first year after sowing, then bolting and flowering are induced by low temperature in the following year. Previous studies have shown that LEAFY gene is an inflorescence tissue specific gene, and that it is also the ultimate collection channel of all flowering pathway. In this study, using homologous gene cloning and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), we isolated an inflorescence meristem specific LEAFY cDNA, AcLFY (JX275962), from onion. AcLFY contains a 1119 bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative protein of 372 amino acids, with ∼70% homology to the daffodils LEAFY and >50% homology to LEAFY proteins from other higher plants. Fluorescence quantitative results showed that AcLFY gene has the highest expression level in inflorescence meristem during early bolting, and is still expressed in leaves after the formation of flower organs. Overexpression of AcLFY gene in Arabidopsis thaliana induced early bolting and flowering, whereas knockdown of the endogenous LEAFY gene by RNAi caused a significant delay in bolting. In addition, transgenic plants also exhibited significant morphological changes in rosette leaves, branches, and plant height.

  7. Personalidad y escuela, cepa de una expresión artística

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    Isabel Cristina Flóres Hernández

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dando una mirada al fenómeno teatral universitario a través de su trascendencia social enel ámbito actual y sus recovecos históricos en los setentas y noventas, se busca descifrarla tarea del alumno, el pedagogo, la universidad y las relaciones que surgen entre ellos enel proceso de generar un método con el rasgo distintivo de forjar personalidad y escuelabasándose en el trabajo organizado de equipo. Nuestras reflexiones se apoyan en las vivencias yenseñanzas derivadas de la práctica misma de escuela de teatro, como una respuesta orgánicaa las necesidades de profesionalización de los movimientos teatrales en la región. Cepa deexpresiones artísticas, nacimiento de teatros, experiencia en la construcción de una línea detrabajo teórico-práctica de exploración e investigación en la acción. Universos interconectadospor el proceso de instrucción en el aula buscando fortalecer el proceso creador y el fundamentoteórico de la práctica teatral en nuestras latitudes.

  8. Antagonistic effect of polyamines on ABA-induced suppression of mitosis in Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Arpana; Sharma, Shashi

    2009-02-01

    Effect of abscisic acid (ABA) and polyamines (PAs) [putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm)] on mitosis in root tips of A. cepa was studied. Treatment with ABA (0.1 to 100 microM) for 24 hr suppressed the mitosis, measured as mitotic index (MI), in a concentration-dependent manner with approx. 50% suppression at 10 microM of ABA. Treatment with different PAs (1 to 100 microM) had differential mitosis suppression effect. Spm was most inhibitory followed by Spd and Put, respectively. The higher concentrations of PAs (1 mM Put; 0.1 and 1 mM Spd or Spm) caused cell distortion. Remarkably, a 24 hr pretreatment of root tips with PAs prior to ABA (100 microM) treatment resulted in a general concentration-dependent reversal of ABA-induced suppression of MI. Catalase (CAT) activity in the root tips, an indicator of redox metabolism, increased due to ABA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner, remained unaltered in response to Put and declined due to Spd and Spm (> or = 0.1 mM). However, all PAs, irrespective of their individual effects, generally antagonized the ABA-dependent increase in CAT activity. Data indicate the possibility of ABA-PA interaction in the regulation of mitosis.

  9. [Cytogenetic effects of toxic metal salts on apical meristem cells of Allium cepa L. seed roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovgaliuk, A I; Kaliniak, T B; Blium, Ia B

    2001-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the influence of the salts of Cd, Pb, Ni, Al, Cu and Zn at concentrations 10(-6)-10(-3) M on cytogenetic parameters of Allium cepa apical meristem cells was carried out. It was shown that these metal compounds could induce both the clastogenic and the aneugenic effects (including mitosis and cytokinesis disturbances). Based on ability to cause the chromosome aberrations the metal salts were arranged in such row of genotoxicity: ZnSO4 > Pb(CH3COO)2 > Al(NO3)3 approximately NiSO4 > CdCl2 > CuSO4. The investigated compounds of cadmium, lead, nickel and aluminum were found to be more effective aneugens than clastogens. According to our data NiSO4 had the strongest antimitotic activity (it increased the percentage of chromosome lagging of, multipolar anaphases, C-mitoses in 69.6 times, compared to the control). The ability of other metal salts to induce such abnormalities decreased in the range: CdCl2 > Al(NO3)3 > Pb(CH3COO)2 > CuSO4 > ZnSO4. Increasing of binuclear cells on the slides was revealed after treatment by all tested substances, however Ni sulfate was found as the strongest inducer of cytokinesis abnormalities. Presented results allowed to suggest that cytoskeleton could be a cell target for salts of some metals (especially for NiSO4).

  10. Further studies in the influence of phenyl mercury acetate on mitosis in Allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielecki, E.

    1977-01-01

    In the present experiments root tips of Allium cepa were treated with 0.0001 to 0.47% aqueous solutions of phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) for 2 to 72 hrs. The observation concerned the frequency of mitoses, disturbances of the mitotic cycle and chromosome injuries. Low concentrations after a short treatment showed a stimulating action, manifesting itself in the increase of the total number of mitoses and of the mitotic activity. The prolongation of the treatment led to an inhibition of the spindle action. The high concentrations inhibited cytokinesis since 2 hrs of treatment giving rise to binucleate cells. In these concentrations besides binucleate cells with diploid nuclei also cells with two tetraploid nuclei were observed. The origin of the latter cells is discussed. The prolongation of the treatment with high concentrations had a mitodepressive action. C-mitosis occurred already after 2 hrs treatment from the concentration 0.1% upwards. With the prolongation of the time of treatment the peak of the c-mitotic activity moved downwards to the lowest concentrations (0.001 and 0.0001%). Lethal changes like stickiness and erosion of chromosomes increased in proportion to the increase of concentration and the time of treatment. The chromosome breaks were observed already after 2 hrs treatment (0.001 to 0.47%) in metaphasee as well as in prometaphase and prophase inside the nuclear membrane. This phenomenon was intensified after treatment with stronger solutions and a longer time of treatment. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Assessment of genotoxicity of some common food preservatives using Allium cepa L. as a test plant

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    Himadri Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food preservatives play important role in today's food supplies that are used to prolong the self-life of products by protecting them from deterioration caused by micro-organisms. In this study, investigations were carried out to study the impacts of food preservatives like butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, sorbic acid, propyl gallate and sodium nitrate. The effects of these preservatives at concentration of 1000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 2000 ppm, 2500 ppm for 4 h, 8 h and 16 h of exposure period were studied on the root tips of Allium cepa. Cytological studies revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05 inhibition in mitotic index with an increase in concentration of the food preservatives when compared with the control. Most frequent cytological abnormalities observed were bridges, multipolarity, C-mitosis, stickiness and cell death. The total percentages of abnormalities were also increased with increasing concentration and time duration. The abnormalities (% in root system caused by used preservatives were recorded as butylated hydroxytoluene < butylated hydroxyanisole < sodium nitrate < sorbic acid < propyl gallate.

  12. Induction of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of Guandu River waters in the Allium cepa system

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    Jennifer Vieira Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Guandu River is the main source of water supply for the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro and has been facing serious environmental problems due to increasing population and industrial pollution, as well as the presence of polluted tributaries. This study analyzed the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the Guandu River’s waters, through the use of the Allium cepa test system. Collection points were chosen at the greatest confluences of pollutant sources. The sampling included two different seasons: the rainy season (January and February and the dry season (June and July. The analyses of 5000 cells per treatment showed that all the points studied had some degree of cytotoxicity and/or genotoxicity. Two sampling locations, which receive major influxes from the polluted waters of the Poços/Queimados and Cabuçu/Ipiranga Rivers, stood out for the strong presence of micronuclei, sticky chromosomes, mitotic spindle abnormalities, necrotic cells and nucleolar changes compared to the negative control. At least two locations also found changes in the mitotic index. The existence of variations in the number of cytotoxic and genotoxic changes between periods of rain and drought indicates that the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the water pollutants varies according to time, depending on the discharges of the tributary rivers and the increase of contaminated effluents. The results highlight the importance of bio-monitoring to assist managers in the control of effluent discharge.

  13. Establecimiento de un medio de cultivo sumergido para una cepa nativa de un hongo Poliporal

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    Peña Serna Carolina

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de dos velocidades de agitación (80 y 100 rpm, dos fuentes de carbono (glucosa y sacarosa y tres pH iniciales (5.5, 6.0 y 6.5 sobre la producción de fenoles totales, la actividad antioxidante, el crecimiento micelial y el consumo de sustrato de una cepa nativa de un hongo perteneciente al orden Poliporal en cultivo sumergido.El mayor crecimiento micelial se obtuvo al día 3 con un valor de 10 g/L a una velocidad de agitación de 80 rpm, sacarosa como fuente de carbono y pH inicial 5.5. La máxima producción de fenoles y actividad antioxidante se presentó este mismo día, alcanzando valores de 0.18 g GAE/L y 0.28 TEAC (mM/mL, respectivamente, para cualquiera de las dos velocidades de agitación evaluadas, con glucosa como fuente de carbono y con pH inicial 6.0 y/o 6.5 para fenoles y pH inicial 5.5 para actividad antioxidante.Palabras claves: actividad antioxidante, crecimiento micelial, cultivo sumergido, fenoles.

  14. Therapeutic Effects of Allium sativum and Allium cepa in Schistosoma mansoni experimental infection

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    Mona Mohamed Mantawy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa on some biochemical parameters in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice individually and mixed either with or without the currently used drug, praziquantel (PZQ were investigated. These involved some immunological parameters, namely IgM, IgG, interleukins 2 and 6 (IL-2 and 6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, some antioxidant enzymes [catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX]. In addition, parasitological and histopathological investigations were performed. No changes were observed in the normal control mice treated with dry extract of onion or garlic, individually or mixed, with or without PZQ, compared to the normal healthy control group. Infection with S. mansoni showed an increase in IgG, IgM, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and catalase enzyme, accompanied with a decrease in GPX and SOD antioxidant enzyme activities. Remarkable amelioration was noticed in the levels of all the measured parameters in S. mansoni infected mice after administration of the studied extracts. Moreover a significant reduction in worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was noticed which was reflected in normalization of liver architecture.

  15. Consensus on the Definition of Advanced Parkinson's Disease: A Neurologists-Based Delphi Study (CEPA Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulisevsky, Jaime; Tolosa, Eduardo S.

    2017-01-01

    To date, no consensus exists on the key factors for diagnosing advanced Parkinson disease (APD). To obtain consensus on the definition of APD, we performed a prospective, multicenter, Spanish nationwide, 3-round Delphi study (CEPA study). An ad hoc questionnaire was designed with 33 questions concerning the relevance of several clinical features for APD diagnosis. In the first-round, 240 neurologists of the Spanish Movement Disorders Group participated in the study. The results obtained were incorporated into the questionnaire and both, results and questionnaire, were sent out to and fulfilled by 26 experts in Movement Disorders. Review of results from the second-round led to a classification of symptoms as indicative of “definitive,” “probable,” and “possible” APD. This classification was confirmed by 149 previous participating neurologists in a third-round, where 92% completely or very much agreed with the classification. Definitive symptoms of APD included disability requiring help for the activities of daily living, presence of motor fluctuations with limitations to perform basic activities of daily living without help, severe dysphagia, recurrent falls, and dementia. These results will help neurologists to identify some key factors in APD diagnosis, thus allowing users to categorize the patients for a homogeneous recognition of this condition. PMID:28239501

  16. The effectiveness evaluation of indigenous microorganism (IMO preparations in the growth of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Liriano González

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was done at the Credit and Services Cooperative (CCS “Juan de Mata Reyes”, in Pedro Betancourt municipality, Matanzas. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of indigenous microorganisms (IMO preparations on the growth of onion (Allium cepa L., variety Texas Early Grano. Five treatments were studied (control, a 2 mL.m2 treatment before transplantion, a 4 mL.m2 treatment before transplantation, and both 2 and 4 mL.m2 treatments 20 days after transplantion. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design. The professional statistical pack STATISTICA, version 6.0 for WINDOWS was used for data processing. The results were statistically processed using simple analysis of variance and the Duncan´s multiple comparison Test for media with a level of significance of pd”0.05. The native microorganisms in the preparations were characterized. 60 days after transplantation, the parameters height of plant, number of leaves and diameter of the false stem were evaluated; and at harvest time, the total yield (t.ha-1 and the number of bulbs in diameter category were determined. The best results concerning the height of the plant (cm, diameter of false stem (mm and total yield (t.ha-1.were obtained with the preparation of 2 mL.m2 at the moment of transplantion, and 20 days after the application.

  17. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes.

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    Hemalatha Rajkumar

    Full Text Available Allium cepa (onion is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb. Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37-100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins.

  18. Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos mediated genotoxic and cytotoxic assessment on root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhghatulla Shaikh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are direct recipients of agro – toxics and therefore important materials for assessing environmental chemicals for genotoxicity. The meristematic mitotic cell of Allium cepa is an efficient cytogenetic material for chromosome aberration assay on environmental pollutants. Onion root tips were grown on moistened filter paper in petri dish at room temperature. Germinated root tips were then exposed to three concentrations of each pesticide for 24 h. About 1 – 2 mm length of root tip was cut, fixed in cornoy’s fixative, hydrolyzed in warm 1 N HCL, stained with acetocarmine and squashed on glass slide. About 3000 cells were scored and classified into interphase and normal or aberrant division stage. Cytotoxicity was determined by comparing the mitotic index (MI of treated cells with that of the negative control. The MI of cells treated with Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos at one or more concentration was half or less than that of control are said to be cytotoxic. Genotoxicity was measured by comparing the number of cells/1000 in aberrant division stages at each dose with the negative control using Mann – Whitney U test. Both Dichlorophen and Dichlorovos are genotoxic at higher concentrations i.e. 0.001%, 0.002% and 0.028%, 0.056% inducing chromosome fragment, chromosome lagging and bridges, stick chromosome and multipolar anaphase.

  19. Biomphalaria straminea no Peru e sua suscetibilidade a cepas brasileiras de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Cuba Cuba

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Maio de 1973, um dos autores (C.A.C. coletou na localidade de Imacita, Província de Bagua, Departamento de Amazonas, vários espécimes de Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker, 1848, uma espécie que, até então, não havia sido assinalada no Peru. Descendentes destes indivíduos foram submetidos a provas de suscetibilidade às cepas BH e SJ de Schistosoma mansoni que, em condições naturais, evoluem em B. glabrata de Belo Horizonte e B. tenagophila de São José dos Campos, respectivamente. Oitenta espécimens foram expostos à cepa BH dos quais em 13 ou 16,2% a infecção evoluiu caracteristicamente até a formação de esporocistos secundários sem haver, contudo, eliminação de cercárias, mesmo no indivíduo que apresentou uma sobrevivência de 88 dias após a exposição. Não se verificou cura espontânea neste lote. Entre as 40 B. straminea expostas à cepa SJ 9 ou 22,5% infectaram-se, sendo que apenas duas eliminaram poucas cercárias aos 57 e 77 dias após a exposição, por dois dias consecutivos, tendo uma morrido e uma se curado espontaneamente. A cura espontânea do parasitismo foi notado em mais dois indivíduos, nos quais a infecção foi observada através da concha. Cortes histológicos seriados de 9 caramujos, expostos individualmente a 50 miracídios da cepa BH e fixados entre 6 e 120 horas após a exposição, mostraram esporocistos em desenvolvimento e esporocistos invadidos por amebócitos, sem formação de granulomas por parte do hospedeiro, fato assinalado em caramujos suscetíveis. A população estudada comportou-se experimentalmente de modo semelhante a outras populações de B. straminea testadas em laboratório, isto é, com baixa suscetibilidade, embora tal comportamento não afaste a possibilidade dela vir a manter o ciclo do parasita em sua área de distribuição.In May 1973 one of the Authors (C.A.C. collected specimens of Biomphalaria straminea (Dunker 1848 at imacita, Bagua Province, Amazonas, Pem. This

  20. Bacillus cereus endocarditis in native aortic valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngow, H A; Wan Khairina, W M N

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus cereus endocarditis is rare. It has been implicated in immunocompromised individuals, especially in intravenous drug users as well as in those with a cardiac prosthesis. The patient was a 31-year-old ex-intravenous drug addict with a past history of staphylococcal pulmonary valve endocarditis, who presented with symptoms of decompensated cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed severe aortic regurgitation with an oscillating vegetation seen on the right coronary cusp of the aortic valve. The blood cultures grew Bacillus cereus. We report this as a rare case of Bacillus cereus endocarditis affecting a native aortic valve.

  1. Viabilidad y colonización de la Cepa Vacunal Vibrio Cholerae 638 liofilizada en dos formulaciones y almacenada a diferentes temperaturas

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    Herminia Delgado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Una vacuna efectiva contra el cólera debe ser suministrada por vía oral. En este tipo de vacunas es muy importante conservar el microorganismo a concentraciones conocidas por períodos prolongados. La liofilización es el método ideal para lograr este objetivo, sin embargo, durante este proceso ocurren pérdidas considerables en la viabilidad de los microorganismos, por lo que se deben utilizar sustancias lioprotectoras que minimicen estas pérdidas. La viabilidad de la cepa vacunal y su capacidad de colonización son aspectos importantes para lograr la inmunogenicidad y por tanto la eficacia de la vacuna. Para la realización de este trabajo utilizamos la cepa vacunal 638, Vibrio cholerae O1, El Tor Ogawa, liofilizada en las formulaciones F1 (lactosa, peptona, sorbitol y F9 (leche descremada, peptona, sorbitol. Se estudiaron muestras de lotes liofilizados y almacenados a 8 y -20ºC por períodos de tiempo de 6 meses y 1 año. Al cabo de dichos tiempos, se evaluó la pérdida de viabilidad y la capacidad de colonización de dicha cepa. También se analizó la actividad celulolítica (celA de los productos liofilizados. La viabilidad de la cepa liofilizada en F9 y almacenada a las diferentes temperaturas y tiempos fue ligeramente menor que en la F1. La actividad celA de la cepa vacunal, conservada y almacenada en estas condiciones, fue detectada en el 100% de las colonias analizadas. La cepa 638 colonizó el intestino de la mayoría de los ratones al cabo de las 24h de inoculados, excepto cuando se utilizó la cepa liofilizada en F9 y almacenada a 8ºC durante 1 año. No obstante, a las 120h se alcanzaron los niveles máximos de colonización observados para esta cepa en estudios previos sin liofilizar. Teniendo en cuenta todo lo anterior, ambas formulaciones mantienen, en niveles aceptables, la viabilidad, y la capacidad colonizadora de la cepa vacunal 638, almacenada hasta 1 año.

  2. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de regiones endémicas de la Enfermedad de Carrión en EL Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mendoza-Mujica

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro a cloranfenicol (CHL y ciprofloxacino (CIP de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de áreas endémicas de la enfermedad de Carrión (EC en el Perú, mediante tres métodos de laboratorio. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a CHL y CIP de 100 cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis, los aislamientos procedieron de pacientes de los departamentos de Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima y La Libertad; las cepas se evaluaron mediante: disco difusión, E-Test y dilución en agar. Resultados. El 26% de las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis evaluadas, presentaron resistencia a CIP y 1% a CHL. Se obtuvieron patrones similares de sensibilidad/resistencia antimicrobiana en los tres métodos utilizados. Conclusiones. Las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis circulantes en el Perú, presentan elevados niveles de resistencia in vitro a CIP, por lo que se recomienda ampliar la investigación sobre la utilización del fármaco en los esquemas de tratamiento de la EC. Los métodos de E-test y disco difusión resultaron más convenientes para la evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro del microorganismo

  3. Streptomycin affinity depends on 13 amino acids forming a loop in homology modelled ribosomal S12 protein (rpsL gene) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus DSLS5 associated with marine sponge (Tedania anhelans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyanarayanan, Balasubramanian; Lakshmi, Praveena Pothuraju; Santhosh, Ramachandran Sarojini; Dhevendaran, Kandasamy; Priya, Balakrishnan; Krishna, Shivaani

    2016-06-01

    Streptomycin, an antibiotic used against microbial infections, inhibits the protein synthesis by binding to ribosomal protein S12, encoded by rpsL12 gene, and associated mutations cause streptomycin resistance. A streptomycin resistant, Lysinibacillus sphaericus DSLS5 (MIC >300 µg/mL for streptomycin), was isolated from a marine sponge (Tedania anhelans). The characterisation of rpsL12 gene showed a region having similarity to long terminal repeat sequences of murine lukemia virus which added 13 amino acids for loop formation in RpsL12; in addition, a K56R mutation which corresponds to K43R mutation present in streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli is also present. The RpsL12 protein was modelled and compared with that of Lysinibacillus boronitolerans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The modelled proteins docked with streptomycin indicate compound had less affinity. The effect of loop on streptomycin resistance was analysed by constructing three different models of RpsL12 by, (i) removing both loop and mutation, (ii) removing the loop alone while retaining the mutation and (iii) without mutation having loop. The results showed that the presence of loop causes streptomycin resistance (decreases the affinity), and it further enhanced in the presence of mutation at 56th codon. Further study will help in understanding the evolution of streptomycin resistance in organisms.

  4. Microbial Transformation of Quercetin by Bacillus cereus

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Koppaka V.; Weisner, Nghe T.

    1981-01-01

    Biotransformation of quercetin was examined with a number of bacterial cultures. In the presence of a bacterial culture (Bacillus cereus), quercetin was transformed into two crystalline products, identified as protocatechuic acid and quercetin-3-glucoside (isoquercitrin).

  5. 75 FR 862 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... AGENCY Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY... proposed registration review decision for the pesticide Bacillus subtilis (case 6012) and opens a public... EPA's proposed registration review decision Bacillus subtilis (case 6012). The Bacillus subtilis...

  6. Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Preterm Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J.; Schelonka, Robert L.; Waites, Ken B.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers o...

  7. Narrow terahertz attenuation signatures in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weidong; Brown, Elliott R; Viveros, Leamon; Burris, Kellie P; Stewart, C Neal

    2014-10-01

    Terahertz absorption signatures from culture-cultivated Bacillus thuringiensis were measured with a THz photomixing spectrometer operating from 400 to 1200 GHz. We observe two distinct signatures centered at ∼955 and 1015 GHz, and attribute them to the optically coupled particle vibrational resonance (surface phonon-polariton) of Bacillus spores. This demonstrates the potential of the THz attenuation signatures as "fingerprints" for label-free biomolecular detection.

  8. Streptococcus pneumoniae: estudo das cepas isoladas de liquor Streptococcus pneumoniae: a study of strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataiza C. Vieira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência dos sorotipos capsulares e a susceptibilidade antimicrobiana de cepas de Streptococcus pneumoniae, assim como dar suporte à indicação de vacinas disponíveis e ao uso de antimicrobianos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo retrospectivo, foram adotadas metodologias padronizadas para identificar, sorotipar e determinar a susceptibilidade à penicilina, cefotaxima e vancomicina. O estudo foi realizado com cepas de pneumococo isoladas de liquor em pacientes atendidos nos hospitais públicos e em três hospitais particulares do Distrito Federal no período de janeiro de 1995 a dezembro de 2004. A identificação e a determinação de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos foi realizada no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública no Distrito Federal. A sorotipagem foi realizada no Instituto Adolfo Lutz. RESULTADOS: Foram isoladas 232 cepas de pneumococo, compreendendo 126 cepas (54,31% de pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade dos pacientes variou de 0 a 62 anos, sendo agrupados em faixas etárias de 0 a 5, 6 a 17, 18 a 50 e acima de 50 anos. Identificaram-se 36 sorotipos distintos. Desses destacaram-se oito: 14, 6B, 18C, 5, 19F, 23F, 9V e 6A. O teste de oxacilina caracterizou 67 cepas resistentes à penicilina; dessas, 47 foram confirmadas pelo E teste com resistência de nível intermediário. Nenhuma cepa apresentou resistência de alto nível. CONCLUSÃO: A resistência do pneumococo à penicilina apresentou um aumento gradativo nos últimos 10 anos no Distrito Federal. Os sorotipos mais isolados na faixa etária de 0 a 5 anos foram também os mais envolvidos na resistência à penicilina, e estão incluídos na vacina 7-valente.OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of capsular serotypes and the antimicrobial susceptibility of strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as to provide recommendations on the use of available vaccines and antimicrobial drugs. METHODS: In this retrospective study, standard procedures were followed

  9. Effects of Mg{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+} on the nucleus and nucleolus in root tip cells of allium cepa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D.; Jiang, W.; Wang, W. [Tianjin Normal Univ. (China); Zhai, L. [Xinhua High School, Tianjin (China)

    1995-11-01

    Metal toxicity in plants has been known for a long time. Much importance has increasingly been attached to the problems of metal pollution with the development of modern industry and agriculture. If metals in plants are accumulated to a large extent, it might seriously affect them. The cytological effects of cobalt and mercury have been studied in Allium cepa by documentation of c-mitosis. Also, the quantification of chromosome aberration in Vicia faba root-tip cells treated by magnesium sulphate and in Allium cepa by metyl mercury chloride and mercuric chloride has been reported. Cytological research on the poisoning effects of Mg, Co and Hg on the nuclei and nucleoli in root-tip cells of plants has hardly been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different concentrations of magnesium, cobalt and mercury ions on root growth, and on the nuclei and nucleoli of root tip cells of Allium-cepa. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  10. The effect of oleander glycosides on the germination of pollen grains and the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water solution of a mixture of glycosides from oleander (Nerium oleander L. on the germination of pollen grains and on the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L. has been studied. An inhibition of the germination and of the growth of pollen tubes was observed, proportionally to the concentration of glycosides. The pollen grains of A. cepa are more sensitive. The disturbances in mitosis lead to the formation of two or more uneven-sized doughter nuclei, or to the formation of restitution nuclei. These anomalies are more numerous in T. bracteata. From these results d t appears that pollen grains of A. cepa are characterized by a generally high physiological sensitivity and a small mitotic sensitivity, wheras for T. bracteata the opposite is true.

  11. Analysis of the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of Malathion on the Allium cepa cells and rat hepatoma tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Jaqueline; Mantovani, Mario Sérgio; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2015-10-01

    Based on the concentration of Malathion used in the field, we evaluated the genotoxic potential of low concentrations of this insecticide on meristematic and F1 cells of Allium cepa and on rat hepatoma tissue culture (HTC cells). In the A. cepa, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), micronuclei (MN), and mitotic index (MI) were evaluated by exposing the cells at 1.5, 0.75, 0.37, and 0.18mg/mL of Malathion for 24 and 48hr of exposure and 48hr of recovery time. The results showed that all concentrations were genotoxic to A. cepa cells. However, the analysis of the MI has showed non-relevant effects. Chromosomal bridges were the CA more frequently induced, indicating the clastogenic action of Malathion. After the recovery period, the higher concentrations continued to induce genotoxic effects, unlike the observed for the lowest concentrations tested. In HTC cells, the genotoxicity of Malathion was evaluated by the MN test and the comet assay by exposing the cells at 0.09, 0.009, and 0.0009mg/5mL culture medium, for 24hr of exposure. In the comet assay, all the concentrations induced genotoxicity in the HTC cells. In the MN test, no significant induction of MN was observed. The genotoxicity induced by the low concentrations of Malathion presented in this work highlights the importance of studying the effects of low concentrations of this pesticide and demonstrates the efficiency of these two test systems for the detection of genetic damage promoted by Malathion.

  12. Selección de cepas de Shigella sonnei para el desarrollo de una vacuna efectiva contra la shigellosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Martínez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Instituto Finlay se desarrolló una metodología de trabajo que contribuyó a la selección de cepas de Shigella sonnei como posibles candidatos vacunales contra la shigellosis. Las cepas investigadas, donadas por el Centro Provincial de Higiene y Epidemiología de Ciudad de La Habana, se caracterizaron según los métodos convencionales. La identificación del serogrupo y serotipo se realizó por aglutinación en láminas portaobjetos con antisueros comerciales; mientras que para el estudio de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana se utilizó el DIRAMIC 10, un equipo semiautomatizado que proporcionó los resultados 4 horas después de su realización. Se investigó también la presencia de plásmidos de virulencia, por el crecimiento de Shigella spp. en medio de agar Triptona Soya con Rojo Congo al 0,025%, así como la expresión de las proteínas de la membrana externa en SDS-PAGE; para las pruebas de virulencia y potencia se emplearon los modelos animales (modelo ratón-pulmón y Test de Sereny. Los resultados obtenidos con la metodología utilizada permitieron la selección de la cepa de S. sonnei A-04 como la más adecuada para la obtención del posible candidato vacunal.

  13. Eficiencia biológica de cepas nativas de Trichoderma spp., en el control de Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., en cacahuate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Michel-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el control de Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., se evaluó el efecto antagónico de aislados nativos de Trichoderma spp., bajo condiciones in vitro y de invernadero, en la zona Norte del estado de Guerrero. Se obtuvieron doce aislados nativos de Trichoderma spp. (dos de Santa Teresa y diez de Tlaxmalac, Gro., de los cuales se seleccionaron seis (Tcn-4, Tcn-5, Tcn-6, Tcn-7, Tcn-8 y Tcn-11 mediante el método del papel celofán. En condiciones in vitro, el porcentaje de inhibición varió desde 10 a 94.40%; registrándose mediante la técnica de cultivos apareados el antagonismo clase dos en el aislado Tcn-11; en estas condiciones, inhibió el crecimiento del fitopatógeno y evitó su desarrollo en el 80% de la superficie del medio en la caja de Petri. En condiciones de invernadero se evaluó la cepa nativa Tcn-11 identificada morfológica y genéticamente como T. harzianum Rifai y se comparó con una cepa de la colección (Thzcf-12 y un fungicida comercial en tres tiempos de inoculación. El fitopatógeno S. rolfsii no fue suficientemente agresivo para ocasionar la muerte de la planta de cacahuate; sin embargo, se observaron efectos negativos en su desarrollo y producción de semillas. Las cepas Tcn-11 y Thzcf-12 fueron capaces de contribuir al desarrollo de la planta de cacahuate y ayudar a protegerla de la infección de S. rolfsii de manera más eficiente que el fungicida pentacloro nitrobenceno (PCNB.

  14. Identification of pathogenicity-related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C; Harrison, Richard J; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non-pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific.

  15. Identification of pathogenicity‐related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C.; Harrison, Richard J.; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non‐pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non‐pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific. PMID:26609905

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database, starch and sucrose metabolism (147, 2.40% constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS, both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, "starch and sucrose metabolism" (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research.

  18. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A; Albert, Nick W; McCallum, John A; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species.

  19. Strip Tillage and Early-Season Broadleaf Weed Control in Seeded Onion (Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Gegner-Kazmierczak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted in 2007 and 2008 near Oakes, North Dakota (ND, USA, to evaluate if strip tillage could be incorporated into a production system of seeded onion (Allium cepa to eliminate the standard use of a barley (Hordeum vulgare companion crop with conventional, full width tillage, yet support common early-season weed control programs. A split-factor design was used with tillage (conventional and strip tillage as the main plot and herbicide treatments (bromoxynil, DCPA, oxyfluorfen, and pendimethalin as sub-plots. Neither tillage nor herbicide treatments affected onion stand counts. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album densities were lower in strip tillage compared to conventional tillage up to three weeks after the post-emergence applied herbicides. In general, micro-rate post-emergence herbicide treatments provided greater early-season broadleaf weed control than pre-emergence herbicide treatments. Onion yield and grade did not differ among herbicide treatments because the mid-season herbicide application provided sufficient control/suppression of the early-season weed escapes that these initial weed escapes did not impact onion yield or bulb diameter. In 2007, onion in the strip tillage treatment were larger in diameter resulting in greater total and marketable yields compared to conventional tillage. Marketable onion yield was 82.1 Mg ha−1 in strip tillage and 64.9 Mg ha−1 in conventional tillage. Results indicate that strip tillage use in direct-seeded onion production was beneficial, especially when growing conditions were conducive to higher yields and that the use of strip tillage in onion may provide an alternative to using a companion crop as it did not interfere with either early-season weed management system.

  20. The role of gamma irradiation on the extraction of phenolic compounds in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun In; Lee, Eun Mi; Kim, Young Soo; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the content of total phenolic compounds, especially quercetin (Q), in onion (Allium cepa L.) skin was investigated. Onion skin extracts contained two predominant flavonoid compounds, Q and quercetin-4'-glucoside (Q4'G). After 10 kGy gamma irradiation, the yield of Q in the extracts increased significantly from 36.8 to 153.9 μg/ml of the extract, and the Q4'G content decreased slightly from 165.0 to 134.1 μg/ml. In addition, the total phenolic compound content also increased after irradiation at 10 kGy, from 228.0 μg/g of fresh weight to 346.6 μg/g; negligible changes (237.1-256.7 μg/g) occurred at doses of up to 5 kGy. As we expected, radical-scavenging activity was enhanced remarkably (by 88.8%) in the 10 kGy irradiated sample. A dose-dependent increase in the peak intensity of the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra was observed in all irradiated samples, with a maximum increase at 10 kGy. The intensity relative to that of the control was 0.15, and it increased to 1.10 in 10 kGy irradiated samples. The optimum gamma irradiation dose, which is sufficient to break the chemical or physical bonds and release soluble phenols of low molecular weight in onion skin, is about 10 kGy.

  1. Genotoxic evaluation of infusions of Urera baccifera leaves and roots in Allium cepa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L. Gindri

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aqueous extracts of Urera baccifera Wedd. leaves and roots are used to inflammatory and infectious diseases in Brazilian folk medicine. Oxalic acid, a substance co-related with toxicity and stinging, was already quantified in this plant. Aims: To evaluate the action of leaves and roots infusions (1, 30, 75 g/L and the oxalic acid standard on mitosis as indicative of presumably antimitotic and genotoxic actions, using the Allium cepa test. Methods: Oxalic acid was quantified in the roots and leaves infusions by High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-DAD, with the mobile phase of 25 mM phosphate buffer (pH 2.5: acetonitrile at 95:5 (v/v. To the genotoxicity test, onion bulbs were used. After the rootlets germination, each bulb was submitted for 24 h of the individual treatments. Were analyzed 1000 cells per bulb, in a total of 5000 cells per treatment. Results: Results showed that all concentrations of roots infusions induced chromosomes abnormalities, except for the highest, that caused a substantial inhibition in the mitosis, precluding to be observed abnormalities. In the leaves infusions, only the two higher concentrations caused the highest values of damage in the cellular cycle. The oxalic acid also caused abnormalities in the mitosis, and may be considered responsible by part of the genotoxic action of U. baccifera. Conclusions: Oxalic acid can be responsible by part of the chromosomal abnormalities caused by U. baccifera, although, there must have more metabolites that evoke the same effect promoting the genotoxic effect of this nettle.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Sucrose Metabolism during Bulb Swelling and Development in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsha; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhan, Zongxiang; Liu, Bingjiang; Chen, Zhentai; Liang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Allium cepa L. is a widely cultivated and economically significant vegetable crop worldwide, with beneficial dietary and health-related properties, but its sucrose metabolism is still poorly understood. To analyze sucrose metabolism during bulb swelling, and the development of sweet taste in onion, a global transcriptome profile of onion bulbs was undertaken at three different developmental stages, using RNA-seq. A total of 79,376 unigenes, with a mean length of 678 bp, was obtained. In total, 7% of annotated Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) were involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. In the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, “starch and sucrose metabolism” (147, 2.40%) constituted the primary metabolism pathway in the integrated library. The expression of sucrose transporter genes was greatest during the early-swelling stage, suggesting that sucrose transporters (SUTs) participated in sucrose metabolism mainly at an early stage of bulb development. A gene-expression analysis of the key enzymes of sucrose metabolism suggested that sucrose synthase, cell wall invertase, and invertase were all likely to participate in the hydrolysis of sucrose, generating glucose, and fructose. In addition, trehalose was hydrolyzed to two molecules of glucose by trehalase. From 15 to 40 days after swelling (DAS), both the glucose and fructose contents of bulbs increased, whereas the sucrose content decreased. The growth rate between 15 and 30 DAS was slower than that between 30 and 40 DAS, suggesting that the latter was a period of rapid expansion. The dataset generated by our transcriptome profiling will provide valuable information for further research. PMID:27713754

  3. Potency of Allium sativum and Allium cepa Oils against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia S. Metwally

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that garlic (Allium sativum and onion (Allium cepa are used all over the world in different diseases, such as infections, injuries, gastrointestinal dysfunctions and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, our aim in this work was to study the ability of garlic and onion oils to offset the infectivity as well as the metabolic disturbances induced by Schistosoma mansoni parasitism. Methods: The two current drugs were given in a dosage of 5ml / kg body weight/ day. Three aspects of drug action were investigated, the effect on S. mansoni infection, the effect on liver functions, and on liver metabolism. The parasitological investigation included worm burden and ova count. Results: Serum biochemical analysis of infected mice revealed a significant increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT , ­ glutamyltransferase (GGT , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP, acid phosphatase (AP, while a decrease in glucose, total lipids total cholesterol, high - and low- density lipoproteins cholesterol (HDL and LDL, triglycerides, total proteins and albumin was observed. Liver tissue analysis of infected animals showed a marked increase in L- hydroxyproline (HP concentration and xanthine oxidase (XO activity accompanied with a reduction in total adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase and phosphofructokinase (PFK enzymatic activities. Treatment with either garlic or onion oils greatly normalized liver function enzymes and variably improved the other parameters with a noticeable reduction in worm burden and ova count. Conclusions: It could be concluded that garlic or onion may play a role against the metabolic disturbances caused by S. mansoni infection, owing to an effect which may be induced by improving the immunological host system and their antioxidant activities

  4. The Onion (Allium cepa L.) R2R3-MYB Gene MYB1 Regulates Anthocyanin Biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Kathy E.; Ngo, Hanh; Kenel, Fernand; Brummell, David A.; Albert, Nick W.; McCallum, John A.; Pither-Joyce, Meeghan; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Eady, Colin; Davies, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Bulb color is an important consumer trait for onion (Allium cepa L., Allioideae, Asparagales). The bulbs accumulate a range of flavonoid compounds, including anthocyanins (red), flavonols (pale yellow), and chalcones (bright yellow). Flavonoid regulation is poorly characterized in onion and in other plants belonging to the Asparagales, despite being a major plant order containing many important crop and ornamental species. R2R3-MYB transcription factors associated with the regulation of distinct branches of the flavonoid pathway were isolated from onion. These belonged to sub-groups (SGs) that commonly activate anthocyanin (SG6, MYB1) or flavonol (SG7, MYB29) production, or repress phenylpropanoid/flavonoid synthesis (SG4, MYB4, MYB5). MYB1 was demonstrated to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis by the induction of anthocyanin production in onion tissue when transiently overexpressed and by reduction of pigmentation when transiently repressed via RNAi. Furthermore, ectopic red pigmentation was observed in garlic (Allium sativum L.) plants stably transformed with a construct for co-overexpression of MYB1 and a bHLH partner. MYB1 also was able to complement the acyanic petal phenotype of a defined R2R3-MYB anthocyanin mutant in Antirrhinum majus of the asterid clade of eudicots. The availability of sequence information for flavonoid-related MYBs from onion enabled phylogenetic groupings to be determined across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species, including the identification of characteristic amino acid motifs. This analysis suggests that divergent evolution of the R2R3-MYB family has occurred between Poaceae/Orchidaceae and Allioideae species. The DNA sequences identified will be valuable for future analysis of classical flavonoid genetic loci in Allium crops and will assist the breeding of these important crop species. PMID:28018399

  5. Alien genes introgression and development of alien monosomic addition lines from a threatened species, Allium roylei Stearn, to Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoa Q; Yoshimatsu, Yasuyuki; Khrustaleva, Ludmila I; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2012-05-01

    To produce alien monosomic addition lines (AMALs) of Allium cepa (genomes CC, 2n = 2x = 16) carrying extrachromosomes from Allium roylei (RR, 2n = 2x = 16), reciprocal backcrossing of allotriploids (2n = 24, CCR) with diploids (2n = 16, CC) and selfing of a single allotriploid were carried out. The chromosome numbers in the BC(2)F(1) and BC(1)F(2) progenies ranged from 16 to 32. Forty-eight plants were recorded to possess 2n = 17 among a total of 169 plants in observation. Through the analyses of isozymes, expressed sequence tag (EST) markers, and karyotypes, all eight possible types of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic addition lines (CC+1R-CC+8R) could be identified. Seven types of representative AMALs (without CC+2R) were used for the GISH analysis of somatic chromosomes. Except for CC+6R, all AMALs showed an entire (unrecombined) extrachromosome from A. roylei in the integral diploid background of A. cepa. A single recombination between A. cepa and A. roylei was observed on the extrachromosome in the remaining type. All alloplasmic AMALs possessing A. roylei cytoplasm showed high or complete pollen sterility. Only the autoplasmic CC+4R with A. cepa cytoplasm possessed relatively high pollen fertility. The bulbs of CC+4R displayed the distinct ovoid shape that discriminates them from spherical or oval ones in other AMALs. Downy mildew screening in the field showed higher resistance in A. roylei, a hypo-allotriploid (CCR-nR, 2n = 23), and an allotriploid (CCR, 2n = 24). Meanwhile, no complete resistance was found in some AMALs examined. This was the first trial toward the establishment of a complete set of A. cepa-A. roylei monosomic additions.

  6. Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: comparative morphologica studies of some Brazilian strains Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907: estudos comparativos da morfologia de algumas cepas brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms from three strains which have been maintained in albino mice for several generations, was compared to a strain that has been isolated from the natural host Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia: Muridae captured in Sumidouro (Rio de Janeiro State and have been maintained in the same sylvatic rodent under laboratory conditions. Total length of specimens, distance between suckers, the number of testes and extention of testes grouping were the taxonomic characters analysed. The worms recovered from N. squamipes showed expressive differences (pA morfologia de vermes adultos machos de tres cepas de Schistosoma mansoni, mantidas por várias gerações em camundongos albinos, foi comparada com uma cepa isolada do hospedeiro natural Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia: Muridae e mantida, em laboratório, neste mesmo roedor silvestre. Como caracteres taxonômicos foram analisados o comprimento total, o numero de testículos, a distância entre as ventosas e a distância ocupada pelos testículos nos espécimes. Os vermes recuperados de N. squamipes apresentaram diferenças significativas (p<0,01 em relação às outras cepas para quaisquer caracteres morfológicos estudados. As cepas mantidas em camundongos apresentaram diferença estatística em vários caracteres (p<0,01. Alguns vermes adultos além da disposição normal dos testículos, apresentavam também uma localização atípica destas glândulas sexuais. Conclui-se que a morfologia dos vermes adultos pode ser utilizada para caracterizar cepas de S. mansoni e que as passagens sucessivas de uma cepa em camundongos não induzem a alterações morfológicas nos vermes adultos.

  7. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas de frijolbajo diferentes regímenes de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mayz Figueroa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Título en ingles: Effectiveness of cowpea rhizobial strains under different phosphorus regimes Resumen En Venezuela, el frijol representa una alternativa a la proteína animal, debido a su alto consumo y valor nutritivo, por ello se ha estimulado la implementación de programas para reactivar la economía de los pequeños y medianos productores, a fin de incrementar su producción y así tener mayor disponibilidad de proteína de alta calidad a  bajo costo; de manera que, los estudios encaminados a mejorar su cultivo, son acertados. Se evaluó la efectividad de cepas rizobianas de crecimiento lento (cl y rápido (cr en frijol (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cultivar TC9-6 en varios regímenes de fósforo (0, 20, 40 y 80 kgP2O5 ha-1, con un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con arreglo factorial. Las plantas se cultivaron en 4 kg de suelo de sabana 45 días y las cepas en caldo de levadura y manitol: 5 (cr: JV91 y 10 (cl: JV94 días. La inoculación (2 ml cada vez fue aplicada a la siembra y 6 días más tarde. La utilización de fósforo (40-80 kgP2O5 ha-1 incrementó la nodulación (número, peso seco total e individual de nódulos y favoreció la aparición de nódulos rojos; así mismo, acrecent

  8. Inhibition effect on the Allium cepa L. root growth when using hexavalent chromium-doped river waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Szymanski, N; Palácio, S M; Módenes, A N; Rizzutto, M A; Silva, F G; Oliveira, A P; Oro, A C P; Martin, N

    2009-06-01

    The effect of Cr(6+) on Allium cepa root length was studied using both clean and polluted river waters. Seven series of Cr(6+)-doped polluted and non-polluted river waters were used to grow onions. Chromium concentration (Cr(6+)) of 4.2 mg L(-1)(EC(50) value), doped in clean river water caused a 50% reduction of root length, while in organically polluted samples similar root growth inhibition occurred at 12.0 mg Cr(6+) L(-1). The results suggested that there was a dislocation to higher values in toxic chromium concentration in polluted river water due to the eutrophization level of river water.

  9. Serotipificación y susceptibilidad antibacteriana de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa aisladas de pacientes quemados infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniel Moya

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron 11 cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa en 10 pacientes quemados que se encontraban hospitalizados y se les realizó tipificación serológica y antibiotipia para determinar los serotipos más frecuentes en este tipo de pacientes. Los serotipos de mayor frecuencia de aislamiento fueron el O4 y el O5. Observamos una marcada resistencia frente a los antibióticos: carbenicilina (81,8% y la azlocilina (72,7%.

  10. Caracteristicas fisicoquimicas en vinos tintos: metodo tradicional y maceracion carbonica empleando dos cepas de la levadura saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    N. Flores-Ramírez; R. A. Martínez-Peniche; E. Fernández-Escartín; J. L. Gallegos-Pérez; M. I. Díaz-Cervantes; S. R. Vásquez-García

    2005-01-01

    Los vinos tintos que se elaboran en el centro de México generalmente presentan concentraciones de acidez relativamente elevadas, las cuales causan alteraciones en sus propiedades organolépticas. En este trabajo se reporta el estudio de los niveles de acidez relacionada a los cambios en las principales características físicas y químicas del vino. Los vinos analizados fueron del cv. Ruby cabernet elaborados por vinificación tradicional (VT) y por maceración carbónica (MC) con dos cepas de la le...

  11. Comportamento da cepa LE de Schistosoma mansoni, após passagem em hospedeiro humano infectado acidentalmente

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    Neusa Araújo

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma auxiliar de laboratório infectou-se acidentalmente, com cercárias de Schistosoma mansoni, cepa LE, mantida rotineiramente em nossos laboratórios. Decorridos 5 meses, o exame parasitológico de fezes revelou 108 ovos/g . A pacientefoi tratada com oxamniquine, porém a infecção continuou ativa (6 ovos/g. Foi então obtido o isolado SSF mantido no modelo Biomphalaria glabrata - camundongo albino. Os resultados obtidos no estudo comparativo, entre o isolado SSF e a cepa LE, que lhe deu origem, mostraram que a duração do período pré-patente e o índice de infectividade em camundongos, bem como a resposta aos agentes esquistossomicidas (hycanthone, oxamniquine epraziquantel não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas. Por outro lado, o número de miracídios obtidos dos intestinos e fígados dos camundongos infectados foi o dobro com a cepa LE, quando comparados com aquele do isolado SSF. Também a variação do peso dos animais foi bastante diferente. Concluiu-se que apenas uma passagem pelo hospedeiro humano não mudou substancialmente as características da cepa estudada.A laboratory technician was accidentally infected with the LE strain of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae maintained in our laboratories. After 5 months infection parasitological examination revealed 108 eggs/g faeces. Althrough treated with oxamniquine, the infection still persisted (6 eggs/g of faeces. An isolate (SSF was obtained from that person and maintained in Biomphalaria glabrata - Swiss mouse by alternate passage. The experimental comparative results between the newly obtained SSF isolate and the original LE strain showed that the differences in pre-patent period, the mice infectivity level and the schistosomicidal response to hycanthone, oxamniquine and praziquantel was not statistically significant. On the other hand the number of miracidia recovered from intestines and livers of equally infected mice was twice as miich in the LE strain than

  12. Certain antioxidant enzymes of Allium cepa as biomarkers for the detection of toxic heavy metals in wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatima, Riffat A. [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India); Ahmad, Masood [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, AMU, Aligarh 202002 (India)]. E-mail: smasood_ahmad@lycos.com

    2005-06-15

    The utility of antioxidant enzymes, viz glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), as biomarkers of heavy metal pollution in water was investigated using the Allium cepa (onion) system. These antioxidant enzymes were assayed in onion bulbs exposed to certain heavy metals taken separately, the test metals taken in combination as well as the industrial wastewater especially found to contain these metals. GST exhibited significantly enhanced activity upon treatment with individual heavy metals. However, GR, SOD and CAT did not show such a pronounced increase in activities. At higher heavy metal concentrations, GR, SOD and CAT showed a steep decline while GST activity still showed a rise. Moreover, APX, GPX and MDHAR also exhibited remarkable induction with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals. However, there was no significant change in DHAR activity with respect to the controls. Metabolites like ascorbate (ASC) and glutathione (GSH) exhibited significant decline with increase in the concentration of individual heavy metals while the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} continued to display the rise up to a heavy metal concentration of 100 {mu}M, after which it showed a gradual decline. A. cepa bulbs treated with wastewater sample showed enzyme activity profiles similar to that shown with heavy metals, thereby suggesting the presence of heavy metals in the test wastewater. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry also detected large amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the test water sample. The metal mixture, containing the amounts of heavy metals equivalent to those found in the wastewater, resulted in steep declines in GR, SOD and CAT activities in A. cepa while GST showed a rise. However, when this metal mixture was diluted to 2000-fold, GR, SOD and CAT also

  13. The effects of fungicide benomyl (benlate) on growth and mitosis in onion (Allium cepa L.) root apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, F; Dalgiç, O

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the effects of benomyl, a systemic fungicide were investigated in the mitotic cell division in onion (Allium cepa) root tip cells during germination. For this aim, different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mM) of benomyl solutions were used. All the concentrations used caused several abnormalities in mitotic cell divisions and the mitotic frequency in the onion root tip cells decreased as the concentration of benomyl solution increased. Based on our findings, it is reported that benomyl has some negative effects on mitotic divisions in onion root tip cells.

  14. Alteraciones en las mitosis de raicillas de allium cepa sometidas en un ambiente carente de oxígeno

    OpenAIRE

    de Greiff Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Se hizo un estudio de los efectos causados por un ambiente carente de oxígeno en células meristemáticas de raicillas de Allium cepa, llegándose a comprobar la presencia de alteraciones en el desarrollo de la mitosis y una disminución de la frecuencia mitótica relacionadas con el tiempo de exposición a dicho ambiente. Aunque las causas precisas de estas alteraciones son difíciles de señalar por su complejidad, parece ser que en su desarrollo están implicadas las disfunciones metabólicas ...

  15. Inhibición de Fusarium oxysporum por cepas mutantes de Pseudomonas fluorescens Zum80 incapaces de producir sideróforos

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Valencia-Cantero; Javier Villegas-Moreno; Juan Manuel Sánchez-Yáñez; Juan José Peña-Cabriales; Rodolfo Farías-Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens, cepa ZUM80, es una bacteria productora de sideróforos que inhibe el crecimiento de microorganismos fitopatógenos en condiciones de escasez de hierro. Con el fin de entender el mecanismo de inhibición de la cepa ZUM80 sobre Fusarium oxysporum, se obtuvieron mutantes incapaces de sintetizar sideróforos, por medio de la exposición de P. fluorescens ZUM80 a nitrosoguanidina. Ensayos de antibiosis en condiciones de escasez de hierro, mostraron que, cuando se inoculó el hon...

  16. Avaliação da tolerância à vancomicina em 395 cepas hospitalares de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Geraldo A.; Okada,Sabrina S.; Guenta,Regiane S.; Mamizuka, Elsa M.

    2001-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a presença de tolerância à vancomicina em cepas de Staphylococcus aureus resistentes à oxacilina (Orsa) isoladas de quatro hospitais da cidade de São Paulo. Foram estudadas 395 cepas Orsa isoladas de pacientes hospitalizados entre outubro de 1998 e maio de 2000. A determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e da concentração bactericida mínima (CBM) para vancomicina foi realizada conforme padronizado pelo National Committee for Clinical Laboratory ...

  17. The effect of oleander glycosides on the germination of pollen grains and the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    J. A. Tarkowska

    2015-01-01

    The effect of water solution of a mixture of glycosides from oleander (Nerium oleander L.) on the germination of pollen grains and on the mitosis of the generative nucleus in Tradescantia bracteata Small and Allium cepa L. has been studied. An inhibition of the germination and of the growth of pollen tubes was observed, proportionally to the concentration of glycosides. The pollen grains of A. cepa are more sensitive. The disturbances in mitosis lead to the formation of two or more uneven-siz...

  18. Cepa de Trichoderma útil para el tratamiento y/o prevención de infecciones provocadas por microorganismos fitopatógenos

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Pérez-Artés, Encarnación; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Rodríguez Palero, María Jesús; López García, Antonio Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Cepa de trichoderma útil para el tratamiento y/o prevención de infecciones provocadas por microorganismos fitopatógenos. La invención se refiere a una nueva cepa de hongos perteneciente a la especie Trichoderma atroviride resistente a cobre capaz de inhibir el crecimiento de otros microorganismos, preferiblemente hongos, fitopatógenos. Por ello, se propone su uso como fertilizante y para la prevención y/o tratamiento de infecciones de plantas y/o suelos provocadas por microorganismos fito...

  19. Cepas de trichoderma útiles para el tratamiento y/o prevención de infecciones provocadas por microorganismos fitopatógenos

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso-Albarracín, Juan Bautista; Chaki, Mounira; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús; Pérez-Artés, Encarnación; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; López García, Antonio Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    [ES] La invención se refiere al uso de cepas de hongos Trichoderma para la prevención y/o tratamiento de infecciones de plantas y/o suelos provocadas por hongos fitopatógenos pertenecientes al género Verticillium. Además, la invención se refiere a nuevas cepas de hongos perteneciente a las especies Trichoderma harzianum y Trichoderma atroviride que son también resistentes a cobre capaces de inhibir el crecimiento de otros microorganismos, preferiblemente hongos, fitopatógenos. Por el...

  20. Prueba de inmunodifusión radial con hapteno nativo para diferenciar bovinos con revacunaciones repetidas con la cepa S19 de Brucella abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Esperanza González Miranda; Laura Hernández Andrade; Efrén Díaz Aparicio

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo del estudio fue establecer la capacidad de la inmunodifusión radial (IDR) con hapteno nativo, para diferenciar anticuerpos post-vacunales de anticuerpos por infección, en bovinos con revacunaciones repetidas de cepa S19. Se trabajó en un establo del estado de México, con presencia de abortos, retención de placenta, expulsiones y fetos momificados. Las becerras se vacunaban con dosis clásica de cepa S19 de B. abortus, y ya adultas revacunaciones anuales repetidas con dosis reducida...

  1. Estudio bacteriológico y serológico de brucelosis en vacas revacunadas con dosis reducida de cepa 19 de brucella abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Bustamante Sánchez; Fernando Israel Salazar Hernández; Efrén Díaz Aparicio; Carlos Manzano Cañas; Rafael Pérez González; Laura Hernández Andrade

    2000-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar mediante pruebas diagnósticas, si los anticuerpos que se presentan en bovinos revacunados con dosis reducida de cepa 19 de Brucella abortus son debidos a infección o a vacunación, e intentar el aislamiento para determinar su especie y biotipo. El muestreo se realizó en 25 establos de Tizayuca, Hidalgo. Se utilizaron 100 vacas Holstein positivas a la prueba de tarjeta (PT), que habían sido vacunadas de tres a seis meses de edad con cepa 19 de B. abortus a dosis clási...

  2. Resistência de cepa de Biomphalaria tenagophila, originária de Londrina (Paraná, Brasil à infecção por duas cepas de Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Chieffi

    1975-08-01

    Full Text Available Exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila, originários de Londrina, mostraram-se resistentes à infecção por cepa simpátrica de Schistosoma mansoni e por cepa originária de Belo Horizonte (MG. Variando-se o diâmetro e a idade dos caramujos submetidos à infecção e aumentando-se o número de miracidios a que cada caramujo foi exposto, não se conseguiu obter cercárias de S. mansoni, 70 dias após a tentativa de infecção.Strains of Biomphalaria tenagophila from Londrina showed complete resistence to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, when the snails were exposed to the sympatric strain of the trematode or to the strain from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State. The resistence has been retained even when the diameter of the shell of the snails and the number of miracidia used to infect each snail, were altered.

  3. Identification, cloning and lactonase activity of recombinant protein of N-acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA from Bacillus thuringiensis 147-115-16 strain.

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    Alvaro Mauricio Florez Escobar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Título en español: Identificación, clonación y actividad lactonasa de la proteína recombinante de N-ácil homoserina lactonasa (AiiA de Bacillus thuringiensis cepa 147-115-16 Short title: N-acyl homoserine lactonase (AiiA from Bacillus thuringiensis Abstract: The quorum-quenching N-acyl homoserine lactonases are a family of bacterial metalloenzymes that participate in degradation of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs, disrupting the quorum sensing system of gram negative bacterial species. From a collection of Bacillus thuringiensis strains isolated in Colombia from plants and exhibiting toxic activity against lepidopteran insects, 310 bacterial isolates were tested to determine lactonase activity by using biosensor systems in presence of synthetic N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL and N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL. From them, 251 strains showed degrading activity to both C6-HSL and C8-HSL, 57% exhibited degrading activity to C6-HSL and 43% to C8-HSL. One B. thuringiensis strain, denoted as 147-115-16, that exhibit high degrading activity to C6-HSL and C8-HSL, was able to attenuate soft rot symptoms in infected potato slices with Pectobacterium carotovorum. This strain contains an homologous of the aiiA gene that was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Esherichia coli DE3. The recombinant protein AiiA147-11516 displays activity to C6-HSL, C8-HSL, N-(β-ketocaproyl (3-O-C6-HSL and N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl (3-O-C12-HSL. The recombinant strain in the presence of P. caratovorum cultures was able to attenuate the infection, suggesting that it interferes either with the accumulation or with the response to the AHLs signals. Acording to this data and based on previous report from recombinant AiiA147-11516, this enzyme exhibits activity to a wide range of catalytic substrates suggesting its industrial application in the disease control programs through plants transformation.Key words: lactones, Quorum sensing, Quorum quenching, Lactonases

  4. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  5. Human Neutrophils Kill Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  6. Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis.

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    Anne Mayer-Scholl

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  7. Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Hurwitz, Robert; Brinkmann, Volker; Schmid, Monika; Jungblut, Peter; Weinrauch, Yvette; Zychlinsky, Arturo

    2005-11-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores cause natural infections and are used as biological weapons. Inhalation infection with B. anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is almost always lethal, yet cutaneous infections usually remain localized and resolve spontaneously. Neutrophils are typically recruited to cutaneous but seldom to other forms of anthrax infections, raising the possibility that neutrophils kill B. anthracis. In this study we infected human neutrophils with either spores or vegetative bacteria of a wild-type strain, or strains, expressing only one of the two major virulence factors. The human neutrophils engulfed B. anthracis spores, which germinated intracellularly and were then efficiently killed. Interestingly, neutrophil killing was independent of reactive oxygen species production. We fractionated a human neutrophil granule extract by high-performance liquid chromatography and identified alpha-defensins as the component responsible for B. anthracis killing. These data suggest that the timely recruitment of neutrophils can control cutaneous infections and possibly other forms of B. anthracis infections, and that alpha-defensins play an important role in the potent anti-B. anthracis activity of neutrophils.

  8. Hydrazine vapor inactivates Bacillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Wayne W.; Engler, Diane L.; Beaudet, Robert A.

    2016-05-01

    NASA policy restricts the total number of bacterial spores that can remain on a spacecraft traveling to any planetary body which might harbor life or have evidence of past life. Hydrazine, N2H4, is commonly used as a propellant on spacecraft. Hydrazine as a liquid is known to inactivate bacterial spores. We have now verified that hydrazine vapor also inactivates bacterial spores. After Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 9372 spores deposited on stainless steel coupons were exposed to saturated hydrazine vapor in closed containers, the spores were recovered from the coupons, serially diluted, pour plated and the surviving bacterial colonies were counted. The exposure times required to reduce the spore population by a factor of ten, known as the D-value, were 4.70 ± 0.50 h at 25 °C and 2.85 ± 0.13 h at 35 °C. These inactivation rates are short enough to ensure that the bioburden of the surfaces and volumes would be negligible after prolonged exposure to hydrazine vapor. Thus, all the propellant tubing and internal tank surfaces exposed to hydrazine vapor do not contribute to the total spore count.

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842 Methanolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željana Fredotović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a comparative study of the phytochemical profile and the biological activity of two onion extracts, namely Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842, members of the family Amaryllidaceae. The identification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, and their individual quantities, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The potency of both extracts to scavenge free radicals was determined by the DPPH (2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC methods. The DNA protective role was further tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (COMET assay and by Fenton’s reagent causing double-strand breaks on the closed circular high copy pUC19 plasmid isolated from Escherichia coli. In the presence of both extracts, a significant decrease in DNA damage was observed, which indicates a protective role of Allium cepa and Allium × cornutum on DNA strand breaks. Additionally, cytotoxicity was tested on glioblastoma and breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that both extracts had antiproliferative effects, but the most prominent decrease in cellular growth was observed in glioblastoma cells.

  10. Investigation of protective effects of Erythrina velutina extract against MMS induced damages in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah S. B. S. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be found in the tropics and subtropics, including in the semi-arid northeastern Brazil. It is commonly used in folk medicine to treat anxiety, agitation and insomnia. E. velutina has been known to present analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities, however, it is unknown if this plant present a protective effect on DNA. We assessed the antigenotoxic effect of E. velutina against the genotoxic effects induced by MMS in the root meristem cells of Allium cepa. Three concentrations of the aqueous extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/L of this medicinal plant were used in three different types of treatment (pre-, post- and simultaneous. The effects of the extracts on the root meristem cells of A. cepa were analyzed at both macroscopic and microscopic levels. Protective effects were observed at higher concentrations in pre-treatment and in simultaneous treatment. The results suggest that E. velutina may present antigenotoxic properties and demonstrate its chemopreventive potential.

  11. Sistema de Lotes de Siembra de cepas de Neisseria meningitidis cultivadas en medios de origen no animal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Alina del Puerto-Sardiñas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available En la producción de biológicos, especialmente aquellos obtenidos de microorganismos, resulta esencial contar con un suministro de cepas estable y bien caracterizado como materia prima para la producción. Para esto, es imprescindible conservar las cepas vacunales empleando el Sistema de Lotes de Siembra, así como contar con medios de cultivo que garanticen un óptimo crecimiento microbiano y la presencia de los antígenos de interés. En el Instituto Finlay de La Habana se trabaja en la obtención de una vacuna contra Neisseria meningitidis libre de componentes de origen animal. En el presente trabajo se elaboraron y caracterizaron Lotes de Siembra de Referencia y Trabajo de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupos A, C, Y, W135 y X cultivados en medios de origen no animal y cumpliendo con las Buenas Prácticas de Producción vigentes. Se estableció la documentación adecuada que incluye: expedientes de cada lote, los procedimientos normalizados de operación, los registros de elaboración y control de los lotes, las especificaciones de calidad y los certificados de ensayo.

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842) Methanolic Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredotović, Željana; Šprung, Matilda; Soldo, Barbara; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Budić-Leto, Irena; Bilušić, Tea; Čikeš-Čulić, Vedrana; Puizina, Jasna

    2017-03-11

    Here, we report a comparative study of the phytochemical profile and the biological activity of two onion extracts, namely Allium cepa L. and Allium × cornutum (Clementi ex Visiani 1842), members of the family Amaryllidaceae. The identification of flavonoids and anthocyanins, and their individual quantities, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The potency of both extracts to scavenge free radicals was determined by the DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical-scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) methods. The DNA protective role was further tested by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assay and by Fenton's reagent causing double-strand breaks on the closed circular high copy pUC19 plasmid isolated from Escherichia coli. In the presence of both extracts, a significant decrease in DNA damage was observed, which indicates a protective role of Allium cepa and Allium × cornutum on DNA strand breaks. Additionally, cytotoxicity was tested on glioblastoma and breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that both extracts had antiproliferative effects, but the most prominent decrease in cellular growth was observed in glioblastoma cells.

  13. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flávia de Castro; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; de Lima, Aliny Pereira; Ribeiro, Alessandra de Santana Braga Barbosa; da Silva, Hugo Delleon; Pavanin, Luiz Alfredo; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Ruthenium complexes have attracted much attention as possible building blocks for new transition-metal-based antitumor agents. The present study examines the mitotoxic and clastogenic effects induced in the root tips of Allium cepa by cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate {cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6))} at different exposure durations and concentrations. Correlation tests were performed to determine the effects of the time of exposure and concentration of ruthenium complex on mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration index. A comparison of MI results of cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6)) to those of lead nitrate reveals that the ruthenium complex demonstrates an average mitotic inhibition eightfold higher than lead, with the frequency of cellular abnormalities almost fourfold lower and mitotic aberration threefold lower. A. cepa root cells exposed to a range of ruthenium complex concentrations did not display significant clastogenic effects. Cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate therefore exhibits a remarkable capacity to inhibit mitosis, perhaps by inhibiting DNA synthesis or blocking the cell cycle in the G2 phase. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of this ruthenium complex will be important to define its clinical potential and to contribute to a novel and rational approach to developing a new metal-based drug with antitumor properties complementary to those exhibited by the drugs already in clinical use.

  14. PRUEBAS DE SENSIBILIDAD FRENTE A AGENTES ANTIMICROBIANOS EN CEPAS DE Brachyspira pilosicoli AISLADAS A PARTIR DE PONEDORAS COMERCIALES EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Álvarez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las espiroquetas intestinales del género Brachyspira ocasionan enfermedades importantes en porcinos y aves. Se ha evidenciado un problema de incremento en la presentación de cepas resistentes a los antimicrobianos utilizados normalmente para tratar las espiroquetosis intestinales en porcinos, y esto podría ser aplicable a los aislamientos de aves. Hay muy pocos reportes de sensibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro de cepas de Brachyspira spp. aisladas en aves. En este estudio se evaluó la sensibilidad de doce aislamientos de Brachyspira pilosicoli obtenidos de granjas de ponedoras comerciales a los agentes antimicrobianos tiamulina, tilosina y lincomicina, y se estableció la concentración mínima inhibitoria (CMImediante la técnica de dilución en agar. Todas las bacterias analizadas fueron sensibles a tiamulina (CMI ≤0,1 μg/ml y lincomicina (CMI 1 μg/ml y resistentes a tilosina (CMI 5 μg/ml.

  15. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  16. Diversity and applications of Bacillus bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Franz, Charles M A P; Ben Omar, Nabil; Gálvez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Members of the genus Bacillus are known to produce a wide arsenal of antimicrobial substances, including peptide and lipopeptide antibiotics, and bacteriocins. Many of the Bacillus bacteriocins belong to the lantibiotics, a category of post-translationally modified peptides widely disseminated among different bacterial clades. Lantibiotics are among the best-characterized antimicrobial peptides at the levels of peptide structure, genetic determinants and biosynthesis mechanisms. Members of the genus Bacillus also produce many other nonmodified bacteriocins, some of which resemble the pediocin-like bacteriocins of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while others show completely novel peptide sequences. Bacillus bacteriocins are increasingly becoming more important due to their sometimes broader spectra of inhibition (as compared with most LAB bacteriocins), which may include Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts or fungi, in addition to Gram-positive species, some of which are known to be pathogenic to humans and/or animals. The present review provides a general overview of Bacillus bacteriocins, including primary structure, biochemical and genetic characterization, classification and potential applications in food preservation as natural preservatives and in human and animal health as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Furthermore, it addresses their environmental applications, such as bioprotection against the pre- and post-harvest decay of vegetables, or as plant growth promoters.

  17. Variabilidad genética en cepas de Plasmodium falciparum circulantes en regiones colombianas con riesgo diferente para malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Arcos Burgos

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    La presencia de malaria en una zona es el resultado de una interacción dinámica entre los hospederos humanos, los plasmodios, el vector y el medio ambiente ecológico, físico, socioeconómico y cultural. Plasmodium falciparum, es la especie que produce la enfermedad más grave. La diversidad genética de las cepas de P. falciparum se expresa en el gran polimorfismo antigénico, en la susceptibilidad de este plasmodio a las diferentes drogas utilizadas para su tratamiento y en la patogenicidad de las cepas. El secuenciamiento de genes de P. falciparum ha demostrado diferencias tanto en tamaño como en la secuencia de regiones repetitivas que codifican para la parte inmunodominante de antígenos altamente polimórficos.

    Algunos estudios asocian el grado de variabilidad genética con la endemicidad de malaria en la zona. Estos hallazgos han permitido formular la hipótesis de que a mayor endemicidad mayor variabilidad genética del P. falciparum (2, 3, sin embargo la mayoría de estudios se han realizado en zonas altamente endémicas y poco se conoce sobre la complejidad genética de P. falciparum en zonas de baja y moderada endemicidad. La variabilidad genética de cepas de P. falciparum circulantes en Colombia según el riesgo por regiones es desconocido, en Colombia, según el Índice Parasitario Anual (IPA, hay zonas de alto riesgo (IPA >10, mediano riesgo (IPA entre 2-10 y de bajo riesgo (IPA entre 0-2 para malaria, pensamos que a mayor endemicidad de la malaria en una zona mayor será la variabilidad genética de las cepas de P. falciparum circulantes en ella, por eso queremos conocer el grado de variabilidad genética de las cepas de P. falciparum circulantes en zonas colombianas con diferente riesgo para malaria y la presencia de infección multiclonal en dichas áreas. Para determinar el

  18. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  19. Caracterización genotípica y fenotípica de cepas emergentes de Escherichia coli aisladas de niños con diarrea en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yurley Arias Guerrero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA sigue siendo uno de los principales problemas en salud pública en países en desarrollo. Dentro de los agentes infecciosos que causan esta enfermedad se encuentran bacterias, virus y parásitos. Los agentes bacterianos ocupan un segundo lugar destacándose Escherichia coli enteropatógenas entre las más importantes. Actualmente, seis cepas con diferentes mecanismos de patogenicidad están asociados a diarrea  E. coli enteropatógena (ECEP, productora de toxina-shiga (ECTS, enterotoxigénica (ECET, enteroinvasiva (ECEI, enteroagregativa (ECEA y adherente difusa (ECAD, cada una con un set específico de genes de virulencia. No obstante, se han reportado brotes de EDA ocasionados por cepas de E. coli diferentes a los patotipos conocidos, denominadas cepas emergentes. Estos brotes han sido reportados en Alemania, Europa y recientemente en Cartagena Colombia, lo que sugiere que en nuestro medio circulan estas cepas. Por lo cual, es necesario caracterizar estas cepas emergentes. Objetivo: Caracterizar genotípicamente y fenotípicamente dos cepas emergentes de E. coli aisladas de muestras diarreicas en niños menores de cinco años en Bucaramanga, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: De un estudio de casos y controles realizado entre Julio del 2013 y diciembre del 2014 en Bucaramanga y su área metropolitana, Colombia a 860 niños menores de 5 años con diarrea (casos y sin diarrea (controles. Se aislaron a partir de coprocultivos cepas de E. coli mediante pruebas bioquímicas. A estas cepas previamente almacenadas a -80°C se les determino mediante PCR multiplex los patotipos de E. coli, los cuales posteriormente fueron confirmados mediante PCR simple. Muestras positivas para dos patotipos u otra característica fueron clasificadas como cepas emergentes. Finalmente, estas cepas se caracterizaron fenotípica y genotípicamente. Para ello, se llevaron a cabo pruebas como secuenciación de genes de

  20. КАЧЕСТВЕННЫЙ АНАЛИЗ ФЕНОЛЬНЫХ СОЕДИНЕНИЙ RUBENS EXCORIO CEPA И FLAVIS EXCORIO CEPA (ALLIUM CEPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    БИТУЕВА Э.Б.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Проведен качественный анализ фенольных соединений в отходах растительного сырья Rubens excorio cepa and cepa excorio Flavis. Полученные данные свидетельствуют о наличии в исследуемых образцах групп фенольных соединений: фенолкарбоновых кислот, флавоноидов, полифенолов.

  1. [Chromosomal structure of the hybrids between Allium cepa L. and Allium fistulosum L. with relative resistance to downy mildew based on in situ hybridization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budylin, M V; Kan, L Iu; Romanov, V S; Khrustaleva, L I

    2014-04-01

    Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used for a chromosomal composition study of the later generations of interspecific hybrids between A. cepa L. and A. fistulosum L., which are relatively resistant to downy mildew (peronosporosis). GISH revealed that F2 hybrids, which did not produce seeds, were triploids (2n = 3x = 24) with 24 chromosomes and possessed in their compliments 16 chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and eight chromosomes of A. cepa L. or eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L. The advanced F5 hybrid, which produced few seeds, was amphidiploid with 32 chromosomes. BC1F5 hybrid was triploid with eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum L. and 16 chromosomes of A. cepa L., which did not produce seeds. BC2 (BC1F5) plant was amphidiploid that possessed 4 recombinant chromosomes and produced few seeds. GISH results point to 2n-gametes formation in macro- and microsporogenesis of the hybrids. The mechanism of 2n-gametes formation and the possibility of apomixes events in the backcrossing progeny are discussed.

  2. Crop rotation design in view of soilborne pathogen dynamics : a methodological approach illustrated with Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leoni, C.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: Sclerotium rolfsii, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, soilborne pathogens, crop rotation, population dynamic models, simulation.   During the last decades, agriculture went through an intensification process associated with an increased use of fossil fuel energy, which despite tempor

  3. CEPA对海峡两岸经贸关系的影响%The Effects of CEPA on the Relations Across the Taiwan Straits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖文凤; 陈乔之

    2004-01-01

    The signing of CEPA aggravates the competitive pressure on Taiwanese businessmen who live and do business in the Mainland. So there is an urgent need for them to push ahead the realization of the normalization and institutionalization of trade and economic ties across the straits.

  4. The supercoiling of Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Neil H.

    2003-03-01

    Cylindrical shaped cells of Bacillus subtilis (0.7 X 4 mm) grow with twist and when prevented from separating at cell division form long filaments that writhe and supercoil to produce plectonemic fibers. By repetition macrofibers arise consisting of structures mm in length with loops at both ends of a twisted shaft. The entire structure is topologically a single filament. All the cells in a macrofiber also grow with twist consequently as a fiber elongates its loop ends rotate about the axis of the fiber shaft in opposite directions relative to one another. This holds for both right and left-handed structures, with any degree of twist. Although the individual cells grow with constant twist, the rate of loop rotation increases as a function of fiber length. Theory suggests that there is a gradient of rotation rates along the length of a fiber ranging from maxima at the loop ends to zero at the center of its length. In fibers prevented from rotating at one end the rotation rate gradient ranges from zero at the blocked end to maximum at the free end as shown here. When loop rotation at both ends is blocked fibers supercoil and their loop ends move toward one another. Newly designed force gauges were used to measure the tension engendered by supercoiling of such fibers. The findings illustrate a micromachine -like behavior of macrofibers, powered by cell growth, twisting and supercoiling. Biological functions of the micromachine such as self-assembly, translational motions over solid surfaces, and the dragging objects over surfaces appear to utilize only a small fraction of the total power available from the macrofiber micromachine. Collaborators: J.J. Thwaites, P. Shipman, D. Roy, and L. Cheng.

  5. Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B

    2003-07-01

    Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.

  6. Bacillus cereus as a nongastrointestinal pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani G.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Bacillus cereus to cause systemic infections is of serious concern. Apart from Gastrointestinal infections, it causes respiratory tract infections, nosocomial infections, eye infections, CNS infections, cutaneous infections, endocarditis, osteomyelitis and urinary tract infections. The potential of this bacterium to cause life threatening infections has increased. Trauma is an important predisposing factor for Bacillus cereus infections. The maintenance of skin and mucous membrane integrity limits infection by this micro-organism. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 28-30

  7. Enterotoxin Production in Natural Isolates of Bacillaceae outside the Bacillus cereus Group

    OpenAIRE

    Phelps, Rebecca J.; McKillip, John L.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-nine Bacillus strains obtained from a variety of environmental and food sources were screened by PCR for the presence of five gene targets (hblC, hblD, hblA, nheA, and nheB) in two enterotoxin operons (HBL and NHE) traditionally harbored by Bacillus cereus. Seven isolates exhibited a positive signal for at least three of the five possible targets, including Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus lentimorbis, Bacillus pasteurii, and Bacillus thuringiensis su...

  8. Polihidroxialcanoatos de cepas de Azospirillum spp. aisladas de raíces de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” y Oryza sativa L. “arroz” en Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katty Baca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinó la concentración de polihidroxialcanoatos (PH As de cepas de Azospirillum aisladas de raíces de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” y Oryza sativa L. “arroz”, como una alternativa ante la acumulación de plásticos derivados del petróleo. R aíces previamente desinfectadas se sembraron en medio Nfb se misólido, donde las bacterias fijadoras de nitrógeno se reconocieron por una película blanquecina bajo la superficie y el viraje del indicador al azul. El género Azospirillum se identificó en medio rojo de Congo, obteniéndose 96 cepas de A. lipoferum y A. brasilense en tomate y arroz. Se realizó una fermentación discontinua con caldo Azotobacter modificado, alimentando con una solución saturada de ácido málico cada 12 horas y se realizaron tinciones con Sudán Negro B. Se seleccionaron las cepas con mayor nú mero de gránulos de PHAs (en tomate , 18 de A. lipoferum y 2 de A. brasilense y en arroz, 10 de A. lipoferum y 10 de A. brasilense y se cuantificó la biomasa y PHAs. La concentración de PHAs alcanzó 0 . 661 gL - 1 en A. lipoferum KM(T - 73 y 0 . 738 gL - 1 en A. br asilense KM(T - 19. Las cepas de A. lipoferum y A. brasilense aisladas de tomate alcanzaron una mayor concentración de biomasa y PHAs frente a las cepas aisladas de arroz.

  9. Comparative analysis of two-component signal transduction systems of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, M.W.H.J. de; Francke, C.; Moezelaar, R.; Abee, T.; Siezen, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Bacillus cereus group are ubiquitously present in the environment and can adapt to a wide range of environmental fluctuations. In bacteria, these adaptive responses are generally mediated by two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), which consist of a histidine kinase (HK) and

  10. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  11. Imunogenicidade da cepa avirulenta RV194-2 do vírus rábico em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugimar Marcovistz

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O vírus rábico RV194-2, uma variante avirulenta da cepa CVS (Challenge Vírus Standard, produz uma infecção inaparente quando inoculado intracerebralmente em camundongos adultos. Sugerindo que a resposta imunológica do hospedeiro permite a eliminação do vírus do sistema nervoso central. Por esta razão foram estudadas a indução de interferon e a resposta imune humoral em camundongos BALB/c inoculados com vírus RV194-2. Durante a infecção, estes camundongos apresentaram elevados níveis de interferon no plasma e no cérebro com altos títulos de anticorpos neutralizantes anti-rábicos. A 2-5A sintetase. um marcador da ação dos interferons,foi também analisada no cérebro destes animais. Sua atividade, aumentou, paralelamente, á produção de interferon, demonstrando que este interferon é bioquímicamente ativo. O vírus RV194-2 também induziu, 45 dias após sua inoculação, proteção aos animais quando desafiados com a cepa virulenta CVS. Estes resultados demonstram que a cepa RV194-2possui um alto nível imunogênico.RV194-2 rabies virus, an avirulent mutant of CVS strain, induces an inapparent infection limited to the central nervous system (CNS in adult mice inoculated intracerebrally. This fact suggest that immune response of the host is able to eliminate the virus in CNS. For this reason, we have studied the induction of interferon and the humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice after RV194-2 inoculation. These mice presented high levels of interferon in the plasma and in the brain, with elevated levels of neutralizing antirabies antibodies. The 2-5A synthetase, an enzyme marker of interferon action, was analyzed in the brain of inoculated animals. Its enhancement in parallel to the interferon production in the brain, showed biochemical evidence that this interferon is active. Forty five days after RV194-2 virus inoculation, mice were protected against a challenge with the CVS virulent strain. The results presented

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of the Lichen Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach.

    OpenAIRE

    Başaran DÜLGER; GÜCİN, Fahrettin

    1998-01-01

    In this study, extracts of Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. were prepared with Ethyl acetate, Acetone, Chloroform and Ethanol and antimicrobial activities of these extracts were examined on test microorganisms as follows: Escherichia coli ATCC 11230, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus 6538P, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis La2114, Bacillus cereus var. mycoides, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus thurigiensis, Bacillus megaterium, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Salmo...

  13. Effect of 5-Aminouracil on mitotic cell division in Allium cepa Efeito de 5-Aminouracil na divisão mitótica de células de Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Elisa Pimenta Vicentini; Marcia Flores da Silva; Maria de Fátima Pires da Silva Machado

    1999-01-01

    A exposição de células meristemáticas de Allium cepa por dois ciclos de divisões (48 horas), em soluções contendo concentrações mais baixas de 5-aminouracil (50, 100 e 150μM) do que as usualmente empregadas para proceder à sincronização da proliferação celular, mostrou que as concentrações usadas causam anormalidades cromossômicas e formação de micronúcleos, mas não bloqueiam a entrada destas células em mitose. As células em mitose e com micronúcleos podem prosseguir em divisão e assim con...

  14. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, D.; Heitefuss, S; Seifert, H S

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus anthracis and seven strains of Bacillus cereus were grown on complex medium and on synthetic medium. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acids of strains grown on complex medium gave nearly identical fatty acid patterns. Fatty acid patterns of strains grown on synthetic medium showed a high content of branched-chain fatty acids. Significant differences between the fatty acid patterns of the two species were found. Odd iso/anteiso fatty acid ratios were a...

  15. High Production of Thermostable β-Galactosidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    By cloning the β-galactosidase gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM11001 (ATCC 8005) into Bacillus subtilis, enzyme production was enhanced 50 times. β-Galactosidase could be purified to 80% homogeneity by incubating the cell extract of B. subtilis at 70°C for 15 min, followed by centrifugation to remove the denatured proteins. Because of its heat stability and ease of production, β-galactosidase is suitable for application in industrial processes.

  16. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  17. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis: source of the organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddin, D; Tuazon, C U; Levy, C; Curtin, J

    1982-01-01

    Serious infections with the "nonpathogenic" Bacillus species are increasingly being recognized, especially in drug abusers. Cases of panophthalmitis secondary to infection with Bacillus cereus, with and without associated bacteremia, have been reported. Three drug abusers with panophthalmitis seen in our hospitals during a three-year period are described, and the similar cases reported in the literature are reviewed. The syndrome is characterized by an acute onset with a rapid fulminating course that eventually leads to enucleation or evisceration of the eye. The pathogenic mechanism is unknown, but is probably related to the production of toxin (lecithinase) by B. cereus. Clindamycin appears to be the antibiotic of choice in the treatment of this infection. In order to identify a possible source of the organism, 59 samples of heroin and injection paraphernalia were cultured. Twenty cultures yielded organisms; Bacillus species were the predominant isolates. Thirty-eight percent of the isolates were identified as B. cereus. Thus, infections caused by Bacillus species in drug abusers can probably be associated with intravenous heroin abuse because heroin mixtures and injection paraphernalia are frequently contaminated with this organism.

  18. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...

  19. Surfactin production by strains of Bacillus mojavensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus mojavensis, RRC101 is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. DNA fingerprint analysis of the rep-PCR fragments of 35 B. mojavensis and 4 B. subtilis strains using the Diversilab genotyping system revealed genotypic distinctive strains alon...

  20. Complete Genome of Bacillus subtilis Myophage Grass

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Stanton Y.; Colquhoun, Jennifer M.; Perl, Abbey L.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a ubiquitous Gram-positive model organism. Here, we describe the complete genome of B. subtilus myophage Grass. Aside from genes encoding core proteins pertinent to the life cycle of the phage, Grass has several interesting features, including an FtsK/SpoIIIE protein.

  1. Complete Genome of Bacillus thuringiensis Myophage Spock

    OpenAIRE

    Maroun, Justin W.; Whitcher, Kelvin J.; Chamakura, Karthik R.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, sporulating soil microbe with valuable pesticide-producing properties. The study of bacteriophages of B. thuringiensis could provide new biotechnological tools for the use of this bacterium. Here, we present the complete annotated genome of Spock, a myophage of B. thuringiensis, and describe its features.

  2. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pookie

    OpenAIRE

    Ladzekpo, Tsonyake N.; DeCrescenzo, Andrew J.; Hernandez, Adriana C.; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophage Pookie is a novel podophage, isolated from soil, which infects Bacillus megaterium. B. megaterium is an important host for large-scale recombinant protein production. Here, we present the complete genome of phage Pookie and describe its core features.

  3. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  4. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A n

  5. Encuestas sobre tasas de portadores sanos de N. Meningitidis y caracterización de cepas circulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Aceitero Julián Mauro

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Durante la temporada epidémica 1.996-97 el incremento de incidencia de Enfermedad Meningocócica por N. Meningitidis serogrupo C llevó a instaurar programas de vacunación y realizar distintos estudios, entre ellos dos para conocer la prevalencia de portadores sanos que presentamos. MÉTODO: Portadores sanos en población general: encuesta transversal realizada entre marzo y mayo de 1.998, entre residentes en Extremadura. Tomamos dos grupos de edad: 0-19 años, vacunados (n=1.140 y 20 y más años (n=1.193, no vacunados. Portadores sanos en un acuartelamiento: encuesta transversal en una base militar durante mayo de 1.998 (n=619, tomando dos grupos: < 20 años (n=453 vacunados, y 20 y más años (n=166 no vacunados RESULTADOS: Portadores sanos en población general El porcentaje de portadores para todos los serogrupos fue: grupo de 0-19 años 7'98, grupo 20 y más años 3'32, total 4'60, para serogrupo B: 4'43, 2'25 y 2'84; para C: 0'04, 0'10 y 0'08 respectivamente. Las diferencias entre ambos grupos de edad del serogrupo B y total son estadísticamente significativas, así como la mayor prevalencia del B sobre C. El subtipo de las tres muestras con aislamiento de serogrupo C fue: una cepa NT:P1.6, una 2b:P1.2, y una no pudo sub-tiparse. Una cepa no serogrupable se subtipo como 2b: P1. 5. Portadores sanos en un acuartelamiento El porcentaje de portadores para todos los serogrupos fue: < 20 años 8'43, 20 y más años 6'84, total 7'27, para serogrupo B: 4'82, 3'75 y 4'04; y para C: 0'60, 0'00 y 0'16 respectivamente. Las mayores prevalencias obtenidas en militares sobre población general mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. También la prevalencia de serogrupo B es significativamente muy superior a la C. La única cepa de C aislada se subtipó 2b : p1.2,5. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de portadores sanos de N. meningitidis en población general es de 4,60 %, siendo mayor en el grupo de menor edad y el

  6. Alteraciones en las Mitosis de Raicillas de Allium Cepa Sometidas en un Ambiente Carente de Oxígeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Greiff Sonia

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un estudio de los efectos causados por un ambiente carente de oxígeno en células meristemáticas de raicillas de Allium cepa, llegándose a comprobar la presencia de alteraciones en el desarrollo de la mitosis y una disminución de la frecuencia mitótica relacionadas con el tiempo de exposición a dicho ambiente. Aunque las causas precisas de estas alteraciones son difíciles de señalar por su complejidad, parece ser que en su desarrollo están implicadas las disfunciones metabólicas resultantes de la anaerobiosis, que afectan la producción de ATP de origen citoplasmático y nuclear, necesarios para la realización de la mitosis y otras funciones celulares.

  7. Antiproliferative action of aqueous extracts of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. (Fabaceae on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOURRAN P. LACERDA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the action of crude aqueous extracts obtained from rhytidome of Hymenaea stigonocarpa (jatobá-do-cerrado on Allium cepa meristematic root cells in three concentrations: 0.082, 0.164, 0.328g/mL, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. The slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5000 for each control group and concentration. It was found that all three concentrations, including the lowest which is considered ideal for use, in all exposure times, had significant antiproliferative action on the cell cycle of this test system. For cells under division, we observed a high number of cells in prophase. Therefore, under the conditions studied H. stigonocarpa indicated to be cytotoxic.

  8. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais em cepas isoladas de infecção urinária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Rogério Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A análise da atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de ervas medicinais (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf. e Salvia officinalis, L. foi verificada frente a 100 cepas de bactérias isoladas de indivíduos da comunidade com diagnóstico de infecção urinária. Os microrganismos foram semeados em ágar Muller Hinton e os extratos aplicados com replicador de Steers e incubados a 37degreesC por 24 horas. Verificou-se que Salvia officinalis, L. apresentou ação inibitória superior às outras ervas, tendo eficácia de 100% quando testadas em espécies de Klebsiella e Enterobacter, 96% em Escherichia coli, 83% contra Proteus mirabilis e 75% contra Morganella morganii.

  9. Lesões cardíacas em ratos wistar inoculados com diferentes cepas do Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chapadeiro

    1988-09-01

    Full Text Available Ratos albinos Wistar infectados com diferentes inóculos das cepas Y, Colombiana (COL e São Felipe (12SF do Trypanosoma cruzi desenvolveram parasitemia elevada entre 14e21 dias, a qual tomou-se desprezível ou desapareceu completamente ao final da 4ª semana. As lesões do coração foram avaliadas, semiquantitativamente, pelo sistema de "scores", conforme a intensidade e a extensão da inflamação, nas diferentes estruturas do órgão, tendo sido observado que: a na fase inicial (aguda da infecção, os animais mortos espontaneamente ou em conseqüência de acidente anestésico apresentaram cardite de intensidade moderada à acentuada, não havendo diferença em relação às cepas utilizadas; as diferentes estruturas do coração estavam uniformemente comprometidas; b na fase crônica da infecção observou-se cardite degrau leve a moderado e as lesões foram mais freqüentes e intensas quanto maior o inoculo empregado; no entanto, inóculos baixos só produziram lesões quando a cepa utilizada foi a Colombiana. Trombose mural nos átrios e dilatação da ponta do ventrículo esquerdo foram observadas em 20% dos animais, independentemente da cepa. Na fase crônica 15% dos animais apresentaram miocardite crônica com fibrose, associada à hipertrofia das miocélulas. Os AA confirmam ser o rato albino suscetível à infecção chagásica e, portanto, um modelo útil no estudo das manifestações cardíacas da Doença de Chagas.Wistar albino rats infected intraperitonially with different inocula of Y, 12SF and Colombian strains of Trypanosoma cruzi developed high parasitemia, which lowered by the end of the 6th week; mortality varied according with the strain and inoculum. Acute carditis like that occurring in the human, was found in all animals killed or dying spontaneously. The surviving rats were sacrificed in the 8th month of infection. They presented active chronic carditis involving especially the myocardium and the intracardiac nervous

  10. Caracterização de cepas de rotavírus humanos em cultura de células

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Cristina Soares dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    O rotavírus é um patógeno comum, principal causador de gastroenterite em crianças em todo o mundo, acometendo, principalmente, crianças abaixo de 24 meses de idade. A infecção é responsável por aproximadamente 45% das doenças diarréicas severas em bebês e crianças, tanto em países desenvolvidos quanto em países em desenvolvimento. Este trabalho foi proposto no sentido de isolar/adaptar cepas de rotavírus humano em cultura de células MA-104 (rim fetal de macaco verde africano), a partir de amo...

  11. Addition of a combination of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) to food of sheep stops gastrointestinal helminthic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlhorn, Heinz; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Jatzlau, Antje; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy

    2011-04-01

    Sheep with gastrointestinal nematodes and cestodes were fed on three farms with a combination of specially prepared extracts of onion (Allium cepa) and coconut (Cocos nucifera) for 8 days containing each 60 g coconut and onion extract, combined with milk powder and/or polyethylene glycol (PEG) propylencarbonate (PC). In all cases, the worm stages disappeared from the feces and were also not found 9 and 20 days after the end of the feeding with this plant combination. Since all treated animals increased their body weight considerably (when compared to untreated animals), worm reduction was apparently as effective as it was shown in previous laboratory trials with rats and mice (Klimpel et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; Abdel-Ghaffar et al., Parasitol Res, in press, 2010; in this volume).

  12. Effects of water soluble oncostatic fraction from Rheum officinale Baill. rhizomes on Allium cepa root meristem. I. The mitotic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dawidowicz-Grzegorzewska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the oncostatic extracts from Rheum officinale rhizomes on the activity of meristematic cells from Allium cepa roots were investigated. A statistically significant decrease of the IM value was noted as well as of the total number of mitoses during incubation. The disturbances in the course of mitosis and cytokinesis are described and discussed. The kind of disturbances during postincubation points to damage of the S and G2 phases of the interphase nuclei. Cytochemical and autoradiographic studies demonstrated a diminished intensity of staining of DNA and RNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis during incubation, this leading in tum to a lower intensity of protein staining in postincubation. Disturbances in mitosis and cytokinesis after treatment wth 2,6-dihydroxyantraquinone, supposed to be the antimitotically active compound of the extract, are the same as those produced by the total water soluble fraction.

  13. Encuestas sobre tasas de portadores sanos de N. Meningitidis y caracterización de cepas circulantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Mauro Ramos Aceitero

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Durante la temporada epidémica 1.996-97 el incremento de incidencia de Enfermedad Meningocócica por N. Meningitidis serogrupo C llevó a instaurar programas de vacunación y realizar distintos estudios, entre ellos dos para conocer la prevalencia de portadores sanos que presentamos. MÉTODO: Portadores sanos en población general: encuesta transversal realizada entre marzo y mayo de 1.998, entre residentes en Extremadura. Tomamos dos grupos de edad: 0-19 años, vacunados (n=1.140 y 20 y más años (n=1.193, no vacunados. Portadores sanos en un acuartelamiento: encuesta transversal en una base militar durante mayo de 1.998 (n=619, tomando dos grupos: < 20 años (n=453 vacunados, y 20 y más años (n=166 no vacunados RESULTADOS: Portadores sanos en población general El porcentaje de portadores para todos los serogrupos fue: grupo de 0-19 años 7’98, grupo 20 y más años 3’32, total 4’60, para serogrupo B: 4’43, 2’25 y 2’84; para C: 0’04, 0’10 y 0’08 respectivamente. Las diferencias entre ambos grupos de edad del serogrupo B y total son estadísticamente significativas, así como la mayor prevalencia del B sobre C. El subtipo de las tres muestras con aislamiento de serogrupo C fue: una cepa NT:P1.6, una 2b:P1.2, y una no pudo sub-tiparse. Una cepa no serogrupable se subtipo como 2b: P1. 5. Portadores sanos en un acuartelamiento El porcentaje de portadores para todos los serogrupos fue: < 20 años 8’43, 20 y más años 6’84, total 7’27, para serogrupo B: 4’82, 3’75 y 4’04; y para C: 0’60, 0’00 y 0’16 respectivamente. Las mayores prevalencias obtenidas en militares sobre población general mostraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas. También la prevalencia de serogrupo B es significativamente muy superior a la C. La única cepa de C aislada se subtipó 2b : p1.2,5. CONCLUSIONES: La prevalencia de portadores sanos de N. meningitidis en población general es de 4,60 %, siendo mayor en el grupo de menor edad

  14. Phenotypic polomorphism in indigenous strains of sporothrix schenckii Polimorfismo fenotípico de cepas autóctonas de Sporothrix schenckii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Montoya Maya

    1996-02-01

    Full Text Available

    We studied macroscopic colony findings, sugar assimilation patterns and virulence of 55 Sporothrix schenckij strains obtained from patients with cutaneous sporothrichosis. They were collected during a 10-year period at the Mycology Laboratory, University of Antioquia, School of Medicine, Medellín, Colombia. Pigmentation types and macroscopic morphological characteristics’ were studied on mycosel agar and malt extract. In most cases 2 or 3 colony colors were present In both media. In mycosel agar only 5 strains (9.1% were monochromatic. Pigmentation was very stable in that medium. Eighty five percent of the mycosel agar colonies were beige, brown, pleated or pleated and umbilicated. All strains assimilated D-glucosa, glycerol and D-xylosa. We established 9 patterns of assimilation (blotypes, from A to I In 25 strains. Both pigmented and albino strains were virulent for mice. We emphasize the diversity of our Indigenous strains, and the importance of genotypic characterization and of the correlation studies of phenotypic and genotypic variation with the clinical and geographical patterns of the disease.

    Se presentan los resultados macroscópicos, de asimilación de azúcares y de virulencia de 55 cepas de Sporothrix schenckii aisladas a partir de lesiones de pacientes con esporotricosis cutánea, que consultaron al laboratorio de micología de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia en Medellín, Colombia, y que fueron coleccionadas en el transcurso de 10 años. La morfología macroscópica de las colonias y su pigmentación se evaluaron tanto en agar mycosel como en extracto de malta. La mayoría de las cepas en los dos medios presentaban colonias con 2 ó 3 colores diferentes. En mycosel 5 cepas (9.1% fueron monocromáticas y éste fue el medio más estable para definir las

  15. Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov., isolated from pebbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parag, B; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    Strain JC267T was isolated from pebbles collected from Pingleshwar beach, Gujarat, India. Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal to oval sporangia. Strain JC267T contains anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0, iso-C16 : 0, C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major (>5 %) cellular fatty acids. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phospholipids (PL1-3), glycolipids (GL1-2) and an unidentified lipid. Cell-wall amino acids are composed of diagnostic meso-diaminopimelic acid, dl-alanine and a small amount of d-glutamic acid. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain JC267T is 45.5 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain JC267T showed highest sequence similarities of Bacillus when subjected to EzTaxon-e blast analysis. The reassociation values based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain JC267T with Bacillus halosaccharovorans IBRC-M 10095T and Bacillus niabensis JCM 16399T were 26 ± 1 % and 34 ± 3 %, respectively. Based on taxonomic data obtained using a polyphasic approach, strain JC267T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus endolithicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC267T ( = IBRC-M 10914T = KCTC 33579T).

  16. De Novo Assembly and Transcriptome Analysis of Bulb Onion (Allium cepa L.) during Cold Acclimation Using Contrasting Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeongsukhyeon; Thamilarasan, Senthil Kumar; Natarajan, Sathishkumar; Park, Jong-In; Chung, Mi-Young; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crop in the world. During winter, cold injury can limit the production of bulb onion. Genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies on heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance have been carried out in bulb onion genotypes. We applied high-throughput sequencing technology to cold (2°C), freezing (-5 and -15°C), and control (25°C)-treated samples of cold tolerant (CT) and cold susceptible (CS) genotypes of A. cepa lines. A total of 452 million paired-end reads were de novo assembled into 54,047 genes with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on similarity searches, these genes were aligned with entries in the public non-redundant (nr) database, as well as KEGG and COG database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using log10 values with the FPKM method. Among 5,167DEGs, 491 genes were differentially expressed at freezing temperature compared to the control temperature in both CT and CS libraries. The DEG results were validated with qRT-PCR. We performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of all DEGs and iPath interactive analysis found 31 pathways including those related to metabolism of carbohydrate, nucleotide, energy, cofactors and vitamins, other amino acids and xenobiotics biodegradation. Furthermore, a large number of molecular markers were identified from the assembled genes, including simple sequence repeats (SSRs) 4,437 and SNP substitutions of transition and transversion types of CT and CS. Our study is the first to provide a transcriptome sequence resource for Allium spp. with regard to cold and freezing stress. We identified a large set of genes and determined their DEG profiles under cold and freezing conditions using two different genotypes. These data represent a valuable resource for genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

  17. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally.

  18. Microscopic examination on cytological changes in Allium cepa and shift in phytoplankton population at different doses of Atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Finger, Kristen; Usnick, Samantha; Rogers, William J.; Das, A. B.; Smith, Don W.

    2010-06-01

    Atrazine is a wide-range herbicide. For over 50 years, atrazine has been used as a selective broadleaf herbicide in many capacities, from pre-plant to pre-emergence to post-emergence, depending on the crop and application. Currently, 96% of all atrazine used is for commercial applications in fields for the control of broadleaf and grassy weeds in crops such as sorghum, corn, sugarcane, pineapple and for the control of undesirable weeds in rangeland. Many panhandle wells have also detected atrazine in samples taken. The concern for the public is the long-term effect of atrazine with its increasing popularity, and the impact on public health. We investigated the effect of different concentrations of atrazine on Allium cepa (onion), a standard plant test system. We established a control with the Allium bulbs grown on hydroponics culture. Varying concentrations of atrazine was used on the standard plant test system, Allium cepa grown hydroponically. The mitotic indices varied and with higher doses, we observed various chromosomal abnormalities including sticky bridges, early and late separations, and lag chromosomes with higher doses of treatments. In the second part of the experiment, 0.1ppb, 1ppb, 10ppb, and 100ppb concentrations of atrazine were applied to established phytoplankton cultures from the Lake Tanglewood, Texas. Study with a Sedgwick-Rafter counter, a BX-40 Olympus microscope with DP-70 camera revealed a gradual shift in the phytoplankton community from obligatory to facultative autotroph and finally to a parasitic planktonic community. This explains the periodic fish kill in the lakes after applications of atrazine in crop fields.

  19. Calcium movement, graviresponsiveness and the structure of columella cells and columella tissues in roots of Allium cepa L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    Roots of Allium cepa L. cv. Yellow are differentially responsive to gravity. Long (e.g. 40 mm) roots are strongly graviresponsive, while short (c.g. 4 mm) roots are minimally responsive to gravity. Although columella cells of graviresponsive roots are larger than those of nongraviresponsive roots, they partition their volumes to cellular organelles similarly. The movement of amyloplasts and nuclei in columella cells of horizontally-oriented roots correlates positively with the onset of gravicurvature. Furthermore, there is no significant difference in the rates of organellar redistribution when graviresponsive and nongraviresponsive roots are oriented horizontally. The more pronounced graviresponsiveness of longer roots correlates positively with (1) their caps being 9-6 times more voluminous, (2) their columella tissues being 42 times more voluminous, (3) their caps having 15 times more columella cells, and (4) their columella tissues having relative volumes 4.4 times larger than those of shorter, nongraviresponsive roots. Graviresponsive roots that are oriented horizontally are characterized by a strongly polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip from the upper to the lower side, while similarly oriented nongraviresponsive roots exhibit only a minimal polar transport of 45Ca2+. These results indicate that the differential graviresponsiveness of roots of A. cepa is probably not due to either (1) ultrastructural differences in their columella cells, (2) differences in the rates of organellar redistribution when roots are oriented horizontally. Rather, these results indicate the graviresponsiveness may require an extensive columella tissue, which, in turn, may be necessary for polar movement of 45Ca2+ across the root tip.

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN BIOLÓGICA DE VARIANTES DE PLACA DE LA CEPA VACUNAL 17D CONTRA LA FIEBRE AMARILLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rojas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La vacuna colombiana 17D, contiene por lo menos cuatro fenotipos, denominados pequeño (0.3 – 1.2 mm, mediano (1.3 – 2.1 mm, grande (2.2 – 3.0 mm y extragrande (>3.1 mm. La composición y distribución porcentual de esos fenotipos, varió entre lotes y entre ampolletas de un mismo lote. Cada variante fue clonada por dilución de la vacuna y su efecto virulento fue analizado en ratones; el fenotipo de placa pequeño estuvo ligeramente sub representado en los lotes analizados y mostró una virulencia similar a la de la cepa silvestre neurotrópica Francesa (LD50 > 10-6, mientras que el fenotipo predominante y mas atenuado fue el mediano (LD50: 10-4. Los fenotipos grande y extragrande mostraron una virulencia intermedia (LD 50: 10 – 5  con relación a los anteriores. Los análisis de secuencia de las variantes sobre una región comprendida entre el extremo 3´NS5 y el inicio de 3´NCR, mostró la cercanía entre aquellas variantes con algún grado de virulencia, y entre la variante atenuada y la vacuna colombiana. La heterogeneidad de la vacuna 17D, constituye una evidencia de la estructura de quasiespecies propia de los virus RNA y señala cómo los casos de reacciones post vacunales  adversas pueden estar asociados con la aplicación de vacunas fabricadas a partir de cepas virales atenuadas.  

  1. Caracterización fenotípica de cepas invasivas de Neisseria meningitidis aisladas en Cuba durante 20 años

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martínez

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron los marcadores epidemiológicos (serogrupos, serotipos, subtipos, inmunotipos de 429 cepas invasivas, aisladas en Cuba durante 20 años (1982-2002. Basándonos en el comportamiento de la incidencia de la Enfermedad Meningocócica (EM en el período investigado, las cepas se distribuyeron en dos etapas: epidémica y postepidémica. La epidémica, comprendió 279 cepas aisladas entre 1982-1992 y la ostepidémica, incluyó 150 aislamientos pertenecientes al período comprendido entre 1993-2002. Todas se cultivaron en Agar Mueller Hinton con suero fetal bovino (5% y se incubaron 24-48 horas, 37 0C, en atmósfera húmeda con 5% de C02. La identificación de género, especie y serogrupo, se realizó mediante métodos convencionales; para la caracterización de los sero/subtipos e inmunotipos, se utilizó el ensayo inmunoenzimático (ELISA de células enteras con anticuerpos monoclonales. En ambas etapas predominó el serogrupo B (97,90%: epidémica (96,77% y postepidémica (100%. Sin embargo, el serogrupo C (1,43% y cepas no agrupables (1,8%, sólo se observaron en aislamientos de la etapa epidémica. Los otros marcadores prevalentes fueron: serotipo 4 (86,48%, subtipo P1.19,15 (78,32%, inmunotipo L3,7,9 (90,2% , todos mostraron cifras similares en ambos períodos.Predominó el fenotipo B:4:P1.19,15:L3,7,9 (69,69%, aunque, en la etapa postepidémica (77,34%, el porcentaje fue superior al de la etapa epidémica (65,66% (p<0,05; además, en las cepas de este período, se observó una mayor diversidad de asociaciones fenotípicas. Los resultados obtenidos de esta caracterización fenotípica de las cepas de Neisseria meningitidis aisladas de enfermos aporta datos valiosos al estudio, prevención y control exitoso de la EM en Cuba.

  2. Efecto de lactoferrina bovina en la formación de biofilms en cepas clínicas de E. coli enteroagregativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Coveñas

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar el efecto de lactoferrina bovina (bLf en la formación de biofilms en cepas clínicas de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC, y si este efecto es independiente del hierro. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron dos métodos: (a cualitativo, mediante observación directa por microscopia óptica, y (b cuantitativo, lecturas de los valores de absorbancia mediante lector de ELISA en presencia de bLf en concentraciones de 0,01mg/mL y 1mg/mL, con y sin hierro, y no bLf (control, en 122 cepas de EAEC para el método cuantitativo (60 cepas de niños con diarrea y 62 de niños sanos y 31 cepas para el método cualitativo. Resultados. (a Método cualitativo: se evaluaron 31 cepas, con y sin hierro. Sin hierro la formación de biofilms fue de 77% (24/31 en el grupo control versus 58% (14/31 con bLf de 0,01 mg/mL y 4% (1/31 con 1 mg/mL. Con hierro la formación de biofilms fue 90% (28/31 en el grupo control versus 55% (17/31 con bLf de 0,01 mg/mL y 4% (1/31 a 1 mg/mL. (b Método cuantitativo: sin hierro la absorbancia medida a OD 560 nm del grupo control fue 0,7 ± 0,5 versus 0,4 ± 0,3 con bLf 0,01mg/mL y 0,3 ± 0,2 con bLf de 1 mg/mL (p<0,0001. Esta disminución en presencia de bLf incluso se dio con hierro. Conclusiones. La bLf tiende a disminuir la formación de biofilms, mostrando un efecto inhibitorio en las cepas clínicas de EAEC, este efecto no es hierro-dependiente

  3. Investigation of biosurfactant production by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shila khajavi shojaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are unique amphipathic molecules with extensive application in removing organic and metal contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate production of biosurfactant and determine optimal conditions to produce biosurfactant by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI. Materials and methods: In this study, effect of carbon source, temperature and incubation time on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil spreading, drop collapse, cell hydrophobicity and measurement of surface tension were used to detect biosurfactant production. Then, according to the results, the optimal conditions for biosurfactant production by and Bacillus subtilis WPI was determined. Results: In this study, both bacteria were able to produce biosurfactant at an acceptable level. Glucose, kerosene, sugarcane molasses and phenanthrene used as a sole carbon source and energy for the mentioned bacteria. Bacillus subtilis WPI produced maximum biosurfactant in the medium containing kerosene and reduced surface tension of the medium to 33.1 mN/m after 156 hours of the cultivation at 37°C. Also, the highest surface tension reduction by Bacillus pumilus 1529 occurred in the medium containing sugarcane molasses and reduce the surface tension of culture medium after 156 hours at 37°C from 50.4 to 28.83 mN/m. Discussion and conclusion: Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI had high potential in production of biosurfactant and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and Phenanthrene. Therefore, it could be said that these bacteria had a great potential for applications in bioremediation and other environmental process.

  4. Resistance to antimicrobials and acid and bile tolerance of Bacillus spp isolated from Bikalga, fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Compaore, Clarisse S.; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Diawara, Brehima

    2013-01-01

    In the aim of selecting starter cultures, thirteen species of Bacillus spp. including six Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis, four Bacillus licheniformis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum isolated from traditional Bikalga were investigated. The study included, for all isolates, gen...

  5. Genetic diversity among Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis strains using repetitive element polymorphism-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumlik, Michael J; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Zakowska, Dorota; Liang, Xudong; Spalletta, Ronald A; Patra, Guy; Delvecchio, Vito G

    2004-01-01

    Repetitive element polymorphism-PCR (REP-PCR) is one of the tools that has been used to elucidate genetic diversity of related microorganisms. Using the MB1 primer, REP-PCR fingerprints from 110 Bacillus strains within the "B. cereus group" have identified eighteen distinct categories, while other more distantly related bacterial species fell within six additional categories. All Bacillus anthracis strains tested were found to be monomorphic by fluorophore-enhanced REP-PCR (FERP) fingerprinting using the MB1 primer. In contrast, other non- B. anthracis isolates displayed a high degree of polymorphism. Dendrogramic analysis revealed that the non- B. anthracis strains possessing the Ba813 chromosomal marker were divided into two clusters. One of the clusters shared identity with the B. cereus strains examined.

  6. 75 FR 16113 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... AGENCY Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY... final registration review decision for the pesticide Bacillus subtilis, case 6012. Registration review... availability of EPA's final registration review decision for Bacillus subtilis, case 6012. The...

  7. Absence of mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the Drosophila wing-spot test and Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Laise Rodrigues; Brito, Arian Sandin; Melero, Anna Maria Gouvea de Souza; Zanin, Hudson; Ceragioli, Helder José; Baranauskas, Vitor; Cunha, Kênya Silva; Irazusta, Silvia Pierre

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the safety of the carbon nanotubes to human health and the environment, we investigated the potential toxicity and ability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NT), to induce DNA damage by employing the Allium cepa genotoxicity/mutagenicity test and the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster. The results demonstrated that NT did not significantly induce genotoxic or mutagenic effects in the Allium cepa test. All concentrations evaluated in the SMART assay showed survival rates higher than 90percent, indicating the absence of chronic toxicity for NT. Furthermore, the various treatments showed no significant increase in the NT mutation and recombination frequencies in mwh/flr(3) genotype compared to respective negative controls, demonstrating the absence of DNA damage caused by NT.

  8. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  9. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar - Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghirzadeh, M. [Department of Basic Science, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharaati, M.R. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran 11365-3486 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: smohammadi@aeoi.org.ir; Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for {sup 226}Ra was 12,766 Bq kg{sup -1} whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg{sup -1}. A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with {sup 226}Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  10. Obtención, caracterización y evaluación de cepas atenuadas de Vibrio cholerae para fines vacunales

    OpenAIRE

    Fando Calzada, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Ante la inexistencia de una vacuna contra Vibrio cholerae O1 de biotipo El Tor, el agente etiológico más frecuente del cólera, se construyen dos plasmidios suicidas: pAJF y pGPH6, destinados a atenuar la virulencia de cepas patógenas con fines vacunales. Al construir pAJF se descubre que en el gen ctxA del operón ctxAB del profago CTXΦ se inician transcriptos codificantes de la subunidad CtxB de la toxina colérica. Luego, mediante el empleo de pAJF se deleciona el profago CTXΦ de las cepas C6...

  11. EVALUACIÓN DE CEPAS NATIVAS DEL GÉNERO Azospirillum Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON EL CULTIVO DEL ARROZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Pazos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Catorce cepas nativas pertenecientes a la especie Azospirillum brasilense se caracterizaron en cuanto a su ca- pacidad de fijar el nitrógeno atmosférico. Se estudió su efecto en el cultivo del arroz (Oryza sativa, mediante el modelo Microcosmos, realizando determinaciones de la altura de las plantas inoculadas, masa fresca de la raíz y el contenido de fenoles libres y la cuantificación de proteínas en las hojas. Se observó en todos los casos un efecto positivo por la inocula- ción con estas rizobacterias, donde se destaca la cepa R5(15 con los mayores incrementos en los indicadores estudiados.

  12. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and its main botanical source determined by the Allium cepa test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Mantuanelli Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian green propolis is a resinous substance prepared by bees from parts of the plant Baccharis dracunculifolia. As it possess several biological properties, this work assessed the cytotoxic/anticytotoxic, genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic potential of ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis (EEGP and of B. dracunculifolia (EEBD, by means of the Allium cepa test system. The effects were evaluated by assessing the chromosomal aberrations (CA and micronuclei (MN frequencies on meristematic and F1 generation cells from onion roots. Chemical analyses performed with the extracts showed differences in flavonoid quality and quantity. No genotoxic or mutagenic potential was detected, and both extracts were capable of inhibiting cellular damage caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS treatment, reducing the frequencies of CA and MN. By these data, we can infer that, independent of their flavonoid content, the extracts presented a protective effect in A. cepa cells against the clastogenicity of MMS.

  13. Citotoxicity of food dyes sunset yellow (E-110, bordeaux red (E-123, and tatrazine yellow (E-102 on Allium cepa L. root meristematic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiva Maria Silva Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of the food dyes sunset yellow, bordeaux red, and tartrazine yellow on the cellular cycle of Allium cepa L. Each dye was evaluated at the doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL, at the exposure times of 24 and 48 hours in root tip cells of Allium cepa L. Slides were prepared and cells were analyzed during the whole cell cycle for cellular aberrations totaling 5,000 total cells for each dose evaluated. The mitotic index was calculated, and statistical analysis was performed using the Chi-squared test (p < 0.05. The results showed that the three dyes used under the evaluated doses and exposure times were cytotoxic to the cells of the system-test used. Further cytotoxicity studies should be conducted for additional results and a proper evaluation of the effect of these three dyes on a cellular level.

  14. Evaluación preliminar de la micorriza versículo-arbuscular en dos sistemas: pastizal y cebolla de bulbo Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz F. Jaime Eduardo

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó durante dos semestres la micorriza en dos sistemas: pastizal y cultivo de Allium cepa, en un mismo sitio con un contenido de P alto. Para el pastizal se tomaron muestras en cinco lotes identificando las especies presentes y su abundancia relativa, en A. cepa se tomaron muestras en cinco edades del cultivo. En ambos sistemas se evaluó porcentaje de infección por MVA (PI, número de esporas por 50 g de suelo (NES, se identificaron las especies de MVA y se obtuvo su frecuencia. En el pastizal la especie predominante Paspalum notatum presentó los mayores PI (16.2 y 15.4 y el mayor NES, Penisetum clandestinulll no adaptada a la zona presentó el menor PI (0.1% y el menor NES; para los dos semestres hubo correlación entre PI y NES y para cada variable a través de semestres, lo que indica que el comportamiento fue similar en las dos épocas. En Allium cepa, para los dos semestres, no se presentó infección por MVA en semillero y los PI de infección fueron muy bajos, menores de 5.3%, no obstante que la especie es considerada de alta dependencia de la MVA; esto puede deberse al alto contenido de P del suelo (167 ppm, y a la aplicación de fungicidas. En ambos sistemas las especies de MVA fueron las mismas, Glomus geosporum, Glomus mosseae, Glomus versiforme, Acaulospora longula, Glomus monosporum y Glolmus sp; Entrophospora infreguens no se presentó en A. cepa. Las especies predominantes en los dos sistemas fueron Glomus geosporum y Acaulospora longula.

    During two semesters Micorriza (VAM was evaluated in two systems: pastures and Allium cepa culture, in the same place, which had a high P content. For pastures were taken samples in five lots, identifying present species and their relative abundance. In A. cepa samples were taken in five culture ages, In both systems were evaluated infection percentage (lP for VAM, number of spores for 50 g of soil (NSS, were identified the VAM species and was obtained their frequency. At the pastures

  15. El Método MODS, una Alternativa para el Diagnóstico de la Tuberculosis y la Detección de Cepas Multidrogoresistentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Arturo Arnez-Durán

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En reiteradas ocasiones se ha establecido la necesidad de contar con un método rápido, sensible, específico y de bajo costo que permita realizar un diagnóstico oportuno de la Tuberculosis y la detección temprana de cepas de Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrogaresistentes. Respondiendo a esta necesidad se ha diseñado un método capaz de distinguir entre pacientes con Tuberculosis y pacientes control sanos, además de facilitar la detección de cepas resistentes a los fármacos isoniacida y rifampicina de manera más rápida y efectiva en comparación con las pruebas consideradas como Gold Standard. En esta revisión analizaremos el método de Susceptibilidad a Fármacos mediante Observación Microscópica MODS.

  16. Diagnóstico temprano del Virus Dengue 1 usando RT-PCR y perspectivas para la caracterización molecular de Cepas Autóctonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Yábar

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Un sistema de diagnóstico para la detección temprana del virus Dengue 1 fue llevado a cabo exitosamente usando la reacción en cadena por polimerasa de transcriptasa reversa (RT-PCR, a través de la amplificación de una porción genómica del gen NS1. Los resultados obtenidos, a partir de muestras clínicas, corroboraron los datos de anteriores trabajos de RT-PCR dirigidos hacia la región estructural del virión. Posteriormente el ADNc del virus Dengue, correspondiente a una de las muestras serológicas, fue clonado y secuenciado. La comparación por análisis de secuencia nucleotídica con otras cepas referenciales determinó que la cepa viral correspondía al serotipo 1.

  17. Malária experimental: contaminação de cepas e animais de biotério por eperythrozoon coccoides

    OpenAIRE

    Heitor Franco Andrade Jr.; Márcia Dalastra Laurenti; Hiro Goto; Maria Irma Seixas Duarte; Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett

    1986-01-01

    Neste artigo descrevemos a contaminação acidental de uma cepa de malária de roedor (Plasmodium berghei) por um hemoparasita (Eperythrozoon coccoides), levando a alterações importantes no comportamento da malária experimental. A demonstração do parasita foi feita por microscopia óptica e eletrônica e a fonte de contaminação foi detectada em roedores normalmente utilizados na manutenção da cepa, obtidos do mesmo biotério. As medidas disponíveis para o controle deste tipo de infecção são discuti...

  18. Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    2010 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: (Life Science Division/Biochemistry) Inactivation of Bacillus ...S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Bacillus Anthracis, Spores, Biofilm, Inhibition...Biochemistry) Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes Report Title The Specific Aims of the project were to investigate: 1) the

  19. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Special Feature: Remediation Transport of Bacillus Thuringiensis var. Kurstaki Via Fomites Sheila Van Cuyk, Lee Ann B. Veal, Beverley Simpson, and...evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as...used is a water-based slurry containing Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). This bacterium produces a toxin that is lethal to gypsy moth

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54...

  1. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  2. Mutations determining mitomycin resistance in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, V N

    1966-12-01

    Iyer, V. N. (Microbiology Research Institute, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada). Mutations determining mitomycin resistance in Bacillus subtilis. J. Bacteriol. 92:1663-1669. 1966.-The pattern of development of genetic resistance in Bacillus subtilis to mitomycin C was studied, and spontaneous single and multistep mutants were obtained. The transmission and expression of these mutations in sensitive strains proved possible by means of genetic transformation. The mutations were genetically studied in relation to a chromosomal mutation, mac-1, which confers resistance to the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin and which has been previously localized in the early-replicating segment of the B. subtilis chromosome. The results indicate that all of three primary mutations studied in this manner, as well as a secondary and tertiary mutation derived from one of the primary mutations, are clustered in this early-replicating segment. It appears that the secondary and tertiary mutations enhance the resistance conferred by the primary mutation, apparently without themselves conferring any resistance.

  3. Efectividad de cepas rizobianas nativas de sabana en Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mayz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Effectiveness of savannah native rhizobial strains in Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. cv. C4A-3 Resumen Se estima que la población mundial se incrementará y demandará mayor cantidad de alimentos y uso de fertilizantes nitrogenados. En Venezuela, el frijol es altamente consumido y se cultiva en las sabanas orientales, cuyas características edáficas pueden afectar negativamente la población rizobiana. Estos planteamientos refuerzan la importancia de la evaluación de la flora rizobiana nativa, y enfatizan la necesidad de aumentar la explotación de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno. En este contexto, se evaluaron 6 cepas rizobianas en el cultivar C4A-3, aisladas, de frijol cv. Tejero Criollo y previamente catalogadas como efectivas (JV91, JV94 y JV101 e inefectivas (JV99, JV103, y JV104 en el cultivar TC9-6. El experimento se llevó a cabo en umbráculo por 45 días, donde además se incluyeron dos tratamientos control no inoculados. La suspensión de las cepas individualmente cultivadas se usó para inoculación. De acuerdo con la tipología de la nodulación (número de nódulos, peso total y por nódulo, tamaño y color, los valores de los parámetros de crecimiento (peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago y los estimados de la concentración de nitrógeno y nitrógeno total, las cepas JV91, JV99 y JV101, fueron las más efectivas en la fijación de nitrógeno. El nitrógeno total y la concentración de nitrógeno tuvieron una correlación significativa con peso seco, altura y número de hojas del vástago. Los resultados muestran la existencia de cepas efectivas en los suelos de sabana para este cultivar, y enfatizan la importancia de evaluar las cepas indígenas, antes de proceder a la inoculación con foráneas. Palabras clave: Rhizobium; frijol; fijación de nitrógeno; Venezuela. Abstract It is estimated that world-wide population will increase and demand higher amount of food and use of nitrogen

  4. Expresión de la toxina Cry11Aa de Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis en Asticcacaulis excentricus, para el control de larvas acuáticas de dípteros de la familia Culicidae, vectores de enfermedades Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis toxins in Asticcacaulis excentricus to control dipteran larvae of vectors of diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orduz Sergio

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Los genes cry de Bacillus thuringiensis codifican para un diverso grupo de proteínas formadoras de cristales que exhiben actividad insecticida contra larvas de dípteros, lepidópteros y coleópteros, entre otros. La efectividad de los insecticidas basados en formulaciones de proteínas de B. thuringiensis puede ser mejorada usando bacterias prostecadas acuáticas como portadoras alternativas de los genes cry, ya que no se sedimentan rápidamente; las proteínas expresadas en el citoplasma están protegidas de los rayos ultra violeta y, lo más importante, las larvas de los mosquitos se alimentan de ellas. Una cepa de referencia de Asticcacaulis excentricus fue transformada con el plásmido pSOD3, el cual contiene el gen que codifica para la proteína Cry1 1 Aa de B. thuringiensis serovar. israelensis. La expresión de la proteína recombinante fue evaluada por electroforesis de proteínas y por Western blot. El Western blot revelado con un anticuerpo policlonal anti-Cry1 1 Aa mostró una banda de 72 kDa correspondiente a la proteína Cry 11 Aa. La toxicidad de las cepas de A. excentricus transformadas fue evaluada en bioensayos con larvas de primer estadío del mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Se alcanzó un promedio de mortalidad del 50% de las larvas de primer instar a concentraciones de 23 ng/mL de la toxina. Otros bioensayos indican que A. excentricus recombinante es tóxica para larvas de primer instar de las especies Aedes aegypti y Anopheles albimanus. Los ensayos de flotabilidad indican que A. excentricus no sedimenta hasta pasados 7 días, mientras que B. thuringiensis serovar. israelensis sedimenta al cabo de algunas horas. Palabras clave: Asticcacaulis excentricus, Bacillus thuringiensis, bacterias prostecadas, dengue, malaria.Bacillus thuringiensis cry genes encode for a diverse group of crystal-forming proteins that exhibit insecticidal activity towards dipteran, lepidopteran and coleopteran larvae. The effectiveness of

  5. Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins that target nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Jun-Zhi; Hale, Kristina; Carta, Lynn; Platzer, Edward; Wong, Cynthie; Fang, Su-Chiung; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins are pore-forming toxins used as insecticides around the world. Previously, the extent to which these proteins might also target the invertebrate phylum Nematoda has been mostly ignored. We have expressed seven different crystal toxin proteins from two largely unstudied Bt crystal protein subfamilies. By assaying their toxicity on diverse free-living nematode species, we demonstrate that four of these crystal proteins are active against multiple nem...

  6. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D H

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and o...

  7. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Matseliukh; N. A. Nidialkova; V. V. Krout'; L. D. Varbanets; A. V. Kalinichenko; V. F. Patyka

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kh...

  8. Pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R; Mueller, A; Wehler, M; Neureiter, D; Fischer, E; Gramatzki, M; Hahn, E G

    2001-09-01

    We present a case of a rapidly progressive pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis and pneumonia in a 52-year-old woman with severe aplastic anemia. Bacillus cereus was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, blood cultures, and pseudomembrane biopsy specimens; despite intensive antibiotic treatment, the patient's condition deteriorated rapidly. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a B. cereus infection that has caused pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis, possibly because of the production of bacterial toxins.

  9. Bacillus cereus Biofilms—Same, Only Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majed, Racha; Faille, Christine; Kallassy, Mireille; Gohar, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus displays a high diversity of lifestyles and ecological niches and include beneficial as well as pathogenic strains. These strains are widespread in the environment, are found on inert as well as on living surfaces and contaminate persistently the production lines of the food industry. Biofilms are suspected to play a key role in this ubiquitous distribution and in this persistency. Indeed, B. cereus produces a variety of biofilms which differ in their architecture and mechanism of formation, possibly reflecting an adaptation to various environments. Depending on the strain, B. cereus has the ability to grow as immersed or floating biofilms, and to secrete within the biofilm a vast array of metabolites, surfactants, bacteriocins, enzymes, and toxins, all compounds susceptible to act on the biofilm itself and/or on its environment. Within the biofilm, B. cereus exists in different physiological states and is able to generate highly resistant and adhesive spores, which themselves will increase the resistance of the bacterium to antimicrobials or to cleaning procedures. Current researches show that, despite similarities with the regulation processes and effector molecules involved in the initiation and maturation of the extensively studied Bacillus subtilis biofilm, important differences exists between the two species. The present review summarizes the up to date knowledge on biofilms produced by B. cereus and by two closely related pathogens, Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis. Economic issues caused by B. cereus biofilms and management strategies implemented to control these biofilms are included in this review, which also discuss the ecological and functional roles of biofilms in the lifecycle of these bacterial species and explore future developments in this important research area. PMID:27458448

  10. Disinfection of Vegetative Cells of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    and the fate of vegetative cells resulting from augmented germination . In this study, data were generated on the inactivation of vegetative B...all the dilutions. First, a solution of 1000 mg chlorine solution was prepared in two steps . Sodium hypochlorite solution was diluted 1:5, and then 1... Germinant -Enhanced Decontamination of Bacillus Spores Adhered to Iron and Cement-Mortar Drinking Water Infrastructures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2012, 78

  11. Aislamiento y selección de una cepa bacteriana degradadora de hidrocarburos a partir de suelos contaminados con petróleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Pérez Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento científico acerca del papel que desempeñan los microorganismos en el tratamiento de agentes contaminantes del medio ambiente como el petróleo, es esencial para prevenir y controlar los daños que puedan ocasionar los derrames o fugas de estos contaminantes. La degradación de petróleo es un proceso que puede ocurrir de forma natural por los microorganismos nativos de las zonas contaminadas aprovechando sus rutas metabólicas. Por esta razón, en estos momentos se prevé que los microorganismos pueden ofrecer esta posibilidad en tecnologías basadas en el uso de estos en la remediación de la contaminación ambiental por petróleo y sus derivados. En el presente trabajo, se estudió la biodegradación de petróleo por cepas aisladas de suelos contaminados con petróleo, mediante un aislamiento realizado por enriquecimiento secuencial utilizando petróleo Mesa 30/Puerto escondido (80 : 20 como única fuente de carbono y energía. Se aislaron 9 cepas bacterianas, cinco Gram negativas y cuatro Gram positivas, que fueron identificadas según el Manual Bergey's, 1994. Las pruebas bioquímicas evaluadas confirmaron que las cepas aisladas AT14, AT15, AT16, AT17 y AT18 corresponden a Pseudomonas aeruginosa. En este estudio, se seleccionó la cepa Pseudomonas aeruginosa AT18, por mostrar mayor crecimiento sobre petróleo como única fuente de carbono y energía al obtenerse 1,83 g/L de biomasa celular, lo que representa un 57 % de biodegradación de petróleo.

  12. Estudio de un brote epidémico causado por distintas cepas de "Acinetobacter baumannii" multirresistente: estudio de la epidemicidad y virulencia

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Carballeira, María

    2016-01-01

    [Resumen] El patógenos oportunista Acinetobacter baumannii es uno de los seis microorganismos multirresistentes que más preocupa en hospitales de todo el mundo. Esto es debido a su capacidad para persistir en ambientes extremos, ya que es capaz de sobrevivir en el ambiente hospitalario, y a su versatilidad genética, ya que tiene la capacidad para desarrollar mecanismos de resistencia a antibióticos y desinfectantes. Múltiples brotes hospitalarios producidos por cepas de A. b...

  13. Effects of Lead on the Morphology and Structure of the Nucleolus in the Root Tip Meristematic Cells of Allium cepa L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ze Jiang; Huaning Zhang; Rong Qin; Jinhua Zou; Junran Wang; Qiuyue Shi; Wusheng Jiang; Donghua Liu

    2014-01-01

    To study the toxic mechanisms of lead (Pb) in plants, the effects of Pb on the morphology and structure of the nucleolus in root tip meristematic cells of Allium cepa var. agrogarum L. were investigated. Fluorescence labeling, silver-stained indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and western blotting were used. Fluorescence labeling showed that Pb ions were localized in the meristematic cells and the uptake and accumulation of Pb increased with treatment time. At low concentrations of Pb (1–1...

  14. UTILIZACIÓN DE CEPAS EFICIENTES DE HONGOS MICORRÍZICOS ARBUSCULARES EN EL DESARROLLO DE PORTAINJERTOS DE AGUACATE EN UN SUSTRATO SUELO-CACHAZA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Fundora Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de dos cepas eficientes de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares sobre indicadores de crecimiento y desarrollo en portainjertos de aguacate. La inoculación del producto a las semillas, se llevó a cabo mediante una pasta fluida compuesta por 1 kg del biofertilizante EcoMic® y 600 mL de agua. Con esta pasta, se recubrieron las semillas de los tratamientos 1 y 2 quedando conformado el esquema de la forma siguiente T1: semillas inoculadas con la cepa Glomus hoi-like, T2: semillas inoculadas con la cepa Glomus mosseae y T3: semillas no inoculadas. Se utilizó un germinador con cáscara de maní como lecho de germinación; a los 30 días después de la germinación las plantas fueron llevadas a bolsas, las cuales contenían un sustrato formado por suelo agrícola + cachaza en una relación (75 % : 25 % v/v. Las variables de crecimiento y desarrollo estudiadas fueron: altura del portainjerto, diámetro del tallo, número de hojas, longitud y ancho de las hojas, área foliar y tasa de crecimiento relativo; dentro de los parámetros micorrízicos se determinó el porcentaje de colonización radical, la densidad visual y el índice de eficiencia micorrízica. Los resultados encontrados demostraron, que la utilización de cepas eficientes de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares; estimula el desarrollo de los portainjertos de aguacate en condiciones de vivero lo cual repercute en la obtención de plantas de mayor calidad y a su vez constituyen una alternativa nutricional para este cultivo.

  15. Caracterización de cepas nativas de Azotobacter spp. y su efecto en el desarrollo de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate” en Lambayeque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Escobar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente investigación fue caracterizar y determinar el efecto de cepas nativas de Azotobacter spp. en el desarrollo vegetativo de Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. “tomate”, como una alternativa al uso indiscriminado de fertilizantes químicos. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico de hortalizas con las que se realizaron diluciones (10-4 en caldo Ashby-Sacarosa y se incubaron a 30 ºC hasta observar un color amarillo, turbidez y película superficial. El género Azotobacter se identificó en agar mineral sin nitrógeno y Ashby-Benzoato, obteniéndose 96 cepas con una producción de 7.10 a 57.99 mgL-1 de ácido indolacético, 0.13 a 1.64 mgL-1 de nitrógeno fijado como amonio y hasta 1.61 % de eficiencia en la solubilización de roca fosfórica de Bayóvar. Se obtuvo una suspensión celular (108 de cada una de las cuatro cepas con los mayores valores y se inocularon independientemente y en consorcio, así como una combinación con 50 % de urea-100 % de roca fosfórica, en la rizósfera de tomate cv. Río Grande, en un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Todas las cepas nativas incrementaron la altura, volumen radicular, materia seca total, parte aérea y radicular frente al testigo absoluto.

  16. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    Full Text Available Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  17. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  18. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegman-Igra, Y; Lavochkin, J; Schwartz, D; Konforti, N

    1983-06-01

    A patient with meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus is described. The patient had transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for chromophobe adenoma, complicated by rhinorrhea, which was corrected by subarachnoid drainage. Three weeks after removal of the drain, the patient presented with meningitis and died the following day. The causative organism was identified as B. cereus. The literature on Bacillus infections is reviewed with special attention to severe infections. A modified classification is proposed, dividing infections into superficial, closed-space and systemic ones. Sixty-one previously reported cases of systemic Bacillus infections are reviewed according to type of infection (endocarditis, meningitis or pulmonary infection), and the underlying conditions, ways of acquiring the infection, clinical picture and mortality are discussed.

  19. BACILLUS CEREUS: ISOLATION IN JENNET MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Scatassa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jennet milk as human food is hypoallergenic for patients affected by Cow Milk Protein Allergy and multiple food allergies. For these pathologies, jennet milk represents the best alternative to other types of milk. Therefore, jennet milk consumers are very sensible to the effects of pathogens' contaminations, and several hygienic practices during the milk production need to be adopted. During regular monitoring in one Sicilian jennet farm, Bacillus cereus in the milk was detected. In 3 bulk milk samples (maximum concentration: 1.2 x 103 ufc/ml, in 3 individual milk samples (10, 20 e 60 ufc/ml, in the milk filter (5 ufc/cm2, in the soil (maximum concentration: 1.5 x 103 ufc/g, on the hands and the gloves of two milkers, on the animal hide (from 1 to 3 ufc/cm2. No spores were detected. A total of 8 Bacillus cereus s.s. strains were analyzed for diarrhoic toxin, and 6 strains producing enterotoxins resulted. The improvement of environmental and milking hygienic conditions reduced Bacillus cereus concentration.

  20. Evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana de cepas de Salmonella spp. aisladas del beneficio porcino en Colombia / Evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella spp. strains isolated from pork carcasses on Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Bermúdez D

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: el estudio buscó establecer patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 155 cepas de Salmonella spp., aisladas de la superficie de canales de cerdo, procedentes de plantas de beneficio en Colombia. Metodología: mediante el método de difusión en disco (Bauer et. Kirby, 1966 se evaluaron nueve antimicrobianos: Amoxicilina y ácido clavulánico (30 ug, Ampicilina (10 ug, Ceftiofur (30 ug, Ciprofloxacina (5 ug, Cloranfenicol (30 ug, Florfenicol (30 ug, Gentamicina (10 ug, Sulfadiazina y Trimetoprim (25 ug y Tetraciclina (30 ug. Resultados: los resultados confirmaron la presencia de cepas multiresistentes de Salmonella spp. de origen porcino, mostrando 30 patrones diferentes de multiresistencia; el más común fue Ampicilina, Amoxicilina, Cloranfenicol, Florfenicol y Tetraciclina en el 16,77% (n=26 de las cepas. Tetraciclina y Florfenicol fueron los antimicrobianos menos efectivos en el 94,84% (n=147 y 47,74% (n=74 de cepas resistentes, respectivamente. Discusión: se deben consolidar los sistemas de monitoreo, y de vigilancia y control de las resistencias antimicrobianas para prevenir, con un enfoque de cadena productiva, la diseminación de cepas multiresistentes en alimentos de origen animal, como parte integral del sistema de gestión de inocuidad de los alimentos en Colombia. - Objetivo: el estudio buscó establecer patrones de resistencia antimicrobiana de 155 cepas de Salmonella spp., aisladas de la superficie de canales de cerdo, procedentes de plantas de beneficio en Colombia. Metodología: mediante el método de difusión en disco (Bauer et. Kirby, 1966 se evaluaron nueve antimicrobianos: Amoxicilina y ácido clavulánico (30 ug, Ampicilina (10 ug, Ceftiofur (30 ug, Ciprofloxacina (5 ug, Cloranfenicol (30 ug, Florfenicol (30 ug, Gentamicina (10 ug, Sulfadiazina y Trimetoprim (25 ug y Tetraciclina (30 ug. Resultados: los resultados confirmaron la presencia de cepas multiresistentes de Salmonella spp. de origen porcino, mostrando