WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacillus megaterium

  1. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pascal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jeffery D; Vega Gonzalez, Alexander E; Maroun, Justin W; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-29

    Podophage Pascal infects Bacillus megaterium, a commonly used model organism in biochemical research and an important industrial-scale protein production system. Here, we report the sequenced and annotated genome of Pascal and describe its prominent features. Bacteriophages such as Pascal may be valuable tools for research and industry. Copyright © 2015 Snowden et al.

  2. Ferrisiderophore reductase activity in Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

    1980-01-01

    The release of iron from ferrisiderophores (microbial ferric-chelating iron transport cofactors) by cell-free extracts of Bacillus megaterium was demonstrated. Reductive transfer of iron from ferrisiderophores to the ferrous-chelating agent ferrozine was measured spectrophotometrically. This ferrisiderophore reductase activity (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:ferrisiderophore oxidoreductase) was associated primarily with the cell soluble rather than particulate (membrane) fraction. Ferrisiderophore reductase was inhibited by oxygen and required the addition of a reductant (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate was most effective) for maximal activity. The activity was destroyed by both heat and protease treatments and was inhibited by iodoacetamide treatment. Ferrisiderophore reductase activity for several microbial ferrisiderophores was measured; highest activity was displayed for ferrischizokinen, the ferrisiderophore produced by this organism. The Km and Vmax values of the reductase for ferrischizokinen were 2.5 x 10(-4) M and 35.7 nmol/min per mg of the ferrisiderophore reductase reaction. Preliminary fractionation of the cell soluble material by gel filtration chromatography resulted in the demonstration of ferrisiderophore reductase activity in three peaks of different molecular weight. Ferrisiderophore reductase probably mediates entrance of iron into cellular metabolism. PMID:6444944

  3. Comparison of gene expression profiles in Bacillus megaterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The MP agent, prepared from Bacillus megaterium isolated from the soil near tobacco fields, can improve metabolic products, and hence the aroma, of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf. To explore genes regulating metabolic responses in tobacco leaf, we used microarrays to analyze differentially expressed genes ...

  4. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY BACILLUS MEGATERIUM FROM PHOSPHOGYPSUM WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA ADRIANA STEFANESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to characterize the bioaccumulation capacity of heavy metals by Bacillus megaterium from phosphogypsum waste. The Bacillus megaterium strain (BM30 was isolated from soil near the phosphogypsum (PG dump. For the bioaccumulation quantification produced by BM30 strain were used three experimental treatments respectively with 2, 6 and 10 gL-1 PG. Cellular biomass samples were collected punctually at ages corresponding to the three stages of the development cycle of the microorganism: exponential phase, stationary phase and decline phase and the heavy metals concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The bioaccumulation yields in cell biomass, relative to the total amount of analyte introduced in the reaction medium were between 20 - 80 %, the lowest value was recorded by Cu and highest by Mn. The study results indicated that the isolated strain near the dump PG, BM30, bioaccumulate heavy metals monitored in cell biomass in the order Cu > Fe > Zn = Mn.

  5. Studies on lysine production by Bacillus megaterium | Ekwealor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Lysine-producing strain recovered from soil was found to produce large amount of the amino acid. The bacterium identified as Bacillus megaterium SP 14 accumulated a lysine yield of 3.56 mg/ml in a broth culture in 96 h. Fermentation experiments show that 8.0% (w/v) glucose and 4.0% (w/v) ammonium chloride used as ...

  6. Novel bioassay using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracycline in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumini, Melisa; Nagel, Orlando G; Molina, Pilar; Althaus, Rafael L

    2016-01-01

    Tetracyclines are used for the prevention and control of dairy cattle diseases. Residues of these drugs can be excreted into milk. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a microbiological method using Bacillus megaterium to detect tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline and tetracycline) in milk. In order to approximate the limits of detection of the bioassay to the Maximum Residue Limit (100μg/l) for milk tetracycline, different concentrations of chloramphenicol (0, 1000, 1500 and 2000μg/l) were tested. The detection limits calculated were similar to the Maximum Residue Limits when a bioassay using B. megaterium ATCC 9885 spores (2.8×10(8)spores/ml) and chloramphenicol (2000μg/l) was utilized. This bioassay detects 105μg/l of chlortetracycline, 100μg/l of oxytetracycline and 134μg/l of tetracycline in 5h. Therefore, this method is suitable to be incorporated into a microbiological multi-residue system for the identification of tetracyclines in milk. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Metabolism and the triggering of germination of Bacillus megaterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, I.R.; Ellar, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    L-[2,3- 3 H]Alanine was used to probe for metabolism of alanine during triggering of germination of spores of Bacillus megaterium KM. No detectable incorporation of label into any compound, including water, was found, indicating that any metabolism involving the alanine germinant must be at a very low rate and also that alanine racemase is absent from spores of this strain. Spores were germinated in 3 H 2 0 to find if any of the many metabolic reactions causing irreversible incorporation of 3 H into reaction products took place during triggering og germination. No incorporation was detected until 2-3 min after addition of germinants. It is therefore concluded that a wide variety of metabolic routes, including glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the pentose phosphate pathway and amino acid metabolism are either not involved in the reactions causing the triggering of germination or operate at an extremely low rate during this process. (author)

  8. Producción de proteínas recombinantes en Bacillus megaterium: estado del arte

    OpenAIRE

    Keyla Tortoló-Cabañas; Antonio Bell-García

    2015-01-01

    Se recoge una actualización del estado del arte del uso de Bacillus megaterium como hospedero para la expresión de proteínas recombinantes, las características de este microorganismo, así como las consideraciones generales y algunos aspectos a tener en cuenta.

  9. Keratinolytic activity of Bacillus megaterium F7-1, a feather-degrading mesophilic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Geun-Tae; Son, Hong-Joo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate environmental conditions affecting chicken feather degradation and keratinolytic enzyme production by Bacillus megaterium F7-1, a feather-degrading mesophilic bacterium. B. megaterium F7-1 degraded whole chicken feather completely within 7 days. The bacterium grew with an optimum at pH 7.0-11.0 and 25-40 degrees C, where maximum keratinolytic activity was also observed. The production of keratinolytic enzyme by B. megaterium F7-1 was inducible with feather. Keratinolytic enzyme production by B. megaterium F7-1 at 0.6% (w/v) skim milk was 468U/ml, which was about 9.4-fold higher than that without skim milk. The amount of keratinolytic enzyme production depended on feather concentrations. The degradation rate of autoclaved chicken feathers by cell-free culture supernatant was 26% after 24h of incubation, but the degradation of untreated chicken feathers was unsuccessful. B. megaterium F7-1 effectively degraded feather meal, duck feather and human nail, whereas human hair and sheep wool showed relatively low degradation rates. B. megaterium F7-1 presented high keratinolytic activity and was very effective in feather degradation, providing potential use for biotechnological processes of keratin hydrolysis.

  10. Isolation and identification of Bacillus megaterium YB3 from an effluent contaminated site efficiently degrades pyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Sumer Singh; Sharma, Radhey Shyam; Gupta, Priti; Karmakar, Swagata; Aggarwal, Kamal Krishan

    2016-04-01

    Industrial effluents contaminated sites may serve as repositories of ecologically adapted efficient pyrene degrading bacteria. In the present study, six bacterial isolates from industrial effluents were purified using serial enrichment technique and their pyrene degrading potential on pyrene supplemented mineral salt medium was assessed. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that they belong to four bacterial genera, namely Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Microbacterium, and Ochrobactrum. Among these isolates, Bacillus megaterium YB3 showed considerably good growth and was further evaluated for its pyrene-degrading efficiency. B. megaterium YB3 could degrade 72.44% of 500 mg L(-1) pyrene within 7 days. GC-MS analysis of ethyl acetate extracted fractions detected two relatively less toxic metabolic intermediates of the pyrene degradation pathway. B. megaterium YB3 also tested positive for catechol 1, 2-dioxygenase and aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase indole-indigo conversion assays. Considering the ability and efficiency of B. megaterium YB3 to degrade high pyrene content, the strain can be used as a tool to develop bioremediation technologies for the effective biodegradation of pyrene and possibly other PAHs in the environment. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Enterotoxigenic gene profiles of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium isolates recovered from honey Búsqueda de factores de virulencia en cepas de Bacillus cereus y de Bacillus megaterium aisladas de miel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and thirty two Bacillus cereus and 52 Bacillus megaterium isolates from honeys were evaluated for the presence of genes encoding enterotoxin HBL, enterotoxin-T, cytotoxin K and the NHE complex, respectively. The relationship between hemolytic and coagulase activity and its correlation with the presence of the four mentioned enterotoxins was determined by principal component analysis (PCA. PCA in B. cereus revealed a positive correlation among free coagulase, hemolysis and the presence of genes hblA, hblB, hblC, hblD (HBL complex and bceT (enterotoxin-T, but no correlation with the clumping factor (bound coagulase and the presence of sequences of the NHE complex. On the other hand, PCA in B. megaterium showed a high positive correlation between coagulase (bound and free and the haemolytic activity but no correlation in relation to the presence of genes of the HBL complex, cytotoxin K, enterotoxin T and the NHE complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of cytotoxin K and of the NHE complex genes in B. megaterium. The relationship between the coagulase activity and the presence of virulence factors has not been described before in the genus Bacillus, being this work the first report of this correlation. Interestingly, the presence of the cytK gene was almost independent of the presence of the rest of virulence factors herein analyzed both in B. cereus and B. megaterium populations. Our results suggest that honey could be a possible vehicle for foodborne illness due to the presence of toxigenic B. cereus and B. megaterium strains containing different virulence factors.Se evaluaron 132 aislamientos de Bacillus cereus y 52 de Bacillus megaterium provenientes de mieles de distintos orígenes geográficos para investigar la presencia de secuencias de ADN relacionadas con genes de virulencia y su posible correlación con la actividad hemolítica y coagulasa. Con respecto a los genes de virulencia, se analizaron por

  12. The Ultraviolet Photochemistry and Photobiology of Vegetative Cells and Spores of Bacillus megaterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, J. E.; Stafford, R. S.

    1968-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photochemistry and photobiology of spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus megaterium have been studied. The response of vegetative cells of B. megaterium appears qualitatively similar to those of Escherichia coli, Micrococcus radiodurans, and Bacillus subtilis with respect to photoproduct formation and repair mechanisms. UV irradiation, however, does not produce cyclobutane-type thymine dimers in the DNA of spores, although other thymine photo-products are produced. The photoproducts do not disappear after photoreactivation, but they are eliminated from the DNA by a dark-repair mechanism different from that found for dimers in vegetative cells. Irradiations performed at three wavelengths produce the same amounts of spore photoproduct and give the same survival curves. Variation of the sporulation medium before irradiation results in comparable alterations in the rate of spore photoproduct production and in survival. PMID:4966691

  13. Bacillus megaterium mediated mineralization of calcium carbonate as biogenic surface treatment of green building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Navdeep Kaur; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation is a biomineralization process that has various applications in remediation and restoration of range of building materials. In the present study, calcifying bacteria, Bacillus megaterium SS3 isolated from calcareous soil was applied as biosealant to enhance the durability of low energy, green building materials (soil-cement blocks). This bacterial isolate produced high amounts of urease, carbonic anhydrase, extra polymeric substances and biofilm. The calcium carbonate polymorphs produced by B. megaterium SS3 were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transmission infra red spectroscopy. These results suggested that calcite is the most predominant carbonate formed by this bacteria followed by vaterite. Application of B. megaterium SS3 as biogenic surface treatment led to 40 % decrease in water absorption, 31 % decrease in porosity and 18 % increase in compressive strength of low energy building materials. From the present investigation, it is clear that surface treatment of building materials by B. megaterium SS3 is very effective and eco friendly way of biodeposition of coherent carbonates that enhances the durability of building materials.

  14. Bio-removal of Nickel ions by Sporosarcina pasteurii and Bacillus megaterium, A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheethi, AA; Efaq, AN; Mohamed, RM; Abdel-Monem, MO; Halid Abdullah, Abd; Hashim, M. Amir

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the potential of Sporosarcina pasteurii 586S and Bacillus megaterium 1295S isolated from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in removing of nickel ions from the aqueous solution. The bacterial cells were used as living and dead cell biomass. The efficiency of bio-removal process was investigated as a response for nickel and biomass concentrations, time, pH and temperature. The bio-removal capacity (Qmax) of both strains were compared. The highest bio-removal percentage was recorded by dead cells in comparison to living cells. Dead cell biomass of B. megaterium 1295S exhibited higher efficiency for bio-removing of Ni2+ than S. pasteurii 586S at196.4 and 200.2 mg Ni2+ g-1, respectively. It can be concluded that both bacterial strains have high potential to be applied in the biotechnology for removing of Ni2+ ions, however, dead cells of B. megaterium 1295S is the most potent.

  15. Identification of Bacillus megaterium and Microbacterium liquefaciens genes involved in metal resistance and metal removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierros-Romero, Grisel; Gómez-Ramírez, Marlenne; Arenas-Isaac, Ginesa E; Pless, Reynaldo C; Rojas-Avelizapa, Norma G

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus megaterium MNSH1-9K-1 and Microbacterium liquefaciens MNSH2-PHGII-2, 2 nickel- and vanadium-resistant bacteria from mine tailings located in Guanajuato, Mexico, are shown to have the ability to remove 33.1% and 17.8% of Ni, respectively, and 50.8% and 14.0% of V, respectively, from spent petrochemical catalysts containing 428 ± 30 mg·kg(-1) Ni and 2165 ± 77 mg·kg(-1) V. In these strains, several Ni resistance determinants were detected by conventional PCR. The nccA (nickel-cobalt-cadmium resistance) was found for the first time in B. megaterium. In M. liquefaciens, the above gene as well as the czcD gene (cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance) and a high-affinity nickel transporter were detected for the first time. This study characterizes the resistance of M. liquefaciens and B. megaterium to Ni through the expression of genes conferring metal resistance.

  16. Hydrolysis of fish protein by Bacillus megaterium cells immobilized in radiation induced polymerized wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.; Alur, M.D.; Nerkar, D.P.

    1992-01-01

    The immobilization of Bacillus megaterium cells in radiation-induced polymerized wood was studied for hydrolysis of trash fish protein. The optimum conditions and reaction kinetics for hydrolysis of protein by free and immobilized cells were found to be similar. Maximum hydrolysis occurred at 50 o C and at pH 7.5 with 15-20% (w/v) of immobilized matrix. The soluble content of the resultant hydrolysate about 2.4% (w/v). (author). 10 refs., 4 figs

  17. Characterization of Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, and Paenibacillus polymyxa isolated from a Pinot noir wine from Western Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cosmos, Nicolas H; Watson, Bruce A; Fellman, J K; Mattinson, D S; Edwards, Charles G

    2017-10-01

    This report provides the first confirmed evidence of Bacillus-like bacteria present in a wine from Washington State. These bacteria were isolated from a 2013 Pinot noir wine whose aroma was sensorially described as being 'dirty' or 'pond scum.' Based on physiological traits and genetic sequencing, three bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium (strain NHO-1), Bacillus pumilus (strain NHO-2), and Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain NHO-3). These bacteria grew in synthetic media of low pH (pH 3.5) while some survived ethanol concentrations up to 15% v/v. However, none tolerated molecular SO 2 concentrations ≥0.4 mg/l. Growth of strains NHO-1 and NHO-3 in a Merlot grape juice resulted in increases of titratable and volatile acidities while decreases in titratable acidity were noted for NHO-2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Bacillus megaterium against malarial and dengue vector (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, A Najitha; Balasubramanian, C

    2015-11-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has provoked nowadays and alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized extracellular method using Bacillus megaterium. The AgNPs formations were confirmed initially through color change, and the aliquots were characterized through UV-visible spectrophotometer, followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. The surface plasmon resonance band was shown at 430 nm in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The bioreduction was categorized through identifying the compounds responsible for the AgNP synthesis, and the functional group present in B. megaterium cell-free culture was scrutinized using FTIR. The topography and morphology of the particles were determined using SEM. In addition, this biosynthesized AgNPs were found to show higher insecticidal efficacy against vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 were found to be 0.567, 2.260; 0.90, 4.44; 1.349, 8.269; and 1.640, 9.152 and 0.240, 0.955; 0.331, 1.593; 0.494, 2.811; and 0.700, 4.435 with respect to the first, second, third, and fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. All the calculated χ (2) values are highly significant compared with the tabulated value. Therefore, B. megaterium-synthesized silver nanoparticles would be used as a potent larvicidal agent against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti.

  19. A Bacillus megaterium System for the Production of Recombinant Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedendieck, Rebekka

    2016-01-01

    For many years the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus megaterium has been used for the production and secretion of recombinant proteins. For this purpose it was systematically optimized. Plasmids with different inducible promoter systems, with different compatible origins, with small tags for protein purification and with various specific signals for protein secretion were combined with genetically improved host strains. Finally, the development of appropriate cultivation conditions for the production strains established this organism as a bacterial cell factory even for large proteins. Along with the overproduction of individual proteins the organism is now also used for the simultaneous coproduction of up to 14 recombinant proteins, multiple subsequently interacting or forming protein complexes. Some of these recombinant strains are successfully used for bioconversion or the biosynthesis of valuable components including vitamins. The titers in the g per liter scale for the intra- and extracellular recombinant protein production prove the high potential of B. megaterium for industrial applications. It is currently further enhanced for the production of recombinant proteins and multi-subunit protein complexes using directed genetic engineering approaches based on transcriptome, proteome, metabolome and fluxome data.

  20. Antimicrobial Actions of Hexachlorophene: Inhibition of Respiration in Bacillus megaterium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, John J.; Corner, Thomas R.; Gerhardt, Philipp

    1974-01-01

    Hexachlorophene (HCP) inhibits both endogenous and exogenous respiration (oxygen uptake) in Bacillus megaterium, without sparing by any of several substrates. The inhibition is maximal when the cells are treated with 8 μg of HCP per mg of cells (dry weight), which corresponds to the minimal lethal dose. Levels as low as 2 μg/mg are inhibitory but not lethal. HCP also inhibits the respiration of isolated B. megaterium membranes and can act on several components of the electron transport chain in the membranes and on soluble enzymes. Although both forms of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase are inhibited by HCP, they are less susceptible than is oxygen uptake. The site of maximal sensitivity is nearer the terminal electron acceptor, but the exact location depends on the cytochrome composition of the membranes. If cytochromes b1, a, and a3 are present, but not o, HCP inhibits electron transport on the substrate side of cytochrome b1; if cytochromes b1, a3, and o are present, but not a, the inhibition occurs on the oxygen side of cytochrome b1. Exogenous menadione, an analogue of menaquinone, reverses the inhibition in both circumstances. The primary lethal action of HCP thus appears to be respiratory inhibition at a site within the membrane-bound part of the electron transport chain. PMID:4217582

  1. Expression of recombinant Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in Bacillus megaterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Weijia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Major Clostridium difficile virulence factors are the exotoxins TcdA and TcdB. Due to the large size and poor stability of the proteins, the active recombinant TcdA and TcdB have been difficult to produce. Results The toxin genes tcdA and tcdB were amplified by PCR using chromosomal DNA from a toxigenic strain as a template, and cloned into a shuttle vector pHis1522. The sequences of both tcdA and tcdB genes in the vector have been verified by DNA sequencing. The constructs were transformed into B. megaterium protoplasts and the protein expression was controlled under a xylose promoter. The recombinant toxins (rTcdA and rTcdB were purified from bacterial crude extracts. Approximately 5 – 10 mg of highly purified recombinant toxins were obtained from one liter of bacterial culture. The resulting rTcdA and rTcdB had similar molecular masses to the native toxins, and their biological activities were found to be similar to their native counterparts after an extensive examination. Conclusion We have generated the full length and active recombinant TcdA and TcdB in Bacillus megaterium.

  2. Optimization of polyhydroxybutyrate production by marine Bacillus megaterium MSBN04 under solid state culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, G; Kiran, G Seghal; Selvin, Joseph; Saibaba, G

    2013-09-01

    A marine sponge-associated bacterium Bacillus megaterium MSBN04 was used for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) under solid state culture (SSC). A central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the production medium and to find out the interactive effects of four independent variables, viz. tapioca industry waste, palm jaggery, horse gram flour and trace element solution on PHB production. The maximum yield of PHB 8.637 mg g(-1) of substrate (tapioca industry waste) was achieved from biomass 15.203 mg g(-1) of substrate, using statistically optimized medium. The horse gram flour (nitrogen source) and trace element solution were found to be critical control factors for PHB synthesis. The (1)H NMR analysis revealed that the polymer was a PHB monomer. PHB obtained from this study having high molecular weight (6.7×10(5) Da) with low polydispersity index (PDI) value (1.71) and produced PHB was used to synthesize PHB polymeric nanoparticles using solvent displacement approach. Therefore, B. megaterium MSBN04 is an ideal candidate that can be exploited biotechnologically for the commercial production of PHB under solid state culture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved X-ray diffraction from Bacillus megaterium penicillin G acylase crystals through long cryosoaking dehydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojviriya, Catleya; Pratumrat, Thunyaluck; Saper, Mark A.; Yuvaniyama, Jirundon

    2011-01-01

    Penicillin G acylase from the Gram-positive bacterium B. megaterium was crystallized and X-ray diffraction from these crystals could be substantially improved by slight dehydration through a long cryo-soak. Penicillin G acylase from Bacillus megaterium (BmPGA) is currently used in the pharmaceutical industry as an alternative to PGA from Escherichia coli (EcPGA) for the hydrolysis of penicillin G to produce 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA), a penam nucleus for semisynthetic penicillins. Despite the significant differences in amino-acid sequence between PGAs from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, a representative PGA structure of Gram-positive origin has never been reported. In this study, crystallization and diffraction studies of BmPGA are described. Poor diffraction patterns with blurred spots at higher resolution were typical for BmPGA crystals cryocooled after a brief immersion in cryoprotectant solution. Overnight soaking in the same cryo-solution substantially improved both the mosaicity and resolution limit through the establishment of a new crystal-packing equilibrium. A crystal of BmPGA diffracted X-rays to 2.20 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 with one molecule of BmPGA in the asymmetric unit

  4. Intracellular Distribution of 3H-Dihydrostreptomycin in a Streptomycin-dependent Strain of Bacillus megaterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgang, R. W.; Lawrence, N. L.

    1968-01-01

    The cells of a streptomycin-dependent strain of Bacillus megaterium took up only 2 to 5% of the dihydrostreptomycin present in the medium when grown in the minimum concentration of streptomycin required for growth. During growth in the presence of 3H-dihydrostreptomycin, radioactivity was accumulated intracellularly in three forms, namely, unbound, loosely bound to the ribosomes (removable by dialysis), and tightly bound to the ribosomes (retained after prolonged dialysis). More radioactivity for a given amount of ribonucleic acid was bound by ribosomes attached to the cell membrane than by supernatant ribosomes. Of the nondialyzable radioactivity associated with isolated ribonucleic acid, 40 to 60% was solubilized by treatment with ribonuclease or by dilute alkaline hydrolysis. PMID:4171577

  5. Peptide-based communication system enables Escherichia coli to Bacillus megaterium interspecies signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Nicholas; Collins, Cynthia H

    2013-11-01

    The use of mixtures of microorganisms, or microbial consortia, has the potential to improve the productivity and efficiency of increasingly complex bioprocesses. However, the use of microbial consortia has been limited by our ability to control and coordinate the behaviors of microorganisms in synthetic communities. Synthetic biologists have previously engineered cell-cell communication systems that employ machinery from bacterial quorum-sensing (QS) networks to enable population-level control of gene expression. However, additional communication systems, such as those that enable communication between different species of bacteria, are needed to enable the use of diverse species in microbial consortia for bioprocessing. Here, we use the agr QS system from Staphylococcus aureus to generate an orthogonal synthetic communication system between Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium that is based on the production and recognition of autoinducing peptides (AIPs). We describe the construction and characterization of two types of B. megaterium "receiver" cells, capable of AIP-dependent gene expression in response to AIPs that differ by a single amino acid. Further, we observed interspecies communication when these receiver cells were co-cultured with AIP-producing E. coli. We show that the two AIP-based systems exhibit differences in sensitivity and specificity that may be advantageous in tuning communication-dependent networks in synthetic consortia. These peptide-based communication systems will enable the coordination of gene expression, metabolic pathways and growth between diverse microbial species, and represent a key step towards the use of microbial consortia in bioprocessing and biomanufacturing. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. CYP109E1 is a novel versatile statin and terpene oxidase from Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putkaradze, Natalia; Litzenburger, Martin; Abdulmughni, Ammar; Milhim, Mohammed; Brill, Elisa; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2017-12-01

    CYP109E1 is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase from Bacillus megaterium with a hydroxylation activity for testosterone and vitamin D3. This study reports the screening of a focused library of statins, terpene-derived and steroidal compounds to explore the substrate spectrum of this enzyme. Catalytic activity of CYP109E1 towards the statin drug-precursor compactin and the prodrugs lovastatin and simvastatin as well as biotechnologically relevant terpene compounds including ionones, nootkatone, isolongifolen-9-one, damascones, and β-damascenone was found in vitro. The novel substrates induced a type I spin-shift upon binding to P450 and thus permitted to determine dissociation constants. For the identification of conversion products by NMR spectroscopy, a B. megaterium whole-cell system was applied. NMR analysis revealed for the first time the ability of CYP109E1 to catalyze an industrially highly important reaction, the production of pravastatin from compactin, as well as regioselective oxidations generating drug metabolites (6'β-hydroxy-lovastatin, 3'α-hydroxy-simvastatin, and 4″-hydroxy-simvastatin) and valuable terpene derivatives (3-hydroxy-α-ionone, 4-hydroxy-β-ionone, 11,12-epoxy-nootkatone, 4(R)-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9-one, 3-hydroxy-α-damascone, 4-hydroxy-β-damascone, and 3,4-epoxy-β-damascone). Besides that, a novel compound, 2-hydroxy-β-damascenone, produced by CYP109E1 was identified. Docking calculations using the crystal structure of CYP109E1 rationalized the experimentally observed regioselective hydroxylation and identified important amino acid residues for statin and terpene binding.

  7. Characterization of the penicillin G acylase from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro de Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to characterize the enzyme penicillin G acylase (PGA produced by Bacillus megaterium. Purification of the enzyme by ultra/diafiltration did not allow the detection of the PGA band by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis due to the high content of remaining proteins. However, using the DNA of the microorganism, it was possible to replicate the genes of the two B. megaterium PGA reported in literature, showing that the enzyme consisted of two sub-units, having 245 and 537 amino acids each and an average molecular mass of 26950 and 59070 Da, respectively. The parameters studied were: 1 the influence of temperature in the 25-60(0C range, 2 pH in the 5-10 range and 3 substrate concentration, this was tested to obtain results on the Penicillin G hydrolysis reaction rate, using the initial velocities approach. The maximum hydrolysis rate was obtained at 37ºC and pH 8.0. The Michaelis-Menten model fitted well, resulting in estimated Km and Vmax parameters values of 1.83 mM and 0.165*10-3 mmol/min/UI, respectively.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a enzima penicilina G acilase (PGA produzida por Bacillus megaterium, uma importante enzima industrial que catalisa a hidrólise de penicilina G, para produção de antibióticos semi-sintéticos. Purificação da enzima por ultra/diafiltração não permitiu detectar a banda de PGA por eletroforese SDS-PAGE devido ao elevado conteúdo de outras proteínas remanescentes. Contudo, utilizando DNA do microrganismo que vem sendo estudado, foi possível amplificar os genes das duas sub-unidades de PGA previstas na literatura, mostrando que a enzima em estudo é também constituída de duas sub-unidades, 245 e 537 aminoácidos cada, com massas moleculares médias de 26950 e 59070 Da, respectivamente. Foram estudadas as influências da temperatura 25-60(0C, pH 5-10, e concentração do substrato na velocidade da reação de hidrólise da penicilina G. A temperatura e pH ótimos foram de 37

  8. Isolation, identification and characteristics of an endophytic quinclorac degrading bacterium Bacillus megaterium Q3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available In this study, we isolated an endophytic quinclorac-degrading bacterium strain Q3 from the root of tobacco grown in quinclorac contaminated soil. Based on morphological characteristics, Biolog identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, we identified strain Q3 as Bacillus megaterium. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size, and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of Q3. Under the optimal degrading condition, Q3 could degrade 93% of quinclorac from the initial concentration of 20 mg/L in seven days. We analyzed the degradation products of quinclorac using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The major degradation products by Q3 were different from those of previously identified quinclorac degrading strains, which suggests that Q3 may employ new pathways for quinclorac degradation. Our indoor pot experiments demonstrated that Q3 can effectively alleviate the quinclorac phytotoxicity in tobacco. As the first endophytic microbial that is capable of degrading quinclorac, Q3 can be a good bioremediation bacterium for quinclorac phytotoxicity.

  9. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from oil palm empty fruit bunch using Bacillus megaterium R11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youhong; Sun, Wandong; Wang, Hengwei; Geng, Anli

    2013-11-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), contains abundant cellulose and hemicelluloses and can be used as a renewable resource for fuel and chemical production. This study, as the first attempt, aims to convert OPEFB derived sugars to polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). OPEFB collected from a Malaysia palm oil refinery plant was chemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed by an in-house prepared cellulase cocktail. The PHB producer, Bacillus megaterium R11, was isolated in Singapore and could accumulate PHB up to 51.3% of its cell dry weight (CDW) from both glucose and xylose. Tryptone was identified as its best nitrogen source. PHB content and production reached 58.5% and 9.32 g/L, respectively, for an overall OPEFB sugar concentration of 45 g/L. These respectively reached 51.6% and 12.48 g/L for OPEFB hydrolysate containing 60 g/L sugar with a productivity of 0.260 g/L/h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthetic enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase from Bacillus megaterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azim, N.; Deery, E.; Warren, M. J.; Erskine, P.; Cooper, J. B.; Wood, S. P.; Akhtar, M.

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses a key early step in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. PBGD from B. megaterium was expressed and the enzyme was crystallized in a form which diffracts synchrotron radiation to high resolution. The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses an early step of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue. Expression in Escherichia coli of a His-tagged form of Bacillus megaterium PBGD permitted the crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the enzyme from this species at high resolution

  11. Isolation, Identification, and Optimization of Culture Conditions of a Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Bacillus megaterium SP1 and Its Application in Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Liang; Zhao, Zhigang; Huang, Xiaoli; Du, Xue; Wang, Chang’an; Li, Jinnan; Wang, Liansheng; Xu, Qiyou

    2016-01-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterium, Bacillus megaterium SP1, was isolated from biofloc in pond water and identified by using both 16S rDNA sequencing analysis and a Biolog GEN III MicroStation System. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Bacillus megaterium SP1 were 20?g?L?1 of glucose and 0.5?g?L?1 of beef extract at 30?C and pH 7. The bioflocculant produced by strain SP1 under optimal culture conditions was applied into aquaculture wastewater treatment. The removal rates of chemical...

  12. Integral use of amaranth starch to obtain cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, by Bacillus megaterium, to produce β-cyclodextrin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belem Arce-Vázquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase is an enzyme that produces cyclodextrins (CDs from starch and related carbohydrates, producing a mixture of α-, β-, and γ-CDs in different amounts. CGTase production, mainly by Bacillus sp., depends on fermentation conditions such as pH, temperature, concentration of nutrients, carbon and nitrogen sources, among others. Bacillus megaterium CGTase produces those three types of CDs, however, β-CD should prevail. Although waxy corn starch (CS is used industrially to obtain CGTase and CDs because of its high amylopectin content, alternative sources such as amaranth starch (AS could be used to accomplish those purposes. AS has high susceptibility to the amylolytic activity of CGTase because of its 80% amylopectin content. Therefore, the aim of this work was evaluate the AS as carbon source for CGTase production by B. megaterium in a submerged fermentation. Afterwards, the CGTase was purified partially and its activity to synthesize α-, β- and γ-CDs was evaluated using 1% AS as substrate. B. megaterium produced a 66 kDa CGTase (Topt=50°C; pHopt=8.0, from the early exponential growth phase which lasted 36 h. The maximum CGTase specific activity (106.62±8.33 U/mg protein was obtained after 36 h of culture. CGTase obtained with a Km=0.152 mM and a Vmax=13.4 µM/min yielded 40.47% total CDs using AS which was roughly twice as much as that of corn starch (CS; 24.48%. High costs to produce CDs in the pharmaceutical and food industries might be reduced by using AS because of its higher α-, β- and γ-CDs production (12.81%, 17.94% and 9.92%, respectively in a shorter time than that needed for CS.

  13. Dietary inclusion of protease producing novel Pontibacter spp. and Bacillus megaterium as a probiotic enhances immune responses in Labeo rohita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumathi, C; Dillibabu, V; Madhuri, Dash-Koney; Priya, D Mohana; Nagalakshmi, C; Sekaran, G

    2014-04-01

    Abstract: This study stresses the key role which can be played by Tannery Fleshing (TF) hydrolyzing probiotic Pontibacter spp. in aqua feed formulation and identifies the probiotic strains in the fish gut capable of enhancing the overall growth and immune responses. Probiotics included are Pontibacter species (Pb) and Bacillus megaterium (BM) wherein Lactobacillus (LB) served as control. Experimental diets includes tannery fleshing (TF1), TF+LB strain (TF2), TF+BM strain (TF3), TF+Pb strain (TF4), Fishmeal+BM(TF5), Fishmeal+Pb and Control fish meal based diet (TF6). Compared with control, total weight gain (TWG), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) in fish fed with diets supplemented with probiotics were significantly increased (p survival and TF1 lowest survival in comparison with the control. Growth and related parameters reveals the effective utilization potential of tannery fleshing probiotic as a feed source. Comparative studies with standard fish meal diets reveals that the fish fed with Pontibacter spp. and Bacillus megaterium included feeds enhanced both assimilating capacity and immunological responses in Labeo rohita.

  14. EXPRESSION OF B-XYLOSIDASE ENCODING GENE IN PHIS/ BACILLUS MEGATERIUM MS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sri sumarsih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available b-Xylosidase encoding gene from G. thermoleovorans IT-08 had been expressed in the pHIS1525/ B. megaterium MS941 system. The b-xylosidase gene (xyl was inserted into plasmid pHIS1525 and propagated in E. coli DH10b. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into B. megaterium MS941 by protoplast transformation. Transformants were selected by growing the recombinant cells on solid LB medium containing tetracycline (10 µg/ ml. The expression of the b-xylosidase gene was assayed by overlaid the recombinant B. megaterium MS941 cell with agar medium containing 0.2% ethylumbelliferyl-b-D-xyloside (MUX. This research showed that the b-xylosidase gene was succesfully sub-cloned in pHIS1525 system and expressed by the recombinant B. megaterium MS941. Theaddition of 0.5% xylose into the culture medium could increase the activity of recombinantactivity of recombinant of recombinantb-xylosidase by 2.74 fold. The recombinant B. megaterium MS941 secreted 75.56% of the expressed b-xylosidase into culture medium. The crude extract b-xylosidase showed the optimum activity at 50° C and pH 6. The recombinant b-xylosidase was purified from culture supernatant by affinity chromatographic method using agarose containing Ni-NTA (Nickel-Nitrilotriacetic acid. The pure b-xylosidase showed a specific activity of 10.06 Unit/mg protein and relative molecular weight ± 58 kDa.

  15. Process development for the production of 15β-hydroxycyproterone acetate using Bacillus megaterium expressing CYP106A2 as whole-cell biocatalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, Flora M.; Lundemo, Marie Therese; Zapp, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background: CYP106A2 from Bacillus megaterium ATCC 13368 was first identified as a regio- and stereoselective 15 beta-hydroxylase of 3-oxoΔ4-steroids. Recently, it was shown that besides 3-oxo-Δ4-steroids, 3-hydroxy-Δ5-steroids as well as di- and triterpenes can also serve as substrates for this ...

  16. Comparing the performance of multilayer perceptrons networks and neuro-fuzzy systems for on-line inference of Bacillus megaterium cellular concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Edson R; Silva, Rosineide G; Souza, Vanessa R; Giordano, Raquel L C; Giordano, Roberto C; Cruz, Antonio J G

    2007-11-01

    Penicillin G acylase (PGA) is one of the most important enzymes for the pharmaceutical industry. Bacillus megaterium has the advantage of producing extra-cellular PGA. This work compares two neural networks (NNs) architectures for on-line inference of B. megaterium cell mass in an aerated stirred tank bioreactor, during the production of PGA. Nowadays, intelligent computing tools such as artificial NNs and fuzzy logic are commonly applied for state inference and modeling of bioreactors. Combining these two approaches in hybrid, neuro-fuzzy systems, may be advantageous. Our results indicate that a neuro-fuzzy inference system showed a better performance to infer cell concentrations, when compared to multilayer perceptrons networks.

  17. Development of a biologically based fertilizer, incorporating Bacillus megaterium A6, for improved phosphorus nutrition of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaojia; Roberts, Daniel P; Xie, Lihua; Maul, Jude E; Yu, Changbing; Li, Yinshui; Zhang, Shujie; Liao, Xing

    2013-04-01

    Sustainable methods with diminished impact on the environment need to be developed for the production of oilseed rape in China and other regions of the world. A biological fertilizer consisting of Bacillus megaterium A6 cultured on oilseed rape meal improved oilseed rape seed yield (P rape meal without strain A6 in 1 of 2 experiments, suggesting a role for strain A6 in improving yield. Strain A6 was capable of solubilizing phosphorus from rock phosphate in liquid culture and produced enzymes capable of mineralizing organic phosphorus (acid phosphatase, phytase) in liquid culture and in the biological fertilizer. The biologically based fertilizer, containing strain A6, improved plant phosphorus nutrition in greenhouse pot experiments resulting in significantly greater available phosphorus in natural soil and in significantly greater plant phosphorus content relative to the nontreated control. Seed yield and available phosphorus in natural soil were significantly greater with a synthetic chemical fertilizer treatment, reduced in phosphorus content, than the biological fertilizer treatment, but a treatment containing the biological fertilizer combined with the synthetic fertilizer provided the significantly greatest seed yield, available phosphorus in natural soil, and plant phosphorus content. These results suggest that the biological fertilizer was capable of improving oilseed rape seed yield, at least in part, through the phosphorus-solubilizing activity of B. megaterium A6.

  18. Immobilization of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 2444 by Ca-alginate entrapment method for enhanced alkaline protease production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Mrudula

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of culture conditions and immobilization parameters for alkaline protease production was carried out by employing Bacillus megaterium MTCC2444. The partially purified enzyme was tested for its stability in the presence of oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents. The optimum temperature, pH, incubation time and inoculum size were 55 ºC, 11, 48 h, 1 %, respectively. Calcium alginate was used as the immobilization matrix and the effects of gel concentration, bead size, age of immobilized cells, solidification period and initial biomass concentration on alkaline protease production and cell leakage were investigated. The results indicated that the immobilization was most effective with 4 % gel concentration, bead size of 3 mm, 24 h aged immobilized cells for a solidification period of 12 h at 1.5 % initial biomass concentration. The enzyme showed good stability in the presence of oxidants, surfactants and commercial detergents.

  19. Regioselective C-H hydroxylation of omeprazole sulfide by Bacillus megaterium CYP102A1 to produce a human metabolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Ryu, Sang-Hoon; Le, Thien-Kim; Doan, Tiep Thi My; Nguyen, Thi Huong Ha; Park, Ki Deok; Yim, Da-Eun; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kang, Choong-Kyung; Ahn, Taeho; Kang, Hyung-Sik; Yun, Chul-Ho

    2017-01-01

    To find a simple enzymatic strategy for the efficient synthesis of the expensive 5'-hydroxyomeprazole sulfide, a recently identified minor human metabolite, from omeprazole sulfide, which is an inexpensive substrate. The practical synthetic strategy for the 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide was accomplished with a set of highly active CYP102A1 mutants, which were obtained by blue colony screening from CYP102A1 libraries with a high conversion yield. The mutant and even the wild-type enzyme of CYP102A1 catalyzed the high regioselective (98 %) C-H hydroxylation of omeprazole sulfide to 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide with a high conversion yield (85-90 %). A highly efficient synthesis of 5'-OH omeprazole sulfide was developed using CYP102A1 from Bacillus megaterium as a biocatalyst.

  20. Proteome analysis of a recombinant Bacillus megaterium strain during heterologous production of a glucosyltransferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahn Dieter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recombinant B. megaterium strain was used for the heterologous production of a glucosyltransferase (dextransucrase. To better understand the physiological and metabolic responses of the host cell to cultivation and induction conditions, proteomic analysis was carried out by combined use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (2-DE/MS for protein separation and identification. 2-DE method was optimized for the separation of intracellular proteins. Since the genome of B. megaterium is not yet available, peptide sequencing using peptide fragment information obtained from nanoelectrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-QqTOF MS/MS was applied for protein identification. 167 protein spots were identified as 149 individual proteins, including most enzymes involved in the central carbon metabolic pathways and many enzymes related to amino acid synthesis and protein synthesis. Based on the results a 2-DE reference map and a corresponding protein database were constructed for further proteomic approaches on B. megaterium. For the first time it became possible to perform comparative proteomic analysis on B. megaterium in a batch culture grown on glucose with xylose induction for dextrasucrase production. No significant differences were observed in the expression changes of enzymes of the glycolysis and TCA cycle, indicating that dextransucrase production, which amounted to only 2 % of the entire protein production, did not impose notable metabolic or energetic burdens on the central carbon metabolic pathway of the cells. However, a short-term up-regulation of aspartate aminotransferase, an enzyme closely related to dextransucrase production, in the induced culture demonstrated the feasibility to use 2-DE method for monitoring dextransucrase production. It was also observed that under the cultivation conditions used in this study B. megaterium tended to channel acetyl-CoA into pathways of

  1. Influence of amino acid residues near the active site of cytochrome P450 from Bacillus megaterium on the selectivity of n-octane oxidation to octanol regioisomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Baba, Toshihide

    2017-09-01

    A mutant of cytochrome P450 from Bacillus megaterium (CYP450BM-3) was prepared by replacing two alanine residues around active site of the enzyme, alanine 328 and alanine 82, with leucine and tryptophan, respectively. The CYP450BM-3 mutant produced 2-octanol selectively from n-octane under atmospheric temperature and pressure; its selectivity was 74%. Furthermore, the mutant produced 1-octanol, which is not produced by wild-type enzyme.

  2. Isolation, Identification, and Optimization of Culture Conditions of a Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Bacillus megaterium SP1 and Its Application in Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bioflocculant-producing bacterium, Bacillus megaterium SP1, was isolated from biofloc in pond water and identified by using both 16S rDNA sequencing analysis and a Biolog GEN III MicroStation System. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Bacillus megaterium SP1 were 20 g L−1 of glucose and 0.5 g L−1 of beef extract at 30°C and pH 7. The bioflocculant produced by strain SP1 under optimal culture conditions was applied into aquaculture wastewater treatment. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN, and suspended solids (SS in aquaculture wastewater reached 64, 63.61, and 83.8%, respectively. The volume of biofloc (FV increased from 4.93 to 25.97 mL L−1. The addition of Bacillus megaterium SP1 in aquaculture wastewater could effectively improve aquaculture water quality, promote the formation of biofloc, and then form an efficient and healthy aquaculture model based on biofloc technology.

  3. Isolation, Identification, and Optimization of Culture Conditions of a Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Bacillus megaterium SP1 and Its Application in Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liang; Zhao, Zhigang; Huang, Xiaoli; Du, Xue; Wang, Chang'an; Li, Jinnan; Wang, Liansheng; Xu, Qiyou

    2016-01-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterium, Bacillus megaterium SP1, was isolated from biofloc in pond water and identified by using both 16S rDNA sequencing analysis and a Biolog GEN III MicroStation System. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Bacillus megaterium SP1 were 20 g L -1 of glucose and 0.5 g L -1 of beef extract at 30°C and pH 7. The bioflocculant produced by strain SP1 under optimal culture conditions was applied into aquaculture wastewater treatment. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), and suspended solids (SS) in aquaculture wastewater reached 64, 63.61, and 83.8%, respectively. The volume of biofloc (FV) increased from 4.93 to 25.97 mL L -1 . The addition of Bacillus megaterium SP1 in aquaculture wastewater could effectively improve aquaculture water quality, promote the formation of biofloc, and then form an efficient and healthy aquaculture model based on biofloc technology.

  4. Isolation, Identification, and Optimization of Culture Conditions of a Bioflocculant-Producing Bacterium Bacillus megaterium SP1 and Its Application in Aquaculture Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liang; Huang, Xiaoli; Du, Xue; Wang, Chang'an; Li, Jinnan; Wang, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    A bioflocculant-producing bacterium, Bacillus megaterium SP1, was isolated from biofloc in pond water and identified by using both 16S rDNA sequencing analysis and a Biolog GEN III MicroStation System. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources for Bacillus megaterium SP1 were 20 g L−1 of glucose and 0.5 g L−1 of beef extract at 30°C and pH 7. The bioflocculant produced by strain SP1 under optimal culture conditions was applied into aquaculture wastewater treatment. The removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), and suspended solids (SS) in aquaculture wastewater reached 64, 63.61, and 83.8%, respectively. The volume of biofloc (FV) increased from 4.93 to 25.97 mL L−1. The addition of Bacillus megaterium SP1 in aquaculture wastewater could effectively improve aquaculture water quality, promote the formation of biofloc, and then form an efficient and healthy aquaculture model based on biofloc technology. PMID:27840823

  5. Contemporaneous Production of Amylase and Protease through CCD Response Surface Methodology by Newly Isolated Bacillus megaterium Strain B69

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rajshree

    2014-01-01

    The enormous increase in world population has resulted in generation of million tons of agricultural wastes. Biotechnological process for production of green chemicals, namely, enzymes, provides the best utilization of these otherwise unutilized wastes. The present study elaborates concomitant production of protease and amylase in solid state fermentation (SSF) by a newly isolated Bacillus megaterium B69, using agroindustrial wastes. Two-level statistical model employing Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology was designed for optimization of various physicochemical conditions affecting the production of two enzymes concomitantly. The studies revealed that the new strain concomitantly produced 1242 U/g of protease and 1666.6 U/g of amylase by best utilizing mustard oilseed cake as the substrate at 20% substrate concentration and 45% moisture content after 84 h of incubation. An increase of 2.95- and 2.04-fold from basal media was observed in protease and amylase production, respectively. ANOVA of both the design models showed high accuracy of the polynomial model with significant similarities between the predicted and the observed results. The model stood accurate at the bench level validation, suggesting that the design model could be used for multienzyme production at mass scale. PMID:25478211

  6. Isolation and characterization of feather degrading enzymes from Bacillus megaterium SN1 isolated from Ghazipur poultry waste site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrahari, S; Wadhwa, N

    2012-01-01

    The SN1 strain of Bacillus megaterium, isolated from soil of Ghazipur poultry waste site (India) produced extracellular caseinolytic and keratinolytic enzymes in basal media at 30 degrees C, 160 rpm in the presence of 10% feather. Feathers were completely degraded after 72 h of incubation. The caesinolytic enzyme was separated from the basal media following ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. We report 29.3-fold purification of protease after Q Sepharose chromatography. The molecular weight of this enzyme was estimated to be 30 kDa as shown by SDS-PAGE and zymography studies. Protease activity increased by 2-fold in presence of 10 mM Mn2+ whereas Ba2+ and Hg2+ inhibited it. Ratio of milk clotting activity to caseinolytic was found to be 520.8 activity for the 30-60% ammonium sulphate fraction in presence of Mn2+ ion suggesting potential application in dairy industry. Keratinase was purified to 655.64 fold with specific activity of 544.7 U/mg protein and 12.4% recovery. We adopted the strategy of isolating the keratinolytic and caesinolytic producing microorganism by its selective growing in enriched media and found that feather protein can be metabolized for production of animal feed protein concentrates.

  7. Wheat bran as a substrate for thermo stable alpha-amylase production by gamma irradiated bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElVatal, A.I.; Khalaf, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Thermo stable alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) production from cheap agriculture-industrial waste wheat bran (WB) medium by superior potent gamma irradiated locally isolated strain of Bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. A highly yielding, stable enhanced isolated strain of bacillus megaterium in solid state fermentation (SSF) was studied. A highly yielding stable enhanced isolate B. megaterium- gamma 21F derived from the 10 kGy, treatment, exhibited the highest alpha-amylase activity under SSF, with 2.8 fold more enzyme titer as compared to the unirradiated wild strain. A vancomycin (Vm) resistant gamma irradiated enhanced isolate B. megaterium-gamma 21F2 (which was selected throughout the subsequent work) secreted (1.27 and 3.58) folds superior titers of alpha-amylase than the gamma irradiated parent isolate (B.megaterium -gamma21F) and unirradiated wild strain, respectively under SSF process. The effects of various parameters, such as moistening agent, initial moisture content level, initial ph, incubation temperature, inoculum size and incubation time on thermo stable alpha-amylase production by B.megaterium-gamma 21F2 under SSF were studied. Maximum enzyme production was recorded in WB medium moistened with (1:2, w/v) distilled water at initial ph (7.0) and inoculated with (2.24 x 10 8 cells/g WB) after 48 h incubation at 40 C degree. Between different solvents used for enzyme extraction from fermented WB mass, distilled water at ph (7.0) was the superior efficient leaching solvent. The specific activity of the precipitated partially purified crude thermo stable enzyme was (258.7 U/mg protein) with ph optima (6.5-7.0), at optimal temperatures (65-70 c degree) and it retained about 53% of its maximum activity after 12 h incubation at 70 c degree. The partially purified crude enzyme was used for starch digestion (5%0 under optimized reaction conditions, wherein (98.2%) starch hydrolysis was attained after 6 h

  8. Biocontrol Activity of Volatile-Producing Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas protegens against Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin Production on Stored Rice Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaa, Mohamed; Oh, Ji Yeon

    2017-01-01

    In our previous study, three bacterial strains, Bacillus megaterium KU143, Microbacterium testaceum KU313, and Pseudomonas protegens AS15, were selected as effective biocontrol agents against Aspergillus flavus on stored rice grains. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of the volatiles produced by the strains on A. flavus growth and aflatoxin production on stored rice grains. The three strains significantly reduced mycelial growth of A. flavus in dual-culture assays compared with the negative control strain, Sphingomonas aquatilis KU408, and an untreated control. Of these tested strains, volatiles produced by B. megaterium KU143 and P. protegens AS15 markedly inhibited mycelial growth, sporulation, and conidial germination of A. flavus on agar medium and suppressed the fungal populations in rice grains. Moreover, volatiles produced by these two strains significantly reduced aflatoxin production in the rice grains by A. flavus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the suppression of A. flavus aflatoxin production in rice grains using B. megaterium and P. protegens volatiles. PMID:29138628

  9. ANÁLISIS DE LA PRESENCIA NATURAL DE MICORRIZAS EN CULTIVOS DE ALGODÓN (Gossypium barbadense L.) INOCULADOS CON Bacillus megaterium Y/O Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense

    OpenAIRE

    Valencia, Claudia; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).; Zúñiga, Doris; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2015-01-01

    Para el proceso de optimización de protocolos se probaron diferentes modificaciones del proceso de tinción propuesto por Phillips & Hayman para permitir la identificación de estructuras intra- radicales derivadas de la interacción planta-hongo; para ello, se extrajeron las raíces de cultivos de algodón (Gossypium barbadense L.) inoculados con Bacillus megaterium (B), Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense (Br) y la interacción de ambos (I), además los controles positivo, con nitrato de potasio, (N+)...

  10. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumelzu, E.; Cabezas, C.; Schoebitz, R.; Ugarte, R.; Rodriguez, E.D.; Rios, J.

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  11. Structural evidence for the partially oxidized dipyrromethene and dipyrromethanone forms of the cofactor of porphobilinogen deaminase: structures of the Bacillus megaterium enzyme at near-atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azim, N.; Deery, E.; Warren, M. J.; Wolfenden, B. A. A.; Erskine, P.; Cooper, J. B.; Coker, A.; Wood, S. P.; Akhtar, M.

    2014-01-01

    The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses a key early step in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. Two near-atomic resolution structures of PBGD from B. megaterium are reported that demonstrate the time-dependent accumulation of partially oxidized forms of the cofactor, including one that possesses a tetrahedral C atom in the terminal pyrrole ring. The enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD; hydroxymethylbilane synthase; EC 2.5.1.61) catalyses an early step of the tetrapyrrole-biosynthesis pathway in which four molecules of the monopyrrole porphobilinogen are condensed to form a linear tetrapyrrole. The enzyme possesses a dipyrromethane cofactor, which is covalently linked by a thioether bridge to an invariant cysteine residue (Cys241 in the Bacillus megaterium enzyme). The cofactor is extended during the reaction by the sequential addition of the four substrate molecules, which are released as a linear tetrapyrrole product. Expression in Escherichia coli of a His-tagged form of B. megaterium PBGD has permitted the X-ray analysis of the enzyme from this species at high resolution, showing that the cofactor becomes progressively oxidized to the dipyrromethene and dipyrromethanone forms. In previously solved PBGD structures, the oxidized cofactor is in the dipyromethenone form, in which both pyrrole rings are approximately coplanar. In contrast, the oxidized cofactor in the B. megaterium enzyme appears to be in the dipyrromethanone form, in which the C atom at the bridging α-position of the outer pyrrole ring is very clearly in a tetrahedral configuration. It is suggested that the pink colour of the freshly purified protein is owing to the presence of the dipyrromethene form of the cofactor which, in the structure reported here, adopts the same conformation as the fully reduced dipyrromethane form

  12. Effect of Probiotic Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 on the Population of Intestinal Microflora, Digestive Enzyme Activity and the Growth of Catfish (Clarias sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Afrilasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 on the population of intestinal microflora, digestive enzyme activity, and the growth of catfish. Gnotobiotic and normal fish were used. Treatment using gnotobiotic was divided into gnoto (with feed and 100 μg/mL rifampicin and gnotoplus (with feed, 100 μg/mL rifampicin, and 1% probiotic; whereas treatment using normal fish was divided into normalplus (with feed and 1% probiotic and normal (only feed. The amount of bacteria on gastrointestinal tract was measured 30 days after treatments using the total plate count method. The results indicated no significant difference in bacterial growth between gnotobiotic and normal fish. The total amount of probiotic bacteria with normalplus treatment was significantly different with gnotoplus. The activity of protease and amylase enzymes, and specific growth rate in normalplus treatment were significantly higher (p < 0.05 than other treatments. Bacillus megaterium PTB 1.4 increased the activity of digestive enzymes and the growth of catfish.

  13. Functionalized PHB granules provide the basis for the efficient side-chain cleavage of cholesterol and analogs in recombinant Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Adrian; Kleser, Michael; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Bernhardt, Rita; Hannemann, Frank

    2015-07-29

    Cholesterol, the precursor of all steroid hormones, is the most abundant steroid in vertebrates and exhibits highly hydrophobic properties, rendering it a difficult substrate for aqueous microbial biotransformations. In the present study, we developed a Bacillus megaterium based whole-cell system that allows the side-chain cleavage of this sterol and investigated the underlying physiological basis of the biocatalysis. CYP11A1, the side-chain cleaving cytochrome P450, was recombinantly expressed in the Gram-positive soil bacterium B. megaterium combined with the required electron transfer proteins. By applying a mixture of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and Quillaja saponin as solubilizing agents, the zoosterols cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol, as well as the phytosterol β-sitosterol could be efficiently converted to pregnenolone or 7-dehydropregnenolone. Fluorescence-microscopic analysis revealed that cholesterol accumulates in the carbon and energy storage-serving poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) bodies and that the membrane proteins CYP11A1 and its redox partner adrenodoxin reductase (AdR) are likewise localized to their surrounding phospholipid/protein monolayer. The capacity to store cholesterol was absent in a mutant strain devoid of the PHB-producing polymerase subunit PhaC, resulting in a drastically decreased cholesterol conversion rate, while no effect on the expression of the recombinant proteins could be observed. We established a whole-cell system based on B. megaterium, which enables the conversion of the steroid hormone precursor cholesterol to pregnenolone in substantial quantities. We demonstrate that the microorganism's PHB granules, aggregates of bioplastic coated with a protein/phospholipid monolayer, are crucial for the high conversion rate by serving as substrate storage. This microbial system opens the way for an industrial conversion of the abundantly available cholesterol to any type of steroid hormones, which represent one of the

  14. Antibiotic and surfactant effects on lysine accumulation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of antibiotics and surfactants on lysine accumulation in the culture broth of three strains of Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium SP 86, B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium SP 14) were investigated. Lincomycin, neomycin and tetracycline stimulated lysine increase in B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium ...

  15. Using a medium of free amino acids to produce penicillin g acylase in fed-batch cultivations of Bacillus megaterium ATCC 14945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Silva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of penicillin G acylase (PGA, an important industrial enzyme from a wild strain of Bacillus megaterium using a pool of free amino acids as substrate was studied in a bench-scale bioreactor. Experiments carried out in shakers showed that the substitution of casein for free amino acids in the presence of cheese whey was the culture medium that provided the highest productivity. Several cultivations were carried out in a bioreactor operated in either batch or fed-batch mode. Batch runs showed that enzyme production is associated with microorganism growth. The following set of amino acids was preferentially consumed: Ala, Arg, Asp, Gly, Lys, Ser, Thr and Trp. On the other hand, the rates of consumption of His, Ile, Leu, Met, Phe, Pro, Tyr and Val were lower.

  16. Phenobarbital-dependent protein binding to Barbie box-like sequences in the coding region of cytochrome P450BM-3 gene from Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidamakova, E K; Alpatov, O V; Ischenko, I V; Kovalenko, S P; Lyakhovich, V V

    1996-12-12

    Phenobarbital-dependent protein binding was shown to occur to DNA fragments from the coding region of the cytochrome P450BM-3 gene from Bacillus megaterium. Incubation of the DNA fragments from the coding region of the gene with total cell extract from Bacillus megaterium revealed two DNA regions with protein-binding capacity: +237/+318 and +319/+425 considering 'O' as the start of cytochrome P450BM-3 translation. DNaseI footprint analysis of the fragment +319/+425 with the total cell extract showed that some protein(s) protected DNA stretches from the position +373 up to the position +389 on the transcribed strand and from the position +378 up to the position +398 on the non-transcribed strand. DNaseI footprint analysis of the fragment +237/+318 revealed the protection in the region +262/+277 on the non-transcribed strand. Three regions protected by cell extract protein(s) from DNaseI hydrolysis (+262/+277, +373/+389 and +378/+398) appeared to be strongly homologous to the Barbie box sequence. Barbie-box-like sequences were found in the majority of regulatory regions of phenobarbital-inducible genes whose regulatory sequences had been reported (Fulco et al., 1994). Our results suggest that a functional role of Barbie box sequence takes place not only in regulatory but also in the coding region of the gene. In line with that hypothesis we analyzed all cytochrome P450 genes in respect to the presence of Barbie box-like sequences in their coding parts. At least one cytochrome P450 gene (CYP6A1, phenobarbital-inducible gene from Musca domestica) was shown to contain Barbie box sequence in the coding part of the gene.

  17. Heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductase reveals adaption and potential of Bacillus megaterium NCT-2 in secondary salinization soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shaohua; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Daxin; Zhi, Yuee; Zhou, Pei

    2017-08-01

    Large accumulation of nitrate in soil has resulted in "salt stress" and soil secondary salinization. Bacillus megaterium NCT-2 which was isolated from secondary salinization soil showed high capability of nitrate reduction. The genes encoding assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductase from NCT-2 were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The optimum co-expression condition was obtained with E. coli BL21 (DE3) and 0.1mM IPTG for 10h when expression was carried out at 20°C and 120rpm in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. The molecular mass of nitrate reductase was 87.3kDa and 80.5kDa for electron transfer and catalytic subunit, respectively. The large and small subunit of nitrite reductase was 88kDa and 11.7kDa, respectively. The purified recombinant enzymes showed broad activity range of temperature and pH. The maximum activities were obtained at 35°C and 30°C, pH 6.2 and 6.5, which was similar to the condition of greenhouse soils. Maximum stimulation of the enzymes occurred with addition of Fe 3+ , while Cu 2+ caused the maximum inhibition. The optimum electron donor was MV+Na 2 S 2 O 4 +EDTA and MV+Na 2 S 2 O 4 , respectively. Kinetic parameters of K m and V max were determined to be 670μM and 58U/mg for nitrate reductase, and 3100μM and 5.2U/mg for nitrite reductase. Results of quantitative real-time PCR showed that the maximum expression levels of nitrate and nitrite reductase were obtained at 50mM nitrate for 8h and 12h, respectively. These results provided information on novel assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductase and their properties presumably revealed adaption of B. megaterium NCT-2 to secondary salinization condition. This study also shed light on the role played by the nitrate assimilatory pathway in B. megaterium NCT-2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of biosurfactant and fertilizer on biodegradation of crude oil by marine isolates of Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium kutscheri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavasi, Rengathavasi; Jayalakshmi, Singaram; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilizers and biosurfactants on biodegradation of crude oil by three marine bacterial isolates; Bacillus megaterium, Corynebacterium kutscheri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Five sets of experiments were carried out in shake flask and microcosm conditions with crude oil as follows: Set 1-only bacterial cells added (no fertilizer and biosurfactant), Set 2-with additional fertilizer only, Set 3-with additional biosurfactant only, Set 4-with added biosurfactant+fertilizer, Set 5-with no bacterial cells added (control), all the above experimental sets were incubated for 168 h. The biosurfactant+fertilizer added Set 4, resulted in maximum crude oil degradation within shake flask and microcosm conditions. Among the three bacterial isolates, P. aeruginosa and biosurfactant produced by this strain resulted in maximum crude oil degradation compared to the other two bacterial strains investigated. Interestingly, when biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used (Set 3), significant oil biodegradation activity occurred and the difference between this treatment and that in Set 4 with added fertilizer+biosurfactant were only 4-5% higher degradation level in shake flask and 3.2-7% in microcosm experiments for all three bacterial strains used. It is concluded that, biosurfactants alone capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent without added fertilizers, which will reduce the cost of bioremediation process and minimizes the dilution or wash away problems encountered when water soluble fertilizers used during bioremediation of aquatic environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibiotic and surfactant effects on lysine accumulation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The effects of antibiotics and surfactants on lysine accumulation in the culture broth of three strains of. Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium SP 86, B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium SP 14) were investigated. Lincomycin, neomycin and tetracycline stimulated lysine increase in B. megaterium SP 76.

  20. Avaliação de condições de cultivo para aumento da produção de P(3HB) por Bacillus megaterium e modelagem do bioprocesso

    OpenAIRE

    Debora Jung Luvizetto Faccin

    2012-01-01

    O poli(3-hidroxibutirato) é um biopolímero obtido a partir de fontes renováveis e é um poliéster biodegradável. Possui um grande potencial de aplicação principalmente em artefatos e embalagens descartáveis e também na área médica, devido sua biocompatibilidade. Neste trabalho foi estudada a produção de P(3HB) por Bacillus megaterium em meio mineral, buscando o aumento na produção deste biopolímero, bem como representar matematicamente este bioprocesso. Foram avaliadas a influência do pH e da ...

  1. Membrane-bound dd-carboxypeptidases from Bacillus megaterium KM. General properties, substrate specificity and sensitivity to penicillins, cephalosporins and peptide inhibitors of the activity at pH5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Mauriño, Teresa; Nieto, Manuel; Perkins, Harold R.

    1974-01-01

    1. The membrane from Bacillus megaterium KM contained a dd-carboxypeptidase with optimum activity under the following conditions: pH5.2, bivalent cation, 3mm; ionic strength, 40mm; temperature, 35°C. It was inactivated by treatment with p-chloromercuribenzoate but was fairly insensitive to 2-mercaptoethanol. 2. The enzyme was inhibited by penicillins and cephalosporins. The inhibition of this enzyme was partially reversed on dialysis but 0.2m-2-mercaptoethanol could neither prevent nor reverse the inhibition. 3. The enzyme was extremely sensitive to changes in the configuration and size of the side chain of the C-terminal dipeptide of the substrate. An aliphatic side chain of a well-defined length and polarity was required in the residue that precedes the C-terminal dipeptide. 4. The enzyme was inhibited by a wide range of analogues of the peptidic portion of the natural substrate. PMID:4218954

  2. The role of Barbie box sequences as cis-acting elements involved in the barbiturate-mediated induction of cytochromes P450BM-1 and P450BM-3 in Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q; He, J S; Fulco, A J

    1995-03-03

    In a previous publication (He, J.-S., and Fulco, A. J. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 7864-7869), we reported that a 15-17-base pair DNA sequence (designated a Barbie box element) in the 5'-regulatory regions of cytochrome P450BM-1 and P450BM-3 genes from Bacillus megaterium was recognized by a barbiturate-regulated protein. It is now recognized that essentially all eukaryotic and prokaryotic genes whose 5'-flanking regions are known and that encode barbiturate-inducible proteins contain the Barbie box element. A 4-base pair sequence (AAAG) is found in the same relative position in all Barbie box elements. In B. megaterium, mutation of the Barbie box located in the P450BM-1 gene leads to the constitutive synthesis of cytochrome P450BM-1 and a 10-fold increase of expression of Bm1P1, a small gene located upstream of the P450BM-1 gene, that encodes a putative regulatory protein. Mutation of the P450BM-3 Barbie box significantly increased the expression of both P450BM-3 and Bm3P1 (another small gene located upstream of the P450BM-3 gene that encodes a second putative regulatory protein) in response to pentobarbital induction but left the basal levels unaffected. In gel mobility shift assays, Bm3R1, a repressor of the P450BM-3 gene, was found to specifically interact with the Barbie box sequences of the B. megaterium P450 genes. Mutated Barbie boxes showed a decreased binding affinity for Bm3R1 compared to their wild type (unmutated) counterparts. Barbie box sequences were also shown to specifically interact with putative positive regulatory factors of B. megaterium cells. These putative positive factors were induced by pentobarbital and were also present at high levels during late stationary phase of B. megaterium cell cultures grown in the absence of barbiturates. The mutated Barbie box sequences had greater binding affinity for these positive factors than did unmutated Barbie box sequences. DNase I footprinting analysis of the 5'-flanking region of the P450BM-1 gene

  3. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... as Bacillus macerans, Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis. Heat treatment at 70oC denatured the β-amylase component of the amylase source while α-amylase retained its potency at this temperature. Calcium.

  4. Identification of a new plasmid-encoded cytochrome P450 CYP107DY1 from Bacillus megaterium with a catalytic activity towards mevastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhim, Mohammed; Putkaradze, Natalia; Abdulmughni, Ammar; Kern, Fredy; Hartz, Philip; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-12-20

    In the current work, we describe the identification and characterization of the first plasmid-encoded P450 (CYP107DY1) from a Bacillus species. The recombinant CYP107DY1 exhibits characteristic P450 absolute and reduced CO-bound difference spectra. Reconstitution with different redox systems revealed the autologous one, consisting of BmCPR and Fdx2, as the most effective one. Screening of a library of 18 pharmaceutically relevant compounds displayed activity towards mevastatin to produce pravastatin. Pravastatin is an important therapeutic drug to treat hypercholesterolemia, which was described to be produced by oxyfunctionlization of mevastatin (compactin) by members of CYP105 family. The hydroxylation at C6 of mevastatin was also suggested by docking this compound into a computer model created for CYP107DY1. Moreover, in view of the biotechnological application, CYP107DY1 as well as its redox partners (BmCPR and Fdx2) were successfully utilized to establish an E. coli based whole-cell system for an efficient biotransformation of mevastatin. The in vitro and in vivo application of the CYP07DY1 also offers the possibility for the screening of more substrates, which could open up further biotechnological usage of this enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of the genes encoding cytochromes P450BM-1 and P450BM-3 in Bacillus megaterium by the binding of Bm3R1 repressor to Barbie box elements and operator sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q; Fulco, A J

    1995-08-04

    We previously reported (Liang, Q., He, J.-S., and Fulco, A.J. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 4438-4450) that Bm3R1, a repressor regulating the expression of P450BM-3 in Bacillus megaterium, could bind to Barbie box sequences in the 5'-flanking regions of barbiturate-inducible genes. We've now shown that pentobarbital does not inhibit in vitro binding of Bm3R1 to the P450BM-3 and P450BM-1 Barbie boxes (BB3 and BB1), although the palindromic operator sequence (OIII) of P450BM-3 did have a strong competitive effect on such binding. G39E-Bm3R1, a mutant of Bm3R1, did not bind to either Barbie box. In the presence of Bm3R1, portions of the regulatory regions of P450BM-3 and P450BM-1 were protected from DNase I digestion. These included 11 of the 15 base pairs of BB3 plus 7 base pairs 3' to BB3, BB1 plus 16 base pairs 3' to BB1, and, in the 5'-flanking region of P450BM-1, segments covering most of two palindromic sequences (OII and OIII) of 24 and 52 base pairs. These DNase I-protected regions (including OIII) showed considerable sequence identity, especially in a conserved poly(A) motif. Barbiturates did not inhibit binding of Bm3R1 to OI. OII in vitro while G39E-Bm3R1 did not bind. The regulatory effects of Bm3R1 on P450BM-1 and P450BM-3 were also evaluated in vivo using heterologous chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs and Western blotting. In the G39E mutant strain, both P450BM-1 and P450BM-3 were constitutively expressed, and the regulatory proteins Bm1P1 and Bm3P1, although still pentobarbital-inducible, had significantly higher basal levels of synthesis. In toto, our results show that Bm3R1 represses both P450BM-1 and P450BM-3 expression and that it may effect this by coordinate binding to operator and Barbie box sequences to produce looping of the P450BM-1 and P450BM-3 regulatory regions through protein-protein interaction.

  6. Effect of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine yield in Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine accumulation in Bacillus strains were investigated. Biotin enhanced lysine production in all the Bacillus strains, while folic acid and riboflavin stimulated lysine yields in Bacillus megaterium SP 86 only. All bivalent metals stimulated lysine accumulation in B. megaterium ...

  7. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  8. cysteine resistant mutants of Bacillus megaterium for improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-11-16

    Nov 16, 2006 ... Lysine is an essential, economically important amino acid used as food and feed supplement. It is not usually ... amino acids in culture containing a supplementary source of nitrogen. Many efforts have been devoted to .... antagonists of anitmetabolites. J. Bacteriol. 76:326. Aida K (1972). Brief history of ...

  9. Keratinase production by Bacillus megaterium RS1 using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... determine the effect of their interactions on keratinase production using the statistical tool [(Central composite design (CCD) of response ... The incremental intensification in poultry industry all over the world resulted in the generation of ..... Sustainable and practical degradation of intact chicken feathers by ...

  10. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  11. Purification and some properties of glucose isomerase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to produce and purify glucose isomerase (GI) from Bacillus megaterium and to determine some of its properties. Soil sample was collected from cassava starch processing site and used immediately for bacterial isolation. Selected isolate produced the best GI activity in a preliminary test.

  12. Efficient transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis requires nonmethylated plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Macaluso, A; Mettus, A M

    1991-01-01

    The transformation efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis depends upon the source of plasmid DNA. DNA isolated from B. thuringiensis, Bacillus megaterium, or a Dam- Dcm- Escherichia coli strain efficiently transformed several B. thuringiensis strains, B. thuringiensis strains were grouped according to which B. thuringiensis backgrounds were suitable sources of DNA for transformation of other B. thuringiensis strains, suggesting that B. thuringiensis strains differ in DNA modification and restri...

  13. A Novel Surfactant Nanoemulsion with Broad Spectrum Sporicidal Activity against Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    B . cereus ( ATCC 14579 ), B . circulans ( ATCC 4513), B . megaterium ( ATCC 14581), and B . subtilis ( ATCC 11774) were grown for 1 week at 377C...Other members of the Bacillus genus are also reported to be etiologic agents for many human diseases. B . cereus is a com- mon pathogen. It is involved in...BCTP 401 against 2 Bacillus species. BCTP showed significant sporicidal activity after 4 h of treatment against Bacillus cereus , B .

  14. Bacillus halodurans Strain C125 Encodes and Synthesizes Enzymes from Both Known Pathways To Form dUMP Directly from Cytosine Deoxyribonucleotides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, Christian Berg; Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Reinauer, Eva

    2015-01-01

    tuberculosis enzyme the most. An investigation of sequenced genomes from other species of the genus Bacillus revealed that not only the genome of B. halodurans but also the genomes of Bacillus pseudofirmus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus, Bacillus marmarensis, Bacillus cereus......Analysis of the genome of Bacillus halodurans strain C125 indicated that two pathways leading from a cytosine deoxyribonucleotide to dUMP, used for dTMP synthesis, were encoded by the genome of the bacterium. The genes that were responsible, the comEB gene and the dcdB gene, encoding dCMP deaminase......, and Bacillus megaterium encode both the dCMP deaminase and the DCD:DUT enzymes. In addition, eight dcdB homologs from Bacillus species within the genus for which the whole genome has not yet been sequenced were registered in the NCBI Entrez database....

  15. Pectinase Production by Bacillus and Paenibacillus sp. Isolated from Decomposing Wood Residues in the Lagos Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busayo Tosin Akinyemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Three wood decomposing bacteria isolated from the Lagos lagoon, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus bataviensis and Paenibacillus sp. were screened for their pectinase producing abilities using pectin as substrate under submerged fermentation (SMF conditions. The results showed that all three isolates produced appreciable pectinolytic activities. Paenibacillus sp. showed the highest pectinase activity when compared with the other two isolates. The optimum pH for pectinase activity for both B. megaterium and B. bataviensis was 8.0 while it was 6.5 for Paenibacillus sp., B. bataviensis, and B. megaterium showed optimum pectinase activity at 60°C and Paenibacillus sp. at 40°C. Metal ions such as Na+ and K+ improved the activity of pectinase produced by the three isolates when compared to the effect of Zn2+ and Mn2+. The molecular weights of the enzymes were also estimated by gel filtration as 29,512 da, 32,359 da, and 25,119 da for Paenibacillus sp., B. megaterium and B. bataviensis respectively. The study has provided a platform for further investigation into the biochemical characterization of the enzyme, and optimization of culture conditions to scale up pectinase production for commercial exploitation.

  16. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  17. Diversity of Protease-Producing Bacillus spp. From Fresh Indonesian Tempeh Based on 16S rRNA Gene Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tati Barus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is a type of traditional fermented food in Indonesia. The fermentation can be performed by Rhizopus microsporus as a main microorganism. However, Bacillus spp. is found in abundance in tempeh production. Nevertheless, information regarding the diversity of Bacillus spp. in tempeh production has not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to study the genetic diversity of Bacillus spp. in tempeh production based on the 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. In this study, about 22 of 24 fresh tempeh from Jakarta, Bogor, and Tangerang were used. A total of 52 protease-producing Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA results, all 52 isolates were identified to be similar to B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, Brevibacillus brevis, and Bacillus sp. All the identified isolates were divided into two large clusters: 1 a cluster of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Bacillus sp., and B. brevis and 2 a cluster of B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, and B. amyloliquefaciens. Information about the Bacillus spp. role in determining the quality of tempeh has not been reported and this is a preliminary study of Bacillus spp. from tempeh.

  18. Antagonism of Bacillus spp. against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Monteiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism of eight Bacillus isolates was investigated against nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (causal agent of crucifers black rot to assess the role of lipopeptides in this process. Antimicrobial and hemolytic (surfactant activity tests were performed in vitro using agar diffusion methods. Antibiosis and hemolysis were positive for four Bacillus isolates against all X. campestris pv. campestris strains. The correlation observed between antimicrobial and hemolytic activities indicated that lipopeptides were involved in the antibiosis mechanism of the studied antagonists. Fermentation studies were carried out with the isolates that showed highest antimicrobial and hemolytic activities, to follow up growth and production of bioactive and surfactant compounds. Production of bioactive and surfactant compounds was observed during the late growth phase of the Bacillus isolates.Investigação sobre o antagonismo de oito isolados de Bacillus: B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. megaterium pv. cerealis C211, B. megaterium C116, Bacillus sp. RAB9, B. cereus C240, Bacillus sp. C11 e B. cereus C210, contra nove linhagens de X. campestris pv. campestris (bactéria responsável pela podridão negra das crucíferas foi realizada para se verificar a participação de lipopeptídeos neste mecanismo. Testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica (surfactante foram realizados, utilizando-se o método de difusão em ágar. Antibiose e hemólise foram positivas para quatro isolados de Bacillus: R14, RAB7, C116 e C210. A correlação observada entre as atividades antimicrobiana e a hemolítica indica que lipopeptídeos estão envolvidos no mecanismo de antibiose dos isolados investigados. As fermentações foram realizadas com os isolados que demonstraram melhores resultados nos testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica: R14, RAB7 e C116, para acompanhar o crescimento e a produção de compostos bioativos e

  19. Expression of human CYP27A1 in B. megaterium for the efficient hydroxylation of cholesterol, vitamin D3 and 7-dehydrocholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Maximilian; Gerber, Adrian; Hannemann, Frank; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-01-20

    In the current work the ability of Bacillus megaterium to take up hydrophobic substrates and efficiently express eukaryotic membrane proteins was utilized for establishing a CYP27A1-based biocatalyst. The human mitochondrial cytochrome P450CYP27A1 was co-expressed with its redox partners adrenodoxin reductase (Adr) and adrenodoxin (Adx). CYP27A1 could be localized at the cell's polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) granules, carbon storage serving organelle-like vesicles that can take up cholesterol, resulting in bioreactor-like structures in B. megaterium . The resulting whole cell system allowed the efficient biotechnological conversion of the CYP27A1 substrates cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) and vitamin D3. After 48 h, nearly 100% of cholesterol was metabolized producing a final concentration of 113.14 mg/l 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-HC). Moreover, 70% of vitamin D3 was converted into 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3) with a final concentration of 80.81 mg/l. Also more than 97% of 7-DHC were found to be metabolized into two products, corresponding to 26/27-hydroxy-7-dehydrocholesterol (P1) and 25-hydroxy-7-dehydrocholesterol (P2). To our knowledge this is the first CYP27A1-based whole-cell system, allowing the efficient and low-cost production of pharmaceutically interesting metabolites of this enzyme from relatively cheap substrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  1. In vitro antimicrobial effect of Satureja wiedemanniana against Bacillus species isolated from raw meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Nihal; Aslim, Belma; Ozdoğan, Hakan

    2009-08-01

    In this study a total of 30 raw meat samples obtained from Ankara, Turkey were screened for the presence of Bacillus species. Among the meat samples analyzed, the predominant species isolated was Bacillus circulans; other Bacillus species were identified as Bacillus firmus, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus sphaericus, and Bacillus cereus. Minced meat samples were more contaminated with Bacillus species than sliced beef sample. From these samples, 242 Bacillus species isolates were obtained, which were investigated for proteolytic and lipolytic activity, associated with meat spoilage. Interestingly, some Bacillus strains produced the highest values of proteolytic/lipolytic activities. Nineteen Bacillus strains were selected among the 242 isolates according to their proteolytic/lipolytic activity with a clear zone diameter of > or =6 mm. The essential oil of Satureja wiedemanniana (Lalem) Velen was also tested against these 19 Bacillus species that had proteolytic and lipolytic activity. The essential oil yield obtained from the aerial parts of the plant was 0.35% (vol/wt). The inhibition zones of the essential oil obtained against all the Bacillus species were in the range of 5.0-12.0 mm. The oil showed high antimicrobial activities against B. licheniformis M 6(26), M 11(16), and M 12(1) strains. B. licheniformis 12(1) showed high lipolytic activity (18.0 mm). Also, B. licheniformis M 6(26) and M 11(16) showed high proteolytic activity (16.0 and 14.0 mm). These results may suggest that an essential oil of S. wiedemanniana can be used as a natural preservative in meat against spoilage bacteria.

  2. Purine and its analogues and radiation damage in Bacillus megaterium spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, E.L.

    1986-12-01

    As an extension of results obtained from radiation studies on caffeine both in other laboratories and more recently in this laboratory using the bacterial spore as the test system, six compounds with chemical structures closely resembling that of caffeine were tested as radiation modifiers. Of these compounds, purine, adenine and hypoxanthine resembled caffeine in sensitizing spores to radiation, while theobromine, xanthine and theophylline did not. These responses are discussed in relation to the electron sequestration hypothesis of cellular sensitization to high-energy radiation.

  3. Identification and characterization of clinical Bacillus spp. isolates phenotypically similar to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Cari A; Vanner, Cynthia L; Helsel, Leta O; Gee, Jay E; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2010-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a gram-positive, spore-forming rod, with colonies exhibiting a unique ground-glass appearance, and lacking hemolysis and motility. In addition to these phenotypes, several others traits are characteristic of B. anthracis such as susceptibility to gamma phage, the presence of two virulence plasmids (pX01 and pX02), and specific cell wall and capsular antigens that are commonly detected by direct fluorescent-antibody assays. We report on the identification and characterization of 14 Bacillus megaterium and four Bacillus sp. clinical isolates that are nonhemolytic, nonmotile, and produce a capsule antigenically similar to B. anthracis. This work furthers our understanding of Bacillus diversity and the limitations of the assays and phenotypes that are used to differentiate species in this genus. Further work is necessary to understand whether these strains are opportunistic pathogens or just contaminates. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  4. The inactivation and removal of airborne Bacillus atrophaeus endospores from air circulation systems using UVC and HEPA filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, V A; Cannons, A C; Amuso, P T; Cattani, J

    2008-02-01

    To (i) evaluate the UV radiation in the 'C' band/high efficient particulate air (UVC/HEPA) instrument's potential to inactivate spores of Bacillus atrophaeus and selected Bacillus species and (ii) test whether a titanium dioxide coating inside the cylindrical HEPA filter improves the system's efficacy. Known amounts of dried spore preparations of B. atrophaeus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus thuringiensis were exposed to the UVC lamp within a cylindrical HEPA filter for different time lengths (30 min to 48 h) and with different air flow speeds (0-235 l s(-1)). The log(10) reduction (range 5-16 logs) of colony forming units for spores exposed to the UVC compared with the unexposed spores was significant (P HEPA filter significantly increased the inactivation of spores (P HEPA unit could inactivate spores of B. atrophaeus, B. cereus, B. megaterium, B. stearothermophilus and B. thuringiensis. The UVC/HEPA unit represents an effective method of decontaminating circulating air within an air-duct system as found in a building.

  5. 12038_2016_9620_Supplementary 1..3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bacillus sp. +. +. WAK_136a. Bacillus firmus. WAK_21. Bacillus flexus. AUN_32. Bacillus flexus. WAK_24. Bacillus flexus. +. WAK_94. Bacillus flexus. TAL_51. Bacillus marisflavi. +. TAL_131. Bacillus megaterium. +. AUN_15. Bacillus megaterium. +. CHIN_81. Bacillus megaterium. +. +. CHIN_9. Bacillus megaterium.

  6. Bacillus Coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, as a result, is often misclassified as lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus. In fact, some commercial products ... sporogenes or "spore-forming lactic acid bacterium." Unlike lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus or bifidobacteria, Bacillus coagulans forms ...

  7. Bacillus cucumis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kloepper, Joseph W; Hu, Chia-Hui; McInroy, John A

    2016-02-01

    A facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive staining, endospore-forming bacterium, isolated from the rhizosphere of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ), was taxonomically investigated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain AP-6 T clustered together with other species of the genus Bacillus and showed highest similarities with Bacillus drentensis LMG 21831 T (99.1 %), Bacillus vireti LMG 21834 T (98.7 %) and Bacillus soli LMG 21838 T (98.5 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the sequences of the type strains of other species of the genus Bacillus was 98.5 % or less. Chemotaxonomic features supported the grouping of the strain in the genus Bacillus ; for example, the major fatty acids were anteiso-C 15 : 0 , iso-C 15 : 0 and C 16 : 0 , the polar lipid profile contained the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified glycolipid, the major quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major compound in the polyamine pattern was spermidine. Additionally, DNA-DNA hybridization with B. drentensis LMG 21831 T , B. vireti LMG 21834 T and B. soli LMG 21838 T resulted in relatedness values that were clearly below 70 %. Physiological and biochemical test results were also different from those of the most closely related species. As a consequence, AP-6 T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus cucumis sp. nov. is proposed, with AP-6 T ( = CIP 110974 T  = CCM 8651 T ) as the type strain.

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Wemheuer, Franziska; Harting, Rebekka; Kolarzyk, Anna M; Diaz Valerio, Stefani M; Poehlein, Anja; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta B; Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Braus, Gerhard H; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum . In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities

  9. Measurements of the Ultraviolet Fluorescence Cross Sections and Spectra of Bacillus Anthracis Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, J.R.

    1998-09-01

    Measurements of the ultraviolet autofluorescence spectra and absolute cross sections of the Bacillus anthracis (Ba) simulants Bacillus globigii (Bg), Bacillus megaterium (Bm), Bacillus subtilis (Bs), and Bacillus cereus (Bc) were measured. Fluorescence spectra and cross sections of pine pollen (Pina echinata) were measured for comparison. Both dried vegetative cells and spores separated from the sporulated vegetative material were studied. The spectra were obtained by suspending a small number (<10) of particles in air in our Single Particle Spectroscopy Apparatus (SPSA), illuminating the particles with light from a spectrally filtered arc lamp, and measuring the fluorescence spectra of the particles. The illumination was 280 nm (20 nm FWHM) and the fluorescence spectra was measured between 300 and 450 nm. The fluorescence cross section of vegetative Bg peaks at 320 nm with a maximum cross section of 5 X 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle while the Bg spore fluorescence peaks at 310 nm with peak fluorescence of 8 X 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle. Pine pollen particles showed a higher fluorescence peaking at 355 nm with a cross section of 1.7 X 10{sup -13} cm{sup 2}/sr-nm-particle. Integrated cross sections ranged from 3.0 X 10{sup -13} for the Bg spores through 2.25 X 10{sup -12} (cm{sup 2}/sr-particle) for the vegetative cells.

  10. Inhibition of the growth of Ascosphaera apis by Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains isolated from honey Inhibición del crecimiento de Ascosphaera apis mediante cepas de Bacillus y Paenibacillus aisladas de miel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Reynaldi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The fungus Ascosphaera apis, the causative agent of chalkbrood disease in honeybee larvae, occurs throughout the world and is found in many beekeeping areas of Argentina. The potential as biocontrol agents of 249 aerobic spore-forming bacterial antagonists isolated from honey samples was evaluated. Each isolate was screened against A. apis by a central disk test assay. Ten bacterial strains that showed the best antagonistic effect to A. apis were selected for further study and identified as Bacillus cereus (m363, mv86, mv81, mv75, Bacillus circulans (Fr231, m448b, Bacillus megaterium (m435, Bacillus pumilus (m354, Bacillus subtilis (m329, and Paenibacillus alvei (m321. For testing the efficiency of the selected strains, a paired culture test was used with 5 replicates of each combination bacterial antagonist / A. apis strain, and 5 replications for each control on 4 different culture media. The analysis of variance and posterior comparison of means according to LSD method showed that the best antagonists when using YGPSA medium were B. subtilis (m329 and B. megaterium (m435, and in the case of MYPGP medium the most efficient were B. circulans strains Fr 231 and m448b.La cría yesificada es una micosis invasiva ocasionada por el hongo heterotálico Ascosphaera apis que afecta exclusivamente a las larvas de las abejas. La enfermedad tiene difusión mundial y en la Argentina se halla diseminada en todas las áreas donde se realiza apicultura. Se estudió la potencialidad de 249 cepas de bacterias esporuladas aeróbicas aisladas de miel como agentes biocontroladores del hongo mediante un ensayo en disco central en condiciones de laboratorio. Se seleccionaron como mejores antagonistas 10 cepas bacterianas identificadas como Bacillus cereus (m363, mv86, mv81, mv75, Bacillus circulans (Fr231, m448b, Bacillus megaterium (m435, Bacillus pumilus (m354, Bacillus subtilis (m329, y Paenibacillus alvei (m321. Para probar la eficiencia de las cepas

  11. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxuan; Shang, Qingmao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Pinglan; Chai, Yunrong

    2017-01-01

    Vegetable plug seedling has become the most important way to produce vegetable seedlings in China. This seedling method can significantly improve the quality and yield of vegetables compared to conventional methods. In the process of plug seedling, chemical fertilizers or pesticides are often used to improve the yield of the seedlings albeit with increasing concerns. Meanwhile, little is known about the impact of beneficial bacteria on the rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of vegetables during plug seedling. In this study, we applied a culture-independent next-generation sequencing-based approach and investigated the impact of a plant beneficial bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60, on the composition and dynamics of rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of cucumbers during plug seedling. Our results showed that application of L-S60 significantly altered the structure of the bacterial community associated with the cucumber seedling; presence of beneficial rhizosphere species such as Bacillus, Rhodanobacter, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Nonomuraea , and Agrobacterium was higher upon L-S60 treatment than in the control group. We also measured the impact of L-S60 application on the physiological properties of the cucumber seedlings as well as the availability of main mineral elements in the seedling at different time points during the plug seedling. Results from those measurements indicated that L-S60 application promoted growth conditions of cucumber seedlings and that more available mineral elements were detected in the cucumber seedlings from the L-S60 treated group than from the control group. The findings in this study provided evidence for the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizosphere bacteria on the bacterial community composition and growth conditions of the vegetables during plug seedling.

  12. Monitoring the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation, a fermentation starter, using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Zheng, Xiao-Wei; Han, Bei-Zhong; Han, Jian-Shu; Nout, M J Robert; Chen, Jing-Yu

    2013-05-01

    Daqu, a traditional fermentation starter, has been used to produce attractively flavored foods such as vinegar and Chinese liquor for thousands of years. Although Bacillus spp. are one of the dominant microorganisms in Daqu, more precise information is needed to reveal why and how Bacillus became dominant in Daqu, and next, to assess the impact of Bacillus sp. on Daqu and its derived products. We combined culture-dependent and culture-independent methods to study the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation. Throughout the incubation, 67 presumptive Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained, 52 of which were confirmed by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identified organisms belonged to 8 Bacillus species: B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. circulans, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, and B. anthracis. A primer set specific for Bacillus and related genera was used in a selective PCR study, followed by a nested DGGE PCR targeting the V9 region of the 16S rDNA. Species identified from the PCR-DGGE fingerprints were related to B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. pumilus, B. benzoevorans, and B. foraminis. The predominant species was found to be B. licheniformis. Certain B. licheniformis strains exhibited potent antimicrobial activities. The greatest species diversity occurred at the Liangmei stage of Daqu incubation. To date, we lack sufficient knowledge of Bacillus distribution in Daqu. Elucidating the ecology of Bacillus during Daqu incubation would enable the impact of Bacillus on Daqu to be accessed, and the quality and stabilization of Daqu-derived products to be optimized.

  13. Resensitization of Akt Induced Docetaxel Resistance in Breast Cancer by 'Iturin A' a Lipopeptide Molecule from Marine Bacteria Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Goutam; Bharti, Rashmi; Das, Anjan Kumar; Sen, Ramkrishna; Mandal, Mahitosh

    2017-12-11

    Development of the resistance is the major problem in cancer therapy. Docetaxel is a taxol alkaloid that is frequently used in metastatic breast cancer. However, resistance often limits the usefulness of this drug in many breast cancer patients. Manipulation of resistant cells to re-sensitize to the therapeutic effect of docetaxel is current strategy to overcome this problem. Here, we have introduced 'Iturin A' as a potent chemosensitizer in docetaxel resistant breast cancer cells. Combination of Iturin A and docetaxel treatment significantly hampered the proliferation of docetaxel resistant MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis also showed massive amount of apoptotic population (Sub G0/G1) in combination therapy. A number of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins were significantly altered in dual drug treated groups. Caspase 3 dependent cell death was observed in dual treatment. Molecular mechanism study showed that over-expression of Akt and its downstream signaling pathway was associated with docetaxel resistance. Iturin A significantly reduced Akt signaling pathway in resistant cells. This mechanistic action might be the reason behind the chemo-sensitization effect of Iturin A in docetaxel resistant breast cancer cells. In conclusion, Iturin A resensitized the resistant breast cancer cells to docetaxel therapy by inhibiting Akt activity.

  14. A method for the determination of bacterial spore DNA content based on isotopic labelling, spore germination and diphenylamine assay; ploidy of spores of several Bacillus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, P.M.; Karamata, D.

    1992-01-01

    A reliable method for measuring the spore DNA content, based on radioactive DNA labelling, spore germination in absence of DNA replication and diphenylamine assay, was developed. The accuracy of the method, within 10 - 15%, is adequate for determining the number of chromosomes per spore, provided that the genome size is known. B subtilis spores were shown to be invariably monogenomic, while those of larger bacilli Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, often, if not invariably, contain two genomes. Attempts to modify the spore DNA content of B subtilis by altering the richness of the sporulation medium, the sporulation conditions (liquid or solid medium), or by mutation, were apparently unsuccessful. An increase of spore size with medium richness, not accompanied by an increase in DNA content, was observed. The implication of the apparently species-specific spore ploidy and the influence of the sporulation conditions on spore size and shape are discussed

  15. Detection of Bacillus endospores using total luminescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clint B.; Anderson, John E.; Webb, Stanley R.

    2004-09-01

    Detection and analysis of bacteria from environmental samples (e.g. water, air, and food) are usually accomplished by standard culture techniques or by analyses that target specific DNA sequences, antigens or chemicals. For large cell numbers in aqueous suspensions, an alternative technique that has proven useful is total luminescence spectroscopy (TLS). TLS is the acquisition of fluorescence data that records the unique excitation-emission matrix (EEM) of compound fluorophores. Past work has shown that one type of bacterial endospore, Bacillus megaterium, possessed a distinct EEM pattern useful for differentiating it in complex biological fluids and suspensions. The work described here extends those observations to establish some limits on the sensitivity and specificity of TLS for the detection and analysis of bacterial endospores versus (bacterial) vegetative cells in aqueous culture. Our findings show Bacillus endospores exhibit a dramatic blue shift of 130 nm in excitation and a smaller shift of 50 nm in emission when compared to ancillary endospore and non-endospore forming bacterial cells.

  16. Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Qian

    2017-04-28

    Intestinal epithelial cells are the targets for transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus (TGEV) infection. It is urgent to develop a novel candidate against TGEV entry. Bacillus subtilis is a probiotic with excellent anti-microorganism properties and one of its secretions, surfactin, has been regarded as a versatile weapon for most plant pathogens, especially for the enveloped virus. We demonstrate for the first time that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can effectively inhibit one animal coronavirus, TGEV, entering the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). Then, several different experiments were performed to seek the might mechanisms. The plaque assays showed that surfactant could reduce the plaque generation of TGEV in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, after incubation with TGEV for 1.5 h, B. subtilis could attach TGEV particles to their surface so that the number of virus to bind to the host cells was declined. Furthermore, our data showed that the inhibition of B. subtilis was closely related to the competition with TGEV for the viral entry receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and aminopeptidase N (APN) protein. In addition, Western blotting and apoptosis analysis indicated that B. subtilis could enhance the resistance of IPEC-J2 cells by up-regulating the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-6 and reducing the percentage of apoptotic cells. Taken together, our results suggest that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can antagonize TGEV entry in vitro and may serve as promising new candidates for TGEV prevention. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Cantor, Mette Dines; Nielsen, Bea; Brockmann, Elke; Derkx, Patrick M F; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-02-01

    Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed. A total of 245 bacterial isolates derived from African fermented food, feces and soil were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and screened for antimicrobial activity and growth in the presence of antibiotics, bile salts and at pH 4.0. Thirty-three Bacillus spp. isolates with the best characteristics were identified by gyrB and rpoB gene sequencing as B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum, B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. mojavensis, B. pumilus and B. megaterium. These isolates were further investigated for their activity against the pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic susceptibility, sporulation rates, biofilm formation and production of glycosyl hydrolytic enzymes. Additionally, ten selected isolates were assessed for heat resistance of spores and the effect on porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2. Isolates of B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis and B. mojavensis, showed the best overall characteristics and, therefore, potential for usage as probiotic additives in feed. A large number of taxonomically diverse strains made it possible to reveal species and subspecies-specific trends, contributing to our understanding of the probiotic potential of Bacillus species.

  18. Bacillus coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulitto, Martina; Fusco, Salvatore; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Franzén, Carl Johan; Contursi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    The transition from a petroleum-based economy towards more sustainable bioprocesses for the production of fuels and chemicals (circular economy) is necessary to alleviate the impact of anthropic activities on the global ecosystem. Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are suitable alternative feedstocks that can be fermented or biochemically converted to value-added products. An example is lactic acid, which is an essential chemical for the production of polylactic acid, a biodegradable bioplastic. However, lactic acid is still mainly produced by Lactobacillus species via fermentation of starch-containing materials, the use of which competes with the supply of food and feed. A thermophilic and cellulolytic lactic acid producer was isolated from bean processing waste and was identified as a new strain of Bacillus coagulans , named MA-13. This bacterium fermented lignocellulose-derived sugars to lactic acid at 55 °C and pH 5.5. Moreover, it was found to be a robust strain able to tolerate high concentrations of hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pre-treated by acid-catalysed (pre-)hydrolysis and steam explosion, especially when cultivated in controlled bioreactor conditions. Indeed, unlike what was observed in microscale cultivations (complete growth inhibition at hydrolysate concentrations above 50%), B. coagulans MA-13 was able to grow and ferment in 95% hydrolysate-containing bioreactor fermentations. This bacterium was also found to secrete soluble thermophilic cellulases, which could be produced at low temperature (37 °C), still retaining an optimal operational activity at 50 °C. The above-mentioned features make B. coagulans MA-13 an appealing starting point for future development of a consolidated bioprocess for production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass, after further strain development by genetic and evolutionary engineering. Its optimal temperature and pH of growth match with the operational conditions of fungal enzymes hitherto

  19. Toxicity of Tolyltriazole to Bacillus Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans Microbacterium lacticum Jupiter Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus cereus Bacillus Bacillus thuringiensis...TOXICITY OF TOLYLTRIAZOLE TO BACILLUS MICROORGANISMS THESIS Christopher J. Leonard, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/OOM-12 Approved for...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TOXICITY OF TOLYLTRIAZOLE TO BACILLUS MICROORGANISMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher J

  20. Clinical effects of probiotics containing Bacillus species on gingivitis: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaya, B; Laleman, I; Keceli, S; Ozcelik, O; Cenk Haytac, M; Teughels, W

    2017-06-01

    Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria are the most frequently used probiotics in oral health research. However, although probiotic effects have been suggested for other genera, such as bacilli, no trials are available to describe the effect of bacilli probiotics on gingivitis in humans. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a bacilli-containing toothpaste, a mouthrinse and a toothbrush cleaner versus a placebo in patients with generalized gingivitis. In this double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, nonsmoking, systemically healthy patients with generalized gingivitis were included. They used a placebo or an experimental probiotic Bacillus subtilis-, Bacillus megaterium- and Bacillus pumulus-containing toothpaste, mouthrinse and toothbrush cleaner for 8 wk. Primary outcome measures of interest were plaque and gingivitis index, and the secondary outcome measures were pocket probing depth and bleeding on probing. Twenty male and 20 female patients were randomized over the two groups. All participants could be included in the final analysis. Although plaque and gingivitis indices were significantly reduced after 8 wk, no intergroup differences could be found at any time point. Also, for the secondary outcome measure, intragroup but no intergroup differences could be detected. No harm or unintended effects were reported by the patients after using the study products. This study did not show any statistically significant differences between a placebo and a bacilli-containing toothpaste, mouthrinse and toothbrush cleaner on gingivitis parameters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Germination of Spores of Astrobiologically Relevant Bacillus Species in High-Salinity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Katja; Julius, Christina; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    In times of increasing space exploration and search for extraterrestrial life, new questions and challenges for planetary protection, aiming to avoid forward contamination of different planets or moons with terrestrial life, are emerging. Spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus species have a high contamination potential due to their spores' extreme resistance, enabling them to withstand space conditions. Spores require liquid water for their conversion into a growing cell (i.e., spore germination and subsequent growth). If present, water on extraterrestrial planets or moons is likely to be closely associated with salts (e.g., in salty oceans or brines), thus constituting high-salinity environments. Spores of Bacillus subtilis can germinate despite very high salt concentrations, although salt stress does exert negative effects on this process. In this study, germination and metabolic reactivation ("outgrowth") of spores of five astrobiologically relevant Bacillus species (B. megaterium, B. pumilus SAFR-032, B. nealsonii, B. mojavensis, and B. vallismortis) in high salinity (≤3.6 M NaCl) were investigated. Spores of different species exhibited different germination and outgrowth capabilities in high salinity, which strongly depended on germination conditions, especially the exact composition of the medium. In this context, a new "universal" germination trigger for Bacillus spores, named KAGE (KCl, L-alanine, D-glucose, ectoine), was identified, which will be very useful for future comparative germination and outgrowth studies on different Bacillus species. Overall, this study yielded interesting new insights on salt stress effects on spore germination and points out the difficulty of predicting the potential of spores to contaminate salty environments on extraterrestrial celestial bodies.

  2. Noncontiguous finished genome sequences and description of Bacillus massiliglaciei, Bacillus mediterraneensis, Bacillus massilinigeriensis, Bacillus phocaeensis and Bacillus tuaregi, five new species identified by culturomics

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoret, F.; Alou, M.T.; Afouda, P.; Traore, I.S.; Br?chard, L.; Michelle, C.; Di Pinto, F.; Andrieu, C.; Delerce, J.; Levasseur, A.; Fournier, P.-E.; Raoult, D.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial culturomics, which investigates microbial diversity by combining diversified culture conditions, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA identification, allowed to identify five new species within the Bacillus genus. Bacillus massiliglaciei strain Marseille-P2600T, Bacillus mediterraneensis strain Marseille-P2384T, Bacillus massilinigeriensis strain Marseille-P2366T, Bacillus tuaregi strain Marseille-P2489T and Bacillus phocaeensis s...

  3. Optimized Culture Conditions for the Detection of Selected Strains of Bacillus in Eye Creams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Yossa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Although eye area cosmetics contain preservatives, contamination can still occur during or after manufacture or through use. Understanding the likelihood of bacterial survival in eye creams begins with sensitive and accurate methods for the detection of bacterial contamination; therefore, we investigated optimal culture conditions, including neutralizers, dilution broths, and selective media for the detection of Bacillus in eye cream. Samples of three different brands of eye creams were first mixed with Tween 80, Tween 20, or a blend of Tween 60 and Span 80, then neutralized and non-neutralized samples were individually inoculated with B. cereus strains, B. mycoides, a mislabeled B. megaterium, B. subtilis or B. thuringiensis at a final concentration of 5 log CFU/g. The inoculated samples, with and without neutralizers, were spiral-plated and incubated at 30 °C for 24 h to 48 h. Presumptive colonies of Bacillus were enumerated on U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM referenced agars Bacillus cereus rapid agar (BACARA and mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar (MYP. Our results show significant differences among the neutralizers, plates, and products. The combination of Tryptone- Azolectin-Tween and Tween 80 (TAT and T80 produced higher levels of Bacillus, estimated at 4.18 log CFU/g compared to growth on Modified letheen broth and Tween 80, which produced 3.97 log CFU/g (P < 0.05. Colony counts of B. cereus cells on MYP agar were significantly higher, than those on BACARA agar, showing an average of 4.25 log CFU/g versus 3.84 log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05. The growth of the strain mislabeled B. megaterium ATCC 6458 on B. cereus selective agars BACARA and MYP agar led us to further investigations. We identified bi-pyramidal crystals among colonies of the strain, and subsequent PCR identified the cry 1 gene, indicating that strain was actually B. thuringiensis subps. kurstaki.

  4. Detection of Bacillus spores using PCR and FTA filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Keith A; Dyer, Deanne; Kornegay, Leroy; Orlandi, Palmer A

    2004-05-01

    Emphasis has been placed on developing and implementing rapid detection systems for microbial pathogens. We have explored the utility of expanding FTA filter technology for the preparation of template DNA for PCR from bacterial spores. Isolated spores from several Bacillus spp., B. subtilis, B. cereus, and B. megaterium, were applied to FTA filters, and specific DNA products were amplified by PCR. Spore preparations were examined microscopically to ensure that the presence of vegetative cells, if any, did not yield misleading results. PCR primers SRM86 and SRM87 targeted a conserved region of bacterial rRNA genes, whereas primers Bsub5F and Bsub3R amplified a product from a conserved sequence of the B. subtilis rRNA gene. With the use of the latter set of primers for nested PCR, the sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was increased. Overall, 53 spores could be detected after the first round of PCR, and the sensitivity was increased to five spores by nested PCR. FTA filters are an excellent platform to remove PCR inhibitors and have universal applications for environmental, clinical, and food samples.

  5. Siderophores of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melissa K; Abergel, Rebecca J; Raymond, Kenneth N; Arceneaux, Jean E L; Byers, B Rowe

    2006-09-15

    Three Bacillus anthracis Sterne strains (USAMRIID, 7702, and 34F2) and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 excrete two catecholate siderophores, petrobactin (which contains 3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl moieties) and bacillibactin (which contains 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl moieties). However, the insecticidal organism Bacillus thuringiensis ATCC 33679 makes only bacillibactin. Analyses of siderophore production by previously isolated [Cendrowski et al., Mol. Microbiol. 52 (2004) 407-417] B. anthracis mutant strains revealed that the B. anthracis bacACEBF operon codes for bacillibactin production and the asbAB gene region is required for petrobactin assembly. The two catecholate moieties also were synthesized by separate routes. PCR amplification identified both asbA and asbB genes in the petrobactin producing strains whereas B. thuringiensis ATCC 33679 retained only asbA. Petrobactin synthesis is not limited to the cluster of B. anthracis strains within the B. cereus sensu lato group (in which B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis are classified), although petrobactin might be prevalent in strains with pathogenic potential for vertebrates.

  6. Phosphorescence In Bacillus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinisch, Lou; Swartz, Barry A; Bronk, Burt V

    2003-01-01

    .... Our present work attempts to build on this approach for environmental applications. We have measured a change in the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of Bacillus bacteria between the vegetative bacteria and their spores at room temperature...

  7. Identification of diacetonamine from soybean curd residue as a sporulation-inducing factor toward Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Aki; Kim, Dongyeop; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki

    2017-12-01

    Under bioassay-guided investigation, a sporulation-inducing factor (SIF) toward Bacillus spp. was searched for in methanol (MeOH) extracts of soybean curd residues, and diacetonamine (1) was identified as the active compound. SIF was first isolated as a monoacetylated derivative (2, 4.1 mg from 655 g soybean curd residues), and its chemical structure was elucidated by field desorption mass spectrometry, electron ionization mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses. After 48-h incubation, 40 µM diacetonamine hydrochloride (1b) exhibited sporulation-inducing activity with 35% sporulation frequency toward a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens wild-type strain (AHU 2170), whereas 40 µM diacetone acrylamide (3) showed 99% sporulation induction, which was much higher than that of 1b. Although Bacillus megaterium NBRC 15308 was sporulated by the treatment with 400 µM 1b with 36 and 70% sporulation frequency after 72- and 96-h incubation respectively, 3 at the same concentration showed only 2% sporulation after 72-h incubation. Hence, diacetonamine (1) was characterized as a genuine SIF from soybean curd residues, but it was uncertain whether 1 is a natural product or an artifact. Spores of B. amyloliquefaciens induced by 1b survived after treatment with heating at 95 °C for 10 min, also suggesting that 1 is genuine SIF in soybean curd residue. As sporulation induction is likely linked to activation of antibiotic production in some spore-forming Firmicutes bacteria, compound 1 would be a possible chemical tool to develop an effective fermentation technology in Bacillus species.

  8. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  9. Bacillus subtilis EdmS (formerly PgsE) participates in the maintenance of episomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiuchi, Makoto; Yamashiro, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kento

    2013-09-01

    Extrachromosomal DNA maintenance (EDM) is an important process in molecular breeding and for various applications in the construction of genetically engineered microbes. Here we describe a novel Bacillus subtilis gene involved in EDM function called edmS (formerly pgsE). Functional gene regions were identified using molecular genetics techniques. We found that EdmS is a membrane-associated protein that is crucial for EDM. We also determined that EdmS can change a plasmid vector with an unstable replicon and worse-than-random segregation into one with better-than-random segregation, suggesting that the protein functions in the declustering and/or partitioning of episomes. EdmS has two distinct domains: an N-terminal membrane-anchoring domain and a C-terminal assembly accelerator-like structure, and mutational analysis of edmS revealed that both domains are essential for EDM. Further studies using cells of Bacillus megaterium and itsedmS (formerly capE) gene implied that EdmS has potential as a molecular probe for exploring novel EDM systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser induced fluorescence lifetime characterization of Bacillus endospore species using time correlated single photon counting analysis with the multi-exponential fit method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clint; Edwards, Jarrod; Fisher, Andmorgan

    2010-04-01

    Rapid detection of biological material is critical for determining presence/absence of bacterial endospores within various investigative programs. Even more critical is that if select material tests positive for bacillus endospores then tests should provide data at the species level. Optical detection of microbial endospore formers such as Bacillus sp. can be heavy, cumbersome, and may only identify at the genus level. Data provided from this study will aid in characterization needed by future detection systems for further rapid breakdown analysis to gain insight into a more positive signature collection of Bacillus sp. Literature has shown that fluorescence spectroscopy of endospores could be statistically separated from other vegetative genera, but could not be separated among one another. Results of this study showed endospore species separation is possible using laser-induce fluorescence with lifetime decay analysis for Bacillus endospores. Lifetime decays of B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. coagulans, and B. anthracis Sterne strain were investigated. Using the Multi-Exponential fit method data showed three distinct lifetimes for each species within the following ranges, 0.2-1.3 ns; 2.5-7.0 ns; 7.5-15.0 ns, when laser induced at 307 nm. The four endospore species were individually separated using principle component analysis (95% CI).

  11. Levels of glycine betaine in growing cells and spores of Bacillus species and lack of effect of glycine betaine on dormant spore resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loshon, Charles A; Wahome, Paul G; Maciejewski, Mark W; Setlow, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Bacteria of various Bacillus species are able to grow in media with very high osmotic strength in part due to the accumulation of low-molecular-weight osmolytes such as glycine betaine (GB). Cells of Bacillus species grown in rich and minimal media contained low levels of GB, but GB levels were 4- to 60-fold higher in cells grown in media with high salt. GB levels in Bacillus subtilis cells grown in minimal medium were increased approximately 7-fold by GB in the medium and 60-fold by GB plus high salt. GB was present in spores of Bacillus species prepared in media with or without high salt but at lower levels than in comparable growing cells. With spores prepared in media with high salt, GB levels were highest in B. subtilis spores and > or =20-fold lower in B. cereus and B. megaterium spores. Although GB levels in B. subtilis spores were elevated 15- to 30-fold by GB plus high salt in sporulation media, GB levels did not affect spore resistance. GB levels were similar in wild-type B. subtilis spores and spores that lacked major small, acid-soluble spore proteins but were much lower in spores that lacked dipicolinic acid.

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel class of extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase from Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14911.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-Ting; Lin, Ju-Hui; Chen, Hui-Ju; Chen, Syuan-Yi; Shaw, Gwo-Chyuan

    2011-11-01

    The catalytic, linker, and denatured poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (dPHB)-binding domains of bacterial extracellular PHB depolymerases (PhaZs) are classified into several different types. We now report a novel class of extracellular PHB depolymerase from Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14911. Its catalytic domain belongs to type 1, whereas its putative linker region neither possesses the sequence features of the three known types of linker domains nor exhibits significant amino acid sequence similarity to them. Instead, this putative linker region can be divided into two distinct linker domains of novel types: LD1 and LD2. LD1 shows significant amino acid sequence similarity to certain regions of a large group of PHB depolymerase-unrelated proteins. LD2 and its homologs are present in a small group of PhaZs. The remaining C-terminal portion of this PhaZ can be further divided into two distinct domains: SBD1 and SBD2. Each domain showed strong binding to dPHB, and there is no significant sequence similarity between them. Each domain neither possesses the sequence features of the two known types of dPHB-binding domains nor shows significant amino acid sequence similarity to them. These unique features indicate the presence of two novel and distinct types of dPHB-binding domains. Homologs of these novel domains also are present in the extracellular PhaZ of Bacillus megaterium and the putative extracellular PhaZs of Bacillus pseudofirmus and Bacillus sp. strain SG-1. The Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 PhaZ appears to be a representative of a novel class of extracellular PHB depolymerases.

  13. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  14. Characterization of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitary microorganism that may cause food borne disease. Pathogenicity, however, depends on various characteristics such as the ability to form (entero)-toxin(s) that can not be detected by microbiological methods. Further characterization of pathogenic properties is not only

  15. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.; Amati, G.; Andersen, K.K.; Arnaud, M.; Asai, K.; Ashikaga, S.; Aymerich, S.; Bessieres, P.; Boland, F.; Brignell, S.C.; Bron, S; Bunai, K.; Chapuis, J; Christiansen, L.C.; Danchin, A.; Debarbouille, M.; Dervyn, E.; Deuerling, E.; Devine, K.; Devine, S.K.; Dreesen, O.; Errington, J.; Fillinger, S.; Foster, S.J.; Fujita, Y.; Galizzi, A.; Gardan, R.; Eschevins, C.; Fukushima, T.; Haga, K.; Harwood, C.R; Hecker, M.; Hosoya, D.; Hullo, M.F.; Kakeshita, H.; Karamata, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Kawamura, F.; Koga, K.; Koski, P.; Kuwana, R.; Imamura, D.; Ishimaru, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ishio, I.; Le Coq, D.; Masson, A.; Mauel, C.; Meima, Roelf; Mellado, R.P.; Moir, A.; Moriya, S.; Nagakawa, E.; Nanamiya, H.; Nakai, S.; Nygaard, P.; Ogura, M.; Ohanan, T.; O'Reilly, M.; O'Rourke, M.; Pragai, Z.; Pooley, H.M.; Rapoport, G.; Rawlins, J.P.; Rivas, L.A.; Rivolta, C.; Sadaie, A.; Sadaie, Y.; Sarvas, M; Sato, T.; Saxild, H.H.; Scanlan, E.; Schumann, W; Seegers, J.F. M. L.; Sekiguchi, J.; Sekowska, A.; Seror, S.J.; Simon, M.; Stragier, P.; Studer, R.; Takamatsu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Thomaides, H.B.; Vagner, V.; van Dijl, J.M.; Watabe, K.; Wipat, A; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamane, K.; Yata, K.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Zuber, U.; Ogasawara, N.; Ishio, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were

  16. Controle biológico da mancha-aquosa do melão por compostos bioativos produzidos por Bacillus spp. Biocontrol of bacterial fruit blotch of melon by bioactive compounds produced by Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizama Roza Santos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A mancha-aquosa, causada por Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac causa grandes prejuízos à cultura do melão. O controle dessa doença foi estudado in vivo, com microbiolização de sementes de melão Amarelo infectadas, com líquidos fermentados de Bacillus subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. pumilus C116 e Bacillus sp. MEN2, com e sem células bacterianas. O mecanismo de ação dos isolados foi estudado in vitro pelo método de difusão em ágar e os compostos bioativos parcialmente caracterizados por testes de hemólise e atividade surfactante. Nos testes in vivo, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com e sem células, indicando que o controle ocorreu devido à presença de compostos bioativos produzidos durante as fermentações. Todos os tratamentos diferiram da testemunha sem diferir entre si (P=0,05%. B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7 proporcionou redução da incidência (89,1% e do índice de doença (92,7%, elevou o período de incubação da mancha-aquosa de 9,8 para 11,9 dias e reduziu a AACPD de 3,36 para 0,17. In vitro, todos isolados apresentaram antibiose contra Aac e os compostos bioativos foram parcialmente caracterizados como lipopeptídeos.The bacterial fruit blotch, caused by the bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac, is responsible for great losses in melon production. The control of this disease was investigated in vivo by treating infected yellow melon seeds with fermented broths of B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. pumilus C116 and Bacillus sp. MEN2, with and without bacterial cells. The mechanism of action of the strains was studied in vitro by the agar diffusion technique. The bioactive compounds produced were partially characterized by hemolysis test and surfactant activity. Regarding the tests conducted in vivo there was no statistical difference between the treatments with and without bacterial cells, which indicated that the control was due to the

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Alkaliphilic Bacillus Strains, Bacillus wakoensis JCM 9140T, Bacillus akibai JCM 9157T, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus JCM 9152T

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Oshida, Yumi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the type strains of three cellulolytic or hemicellulolytic alkaliphilic Bacillus species: Bacillus wakoensis, Bacillus akibai, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus. The genome information for these three strains will be useful for studies of alkaliphilic Bacillus species, their evolution, and biotechnological applications for their enzymes.

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Bacillus_subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=214 ...

  19. Microbial genotyping and differentiating between Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus mojavensis, a specie recently distinguished from its previous Bacillus subtilis classification, was discovered in corn kernels and later determined to possess endophytic character. The bacterium was also determined to have biocontrol potential due to its growth inhibition of the maize mycot...

  20. Smallpox and pan-Orthodox Virus Detection by Real-Time 3’-Minor Groove Binder TaqMan Assays Oil the Roche LightCycler and the Cepheid Smart Cycler Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-08

    Bacillus anthracis BA0068 Ames Sterne SPS 97.13.213 Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis Bacillus macerans Bacillus ...megaterium Bacillus polymyxa Bacillus sphaericus Bacillus stearothermophilus Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus popilliae...varicella- zoster virus, and Bacillus anthracis DNA by LightCycler polymerase chain reaction after autoclaving:

  1. Surface display of bacterial tyrosinase on spores of Bacillus subtilis using CotE as an anchor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Abari, Afrouzossadat; Kim, Byung-Gee; Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Emtiazi, Giti; Kim, Wooil; Kim, June-Hyung

    2016-12-01

    Tyrosinases, copper-containing monooxygenases, are widely used enzymes for industrial, medical, and environmental applications. We report the first functional surface display of Bacillus megaterium tyrosinase on Bacillus subtilis spores using CotE as an anchor protein. Flow Cytometry was used to verify surface expression of tyrosinase on the purified spores. Moreover, tyrosinase activity of the displayed enzyme on B. subtilis spores was monitored in the presence of L-tyrosine (substrate) and CuSO 4 (inducer). The stability of the spore-displayed tyrosinase was then evaluated after 15 days maintenance of the spores at room temperature, and no significant decrease in the enzyme activity was observed. In addition, the tyrosinase-expressing spores could be repeatedly used with 62% retained enzymatic activity after six times washing with Tris-HCl buffer. This genetically immobilized tyrosinase on the spores would make a new advance in industrial, medical, and environmental applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Toxin production in food as influenced by pH, thermal treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were characterized and identified as Bacillus brevis, Bacillus congulans, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Acinetobacter spp., Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella aerogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Alcaligenes spp., Corynebacterium spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter spp.

  3. Noncontiguous finished genome sequences and description of Bacillus massiliglaciei, Bacillus mediterraneensis, Bacillus massilinigeriensis, Bacillus phocaeensis and Bacillus tuaregi, five new species identified by culturomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cadoret

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culturomics, which investigates microbial diversity by combining diversified culture conditions, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA identification, allowed to identify five new species within the Bacillus genus. Bacillus massiliglaciei strain Marseille-P2600T, Bacillus mediterraneensis strain Marseille-P2384T, Bacillus massilinigeriensis strain Marseille-P2366T, Bacillus tuaregi strain Marseille-P2489T and Bacillus phocaeensis strain SIT16T are each the type strain of the corresponding bacterial species. These strains, the genomes of which are described here, are facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacilli. Here, we describe the main characteristics of each bacterium and present their complete genome sequence and annotation.

  4. opraktan izole edilen Bacillus türlerinin tanımlanması ve biyolojik özelliklerinin araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Katı

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Giresun adasından toplanan toprak örneklerinden Bacillus izolasyonu yapılmıştır. Bu izolatlar morfolojik, biyokimyasal ve moleküler olarak tanımlanmıştır. Tanımlanan Bacillus’larda bazı ekstrasellüler enzimlerinin varlığı kalitatif olarak incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Bacillus izolatlarının bazı bakterilere karşı antibakteriyal aktiviteleri agar difüzyon metoduna göre araştırılmıştır. Sonuç olarak 38 izolat B. cereus grubu üyesi, 7 izolat B. thuringiensis, 10 izolat B. megaterium, 6 izolat B. pumilus ve 12 izolat Bacillus sp. olarak tanımlanmıştır. Bacillus izolatlarının ekstrasellüler enzim aktivite sonuçları değerlendirildiğinde 38 izolatın amilaz, 53 izolatın lipaz/esteraz, 16 izolatın kitinaz, 7 izolatın ksilanaz, 2 izolatın pektinaz, 73 izolatın proteaz ve 35 izolatın selülaz enzim aktivitesi pozitif olarak bulunmuştur. Çalışmada kullanılan Bacillus izolatları test edilen mikroorganizmaların gelişmelerini değişik oranlarda engellemiştir. Dokuz izolat yüksek antibakteriyal aktivite göstermiştir.

  5. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Class of Extracellular Poly(3-Hydroxybutyrate) Depolymerase from Bacillus sp. Strain NRRL B-14911▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-Ting; Lin, Ju-Hui; Chen, Hui-Ju; Chen, Syuan-Yi; Shaw, Gwo-Chyuan

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic, linker, and denatured poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (dPHB)-binding domains of bacterial extracellular PHB depolymerases (PhaZs) are classified into several different types. We now report a novel class of extracellular PHB depolymerase from Bacillus sp. strain NRRL B-14911. Its catalytic domain belongs to type 1, whereas its putative linker region neither possesses the sequence features of the three known types of linker domains nor exhibits significant amino acid sequence similarity to them. Instead, this putative linker region can be divided into two distinct linker domains of novel types: LD1 and LD2. LD1 shows significant amino acid sequence similarity to certain regions of a large group of PHB depolymerase-unrelated proteins. LD2 and its homologs are present in a small group of PhaZs. The remaining C-terminal portion of this PhaZ can be further divided into two distinct domains: SBD1 and SBD2. Each domain showed strong binding to dPHB, and there is no significant sequence similarity between them. Each domain neither possesses the sequence features of the two known types of dPHB-binding domains nor shows significant amino acid sequence similarity to them. These unique features indicate the presence of two novel and distinct types of dPHB-binding domains. Homologs of these novel domains also are present in the extracellular PhaZ of Bacillus megaterium and the putative extracellular PhaZs of Bacillus pseudofirmus and Bacillus sp. strain SG-1. The Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 PhaZ appears to be a representative of a novel class of extracellular PHB depolymerases. PMID:21948827

  6. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  7. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  8. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  9. Production of Cellulases, Xylanase, Pectinase, alpha-amylase and Protease Enzymes Cocktail by Bacillus spp. and Their Mixed Cultures with Candida tropicalis and Rhodotorula glutinis under Solid State Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Batal, A.I.; Abo-State, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    A group of twelve locally isolated Bacillus species, B.megaterium (MAI and MA II), B.licheniformis (MLI and ML II); B. circulans, B. stearothermophilis, B.cereus, B.sphaericus, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. coagulans and B. pantothenticus, were examined for the production of cellulases, xylanase, pectinase, alpha-amylase and protease enzymes cocktail on wheat bran under solid state fermentation (SSF). All species were found to be potent hydrolyzing enzymes producers and the superior producing species were B. megaterium MAI and B. licheniformis. On the other hand, both of them still produced highest enzyme titres when mixed with Candida tropicalis or Rhodotorula glutinis, yeast strains. The two superior bacterial strains produced the highest enzymatic activities when coculturing with C. tropicalis compared with coculturing with R. glutinis only or with both C. tropicalis and R. glutinis in combination. The inferior activities of cocultures (B. megaterinm MAI and R. glutinis) were enhanced in carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), filter paper cellulase (FPase), avecilase, xylanase, pectinase, -amylase and protease by gamma irradiation at dose 1.0 kGy with percent increase 8 %, 20 %, 10 %, 4 %, 31 %, 22 % and 34 %, respectively as compared with un-irradiated cocultures

  10. Biological control of strawberry soil-borne pathogens Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani, using Trichoderma asperellum and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María PASTRANA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In south-western Spain, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani were found to be associated in strawberry plants with, respectively, charcoal rot, and crown and root rot symptoms. For management of both fungal diseases, the antagonistic effects of two commercial formulations, one based on Trichoderma asperellum T18 strain (Prodigy® and the other on Bacillus megaterium and B. laterosporus (Fusbact®, were evaluated in vitro and under controlled environment and field conditions. Two inoculation methods (root-dipping and soil application and two application times (pre- and post-pathogen inoculation, as preventive and curative treatments, respectively were assessed. Dual plate confrontation experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effects of T. asperellum and Bacillus spp. by inhibiting radial growth of M. phaseolina and F. solani by more than 36%. Preventive application of T. asperellum by root-dipping reduced the incidence of charcoal rot (up to 44% in a growth chamber and up to 65% under field conditions and also reduced disease progression, the percentage of crown necrosis, as well as the level of infection measured as ng of pathogen DNA g-1 plant by quantitative real-time PCR. This treatment was also the most effective for reduction of crown and root rot caused by F. solani (up to 100% in a greenhouse and up to 81% under field conditions. These results were nearly comparable with the control achieved using chemical fungicides. The Bacillus spp.-based formulation was also effective for control of charcoal rot and showed variable results for control of F. solani, depending on the growth conditions.

  11. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  12. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis. PMID:6172418

  13. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Contreras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs; Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM—carbohydrates (CHO basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm; Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B; SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C; fishmeal commercial feed (FM was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs; additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR. Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  14. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

  15. Bacillus velezensis is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Tai, Chun-Ju; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Strain BCRC 14193, isolated from soil, shared more than 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BCRC 11601(T) and Bacillus velezensis BCRC 17467(T). This strain was previously identified as B. amyloliquefaciens, based on DNA-DNA hybridization, but its DNA relatedness value with B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) was 89 %. To investigate the relatedness of strain BCRC 14193, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. velezensis, the partial sequence of the gene encoding the subunit B protein of DNA gyrase (gyrB) was determined. B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) shared high gyrB gene sequence similarity with B. amyloliquefaciens BCRC 14193 (98.4 %) and all of the B. amyloliquefaciens strains available (95.5-95.6 %). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed high relatedness values between B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) and B. amyloliquefaciens BCRC 11601(T) (74 %) and the B. amyloliquefaciens reference strains (74-89 %). Based on these data and the lack of phenotypic distinctive characteristics, we propose Bacillus velezensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

  16. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  17. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  18. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  19. 76 FR 14289 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... a plant- incorporated protectant in accordance with the terms of Experimental Use Permit (EUP) No... chemistry data for eCry3.1Ab were required for a human health effects assessment. Even so, preliminary... EPA granting registrations or experimental use permits of Bacillus thuringiensis-based pesticides or...

  20. Characterisation and profiling of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Díaz-Bao, M; Cepeda, A; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2013-04-01

    The Bacillus genus includes species such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, some of which may be pathogenic or causative agents in the spoilage of food products. The main goal of this work was to apply matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass fingerprinting to the classification of these Bacillus species. Genetic analyses were also compared to phyloproteomic analyses. A collection of 57 Bacillus strains isolated from fresh and processed food and from culture collections were studied and their mass spectra compiled. The resulting mass fingerprints were compared and characteristic peaks at the strain and species levels were assigned. The results showed that MALDI-TOF was a good complementary approach to 16S rRNA sequencing and even a more powerful tool in the accurate classification of Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. MALDI-TOF was also found to provide valuable information at both intra- and interspecies levels in the Bacillus species studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity of spore-forming bacteria and identification of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a species frequently associated with the ropy spoilage of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, F; De Bellis, P; Di Biase, M; Lonigro, S L; Giussani, B; Visconti, A; Lavermicocca, P; Sisto, A

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the diversity of spore-forming bacteria isolated from raw materials/bread using molecular methods along with a rapid and innovative technology, the FT-NIR spectroscopy. Microbiological analysis showed that 23% of semolina and 42% of other raw materials (including grain, brewer yeast, improvers) contained more than 100 spores/g and more than 50% of each kind of sample was contaminated at a level ranging from 1 to 100 spores/g. A high bacterial diversity characterized raw materials. In total 176 isolates were collected and characterized: 13 bacterial species belonging to Bacillus (10) and Paenibacillus (3) genera were identified by sequencing of 16S rRNA, gyrA or gyrB genes. The two closely related species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (strain N45.1) and Bacillus subtilis (strain S63) were also analyzed by the spectroscopic technique FT-NIR. This analysis gave clear discrimination between the strains in the score plot obtained by the PCA and allowed to identify the spectral region 5600-4000 cm(-1) as the information-rich region for discrimination. B. amyloliquefaciens, possibly misidentified as B. subtilis in previous studies, was recognized as the most frequent species, found also in ropy bread. Moreover, the screening test for rope production indicated that mainly B. amyloliquefaciens, together with B. subtilis and Bacillus pumilus, could cause spoilage in bread, even if the last two species were represented by a low number of isolates. The Bacillus cereus group and Bacillus megaterium showed a lower percentage (30-70%) of isolates potentially able to cause the rope, but considering the high number of B. cereus group isolates detected in this study, this bacterial group should also be considered important in rope spoilage. In conclusion, results demonstrate that raw materials used to produce bread represent a rich source of spore-forming bacteria, therefore their microbiological quality should be monitored before use. Moreover, this study

  2. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Adamu KUTA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cereus (30.8%, Bacillus brevis (1.9% Bacillus polymyxa (3.8%, Bacillus lichenifomis (13.5%, Bacillus spherericus (7.7%, Bacillus mycoides (13.5%, Bacillus pumilus (7.7%, Bacillus subtilis (3.8%, Bacillus alvei (1.9%, Bacillus laterosporous (1.9%, Bacillus firmus (9.6% and Bacillus circulars (3.8%. Antibiotic production tests indicated that nine Bacillus species out of twelve isolated in this study could be used to produce antibiotics that had effect on the test organisms. However, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus laterosporous had little or no effect on the tested organisms. This study suggests that some Bacillus species have potential to produce high quality antibiotics that can be use to control microbial growth in future.

  3. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  4. Assessing the Impact of Germination and Sporulation Conditions on the Adhesion of Bacillus Spores to Glass and Stainless Steel by Fluid Dynamic Gauging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu Zhou, Ke; Li, Nan; Christie, Graham; Wilson, D Ian

    2017-11-01

    The adhesion of spores of 3 Bacillus species with distinctive morphologies to stainless steel and borosilicate glass was studied using the fluid dynamic gauging technique. Marked differences were observed between different species of spores, and also between spores of the same species prepared under different sporulation conditions. Spores of the food-borne pathogen B. cereus were demonstrated to be capable of withstanding shear stresses greater than 1500 Pa when adhered to stainless steel, in contrast to spores of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus megaterium, which detached in response to lower shear stress. An extended DLVO model was shown to be capable of predicting the relative differences in spore adhesion between spores of different species and different culture conditions, but did not predict absolute values of force of adhesion well. Applying the model to germinating spores showed a significant reduction in adhesion force shortly after triggering germination, indicating a potential strategy to achieve enhanced removal of spores from surfaces in response to shear stress, such as during cleaning-in-place procedures. Spore-forming bacteria are a concern to the food industry because they have the potential to cause food-borne illness and product spoilage, while being strongly adhesive to processing surfaces and resistant to cleaning-in-place procedures. This work is of significance to the food processors and manufacturers because it offers insight to the properties of spore adhesion and identifies a potential strategy to facilitate the removal of spores during cleaning procedures. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.

  5. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the stick insects Bacillus rossius rossius, Bacillus rossius redtenbacheri and Bacillus whitei (Insecta : Phasmatodea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, DH; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, V

    2005-01-01

    Five microsatellite markers were obtained from a dinucleotide enriched genomic library of the stick insect Bacillus rossius rossius. The markers were tested in three species of Bacillus. All loci were polymorphic when tested across species. The number of alleles at each locus was low (maximum four...

  6. Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cliff S; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F; Altherr, Michael R; Bhotika, Smriti S; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S; Campbell, Mary L; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A; Fawcett, John J; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A; Green, Lance D; Hill, Karen K; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A Christine; Okinaka, Richard T; Parson-Quintana, B; Reilly, Lee Philip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Wills, Patti L; Brettin, Thomas S; Gilna, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian serotype H34, isolated from a necrotic human wound, and B. cereus E33L, which was isolated from a swab of a zebra carcass in Namibia. These two strains, when analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism within a collection of over 300 of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis isolates, appear closely related to B. anthracis. The B. cereus E33L isolate appears to be the nearest relative to B. anthracis identified thus far. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 97-27and B. cereus E33L was undertaken to identify shared and unique genes among these isolates in comparison to the genomes of pathogenic strains B. anthracis Ames and B. cereus G9241 and nonpathogenic strains B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Comparison of these genomes revealed differences in terms of virulence, metabolic competence, structural components, and regulatory mechanisms.

  7. 1136-IJBCS-Article-Roseline Uzeh

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Streptococcus sp., Bacillus coagulans,. Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polymyxa, and. Bacillus sp. (Table 1). The fungi isolated include Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida sp., Rhodotorula sp., Aspergillus niger,. Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium moniliforme,. Fusarium oxysporium, and Penicillium sp. (Table 1). The samples ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase activity during the stationary ...

  9. Isolat Bacillus Pelarut Fosfat dari Kalimas Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Zulaika, Enny; Ulfiyati, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ketersediaan fosfat terlarut di dalam tanah sangat terbatas karena kecenderungannya terikat dengan mineral tanah membentuk fosfat kompleks. Bakteri pelarut fosfat, salah satunya adalah Bacillus, dapat digunakan untuk membantu ketersediaan fosfat terlarut di dalam tanah sehingga dapat menggantikan pupuk fosfat. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui potensi isolat Bacillus spp. koleksi laboratorium Mikrobiologi dan Bioteknologi Biologi ITS Surabaya dalam melarutkan fosfat. Potensi pelarutan...

  10. Disinfection of Vegetative Cells of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Society for Microbiology ; New Orleans, LA, 2004. American Public Health Association. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater...Disinfection kinetics of vegetative cells of Bacillus anthracis in water with free available chlorine ([FAC] 2 mg/L) and monochloramine ([MC] 2 mg/L) were...anthracis. Bacillus anthracis cells Drinking water Chlorine demand-free (CDF

  11. Real-Time PCR Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    13061 Neisseria lactamica .............................................................. 23970 Bacillus coagulans ...NEG Bacillus coagulane 7050 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13472 NEG NEG Bacillus licheniforms 12759 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13824 NEG NEG Bacillus ...Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Elizabeth Bode,1 William Hurtle,2† and David Norwood1* United States Army Medical

  12. Production dynamics of extracellular protease from Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... showed that Bacillus species under study are good producers of extracellular protease at high temperature. This might be an indication that proteases produced would be thermostable. Keywords Protease; proteolytic bacteria; Bacillus macerans; Bacillus licheniformis; Bacillus subtilis. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  13. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores : the role of germination receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group forms a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus and comprises several species that are relevant for humans. Notorious is Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the often-lethal disease anthrax, while the insect pathogen Bacillus

  14. Cyclic Lipopeptide Biosynthetic Genes and Products, and Inhibitory Activity of Plant-Associated Bacillus against Phytopathogenic Bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mora

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity against bacterial plant pathogens and its relationships with the presence of the cyclic lipopeptide (cLP biosynthetic genes ituC (iturin, bmyB (bacillomycin, fenD (fengycin and srfAA (surfactin, and their corresponding antimicrobial peptide products have been studied in a collection of 64 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from plant environments. The most frequent antimicrobial peptide (AMP genes were bmyB, srfAA and fenD (34-50% of isolates. Most isolates (98.4% produced surfactin isoforms, 90.6% iturins and 79.7% fengycins. The antibacterial activity was very frequent and generally intense among the collection of strains because 75% of the isolates were active against at least 6 of the 8 bacterial plant pathogens tested. Hierarchical and correspondence analysis confirmed the presence of two clearly differentiated groups. One group consisted of Bacillus strains that showed a strong antibacterial activity, presented several cLPs genes and produced several isoforms of cLPs simultaneously, mainly composed of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens, although the last one was exclusive to this group. Another group was characterized by strains with very low or none antibacterial activity, that showed one or none of the cLP genes and produced a few or none of the corresponding cLPs, and was the most heterogenous group including B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. pumilus, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, although the last two were exclusive to this group. This work demonstrated that the antagonistic capacity of plant-associated Bacillus against plant pathogenic bacteria is related to the presence of cLP genes and to the production of the corresponding cLPs, and it is mainly associated to the species B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Our findings would help to increase the yield and efficiency of screening methods to obtain candidate strains to biocontrol agents with a mechanism of action relaying on the

  15. Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on the Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, J.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Sala, F.

    1972-01-01

    Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis spores in quarter-strength Ringer solution decreases markedly after ultrasonic treatments which are unable to kill a significant proportion of the spore population. This effect does not seem to be caused by a loss of Ca2+ or dipicolinic acid. The use of ultrasonics to eliminate vegetative cells or to break aggregates in Bacillus spore suspensions to be used subsequently in heat resistance experiments appears to be unadvisable. PMID:4627969

  16. Genome-based genetic tool development for Bacillus methanolicus: theta- and rolling circle-replicating plasmids for inducible gene expression and application to methanol-based cadaverine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Irla

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus methanolicus is a thermophilic methylotroph able to overproduce amino acids from methanol, a substrate not used for human or animal nutrition. Based on our previous RNA-seq analysis a mannitol inducible promoter and a putative mannitol activator gene mtlR were identified. The mannitol inducible promoter was applied for controlled gene expression using fluorescent reporter proteins and a flow cytometry analysis, and improved by changing the -35 promoter region and by co-expression of the mtlR regulator gene. For independent complementary gene expression control, the heterologous xylose-inducible system from B. megaterium was employed and a two-plasmid gene expression system was developed. Four different replicons for expression vectors were compared with respect to their copy number and stability. As an application example, methanol-based production of cadaverine was shown to be improved from 11.3 g/L to 17.5 g/L when a heterologous lysine decarboxylase gene cadA was expressed from a theta-replicating rather than a rolling-circle replicating vector. The current work on inducible promoter systems and compatible theta- or rolling circle-replicating vectors is an important extension of the poorly developed B. methanolicus genetic toolbox, valuable for genetic engineering and further exploration of this bacterium.

  17. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an ?Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens? within the B. subtilis Species Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as “B. amyloliquefaciens.” Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its con...

  18. Bacillus and biopolymer: Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mohapatra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs. Bacillus species possess hydrolytic enzymes that can be exploited for economical PHAs production. This review summarizes the recent trends in both non-growth and growth associated PHAs production by Bacillus species which may provide direction leading to future research towards this growing quest for biodegradable plastics, one more critical step ahead towards sustainable development.

  19. Characterization of 21 Strains of Bacillus Anthracis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kournikakis, B

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one strains of Bacillus anthracis currently held in the culture collection at DRES were characterized by colonial morphology, antibiotic sensitivity and BiologTM metabolic identification profiles...

  20. Antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus and bacillus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus bacteria and their antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infections (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion.

  1. Cell Physiology and Protein Secretion of Bacillus licheniformis Compared to Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, Birgit; Antelmann, Haike; Albrecht, Dirk; Ehrenreich, Armin; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Evers, Stefan; Gottschalk, Gerhard; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis was published in 1997 and since then many other bacterial genomes have been sequenced, among them Bacillus licheniformis in 2004. B. subtilis and B. licheniformis are closely related and feature similar saprophytic lifestyles in the soil. Both species can

  2. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and 'Bacillus oryzicola' are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus velezensis based on phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus velezensis was previously reported to be a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced a draft genome of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T . Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations show that it is not a synonym of B. amyloliquefaciens. It was instead synonymous with Bacillus methylotrophicus. ' Bacillus oryzicola ' is a recently described species that was isolated as an endophyte of rice ( Oryza sativa ). The strain was demonstrated to have plant-pathogen antagonist activity in greenhouse assays, and the 16S rRNA gene was reported to have 99.7 % sequence similarity with Bacillus siamensis and B. methylotrophicus , which are both known for their plant pathogen antagonism. To better understand the phylogenetics of these closely related strains, we sequenced the genome of ' B . oryzicola ' KACC 18228. Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genomes of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T , B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 T . The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the strains were all greater than 84 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the strains share phenotype and genotype coherence. Therefore, we propose that B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T , B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 T , and ' B. oryzicola' KACC 18228 should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T , since the valid publication date of B. velezensis precedes the other three strains.

  3. Production of amylolytic enzymes by bacillus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, Elham Shareif

    1997-12-01

    Sixty six bacteria and twenty fungi were isolated from various sources. These varied from rotten fruites to local drinks and soil samples from different parts of Sudan. On the basis of index of amylolytic activity, forty one bacteria and twelve fungi were found to hydrolyse strach. The best ten strach hydrolysing isolates were identified all as bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 2 , SUD-K 4 , SUD-O, SUD-SRW, SUD-BRW, SUD-By, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 , and Bacillus circulans SUD-D and SUD-K 7 ). Their amylase productivity was studied with respect to temperature and time. Amylolytic activity was measured by spectrophotometer, the highest activity was produced in around 24 hours of growth in all; six of which gave the highest amylase activity at 50 deg C and the rest at 45C. Based on the thermal production six isolates were chosen for further investigation. These were Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 2 , SUD-K 4 , SUD-O, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K 7 . The inclusion of strach and Mg ++ ions in the culture medium gave the highest enzyme yield. The Ph 9.0 was found to be the optimum for amylase production for all isolates except Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 which had an optimum at pH 7.0. Three isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 4 and SUD-O recorded highestamylase production in a medium supplemented with peptone while the rest (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 2 , Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K 7 ) gave highest amylase productivity in a medium supplemented with malt extract. Four isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 and Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 gave maximum amylase production in a medium containing 0.5% soluble strach while the rest (gave maximum amylase production at 2%. Soluble strach was found to be best substrate among the different carbon sources tested. The maximum temperature for amylase activity ranged from 60-70 deg C and 1% strach concentration was optimum for all isolates

  4. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  5. Cardiolipin, a major phospholipid of gram-positive bacteria that is not readily extractable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filgueiras, M.H.; Kamp, J.A.F. op den

    1980-01-01

    Extraction of phospholipids from stationary phase grown cells of the Gram+ bacteria, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus lysodeikticus was found to be incomplete with various commonly used extraction procedures. Phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine

  6. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species | Ajayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leitch and Collier sporulating Bacillus medium was used to isolate some strains of Bacillus species from soil, wastewater and food sources in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, by heat activation method. Heat treatment at 80oC allowed the growth of sporulating Bacillus species, in the culture sample source without other bacteria ...

  7. Antimicrobial activities, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antimicrobial activities, toxinogenic potential and sensitivity to antibiotics of Bacillus strains isolated from Mbuja, an Hibiscus sabdariffa fermented seeds from ... to antibiotics of 26 Bacillus strains (11 Bacillus subtilis, 5 Bacillus megaterium, 4 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, 4 Bacillus pumilus and 2 Bacillus thuringiensis) ...

  8. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  9. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an "Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens" within the B. subtilis Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42 T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as " B. amyloliquefaciens ." Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7 T , the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens . We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7 T . Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens , (2) Bacillus siamensis , and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus , and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum . The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7 T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as "operational group B. amyloliquefaciens " consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens , and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis , whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style.

  10. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  11. tolerant alkaline protease from Bacillus coagulans PSB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oyaide

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... optimum activity at 60°C and pH 8.0 with casein as substrate. The enzyme was .... appropriate buffers. 50 mM of buffer solutions (sodium citrate, pH .... Table 2. Hydrolysis of protein substrates by protease from Bacillus coagulans PSB-07. Substrate. Relative activity (%). Casein. 100. Gelatin. 18. BSA. 72.

  12. Probiotic Bacillus species and Saccharomyces boulardii improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic Bacillus species and Saccharomyces boulardii improve performance, gut histology and immunity in broiler chickens. ... Carcass yield, liver weights, breast muscle values, and abdominal fat weights were reduced in groups fed with 100 or 150 g/ton of Microguard. Caecal coliforms, Salmonella and Escherichia coli ...

  13. Antibacterial potential components of Bacillus species and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey is a sweet viscous liquid produced by honey bee, Apis mellifera from the nectar of plants. Honey is a natural product that has been used from ancient times till now as food and for medicinal purpose. This study was carried out to determine the mode of action of Bacillus species and antibiotics residues in branded and ...

  14. Bacillus subtilis Spore Inner Membrane Proteome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, L.; Abhyankar, W.; Ouwerling, N.; Dekker, H.L.; van Veen, H.; van der Wel, N.N.; Roseboom, W.; de Koning, L.J.; Brul, S.; de Koster, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    The endospore is the dormant form of Bacillus subtilis and many other Firmicutes. By sporulation, these spore formers can survive very harsh physical and chemical conditions. Yet, they need to go through germination to return to their growing form. The spore inner membrane (IM) has been shown to

  15. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...

  16. strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and bacillus cereus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    DETERMINATION OF THE GENETIC MARKER OF THE MUTAGENIZED. STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACILLUS CEREUS. ISOLATED FROM EFFLUENT OF PETROLEUM REFINERY. Idise, O. E.1, Ameh, J.B.2 Yakubu, S.E. 2, Okuofu, C.A. 3 and Ado, S.A.2. 1 Department of Microbiology, Delta ...

  17. Preliminary investigations reveal that Bacillus thuringiensis δ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The imminent introduction of transgenic crops into Kenya requires a rigorous assessment of the potential risks involved. This study focused on the possible effect of Bacillus thuringiensisδ-endotoxin [CryIA(c)] on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with sorghum. In green house experiments, sorghum seedlings ...

  18. Isolation and characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (<30% mortality) or non insecticidal activity. However, results of motility, hemolytic activity, antibiotic-susceptibility patterns, and crystal shape, seem to suggest that many of our Bt isolates may exhibit parasporins activity. Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis, parasporal crystal, isolation, biochemical type, insecticidal, cry gene, ...

  19. Purification And Characterization Of Marine Bacillus Thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urease was purified to homogeneity from Bacillus thuringiensis N2 using different purification steps namely, 55% acetone precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex A50 anion exchange column and Sephadex G120-200 gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme was purified 95.27 fold and showed a final specific activity of 10.48 ...

  20. Molecular characterization of Lepidopteran specific Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains pathogenic to Lepidopteran insects and native to hilly zone soils of Karnataka (India) were explored. 19 strains were isolated from the soils and identified by morphological and microscopic characters. Toxicity level of the Bt isolates was tested by treating third Instar larvae of silkworm ...

  1. Molecular characterization of Lepidopteran specific Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore, India. Accepted 24 April, 2013. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains pathogenic to Lepidopteran insects and native to hilly zone soils of. Karnataka ... In one of the isolates (Bt9), the cry gene was not detected.

  2. CASE REPORT Uncommon Pathogen Bacillus Cereus Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... Uncommon Pathogen Bacillus Cereus Causing Subdural Empyema in a Child. Prastiya Indra Gunawan1*, Leny Kartina1, Dwiyanti Puspitasari1, Erny Erny2. OPEN ACCESS ... secondary to middle ear infection, meningitis, brain surgery, ... classic clinical syndrome is an acute febrile illness punctuated by.

  3. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A

  4. Exopolysaccharide production by Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2862 and Streptococcus mutans MTCC 1943 were examined for their exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing ability at the laboratory level. Basal salts solution (BSS), minimal salts medium (MSM), nitrogen free medium (NFM), chemically ...

  5. CASE REPORT Uncommon Pathogen Bacillus Cereus Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... A complete blood count showed white blood cell count of 13.800/mm3 and the CRP level was 8.3 mg/L. Craniotomy following burr hole drainage procedure was performed to decrease intracranial pressure. The liquor culture indicated Bacillus cereus. A meropenem injection and metronidazole infusion ...

  6. Utilization of corn starch as sustrate for ß-Amylase by Bacillus SPP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn starch was used as substrate for ß -amylase production from ten(10) amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. Ten bacillus strains was made up of two strains each of Bacillus macerans, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus circulans. Also included are B. coagulans, ...

  7. L-Glutamic acid production by Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogiri” (fermented vegetable proteins) in Nigeria. The isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (6), (27.3%), Bacillus pumilus (5), (22.7%), Bacillus licheniformis (5), (27.3%) and Bacillus polymyxa (6), (22.7%). Four species of the Bacillus isolates ...

  8. Screening of UV-irradiated and S-2-aminoethyl-Lcysteine resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The screening of UV irradiated and aminoethyl-l-cysteine resistant (AECR) mutants of Bacillus megaterium strains for improved lysine accumulation was conducted. The mutants, MR-10 and MR-25 derived form irradiated cultures of B. megaterium SP 76, and MS-3 and MS-5 derived form B. megaterium SP 86 produced ...

  9. Investigation of biosurfactant production by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shila khajavi shojaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are unique amphipathic molecules with extensive application in removing organic and metal contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate production of biosurfactant and determine optimal conditions to produce biosurfactant by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI. Materials and methods: In this study, effect of carbon source, temperature and incubation time on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil spreading, drop collapse, cell hydrophobicity and measurement of surface tension were used to detect biosurfactant production. Then, according to the results, the optimal conditions for biosurfactant production by and Bacillus subtilis WPI was determined. Results: In this study, both bacteria were able to produce biosurfactant at an acceptable level. Glucose, kerosene, sugarcane molasses and phenanthrene used as a sole carbon source and energy for the mentioned bacteria. Bacillus subtilis WPI produced maximum biosurfactant in the medium containing kerosene and reduced surface tension of the medium to 33.1 mN/m after 156 hours of the cultivation at 37°C. Also, the highest surface tension reduction by Bacillus pumilus 1529 occurred in the medium containing sugarcane molasses and reduce the surface tension of culture medium after 156 hours at 37°C from 50.4 to 28.83 mN/m. Discussion and conclusion: Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI had high potential in production of biosurfactant and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and Phenanthrene. Therefore, it could be said that these bacteria had a great potential for applications in bioremediation and other environmental process.

  10. Current development in genetic engineering strategies of Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The complete sequencing and annotation of the genomes of industrially-important Bacillus species has enhanced our understanding of their properties, and allowed advances in genetic manipulations in other Bacillus species. Post-genomic studies require simple and highly efficient tools to enable genetic manipulation. Here, we summarize the recent progress in genetic engineering strategies for Bacillus species. We review the available genetic tools that have been developed in Bacillus species, as well as methods developed in other species that may also be applicable in Bacillus. Furthermore, we address the limitations and challenges of the existing methods, and discuss the future research prospects in developing novel and useful tools for genetic modification of Bacillus species. PMID:24885003

  11. Modeling Radiation Effectiveness for Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES DISSERTATION Emily A. Knight, Major, USAF AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 DEPARTMENT OF THE...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES...EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES Emily A. Knight, B.A., M.S. Major, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. William P. Baker Chair Dr. Larry W

  12. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  13. Bioakumulasi logam berat Cu oleh Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesta Primaharinastiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the ability of Bacillus sp in accumulating Cu and how much it can be acumulated. Themedium used to growth the bacterium was Nutrient Broth and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry methods was used to assay theCu, both in the cells and medium. The result of this study showed that Bacillus sp incubated in the Nutrient Broth medium containing10 ppm of Cu, with continuous stirring in the room temperature was able to reduce Cu in the medium 8.912–12.623% and accumulateCu in the cell 0.1149–0.1400 %/mg cells. Based on this result, it is necessary to develop more studies to find out what factors thatinfluence the accumulation process and to optimize the bioprocess.

  14. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, J F; Wakim, J; Fischer, R S

    1981-01-01

    The activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis was influenced by the carbon source, but not the nitrogen source, in the growth medium. The highest specific activity for this enzyme was found when B. subtilis was grown in a minimal or rich medium that contained glutamate as the carbon source. It is proposed that glutamate dehydrogenase serves a catabolic function in the metabolism of glutamate, is induced by glutamate, and is subjec...

  15. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J F; Wakim, J; Fischer, R S

    1981-01-01

    The activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis was influenced by the carbon source, but not the nitrogen source, in the growth medium. The highest specific activity for this enzyme was found when B. subtilis was grown in a minimal or rich medium that contained glutamate as the carbon source. It is proposed that glutamate dehydrogenase serves a catabolic function in the metabolism of glutamate, is induced by glutamate, and is subject to catabolite repression. PMID:6118356

  16. Identification of Fatty Acids in Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginies, Christian; Brillard, Julien; Nguyen-The, Christophe

    2016-12-05

    The Bacillus species contain branched chain and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) with diverse positions of the methyl branch (iso or anteiso) and of the double bond. Changes in FA composition play a crucial role in the adaptation of bacteria to their environment. These modifications entail a change in the ratio of iso versus anteiso branched FAs, and in the proportion of unsaturated FAs relative to saturated FAs, with double bonds created at specific positions. Precise identification of the FA profile is necessary to understand the adaptation mechanisms of Bacillus species. Many of the FAs from Bacillus are not commercially available. The strategy proposed herein identifies FAs by combining information on the retention time (by calculation of the equivalent chain length (ECL)) with the mass spectra of three types of FA derivatives: fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), 4,4-dimethyl oxazoline derivatives (DMOX), and 3-pyridylcarbinyl ester (picolinyl). This method can identify the FAs without the need to purify the unknown FAs. Comparing chromatographic profiles of FAME prepared from Bacillus cereus with a commercial mixture of standards allows for the identification of straight-chain saturated FAs, the calculation of the ECL, and hypotheses on the identity of the other FAs. FAMEs of branched saturated FAs, iso or anteiso, display a constant negative shift in the ECL, compared to linear saturated FAs with the same number of carbons. FAMEs of unsaturated FAs can be detected by the mass of their molecular ions, and result in a positive shift in the ECL compared to the corresponding saturated FAs. The branching position of FAs and the double bond position of unsaturated FAs can be identified by the electron ionization mass spectra of picolinyl and DMOX derivatives, respectively. This approach identifies all the unknown saturated branched FAs, unsaturated straight-chain FAs and unsaturated branched FAs from the B. cereus extract.

  17. Isolation of bacillus thuringiensis from different samples from Mansehra District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, F.; Lodhi, A.F.; Raza, G.

    2009-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis has made it very interesting for the control of a variety of agricultural pests and human disease vectors. The present study is an attempt to explore the potential and diversity. of Bacillus thuringiensis. from the local environment for the control of cotton spotted bollworm (Earias sp.), a major pest of cotton. Two hundred and ninety eight samples of soil, grain dust, wild animal dung, birds dropping, decaying leaves and dead insects were collected from different ecological environments of Mansehra District yielding 438 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates that produce parasporal crystalline inclusions. In this study the soil samples were found to be the richest source for Bacillus thuringiensis. (author)

  18. Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawlankar, Rahul; Thorat, Meghana N; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Dastager, Syed G

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain NIO-1130(T) was isolated from sediment sample taken from Chorao Island, Goa Province, India, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, and motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate within the genus Bacillus and strain NIO-1130(T) showed highest sequence similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) (98.4%) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T) (98.1%), whereas other Bacillus species showed bacillus group. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The strain showed a DNA G+C content of 39.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that strain NIO-1130(T) exhibits 70% similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T). On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, we consider the isolate to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1130(T) (=NCIM 5461(T)=CCTCC AB 2011126(T)).

  19. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  20. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    Full Text Available Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  1. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  2. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  3. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  4. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Andersen, Sigrid R

    2005-01-01

    Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eat food products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains...... had at least one gene or component involved in human diarrhoeal disease, while emetic toxin was related to only one B. cereus strain. A new observation was that 31 out of the 40 randomly selected B. cereus-like strains could be classified as Bacillus thuringiensis due to crystal production and...

  5. Biodiversity of predominant Bacillus isolated from afitin, iru and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) presumptive isolates of Bacillus collected at different fermentation time from spontaneous fermented samples of afitin, iru and sonru produced in three different regions of Benin were identified at species and strains levels. ITS-PCR-RFLP revealed that 79% of the isolates were really identified as Bacillus, ...

  6. The use of two biological formulations of Bacillus Thuringiensis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two biological formulations of the microbial agents Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus, known by their trade names Vectobac 12 AS and VectoLex CG (Corn Cob) granules, respectively, were obtained from Valent Biosciences Company (formerly Abbott Laboratories) of North Chicago, USA, and applied to control ...

  7. Production of cellulase by a novel cellulolytic Bacillus sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    squ

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel Bacillus subtilis WD23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strain Bacillus sp. WD23 exhibiting laccase activity was screened from forest soil. The M9 medium containing Cu2+ was used for enriching and isolating bacterial strains capable of oxidizing syringaldazine. One isolated strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis WD23 based on the results of physiological and biochemical ...

  9. Monitoring of marine Bacillus diversity among the bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    germination an indication of manganese reduction by Bacillus. Two strains identified as Bacillus pumilus using 16S rRNA gene sequence were isolated from Buzzers Bay seawater at 45 feet dept. The strains spores were centrally located and they were able to tolerate 1.0 M NaCl concentration indicating their marine origin.

  10. Biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthren by Bacillus subtilis 3KP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Trikurniadewi, N.; Pramadita, A. R. A.; Pratiwi, I. A.; Salamun, Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri

    2017-06-01

    The purposes of this research were to know growth response, degradation ability, and uptake mechanism of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. Bacillus subtilis 3KP was grown on Mineral Synthetic (MS) medium with addition of 1% yeast extract and naphthalene and phenanthrene respectively 200 ppm in different cultures. Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth response was monitored by Total Plate Count (TPC) method, the degradation ability was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon was monitored by emulsification activity, decrease of surface tension, and activity of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbon (BATH). Bacillus subtilis 3KP was able to grow and show biphasic growth pattern on both of substrates. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were used as a carbon source for Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth that indicated by the reduction of substrate concomitant with the growth. At room temperature conditions (± 30°C) and 90 rpm of agitation for 7 days, Bacillus subtilis 3KP could degrade naphthalene in the amount of 70.5% and phenanthrene in the amount of 24.8%. Based on the analysis of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, three metabolites, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyrocatechol were found in both cultures. The metabolite identification became basis of propose degradation pathway of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. The results of hydrocarbon uptake mechanism test show that Bacillus subtilis 3KP used all of the mechanism to degrade naphthalene and phenanthrene.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 110 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates analyzed for the presence of crystal protein genes, 7 tested positive for cry 4, cry 11, and cyt toxin genes. Sequencing of these genes in positive strains demonstrated 99–100 % homology to known mosquitocidal cry and cyt genes in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The present ...

  12. Hydrolytic and synthetic activities of esterases produced by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel esterase producer strain named Bacillus sp. A60 was isolated from a soil sample contaminated with hydrocarbons. It was found to belong to Bacillus subtilis species through morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. This strain which can tolerate 15% (w/v) NaCl and growth at 55°C, ...

  13. by lipase from Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reported production of lipase by Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Bacteria isolates were screened on Bushnell-Hass Mineral Salt medium containing 1% PMS for oil degradation. Two potent isolates were identified using 16S rRNA as Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

  14. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esther Diomande

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The large bacterial genus genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbour pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

  15. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on Culex Mosquito Found in Sokoto. SB Manga, M Galadima. Abstract. Studies on the larvicidal activities of Bacillus sphaericus, against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes found in this area (Sokoto), was carried out. The B. sphaericus (SPH 88) was obtained ...

  16. Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 30 bacterial strains isolated from marine biofilms were screened for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani by dual culture assay. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showed a clear antagonism against R. solani on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The antagonistic activity ...

  17. Antagonistic activity of selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to determine, in vitro, the antagonistic effectiveness of 60 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against damping-off and root and stem rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The strains were obtained from the International Collection of Entomopathogenic Bacillus at the FCB-UANL. During the in vitro dual ...

  18. Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    effect of SWNTs in combination with antimicrobial chemicals on inactivation of B. anthracis spores; 4) the effect of CNTs coated surfaces on the...2010 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: (Life Science Division/ Biochemistry ) Inactivation of Bacillus... Biochemistry ) Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes Report Title The Specific Aims of the project were to investigate: 1) the

  19. Recombinant EXLX1 from Bacillus subtilis for enhancing enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant EXLX1 from Bacillus subtilis for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover with low cellulase loadings. ... These results provided a feasible way for the potential application of BsEXLX1 in the efficient saccharification of cellulose materials for bioethanol production. Key word: Bacillus subtilis, BsEXLX1, ...

  20. Genome analysis-based reclassification of Bacillus weihenstephanensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mycoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the taxonomic status of the species Bacillus weihenstephanensis. A complete genome sequence for the type strain of B. weihenstephanensis was compared against that of the closely related type strain of Bacillus mycoides. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between the two type strains was greater than two recognized thresholds for bacterial species delineation, indicating that they should belong to the same genomospecies. The psychrotolerant characteristic and signature sequences of 16S rRNA and cspA genes were incapable of distinguishing B. weihenstephanensis from some non-B. weihenstephanensis strains. Meanwhile, the metabolic, physiological and chemotaxonomic features for the type strain of B. weihenstephanensis were shown to be congruent with those of B. mycoides. On this basis, the taxonomic affiliations of related strains from the Genbank database were determined using multilocus sequence typing and genomic analyses. Therefore, we propose Bacillus weihenstephanensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mycoides and correction of erroneous species identifications for several strains.

  1. Bacillus swezeyi sp. nov. and Bacillus haynesii sp. nov., isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Schisler, David A; Perry, Elizabeth B; Connor, Nora; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2017-08-01

    Two isolates of Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria were identified during a survey of the diversity of strains belonging to the genus Bacillus deposited in the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil in Evolution Canyon III (Israel) in a survey of ecological diversification. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strains NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T determined they were closely related to members of the Bacillus licheniformis clade. The genome of each strain was sequenced, and further analysis indicated that the strains represented unique species based on in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. A phylogenomic analysis revealed that NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T were closely related to the group that includes B. licheniformis. In phenotypic characterization, both NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T were found to grow at temperatures of between 15 and 60 °C and tolerated up to 12 % NaCl (w/v). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0, and peptidoglycan from cell walls contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 45.7 and 44.3 mol% for NRRL B-41327T and NRRL B-41294T, respectively. Furthermore, each strain had a unique carbon utilization pattern that distinguished it from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, we conclude that these strains represent two novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus swezeyi sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41294T (=CCUG 70177T), and the name Bacillus haynesii sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41327T (=CCUG 70178T).

  2. Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J R; Plunkett, T; Pate, P; Roper, W L; Alexander, W J

    1981-05-01

    Symptoms of acute food poisoning developed in eight members of a group who ate lunch at a cafeteria. After brief incubation periods, all affected individuals complained of nausea and abdominal cramps. Four persons promptly experienced vomiting. None of those affected was found to have fever and all recovered with 48 hours. Epidemiologic investigation incriminated macaroni and cheese as a cause of the illness and samples of this food contained large numbers of Bacillus cereus. Previous outbreaks of B cereus emetic food poisoning have been associated with consumption of contaminated fried rice and may occur after ingestion of other foods.

  3. Potential of Bacillus spp produces siderophores insuppressing thewilt disease of banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaulya, H.; Hasinu, J. V.; Tuhumury, G. NC

    2018-01-01

    In nature, different types of siderophore such as hydroxymate, catecholets and carboxylate, are produced by different bacteria. Bacillus spp were isolated from potato rhizospheric soil can produce siderophore of both catecholets and salicylate type with different concentrations. Various strains of Bacillus spp were tested for pathogen inhibition capability in a dual culture manner. The test results showed the ability of inhibition of pathogen isolated from banana wilt disease. From the result tested were found Bacillus niabensis Strain PT-32-1, Bacillus subtilis Strain SWI16b, Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC21, Bacillus mojavensis Strain JCEN3, and Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC24 showed different capabilities in suppressing pathogen.

  4. ABILITY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER IN CISIRUNG WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu SAFITRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the ability of bacterial consortium: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida in bioremediation of wastewater origin Cisirung WWTP. This study uses an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of two treatment factors (8x8 factorial design. The first factor is a consortium of bacteria (K, consisting of 8 level factors (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, and k8. The second factor is the time (T, consisting of a 7 level factors (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7. Test parameters consist of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid, Ammonia and Population of Microbes during bioremediation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consortium of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida with inoculum concentration of 5% (k6 is a consortium of the most effective in reducing BOD 71.93%, 64.30% COD, TSS 94.85%, and 88.58% of ammonia.

  5. Karakterisasi protease Bacillus sp. UGM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Purwati Widowati

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment is to indentify the characters of proetease produced by Bacillus sp.UGM5.the protease secreted by Bacillus sp.UGM5 was first isolated,purified and then charactirezed.The crude enzyme has spesific actifity of 1.14 U/mg,however,the spesific activity of purified enzyme was increased by 23.8 times fold and recovery was 33.69%.The Page of nondenatured crude enzymes showes two type of proreases,however ,the SDS-Page of denatured purified enzyme showed four protein-bends with molecular weights of 55.5 kDa,18kDa respecetively.The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme acrivity are 8.5 and 420C and belongs to serin protease type,with Km 3 X 10-3mM and Vmax 0.0890mM/30 minutes.The activity is not inhibited by Ca+2,Fe+2 and EDTA.

  6. Identification of Bacillus anthracis by Using Monoclonal Antibody to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine Polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Bacillus circulans ATCC 4513 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus eugilitis B-61 f - - NR NT NT NT NT...American Society for Microbiology W Identification of Bacillus anthracis by-U-sing Monoclonal Antibody CC to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine...Received 22 June 1989/Accepted 31 October 1989 ’ Guanidine extracts of crude Bacillus anthracis cell wall were used to vaccinate BALB/c mice and to

  7. Heavy metals and their radionuclides uptake by Bacillus Licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Ahmed, M.M.; Abo-state, M.A.M.; Sarhan, M.; Faroqe, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is a gram positive spore forming bacterium. Different concentrations of cobalt affected the ability of Co uptake and growth of Bacillus licheniformis. As the concentration increased, both the uptake and growth were decreased. Maximum Co uptake was found at ph 7.0, while for growth was ph 8.0. The optimum temperature for uptake and growth was 40 degree C and 20% inoculum size represents the maximum cobalt uptake by Bacillus licheniformis. Also, maximum uptake was recorded after 72 hours, incubation period. As the concentration of cesium was increased till 400 mg/l, the uptake was also increased. The optimum cesium uptake and growth was at ph 8.0. The optimum growth was at 45 degree C while Cs uptake was found at 35 degree C and 15% inoculum size represented the maximum Cs uptake. After 72 hour incubation period, maximum Cs uptake was recorded. Generally, Bacillus licheniformis removed more than 80% of Co and 50% of Cs from the broth medium. Addition of clay to Bacillus licheniformis increased both Co or Cs uptake. Bacillus licheniformis was gamma resistant and 10 KGy reduced the viability by 5.3 log cycles. The irradiated and non-irradiated cultures can grow on 500 or 700 mg Co or Cs. Bacillus licheniformis removed 99.32% of the Co radionuclides and 99.28% of Cs radionuclides

  8. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  9. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  10. Real-Time PCR Identification of Unique Bacillus anthracis Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, P; Knap, J; Kolodziej, M; Mirski, T; Joniec, J; Graniak, G; Zakowska, D; Winnicka, I; Bielawska-Drózd, A

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, Gram-positive microorganism. It is a causative agent of anthrax, a highly infectious disease. It belongs to the "Bacillus cereus group", which contains other closely related species, including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus pseudomycoides. B. anthracis naturally occurs in soil environments. The BA5345 genetic marker was used for highly specific detection of B. anthracis with TaqMan probes. The detection limit of a real-time PCR assay was estimated at the level of 16.9 copies (CI95% - 37.4 to 37.86, SD = 0.2; SE = 0.118). Oligonucleotides designed for the targeted sequences (within the tested locus) revealed 100 % homology to B. anthracis strain reference sequences deposited in the database (NCBI) and high specificity to all tested B. anthracis strains. Additional in silico analysis of plasmid markers pag and cap genes with B. anthracis strains included in the database was carried out. Our study clearly indicates that the BA5345 marker can be used with success as a chromosomal marker in routine identification of B. anthracis; moreover, detection of plasmid markers indicates virulence of the examined strains.

  11. Identification of strains Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304T as Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305T as a Proteus sp. and the status of the species Bacillus aeriusShivaji et al. 2006. Request for an Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ramesh Kumar, N; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Juan; Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour; Shao, Zongze

    2015-09-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB and pycA gene sequence analyses, characterization of biochemical features and other phenotypic traits and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting, it was ascertained that strains Bacillus aerius MTCC 7303T, Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304(T) and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305(T) do not conform to the descriptions of the type strains of the respective species. Strains MTCC 7303(T) and MTCC 7304(T) were indistinguishable from Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631(T), while strain MTCC 7305(T) should be classified as a representative of a Proteus sp. Our attempts to find other deposits of the type strains of these species were unsuccessful. Therefore, the results support the Request for an Opinion on the status of the species Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus by Branquinho et al. [Branquinho, R., Klein, G., Kämpfer, P. & Peixe, L. V. (2015). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65, 1101]. It is also proposed that the Judicial Commission should place the name Bacillus aerius on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain cannot be found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request (Rule 18c).

  12. Bacillus camelliae sp. nov., isolated from Pu'er tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lili; Xiong, Mengjie; Zhang, Juan; Xiang, Yangquan; Song, Lei; Hua, Ziyi; Li, Wenying

    2018-02-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped bacterial strain, 7578-1 T , was isolated from ripened Pu'er tea. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain 7578-1 T was grouped into the genus Bacillus and appeared to be closely related to the type strains Bacillus shackletoniiLMG 18435 T (98.4 %), Bacillus acidicolaDSM 14745 T (97.6 %), Bacillus paralicheniformis KACC 18426 T (97.2 %) and Bacillus ginsengihumi KCTC 13944 T (96.7 %). The fatty acid profile containing the major fatty acids, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 supported the allocation of strain 7578-1 T to the genus Bacillus. The strain had a cell-wall type A1γ peptidoglycan with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major menaquinone was MK-7 (95 %). The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified lipid. The average nucleotide identity values between strain 7578-1 T and its most closely related species were 67.8-82.4 % by OrthoANIu analysis. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain 7578-1 T and the type strains of closely related species were 17-39 %, again indicating that strain 7578-1 T represented a novel species in the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7578-1 T was 36.0 mol%. On the basis of the presented polyphasic evidence, strain 7578-1 T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which we propose the name Bacillus camelliae sp. nov. The type strain is 7578-1 T (=CGMCC 1.15374 T =KCTC 33845 T ).

  13. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    483 489. 15. Abhyankar W, Ter Beek A, Dekker H, Kort R, Brul S, et al. (2011) Gel-free proteomic identification of the Bacillus subtilis insoluble coat... identification of additional sporulation genes in Bacillus subtilis. J Mol Biol 327: 945 972. AFM of Spore Coat Architecture PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 16 September 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 9 | e108560 ...1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER Architecture and assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat W911NF-09-l-0286 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  14. Multilocus sequence analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis reveals a common phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufiane, Brahim; Baizet, Mathilde; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group sensu lato includes six closely-related bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. B. thuringiensis is distinguished from the other species mainly by the appearance of an inclusion body upon sporulation. B. weihenstephanensis is distinguished based on its psychrotolerance and the presence of specific signature sequences in the 16S rRNA gene and cspA genes. A total of seven housekeeping genes (glpF, gmK, ilvD, pta, purH, pycA and tpi) from different B. thuringiensis serovars and B. weihenstephanensis strains were amplified and their nucleotide sequences determined. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from comparisons of the concatenated sequences. B. thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis clustered not with the other B. thuringiensis serovars but rather with the B. weihenstephanensis strains, indicative of a common phylogeny. In addition, specific signature sequences and single nucleotide polymorphisms common to B. thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis and the B. weihenstephanensis strains, and absent in the other B. thuringiensis serovars, were identified.

  15. Micro-Etched Platforms for Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis and Bacillus Thuringiensis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    gentlemen are approachable and extremely well versed in their fields. Dr. Burggraf’s passion for learning coupled with the patience necessary to allow...wide spread employment on civilian targets has increased. Indeed, the well known biological agent Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis (B.a.), was recently...reached at 0.5 seconds with the heat from the fireball lasting a total of 4 seconds ( Orson , J.A. 2003; 104). From this data, the short time-temperature

  16. Description of Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov., isolated from hydrothermal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Yu, Chao; Luan, Zhen-Dong; Lian, Chao; Hu, Yong-Hua; Sun, Li

    2018-03-01

    Two Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic bacilli, designated as strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T , were isolated from the hydrothermal sediments of Manus Basin in the western Pacific Ocean. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T were most closely related to Bacillus alveayuensis (97.0 and 97.2 % identity, respectively). The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity between strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T was 97.4 %. The identities between strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T and other closely related organisms were below 97.0 %. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T were 43.4 and 47.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in both strains was menaquinone-7. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological analyses suggested that strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-5 T =KCTC 33881 T =CCTCC AB 2017020 T ) and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-6 T =KCTC 33882 T =CCTCC AB 2017019 T ), respectively, are proposed.

  17. Characteristics and Application of a Novel Species of Bacillus: Bacillus velezensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miao; Tang, Xiangfang; Yang, Ru; Zhang, Hongfu; Li, Fangshu; Tao, Fangzheng; Li, Fei; Wang, Zaigui

    2018-03-16

    Bacillus velezensis has been investigated and applied more and more widely recently because it can inhibit fungi and bacteria and become a potential biocontrol agent. In order to provide more clear and comprehensive understanding of B. velezensis for researchers, we collected the recent relevant articles systematically and reviewed the discovery and taxonomy, secondary metabolites, characteristics and application, gene function, and molecular research of B. velezensis. This review will give some direction to the research and application of this strain for the future.

  18. Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Sorokin, Alexei; Anderson, Iain; Galleron, Nathalie; Candelon, Benjamin; Kapatral, Vinayak; Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Reznik, Gary; Mikhailova, Natalia; Lapidus, Alla; Chu, Lien; Mazur, Michael; Goltsman, Eugene; Larsen, Niels; D'Souza, Mark; Walunas, Theresa; Grechkin, Yuri; Pusch, Gordon; Haselkorn, Robert; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2003-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are readily distinguished from B. cereus by the presence of plasmid-borne specific toxins (B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis) and capsule (B. anthracis). But phylogenetic studies based on the analysis of chromosomal genes bring controversial results, and it is unclear whether B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are varieties of the same species or different species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the type strain B. cereus ATCC 14579. The complete genome sequence of B. cereus ATCC 14579 together with the gapped genome of B. anthracis A2012 enables us to perform comparative analysis, and hence to identify the genes that are conserved between B. cereus and B. anthracis, and the genes that are unique for each species. We use the former to clarify the phylogeny of the cereus group, and the latter to determine plasmid-independent species-specific markers.

  19. Construction of novel shuttle expression vectors for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhao, Hongyan; Tan, Xuemei; Feng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A native plasmid (pSU01) was detected by genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis strain S1-4. Two pSU01-based shuttle expression vectors pSU02-AP and pSU03-AP were constructed enabling stable replication in B. subtilis WB600. These vectors contained the reporter gene aprE, encoding an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus BA06. The expression vector pSU03-AP only possessed the minimal replication elements (rep, SSO, DSO) and exhibited more stability on structure, suggesting that the rest of the genes in pSU01 (ORF1, ORF2, mob, hsp) were unessential for the structural stability of plasmid in B. subtilis. In addition, recombinant production of the alkaline protease was achieved more efficiently with pSU03-AP whose copy number was estimated to be more than 100 per chromosome. Furthermore, pSU03-AP could also be used to transform and replicate in B. pumilus BA06 under selective pressure. In conclusion, pSU03-AP is expected to be a useful tool for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus.

  20. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  1. Morphologies and phenotypes in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Meng, Shuo; Han, Jingshi

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we explored Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth under various conditions such as the use of substrates with different stiffnesses and nutrient levels using a well-developed optical imaging technique to spatially and temporally track biofilm growth. We also developed a quantitative method to characterize B. subtilis biofilm morphologies under various growth conditions. To determine biofilm rim irregularities, we used the dimensionless P2A ratio, defined as P 2 /4πA, where P is the perimeter and A is the area of the biofilm. To estimate biofilm thickness from transmission images, we developed a calibration procedure based on Beer- Lambert's law and cross sectioning. Furthermore, to determine the distributions of different B. subtilis cell phenotypes during biofilm growth, we used a triple-fluorescence-labeled B. subtilis strain that expressed motility, matrix production, and sporulation. Based on this work, we are able to tune biofilm growth by changing its growing environment.

  2. Germination Requirements of Bacillus macerans Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, L. E.; Thompson, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    2-Phenylacetamide is an effective germinant for spores of five strains of Bacillus macerans, particularly in the presence of fructose. Benzyl penicillin, the phenyl acetamide derivative of penicillin, and phenylacetic acid are also good germinants. l-Asparagine is an excellent germinant for four strains. α-Amino-butyric acid is moderately effective. Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, adenine, and 2,6-diaminopurine are potent germinants for NCA strain 7X1 only. d-Glucose is a powerful germinant for strain B-70 only. d-Fructose and d-ribose strongly potentiate germination induced by other germinants (except l-asparagine) but have only weak activity by themselves. Niacinamide and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, inactive by themselves, are active in the presence of fructose or ribose. Effects of pH, ion concentration, and temperature are described. PMID:4251279

  3. Protein engineering of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninga, Dirk

    1996-01-01

    An enormous diversity of molecular functions in living organisms is carried out by proteins. Our studies have focussed on the functional analysis of a starch-converting enzyme, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus circulans strain 251. Zie: Summary

  4. BOOK REVIEW: BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  5. Isolation of protease producing novel Bacillus cereus and detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    1991). Industrial enzymes-developments in production and application, Biotechnol. Adv. 9: 643-658. Ferrero MA, Castro GR, Abate CM, Baigori MD, Sineriz F (1996). Thermostable alkaline proteases of Bacillus licheniformis MIR ...

  6. Determination of Levan from Bacillus licheniformis by Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Derivative spectrophotometry, Bacillus licheniformis, Levan, Total carbohydrate determination. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African.

  7. Two Genes Encoding Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Are Present in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Andersen, Paal S.

    1995-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) catalyzes the key reaction in the salvage of uracil in many microorganisms. Surprisingly, two genes encoding UPRTase activity were cloned from Bacillus subtilis by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The genes were sequenced, and the putative...

  8. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  9. Analysis of Bacillus Globigii Spores Using the BioDetector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, William

    1999-01-01

    .... An automated immunoassay instrument capable of providing rapid identification of biological agents was used to analyses laboratory and field trial samples containing the field trial simulants Bacillus globigii (BG) spores...

  10. Effects of probiotic Bacillus species in aquaculture – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Teodor BURUIANĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of a large amount of certain types of beneficial bacteria can reduce the multiplication and development of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. A “probiotic” is a product that contains live microorganisms which positively influence the host intestinal microbiota by preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth and development of beneficial bacteria. Bacillus spp. are Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria with beneficial effects in aquaculture industry. The dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. in fish culture improved especially growth performance, immune response and the disease resistance of fish against pathogenic bacterial infections. The objective of the current paper is to review the recent published investigations reported in the scientific literature on the use of probiotic Bacillus spp. in aquaculture, focusing on their beneficial effects on the host. This review includes the main effects of Bacillus spp. administration in shrimp culture, carp culture, tilapia culture, and other fish culture.

  11. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  12. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Ugwuanyi et al., 2007). Effect of enzymatic treatment on cassava flour. An aliquot of 500 .... depends exclusively on endogenous enzyme level which shows considerable variation. Several microorganisms including Bacillus sp. (Amoa-.

  13. The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the viability of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact on the productivity of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa l.)

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Chistyakov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain B-1895. Comparison with the genome of a reference strain demonstrated similar overall organization, as well as differences involving large gene clusters.

  15. Intramembrane protease RasP boosts protein production in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, Jolanda; Bongiorni, Cristina; Goosens, Vivianne J.; Schmidt, Brian; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Background: The microbial cell factory Bacillus subtilis is a popular industrial platform for high- level production of secreted technical enzymes. Nonetheless, the effective secretion of particular heterologous enzymes remains challenging. Over the past decades various studies have tackled this

  16. Diversity and enzymatic characterization of Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , phosphatases, lipases and proteases. Seventeen enzymes from these different enzyme groups were synthesized by the identified Bacillus species. The dominant and enzyme-producing species could be used for the development of a starter ...

  17. Cytotoxic effects of delfin insecticide ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) on cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effects of delfin insecticide ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) on cell behaviour, phagocytosis, contractile vacuole activity and macronucleus in a protozoan ciliate Paramecium caudatum. ... macronucleus, fragmentation, vacuolization and complete diffusion of macronucleus were observed and were dose dependent.

  18. Proposal of nine novel species of the Bacillus cereus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juan; Lai, Qiliang; Zeng, Runying; Ye, Dezan; Xu, Jun; Shao, Zongze

    2017-08-01

    Nine novel Gram-stain-positive bacteria were investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these strains belonged to the Bacillus cereus group, sharing over 97 % similarity with the known species of this group, and less than 95 % similarity with other species of the genus Bacillus. Multilocus sequence typing analysis showed that they formed nine robust and well-separated branches from the known species. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between the nine strains were, respectively, below the 70 and 96 % threshold values for species definition, and between each strain and the known type strains of this group were also below the two threshold values. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, along with low dDDH and ANI values among these strains, these bacteria are assigned to the following nine novel species of the B. cereus group: Bacillus paranthracis sp. nov., type strain Mn5T (=MCCC 1A00395T=KCTC 33714T=LMG 28873T); Bacillus pacificus sp. nov., type strain EB422T (=MCCC 1A06182T=KCTC 33858T); Bacillus tropicus sp. nov., type strain N24T (=MCCC 1A01406T=KCTC 33711T=LMG 28874T); Bacillus albus sp. nov., type strain N35-10-2T (=MCCC 1A02146T=KCTC 33710T=LMG 28875T); Bacillus mobilis sp. nov., type strain 0711P9-1T (=MCCC 1A05942T=KCTC 33717T=LMG 28877T); Bacillus luti sp. nov., type strain TD41T (=MCCC 1A00359T=KCTC 33716T=LMG 28872T); Bacillus proteolyticus sp. nov., type strain TD42T (=MCCC 1A00365T=KCTC 33715T=LMG 28870T); Bacillus nitratireducens sp. nov., type strain 4049T (=MCCC 1A00732T=KCTC 33713T=LMG 28871T); and Bacillus paramycoides sp. nov., type strain NH24A2T (=MCCC 1A04098T=KCTC 33709T=LMG 28876T).

  19. Resistance of Bacillus Endospores to Extreme Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Munakata, Nobuo; Horneck, Gerda; Melosh, Henry J.; Setlow, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for exploration of the resistance of spores to environmental extremes both on Earth and during postulated interplanetary transfer through space as a result of natural impact processes. PMID:10974126

  20. Bacillus As Potential Probiotics: Status, Concerns, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. F. Elshaghabee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spore-forming bacilli are being explored for the production and preservation of food for many centuries. The inherent ability of production of large number of secretory proteins, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, vitamins, and carotenoids specifies the importance of bacilli in food chain. Additionally, Bacillus spp. are gaining interest in human health related functional food research coupled with their enhanced tolerance and survivability under hostile environment of gastrointestinal tract. Besides, bacilli are more stable during processing and storage of food and pharmaceutical preparations, making them more suitable candidate for health promoting formulations. Further, Bacillus strains also possess biotherapeutic potential which is connected with their ability to interact with the internal milieu of the host by producing variety of antimicrobial peptides and small extracellular effector molecules. Nonetheless, with proposed scientific evidences, commercial probiotic supplements, and functional foods comprising of Bacillus spp. had not gained much credential in general population, since the debate over probiotic vs pathogen tag of Bacillus in the research and production terrains is confusing consumers. Hence, it’s important to clearly understand the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of selective beneficial Bacillus spp. and their substantiation with those having GRAS status, to reach a consensus over the same. This review highlights the probiotic candidature of spore forming Bacillus spp. and presents an overview of the proposed health benefits, including application in food and pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the growing need to evaluate the safety of individual Bacillus strains as well as species on a case by case basis and necessity of more profound analysis for the selection and identification of Bacillus probiotic candidates are also taken into consideration.

  1. Potensi Bacillus Coagulans Dari Serasah Hutan Sebagai Probiotik Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Wizna, Wizna; Abbas, H; Dharma, A; Kompiang, P

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms which controls the balance of pathogenic microbes in the digestive tract of cattle through competitive exclusion mechanism which lately has been widely used as a feed aditive both ruminants and poultry . One type of microbes used in probiotics in poultry livestock is a bacterium of the genus Bacillus . Bacillus coagulans (Lactobacillus sporogenes) had the same function as Lactobacillus sp known as probiotics were able to live in the digestive tract and pro...

  2. Induction of natural competence in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579

    OpenAIRE

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Natural competence is the ability of certain microbes to take up exogenous DNA from the environment and integrate it in their genome. Competence development has been described for a variety of bacteria, but has so far not been shown to occur in Bacillus cereus. However, orthologues of most proteins involved in natural DNA uptake in Bacillus subtiliscould be identified in B. cereus. Here, we report that B. cereus ATCC14579 can become naturally competent. When expressing the B. subtilis...

  3. Resistensi Bacillus Endogenik Kalimas Surabaya terhadap Logam Besi (Fe)

    OpenAIRE

    Zulaika, Enny; Farisna, Septa Tri

    2015-01-01

    Besi merupakan logam yang dibutuhkan oleh organisme untuk metabolismenya, namun dalam konsentrasi tinggi besi dapat membahayakan organisme dan lingkungan. Beberapa bakteri resisten terhadap logam besi, salah satu genus bakteri resisten besi adalah Bacillus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui isolat Bacillus yang resisten terhadap logam besi dan viabilitasnya saat terpapar logam besi. Uji resistensi Fe dilakukan di medium nutrient agar-FeCl3.6H2O 0,1 mg/L dan dilanjutkan sampai dengan k...

  4. [Screening and antibacterial function of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X030].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhu, Yingling; Chi, Liqing; Zhao, Zizhao; Wang, Ting; Zuo, Mingxing; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Fengjuan; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi

    2015-09-04

    We isolated 339 bacillus strains from 72 soil samples all over the country, then purified their antimicrobial compounds and studied the antibacterial activity, to enrich bacillus resources and explore their second metabolites. A bacillus strain with strong antibacterial activity was selected by dilution plate and water bath heating from a soil sample from a peanut plantation in Henan Province; this strain was identified according to morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and consequences of 16S rRNA homologous analysis. Antibacterial compound from the identified strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X030, was separated and purified by acetone precipitation, Sephadex chromatography, C18 reverse phase column chromatography. Its molecular weight was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The antibacterial activity was characterized by disc diffusion and plate two-way cultivation. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated that not only has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albican and Saccharomycetes; but also against Pyriculariaoryzae, Chili pointed cell anthrax, Gloeosporium eriobotryae speg and Phytophthora parasitica. The compound was confirmed as polypeptide. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X030 can produce a polypeptide that inhibits pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi.

  5. Identification of the promoter for a peptide antibiotic biosynthesis gene from Bacillus brevis and its regulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Marahiel, M A; Zuber, P; Czekay, G; Losick, R

    1987-01-01

    Tyrocidine is a cyclic decapeptide antibiotic which is produced and secreted by stationary-phase cells of the sporeforming bacterium Bacillus brevis. We identified the promoter for the B. brevis structural gene (tycA) for tyrocidine synthetase I, the enzyme catalyzing the first step in tyrocidine biosynthesis, and studied its regulation in cells of B. brevis and Bacillus subtilis. Transcription from the tycA promoter was induced at the end of the exponential phase of the growth cycle in B. br...

  6. PCR screening for the surfactin (sfp) gene in marine Bacillus strains and its molecular characterization from Bacillus tequilensis NIOS11

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Porob, S.; Nayak, S.; Fernandes, Areena; Padmanabhan, P.; Patil, B.A.; Meena, R.M.; Ramaiah, N.

    The large surface-to-volume ratio enables many bacterial species to produce several types of structurally diverse surface-active compounds, collectively known as biosurfactants. From the perspective of their applications, biosurfactants are definitely... uses (3). The amphipathic structure of surfactins enables them to be involved in a large number of complex interactions within biological systems. Most strains of Bacillus spp. produce surface-active compounds like surfactins, and Bacillus subtilis...

  7. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D N

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (pBacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  8. Determining the source of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banykó, J; Vyletelová, M

    2009-03-01

    Strain-specific detection of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk, and yoghurt during processing. Randomly selected isolates of Bacillus spp. were subjected to PCR analysis, where single primer targeting to the repetitive sequence Box elements was used to fingerprint the species. The isolates were separated into six different fingerprint patterns. The results show that isolates clustered together at about the 57% similarity level with two main groups at the 82% and 83% similarity levels, respectively. Contamination with identical strains both of B. cereus and B. licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk was found as well as contaminated with different strains (in the case of raw milk and yoghurt/pasteurized milk and yoghurt). Several BOX types traced in processed milk samples were not discovered in the original raw milk. BOX-PCR fingerprinting is useful for characterizing Bacillus populations in a dairy environment. It can be used to confirm environmental contamination, eventually clonal transfer of Bacillus strains during the technological processing of milk. Despite the limited number of strains analysed, the two Bacillus species yielded adequately detectable banding profiles, permitting differentiation of bacteria at the strain level and showing their diversity throughout dairy processing.

  9. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    -hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producerswas also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar......The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...... and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCETRPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding´cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non...

  10. TRANSDUCTION OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS BY EACH OF TWO PHAGES1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martha J.; Thorne, Curtis B.

    1963-01-01

    Taylor, Martha J. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Curtis B. Thorne. Transduction of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis by each of two phages. J. Bacteriol. 86:452–461. 1963.—A second transducing bacteriophage, designated SP-15, was isolated from the same soil-sample culture filtrate that supplied the Bacillus subtilis transducing phage, SP-10, reported earlier from this laboratory. SP-10 and SP-15 differ serologically and in several other respects, but share the ability to propagate on B. subtilis W-23-Sr (streptomycin-resistant) and B. licheniformis ATCC 9945a, and to mediate general transduction in either species when propagated homologously. Attempts to transduce between the species have failed. SP-10 forms plaques readily on both W-23-Sr and 9945a; SP-15 forms minute plaques on W-23-Sr and has shown no evidence of any lytic activity on 9945a. Maximal recoveries of prototrophic colonies from mixtures of SP-10 with auxotrophs of either W-23-Sr or 9945a were obtained only when excess phage was neutralized by post-transduction treatment with specific phage antiserum. Such treatment was not necessary for maximal recovery of transductants effected by SP-15. Unlike SP-10, SP-15 propagated on W-23-Sr did not transduce B. subtilis 168 (indole−). SP-15 transduced B. licheniformis more efficiently than did SP-10. Neither phage was able to transduce B. licheniformis as efficiently as it transduced B. subtilis. The differing influences of multiplicity of infection were compared for the two phages in both species. PMID:14066421

  11. Germination and persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis in soil microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A H

    2014-11-01

    Decontaminating large, outdoor spaces of Bacillus anthracis spores presents significant problems, particularly in soil. Proof was sought that the addition of germinant chemicals could cause spores of B. anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis, a commonly used simulant of the threat agent, to convert to the less resistant vegetative form in a microcosm. Nonsterile plant/soil microcosms were inoculated with spores of B. thuringiensis and two nonpathogenic strains of B. anthracis. A combination of L-alanine (100 mmol l(-1)) and inosine (10 mmol l(-1)) resulted in a 6 log decrease in spore numbers in both strains of B. anthracis over 2 weeks at 22°C; a 3 log decrease in B. anthracis Sterne spore numbers was observed after incubation for 2 weeks at 10°C. Negligible germination nor a decrease in viable count occurred in either strain when the concentration of L-alanine was decreased to 5 mmol l(-1). Germinated spores of B. thuringiensis were able to persist in vegetative form in the microcosms, whereas those of B. anthracis rapidly disappeared. The pleiotropic regulator PlcR, which B. anthracis lacks, does not contribute to the persistence of B. thuringiensis in vegetative form in soil. The principle of adding germinants to soil to trigger the conversion of spores to vegetative form has been demonstrated. Bacillus anthracis failed to persist in vegetative form or resporulate in the microcosms after it had been induced to germinate. The large scale, outdoor decontamination of B. anthracis spores may be facilitated by the application of simple, defined combinations of germinants. © 2014 Crown Copyright. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology This article is Published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  12. Comparison of sampling methods to recover germinated Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis endospores from surface coupons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, T M; Shoe, J L; Hunter, M; Woodson, A M; Fritts, K A; Klimko, C P; Quirk, A V; Welkos, S L; Cote, C K

    2017-05-01

    In an attempt to devise decontamination methods that are both effective and minimally detrimental to the environment, we evaluated germination induction as an enhancement to strategies for Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination. To determine an optimal method for the recovery of germinating spores from different matrices, it was critical to ensure that the sampling procedures did not negatively impact the viability of the germinating spores possibly confounding the results and downstream analyses of field trial data. Therefore, the two main objectives of this study were the following: (i) development of an effective processing protocol capable of recovering the maximum number of viable germinating or germinated spores from different surface materials; and (ii) using a model system of spore contamination, employ this protocol to evaluate the potential applicability of germination induction to wide-area decontamination of B. anthracis spores. We examined parameters affecting the sampling efficiencies of B. anthracis and the surrogate species Bacillus thuringiensis on nonporous and porous materials. The most efficient extraction from all matrices was observed using PBS with 0·01% Tween 80 extraction buffer. The addition of a sonication and/or extended vortex treatment did not yield significant increases in spore or germinated spore recovery. Our data demonstrate that previous germination-induction experiments performed in suspension can be reproduced when Bacillus spores are deposited onto reference surfaces materials. Our proof of concept experiment illustrated that a germination pretreatment step significantly improves conventional secondary decontamination strategies and remediation plans. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael W; Ramaiya, Preethi; Nelson, Beth A; Brody-Karpin, Shari D; Zaretsky, Elizabeth J; Tang, Maria; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Xiang, Henry; Gusti, Veronica; Clausen, Ib Groth; Olsen, Peter B; Rasmussen, Michael D; Andersen, Jens T; Jørgensen, Per L; Larsen, Thomas S; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Lapidus, Alla; Galleron, Nathalie; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Berka, Randy M

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 genome which comprises a circular chromosome of 4,222,336 base-pairs (bp) containing 4,208 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 873 bp, seven rRNA operons, and 72 tRNA genes. The B. licheniformis chromosome contains large regions that are colinear with the genomes of B. subtilis and Bacillus halodurans, and approximately 80% of the predicted B. licheniformis coding sequences have B. subtilis orthologs. Conclusions Despite the unmistakable organizational similarities between the B. licheniformis and B. subtilis genomes, there are notable differences in the numbers and locations of prophages, transposable elements and a number of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolic pathway operons that distinguish these species. Differences include a region of more than 80 kilobases (kb) that comprises a cluster of polyketide synthase genes and a second operon of 38 kb encoding plipastatin synthase enzymes that are absent in the B. licheniformis genome. The availability of a completed genome sequence for B. licheniformis should facilitate the design and construction of improved industrial strains and allow for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies within this group of Bacillaceae. PMID:15461803

  14. Genes of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis encoding proteins of the exosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sarah J; Moir, Arthur J G; Johnson, Matt J; Moir, Anne

    2003-06-01

    The exosporium is the outermost layer of spores of Bacillus cereus and its close relatives Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis. For these pathogens, it represents the surface layer that makes initial contact with the host. To date, only the BclA glycoprotein has been described as a component of the exosporium; this paper defines 10 more tightly associated proteins from the exosporium of B. cereus ATCC 10876, identified by N-terminal sequencing of proteins from purified, washed exosporium. Likely coding sequences were identified from the incomplete genome sequence of B. anthracis or B. cereus ATCC 14579, and the precise corresponding sequence from B. cereus ATCC 10876 was defined by PCR and sequencing. Eight genes encode likely structural components (exsB, exsC, exsD, exsE, exsF, exsG, exsJ, and cotE). Several proteins of the exosporium are related to morphogenetic and outer spore coat proteins of B. subtilis, but most do not have homologues in B. subtilis. ExsE is processed from a larger precursor, and the CotE homologue appears to have been C-terminally truncated. ExsJ contains a domain of GXX collagen-like repeats, like the BclA exosporium protein of B. anthracis. Although most of the exosporium genes are scattered on the genome, bclA and exsF are clustered in a region flanking the rhamnose biosynthesis operon; rhamnose is part of the sugar moiety of spore glycoproteins. Two enzymes, alanine racemase and nucleoside hydrolase, are tightly adsorbed to the exosporium layer; they could metabolize small molecule germinants and may reduce the sensitivity of spores to these, limiting premature germination.

  15. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M; Caro, Lews; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-15

    In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis- produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA , for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis The interaction is mediated by the E

  16. 77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting an exemption from the requirement of... Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180. 2. Logan, N.A., and P. de Vos. 2009. Genus I. Bacillus, pp. 21-128 In: P...

  17. Characterization of the Surface Morphology of Bacillus Spores by Atomic Force Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zolock, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    .... kurstaki, Bacillus cereus strain 569, and Bacillus globigii var. niger. The spores were separated from a nutrient agar culture by filtering and centrifugation, suspended in deionized water, and immobilized on a graphite substrate by spin-coating...

  18. Evaluation of bottlenecks in the late stages of protein secretion in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, A; Tjalsma, H; Smith, H.E; Meima, R.; Venema, G; Bron, S; van Dijl, J.M

    Despite a high capacity for secretion of homologous proteins, the secretion of heterologous proteins by Bacillus subtilis is frequently inefficient. In the present studies, we have investigated and compared bottlenecks in the secretion of four heterologous proteins: Bacillus lichenifomis

  19. Characterization of alkaline xylanases from Bacillus pumilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline xylanases produced by four different strains of Bacillus pumilus were characterized. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 9.0 and 60ºC for strain 13a, and pH 8.0 and 55ºC for strains 5(2, 5(14, and 4a. Under these conditions the following activities were found after 10 min in the presence of 1% xylan (birchwood: 328 U.ml-1, 131 U.ml-1, 90 U.ml-1, and 167 U.ml-1, respectively, for the four strains. The enzymes were stable at 40ºC, with 40% of the xylanase activity remaining after 2 hours for the enzymes of strain 5(2 and 60% for the other three strains. Stability at 50ºC was improved by addition of glycerol. Taking into account the conditions under which kraft pulps are bleached during the manufacture of paper, xylanases from B. pumilus exhibit favorable potential for application to bleaching in the paper making process.

  20. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugation in Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuls, Elise; van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0-g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1-g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  2. Directed evolution of a Bacillus chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Pesatcha, Putarika; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2009-04-01

    Chitinases have potential in various industrial applications including bioconversion of chitin waste from crustacean shells into chito-oligosaccharide-based value-added products. For industrial applications, obtaining suitable chitinases for efficient bioconversion processes will be beneficial. In this study, we established a straightforward directed evolution method for creating chitinase variants with improved properties. A library of mutant chitinases was constructed by error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling of two highly similar (99% identical) chitinase genes from Bacillus licheniformis. Activity screening was done in two steps: first, activity towards colloidal chitin was screened for on culturing plates (halo formation). This was followed by screening activity towards the chitotriose analogue p-nitrophenyl-beta-1,4-N, N'-diacetyl-chitobiose at various pH in microtiter plates. From a medium-throughput screening (517 colonies), we were able to isolate one mutant that demonstrated improved catalytic activity. When using p-nitrophenyl-beta-1,4-N, N'-diacetyl-chitobiose as substrate, the overall catalytic efficiency, k(cat)/K(m) of the improved chitinase was 2.7- and 2.3-fold higher than the average k(cat)/K(m) of wild types at pH 3.0 and 6.0, respectively. The mutant contained four residues that did not occur in either of the wild types. The approach presented here can easily be adopted for directed evolution of suitable chitinases for various applications.

  3. Transferrin Impacts Bacillus thuringiensis Biofilm Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Garner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of transferrin on Bacillus thuringiensis biofilms. Three commercial strains, an environmental strain (33679, the type strain (10792, and an isolate from a diseased insect (700872, were cultured in iron restricted minimal medium. All strains produced biofilm when grown in vinyl plates at 30°C. B. thuringiensis 33679 had a biofilm biomass more than twice the concentration exhibited by the other strains. The addition of transferrin resulted in slightly increased growth yields for 2 of the 3 strains tested, including 33679. In contrast, the addition of 50 μg/mL of transferrin resulted in an 80% decrease in biofilm levels for strain 33679. When the growth temperature was increased to 37°C, the addition of 50 μg/mL of transferrin increased culture turbidity for only strain 33679. Biofilm levels were again decreased in strain 33679 at 37°C. Growth of B. thuringiensis cultures in polystyrene resulted in a decrease in overall growth yields at 30°C, with biofilm levels significantly decreased for 33679 in the presence of transferrin. These findings demonstrate that transferrin impacts biofilm formation in select strains of B. thuringiensis. Identification of these differences in biofilm regulation may be beneficial in elucidating potential virulence mechanisms among the differing strains.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Four different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Despite the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways of the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. This greater deposition of spores in the upper airways in the human resulted in lower penetration and deposition in the tracheobronchial airways and the deep lung than that predict

  5. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  6. Evaluation of antagonistic activities of Bacillus spp. against certain bacteria of medical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, K.K. and Rana, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we focused on the antagonistic potential of Bacillus spp. isolates from cow dung. Out of fourteen bacterial strains, isolate KD104 and KD117 were probably identified as Bacillus spp. These two isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against 14 test organisms viz., Vibrio Cholera (MTCC 3904), Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216), Escherichia coli (SGPGI), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 7443), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 6728), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 426...

  7. SR450 and Superhawk XP Applications of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis Against Culex Quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SR450 AND SUPERHAWK XP APPLICATIONS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELENSIS AGAINST CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS1 JAMES C. DUNFORD,2 CRAIG A. STOOPS,3 ALDEN...thermal fogger applications of VectobacH WDG Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Culex quinquefasciatus. Bacillus thuringiensis ...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SR450 and Superhawk XP Applications of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis

  8. Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    B_amyloliq – B. amyloliquefaciens ; B_NRRL - Bacillus . spp. NRRL; B_SG-1 – Bacillus spp. SG-1; B_thur – B. thuringiensis strains Al Hakam and var...Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant Henry S. Gibbons1...States of America, 11 Excet Inc., Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America Abstract Background: Despite the decades-long use of Bacillus

  9. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  10. Bacillus terrae sp. nov. isolated from Cistus ladanifer rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Méndez, Alexandra; Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Santín, Primitivo Julio; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2017-05-01

    A bacterial strain designated RA9T was isolated from a root of Cistus ladanifer in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate into the genus Bacillus with its closest relatives being Bacillus fortis R-6514T and Bacillus fordii R-7190T with 98.2 % similarity in both cases. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed mean relatedness values of 29 and 30 %, respectively, between strain RA9T and the type strains of B. fortis and B. fordii. Cells of the isolate were Gram-stain-positive, motile, sporulating rods. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Gelatin, starch and casein were not hydrolysed. Menaquinone MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentifed glycolipid and one unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RA9T should be considered as representing a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA9T (=LMG 29736T=CECT 9170T).

  11. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1 Cry- : development of a safe, non-insecticidal simulant for Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A H; Robinson, C V

    2014-09-01

    A representative simulant for spores of Bacillus anthracis is needed for field testing. Bacillus thuringiensis is gaining recognition as a suitable organism. A strain that does not form the insecticidal, parasporal crystals that are characteristic of this species is a more accurate physical representative of B. anthracis spores. We developed noninsecticidal derivatives of two isolates of B. thuringiensis HD-1. Two plasmid-cured derivatives of B. thuringiensis HD-1, unable to make crystal toxins ('Cry(-) '), were isolated. These isolates and the existing Cry(-) strain, B. thuringiensis Al Hakam, were probed with PCR assays against the known insecticidal genes cry, vip and cyt. Their genomic DNA was sequenced to demonstrate a lack of insecticidal genes. This was confirmed by bioassays against a number of invertebrate species. Real-time PCR assays were developed to identify the B. thuringiensis HD-1 Cry(-) derivatives and an effective differential and selective medium was assessed. All three Cry(-) isolates are devoid of known insecticidal determinants. The B. thuringiensis HD-1 Cry(-) derivatives can easily be recovered from soil and identified by PCR with some selectivity. The B. thuringiensis HD-1 Cry(-) derivatives represent accurate, nongenetically manipulated simulants for B. anthracis with excellent human and environmental safety records. © 2014 Crown Copyright. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  13. Chitinase production by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus licheniformis: their potential in antifungal biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2012-02-01

    Thirty bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants collected from Egypt and screened for production of chitinase enzymes. Bacillus thuringiensis NM101-19 and Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17 had the highest chitinolytic activities amongst those investigated. The production of chitinase by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis was optimized using colloidal chitin medium amended with 1.5% colloidal chitin, with casein as a nitrogen source, at 30°C after five days of incubation. An enhancement of chitinase production by the two species was observed by addition of sugar substances and dried fungal mats to the colloidal chitin media. The optimal conditions for chitinase activity by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis were at 40°C, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. Na(+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+) caused enhancement of enzyme activities whereas they were markedly inhibited by Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+). In vitro, B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis chitinases had potential for cell wall lysis of many phytopathogenic fungi tested. The addition of B. thuringiensis chitinase was more effective than that of B. licheniformis in increasing the germination of soybean seeds infected with various phytopathogenic fungi.

  14. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Zahner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR. Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap, encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.

  15. Phylogenomic analysis shows that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus methylotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-07-01

    The rhizosphere-isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of commercial interest. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of B. methylotrophicus KACC 13105(T) ( = CBMB205(T)). Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum type strain, with the genomes sharing approximately 95% of the same genes. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar. In fact, our results show that the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) ( = DSM 23117(T) = BGSC 10A6(T)) does not cluster with other members of the B. amyloliquefaciens taxon. Instead, it clusters well within a clade of strains that are assigned to B. methylotrophicus, including the type strain of that species. Therefore, we propose that the subspecies B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus.

  16. Initial Study of Production of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Using Locally Obtained Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Soesanto, Soesanto

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis diketahui sebagai entomopatogen nyamuk ades aegypti yang merupakan vektor penyakit demam berdarah.Telah dilakukan percobaan produksi Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis dengan menggunakan medium yang mengandung bahan lokal terasi udang, melase dan tepung kedelai. Hasil uji toksisitas (bioassay) terhadap Final Whole Culture (FWC) dengan bahan lokal yang murah menunjukkan potensi sebagai agensia bioinsektisida.Key Words: entomopathogen - Bacillus thuringiensis ...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a tolerance...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1282 - Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1282 Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a..., for residues of Bacillus firmus I-1582 when used as a soil application or seed treatment. [73 FR 25528...

  19. 78 FR 35147 - Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0264; FRL-9389-2] Bacillus... of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in or on all food commodities when... regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of Bacillus pumilus...

  20. 77 FR 2910 - Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0944; FRL-9334-3] Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical Correction AGENCY... requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (formerly known as Bacillus...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  2. Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TasA, the gene which play an important role in bacteria development, physiology and bacteria biofilm formation in Bacillus species was detected in the endophytic bacteria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. In ten endophytic Bacillus strains tested, TasA gene was readily detected in Bacillus ...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption is...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops. [63 FR 48597, Sept. 11, 1998] ...

  6. Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the Type Strain of the Species

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  7. Genome sequence of the thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the type strain of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1011 Section 180.1011... microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) For the... authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner conforming to the morphological and biochemical...

  9. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an “Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens” within the B. subtilis Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as “B. amyloliquefaciens.” Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7T, the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens. We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7T. Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens, (2) Bacillus siamensis, and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus, and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as “operational group B. amyloliquefaciens” consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens, and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis, whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style. PMID:28163698

  10. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  11. A Phosphate Starvation-Inducible Ribonuclease of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Nguyen, Minh Hung; Nguyen, Huy Thuan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Le, Thi Hoi; Schweder, Thomas; Jürgen, Britta

    2016-08-28

    The BLi03719 protein of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 belongs to the most abundant extracellular proteins under phosphate starvation conditions. In this study, the function of this phosphate starvation inducible protein was determined. An amino-acid sequence analysis of the BLi03719-encoding gene showed a high similarity with genes encoding the barnase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and binase-like RNase of Bacillus pumilus SARF-032. The comparison of the control strain and a BLi03719-deficient strain revealed a strongly reduced extracellular ribonuclease activity of the mutant. Furthermore, this knockout mutant exhibited delayed growth with yeast RNA as an alternative phosphate and carbon source. These results suggest that BLi03719 is an extracellular ribonuclease expressed in B. licheniformis under phosphate starvation conditions. Finally, a BLi03719 mutant showed an advantageous effect on the overexpression of the heterologous amyE gene under phosphate-limited growth conditions.

  12. Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and selection of a high-producing mutant, Bacillus subtilis HB-32, with enhanced acetoin yield and productivity. The mutant was obtained by the protoplast fusion of a Bacillus subtilis mutant TH-49 (Val− producing acetoin and Bacillus licheniformis AD-30 producing α-acetolactate decarboxylase, with the fusogen polyethylene glycol and after the regeneration and selection, etc. of the fusant. The acetoin production reached 49.64 g/L, which is an increase of 61.8% compared to that of B. subtilis strain TH-49. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed to determine the mutagenic and protoplast fusion effects and the genomic changes in the acetoin high-producing strain compared to the parent strains at the molecular level. The constructed strain was shown to be promising for large-scale acetoin production. Future studies should focus on the application of the mutant strain in practice.

  13. Role of Th17 Cell in Tubercle Bacillus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis is mainly a kind of lung disease. Normal immune cell expression can inhibit proliferation of tubercle bacillus in the lungs, but this may also lead to chronic inflammation and pathological lesion. Th17 cell is a newly discovered CD4 + effector T cell subsets, whose differentiation and roles are influenced by various cytokines in the surrounding environment. Th17 cell plays an important role in resisting tubercle bacillus infection, but also it may cause pathological damage through the inflammatory response. Therefore, to balance two kinds of roles of Th17 cells in tubercle bacillus infection can effectively protect the body. This paper intends to do a summary on differentiation, regulation, and biological functions of Th17 cell.

  14. Inducible expression of trehalose synthase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youran; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Ding, Zhongyang; Shi, Guiyang

    2017-02-01

    Trehalose synthase (TreS) could transform maltose into trehalose via isomerization. It is a crucial enzyme in the process of trehalose enzymatical transformation. In this study, plasmid-based inducible expression systems were constructed to produce Thermomonospora curvata TreS in B. licheniformis. Xylose operons from B. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. megaterium were introduced to regulate the expression of the gene encoding TreS. It was functionally expressed, and the BlsTs construct yielded the highest enzyme activity (12.1 U/mL). Furthermore, the effect of different cultural conditions on the inducible expression of BlsTs was investigated, and the optimal condition was as follows: 4% maltodextrin, 0.4% soybean powder, 1% xylose added after 10 h of growth and an induction time of 12 h at 37 °C. As a result, the maximal yield reached 24.7 U/mL. This study contributes to the industrial application of B. licheniformis, a GRAS workhorse for enzyme production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Celandroni

    Full Text Available The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  16. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  17. Detection of biosurfactants in Bacillus species: genes and products identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, G; Chojniak, J; Rudnicka, K; Paraszkiewicz, K; Bernat, P

    2015-10-01

    To screen environmental Bacillus strains for detection of genes encoding the enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis and to evaluate their products e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. The taxonomic identification of isolated from the environment Bacillus strains was performed by Microgene ID Bacillus panel and GEN III Biolog system. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy for screening of genes in Bacillus strains was set up. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used for the identification of lipopeptides (LPs). All studied strains exhibited the presence of srfAA gene and produced surfactin mostly as four homologues (C13 to C16). Moreover, in 2 strains (KP7, T'-1) simultaneous co-production of 3 biosurfactants: surfactin, iturin and fengycin was observed. Additionally, it was found out that isolate identified as Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis (KP7), beside LPs co-production, synthesizes surfactin with the efficiency much higher than other studied strains (40·2 mg l(-1) ) and with the yield ranging from 0·8 to 8·3 mg l(-1) . We showed that the combined methodology based on PCR and LC-MS/MS technique is an optimal tool for the detection of genes encoding enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis as well as their products, e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. This approach improves the screening and the identification of environmental Bacillus co-producing biosurfactants-stimulating and facilitating the development of this area of science. The findings of this work will help to improve screening of biosurfactant producers. Discovery of novel biosurfactants and biosurfactants co-production ability has shed light on their new application fields and for the understanding of their interactions and properties. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Matseliukh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kherson, Odesa, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhiia regions of Ukraine. Purification of enzymes with elastase activity isolated from above mentioned strains was performed by gel-chromatography and insecticide activity was studied on the 3–4 larvae instar of Colorado beetle. The ability of a number of B. thuringiensis strains to synthesize the proteases with elastase activity has been established. The most active were enzymes obtained from strains IMV B-7465, IMV B-7324 isolated from sea water, and strains 9, 902, Bt-H and 0-239 isolated from Colorado beetles. The study of the physicochemical properties of the partially purified proteases of these strains showed that they belonged to enzymes of the serine type. Peptidases of a number of B. thuringiensis strains (IMV B-7324, IMV B-7465, 902, 0-239, 9 are metal-dependent enzymes. Optimal conditions of action of all tested enzymes are the neutral and alkaline рН values and the temperatures of 30–40 °С. The studies of influence of the complex enzyme preparations and partially purified ones of B. thuringiensis strains on the larvae instar of Colorado beetles indicated that enzymes with elastase activity could be responsible for insecticide action of the tested strains.

  19. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0669; FRL-9369-3] Bacillus... Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 To Include Residues of Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil... existing exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713...

  20. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus subtilis. 173.115 Section 173.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Bacillus subtilis. The food additive alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation, may be... derived from a modified Bacillus subtilis strain that contains the gene coding for α-ALDC from Bacillus...

  1. Production of {alpha}-glucosidases by Bacillus sp. strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.R. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina); Baigori, M.D. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina); Sineriz, F. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    {alpha}-Glucosidase was detected in four wild-type amylolytic production strains belonging to the Bacillus genus. The strains showed {alpha}-glucosidase activity in extracellular and membrane-bound fractions. Kinetic studies of the {alpha}-glucosidase synthesis in the batch cultures of four strains of the Bacillus genus showed two profiles: partially and totally growth-linked synthesis. The presence of different activities and production profiles of {alpha}-glucosidase in the strains at high or low glucose concentrations in the medium would indicate that {alpha}-glucosidase may have a role in the regulation of the metabolism of {alpha}-polysaccharides. (orig.)

  2. Sigma A recognition sites in the Bacillus subtilis genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2001-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists at the ini......A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists...

  3. Induced adaptation of Bacillus sp. to antimicrobial nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P; Amal, Rose

    2013-11-11

    The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Taxonomic description and genome sequence of Bacillus campisalis sp. nov., a member of the genus Bacillus isolated from a solar saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Kaur, Gurwinder; Kumar, Anand; Bala, Monu; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Kaur, Navjot; Kumar, Narender; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2015-10-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-stain positive bacterium isolated from a solar saltern sample collected from Kanyakumari, coastal region of the Bay of Bengal, India, was analysed by using a polyphasic approach. The isolated strain, designated SA2-6T, had phenotypic characteristics that matched those of the genus Bacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1493 bases) of the novel strain was compared with those of previously studied Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and was moderately closely related to the type strain of Bacillus foraminis at 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, followed by those of Bacillus thioparans (96.9 %), Bacillus subterraneus (96.8 %), Bacillus jeotgali (96.6 %), Bacillus selenatarsenatis (96.6 %) and Bacillus boroniphilus (96.6 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain SA2-6T differs from all other species of the genus Bacillus by at least 2.5 %. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone, meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid, and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major fatty acids. Major lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Based on data from this polyphasic study, strain SA2-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus campisalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA2-6T ( = MTCC 11848T = DSM 28801T). The draft genome of strain SA2-6T consisted of 5 183 363 bp with G+C content of 45.44 mol%, 5352 predicted coding sequences, 191 RNAs and 479 subsystems.

  5. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  6. Genetic discrimination of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage Bacillus spp. based on three housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño-Antelo, S; Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Ezzat-Alnakip, M; Quintela-Baluja, M; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus genus includes foodborne pathogenic and spoilage-associated species, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Bacillus is also a heterogeneous genus that includes closely related species that are difficult to discriminate among, especially when well-conserved genes such as 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA are considered. The main goal of the present work was to study the usefulness of three housekeeping genes, the TU elongation factor (tuf), the DNA gyrase β subunit (gyrB) and the RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) genes, for use in differentiating among the most important foodborne Bacillus spp. sequences from 20 foodborne isolated Bacillus strains, and sequences belonging to different Bacillus spp. retrieved from the GenBank were analysed. In general terms, gyrB, rpoB and tuf gene regions for the strains considered in this study exhibited interspecific similarities of 57.8%, 67.23% and 77.66% respectively. Novel tufGPF and tufGPR universal primers targeted to the tuf gene were designed and proved to be useful for the amplification of all Bacillus spp considered. In conclusion, the tuf gene can be considered to be a good target for the differential characterisation of foodborne Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from other closely related species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecological aspects of Bacillus thuringiensis in an Oxisol Ecologia do Bacillus thuringiensis num Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandra Heck Paes Leme Ferreira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram positive, sporangial bacterium, known for its insecticidal habilities. Survival and conjugation ability of B. thuringiensis strains were investigated; vegetative cells were evaluated in non-sterile soil. Vegetative cells decreased rapidly in number, and after 48 hours the population was predominantly spores. No plasmid transfer was observed in non-sterile soil, probably because the cells died and the remaining cells sporulated quickly. Soil is not a favorable environment for B. thuringiensis multiplication and conjugation. The fate of purified B. thuringiensis toxin was analyzed by extractable toxin quantification using ELISA. The extractable toxin probably declined due to binding on surface-active particles in the soil.O comportamento de células vegetativas do Bacillus thuringiensis foi estudado em solo não esterilizado. Após o inóculo grande parte das células morrem e o restante esporula em 24 horas. Não foi observada conjugação provavelmente porque poucas células sobrevivem no solo e rapidamente esporulam, mostrando que este não é o ambiente propício para a multiplicação e conjugação desta bactéria. A toxina purificada, portanto livre de células, diminui rapidamente sua quantidade em solo não esterilizado. Provavelmente a ligação da toxina na fração argilosa do solo é a principal responsável por este fenômeno.

  8. Occurrence of natural Bacillus thuringiensis contaminants and residues of Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides on fresh fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristine; Rosenquist, Hanne; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    A total of 128 Bacillus cereus-like strains isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables for sale in retail shops in Denmark were characterized. Of these strains, 39% (50/128) were classified as Bacillus thuringiensis on the basis of their content of cry genes determined by PCR or crystal proteins v...... isolated from fruits and vegetables. The same was seen for a third enterotoxin, CytK. In conclusion, the present study strongly indicates that residues of B. thuringiensis-based insecticides can be found on fresh fruits and vegetables and that these are potentially enterotoxigenic....

  9. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture conditions of lactose fermenting, spore forming probiotic Bacillus subtilis SK09 isolated from dairy effluent were optimized by response surface methodology to maximize the biomass production. The student's t-test of the Placket-Burman screening design revealed that the effects of pH, ammonium citrate and ...

  10. Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains | Diallo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains. ... These bacterial additives allowed greater biodegradation compared to control compost. The inoculated composts were more degraded than the control compost with compost3 which presented the highest OM loss with 91.37%, compost1 with 90.15% and compost2 ...

  11. Purification and characterization of two polyhydroxyalcanoates from Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi-Maaloul, Emna; Trabelsi, Imen; Elleuch, Lobna; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2013-10-01

    This work aimed to study the potential of 155 strains of Bacillus sp., isolated from a collection of Tunisian microorganisms, for polyhydroxyalcanoates production. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests commonly used for determining bioplastic properties. The findings revealed that two of the isolates, namely Bacillus US 163 and US 177, provided red excitations at a wavelength of approximately 543 nm. The polyhydroxyalcanoates produced by the two strains were purified. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize the two biopolymers. Bacillus US 163 was noted to produce a poly methyl-3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (P-3HTD) with an average molecular weight of 455 kDa, a completely amorphous homopolymer without crystallinity. The US 177 strain produced a homopolymer of methyl-3-hydroxy octadecanoic acid (P3-HOD) with an average molecular weight of 555 kDa. Exhibiting the highest performance, US 163 and US 177 were submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the results revealed that they belonged to the Bacillus cereus species. Overall, the findings indicated that the Bacilli from petroleum soil have a number of promising properties that make them promising candidates for bioplastic production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The colonization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in bryophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lin, Q.; Zhu, P.; Carballar-Lejarazú, R.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Xu, L.; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1300-0152 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * GFP * plant colonization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016 http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/issues/biy-17-41-1/biy-41-1-5-1510-16.pdf

  13. Purification and characterization of protease from Bacillus cereus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chitti

    2013-09-16

    Sep 16, 2013 ... Purification and characterization of protease from. Bacillus cereus SU12 isolated from oyster. Saccostrea cucullata. S. Umayaparvathi*, S. Meenakshi, M. Arumugam and T. Balasubramanian. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608.

  14. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  15. Surfing of bacterial droplets:Bacillus subtilissliding revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Ákos T.; Grau, Roberto; Pollitt, Eric J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Hennes et al. (1) report on the collective slipping of Bacillus subtilis colonies across the agar surface, termed “colony surfing.” We read this article with great interest. However, we understand that specific points require a more detailed discussion. We would like to highlight complementary...

  16. Virulence of Bacillus cereus as natural facultative pathogen of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of 4407 Anopheles subpictus larvae collected from submerged rice-fields and shallow ponds, 1412 were found to be unhealthy and 2.8% of unhealthy larvae were naturally infected by Bacillus cereus. B. cereus formed circular, white and flat colonies. Bacteria were gram positive, ellipsoidal/oval spore forming aerobic ...

  17. independent, thermostable and acidophilic α-amylase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... Bacillus sp. RM16 was isolated from a hot spring in Karachi and screened for the production of α- amylase. The enzyme was obtained after 72 h cultivation of strain in Luria broth containing 1% starch. (w/v). Enzyme Amy RM16 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a series of sequential steps.

  18. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-22

    Nov 22, 2010 ... The culture conditions of lactose fermenting, spore forming probiotic Bacillus subtilis SK09 isolated from dairy effluent were optimized by response surface methodology to maximize the biomass production. The student's t-test of the Placket-Burman screening design revealed that the effects of pH,.

  19. Maltodextrin-dependent Crystallization of Cyclomaltodextrin Glucanotransferase from Bacillus circulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Catherine L.; Bergsma, Jack; Bruinenberg, Peter M.; Vries, Gert de; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1990-01-01

    Crystals of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus circulans (EC 2.4.1.19) suitable for high-resolution X-ray analysis were obtained by vapor diffusion against 60% (v/v) 2-methyl 2,4-pentanediol buffered with 100 mM-sodium Hepes, pH 7.55. The crystals have P212121 space group symmetry,

  20. The signal peptidase II (lsp) gene of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pragai, Z; Tjalsma, H; Bolhuis, A; vanDijl, JM; Venema, G; Bron, S

    The gene encoding the type II signal peptidase (SPase III) of Bacillus subtilis was isolated by screening a genomic DNA library of this bacterium for the ability of increase the levels of globomycin resistance in Escherichia coli, and to complement the growth deficiency at the non-permissive

  1. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  2. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together

  3. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Ganz

    Full Text Available Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales, featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were obtained from soil samples collected from farmers' fields in Kakamega and Machakos districts. Soil samples from Machakos yielded more B. thuringiensis isolates t han those from Kakamega. Three isolates K13-1, 12F-K and K10-2 were obtained from Kakamega soil samples.

  5. Profile of cry from native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oyaide

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... The characterization of 255 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates of Coorg, Sharavatti and BR hills, containing genes known to be active against coleopteran and lepidopteran insect species was done through PCR amplification using the specific and degenerate primers. The isolates were also tested for their.

  6. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacillus Cereus and Its enterotoxins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Ninety six milk samples including 36 raw milk, 42 pasteurised milk, 10 yogurt and eight fermented milk samples. Forty seven Bacillus cereus isolated from milk and milk products. Main outcome measures: Isolation of enterotoxigenic B. cereus from milk and milk products and detection of B. cereus hemolytic ...

  7. Antagonistic activity of selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... funguicidas. Memorias Primera Convención Mundial del Chile. León,. Guanajuato, México. Resumen, pp. 144-150. Podile AR, Laxmi VDV (1998). Seed bacterization with Bacillus subtilis. AF1 increases phenylalanine ammnonia lyase and reduces the incidence of fusarial wilt in pigeonpea. J. Phytophatol.

  8. Bacillus subtilis Biosensor Engineered To Assess Meat Spoilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daszczuk, Alicja; Dessalegne, Yonathan; Drenth, Ismael; Hendriks, Elbrich; Jo, Emeraldo; van Lente, Tom; Oldebesten, Arjan; Parrish, Jonathon; Poljakova, Wlada; Purwanto, Annisa A.; van Raaphorst, Renske; Boonstra, Mirjam; van Heel, Auke; Herber, Martijn; van der Meulen, Sjoerd; Siebring, Jeroen; Sorg, Robin A.; Heinemann, Matthias; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Here, we developed a cell-based biosensor that can assess meat freshness using the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a chassis. Using transcriptome analysis, we identified promoters that are specifically activated by volatiles released from spoiled meat. The most strongly activated

  9. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from some spices and assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred twenty five samples from five different Ethiopian sauce spices were examined for the incidence and level of contamination of Bacillus species. The spices consisted of fenugreek (Trigenella foenum-graecum), black cumin (Nigella sativa), Ethiopian caraway (Trachyspermum ammi), ginger (Zingiber officinale) ...

  10. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  11. Production and optimization of L-asparaginase by Bacillus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L-Asparaginase (L-asparagine amido hydrolase, E.C.3.5.1.1) is an important enzyme which has antitumor properties. This paper describes the production and optimization of L-asparaginase by Bacillus sp. KK2S4 utilization of ground corn cob waste as substrate to reduce and manage the waste in our environment.

  12. Improved keratinase production for feather degradation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal medium was used to improve the production of keratinase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410, which has a promising application in the transformation of feather into soluble protein. The results of single factor design revealed that the concentration of feather at 20 g/l and the initial pH at value 8 was the best for ...

  13. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity among Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIRECTOR

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... representatives of eight species (licheniformis, polymyxa, laterosporus, cereus, circulans, subtilis, pumilus and brevis) were studied. Results of genotypic analyses were not concurrent with previous phenotypic identification. Bacillus from different species were able to cluster together to form phylogenetic ...

  14. Identification of Bacitracin Produced by Local Isolate of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from soil of different house gardens. Diagnosis was performed according to Gram stain, motility, shape forming, aerobic condition and other tests. Bacitracin was primary identified after its activity was tested against some species of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Identification ...

  15. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores adhered to stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Leeuw, de P.P.L.A.; Moezelaar, R.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Vries, de Y.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Adhered spores of Bacillus cereus represent a significant part of the surface-derived contamination in processing equipment used in the dairy industry. As germinated spores lose their resistance capacities instantaneously, efficient germination prior to a cleaning in place treatment could aid to the

  16. bmr3, a third multidrug transporter gene of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohki, R; Murata, M

    1997-01-01

    A third multidrug transporter gene named bmr3 was cloned from Bacillus subtilis. Although Bmr3 shows relatively low homology to Bmr and Blt, the substrate specificities of these three transporters overlap. Northern hybridization analysis showed that expression of the bmr3 gene was dependent on the growth phase.

  17. effluent by bacillus cereus and clostridium butyricum using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    use of pure culture Bacillus cereus and Clostridium butyricum as inoculums in MFCs for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and ... to be used as inoculums for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and treatment of petroleum refinery effluent in MFCs. Keywords: ...... [10] Feng, Y., Wang, X., Logan, B. E., Lee, H. Brewery.

  18. Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to iron and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating Bacillus globigii spores attached to corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons with free chlorine at two pH levels, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, peracetic acid (PAA) and acidified nitrite, followed by flushing.

  19. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the larvicidal activities of Bacillus sphaericus, against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes found in this area (Sokoto), was carried out. The B. sphaericus (SPH 88) was obtained from Paseur Institute in Paris (France) in the form of a water dispersible powder. About 50mg of the powder was dissolved in 10ml ...

  20. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis 168 for increased nisin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wangari, Romilda; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2009-01-01

    . Bacillus subtilis had been suggested as a potential host for the biosynthesis of nisin but was discarded due to its sensitivity to the lethal action of nisin. In this study, we have reevaluated the potential of B. subtilis as a host organism for the heterologous production of nisin. We applied...

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity among Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dichotomous keys based on morphological, cultural and biochemical tests have long been used to identify Bacillus species. The analysis of 16S rDNA is suggested to be used for identification that is more exact. The present study was carried out to compare a conventional phenotypic method with the analysis of the 16S ...

  2. Development of Bacillus subtilis mutants to produce tryptophan in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Karin; Cantor, Mette D.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To generate tryptophan-overproducing Bacillus subtilis strains for in situ use in pigs, to reduce the feed cost for farmers and nitrogen pollution. Results A novel concept has been investigated—to generate B. subtilis strains able to produce tryptophan (Trp) in situ in pigs. Mutagenesis...

  3. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome...

  4. Bacillus subtilis Hfq: A role in chemotaxis and motility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, in Bacillus subtilis, a role for Hfq in stationary phase survival has been suggested, although the possibilityof Hfq having an additional role(s) cannot be ruled out. In this study we show that an ortholog of Hfq in B. subtilis isregulated by the stress sigma factor, σB, in addition to the stationary phase sigma factor, σH.

  5. Isolation, identification and characterization of novel Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenxiang; Guo, Weina; Liu, Chang

    2018-03-24

    In this study, we have identified a bacterium that can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and further analyzed its antibacterial activity and other biological characteristics and laid the foundation for its future application. Through isolation and culture of the unknown bacteria, the culture characteristics, morphology observation, biochemical test, preliminary antibacterial test, 16S rRNA PCR amplification, sequence analysis, and homology analysis were performed. It was found that the bacteria are Gram positive spore chain Bacillus. The bacteria could only ferment glucose for acid production, but could not utilize lactose and maltose. The VP test for this bacteria was positive, while indole and methyl red tests were negative. Further analysis showed that these bacteria shared a homology up to 99.4% with Bacillus subtilis DQ198162.1. Thus, this newly identified bacterium was classified as Bacillus subtilis. Importantly, the crude bacteriocin of this Bacillus subtilis could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Salmonella, which implies its potential usage in the future.

  6. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas , Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  7. Alkaline Protease from Bacillus firmus 7728 | Rao | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracellular alkaline protease producing Bacillus firmus MTCC 7728 was isolated from the soil samples taken from the leather factories in Nacharam industrial area, Hyderabad. Maximum activity was found after 48 h of fermentation. Optimum pH and temperature for maximum enzyme activity were 9 and 40°C, respectively.

  8. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47ºC) and various ...

  9. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore- forming bacteria.

  10. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Jordan and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight serotypes with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis being the most common. Out of the twenty-six isolated strains, five strains (serotype: kenyae, kurstaki, kurstaki HD1 and thuringiensis) that produced bipyramid crystal proteins were toxic to the lepidoptera larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. The SDS-PAGE protein ...

  11. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  12. Characterization of a thermostable Bacillus subtilis β-amylase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 70 0C respectively, and the thermal stability curve gave a maximum activity of 9.75 U at 70oC for 60 min of incubation. Bacillus subtilis â-amylase is valuable for maltose production, which can be hydrolyzed further by other groups of amylase for the production of high cassava glucose syrup used as sweeteners in the food ...

  13. Original Article Failure of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) Therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    a second tumor recurrence or progression according to the tumor aggressiveness and the patient's preference. Keywords : Superficial bladder cancer, Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), tumor .... from the remaining bladder in high-risk pa- tients. Statistical analysis was performed with. Student's t-test and Chi-square test and.

  14. New restriction endonucleases from Acetobacter aceti and Bacillus aneurinolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, H; Maekawa, Y; Kanazawa, S; Takanami, M

    1982-10-11

    Two restriction endonucleases with new sequence specificities have been isolated from Acetobacter aceti IFO 3281 and Bacillus aneurinolyticus IAM 1077 and named AatII and BanII, respectively. Based on analysis of the sequences around the restriction sites, the recognition sequences and cleavage sites of these endonucleases were deduced as below: (formula; see text)

  15. New restriction endonucleases from Acetobacter aceti and Bacillus aneurinolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sugisaki, H; Maekawa, Y; Kanazawa, S; Takanami, M

    1982-01-01

    Two restriction endonucleases with new sequence specificities have been isolated from Acetobacter aceti IFO 3281 and Bacillus aneurinolyticus IAM 1077 and named AatII and BanII, respectively. Based on analysis of the sequences around the restriction sites, the recognition sequences and cleavage sites of these endonucleases were deduced as below: (formula; see text)

  16. Manipulating the autolytic pathway of a Bacillus protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenBurg, B; Eijsink, VGH; Vriend, G; Veltman, OR; Venema, G; HopsuHavu, VK; Jarvinen, M; Kirschke, H

    1997-01-01

    Autolytic degradation of Bacillus subtilis thermolysin-like proteinase (TLP-sub) is responsible for the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme at elevated temperatures. Previously, we reported five autolysis sites in B. subtilis neutral protease (Van den Burg et al., 1990, Biochem. J. 272:93-97).

  17. antagonistic effect of native bacillus isolates against black root rot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Postharvest biological control of anthracnose. (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) on mango. (Mangifera indica). Postharvest Biology and. Technology 50: 8-11. Young, F.E., Tupper, J. and Strominger, J.L. 1974. Autolysis of cell walls of Bacillus subtilis mechanism and possible relationship to competence. Journal of Biology ...

  18. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black pigment producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a da...

  19. Global network reorganization during dynamic adaptations of Bacillus subtilis metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and...

  20. Global Network Reorganization During Dynamic Adaptations of Bacillus subtilis Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu; Uhr, Markus; Muntel, Jan; Botella, Eric; Hessling, Bernd; Kleijn, Roelco Jacobus; Le Chat, Ludovic; Lecointe, Francois; Maeder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Piersma, Sjouke; Ruegheimer, Frank; Becher, Doerte; Bessieres, Philippe; Bidnenko, Elena; Denham, Emma L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Devine, Kevin M.; Doherty, Geoff; Drulhe, Samuel; Felicori, Liza; Fogg, Mark J.; Goelzer, Anne; Hansen, Annette; Harwood, Colin R.; Hecker, Michael; Hubner, Sebastian; Hultschig, Claus; Jarmer, Hanne; Klipp, Edda; Leduc, Aurelie; Lewis, Peter; Molina, Frank; Noirot, Philippe; Peres, Sabine; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Pohl, Susanne; Rasmussen, Simon; Rinn, Bernd; Schaffer, Marc; Schnidder, Julian; Schwikowski, Benno; Van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Veiga, Patrick; Walsh, Sean; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Stelling, Joerg; Aymerich, Stephane; Sauer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and

  1. Arsenic, boron and salt resistant Bacillus safensis MS11 isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. safensis MS11 was also associated with resistance to multiple heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Hence, this bacterium could be useful in the remediation of salt affected soils and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic pollution. Key words: Desert soil, toxic metals, Bacillus, salt tolerant, bioremediation.

  2. Toxigenic Bacillus cereus isolated from Nunu and Wara, two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional fermented dairy foods are produced by small scale processors in different parts of West Africa without adequate attention to good manufacturing practices (GMPs), microbial contamination and ... Further enrichment using chromogenic selective agar medium detected Bacillus cereus in 95% of the tested samples.

  3. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic ...

  4. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  5. Genome engineering reveals large dispensable regions in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westers, Helga; Dorenbos, Ronald; Dijl, Jan Maarten van; Kabel, Jorrit; Flanagan, Tony; Devine, Kevin M.; Jude, Florence; Séror, Simone J.; Beekman, Aäron C.; Darmon, Elise; Eschevins, Caroline; Jong, Anne de; Bron, Sierd; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Albertini, Alessandra M.; Antelmann, Haike; Hecker, Michael; Zamboni, Nicola; Sauer, Uwe; Bruand, Claude; Ehrlich, Dusko S.; Alonso, Juan C.; Salas, Margarita; Quax, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial genomes contain 250 to 500 essential genes, as suggested by single gene disruptions and theoretical considerations. If this view is correct, the remaining nonessential genes of an organism, such as Bacillus subtilis, have been acquired during evolution in its perpetually changing

  6. Ecology and diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis populations ranged between 4.23 x 105, 6.52 x 105 cfu/g soil and consist of 11 types of isolates with 3 polymorphic, 7 spherical and 1 bipyramidal type of crystals. Polymorphic crystal containing isolates were further characterized. B. thuringiensis isolates were circular, white, flat and undulate or entire.

  7. Effects of Ingesting Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) Spores on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner was isolated from dead Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected from maize farms in Cape Coast, Ghana. Spores produced from the vegetative cells were incorporated into an artificial diet and fed to 2nd instar S. calamistis larvae. The duration of larval and pupal ...

  8. Laboratory evaluation of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis , neem oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), ...

  9. Characterization and evaluation of Bacillus isolates for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... 1State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Ministry of. Agriculture ... Key words: Tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Bacillus spp, biological control, plant growth promotion activities. .... Preliminary screening for antagonistic activity in vitro.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis and its application in agriculture | Ali | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presently, a number of approaches to pest control via genetic engineering have been developed and genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal characteristics are under cultivation for the last 15 years. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding o̅ endotoxins with insecticidal characteristics is the major ...

  11. Performance of Microbial Concrete Developed Using Bacillus Subtilus JC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. Seshagiri; Reddy, V. Srinivasa; Sasikala, Ch.

    2017-12-01

    Concrete is vulnerable to deterioration, corrosion, and cracks, and the consequent damage and loss of strength requires immensely expensive remediation and repair. So need for special concrete that they would respond to crack formation with an autonomous self-healing action lead to research and development of microbial concrete. The microbial concrete works on the principle of calcite mineral precipitation by a specific group of alkali-resistant spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Bacillus called Bacillus subtilis JC3, this phenomenon is called biomineralization or Microbiologically Induced Calcite Crystal Precipitation. Bacillus subtilis JC3, a common soil bacterium, has inherent ability to precipitate calcite crystals continuously which enhances the strength and durability performance of concrete enormously. This microbial concrete can be called as a "Self healing Bacterial Concrete" because it can remediate its cracks by itself without any human intervention and would make the concrete more durable and sustainable. This paper discuss the incorporation of microorganism Bacillus subtilis JC3 (developed at JNTU, India) into concrete and presents the results of experimental investigations carried out to study the improved durability and sustainability characteristics of microbial concrete.

  12. Extracellular protease produced by Bacillus subtilis isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study to evaluate the microbiological safety of some paracetamol oral solutions sold in some Nigerian drug stores, 40.0% of the samples examined was contaminated with protease-producing Bacillus subtilis. The production of extracellular protease was induced by casein in the minimal medium and was found to be the ...

  13. A Short Communication-Isolation and characterization of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxins represent the most successful use of biological control agents targeting crop pests to date. Studies have shown that Bt produces a wider range of toxins targeting a variety of unrelated pests than was initially documented. This further increases the prospects for its wider use as a ...

  14. Evaluation of potency of native Bacillus thuringiensis against maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most used biological control agent to date. Among major constraints to maize production, safety and hence food sufficiency in Kenya is infestation, damage and contamination by insect pests. Maize grains are adversely damaged by. Prostephanus truncatus which occasionally paves way for the ...

  15. Population dynamics of soil microbes and diversity of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics of soil microbes and diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in agricultural and botanic garden soils of India. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about ...

  16. Effects of Ingesting Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) Spores on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Ingesting Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) Spores on Developmental Stages and Fecundity of Surviving Sesamia Calamistis (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  17. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  18. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was ...

  19. Protein export in bacillus subtilis and escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijl, Jan Maarten van

    1990-01-01

    The export of heterologous proteins in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli is often inefficient. Frequently observed problems are: 1) accumulation of the precursor form of the exported protein in the cytoplasm or in the membrane; 2), inefficient or incorrect processing of the precursor; 3),

  20. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Holly H; Law, Christina; Schmuki, Martina; Eichenseher, Fritz; Calendar, Richard; Loessner, Martin J; Getz, Wayne M; Korlach, Jonas; Beyer, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales), featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure) and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis) and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  1. Optimizing Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 for biofertilizer production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 biofertilizer was produced through solid state fermentation processes using food waste and feldspar. ... Yields of selenium-enriched jujube and jujube increased, respectively, in the CMF compared to the matrix control; rates of anthracnose and rust diseases also decreased.

  2. Bacillusin A, an antibacterial macrodiolide from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (AP183) led to the discovery of a new macrocyclic polyene antibiotic, bacillusin A (1). Its structure was assigned by interpretation of NMR and MS spectroscopic data as a novel macrodiolide composed of dimer...

  3. Heat resistance of Bacillus spores : Natural variation and genomic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Erwin Mathijs

    2016-01-01

    Ons onderzoek heeft zich gericht op de hitteresistentie van sporen van verschillende Bacillus soorten. Het is een bekend probleem dat sporen van bepaalde stammen hittebehandelingen die worden toegepast bij voedselproductie kunnen overleven. In ons onderzoek hebben we allereerst aangetoond dat er

  4. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the

  5. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to

  6. Biodegradation of Polyethylene by Bacillus sp. Indigenous to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Available online at www.biotechsocietynigeria.org. Biodegradation of Polyethylene by Bacillus sp. Indigenous to the. Niger Delta Mangrove Swamp. Ibiene, A. A., Stanley, H. O., Immanuel, O. M.. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, College of Applied and Natural Sciences,. University of Port Harcourt, ...

  7. Assessment of larvicidal activities of bacillus species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of larvicidal activities of bacillus species isolated from soil against the mosquito aedes aegyptia (diptera: culicidae) in Sokoto, northwestern Nigeria. S.B. Manga, A.H. Kawo, A.B. Rabah, A.A. Usman, A.I. Dabai, J.A. Bala ...

  8. Bioenergetic consequences of nisin combined with carvacrol towards Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.; Krommer, J.; Smid, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of a combination of nisin and carvacrol on the membrane potential, the pH gradient and the intracellular ATP pools of vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus. Both the membrane potential and the pH gradient were dissipated by nisin and carvacrol. The intracellular ATP

  9. Loop grafting of Bacillus subtilis lipase A : Inversion of enantioselectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Y.L.; Pijning, Tjaard; Bosma, Margriet; van der Sloot, Almer Martinus; da Silva Godinho, Luis; Dröge, Melloney; Winter, R.T.; van Pouderoyen, Gertie; Dijkstra, B.W.; Quax, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Lipases are successfully applied in enantioselective biocatalysis. Most lipases contain a lid domain controlling access to the active site, but Bacillus subtilis Lipase A (LipA) is a notable exception: its active site is solvent exposed. To improve the enantioselectivity of LipA in the kinetic

  10. An alkaliphilic cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from a new Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(32), pp. 6107-6119, 4 ... Paselli starch than soluble starch. Key words: Alkaliphiles, soda lakes, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, Bacillus agaradhaeren, purification, 16S. rDNA. INTRODUCTION .... The enzyme samples were applied to 10% native PAGE. After gel.

  11. Enhancing the Production of a Novel Exopolysaccharide by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To improve the production of a novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Bacillus mucilaginosus CGMCC5766. Methods: The culture medium for production of EPS was optimized using statistical experiment design. Sucrose, CaCO3 and K2HPO4 were found to be the key factors based on the results obtained from ...

  12. Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in eastern Africa. Black root rot (Fusarium solani) is known to cause great yield losses in faba bean, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control ability of native Bacillus species on the basis of ...

  13. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sphaericus 1593 was found to grow poorly on glucose when provided as sole carbon source. However, growth was significantly much higher when acetate was provided as the carbon source, as compared to glucose. The activities of aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ...

  14. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Most resistant microorganism to these bacteria was Proteus mirabilis. Two of Gram positive bacteria, S. lugdenensis (K15-9) and S. aureus (SDA48), were also found as resistant. Conclusions: In this study, Bacillus spp isolated from conjunctiva showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  15. Gene cloning of phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic acid decarboxylase (PADC) gene, encoding phenolic acid decarboxylase, was cloned from Bacillus subtilis and ligated with a shuttle vector YEp352 to generate a novel plasmid YPADC. By analysis of sequencing and the restriction endonuclease digestion, the validity of construction was proved. Subsequently ...

  16. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of stock Bacillus sphaericus on local species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded concentrations (15, 30, 60, 90, 100, 120 mg/l) of stock, water dispersed powder of Bacillus sphaericus (SPH88: lot number BSP247) and potency of 17001TU/mg obtained from Pasteur Institute in Paris, France was tested against fourth instar larvae of local breed of Anopheles gambiae for larvicidal efficacy.

  18. Screening of Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates for Toxicity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are a major source of pre-harvest maize crop losses in Kenya and many Sub- Saharan African countries. This menace needs to be addressed if food security is to be realized in this region. Seven local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soils collected from Kakamega and Machakos ...

  19. The Impact of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis (Bti) on Adult and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the year 2007, the Ministry of Health (MoH) initiated a larviciding program using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to mitigate the effects of black fly bites. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of Bti on adult and larvae black fly populations. Baseline data was collected prior to Bti application and after ...

  20. Profile of cry from native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characterization of 255 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates of Coorg, Sharavatti and BR hills, containing genes known to be active against coleopteran and lepidopteran insect species was done through PCR amplification using the specific and degenerate primers. The isolates were also tested for their insecticidal activity ...

  1. Occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis in faeces of herbivorous farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), the insect pathogen has been isolated from a variety of habitat. It is understood that the habitat of B. thuringiensis has always been associated with their biological activity. In the present study, B. thuringiensis was isolated from faeces of cows and goats. The phenotypic characterization ...

  2. Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis genes in transgenic maize by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We optimized the PCR method to detect genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in open quarantine fields in Kenya. Many factors affect the extraction of the DNA from plants, such as the amount of tissue available, the condition of the plant material, the numbers of steps involved in the extraction procedure, ...

  3. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore-forming bacteria.

  4. Isolation of protease producing novel Bacillus cereus and detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The highest protease activity was determined at 30°C temperature and 6.4 pH conditions and after the 18th hour, it decreased evidently. Key words: Protease, production, optimization, Bacillus sp. INTRODUCTION. Enzymes have been produced in large industrial scale for several decades (Falch, 1991).

  5. Production of bacterial amylase by Bacillus species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimum pH activity was obtained at 4.0 with a concentration of 0.376 mg/ml. Bacillus licheniformis has the greatest potential for producing amylase than the other isolates and rice husk can be exploited for amylase production. The B. licheniformis strain produced thermostable alpha-amylase with characteristics suitable for ...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol toward Bacillus cereus on rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.; Slump, R.A.; Steging, G.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, a compound present in the essential oil fraction of oreganum and thyme, toward the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus on rice was studied. Carvacrol showed a dose-related inhibition of growth of the pathogen. Concentrations of 0.15 mg/g and higher inhibited

  7. Isolation and characterization of lactobacillus and bacillus producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus, and its antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infection (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion method ...

  8. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Further the effect of medium temperature indicated that the production of lipase was maximum at 37ºC. Statistical ... of halo zone around the colony on tributyrin agar was considered as the positive colony ... and sunflower oil, their effect on lipase production by the selected. Bacillus sp. was assessed at ...

  9. Bacillus praedii sp. nov., isolated from purplish paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Sengonca, Cetin; Schumann, Peter; Wang, Jie-Ping; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Liu, Qin-Ying; Wang, Ming-Kuang

    2017-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium, designated strain FJAT-25547T, was isolated from the purplish paddy soil collected from Linshan Township, Yanting Prefecture of Sichuan Province in PR China (31° 16' N 105° 27' E). Growth was achieved aerobically at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C (optimum 30 °C), with between 0 and 10.0 % NaCl (w/v) (optimum 4 %) and in the range of pH 5.0-12.0 (optimum pH 9.0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, and the main isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (55.4 %), anteiso-C15 : 0 (22.2 %), iso-C16 : 0 (5.1 %) and iso-C14 : 0 (6.5 %). The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain FJAT-25547T was a member of the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus horneckiae DSM 23495T (97.7 % similarity), Bacillus eiseniae A1-2T (97.5 %), Bacillus mesophilum IITR-54T (97.2 %) and Bacillus kochii WCC 4582T (97.0 %). The average nucleotide identity value between strain FJAT-25547T and the type strain of the most closely related species, B. horneckiae DSM 23495T, was 77.7 %, less than the proposed cut-off value of 96.0 % for differentiating species within the genus. The in silico DNA-DNA hybridization value of strain FJAT-25547T with the most closely related species was 22.7 %, Bacillus for which the name Bacillus praedii sp. nov. (type strain FJAT-25547T=CCTCC AB 2015208T=DSM 101002T) is proposed.

  10. Reclassification of Bacillus axarquiensis Ruiz-Garcia et al. 2005 and Bacillus malacitensis Ruiz-Garcia et al. 2005 as later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis Roberts et al. 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Tai, Chun-Ju; Yokota, Akira; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping

    2007-07-01

    The Bacillus subtilis group encompasses the taxa Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. atrophaeus, B. mojavensis, B. vallismortis, B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. sonorensis, B. velezensis, B. axarquiensis and B. malacitensis. In this study, the taxonomic relatedness between the species B. axarquiensis, B. malacitensis and B. mojavensis was investigated. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the gene for DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) confirmed the very high similarities between these three type strains and a reference strain of B. mojavensis (>99 and >97 %, respectively). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed high relatedness values between the type strains of B. axarquiensis, B. malacitensis and B. mojavensis and between these strains and a reference strain of B. mojavensis (83-98 %). Based on these molecular taxonomic data and the lack of phenotypic distinctive characteristics, Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis.

  11. Intramembrane protease RasP boosts protein production in Bacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, Jolanda; Bongiorni, Cristina; Goosens, Vivianne J; Schmidt, Brian; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-04-04

    The microbial cell factory Bacillus subtilis is a popular industrial platform for high-level production of secreted technical enzymes. Nonetheless, the effective secretion of particular heterologous enzymes remains challenging. Over the past decades various studies have tackled this problem, and major improvements were achieved by optimizing signal peptides or removing proteases involved in product degradation. On the other hand, serious bottlenecks in the protein export process per se remained enigmatic, especially for protein secretion at commercially significant levels by cells grown to high density. The aim of our present study was to assess the relevance of the intramembrane protease RasP for high-level protein production in B. subtilis. Deletion of the rasP gene resulted in reduced precursor processing and extracellular levels of the overproduced α-amylases AmyE from B. subtilis and AmyL from Bacillus licheniformis. Further, secretion of the overproduced serine protease BPN' from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was severely impaired in the absence of RasP. Importantly, overexpression of rasP resulted in threefold increased production of a serine protease from Bacillus clausii, and 2.5- to 10-fold increased production of an AmyAc α-amylase from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus, depending on the culture conditions. Of note, growth defects due to overproduction of the two latter enzymes were suppressed by rasP-overexpression. Here we show that an intramembrane protease, RasP, sets a limit to high-level production of two secreted heterologous enzymes that are difficult to produce in the B. subtilis cell factory. This finding was unexpected and suggests that proteolytic membrane sanitation is key to effective enzyme production in Bacillus.

  12. Efficacy and efficiency of new Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus sphaericus formulations against Afrotropical anophelines in Western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillinger, U.; Knols, B.G.J.; Becker, N.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of new water-dispersible granular (WDG) formulations of Bacillus thuringienis var. israelensis (Bti; VectoBac?) and B. sphaericus (Bs; VectoLex?, Valent BioScience Corp., Illinois, USA) for the control of larval Anopheles gambiae sensu lato Giles mosquitoes in a

  13. Cereulide formation by Bacillus weihenstephanensis and mesophilic emetic Bacillus cereus at temperature abuse depends on pre-incubation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Henrichsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Emetic toxin (cereulide) formation was recently identified in a psychrotolerant species, Bacillus weihenstephanensis[Thorsen, L., Hansen, B.M., Nielsen, K.F.,Hendriksen, N.B., Phipps, R.K., Budde, B.B., 2006. Characterization ofemetic Bacillus weihenstephanensisis, a new cereulide-producing bacte......Emetic toxin (cereulide) formation was recently identified in a psychrotolerant species, Bacillus weihenstephanensis[Thorsen, L., Hansen, B.M., Nielsen, K.F.,Hendriksen, N.B., Phipps, R.K., Budde, B.B., 2006. Characterization ofemetic Bacillus weihenstephanensisis, a new cereulide......-producing bacterium. Applied and EnvironmentalMicrobiology, 72, 5118-5121.]. Although recent findings indicated B. weihenstephanensis as a cereulide producer only limited information is available regarding environmental conditions affecting cereulide production. In the present study a model agar system was used....... weihenstephanensis MC67 occurred in stationary growth phase, as previously observed for B. cereus, and biomass formation and cereulide formation showed a linear correlation. During incubation at 5 °C for 1, 2 and 3 weeks growth was inhibited and as a consequence no detectable cereulide production occurred for any...

  14. Draft Genome Sequences of Bacillus cereus E41 and Bacillus anthracis F34 Isolated from Algerian Salt Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Daas, Mohamed Seghir; Rosana, Albert Remus R.; Acedo, Jeella Z.; Nateche, Farida; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Vederas, John C.; Case, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two strains of Bacillus, B.?cereus E41 and B.?anthracis F34, were isolated from a salt lake in A?n M?lila-Oum El Bouaghi, eastern Algeria, and Ain Baida-Ouargla, southern Algeria, respectively. Their genomes display genes for the production of several bioactive secondary metabolites, including polyhydroxyalkanoate, iron siderophores, lipopeptides, and bacteriocins.

  15. Expression of the neutral protease gene from a thermophilic Bacillus sp BT1 strain in Bacillus subtilis and its natural host : Identification of a functional promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecerek, B; Venema, G

    The expression of the neutral protease gene (npr) from the thermophilic Bacillus sp. BT1 strain was studied in its natural host and in mesophilic Bacillus subtilis. In the thermophilic BT1 strain, the transcription of the protease gene is initiated from its own promoter, just 5' to the gene. In

  16. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens.

  17. Genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus group, isolated from traditional Korean fermented-soybean food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens.

  18. Bacillus solisilvae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tong; He, Hairong; Wang, Xiaochong; Shen, Yibo; Zhao, Junwei; Yan, Kai; Wang, Xiangjing; Liu, Chongxi; Zhang, Ji; Xiang, Wensheng

    2017-11-01

    A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterial strain, NEAU-cbsb5 T , was isolated from forest soil from Changbai Mountain, Heilongjiang Province, China. The isolate grew at 15-40 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and in the presence of up to 4 % (w/v) NaCl, although NaCl was not required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain NEAU-cbsb5 T formed a distinct lineage within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus acidiceler DSM 18954 T (99.1 % similarity) and Bacillus luciferensis JCM 12212 T (99.0 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to sequences of the type strains of other Bacillus species was less than 96.0 %. Average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between NEAU-cbsb5 T and its most closely related species were 78.72-84.75 % by ANIm, ANIb and OrthoANIu analysis. The in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain NEAU-cbsb5 T and its close relatives B. acidiceler DSM 18954 T and B. luciferensis JCM 12212 T were both 23.80 %, again indicating they belong to different taxa. The major cellular fatty acids of NEAU-cbsb5 T were iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown aminophospholipid. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the predominant menaquinones were MK-7 and MK-6. The genomic DNA G+C content was 33.0 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data, strain NEAU-cbsb5 T was classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus solisilvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-cbsb5 T (=CGMCC 1.14993 T =DSM 100485 T ).

  19. Bacillus catenulatus sp. nov., an alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanpuram, Vishnuvardhan Reddy; Mothe, Thirumala; Chintalapati, Sasikala; Chintalapati, Venkata Ramana

    2017-12-01

    Two novel (18C T and 6C) Gram-stain-positive, rod shaped, motile and endospore-forming bacterial strains were isolated from Lonar soda lake, India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains 18C T and 6C were identified as belonging to the class Firmibacteria, and were most closely related to Bacillus cohnii KCTC 3572 T (99.3 and 99.9%, respectively), Bacillus zhanjiangensis KCTC 13713 T (97.4 and 98.0%, respectively), Bacillus halmapalus LMG 17950 T (97.0 and 97.6%, respectively) and other members in the genus Bacillus (Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus catenulatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 18C T (=KCTC 33781 T  = CGMCC 1.15475 T ).

  20. Choice of an optimal diluent for intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M A; Catalona, W J; Ritchey, J K; Aslanzadeh, J; Brown, E J; Ratliff, T L

    1989-12-01

    The physical conditions, including diluent pH, salt concentration and duration of bacillus Calmette-Guerin attachment, were determined in in vitro binding assays for soluble and matrix fibronectin. Since soluble fibronectin may block attachment of bacillus Calmette-Guerin to matrix fibronectin in the bladder, the optimal conditions were determined under which matrix fibronectin-bacillus Calmette-Guerin binding was maximal and soluble fibronectin-bacillus Calmette-Guerin binding was minimal. These conditions, which were confirmed in vivo in the murine bladder model, included use of normal saline, pH 7 as diluent for bacillus Calmette-Guerin organisms, with retention of the bacillus Calmette-Guerin suspension for 2 hours.

  1. Genome Sequence of Antibiotic-Producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain KCTC 13012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2015-10-01

    We report the 4.0-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (syn. Bacillus velezensis) KCTC 13012, which exhibits a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against bacteria and fungi and promotes plant growth as well. The genome contains an array of biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites that are comparable to those in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T). Copyright © 2015 Jeong et al.

  2. Effects of gamma-rays on an indigenous Bacillus isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Siti Khadijah Abu Hadin; Nabilahuda Mohd Tumirin

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study was carried out with the aim to obtain strong cellulolytic bacteria by ionizing radiation using a 60 Co source. An indigenous cellulolytic Bacillus sp. NMBCC 10023 originally isolated from soil origin was used in the study. The harvested bacterial pellets from overnight growth cultures were exposed to gamma-irradiation with doses ranging from 1 kGy to 40 kGy. The numbers of surviving bacteria on agar plate decreased as the gamma irradiation dose increased. No isolates were recovered after exposure to doses greater than 10 kGy. Based on the cell count using plate count method, the 90 % lethal dose (LD90) of gamma radiation of Bacillus sp. NMBCC 10023 was between 2-4 kGy. (author)

  3. Conjugation by Mosquito Pathogenic Strains of Bacillus sphaericus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Correa

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available A mosquito pathogenic strain of Bacillus sphaericus carried out the conjugal transfer of plasmid pAMß1 to other strains of its own and two other serotypes. However, it was unable to conjugate with mosquito pathogens from three other serotypes, with B. sphaericus of other DNA homology groups or with three other species of Bacillus. Conjugation frequency was highest with a strain having an altered surface layer (S layer. Conjugal transfer of pAMß1 was not detected in mosquito larval cadavers. B. sphaericus 2362 was unable to mobilize pUB110 for transfer to strains that had served as recipients of pAMß1. These observations suggest that it is unlikely that genetically engineered B. sphaericus carrying a recombinant plasmid could pass that plasmid to other bacteria

  4. Solid Culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Gangadharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen different agroresidues were screened for alpha amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842. Among them, wheat bran (WB and groundnut oil cake (GOC in mass ratio of 1:1 was proved as the best substrate source. Supplementation with 0.01 M KH2PO4 and 1 % soluble starch enhanced the enzyme yield considerably. Maximum enzyme recovery from the solid mass was obtained when extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH=5.0. Maximum enzyme titer expressed as units per mass of dry substrate obtained was 62 470 U/g after 72 hours of fermentation at 37 °C by using the above solid substrate mixture (5 g with the initial moisture of 85 % and inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of 2·109 CFU/mL.

  5. Growth measurement of some amylolytic bacillus species in three media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Study of the growth pattern of some Bacillus species on starchy substrates showed that the metabolic activity affected the enzymatic activity. B. subtilis (WBS), B. licheniformis (WBL) and B. coagulans (MBC) generally had higher growth rate. B. circulans (SBC) and B. coagulans (WBC) had higher growth on cornstarch medium with corresponding higher beta-amylase production as compared to other strains such as B. polymyxa. Ten of the 13 Bacillus species studied had better performance on cornstarch than on soluble starch except B. macerans (MBM), B. macerans (SMB2) and B. subtilis (WBS). The enzyme production ranged from 0.022 unit/cfu x 102 to 0.912 unit/cfu x 102 on cornstarch and 0.01 unit/cfu x 102 to 0.693 unit/cfu x 102 on soluble starch. Relatively higher a-amylase activity was observed in B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. macerans and B. circulans (WBC1). (author)

  6. Enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation by a newly isolated bacillus subtilis strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christova, N.; Tuleva, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The relation between hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by a new bacillus subtilis 22BN strain was investigated. The strain was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane and naphthalene and at the same time to produce surface-active compound at high concentrations (1.5 - 2.0 g l -1 ). Biosurfactant production was detected by surface tension lowering and emulsifying activity. The strain is a good degrader of both hydrocarbons used with degradability of 98.3 ± 1% and 75 ± 2% for n-hexadecane and naphthalene, respectively. Measurement of cell hydrophobicity showed that the combination of slightly soluble substrate and rhamnolipid developed higher hydrophobicity correlated with increased utilization of both hydrocarbon substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacillus subtilis strain that degrades hydrophobic compounds and at the same time produces rhamnolipid biosurfactant. (orig.)

  7. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  8. Novel routes for improving biocontrol activity of Bacillus based bioinoculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming eWu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of biocontrol agents.

  9. Novel Routes for Improving Biocontrol Activity of Bacillus Based Bioinoculants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liming; Wu, Hui-Jun; Qiao, Junqing; Gao, Xuewen; Borriss, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Biocontrol (BC) formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of BC agents. PMID:26696998

  10. A novel hyaluronidase produced by Bacillus sp. A50.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Guo

    Full Text Available Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan, HA and widely used in many fields. A hyaluronidase producing bacteria strain was screened from the air. 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA analysis indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Bacillus, and the strain was named as Bacillus sp. A50. This is the first report of a hyaluronidase from Bacillus, which yields unsaturated oligosaccharides as product like other microbial hyaluronate lyases. Under optimized conditions, the yield of hyaluronidase from Bacillus sp. A50 could reach up to 1.5×10(4 U/mL, suggesting that strain A50 is a good producer of hyaluronidase. The hyaluronidase (HAase-B was isolated and purified from the bacterial culture, with a specific activity of 1.02×10(6 U/mg protein and a yield of 25.38%. The optimal temperature and pH of HAase-B were 44°C and pH 6.5, respectively. It was stable at pH 5-6 and at a temperature lower than 45°C. The enzymatic activity could be enhanced by Ca2+, Mg2+, or Ni2+, and inhibited by Zn2+, Cu2+, EDTA, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, deferoxamine mesylate salt (DFO, triton X-100, Tween 80, or SDS at different levels. Kinetic measurements of HAase-B towards HA gave a Michaelis constant (Km of 0.02 mg/mL, and a maximum velocity (Vmax of 0.27 A232/min. HAase-B also showed activity towards chondroitin sulfate A (CSA with the kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, 12.30 mg/mL and 0.20 A232/min respectively. Meanwhile, according to the sequences of genomic DNA and HAase-B's part peptides, a 3,324-bp gene encoding HAase-B was obtained.

  11. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  12. Transcriptional regulation of the Bacillus subtilis menp1 promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, X; Taber, H W

    1996-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis men genes encode biosynthetic enzymes for formation of the respiratory chain component menaquinone. The menp1 promoter previously was shown to be the primary cis element for menFD gene expression. In the present work, it was found that either supplementation with nonfermentable carbon sources or reutilization of glycolytic end products increased menp1 activity in the late postexponential phase. The effect on menp1 activity by a particular end product (such as acetoin or ...

  13. Purification and medium optimization of α-amylase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Amylase was first time isolated and purified from Bacillus subtilis 168 (1A1). Purified α-amylase fraction showed a single protein band with a molecular weight of 55 kD. Chemical characterization of the purified α-amylase revealed optimum amylolytic activity at 37°C and pH 7.0 using starch as substrate. It was stable at pH ...

  14. 14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of spore laccase from Bacillus subtilis WD23 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on its morphological and physiological properties, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The optimum pH and temperature for the spore-bound laccase were 6.8 and 60°C, respectively. The temperature half-life of the laccase was 2.5 h at 80°C and 68 h at 60°C. It also showed ...

  16. Controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle by Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Natália Berne; de Castro, Leonardo Mortagua; de Almeida Capella, Gabriela; Motta, Tairan Ourique; de Souza Stori de Lara, Ana Paula; de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested the in vitro and in vivo larvicidal activity of Bacillus species against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle, and their viability in the presence of anthelmintics. For in vitro tests, cattle feces naturally infected with trichostrongylides were incubated with spore suspensions of Bacillus circulans (Bcir), B. thuringiensis var. osvaldocruzi (Bto), B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) or B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Subsequently, residual larvae were counted and identified. All of the Bacillus species showed 60% or more larvicidal effects. Bcir and Bti were selected to be incubated with anthelmintics (moxidectin, nitroxynil and levamisole), and after 24, 72, and 144h, their viability was evaluated. Bti showed highest drug resistance, maintaining a concentration of 1×10 7 CFU/mL. Based on this result, Bti was selected for in vivo tests on calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The calves were dived into four groups: Group 1, Bti suspension of ∼1×10 9 CFU orally administered; Group 2, Bti suspension of ∼1×10 9 CFU orally administered with levamisole (subcutaneously, 150mg); Group 3, only levamisole (subcutaneously, 150mg), and Group 4 untreated. Then 24 and 48h after treatment, larvae numbers were counted. We observed a reduction of 84%, 100%, and 100% after 48h of treatment, respectively, for Groups 1, 2 and 3 treatments in comparison with the untreated. The tested Bacillus species showed larvicidal activity against bovine trichostrongylides, and its association with anthelmintics. It may serve as a promising integrated alternative for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin infections after intravesical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gerogianni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder carcinoma. Disseminated BCG infection presenting as granulomatous hepatitis or pneumonitis is a very rare complication of this treatment. Here we report a case series of seven patients previously treated with BCG presenting with pneumonitis. In two of the cases, identification of Mycobacterium bovis was achieved with molecular methods.

  18. Use of bacillus subtilis strains to inhibit postharvest pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arras, G.; Gambella, F.; Demontis, S.; Petretto, A.

    1995-01-01

    An isolate (87) of the bacillus subtilis strains isolated from cold stored citrus fruit 13 proved to inhibit the growth in vitro of the penicillium italicum used in the experiment (from 50.6% to 92.2%) and to inhibit botrytis cinerea (from 65.3% to 95.9%). A further test, superimposing on plates containing PDA strains Nos. 13, 173, and 160, totally inhibited the fungi. Tested in vivo on artificially bruised oranges, they significantly inhibited two fungi

  19. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bazinet, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bacillus cereus sensu lato ( s . l .) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic traits (i.e., "pan-GWAS" analysis...

  20. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bazinet, Adam L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s. l.) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes and novel bioinformatic workflows to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic tra...

  1. Endophytic Bacillus subtilis ZZ120 and its potential application in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An endophytic bacterial strain ZZ120 that was isolated from healthy stems of Prunus mume (family: Rosaceae) was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on biochemical and physiological assays and 16s rRNA, rpoB and tetB-yyaO / yyaR genes analysis. Both the culture filtrate and the n-butanol extract of strain ZZ120 showed ...

  2. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled "Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria" (Liu et al., 2017) [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  3. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled “Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria” (Liu et al., 2017) [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  4. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled “Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria” (Liu et al., 2017 [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  5. Necrotizing gastritis due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Scanff, J; Mohammedi, I; Thiebaut, A; Martin, O; Argaud, L; Robert, D

    2006-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is increasingly being acknowledged as a serious bacterial pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of acute necrotizing gastritis caused by B. cereus in a 37-year-old woman with acute myeloblastic leukemia, who recovered following total parenteral nutrition and treatment with imipenem and vancomycin. B. cereus was isolated from gastric mucosa and blood cultures. Up to now, no case of acute necrotizing gastritis due to this organism has been reported.

  6. Protein and antigenic heterogeneity among isolates of Bacillus piliformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, L K; Besch-Williford, C; Waggie, K S

    1990-01-01

    Protein and antigenic heterogeneity among isolates of Bacillus piliformis, the etiologic agent of Tyzzer's disease, were investigated. The seven isolates utilized in this study were originally isolated from naturally infected animals of different animal species and diverse geographical locations. Isolates were propagated in mammalian cell lines, and bacterial extracts were prepared. Protein and antigenic profiles were compared among isolates, using Coomassie blue-stained polyacrylamide gels a...

  7. Indirect Detection Of Bacillus Anthracis (Anthrax) Using Amplified Gamma Phage-Based Assays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reiman, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    The need for a simple, specific, sensitive, inexpensive, accurate, and rapid method to identify Bacillus anthracis became apparent during the Fall 2001 anthrax attacks which caused widespread panic...

  8. Anthrax Lethal Toxin Impairs Innate Immune Functions of Alveolar Macrophages and Facilitates Bacillus anthracis Survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribot, Wilson J; Panchal, Rekha G; Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Kenny, Tara A; Lane, Douglas; Curry, Bob; Hoover, Timothy A; Friedlander, Arthur M; Bavari, Sina

    2006-01-01

    .... Although several factors contribute to inhalational anthrax, we hypothesized that unimpeded infection of Bacillus anthracis is directly linked to disabling the innate immune functions contributed by AM...

  9. Multigeneration Cross-Contamination of Mail with Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Edmonds

    Full Text Available The release of biological agents, including those which could be used in biowarfare or bioterrorism in large urban areas, has been a concern for governments for nearly three decades. Previous incidents from Sverdlosk and the postal anthrax attack of 2001 have raised questions on the mechanism of spread of Bacillus anthracis spores as an aerosol or contaminant. Prior studies have demonstrated that Bacillus atrophaeus is easily transferred through simulated mail handing, but no reports have demonstrated this ability with Bacillus anthracis spores, which have morphological differences that may affect adhesion properties between spore and formite. In this study, equipment developed to simulate interactions across three generations of envelopes subjected to tumbling and mixing was used to evaluate the potential for cross-contamination of B. anthracis spores in simulated mail handling. In these experiments, we found that the potential for cross-contamination through letter tumbling from one generation to the next varied between generations while the presence of a fluidizer had no statistical impact on the transfer of material. Likewise, the presence or absence of a fluidizer had no statistically significant impact on cross-contamination levels or reaerosolization from letter opening.

  10. Biodegradation of malathion by Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion, a well-known organophosphate pesticide, has been used in agriculture over the last two decades for controlling pests of economically important crops. In the present study, a single bacterium, ML-1, was isolated by soil-enrichment technique and identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of the 16S rRNA technique. The bacterium was grown in carbon-free minimal salt medium (MSM and was found to be very efficient in utilizing malathion as the sole source of carbon. Biodegradation experiments were performed in MSM without carbon source to determine the malathion degradation by the selected strain, and the residues of malathion were determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques. Bacillus licheniformis showed very promising results and efficiently consumed malathion as the sole carbon source via malathion carboxylesterase (MCE, and about 78% malathion was degraded within 5 days. The carboxylesterase activity was determined by using crude extract while using malathion as substrate, and the residues were determined by HPLC. It has been found that the MCE hydrolyzed 87% malathion within 96 h of incubation. Characterization of crude MCE revealed that the enzyme is robust in nature in terms of organic solvents, as it was found to be stable in various concentrations of ethanol and acetonitrile. Similarly, and it can work in a wide pH and temperature range. The results of this study highlighted the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1 as a biodegrader that can be used for the bioremediation of malathion-contaminated soil.

  11. Expression of the Lantibiotic Mersacidin in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzner, Anna Maria; Dischinger, Jasmin; Szekat, Christiane; Josten, Michaele; Schmitz, Stephanie; Yakéléba, Anja; Reinartz, Ricarda; Jansen, Andrea; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Piel, Jörn; Bierbaum, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Lantibiotics are small peptide antibiotics that contain the characteristic thioether amino acids lanthionine and methyllanthionine. As ribosomally synthesized peptides, lantibiotics possess biosynthetic gene clusters which contain the structural gene (lanA) as well as the other genes which are involved in lantibiotic modification (lanM, lanB, lanC, lanP), regulation (lanR, lanK), export (lanT(P)) and immunity (lanEFG). The lantibiotic mersacidin is produced by Bacillus sp. HIL Y-85,54728, which is not naturally competent. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of these studies was to test if the production of mersacidin could be transferred to a naturally competent Bacillus strain employing genomic DNA of the producer strain. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 was chosen for these experiments because it already harbors the mersacidin immunity genes. After transfer of the biosynthetic part of the gene cluster by competence transformation, production of active mersacidin was obtained from a plasmid in trans. Furthermore, comparison of several DNA sequences and biochemical testing of B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and B. sp. HIL Y-85,54728 showed that the producer strain of mersacidin is a member of the species B. amyloliquefaciens. Conclusions/Significance The lantibiotic mersacidin can be produced in B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, which is closely related to the wild type producer strain of mersacidin. The new mersacidin producer strain enables us to use the full potential of the biosynthetic gene cluster for genetic manipulation and downstream modification approaches. PMID:21811596

  12. Combating Fusarium Infection Using Bacillus-Based Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants. The multivariate interactions among plant-biocontrol agent-pathogen are the subject of this study, in which we survey the advances made regarding the research on the Bacillus-Fusarium interaction and focus on the principles and mechanisms of action among plant-growth promoting Bacillus species. In particular, we highlight their use in limiting and controlling Fusarium spread and infestations of economically important crops. This knowledge will be useful to define strategies for exploiting this group of beneficial bacteria for use as inoculants by themselves or in combination with other microbes for enhanced crop protection.

  13. [Bioconversion of sewage sludge to biopesticide by Bacillus thuringiensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming; Zhou, Shun-gui; Lu, Na; Ni, Jin-ren

    2006-07-01

    Feasibility of bioconversion of sewage sludge to biopesticide by Bacillus thuringiensis was studied using sewage sludge as a raw material. The fermentation was also compared with conventional medium. Results showed that without any pretreatment, the nutrients contained in sewage sludge were almost sufficient for Bacillus thuringiensis growth, even with a rapid multiplicational rate. Higher viable cells and viable spores values were obtained earlier at 24 h, with 9.48 x 10(8) CFU x mL(-1) and 8.51 x 10(8) CFU x mL(-1) respectively, which was 12 hours earlier and nearly 20 percent higher than conventional medium. SEM of 36 h samples gave a clear phenomenon that the metabolizability in sludge was much faster with spores and crystals spreading around. The crystals in sludge seemed rather bigger and more regular. Also a better crystal protein yield of 2.80 mg x mL(-1) was observed in sludge medium compared to conventional medium at the end of fermentation. Sludge fermentation for Bacillus thuringiensis reduces the producing cost, and gives better fermentation capabilities. It's expected to be a new method for sludge disposal.

  14. Screen, Identification and Analysis on the Growth-Promoting Ability for the Rice Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Ze-ping

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria(PGPRcan secrete the growth hormone and promote soil nutrient cycling, thus, is an important germplasm resource of bio -fertilizer. In this study, the PGPR was isolated from the rice rhizosphere. According to 16S rDNA sequences, 10 strains were identifed, including 4 organic phosphorus bacteria (Bacillus pumilus LZP02, Bacillus aryabhattai LZP08, Staphylococcus epidermidis LZP10, Bacillus ginsengisoli LZP05, 3 inorganic phosphorus bacteria(Bacillus megaterium LZP03, Bacillus oryzaecorticis LZP04, Bacillus ginsengisoli LZP07and 3 potassium bacteria(Bacillus aryabhattai LZP01, Bacillus subtilis LZP06, Bacillus licheniformis LZP09. The results from nutrient conversion analysis showed that Bacillus aryabhattai LZP01 and Bacillus subtilis LZP06 performed better on the potassium releasing ability. Bacillus pumilus LZP02 and Bacillus huizhouensis LZP05 performed better on the function of organic phosphorus. Bacillus megaterium LZP03 and Bacillus ginsengisoli LZP07 performed better on the function of inorganic phosphorus. Further, the hormone secretion capacity was measured for these 6 strains. The results showed that all 6 strains could produce auxin and gibberellin, and had the ability to synthesize iron carrier. Moreover, the results showed that Bacillus megaterium LZP03, Bacillus huizhouensis LZP05 and Bacillus subtilis LZP06 had stronger ability to promote the nutrient conversion and hormone secretion. Systematically, we believe that these three strains have great potential application on microbial fertilizer.

  15. Heat and desiccation are the predominant factors affecting inactivation of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis spores during simulated composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K; Harvey, A; Barbieri, R; Xu, S; Reuter, T; Amoako, K K; Selinger, L B; McAllister, T A

    2016-01-01

    The suitability of composting for disposal of livestock mortalities due to Bacillus anthracis was assessed by measuring viability of surrogate spores from two strains each of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis after a heating cycle modelled on a cattle composting study. Sporulation was attempted from 10 to 37°C, but poor yields at lower temperatures resulted in 25, 30 and 37°C being selected to generate sufficient spores (8 log10  CFU ml(-1) ) for experiments. Spores were inoculated into 3 g autoclaved dried-ground compost rehydrated with 6 ml water or silica beads in a factorial design for each strain, sporulation temperature, matrix and sampling day (0, 25, 50, 100, 150). Maximum incubation temperature was 62°C, but spores were maintained at ≥55°C for 78 of 150 days. Although significant differences existed among Bacillus strains and sporulation temperatures, numbers of viable spores after 150 days averaged 1·3 log10  CFU g(-1) , a 5·2 log10 reduction from day 0. Spore inactivation was likely due to heat and desiccation as matrices were autoclaved prior to incubation, negating impacts of microflora. Results support composting for disposal of anthrax mortalities, provided long-term thermophillic heating is achieved. Due to limited sporulation at 10°C, livestock mortalities from anthrax at this or lower ambient temperatures would likely be of lower risk for disease transmission. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Identification of "Bacillus cellulasensis" strain NIO-1130(T) as a member of Bacillus altitudinis and emendation of the latter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

    2016-10-01

    In the study by Mawlankar et al. in Arch Microbiol 198:83-89 (2016), the phylogenetic position of strain "Bacillus cellulasensis" NIO-1130(T) based on 16S rRNA and gyrB genes was inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this study is to re-determine its taxonomic status using diverse genotypic approaches including single gene analysis, multilocus sequence analysis, and genomic analyses. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene and six concatenated genes showed that "B. cellulasensis" NIO-1130(T) (=NCIM 5461(T) = CCTCC AB 2011126(T)) revealed the closest genetic relationship with type strain Bacillus altitudinis 41KF2b(T), with 98.6-100 % similarities of 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, pycA, pyrE, mutL, aroE, trpB, and six concatenated housekeeping genes. The high similarities for gene(s) sequences between "B. cellulasensis" NIO-1130(T) and B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T) indicated that they should be conspecific. The DNA G+C content for strain NIO-1130(T) was determined to be 41.3 mol% and identical to that of B. altitudinis 41KF2b(T). Moreover, 88.4 % of digital DNA-DNA hybridization and 98.7 % of average nucleotide identity values between two strains were much higher than the standard criteria for delineation of bacterial species, suggesting that they belonged to the same species. Therefore, the data from the combined genotypic analyses suggest that "Bacillus cellulasensis" should be classified as a member of Bacillus altitudinis.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Bacillus cereus E41 and Bacillus anthracis F34 Isolated from Algerian Salt Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daas, Mohamed Seghir; Rosana, Albert Remus R.; Acedo, Jeella Z.; Nateche, Farida; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Vederas, John C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two strains of Bacillus, B. cereus E41 and B. anthracis F34, were isolated from a salt lake in Aïn M’lila-Oum El Bouaghi, eastern Algeria, and Ain Baida-Ouargla, southern Algeria, respectively. Their genomes display genes for the production of several bioactive secondary metabolites, including polyhydroxyalkanoate, iron siderophores, lipopeptides, and bacteriocins. PMID:28522726

  18. Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases in Bacillus subtilis. Purification and some properties of the adenosine-specific phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) were purified from vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. One enzyme, inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, showed great similarity to the homologous enzyme of Bacillus cereus. It appeared...

  19. Isolation and identification of Bacillus spp. and related genera from different starchy foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fangio, Maria Florencia; Roura, Sara Ines; Fritz, Rosalía

    2010-05-01

    Samples of butternut squash, potatoes, rice, and wheat flour were analyzed. Bacillus spp. and related species belonging to Paenibacillus and Brevibacillus genera were found in 96% of the samples. In butternut squash, predominant species were Bacillus pumilus and Paenibacillus polymyxa together with other Bacillus spp. species (B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. sphaericus, and B. subtilis). In all the potato samples, Bacillus species were detected (B. cereus, B. mycoides, and B. licheniformis). Also, Bacillus spp. were detected in 100% of the unhusked rice samples, while incidence in white rice samples was 83%. In total rice samples, B. pumilus, Brevibacillus brevis, and Paenibacillus macerans were the main species and B. cereus, P. polymyxa, B. subtilis, and Brevibacillus laterosporus had the lower percentage. The most important species found in wheat flour was P. polymyxa with colony forming units per gram of about 10(2). As the identified species were potentially causatives of foodborne diseases, attention should be given to sanitary and temperature conditions as critical factors that influence the safety and shelf life of these products. Foodborne illness produce by B. cereus have been associated with a wide variety of food. In addition, some other Bacillus species have been related to foodborne disease in humans. Information about the virulence mechanisms of other Bacillus spp. is scanty and their risk is underestimated. Identifying the group of food and the food processes in which Bacillus cereus or other Bacillus spp. would be hazardous for human health is vital for the prevention of foodborne outbreak. In this study, we determined the incidence of Bacillus spp. and related genera in some food items of agriculture origin from Argentina. This research is relevant to identify the presence of potentially pathogen Bacillus species and related genera in this type of food.

  20. Chryseobacterium indologenes improves survival of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), Pantoea agglomerans (4 and 5), Enterobacter asburiae (6) and Bacillus megaterium (7), were isolated together from a nest of Crematogaster biroi. In the duel species competition experiments, C. violaceum (3) inhibited the growth of C.

  1. 40 CFR 174.517 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.517 Bacillus thuringiensis... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry9C protein in corn is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance for residues...

  2. 40 CFR 174.509 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.509 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3A protein are exempted...

  3. 40 CFR 174.520 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.520 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis...

  4. 40 CFR 174.504 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein... PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.504 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus...

  5. 40 CFR 174.502 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.502 Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A.105 protein in...

  6. 40 CFR 174.529 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab... Tolerance Exemptions § 174.529 Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD... Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry1Ab protein as identified under OECD Unique Identifier SYN-IR67B-1 are...

  7. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food commodities of cotton, cotton; cotton, undelinted... byproducts are exempt temporarily from the requirement of a tolerance when Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1181 - Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1181 Bacillus cereus strain BPO1; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus cereus...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1255 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1255 Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 when used in or on all agricultural...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1209 Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 when used in or on all food commodities. [65...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1226 - Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1226 Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808; temporary exemption... established for residues of the microbial pesticide Bacillus pumilus strain QST2808 when used in or on all...

  12. The expression of a plasmid-specified exported protein causes structural plasmid instability in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordes, C.; Meima, R; Twiest, B; Kazemier, B; Venema, G; vanDijl, JM; Bron, S

    The rolling-circle plasmid pGP1 was used to study the effects of the expression of a plasmid-specified exported protein on structural plasmid stability in Bacillus subtilis. pGP1 contains a fusion between the Bacillus licheniformis penP gene, encoding a C-terminally truncated penicillinase, and the

  13. Characterization of Bacillus spp. strains for use as probiotic additives in pig feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nadja; Thorsen, Line; Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spp. are commonly used as probiotic species in the feed industry, however, their benefits need to be confirmed. This study describes a high throughput screening combined with the detailed characterization of endospore-forming bacteria with the aim to identify new Bacillus spp. strains fo...

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okshevsky, Mira Ursula; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft...

  15. Subunit II of Bacillus subtilis cytochrome c oxidase is a lipoprotein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bengtsson, J; Tjalsma, H; Rivolta, C; Hederstedt, L

    The sequence of the N-terminal end of the deduced ctaC gene product of Bacillus species has the features of a bacterial lipoprotein. CtaC is the subunit II of cytochrome caa(3), which is a cytochrome c oxidase. Using Bacillus subtilis mutants blocked in lipoprotein synthesis, we show that CtaC is a

  16. Characterization of Emetic Bacillus weihenstephanensis, a New Cereulide-Producing Bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Munk Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2006-01-01

    Cereulide production has until now been restricted to the species Bacillus cereus. Here we report on two psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains, MC67 and MC118, that produce cereulide. The strains are atypical with regard to pheno- and genotypic characteristics normally used...

  17. Production of milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus subtilis B1 from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three strains, Bacillus subtilis B1, B. subtilis B18 and Bacillus thuringiensis B12, were screened from wheat bran to produce milk-clotting enzyme. Among them, B. subtilis B1 exhibited considerable milkclotting activity with low proteolytic activity. After response surface methodology optimization, milkclotting activity was ...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1012 - α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1012 α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) α-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained from the culture...

  19. The status of the species Bacillus aerius. Request for an Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a recent study assessing the diversity of the Bacillus lichenifomis group, it became apparent that the type strain of Bacillus aerius was not available from any established culture collection nor from the authors who originally described it. In addition, other authors have reported similar fi...

  20. SCREENING OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY BACILLUS SP ISOLATED FROM COASTAL REGION IN CUDDALORE TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvaneswari. M*and P. Sivagurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce extracellular or membrane associated surface-active compounds (bio surfactants). Biosurfactant are organic compounds belonging to various classes including glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, phospholipids that reduce the interfacial tension between immiscible liquids.This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from Bacillus sp. The efficiency of Bacillus spstrain isolated from a marine sediments soil sample from coastal region -Cud...