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Sample records for bacillus bombyseptieus infection

  1. A genome-wide survey for host response of silkworm, Bombyx mori during pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus infection.

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    Lulin Huang

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori. Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs, including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin

  2. Combating Fusarium Infection Using Bacillus-Based Antimicrobials

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    Noor Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants. The multivariate interactions among plant-biocontrol agent-pathogen are the subject of this study, in which we survey the advances made regarding the research on the Bacillus-Fusarium interaction and focus on the principles and mechanisms of action among plant-growth promoting Bacillus species. In particular, we highlight their use in limiting and controlling Fusarium spread and infestations of economically important crops. This knowledge will be useful to define strategies for exploiting this group of beneficial bacteria for use as inoculants by themselves or in combination with other microbes for enhanced crop protection.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection...... was more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Phages Infecting Bacillus subtilis

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    Anna Krasowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative approach to reduce the amount of pathogens in various applications. Bacteriophages of various specificity and virulence were isolated as a means of controlling food-borne pathogens. We studied the interaction of bacteriophages with Bacillus species, which are very often persistent in industrial applications such as food production due to their antibiotic resistance and spore formation. A comparative study using electron microscopy, PFGE, and SDS-PAGE as well as determination of host range, pH and temperature resistance, adsorption rate, latent time, and phage burst size was performed on three phages of the Myoviridae family and one phage of the Siphoviridae family which infected Bacillus subtilis strains. The phages are morphologically different and characterized by icosahedral heads and contractile (SIOΦ, SUBω, and SPOσ phages or noncontractile (ARπ phage tails. The genomes of SIOΦ and SUBω are composed of 154 kb. The capsid of SIOΦ is composed of four proteins. Bacteriophages SPOσ and ARπ have genome sizes of 25 kbp and 40 kbp, respectively. Both phages as well as SUBω phage have 14 proteins in their capsids. Phages SIOΦ and SPOσ are resistant to high temperatures and to the acid (4.0 and alkaline (9.0 and 10.0 pH.

  5. The role of pili in Bacillus cereus intraocular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegan, Michelle C; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Randall, C Blake; Coburn, Phillip S; Miller, Frederick C; LaGrow, Austin L; Astley, Roger A; Land, Craig; Oh, So-Young; Schneewind, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is a potentially blinding intraocular infection. The bacterium Bacillus cereus causes a devastating form of this disease which progresses rapidly, resulting in significant inflammation and loss of vision within a few days. The outer surface of B. cereus incites the intraocular inflammatory response, likely through interactions with innate immune receptors such as TLRs. This study analyzed the role of B. cereus pili, adhesion appendages located on the bacterial surface, in experimental endophthalmitis. To test the hypothesis that the presence of pili contributed to intraocular inflammation and virulence, we analyzed the progress of experimental endophthalmitis in mouse eyes infected with wild type B. cereus (ATCC 14579) or its isogenic pilus-deficient mutant (ΔbcpA-srtD-bcpB or ΔPil). One hundred CFU were injected into the mid-vitreous of one eye of each mouse. Infections were analyzed by quantifying intraocular bacilli and retinal function loss, and by histology from 0 to 12 h postinfection. In vitro growth and hemolytic phenotypes of the infecting strains were also compared. There was no difference in hemolytic activity (1:8 titer), motility, or in vitro growth (p > 0.05, every 2 h, 0-18 h) between wild type B. cereus and the ΔPil mutant. However, infected eyes contained greater numbers of wild type B. cereus than ΔPil during the infection course (p ≤ 0.05, 3-12 h). Eyes infected with wild type B. cereus experienced greater losses in retinal function than eyes infected with the ΔPil mutant, but the differences were not always significant. Eyes infected with ΔPil or wild type B. cereus achieved similar degrees of severe inflammation. The results indicated that the intraocular growth of pilus-deficient B. cereus may have been better controlled, leading to a trend of greater retinal function in eyes infected with the pilus-deficient strain. Although this difference was not enough to significantly alter the severity

  6. Hepatitis in Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Infection

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    Markus U Göttke

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Local immunotherapy with an attenuated live strain of Mycobacterium bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, is an effective and frequently used treatment for in situ transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder. Success rates are high, and serious side effects are infrequent but can affect every organ system. A 79-year-old patient with recently diagnosed TCC who was treated with intravesical BCG for a recurrence after initial surgical treatment is reported. After unsuccessful attempts at bladder catheterization with the creation of a false passage for his third treatment, BCG was instilled via a suprapubic catheter the same day and again a week later. Two weeks after the third BCG instillation, the patient presented with profound lethargy and weakness to the point of not being able to get up out of a chair. He was febrile, anorexic, icteric and had hepatosplenomegaly. Disseminated BCG infection was suspected on the basis of history, clinical examination and a liver biopsy that showed noncaseating granulomatous hepatitis. Empirical treatment was started with antituberculous combination therapy. A short course of an oral corticosteroid was given. Clinical improvement was marked and sustained so that the patient could be discharged home for the full six-month course of his treatment. Disseminated BCG infection with granulomatous hepatitis can be severe and life-threatening in cases where a large intravascular inoculum of BCG may have been given inadvertently.

  7. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

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    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  8. Prosthetic Joint Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis after Intravesical Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG

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    Eric Gomez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is a treatment to prevent recurrence of superficial urothelial bladder carcinoma. Complications after bladder instillation of BCG have been reported including locally invasive and systemic infections due to dissemination of Mycobacterium bovis from the bladder. We present an uncommon case and literature review of prosthetic joint infection due to M. bovis after intravesical BCG treatment of bladder cancer.

  9. [Maxillary sinus infection by Bacillus licheniformis: a case report from Djibouti].

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    Garcia Hejl, C; Sanmartin, N; Samson, T; Soler, C; Koeck, J-L

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic, spore-forming gram-positive Bacillus spp infections are rare and reported mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of acute unilateral maxillary sinusitis, caused by Bacillus licheniformis, in a 35-year-old French soldier stationed in Djibouti. It was easily identifiable due to its typical culture and resistance profile. This case is interesting for two reasons: first, it is, to our knowledge, the first case of sinusitis attributed to this microbe, and second, it has rarely been described in immunocompetent patients without altered skin or mucous membranes.

  10. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system

    It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  11. Fatal Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection Initially Reported as a Bacillus Species, Ohio, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Doker, Thomas J.; Quinn, Celia L.; Salehi, Ellen D.; Sherwood, Joshua J.; Benoit, Tina J.; Elrod, Mindy Glass; Gee, Jay E.; Shadomy, Sean V.; Bower, William A.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Walke, Henry T.; Blaney, David D.; DiOrio, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    A fatal case of melioidosis was diagnosed in Ohio one month after culture results were initially reported as a Bacillus species. To identify a source of infection and assess risk in patient contacts, we abstracted patient charts; interviewed physicians and contacts; genetically characterized the isolate; performed a Burkholderia pseudomallei antibody indirect hemagglutination assay on household contacts and pets to assess seropositivity; and collected household plant, soil, liquid, and insect...

  12. Analysis of Host-Takeover During SPO1 Infection of Bacillus subtilis.

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    Stewart, Charles R

    2018-01-01

    When Bacillus subtilis is infected by bacteriophage SPO1, the phage directs the remodeling of the host cell, converting it into a factory for phage reproduction. Much synthesis of host DNA, RNA, and protein is shut off, and cell division is prevented. Here I describe the protocols by which we have demonstrated those processes, and identified the roles played by specific SPO1 gene products in causing those processes.

  13. Bacillus anthracis infections – new possibilities of treatment

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    Dorota Żakowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. [i]Bacillus anthracis[/i] is one of biological agents which may be used in bioterrorism attacks. The aim of this study a review of the new treatment possibilities of anthrax, with particular emphasis on the treatment of pulmonary anthrax. [b]Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge[/b]. Pulmonary anthrax, as the most dangerous clinical form of the disease, is also extremely difficult to treat. Recently, considerable progress in finding new drugs and suitable therapy for anthrax has been achieved, for example, new antibiotics worth to mentioning, levofloxacin, daptomycin, gatifloxacin and dalbavancin. However, alternative therapeutic options should also be considered, among them the antimicrobial peptides, characterized by lack of inducible mechanisms of pathogen resistance. Very promising research considers bacteriophages lytic enzymes against selected bacteria species, including antibiotic-resistant strains. [b]Results[/b]. Interesting results were obtained using monoclonal antibodies: raxibacumab, cAb29 or cocktails of antibodies. The application of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides to boost the immune response elicited by Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed and CMG2 protein complexes, also produced satisfying therapy results. Furthermore, the IFN-α and IFN-β, PA-dominant negative mutant, human inter-alpha inhibitor proteins and LF inhibitors in combination with ciprofloxacin, also showed very promising results. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Recently, progress has been achieved in inhalation anthrax treatment. The most promising new possibilities include: new antibiotics, peptides and bacteriophages enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, antigen PA mutants, and inter alpha inhibitors applications. In the case of the possibility of bioterrorist attacks, the examination of inhalation anthrax treatment should be intensively continued.

  14. Utilizing Bacillus to inhibit the growth and infection by sheath blight pathogen, Rhizoctoniasolani in rice

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    Margani, R.; Hadiwiyono; Widadi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn is a common pathogen of rice. The pathogen causes sheath blight of rice. The pathogen can cause loss in the production of rice up to 45%. So far, the disease however is still poorly taken care of by the farmers and researchers, so the control measures is nearly never practiced by the farmers in the fields. It due to the unavailability of effective control method of the disease. Therefore, development to control the disease is important. Bacillus is one of popular bacteria which is effective as biological control agent of a lot of pathogens in plants, but it has not been used for control sheath blight in rice yet. The current researches were aimed to study the potential of Bacillus collected from healthy rice as candidates of biological control agent of the disease. The results showed that some isolates showed indications to inhibit significantly the growth and infection of the pathogen. We obtained at least five isolates of Bacillus collected from leaves, sheath, and stem of healthy rice fields. All of the isolates could effectively inhibit the growth of R. solani in vitro on potato dextrose medium at range 30.33-58.00%, whereas in vivo B05 isolate was the most effective in inhibiting the infection of pathogen at 30.43%. It was not significantly different (P≥0.05) to application of hexaconazol with dosage of 2 ml L-1.

  15. Physical Sequestration of Bacillus anthracis in the Pulmonary Capillaries in Terminal Infection.

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    Jouvion, Gregory; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Khun, Huot; Moya-Nilges, Marie; Roux, Pascal; Latroche, Claire; Tournier, Jean-Nicolas; Huerre, Michel; Chrétien, Fabrice; Goossens, Pierre L

    2016-07-15

    The lung is the terminal target of Bacillus anthracis before death, whatever the route of infection (cutaneous, inhalational, or digestive). During a cutaneous infection in absence of toxins, we observed encapsulated bacteria colonizing the alveolar capillary network, bacteria and hemorrhages in alveolar and bronchiolar spaces, and hypoxic foci in the lung (endothelial cells) and brain (neurons and neuropil). Circulating encapsulated bacteria were as chains of approximately 13 µm in length. Bacteria of such size were immediately trapped within the lung capillary network, but bacteria of shorter length were not. Controlling lung-targeted pathology would be beneficial for anthrax treatment. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. DNA synthesis in toluene-treated bacteriophage-infected minicells of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, E.; Reeve, J.N.

    1978-01-01

    Bateriophage (phi29, SPP1, or SP01)-infected, toluene-treated minicells of Bacillus subtilis are capable of limited amounts of non-replicative DNA synthesis as measured by incorporation of [ 3 H]dTTP into a trichloroacetic acid-precipitable form. The [ 3 H]dTTP is covalently incorporated into small DNA fragments which result from the degradation of a small percentage of the infecting phage genomes (molecular weights in the range of 2.10 5 ). Short exposure of the DNA molecules containing the incorporated [ 3 H]dTMP to Escherichia coli exonuclease III results in over 90% of the [ 3 H]dTMP being converted to a trichloroacetic acid-soluble form. The synthesis is totally dependent on host-cell enzymes and is not inhibited by the addition of chloramphenicol, rifampicin, nalidixic acid and mitomycin C and only slightly (approx. 20%) inhibited by the addition of 6-(p-hydroxyphenylazo)-uracil. (Auth.)

  17. [Use of antagonistic Bacillus subtilis bacteria for treatment of nosocomial urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushkarev, A M; Tuĭgunova, V G; Zaĭnullin, R R; Kuznetsova, T N; Gabidullin, Iu Z

    2007-01-01

    Effect of Bactisporin--a probiotic, containing spores of aerobic Bacillus subtilis 3H bacterium--for complex treatment of patients with nosocomial urinary tract infections was studied. 68 Cultures of different species of conditionally pathogenic bacteria were isolated from urine of the patients. Susceptibility of the isolated cultures to antibiotics before and after application of B. subtilis 3H metabolites was determined. The metabolites were accumulated on potato-glucose agar (PGA) while bacterium was cultivated on kapron membranes placed on surface of the medium. Influence of obtained metabolites on isolated strains was assessed by cultivation of each strain in metabolites-rich PGA during 24 h. Metabolites of B. subtilis led to decrease in resistance of isolated uropathogenic microflora to antibiotics. Use of Bactisporin in complex treatment of nosocomial urinary tract infections resulted in accelerated elimination of causative microorganism.

  18. Kefiran protects Caco-2 cells from cytopathic effects induced by Bacillus cereus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano, Micaela; Hamet, Maria F; Abraham, Analía G; Pérez, Pablo F

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of kefiran to antagonize cytopathic effects triggered by Bacillus cereus strain B10502 on cultured human enterocytes (Caco-2 cells). Cell damage was evaluated by F-actin labelling, scanning electron microscopy and determination of ratios of necrotic and detached cells. To assess the interaction between kefiran and bacteria or eukaryotic cells, flow cytometric analysis was conducted with FITC-labelled kefiran. Kefiran significantly protected infected cells from cytopathic effects induced by B. cereus such as cell necrosis, F-actin disorganisation and microvilli effacement, although presence of kefiran did not modify the adhesion of microorganisms to cultured human enterocytes. Results could be ascribed to the ability of kefiran to interact with both bacteria and eukaryotic cells thus antagonizing interactions necessary for maximal biological effects. Our findings encourage further research on the use of bacterial exopolysaccharides to antagonize virulence factors associated to direct bacteria-cell interactions.

  19. Outbreak of Bacillus cereus Infections in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Traced to Balloons Used in Manual Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Zwet, Wil C.; Parlevliet, Gerard A.; Savelkoul, Paul H.; Stoof, Jeroen; Kaiser, Annie M.; Van Furth, A. Marceline; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of systemic infections caused by Bacillus cereus occurred in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Three neonates developed sepsis with positive blood cultures. One neonate died, and the other two neonates recovered. An environmental survey, a prospective surveillance study of neonates, and a case control study were performed, in combination with molecular typing, in order to identify potential sources ...

  20. [Efficacy of enterocin S760 in treatment of mice with anthrax infection due to Bacillus anthracis M-71].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetoch, E A; Borzilov, A I; Eruslanov, B V; Korobova, O V; Kombarova, T I; Levchuk, V P; Teĭmurazov, M G; Stepanshin, Iu G; Marinin, L I; Diatlov, I A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of enterocin S760, a broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide produced by Enterococcus faecium LWP760 was tested on mice infected with Bacillus anthracis M-71 to induce anthrax (second Tsenkovsky's vaccine). Intraperitoneal four-, two- or one-fold administration of the peptide in a dose of 25 mg/kg for 10 days for prophylactic (1 hour after the contamination) and therapeutic (24 hours after the contamination) purposes prevented or cured the infection in 90-100% of the mice versus the 100-percent lethality in the control (untreated animals). The antimicrobial activity of enterocin S760 against B. anthracis M-71 in vivo correlated with activity in vitro. Enterocin S760 is considered a novel promising antimicrobial for the treatment of grampositive and gramnegative infections.

  1. Transcription Profiling of Bacillus subtilis Cells Infected with AR9, a Giant Phage Encoding Two Multisubunit RNA Polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavysh, Daria; Sokolova, Maria; Slashcheva, Marina; Förstner, Konrad U; Severinov, Konstantin

    2017-02-14

    Bacteriophage AR9 is a recently sequenced jumbo phage that encodes two multisubunit RNA polymerases. Here we investigated the AR9 transcription strategy and the effect of AR9 infection on the transcription of its host, Bacillus subtilis Analysis of whole-genome transcription revealed early, late, and continuously expressed AR9 genes. Alignment of sequences upstream of the 5' ends of AR9 transcripts revealed consensus sequences that define early and late phage promoters. Continuously expressed AR9 genes have both early and late promoters in front of them. Early AR9 transcription is independent of protein synthesis and must be determined by virion RNA polymerase injected together with viral DNA. During infection, the overall amount of host mRNAs is significantly decreased. Analysis of relative amounts of host transcripts revealed notable differences in the levels of some mRNAs. The physiological significance of up- or downregulation of host genes for AR9 phage infection remains to be established. AR9 infection is significantly affected by rifampin, an inhibitor of host RNA polymerase transcription. The effect is likely caused by the antibiotic-induced killing of host cells, while phage genome transcription is solely performed by viral RNA polymerases. IMPORTANCE Phages regulate the timing of the expression of their own genes to coordinate processes in the infected cell and maximize the release of viral progeny. Phages also alter the levels of host transcripts. Here we present the results of a temporal analysis of the host and viral transcriptomes of Bacillus subtilis infected with a giant phage, AR9. We identify viral promoters recognized by two virus-encoded RNA polymerases that are a unique feature of the phiKZ-related group of phages to which AR9 belongs. Our results set the stage for future analyses of highly unusual RNA polymerases encoded by AR9 and other phiKZ-related phages. Copyright © 2017 Lavysh et al.

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin increases the susceptibility of Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata to Beauveria bassiana infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spotted asparagus beetle, Crioceris quatuordecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is one of the most devastating pests of asparagus in China and elsewhere. In this study, we investigated the interaction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Aa toxin and the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bas...

  3. Outbreak of Bacillus cereus infections in a neonatal intensive care unit traced to balloons used in manual ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Zwet, W C; Parlevliet, G A; Savelkoul, P H; Stoof, J; Kaiser, A M; Van Furth, A M; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M

    2000-11-01

    In 1998, an outbreak of systemic infections caused by Bacillus cereus occurred in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Three neonates developed sepsis with positive blood cultures. One neonate died, and the other two neonates recovered. An environmental survey, a prospective surveillance study of neonates, and a case control study were performed, in combination with molecular typing, in order to identify potential sources and transmission routes of infection. Genotypic fingerprinting by amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) showed that the three infections were caused by a single clonal type of B. cereus. The same strain was found in trachea aspirate specimens of 35 other neonates. The case control study showed mechanical ventilation with a Sensormedics ventilation machine to be a risk factor for colonization and/or infection (odds ratio, 9.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 88.2). Prospective surveillance showed that colonization with B. cereus occurred exclusively in the respiratory tract of mechanically ventilated neonates. The epidemic strain of B. cereus was found on the hands of nursing staff and in balloons used for manual ventilation. Sterilization of these balloons ended the outbreak. We conclude that B. cereus can cause outbreaks of severe opportunistic infection in neonates. Typing by AFLP proved very useful in the identification of the outbreak and in the analysis of strains recovered from the environment to trace the cause of the epidemic.

  4. Sigma Virus (DMelSV Incidence in Lines of Drosophila melanogaster Selected for Survival following Infection with Bacillus cereus

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    Meghan L. Bentz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response of Drosophila melanogaster is complex and involves both specific and general responses to parasites. In this study we tested for cross-immunity for bacteria and viruses by scoring the incidence of infection with the vertically transmitted Sigma virus (DMelSV in the progeny of a cross between females transmitting DMelSV at high frequencies and males from lines subjected to three selection regimes related to resistance to Bacillus cereus. There was no significant difference in transmission of DMelSV among selection regimes, though results suggest that the B. cereus selected lines had lower rates of infection by DMelSV. We found a significant difference in viral infection with respect to the sex of the progeny, with males consistently less likely to be infected than females. Given a finite energy budget, flies that have experienced immune system challenge may show alterations in other life history traits. Later eclosing progeny were also less likely to be infected than earlier eclosing progeny, indicating a relationship with development time. Finally, there was a significant interaction between the timing of collection and the sex of the progeny, such that later eclosing males were the most resistant group. Increased development time is sometimes associated with increased energy acquisition; from this perspective, increased development time may be associated with acquiring sufficient resources for effective resistance.

  5. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp lactis CIDCA 133 modulates response of human epithelial and dendritic cells infected with Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolny, I S; Tiscornia, I; Racedo, S M; Pérez, P F; Bollati-Fogolín, M

    2016-11-30

    It is known that probiotic microorganisms are able to modulate pathogen virulence. This ability is strain dependent and involves multiple interactions between microorganisms and relevant host's cell populations. In the present work we focus on the effect of a potentially probiotic lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis CIDCA 133) in an in vitro model of Bacillus cereus infection. Our results showed that infection of intestinal epithelial HT-29 cells by B. cereus induces nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Noteworthy, the presence of strain L. delbrueckii subsp.lactis CIDCA 133 increases stimulation. However, B. cereus-induced interleukin (IL)-8 production by epithelial cells is partially abrogated by L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CIDCA 133. These findings suggest that signalling pathways other than that of NF-κB are involved. In a co-culture system (HT-29 and monocyte-derived dendritic cells), B. cereus was able to translocate from the epithelial (upper) to the dendritic cell compartment (lower). This translocation was partially abrogated by the presence of lactobacilli in the upper compartment. In addition, infection of epithelial cells in the co-culture model, led to an increase in the expression of CD86 by dendritic cells. This effect could not be modified in the presence of lactobacilli. Interestingly, infection of enterocytes with B. cereus triggers production of proinflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells (IL-8, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)). The production of TNF-α (a protective cytokine in B. cereus infections) by dendritic cells was increased in the presence of lactobacilli. The present work demonstrates for the first time the effect of L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CIDCA 133, a potentially probiotic strain, in an in vitro model of B. cereus infection. The presence of the probiotic strain modulates cell response both in infected epithelial and dendritic cells thus suggesting a possible beneficial effect of

  6. Genome-Wide Analysis of Host Responses to Four Different Types of Microorganisms in Bombyx Mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tingcai; Lin, Ping; Huang, Lulin; Wu, Yuqian; Jin, Shengkai; Liu, Chun; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogenic microorganisms have been used to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional responses of Bombyx mori to infection. However, studies have so far each focused on one microorganism, and systematic genome-wide comparison of transcriptional responses to different pathogenic microorganisms has not been undertaken. Here, we surveyed transcriptional responses of B. mori to its natural bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens, Bacillus bombyseptieus, B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), and Beauveria bassiana, respectively, and to nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, by microarray analysis. In total, the expression of 2,436, 1,804, 1,743, and 912 B. mori genes was modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, and E. coli, respectively. Notably, the expression of 620, 400, 177, or 165 of these genes was only modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, or E. coli, respectively. In contrast to the expression of genes related to juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism, that of genes encoding juvenile hormone binding proteins was microorganism-specific. Three basal metabolic pathways were modulated by infection with any of the four microorganisms, and 3, 14, 5, and 2 metabolic pathways were specifically modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, BmNPV, B. bassiana, and E. coli, respectively. Interestingly, BmNPV infection modulated the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, whereas both the Imd and Toll signaling pathways were modulated by infection with B. bombyseptieus, B. bassiana, or E. coli These results elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of the host response to different microorganisms, and provide a foundation for further work on host-pathogen interaction. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  7. Transmission dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis infecting Plodia interpunctella: a test of the mass action assumption with an insect pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, R J; Begon, M; Thompson, D J

    1996-01-22

    Central to theoretical studies of host-pathogen population dynamics is a term describing transmission of the pathogen. This usually assumes that transmission is proportional to the density of infectious hosts or particles and of susceptible individuals. We tested this assumption with the bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis infecting larvae of Plodia interpunctella, the Indian meal moth. Transmission was found to increase in a more than linear way with host density in fourth and fifth instar P. interpunctella, and to decrease with the density of infectious cadavers in the case of fifth instar larvae. Food availability was shown to play an important part in this process. Therefore, on a number of counts, the usual assumption was found not to apply in our experimental system.

  8. Bacillus calmette-guerin infection in NADPH oxidase deficiency: defective mycobacterial sequestration and granuloma formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Deffert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD lack generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS through the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. CGD is an immune deficiency that leads to frequent infections with certain pathogens; this is well documented for S. aureus and A. fumigatus, but less clear for mycobacteria. We therefore performed an extensive literature search which yielded 297 cases of CGD patients with mycobacterial infections; M. bovis BCG was most commonly described (74%. The relationship between NOX2 deficiency and BCG infection however has never been studied in a mouse model. We therefore investigated BCG infection in three different mouse models of CGD: Ncf1 mutants in two different genetic backgrounds and Cybb knock-out mice. In addition, we investigated a macrophage-specific rescue (transgenic expression of Ncf1 under the control of the CD68 promoter. Wild-type mice did not develop severe disease upon BCG injection. In contrast, all three types of CGD mice were highly susceptible to BCG, as witnessed by a severe weight loss, development of hemorrhagic pneumonia, and a high mortality (∼ 50%. Rescue of NOX2 activity in macrophages restored BCG resistance, similar as seen in wild-type mice. Granulomas from mycobacteria-infected wild-type mice generated ROS, while granulomas from CGD mice did not. Bacterial load in CGD mice was only moderately increased, suggesting that it was not crucial for the observed phenotype. CGD mice responded with massively enhanced cytokine release (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-12 early after BCG infection, which might account for severity of the disease. Finally, in wild-type mice, macrophages formed clusters and restricted mycobacteria to granulomas, while macrophages and mycobacteria were diffusely distributed in lung tissue from CGD mice. Our results demonstrate that lack of the NADPH oxidase leads to a markedly increased severity of BCG infection through mechanisms including increased cytokine

  9. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth: Effects on early childhood infections, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-11-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG), which is used to protect against tuberculosis, has been associated with a variety of other effects since it was developed almost 100 years ago. Most notably, observational studies and randomized clinical trials from low-income countries indicate that it protects against unrelated infections, i.e. a so-called non-specific effect. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted to study these effects in a high-income population. The immune response to BCG is not fully understood but involves a pro-inflammatory profiling of the immune system, also when exposed to unrelated pathogens. Immune changes have been implicated in changes in both child growth and child development and for that reason we also studied these outcomes. We randomized 4262 children at birth to receive BCG vaccination at birth or to a no-intervention control group. We had pre-specified subgroup analyses of child sex, prematurity, and maternal BCG vaccination. The statistical analysis plan was finalized prior to unblinding of the data. Follow-up for the outcomes reported in this thesis consisted of telephone interviews and clinical examination at age 3 and 13 months, as well as online developmental questionnaires distributed to the parents at 12 months and additionally to the parents of premature children at age 6 and 22 months. The outcomes of this thesis were number of parent reported infections, child growth and body composition, and child psychomotor development. Overall, there was no effect of BCG on either incidence of infections, growth, body composition or psychomotor development. A subgroup analysis of children of mothers who were BCG vaccinated showed a reduced incidence of infections from 0 to 3 months among BCG vaccinated children (incidence rate ratio = 0.62, CI: 0.39 to 0.98), but there was no effect from 3 to 13 months. Previous research has shown that maternal exposure to BCG or mycobacteria can alter the effect of BCG in the offspring, and thus the

  10. Bacillus Coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus coagulans is a type of bacteria. It is used similarly to lactobacillus and other probiotics as "beneficial" bacteria. People take Bacillus coagulans for diarrhea, including infectious types such as rotaviral ...

  11. Passive vaccination with a human monoclonal antibody: generation of antibodies and studies for efficacy in Bacillus anthracis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vor dem Esche, Ulrich; Huber, Maria; Zgaga-Griesz, Andrea; Grunow, Roland; Beyer, Wolfgang; Hahn, Ulrike; Bessler, Wolfgang G

    2011-07-01

    A major difficulty in creating human monoclonal antibodies is the lack of a suitable myeloma cell line to be used for fusion experiments. In order to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization, the human mouse heteromyeloma cell line CB-F7 was evaluated. Using this cell line, we generated human monoclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis toxin components. Antibodies against protective antigen (PA) and against lethal factor (LF) were obtained using peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) from persons vaccinated with the UK anthrax vaccine. PBL were fused with the cell line CB-F7. We obtained several clones producing PA specific Ig and one clone (hLF1-SAN) producing a monoclonal antibody (hLF1) directed against LF. The LF binding antibody was able to neutralize Anthrax toxin activity in an in vitro neutralization assay, and preliminary in vivo studies in mice also indicated a trend towards protection. We mapped the epitope of the antibody binding to LF by dot blot analysis and ELIFA using 80 synthetic LF peptides of 20 amino acid lengths with an overlapping range of 10 amino acids. Our results suggest the binding of the monoclonal antibody to the peptide regions 121-150 or 451-470 of LF. The Fab-fragment of the antibody hLF1 was cloned in Escherichia coli and could be useful as part of a fully human monoclonal antibody for the treatment of Anthrax infections. In general, our studies show the applicability of the CB-F7 line to create fully human monoclonal antibodies for vaccination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Jensen, Mette Lundsby

    2017-01-01

    : The studies from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark, 2 very different settings, both suggest that the BCG and smallpox vaccines could be associated with a decreased risk of sexually transmitted HIV-1. It might be informative to pursue this observation and explore possible protective mechanisms as part of the search......BACKGROUND: The live smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinations have been associated with better adult survival in both Guinea-Bissau and Denmark. In Guinea-Bissau, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 became an important cause of death after smallpox vaccination was phased out...... globally in 1980. We hypothesised that smallpox and BCG vaccinations were associated with a lower prevalence of HIV-1 infection, and we tested this hypothesis in both Guinea-Bissau and Denmark. METHODS: We conducted 2 studies: (1) a cross-sectional study of HIV infection and vaccination scars in Guinea...

  13. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced trained immunity is not protective for experimental influenza A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bree, Charlotte L.C.J.; Marijnissen, Renoud J.; Kel, Junda M.

    2018-01-01

    potentially lead to an influenza pandemic, which may have severe consequences due to the absence of pre-existent immunity to this strain at population level. Currently there is no influenza A (H7N9) vaccine available. Therefore, in case of a pandemic outbreak, alternative preventive approaches are needed......, ideally even independent of the type of influenza virus outbreak. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to induce strong heterologous immunological effects, and it has been shown that BCG protects against non-related infection challenges in several mouse models. BCG immunization of mice as well as human......9) challenge. Here, we show that isolated splenocytes as well as peritoneal macrophages of BCG-immunized BALB/c mice displayed a trained immunity phenotype resulting in increased innate cytokine responses upon ex vivo restimulation. However, after H7N9 infection, no significant differences were...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of vB_BveP-Goe6, a Virus Infecting Bacillus velezensis FZB42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tobias; Hoppert, Michael; Daniel, Rolf; Hertel, Robert

    2018-02-22

    The new virus vB_BveP-Goe6 was isolated on the host organism Bacillus velezensis FZB42. The virus morphology indicated its association with the genus Phi29virus The genome of vB_BveP-Goe6 (19,105 bp) comprises a linear chromosome with a GC content of 39.99%. The genome harbors 26 putative protein-coding genes and a noncoding packaging RNA. Copyright © 2018 Schilling et al.

  15. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser, and proline (Pro as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  16. Selection and differentiation of Bacillus spp. Antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani infecting Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh

    2011-03-01

    Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and β-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and β-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates.

  17. GFP tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2 infection and the protective effects of the probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 on the growth, immune and antioxidant responses in Pangasius hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Sekar, Vijayakumar; Shanthi, Sathappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Jayakumar, Rengarajan; Khudus Nazar, Abdul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the pathogenicity of GFP tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and the protective effect of the probiotic strain, Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 was studied on the Asian catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus. The experiment was carried out for 24 days with three groups and one group served as the control (without treatment). In the first group, P. hypophthalmus was orally infected with 1 mL of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). In the second group, P. hypophthalmus was orally administrated with 1 ml of the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). In the third group, P. hypophthalmus was orally infected first with 1 mL of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 followed by the administration of 1 mL of B. licheniformis Dahb1 (combined treatment) at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). The growth, immune (myeloperoxidase, respiratory burst, natural complement haemolytic and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant (glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione and total glutathione) responses of P. hypophthalmus were reduced after post infection of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 compared to control. However, after administration with the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at 10(5) cfu mL(-1), P. hypophthalmus showed significant increase in the growth, immune and antioxidant responses compared to 10(7) cfu mL(-1). On the otherhand, the growth, immune and antioxidant responses of P. hypophthalmus infected and administrated with combined GFP tagged Vibrio + Bacillus at 10(5) cfu mL(-1) were relatively higher than that of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and control groups but lower than that of probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 groups. The results of the present study conclude that the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at 10(5) cfu mL(-1) has the potential to protect the P. hypophthalmus against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 infection by enhancing the growth

  18. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Disease in an HIV-Infected Child with a Linezolid-Containing Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Roglić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon HIV infection diagnosis, an 8-month-old boy was transferred for evaluation of worsening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP was diagnosed; the boy also had a nonhealing ulcer at the site of vaccination with Statens Serum Institut (Danish strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine and associated axillary lymphadenopathy. PCP treatment resulted in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Antimycobacterial treatment was immediately attempted but was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity. Over several months, he developed splenic lesions and then disseminated skin and cystic bone lesions. M. bovis was repeatedly cultured from both skin and bone lesions despite various multidrug antimycobacterial regimens which included linezolid. Eventually, treatment with a regimen of rifabutin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and linezolid led to definitive cure. Clinicians should consider a linezolid-containing regimen for treatment of severe disseminated BCG infection, especially if other drug regimens have failed. Although drug toxicity is a particular concern for young children, this patient received linezolid for 13 months without serious toxicity. This case also highlights the need for universal screening among pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Finally, routine immunization with BCG vaccine at birth should be questioned in countries with low and declining burden of tuberculosis.

  19. Oral vaccination of guinea pigs with a Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine in a lipid matrix protects against aerosol infection with virulent M. bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Cross, Martin L; Nadian, Allan; Vipond, Julia; Court, Pinar; Williams, Ann; Hewinson, R Glyn; Aldwell, Frank E; Chambers, Mark A

    2008-08-01

    Increased incidence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the United Kingdom caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a cause of considerable economic loss to farmers and the government. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) represents a wildlife source of recurrent M. bovis infections of cattle in the United Kingdom, and its vaccination against TB with M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is an attractive disease control option. Delivery of BCG in oral bait holds the best prospect for vaccinating badgers over a wide geographical area. Using a guinea pig pulmonary challenge model, we evaluated the protective efficacy of candidate badger oral vaccines, based on broth-grown or ball-milled BCG, delivered either as aqueous suspensions or formulated in two lipids with differing fatty acid profiles (one being animal derived and the other being vegetable derived). Protection was determined in terms of increasing body weight after aerosol challenge with virulent M. bovis, reduced dissemination of M. bovis to the spleen, and, in the case of one oral formulation, restricted growth of M. bovis in the lungs. Only oral BCG formulated in lipid gave significant protection. These data point to the potential of the BCG-lipid formulation for further development as a tool for controlling tuberculosis in badgers.

  20. Different Transcriptional Profiles of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected with Distinct Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze dendritic cells (DCs activation following infection with different mycobacterial strains, we studied the expression profiles of 165 genes of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with H37Rv, a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB laboratory strain, CMT97, a clinical MTB isolate, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Aventis Pasteur, and BCG Japan, both employed as vaccine against tuberculosis. The analysis of the gene expression reveals that, despite a set of genes similarly modulated, DCs response resulted strain dependent. In particular, H37Rv significantly upregulated EBI3 expression compared with BCG Japan, while it was the only strain that failed to release a significant IL-10 amount. Of note, BCG Japan showed a marked increase in CCR7 and TNF-α expression regarding both MTB strains and it resulted the only strain failing in exponential intracellular growth. Our results suggest that DCs display the ability to elicit a tailored strain-specific immune response.

  1. Antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus and bacillus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus bacteria and their antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infections (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion.

  2. Obiltoxaximab Prevents Disseminated Bacillus anthracis Infection and Improves Survival during Pre- and Postexposure Prophylaxis in Animal Models of Inhalational Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Brent J.; Shadiack, Annette M.; Carpenter, Sarah; Sanford, Daniel; Henning, Lisa N.; Gonzales, Nestor; O'Connor, Edward; Casey, Leslie S.

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend adjunctive antitoxins when systemic anthrax is suspected. Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with antibiotics and for prophylaxis when alternative therapies are not available. The impact of toxin neutralization with obiltoxaximab during pre- and postexposure prophylaxis was explored, and efficacy results that supported the prophylaxis indication are presented here. New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques received obiltoxaximab as a single intramuscular or intravenous dose of 2 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at various times relative to Bacillus anthracis aerosol spore challenge. The primary endpoint was survival, and effect of treatment timing was explored. In rabbits, obiltoxaximab administration 9 h postchallenge singly or combined with a 5-day levofloxacin regimen protected 89% to 100% of animals compared to 33% with levofloxacin monotherapy. In cynomolgus macaques, a single intramuscular dose of 16 mg/kg obiltoxaximab led to 100% survival when given 1 to 3 days preexposure and 83% to 100% survival when given 18 to 24 h postexposure and prior to systemic bacteremia onset. Obiltoxaximab administration after bacteremia onset resulted in lower (25% to 50%) survival rates reflective of treatment setting. Prophylactic administration of obiltoxaximab before spore challenge or to spore-challenged animals before systemic bacterial dissemination is efficacious in promoting survival, ameliorating toxemia, and inhibiting bacterial spread to the periphery. PMID:27431219

  3. Influence of dietary probiotic Bacillus TC22 and Prebiotic fructooligosaccharide on growth, immune responses and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Wang, Xiaojie; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2011-09-01

    The effects of probiotic Bacillus TC22 (isolated from intestine of infected sea cucumber) and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth, immunity and disease resistance in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were studied. Six experimental diets were formulated with combinations of three levels of TC22 (0, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet) and two levels of FOS (0 and 0.5%) in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment. At the end of the 8-week feeding trial, animals were challenged by injecting Vibrio splendidus. The results revealed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of sea cucumbers were not affected by TC22 and FOS, or the interaction between TC22 and FOS ( P > 0.05). However, there were significant interactions between TC22 and FOS for immune response and disease resistance in sea cucumbers ( P 0.05). Therefore, further studies should examine the effects of combinations of other levels of FOS (> 0.5% or < 0.5%) and TC22 on the immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumbers.

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry5B protein is highly efficacious as a single-dose therapy against an intestinal roundworm infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic nematode diseases are one of the great diseases of our time. Intestinal roundworm parasites, including hookworms, whipworms, and Ascaris, infect well over 1 billion people and cause significant morbidity, especially in children and pregnant women. To date, there is only one drug, albendazole, with adequate efficacy against these parasites to be used in mass drug administration, although tribendimidine may emerge as a second. Given the hundreds of millions of people to be treated, the threat of parasite resistance, and the inadequacy of current treatments, new anthelmintics are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crystal (Cry proteins are the most common used biologically produced insecticides in the world and are considered non-toxic to vertebrates.Here we study the ability of a nematicidal Cry protein, Cry5B, to effect a cure in mice of a chronic roundworm infection caused by the natural intestinal parasite, Heligmosomoides bakeri (formerly polygyrus. We show that Cry5B produced from either of two Bt strains can act as an anthelmintic in vivo when administered as a single dose, achieving a approximately 98% reduction in parasite egg production and approximately 70% reduction in worm burdens when delivered per os at approximately 700 nmoles/kg (90-100 mg/kg. Furthermore, our data, combined with the findings of others, suggest that the relative efficacy of Cry5B is either comparable or superior to current anthelmintics. We also demonstrate that Cry5B is likely to be degraded quite rapidly in the stomach, suggesting that the actual dose reaching the parasites is very small.This study indicates that Bt Cry proteins such as Cry5B have excellent anthelmintic properties in vivo and that proper formulation of the protein is likely to reveal a superior anthelmintic.

  5. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  6. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, Nazly

    1982-01-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans. (author)

  7. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-10-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pathogenicity of B. cereus in nongastrointestinal disease. B. cereus isolated from clinical material other than feces or vomitus was commonly dismissed as a contaminant, but increasingly it is being recognized as a species with pathogenic potential. It is now recognized as an infrequent cause of serious nongastrointestinal infection, particularly in drug addicts, the immunosuppressed, neonates, and postsurgical patients, especially when prosthetic implants such as ventricular shunts are inserted. Ocular infections are the commonest types of severe infection, including endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis, and keratitis, usually with the characteristic formation of corneal ring abscesses. Even with prompt surgical and antimicrobial agent treatment, enucleation of the eye and blindness are common sequelae. Septicemia, meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections are other manifestations of severe disease. B. cereus produces beta-lactamases, unlike Bacillus anthracis, and so is resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics; it is usually susceptible to treatment with clindamycin, vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and erythromycin. Simultaneous therapy via multiple routes may be required.

  8. In vitro and in vivo effects of Pseudomonas spp. and Bacillus sp. on Fusarium acuminatum, Botrytis cinerea and Aspergillus niger infecting cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Zdravković

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L is an important member of the Cucurbitaceae family. Production of healthy nursery is necessary for high-quality production of this crop in greenhouses and in fields. With the idea of minimizing the use of pesticides and mineral fertilizers to preserve soil quality, we investigated the effects of plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB on growth promotion and protection of cucumber plants from phytopathogenic fungi. The effects of Pseudomonas spp. strains with different antifungal activities and Bacillus sp. Q10 strain with PGP activity were tested on cucumber plants. Antagonistic activity of Pseudomonas spp. against the growth of several phytopathogenic fungi isolated from cucumber: F. acuminatum, B. cinerea and A. niger, was observed. The influences of overnight cultures, supernatants and heat-stable antifungal factors were tested on the phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. Pseudomonas sp. K35 and K24 strains were more effective than P. chlororaphis Q16 and Pseudomonas sp. K27, showing 70-80% of fungal growth inhibition regardless of culture or fraction applied. The good antagonists that belong to pseudomonads and Bacillus sp. Q10 strain were used as mixtures for estimation of plant growth and health promoting effects on cucumber plants. Growth dynamics differed depending on the applied strain of Pseudomonas sp. The M3 treatment (a mixture of Bacillus sp. Q10 and P. chlororaphis Q16 stimulated the initial phase of growth, while M4 (a mixture of Bacillus sp. Q10 and Pseudomonas sp. K24 resulted in the maximal height at the final measurement. Significant differences in leaf and plant weight (M4, and leaf weight (M5, containing K35 strain were found after the treatments. No significant differences in chlorophyll and NBI level were observed in any of the tested combinations. The obtained results suggested that M3 was suitable for stimulation of the early phase of cucumber growth, while the mixtures M4 and M5 improved plant

  9. The Effect of Smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Jensen, Mette Lundsby

    2017-01-01

    -Bissau including 1751 individuals and (2) a case-base study with a background population of 46239 individuals in Denmark. In Guinea-Bissau, HIV-1 transmission was almost exclusively sexually transmitted. In Denmark, we excluded intravenous drug users. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacillus......: The studies from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark, 2 very different settings, both suggest that the BCG and smallpox vaccines could be associated with a decreased risk of sexually transmitted HIV-1. It might be informative to pursue this observation and explore possible protective mechanisms as part of the search...

  10. MicroRNA-144-3p inhibits autophagy activation and enhances Bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection by targeting ATG4a in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Le; Zhou, Linlin; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Aijun; Wei, Jun; Hong, Dantong; Chu, Yuankui; Duan, Xiangguo; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Guangxian

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding nucleotides that play major roles in the response of host immune cells. Autophagy plays a key role in activating the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Whether miRNAs specifically influence the activation of macrophage autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection is largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection of macrophages leads to increased expression of miR-144-3p, which targets autophagy-related gene 4a (ATG4a), to inhibit autophagy activation and antimicrobial responses to BCG. Overexpression of miR-144-3p significantly decreased both mRNA and protein levels of ATG4a, inhibited the formation of autophagosomes in RAW264.7 cells and increased intracellular survival of BCG. However, transfection with miR-144-3p inhibitor led to an increase in ATG4a levels, accelerated the autophagic response in macrophages, and decreased BCG survival in macrophages. The experimental results of this study reveal a novel role of miR-144-3p in inhibiting autophagy activation by targeting ATG4a and enhancing BCG infection, and provide potential targets for developing improved treatment.

  11. BacillusRegNet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirli, Goksel; Hallinan, Jennifer; Röttger, Richard

    2014-01-01

    As high-throughput technologies become cheaper and easier to use, raw sequence data and corresponding annotations for many organisms are becoming available. However, sequence data alone is not sufficient to explain the biological behaviour of organisms, which arises largely from complex molecular...... the associated BacillusRegNet website (http://bacillus.ncl.ac.uk)....

  12. Host organisms: Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohman, Hans-Peter; van Dijl, Jan; Krishnappa, Laxmi; Pragai, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis and its close Bacillus relatives are important bacterial platforms for industrial production of enzymes and fine chemicals such as vitamin B2 and nucleotides. B. subtilis is an attractive bacterial organism for industrial use mainly because of its straightforward genetic

  13. Genetic evidence for the involvement of the S-layer protein gene sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in Phage AP50c infection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Roger D; Beaber, John W; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M; Pope, Robert K; Read, Timothy D; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2014-03-01

    In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the S layer of each of the spo0 mutant strains was substantially reduced compared to that of the parent strain, and incubation of AP50c with purified recombinant Sap led to a substantial reduction in phage activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences of B. cereus sensu lato strains revealed several closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains that carry sap genes with very high similarities to the sap gene of B. anthracis. Complementation of the Δsap mutant in trans with the wild-type B. anthracis sap or the sap gene from either of two different B. cereus strains that are sensitive to AP50c infection restored phage sensitivity, and electron microscopy confirmed attachment of phage particles to the surface of each of the complemented strains. Based on these data, we postulate that Sap is involved in AP50c infectivity, most likely acting as the phage receptor, and that the spo0 genes may regulate synthesis of Sap and/or formation of the S layer.

  14. Phosphorescence In Bacillus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinisch, Lou; Swartz, Barry A; Bronk, Burt V

    2003-01-01

    .... Our present work attempts to build on this approach for environmental applications. We have measured a change in the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of Bacillus bacteria between the vegetative bacteria and their spores at room temperature...

  15. Effects of dietary Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunological parameters, intestinal morphology and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Biao; Long, Wei-Qing; He, Ju-Yun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Si, Yu-Qi; Tian, Li-Xia

    2015-10-01

    The effects of oral administration of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunity, intestinal morphology and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia were investigated. Six experimental diets supplemented with different concentrations of B. licheniformis (0%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08% and 0.1% of AlCare(®), containing live germ 2 × 10(10) CFU/g) were formulated, viz. control, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 30 fishes (3.83 ± 0.03 g). After 10 weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG), final body wet weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased significantly in groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared with control and T1 (p 0.05). Compared with control, dietary B. licheniformis supplementation increased the content of complement C3 in serum significantly (P licheniformis supplementation (P > 0.05). When tilapia were challenged against Streptococcus iniae, survival rate improved significantly when tilapia fed with T2, T3, T4 and T5 (P licheniformis (T2, T3, T4, T5) tended to be regularly arranged and exhibited less exfoliation, twist and fusion. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of B. licheniformis not only increased the growth, immune response and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia, but also influenced anterior intestinal development and integrity. Furthermore, in our study, the optimal concentration of B. licheniformis in diets for tilapia was greater than or equal to 4.4 × 10(6) CFU/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A New Approach for Designing A Potentially Vaccine Candidate against Urinary Tract Infection by Using Protein Display on Lacto-bacillus Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is really high in the world. Escherichia coli is a major agent of UTI. One of the strategies for decreasing UTI infections is vaccine development. As the attachment is a really important stage in colonization and infection, at­tachment inhibition has an applied strategy. FimH protein is a major factor during bacterial colonization in urinary tract and could be used as a vaccine. Thus, it was considered in this research as a candidate antigen. Methods: The sequences of fimH and acmA genes were used for designing a synthetic gene. It was cloned to pET23a expression vector and transformed to E. coli (DE3 Origami. To confirm the expression of recombinant protein, SDS-PAGE and western blotting methods were used. Subsequently, recombinant protein was purified. On the other hand, Lactobacillus reuteri was cultured and mixed with FimH / AcmA recombinant protein. The rate of protein localization on lactobacillus surface was assessed using ELISA method. Results: It was showed that the recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli (DE3 Origami and purified by affinity chromatography. Moreover, this protein could be localized on lactobacillus surface by 5 days. Conclusion: In current study, a fusion recombinant protein was pre­pared and displayed on L. reuteri surface. This strain could be used for animal experiment as a competitor against Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC. Using manipulated probiotics strains instead of antibiotic ther­apy could decrease the antibiotic consumption and reduce multi-drug resistant strains.

  17. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  18. Efficacy of Oritavancin in a Murine Model of Bacillus anthracis Spore Inhalation Anthrax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heine, H. S; Bassett, J; Miller, L; Bassett, A; Ivins, B. E; Lehous, D; Arhin, F. F; Parr, Jr., T. R; Moeck, G

    2008-01-01

    The inhaled form of Bacillus anthracis infection may be fatal to humans. The current standard of care for inhalational anthrax postexposure prophylaxis is ciprofloxacin therapy twice daily for 60 days...

  19. Fatal sepsis by Bacillus circulans in an immunocompromised patient

    OpenAIRE

    Alebouyeh, M; Gooran Orimi, P; Azimi-rad, M; Tajbakhsh, M; Tajeddin, E; Jahani Sherafat, S; Nazemalhosseini mojarad, E; Zali, MR

    2011-01-01

    An immunosuppressed man was admitted to hospital with diarrhea and a history of urinary tract infection. He was subjected to treatment with antibiotics. The patient died of putative severe sepsis. The etiological agent was a carbapenemase producing isolate of Bacillus circulans with resistance to all prescribed antimicrobial agents.

  20. Isolation and characterization of lactobacillus and bacillus producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus, and its antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infection (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion method ...

  1. Infection,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-16

    characteristic in severe gram-negative sepsis. Hypertriglyceridemia results from an increase in hepatic synthesis in combination with diminished activity of...induced stress, and tissue repair (1). The magnitude and type of nutritional losses caused by an infection reflect both the severity and duration of an... several functional forms of nutrient loss must be anticipated. Functional losses are defined as the within-body losses of nutrients due to infection

  2. Bacillus subtilis genome diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Ashlee M; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2007-02-01

    Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (M-CGH) is a powerful method for rapidly identifying regions of genome diversity among closely related organisms. We used M-CGH to examine the genome diversity of 17 strains belonging to the nonpathogenic species Bacillus subtilis. Our M-CGH results indicate that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity among members of this species; nearly one-third of Bsu168-specific genes exhibited variability, as measured by the microarray hybridization intensities. The variable loci include those encoding proteins involved in antibiotic production, cell wall synthesis, sporulation, and germination. The diversity in these genes may reflect this organism's ability to survive in diverse natural settings.

  3. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... as Bacillus macerans, Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis. Heat treatment at 70oC denatured the β-amylase component of the amylase source while α-amylase retained its potency at this temperature. Calcium.

  4. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus Species From Soil and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus species are the predominant soil bacteria because of their resistant-endospore formation and production of essential antibiotics such as bacitracin. Objectives The aim of this study was to isolate Bacillus spp. from riverside soil and investigate their antimicrobial characteristics against some pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods Fifty soil samples were collected from different sites of Bahmanshir riverside in Abadan city, Iran, and analyzed for the presence of Bacillus species. The media used in this research were nutrient broth and agar. Bacillus species were identified by their phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. The antimicrobial effects of Bacillus extract against the target bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Corynebacterium diphtheriae were examined. Results The identified Bacillus species included B. cereus (86.6%, B. subtilis (6.6%, B. thuringiensis (3.3%, and B. pumilus (3.3%. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the extracted compounds was carried out against five different bacteria. Antibiotic production tests indicated that two Bacillus strains belong to B. cereus, which showed antimicrobial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these compounds ranged between 8.34-33.34 mg/mL for the target bacteria. Conclusions This study indicated that some Bacillus species have the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds which can be used to control microbial infections.

  5. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Ganz

    Full Text Available Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales, featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  6. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  7. Fluorene biodegradation potentials of Bacillus strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fluorene biodegradation potentials of Bacillus strains isolated from tropical ... Bacillus strains, putatively identified as Bacillus subtilis BM1 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BR1 were ... African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 13(14), 1554-1559 ...

  8. Midgut microbiota and host immunocompetence underlie Bacillus thuringiensis killing mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Caccia, Silvia; Di Lelio, Ilaria; La Storia, Antonietta; Marinelli, Adriana; Varricchio, Paola; Franzetti, Eleonora; Banyuls, Núria; Tettamanti, Gianluca; Casartelli, Morena; Giordana, Barbara; Ferré, Juan; Gigliotti, Silvia; Ercolini, Danilo; Pennacchio, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis and its toxins are widely used for insect control. Notwithstanding the remarkable importance of this insect pathogen, its killing mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Here we show that the microbiota resident in the host midgut triggers a lethal septicemia. The infection process is enhanced by reducing the host immune response and its control on replication of midgut bacteria invading the body cavity through toxin-induced epithelial lesions. The experimental approa...

  9. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  10. PRODUKSI ANTIBIOTIKA OLEH Bacillus subtilis M10 DALAM MEDIA UREA-SORBITOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supartono Supartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS BY Bacillus subtilis M10 IN UREA-SORBITOL MEDIUM. Infection diseases still become the main health problems that suffered by people in Indonesia. Besides, there were many pathogen bacteria found to be resistant to the some antibiotics. Therefore, the efforts to get a new antibiotic require to be done continuously. A new local strain of Bacillus subtilis BAC4 has been known producing an antibiotic that inhibit Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 growth. To make efficient the local strain, mutation on Bacillus subtilis BAC4 was done by using acridine orange and a mutant cell of Bacillus subtilis M10 that overproduction for producing antibiotic was obtained. Nevertheless, the production kinetics of antibiotic by this mutant has not been reported. The objective of this research was to study the production kinetics of antibiotic by Bacillus subtilis M10 mutant. The production of antibiotic was conducted using batch fermentation and antibiotic assay was performed with agar absorption method using Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 as bacteria assay. Research result provided that Bacillus subtilis M10 mutant with overproduction of antibiotic produced an antibiotic since 8th hour’s fermentation and optimum of it production was at 14th hours after inoculation.  Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi masalah yang utama diderita oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Di samping itu, banyak bakteri patogen yang ditemukan resisten terhadap beberapa antibiotika. Oleh karena itu, upaya-upaya untuk mendapatkan antibiotika baru perlu dilakukan secara terus-menerus. Suatu galur lokal baru Bacillus subtilis BAC4 teridentifikasi memproduksi senyawa antibiotika yang menghambat pertumbuhan Serratia marcescens ATCC27117. Untuk memberdayakan galur tersebut, terhadap Bacillus subtilis BAC4 dilakukan mutasi dengan larutan akridin oranye dan diperoleh mutan Bacillus subtilis M10 yang memproduksi antibiotika berlebihan. Namun, kinetika produksi antibiotika oleh Bacillus

  11. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis associated with intraocular gas bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Hemidan, A; Byrne-Rhodes, K A; Tabbara, K F

    1989-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that Bacillus cereus can cause a severe and devastating form of endophthalmitis following penetrating trauma by a metallic object. B. cereus is an uncommon aetiological agent in non-clostridial gas-forming infections. The patient studied in this single case report showed evidence of intraocular gas mimicking gas gangrene infection. The physiology of non-clostridial bacteria producing gas from anaerobic metabolic conditions is reviewed. Further intraocular and systemic complications which may be avoided by accurate and early diagnosis and the use of recommended treatment with antibiotics such as clindamycin. Images PMID:2493262

  12. Bacillus velezensis is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Tai, Chun-Ju; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Strain BCRC 14193, isolated from soil, shared more than 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BCRC 11601(T) and Bacillus velezensis BCRC 17467(T). This strain was previously identified as B. amyloliquefaciens, based on DNA-DNA hybridization, but its DNA relatedness value with B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) was 89 %. To investigate the relatedness of strain BCRC 14193, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. velezensis, the partial sequence of the gene encoding the subunit B protein of DNA gyrase (gyrB) was determined. B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) shared high gyrB gene sequence similarity with B. amyloliquefaciens BCRC 14193 (98.4 %) and all of the B. amyloliquefaciens strains available (95.5-95.6 %). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed high relatedness values between B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) and B. amyloliquefaciens BCRC 11601(T) (74 %) and the B. amyloliquefaciens reference strains (74-89 %). Based on these data and the lack of phenotypic distinctive characteristics, we propose Bacillus velezensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

  13. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  14. TRANSDUCTION OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS BY EACH OF TWO PHAGES1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martha J.; Thorne, Curtis B.

    1963-01-01

    Taylor, Martha J. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Curtis B. Thorne. Transduction of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis by each of two phages. J. Bacteriol. 86:452–461. 1963.—A second transducing bacteriophage, designated SP-15, was isolated from the same soil-sample culture filtrate that supplied the Bacillus subtilis transducing phage, SP-10, reported earlier from this laboratory. SP-10 and SP-15 differ serologically and in several other respects, but share the ability to propagate on B. subtilis W-23-Sr (streptomycin-resistant) and B. licheniformis ATCC 9945a, and to mediate general transduction in either species when propagated homologously. Attempts to transduce between the species have failed. SP-10 forms plaques readily on both W-23-Sr and 9945a; SP-15 forms minute plaques on W-23-Sr and has shown no evidence of any lytic activity on 9945a. Maximal recoveries of prototrophic colonies from mixtures of SP-10 with auxotrophs of either W-23-Sr or 9945a were obtained only when excess phage was neutralized by post-transduction treatment with specific phage antiserum. Such treatment was not necessary for maximal recovery of transductants effected by SP-15. Unlike SP-10, SP-15 propagated on W-23-Sr did not transduce B. subtilis 168 (indole−). SP-15 transduced B. licheniformis more efficiently than did SP-10. Neither phage was able to transduce B. licheniformis as efficiently as it transduced B. subtilis. The differing influences of multiplicity of infection were compared for the two phages in both species. PMID:14066421

  15. Bacillus: A Biological Tool for Crop Improvement through Bio-Molecular Changes in Adverse Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Radhakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection. Limited studies have been conducted to understand the physiological changes that occur in crops in response to Bacillus spp. to provide protection against adverse environmental conditions. This review describes the current understanding of Bacillus-induced physiological changes in plants as an adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. During water scarcity, salinity and heavy metal accumulate in soil, Bacillus spp. produce exopolysaccharides and siderophores, which prevent the movement of toxic ions and adjust the ionic balance and water transport in plant tissues while controlling the pathogenic microbial population. In addition, the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase by Bacillus regulates the intracellular phytohormone metabolism and increases plant stress tolerance. Cell-wall-degrading substances, such as chitosanase, protease, cellulase, glucanase, lipopeptides and hydrogen cyanide from Bacillus spp. damage the pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and pests to control their populations in plants and agricultural lands. The normal plant metabolism is affected by unfavorable environmental stimuli, which suppress crop growth and yield. Abiotic and biotic stress factors that have detrimental effects on crops are mitigated by Bacillus-induced physiological changes, including the regulation of water transport

  16. Bacillus: A Biological Tool for Crop Improvement through Bio-Molecular Changes in Adverse Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.

    2017-01-01

    Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection. Limited studies have been conducted to understand the physiological changes that occur in crops in response to Bacillus spp. to provide protection against adverse environmental conditions. This review describes the current understanding of Bacillus-induced physiological changes in plants as an adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. During water scarcity, salinity and heavy metal accumulate in soil, Bacillus spp. produce exopolysaccharides and siderophores, which prevent the movement of toxic ions and adjust the ionic balance and water transport in plant tissues while controlling the pathogenic microbial population. In addition, the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase by Bacillus regulates the intracellular phytohormone metabolism and increases plant stress tolerance. Cell-wall-degrading substances, such as chitosanase, protease, cellulase, glucanase, lipopeptides and hydrogen cyanide from Bacillus spp. damage the pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and pests to control their populations in plants and agricultural lands. The normal plant metabolism is affected by unfavorable environmental stimuli, which suppress crop growth and yield. Abiotic and biotic stress factors that have detrimental effects on crops are mitigated by Bacillus-induced physiological changes, including the regulation of water transport, nutrient up-take and

  17. Chitinase production by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus licheniformis: their potential in antifungal biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2012-02-01

    Thirty bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants collected from Egypt and screened for production of chitinase enzymes. Bacillus thuringiensis NM101-19 and Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17 had the highest chitinolytic activities amongst those investigated. The production of chitinase by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis was optimized using colloidal chitin medium amended with 1.5% colloidal chitin, with casein as a nitrogen source, at 30°C after five days of incubation. An enhancement of chitinase production by the two species was observed by addition of sugar substances and dried fungal mats to the colloidal chitin media. The optimal conditions for chitinase activity by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis were at 40°C, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. Na(+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+) caused enhancement of enzyme activities whereas they were markedly inhibited by Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+). In vitro, B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis chitinases had potential for cell wall lysis of many phytopathogenic fungi tested. The addition of B. thuringiensis chitinase was more effective than that of B. licheniformis in increasing the germination of soybean seeds infected with various phytopathogenic fungi.

  18. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  19. Bacillus cereus and related species.

    OpenAIRE

    Drobniewski, F A

    1993-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram-positive aerobic or facultatively anaerobic spore-forming rod. It is a cause of food poisoning, which is frequently associated with the consumption of rice-based dishes. The organism produces an emetic or diarrheal syndrome induced by an emetic toxin and enterotoxin, respectively. Other toxins are produced during growth, including phospholipases, proteases, and hemolysins, one of which, cereolysin, is a thiol-activated hemolysin. These toxins may contribute to the pa...

  20. Carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, K.

    1980-01-01

    The glucose metabolism via the glycolytic pathway as well as via the oxidative and inoxidative hexose monophosphate pathways in Bacillus subtilis was studied applying 1- 14 C- and 6- 14 C-glucose, respectively, and determining labelled CO 2 and RNA. A method for calculating the catabolic pathways was developed. In nonproliferating cultures glucose is catabolized to 62% via the glycolytic pathway, to 20% via the oxidative, and to 18% via the inoxidative pathway

  1. Administration of Bacillus subtilis strains in the rearing water enhances the water quality, growth performance, immune response, and resistance against Vibrio harveyi infection in juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokaeifar, Hadi; Babaei, Nahid; Saad, Che Roos; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Balcazar, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    In this study, vegetative cell suspensions of two Bacillus subtilis strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU ml(-1) in the rearing water of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for eight weeks. Both probiotic groups showed a significant reduction of ammonia, nitrite and nitrate ions under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR) and digestive enzymatic activity were significantly greater in the BM5 and BM8 groups. Significant differences for survival were recorded in the BM8 group as compared to the control. Eight weeks after the start of experiment, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 80%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 36.7% with MB8 and 50% with MB5. Subsequently, real-time RT-PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan- binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was only significantly up-regulated in the BM5 group compared to the BM8 and control groups. These results suggest that administration of B. subtilis strains in the rearing water confers beneficial effects for shrimp aquaculture, considering water quality, growth performance, digestive enzymatic activity, immune response and disease resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Low dose chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, D; Akuffo, H; Thors, C

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of mycobacterial diseases is high and the efficacy of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) is low in most areas of the world where chronic worm infections are common. However, if and how concurrent worm infections could affect immunity to mycobacterial infections has not been elucidated. ...

  3. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the stick insects Bacillus rossius rossius, Bacillus rossius redtenbacheri and Bacillus whitei (Insecta : Phasmatodea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, DH; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, V

    2005-01-01

    Five microsatellite markers were obtained from a dinucleotide enriched genomic library of the stick insect Bacillus rossius rossius. The markers were tested in three species of Bacillus. All loci were polymorphic when tested across species. The number of alleles at each locus was low (maximum four...

  4. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase activity during the stationary ...

  5. Toxin production ability of Bacillus cereus strains from food product of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pylypenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Potential pathogens of foodborne toxic infections – bacterial contaminants Bacillus cereus isolated from plant raw materials and food products from the Ukrainian region were investigated. When determining of the proportion of isolated bacilli from the plant samples, it was established that the epidemiologically significant microorganisms of Bacillus cereus as agents of food poisoning are the second largest. The average value of contaminated samples of Ukrainian plant raw materials and processed products with Bacillus cereus is 36,2 %. The ability of Bacillus cereus strains identified by a complex of morphological, tinctorial, cultural and biochemical properties, to produce specific emetic and enterotoxins was studied. Molecular genetic diagnosis and detection of the toxin-producing ability of isolated 42 Bacillus cereus strains showed both the possibility of their rapid identification and the presence of specific toxicity genes. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR was carried out with specific primers to detect toxicity determined of various bacilli genes: nheA, hblD, cytK, cesВ. The distribution of toxigenic genes is significantly different among the Bacillus cereus isolates from various sources. The nheA, hblD and cytK enterotoxin genes were detected in 100, 83,3 and 61,9 % of the investigated strains of Bacillus cereus, respectively. The cesB gene encoding emetic toxin was detected in 4,8 % of  strains. Molecular-genetic PCR-method confirmed that all the isolated strains belong to the Bacillus cereus group, and the ability to produce toxins can be attributed to five groups. The main toxins that produce the investigated Bacillus cereus strains were nhe and hbl enterotoxins encoded by the corresponding genes of nheA and hblD. The enterotoxic type of Bacillus cereus was predominant in Ukrainian region.  Studies of domestic plant food raw materials and products have confirmed the need to improve microbiological control of product safety

  6. [Characteristics of Bacillus cereus dissociants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroshenko, E V; Loĭko, N G; Il'inskaia, O N; Kolpakov, A I; Gornova, I B; Klimanova, E V; El'-Registan, G I

    2001-01-01

    The autoregulation of the phenotypic (populational) variability of the Bacillus cereus strain 504 was studied. The isolated colonial morphotypes of this bacterium were found to differ in their growth characteristics and the synthesis of extracellular proteases. The phenotypic variabilities of vegetative proliferating cells and those germinated from endospores and cystlike refractory cells were different. Bacterial variants also differed in the production of the d1 and d2 factors (the autoinducers of dormancy and autolysis, respectively) and sensitivity to them. The possible role of these factors in the dissociation of microorganisms is discussed.

  7. Real-Time PCR Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    13061 Neisseria lactamica .............................................................. 23970 Bacillus coagulans ...NEG Bacillus coagulane 7050 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13472 NEG NEG Bacillus licheniforms 12759 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13824 NEG NEG Bacillus ...Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Elizabeth Bode,1 William Hurtle,2† and David Norwood1* United States Army Medical

  8. Characterization of Bacillus phage-K2 isolated from chungkookjang, a fermented soybean foodstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ju; Hong, Jeong Won; Yun, Na-Rae; Lee, Young Nam

    2011-01-01

    An investigation of a virulent Bacillus phage-K2 (named Bp-K2) isolated from chungkookjang (a fermented soybean foodstuff) was made. Bp-K2 differed in infectivity against a number of Bacillus subtilis strains including starter strains of chungkookjang and natto, being more infectious to Bacillus strains isolated from the chungkookjang, but much less active against a natto strain. Bp-K2 is a small DNA phage whose genome size is about 21 kb. Bp-K2 is a tailed bacteriophage with an isometric icosahedral head (50 nm long on the lateral side, 80 nm wide), a long contractile sheath (85-90 nm × 28 nm), a thin tail fiber (80-85 nm long, 10 nm wide), and a basal plate (29 nm long, 47 nm wide) with a number of spikes, but no collar. The details of the structures of Bp-K2 differ from natto phage ϕBN100 as well as other known Bacillus phages such as SPO1-like or ϕ 29-like viruses. These data suggest that Bp-K2 would be a new member of the Myoviridae family of Bacillus bacteriophages.

  9. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores : the role of germination receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group forms a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus and comprises several species that are relevant for humans. Notorious is Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the often-lethal disease anthrax, while the insect pathogen Bacillus

  10. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  11. Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on the Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, J.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Sala, F.

    1972-01-01

    Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis spores in quarter-strength Ringer solution decreases markedly after ultrasonic treatments which are unable to kill a significant proportion of the spore population. This effect does not seem to be caused by a loss of Ca2+ or dipicolinic acid. The use of ultrasonics to eliminate vegetative cells or to break aggregates in Bacillus spore suspensions to be used subsequently in heat resistance experiments appears to be unadvisable. PMID:4627969

  12. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Various Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golnari Maranni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prevalence extension of antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns about control of infections especially nosocomial infections. Many attempts have been done to replace antibiotics or limit their use. The use of antimicrobial agents produced by bacteria as antibiotic replacement has been promising in recent years. The goal of this study was to isolate Bacillus strains and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains. Materials and Methods: In the present study, Bacillus strains were isolated from various resources and identified by 16S rDNA PCR method. Then, the phylogenetic tree of the isolates was constructed and antimicrobial activity of the isolates was investigated against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains using spotting and well diffusion methods. Results: Eight Bacillus strains were isolated from 15 different samples. Based on the molecular identification, the isolates were identified as B.pumilus, B.coagulans, B.licheniformis, B.endophitycus and B.amiloliquefaciens. The results showed that isolates have antimicrobial activity against meticilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant enterococci, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: In this study, isolated Bacillus strains produced antimicrobial agents against pathogens and antibiotic resistant strains and inhibited their growth.

  13. First described case of prosthetic joint infection with Clostridium disporicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Joseph A; Sterkel, Alana K; Rehrauer, William M; Smith, Jeannina A

    2017-12-01

    An orthopedic hardware infection with Clostridium disporicum is described. C. disporicum is a gram positive anaerobic bacillus which can contain two subterminal spores. C. disporicum had not previously been reported in musculoskeletal infections. Gram stains demonstrating gram positive bacilli with two subterminal spores should alert practitioners to the possibility of C. disporicum infection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Current research efforts with Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand R. Dubois

    1991-01-01

    The bioassay of 260 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and 70 commercial preparations show that regression coefficient estimates may be as critical as LC5O estimates when evaluating them for future consideration.

  15. Bacillus and biopolymer: Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mohapatra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs. Bacillus species possess hydrolytic enzymes that can be exploited for economical PHAs production. This review summarizes the recent trends in both non-growth and growth associated PHAs production by Bacillus species which may provide direction leading to future research towards this growing quest for biodegradable plastics, one more critical step ahead towards sustainable development.

  16. Characterization of 21 Strains of Bacillus Anthracis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kournikakis, B

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one strains of Bacillus anthracis currently held in the culture collection at DRES were characterized by colonial morphology, antibiotic sensitivity and BiologTM metabolic identification profiles...

  17. Screen for agents that induce autolysis in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacriola, Christopher J; Falk, Shaun P; Weisblum, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infections underscores the need to discover new antibiotics and to use them with maximum effectiveness. In response to these needs, we describe a screening protocol for the discovery of autolysis-inducing agents that uses two Bacillus subtilis reporter strains, SH-536 and BAU-102. To screen chemical libraries, autolysis-inducing agents were first identified with a BAU-102-based screen and then subdivided with SH-536 into two major groups: those that induce autolysis by their direct action on the cell membrane and those that induce autolysis secondary to inhibition of cell wall synthesis. SH-536 distinguishes between the two groups of autolysis-inducing agents by synthesizing and then releasing β-galactosidase (β-Gal) in late stationary phase at a time that cells have nearly stopped growing and are therefore tolerant of cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Four hits, named compound 2, compound 3, compound 5, and compound 24, obtained previously as inducers of autolysis by screening a 10,080-compound discovery library with BAU-102, were probed with SH-536 and found to release β-Gal, indicating that their mode of action was to permeabilize the B. subtilis cell membrane. The four primary hits inhibited growth in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis, with MICs in the 12.5- to 25-μg/ml (20 to 60 μM) range. The four primary hits were further used to probe B. subtilis, and their action was partially characterized with respect to the dependence of induced autolysis on specific autolysins.

  18. Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species and characterization of the gene in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PEBA20 and 7 strains of Bacillus subtilis, ...

  19. Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through

  20. Lama Penyimpanan, Karakterisasi Fisiologi, dan Viabilitas Bakteri Endofit Bacillus sp. dalam Formula Tepung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana putri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can be formulated to retain its ability as disease control agents. Three of endophytic bacteria which had the capability to suppress infection of Meloidogyne sp, and to enhance pepper growth were gained from the previous study. This research was aimed to evaluate the influence of storage time on the viability of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus sp. AA2, Bacillus sp. MER and MSJ, and to study its physiological charaterization during storage. The formulation evaluated in this study was : formulation 1 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, and brown sugar 1.5 g, formulation 2 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, and 1.5 g white sugar, formulation 3 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, 1 g yeast extract, and 1.5 gwhite sugar and formulation 4 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, 1 g yeast extract, 3 mL molasses, 1 gbentonite, 0.75 g calcium carbonate, and 1 g dextrose. The results of the bacterial characterization showed that Bacillus sp AA2 and Bacillus sp MER belongs to Gram positive, produced lipase and protease enzyme, as well as  IAA hormone. N2 fixation is only existed in Bacillussp. AA2 and MSJ isolate. The highest viability was shown on MSJ isolate with 2.5×106 cfu mL-1. in the fourth formulation, whereas Bacillus sp. AA2 and Bacillus sp. MER viability was 1.9×106 cfu mL-1. and 1.2×106 cfu mL-1. , respectively. 

  1. Cell Physiology and Protein Secretion of Bacillus licheniformis Compared to Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, Birgit; Antelmann, Haike; Albrecht, Dirk; Ehrenreich, Armin; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Evers, Stefan; Gottschalk, Gerhard; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis was published in 1997 and since then many other bacterial genomes have been sequenced, among them Bacillus licheniformis in 2004. B. subtilis and B. licheniformis are closely related and feature similar saprophytic lifestyles in the soil. Both species can

  2. Impedance Measurements Could Accelerate Phage-Based Identification of Bacillus anthracis and Other Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Impedance Measurements Could Accelerate Phage-Based Identification of Bacillus anthracis And Other Bacteria Thomas Brown, Salwa Shan, Teresa...infection can be detected as early as one hour after exposing as few as 105 CFU bacteria to the stressor. We predicted that similar responses could be used... bacteria to form confluent growth and for phage-induced plaques to appear. Techniques that permit faster detection of species-specific bacteria /phage

  3. Characterization of Amylolysin, a Novel Lantibiotic from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1

    OpenAIRE

    Arguelles Arias, Anthony; Ongena, Marc; Devreese, Bart; Terrak, Mohammed; Joris, Bernard; Fickers, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lantibiotics are heat-stable peptides characterized by the presence of thioether amino acid lanthionine and methyllanthionine. They are capable to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus, the causative agents of food-borne diseases or nosocomial infections. Lantibiotic biosynthetic machinery is encoded by gene cluster composed by a structural gene that codes for a pre-lantibiotic peptide and other gen...

  4. Bacillus licheniformis in geogenic dust induces inflammation in respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Janessa; Teo, Teck Hui; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Zosky, Graeme R; Clifford, Holly D

    2018-07-01

    Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter respiratory diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to geogenic dust PM 10 experienced an exacerbation of inflammatory responses to influenza A virus. Whether geogenic dust PM 10 also exacerbates respiratory bacterial infection is not yet known, nor are the components of the dust that drive these responses. We treated airway bronchial epithelial cells (NuLi-1) with UV-irradiated geogenic dust PM 10 from six remote Western Australian towns. High levels of IL-6 and IL-8 production were observed, as well as persistent microbial growth. 16 S rRNA sequencing of the growth identified the microbe as Bacillus licheniformis, a spore-forming, environmentally abundant bacterium. We next investigated the interaction of B. licheniformis with respiratory epithelium in vitro to determine whether this exacerbated infection with a bacterial respiratory pathogen (non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, NTHi). Heat treatment (100 °C) of all PM 10 samples eliminated B. licheniformis contamination and reduced epithelial inflammatory responses, suggesting that heat-labile and/or microbial factors were involved in the host response to geogenic dust PM 10 . We then exposed NuLi-1 epithelium to increasing doses of the isolated Bacillus licheniformis (multiplicity of infection of 10:1, 1:1 or 0.1:1 bacteria: cells) for 1, 3, and 24 h. B. licheniformis and NTHi infection (association and invasion) was assessed using a standard gentamicin survival assay, and epithelial release of IL-6 and IL-8 was measured using a bead based immunoassay. B. licheniformis was cytotoxic to NuLi-1 cells at 24 h. At 3 h post-challenge, B. licheniformis elicited high IL-6 and IL-8 inflammatory responses from NuLi-1 cells compared with cells treated with heat-treated geogenic dust PM 10 (p respiratory epithelium. The impact on respiratory

  5. Antifungal activity of indigenous bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jošić Dragana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow is a host of a number of saprophytic and parasitic fungi in Serbia. The seeds of marshmallow are contaminated with fungi from different genera, especially Alternaria and Fusarium, which significantly reduced seed germination and caused seedling decay. In this study we investigate antagnonism of indigenous Bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycopopulation. Bacillus sp. Q3 was isolated from maize rhizosphere, characterized by polyphasic approch and tested for plant growth promoting treats. Bacillus sp. Q3 produced antifungal metabolites with growth inhibition activity against numerous fungi in dual culture: 61.8% of Alternaria alternata, 74.8% of Myrothecium verrucaria and 33.6% of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. That effect could be caused by different antifungal metabolites including siderophores, hydrolytic enzymes, organic acids and indole acetic acid (IAA. Suppression of natural marshmallow seed infection by Q3 isolate was observed. The seeds were immersed in different concentrations of bacterial suspension during 2h and their infections by phytopathogenic fungi were estimated. The results showed significant reduction of seed infection by Alternaria spp. The presented results indicate possible application of this isolate as promising biological agent for control of marshmallow seed pathogenic fungi.

  6. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and 'Bacillus oryzicola' are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus velezensis based on phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus velezensis was previously reported to be a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced a draft genome of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T . Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations show that it is not a synonym of B. amyloliquefaciens. It was instead synonymous with Bacillus methylotrophicus. ' Bacillus oryzicola ' is a recently described species that was isolated as an endophyte of rice ( Oryza sativa ). The strain was demonstrated to have plant-pathogen antagonist activity in greenhouse assays, and the 16S rRNA gene was reported to have 99.7 % sequence similarity with Bacillus siamensis and B. methylotrophicus , which are both known for their plant pathogen antagonism. To better understand the phylogenetics of these closely related strains, we sequenced the genome of ' B . oryzicola ' KACC 18228. Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genomes of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T , B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 T . The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the strains were all greater than 84 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the strains share phenotype and genotype coherence. Therefore, we propose that B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T , B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 T , and ' B. oryzicola' KACC 18228 should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T , since the valid publication date of B. velezensis precedes the other three strains.

  7. Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feather wastes digestion by new isolated strains Bacillus sp. in Morocco. ... The most efficient isolated strain selected was compared with Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633. Results showed ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.3(1) 2004: 67-70 ...

  8. Production of amylolytic enzymes by bacillus spp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawood, Elham Shareif [Department of Botany, Faculty of Science, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-12-01

    Sixty six bacteria and twenty fungi were isolated from various sources. These varied from rotten fruites to local drinks and soil samples from different parts of Sudan. On the basis of index of amylolytic activity, forty one bacteria and twelve fungi were found to hydrolyse strach. The best ten strach hydrolysing isolates were identified all as bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 1}, SUD-K{sub 2}, SUD-K{sub 4}, SUD-O, SUD-SRW, SUD-BRW, SUD-By, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3}, and Bacillus circulans SUD-D and SUD-K{sub 7}). Their amylase productivity was studied with respect to temperature and time. Amylolytic activity was measured by spectrophotometer, the highest activity was produced in around 24 hours of growth in all; six of which gave the highest amylase activity at 50 deg C and the rest at 45C. Based on the thermal production six isolates were chosen for further investigation. These were Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 1}, SUD-K{sub 2}, SUD-K{sub 4}, SUD-O, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3} and Bacillus circulans SUD-K{sub 7}. The inclusion of strach and Mg{sup ++} ions in the culture medium gave the highest enzyme yield. The Ph 9.0 was found to be the optimum for amylase production for all isolates except Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3} which had an optimum at pH 7.0. Three isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 1}, SUD-K{sub 4} and SUD-O recorded highestamylase production in a medium supplemented with peptone while the rest (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 2}, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3} and Bacillus circulans SUD-K{sub 7}) gave highest amylase productivity in a medium supplemented with malt extract. Four isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K{sub 1} and Bacillus subtilis SUD-K{sub 3} gave maximum amylase production in a medium containing 0.5% soluble strach while the rest (gave maximum amylase production at 2%. Soluble strach was found to be best substrate among the different carbon sources tested. The maximum temperature for amylase activity

  9. Production of amylolytic enzymes by bacillus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, Elham Shareif

    1997-12-01

    Sixty six bacteria and twenty fungi were isolated from various sources. These varied from rotten fruites to local drinks and soil samples from different parts of Sudan. On the basis of index of amylolytic activity, forty one bacteria and twelve fungi were found to hydrolyse strach. The best ten strach hydrolysing isolates were identified all as bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 2 , SUD-K 4 , SUD-O, SUD-SRW, SUD-BRW, SUD-By, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 , and Bacillus circulans SUD-D and SUD-K 7 ). Their amylase productivity was studied with respect to temperature and time. Amylolytic activity was measured by spectrophotometer, the highest activity was produced in around 24 hours of growth in all; six of which gave the highest amylase activity at 50 deg C and the rest at 45C. Based on the thermal production six isolates were chosen for further investigation. These were Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 2 , SUD-K 4 , SUD-O, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K 7 . The inclusion of strach and Mg ++ ions in the culture medium gave the highest enzyme yield. The Ph 9.0 was found to be the optimum for amylase production for all isolates except Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 which had an optimum at pH 7.0. Three isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 4 and SUD-O recorded highestamylase production in a medium supplemented with peptone while the rest (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 2 , Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K 7 ) gave highest amylase productivity in a medium supplemented with malt extract. Four isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 and Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 gave maximum amylase production in a medium containing 0.5% soluble strach while the rest (gave maximum amylase production at 2%. Soluble strach was found to be best substrate among the different carbon sources tested. The maximum temperature for amylase activity ranged from 60-70 deg C and 1% strach concentration was optimum for all isolates

  10. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  11. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species | Ajayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leitch and Collier sporulating Bacillus medium was used to isolate some strains of Bacillus species from soil, wastewater and food sources in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, by heat activation method. Heat treatment at 80oC allowed the growth of sporulating Bacillus species, in the culture sample source without other bacteria ...

  12. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination, thymic size, and thymic output in healthy newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Zingmark, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial nonspecific effects on infant health. We aimed to examine the effect of BCG at birth on thymic size and the associations between thymic output, circulating lymphocytes, risk of infection, and thymic size...... with a large thymic size at birth. Conclusion: We found no effect of BCG vaccination on thymic size. The positive association between thymic output, lymphocytes, reduced risk of infections, and TI/TWI suggests that assessment of TI/TWI by ultrasound may be a predictor of the immunological capacity...... in the newborn....

  13. Bacillus anthracis infections – new possibilities of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żakowska

    2015-05-01

    Recently, progress has been achieved in inhalation anthrax treatment. The most promising new possibilities include: new antibiotics, peptides and bacteriophages enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, antigen PA mutants, and inter alpha inhibitors applications. In the case of the possibility of bioterrorist attacks, the examination of inhalation anthrax treatment should be intensively continued.

  14. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an "Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens" within the B. subtilis Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42 T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as " B. amyloliquefaciens ." Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7 T , the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens . We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7 T . Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens , (2) Bacillus siamensis , and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus , and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum . The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7 T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as "operational group B. amyloliquefaciens " consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens , and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis , whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style.

  15. Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Infection and Their Antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii, a non-glucose fermenting Gram negative bacillus, has emerged in the last three decades as a major etiological agent of hospital-associated infections giving rise to significant morbidity and mortality particularly in immunocompromised patients. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii ...

  16. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  17. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  18. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  19. Antibacterial potential components of Bacillus species and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey is a sweet viscous liquid produced by honey bee, Apis mellifera from the nectar of plants. Honey is a natural product that has been used from ancient times till now as food and for medicinal purpose. This study was carried out to determine the mode of action of Bacillus species and antibiotics residues in branded and ...

  20. Preliminary investigations reveal that Bacillus thuringiensis δ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The imminent introduction of transgenic crops into Kenya requires a rigorous assessment of the potential risks involved. This study focused on the possible effect of Bacillus thuringiensisδ-endotoxin [CryIA(c)] on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with sorghum. In green house experiments, sorghum seedlings ...

  1. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A

  2. Molecular characterization of Lepidopteran specific Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains pathogenic to Lepidopteran insects and native to hilly zone soils of. Karnataka (India) were explored. 19 strains were isolated from the soils and identified by morphological and microscopic characters. Toxicity level of the Bt isolates was tested by treating third Instar larvae ...

  3. The Regulatory RNAs of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mars, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    In vrijwel alle organismen wordt RNA aangemaakt dat niet codeert voor eiwit, maar een regulerende functie heeft. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de identificatie van ~1600 nieuwe potentiële regulatie-RNAs in de bodembacterie Bacillus subtilis die veel voor biotechnologische toepassingen ingezet wordt.

  4. Bacillus thuringiensis and its application in agriculture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis, endotoxins, crop plants. INTRODUCTION ..... of resistance in the pest and unfavorable interactions with beneficial .... with slower resistance evolution in North Carolina compared to .... level of 0.18% cross pollination in the experimental rice lines. .... Ecology and Safety.

  5. The Cell Wall of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; Graumann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The cell wall of Bacillus subtilis is a rigid structure on the outside of the cell that forms the first barrier between the bacterium and the environment, and at the same time maintains cell shape and withstands the pressure generated by the cell’s turgor. In this chapter, the chemical composition

  6. Type I signal peptidases of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjalsma, Harold; Bolhuis, Albert; Bron, Sierd; Jongbloed, Jan; Meijer, Wilfried J.J.; Noback, Michiel; van Roosmalen, Maarten; Venema, Gerhardus; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Hopsu Havu, VK; Jarvinen, M; Kirschke, H

    1997-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis contains at least three chromosomally-encoded type I signal peptidases (SPases; SipS, SipT, and SipU), which remove signal peptides from secretory proteins. In addition, certain B. subtilis (natto) strains contain plasmid-encoded type I SPases (SipP). The known type I SPases from

  7. [Geno- and phenotypic characteristic of Bacillus strains--components of endosporin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, L A; Zelenaia, L B; Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V; Reva, O N; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2012-01-01

    Endosporin is used in veterinary for the prophylaxis and treatment of disbacteriosis, intestinal infections, festering wounds and postpartum pyoinflammatory complications in agricultural animals. The probiotic is based on two Bacillus strains which inhibit growth of a broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms and synthesise proteolytic enzymes and other biologically active secondary metabolites, particularly - polysaccharides. The activity of these two strains was supplementary. For the species identification of these strains, sequences of 16S rRNA genes and fatty acid content of cell walls were analysed. It was found that the both strains belong to B. velezensis. Limitations of application of 16S rRNA sequences for identification of closely related species are discussed in the paper. A method of 16S rRNA sequence profiling by polymorphic nucleotides was proposed. It was also shown that usefulness of Bacillus strains in probiotics is mostly based on their unique strain specific properties rather than on general species characteristics.

  8. Utilization of corn starch as sustrate for ß-Amylase by Bacillus SPP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn starch was used as substrate for ß -amylase production from ten(10) amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. Ten bacillus strains was made up of two strains each of Bacillus macerans, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus circulans. Also included are B. coagulans, ...

  9. L-Glutamic acid production by Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogiri” (fermented vegetable proteins) in Nigeria. The isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (6), (27.3%), Bacillus pumilus (5), (22.7%), Bacillus licheniformis (5), (27.3%) and Bacillus polymyxa (6), (22.7%). Four species of the Bacillus isolates ...

  10. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rume, Farzana Islam; Affuso, Alessia; Serrecchia, Luigina; Rondinone, Valeria; Manzulli, Viviana; Campese, Emanuele; Di Taranto, Pietro; Biswas, Paritosh Kumar; Ahsan, Chowdhury Rafiqul; Yasmin, Mahmuda; Fasanella, Antonio; Hugh-Jones, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed) originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples) collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP) to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR), demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country.

  11. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Rume

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR, demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country.

  12. Investigation of biosurfactant production by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shila khajavi shojaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are unique amphipathic molecules with extensive application in removing organic and metal contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate production of biosurfactant and determine optimal conditions to produce biosurfactant by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI. Materials and methods: In this study, effect of carbon source, temperature and incubation time on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil spreading, drop collapse, cell hydrophobicity and measurement of surface tension were used to detect biosurfactant production. Then, according to the results, the optimal conditions for biosurfactant production by and Bacillus subtilis WPI was determined. Results: In this study, both bacteria were able to produce biosurfactant at an acceptable level. Glucose, kerosene, sugarcane molasses and phenanthrene used as a sole carbon source and energy for the mentioned bacteria. Bacillus subtilis WPI produced maximum biosurfactant in the medium containing kerosene and reduced surface tension of the medium to 33.1 mN/m after 156 hours of the cultivation at 37°C. Also, the highest surface tension reduction by Bacillus pumilus 1529 occurred in the medium containing sugarcane molasses and reduce the surface tension of culture medium after 156 hours at 37°C from 50.4 to 28.83 mN/m. Discussion and conclusion: Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI had high potential in production of biosurfactant and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and Phenanthrene. Therefore, it could be said that these bacteria had a great potential for applications in bioremediation and other environmental process.

  13. Elizabethkingia meningosepticum (Chryseobacterium meningosepticum Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ceyhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium meningosepticum is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacillus historically associated primarily with meningitis in neonates and a wide variety of infections in immunocompromised patients. Neonatal infections often occur as outbreaks with environmental contamination being the source. C. meningosepticum infections are not common but are clinically important because the organism is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics. In this paper, we have reviewed the nosocomial outbreaks of C. meningosepticum in newborns and infants reported so far in the literature and overviewed the infection control interventions, treatment modalities, and prevention measures.

  14. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  15. PRODUCTION OF FIBRINOLYTIC ENZYME (NATTOKINASE) FROM BACILLUS SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Padma Singh, Rekha Negi*, Vani Sharma, Alka Rani, Pallavi and Richa Prasad

    2018-01-01

    During present study Nattokinase which is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme was produced by Bacillus sp. To screen and extract nattokinase enzyme from Bacillus sp. were isolated from soil of different agricultural field by serial dilution method. Out of 10 isolate, one strain i.e. B3 produced nattokinase on screening medium. B3 was identified by biochemical characterization. The caseinolytic activity of Nattokinase was 0.526 U/ml and the selected isolate Bacillus sp. could produce active nattokinas...

  16. Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases

    OpenAIRE

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains teste...

  17. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  18. Isolation of bacillus thuringiensis from different samples from Mansehra District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, F.; Lodhi, A.F.; Raza, G.

    2009-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis has made it very interesting for the control of a variety of agricultural pests and human disease vectors. The present study is an attempt to explore the potential and diversity. of Bacillus thuringiensis. from the local environment for the control of cotton spotted bollworm (Earias sp.), a major pest of cotton. Two hundred and ninety eight samples of soil, grain dust, wild animal dung, birds dropping, decaying leaves and dead insects were collected from different ecological environments of Mansehra District yielding 438 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates that produce parasporal crystalline inclusions. In this study the soil samples were found to be the richest source for Bacillus thuringiensis. (author)

  19. Inhibiting Inosine Hydrolase and Alanine Racemase to Enhance the Germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores: Potential Spore Decontamination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    decontamination strategies>> Maryline DEFEZ 1𔃼, Melissa HUNTER3J Susan WELKOS :~J Christopher COTE3 1 University Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France. 1...inosine hydrolase and alanine racemase to enhance the germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores potential spore decontamination strategies 5a...8217 • Accidentally in Humans • Natural reservoir is soil • Anthrax Disease Cycle: - animals infected by soilborne spores in food and water or bites from certain

  20. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  1. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    Full Text Available Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  2. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  3. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination, thymic size, and thymic output in healthy newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Zingmark, Vera

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG) has been associated with beneficial nonspecific effects on infant health. We aimed to examine the effect of BCG at birth on thymic size and the associations between thymic output, circulating lymphocytes, risk of infection, and thymic size...... to age 3 mo were parent-reported. RESULTS: BCG vaccination did not affect thymic size at age 3 mo, measured as TI. At birth, the number of lymphocytes, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, and RTEs were positively associated with TI and TWI. Furthermore, a reduced risk of infections up to age 3 mo was associated...... with a large thymic size at birth. CONCLUSION: We found no effect of BCG vaccination on thymic size. The positive association between thymic output, lymphocytes, reduced risk of infections, and TI/TWI suggests that assessment of TI/TWI by ultrasound may be a predictor of the immunological capacity...

  4. Genetic transformation of Bacillus strains close to bacillus subtilis and isolated from the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van, C.K.; Kuzin, Yu.Yu.; Kozlovskii, Yu.E.; Prozorov, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    Chromosomal and plasmid transformation was found in five out of 118 Bacillus strains, close or identical to Bacillus subtilis, and isolated from soil in Moscow or in the Moscow district. The efficiency of transformation in these strains was lower than that in derivatives of Bac. subtilis strain 168. In these strains the ability to undergo transformation was dependent on the rate of sporulation and the presence of restrictases. As in the case of Bac. subtilis 168 the strains isolated may be used as models in genetic transformation studies on Bac. subtilis

  5. Cutaneous Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (erysipeloid) infection in an immunocompromised child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alan S; Ritchie, Coleman; Fenton, Jeremy S

    2014-01-01

    Erysipeloid, a cutaneous infection with the gram-positive bacillus Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, is typically an occupational dermatosis seen in persons working with livestock or involved in commercial fishing (fishmongers). Other more-generalized forms of infection with this organism also exist, including a septic form usually associated with endocarditis. Many infections may be self-limited. They have rarely been reported in children or in immunocompromised patients. This microbe is sensitive to many mainstream antibiotic agents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Disseminated bacillus calmette guerin disease in a twin infant with severe combined immunodeficiency disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatal-disseminated Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG disease is well known in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency after BCG vaccination. We report a 7 month male infant delivered as a product of in vitro fertilization and twin gestation that presented with fever, cough and multiple nodular skin lesions. A biopsy of skin lesions revealed the presence of acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterium bovis infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and molecular studies. Immunological profile confirmed the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency. Only few reports of similar case exist in the literature.

  7. Characterization of amylolysin, a novel lantibiotic from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Arguelles Arias

    Full Text Available Lantibiotics are heat-stable peptides characterized by the presence of thioether amino acid lanthionine and methyllanthionine. They are capable to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus, the causative agents of food-borne diseases or nosocomial infections. Lantibiotic biosynthetic machinery is encoded by gene cluster composed by a structural gene that codes for a pre-lantibiotic peptide and other genes involved in pre-lantibiotic modifications, regulation, export and immunity.Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 was found to produce an antimicrobial peptide, named amylolysin, active on an array of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant S. aureus. Genome characterization led to the identification of a putative lantibiotic gene cluster that comprises a structural gene (amlA and genes involved in modification (amlM, transport (amlT, regulation (amlKR and immunity (amlFE. Disruption of amlA led to loss of biological activity, confirming thus that the identified gene cluster is related to amylolysin synthesis. MALDI-TOF and LC-MS analysis on purified amylolysin demonstrated that this latter corresponds to a novel lantibiotic not described to date. The ability of amylolysin to interact in vitro with the lipid II, the carrier of peptidoglycan monomers across the cytoplasmic membrane and the presence of a unique modification gene suggest that the identified peptide belongs to the group B lantibiotic. Amylolysin immunity seems to be driven by only two AmlF and AmlE proteins, which is uncommon within the Bacillus genus.Apart from mersacidin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains Y2 and HIL Y-85,544728, reports on the synthesis of type B-lantibiotic in this species are scarce. This study reports on a genetic and structural characterization of another representative of the type B lantibiotic in B. amyloliquefaciens.

  8. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home Body Your reproductive health Vaginal infections Vaginal infections Help for infections If you have pain, ... infections and how to prevent them. Types of vaginal infections top Two common vaginal infections are bacterial ...

  9. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center > Infective Endocarditis Menu Topics Topics FAQs Infective Endocarditis En español Infective endocarditis is an infection of ... time, congestive heart failure (CHF). What causes infective endocarditis? The infection that leads to endocarditis can be ...

  10. Isolation and characterization of a novel analyte from Bacillus subtilis SC-8 antagonistic to Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam Keun; Yeo, In-Cheol; Park, Joung Whan; Kang, Byung-Sun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2010-09-01

    In this study, an effective substance was isolated from Bacillus subtilis SC-8, which was obtained from traditionally fermented soybean paste, cheonggukjang. The substance was purified by HPLC, and its properties were analyzed. It had an adequate antagonistic effect on Bacilluscereus, and its spectrum of activity was narrow. When tested on several gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella enterica, Salmonella enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, no antagonistic effect was observed. Applying the derivative from B. subtilis SC-8 within the same genus did not inhibit the growth of major soybean-fermenting bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloquefaciens. The range of pH stability of the purified antagonistic substance was wide (from 4.0 to >10.0), and the substance was thermally stable up to 60 degrees C. In the various enzyme treatments, the antagonistic activity of the purified substance was reduced with proteinase K, protease, and lipase; its activity was partially destroyed with esterase. Spores of B. cereus did not grow at all in the presence of 5mug/mL of the purified antagonistic substance. The isolated antagonistic substance was thought to be an antibiotic-like lipopeptidal compound and was tentatively named BSAP-254 because it absorbed to UV radiation at 254nm. Copyright 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Enzyme activities and antibiotic susceptibility of colonial variants of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlisle, G E; Falkinham, J O

    1989-01-01

    A nonmucoid colonial variant of a mucoid Bacillus subtilis strain produced less amylase activity and a transparent colonial variant of a B. licheniformis strain produced less protease activity compared with their parents. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the colonial variants differed, and increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics was correlated with increased production of extracellular beta-lactamase.

  12. Micro-Etched Platforms for Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis and Bacillus Thuringiensis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    slips was first coated with a detergent wash. Commercially available Ivory soap shavings were diluted with sterile Millipore® water in a...environments. This removed controllable variability between the Bacillus species and increased the confidence in continued use of such surrogacy

  13. Biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthren by Bacillus subtilis 3KP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Trikurniadewi, N.; Pramadita, A. R. A.; Pratiwi, I. A.; Salamun, Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri

    2017-06-01

    The purposes of this research were to know growth response, degradation ability, and uptake mechanism of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. Bacillus subtilis 3KP was grown on Mineral Synthetic (MS) medium with addition of 1% yeast extract and naphthalene and phenanthrene respectively 200 ppm in different cultures. Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth response was monitored by Total Plate Count (TPC) method, the degradation ability was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon was monitored by emulsification activity, decrease of surface tension, and activity of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbon (BATH). Bacillus subtilis 3KP was able to grow and show biphasic growth pattern on both of substrates. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were used as a carbon source for Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth that indicated by the reduction of substrate concomitant with the growth. At room temperature conditions (± 30°C) and 90 rpm of agitation for 7 days, Bacillus subtilis 3KP could degrade naphthalene in the amount of 70.5% and phenanthrene in the amount of 24.8%. Based on the analysis of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, three metabolites, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyrocatechol were found in both cultures. The metabolite identification became basis of propose degradation pathway of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. The results of hydrocarbon uptake mechanism test show that Bacillus subtilis 3KP used all of the mechanism to degrade naphthalene and phenanthrene.

  14. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esther Diomande

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The large bacterial genus genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbour pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

  15. Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 30 bacterial strains isolated from marine biofilms were screened for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani by dual culture assay. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showed a clear antagonism against R. solani on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The antagonistic activity ...

  16. Increasing the alkaline protease activity of Bacillus cereus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-09

    May 9, 2011 ... cereus and Bacillus polymyxa simultaneously with the start of sporulation phase as a ... microbial forms to inactivation by chemical or physical agents. .... alkaline pH, 9, 10 and 11 and the pH of the culture media was optimized with .... incubation temperature for alkaline protease production by Bacillus ...

  17. Optimizing Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 for biofertilizer production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-12-28

    Dec 28, 2016 ... In this study, Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 biofertilizer was produced through solid state fermentation ... organic matter, NPK content from 8.83 to 16.16 kg hm2, and reduced chemical ... dependent on the nutritional components. ...... shell fish chitin wastes for the production of Bacillus subtilis W-118.

  18. Encapsulated Bacillus anthracis interacts closely with liver endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piris-Gimenez, Alejandro; Corre, Jean-Philippe; Jouvion, Gregory; Candela, Thomas; Khun, Huot; Goossens, Pierre L

    2009-11-01

    The Bacillus anthracis poly-gamma-D-glutamate capsule is essential for virulence. It impedes phagocytosis and protects bacilli from the immune system, thus promoting systemic dissemination. To further define the virulence mechanisms brought into play by the capsule, we characterized the interactions between encapsulated nontoxinogenic B. anthracis and its host in vivo through histological analysis, perfusion, and competition experiments with purified capsule. Clearance of encapsulated bacilli from the blood was rapid (>90% clearance within 5 min), with 75% of the bacteria being trapped in the liver. Competition experiments with purified capsule polyglutamate inhibited this interaction. At the septicemic phase of cutaneous infection with spores, the encapsulated bacilli were trapped in the vascular spaces of the liver and interacted closely with the liver endothelium in the sinusoids and terminal and portal veins. They often grow as microcolonies containing capsular material shed by the bacteria. We show that, in addition to its inhibitory effect on the interaction with the immune system, the capsule surrounding B. anthracis plays an active role in mediating the trapping of the bacteria within the liver and may thus contribute to anthrax pathogenesis. Because other microorganisms produce polyglutamate, it may also represent a general mechanism of virulence or in vivo survival.

  19. [Bacillus cereus endocarditis and a probable cutaneous gateway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudet, S; Becquart, C; Dezoteux, F; Faure, K; Staumont-Salle, D; Delaporte, E

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous telluric organism. B. cereus endocarditis is a rare condition seen mostly in prosthetic heart valves and among intravenous drug users. We report a new case of a patient without risk factors and with a good clinical outcome not requiring valve replacement. In October 2014, a 50-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology department of Lille University Hospital for lower-limb wounds developing 6 months earlier. She presented fever without clinical signs of infection, except for the lower-limbs wounds. Blood cultures revealed the presence of B. cereus. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed and revealed two foci of aortic valve vegetation with a diameter of 5mm. After bacterial sensitivity testing, rifampicin and levofloxacin treatment was given for six weeks, with complete remission. A skin graft was performed and good improvement was seen. Nineteen cases of B. cereus endocarditis have been described previously, only one of which was without risk factors. We described a case of complete remission after a 6-week course of antibiotics. Our case demonstrates that BC should not be considered as a blood culture contamination, and that treatment may be complex due to antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on Granite Weathering: A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Ogawa, N.; Oguchi, C. T.; Hatta, T.; Matsukura, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We performed a comparative experiment to investigate how the ubiquitous soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis weathers granite and which granite-forming minerals weather more rapidly via biological processes. Batch type experiments (granite specimen in a 500 ml solution including NaCl, glucose, yeast extract and bacteria Bacillus subtilis at 27°E C) were carried out for 30 days. Granite surfaces were observed by SEM before and after the experiment. Bacillus subtilis had a strong influence on granite weathering by forming pits. There were 2.4 times as many pits and micropores were 2.3 times wider in granite exposed to Bacillus subtilis when compared with bacteria-free samples. Bacillus subtilis appear to preferentially select an optimum place to adhere to the mineral and dissolve essential elements from the mineral to live. Plagioclase was more vulnerable to bacterial weathering than biotite among the granite composing minerals.

  1. Ecology and genomics of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Ashlee M; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a remarkably diverse bacterial species that is capable of growth within many environments. Recent microarray-based comparative genomic analyses have revealed that members of this species also exhibit considerable genomic diversity. The identification of strain-specific genes might explain how B. subtilis has become so broadly adapted. The goal of identifying ecologically adaptive genes could soon be realized with the imminent release of several new B. subtilis genome sequences. As we embark upon this exciting new era of B. subtilis comparative genomics we review what is currently known about the ecology and evolution of this species.

  2. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...... on protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in this gram-positive model organism. With its two kinases, two kinase modulators, three phosphatases and at least four different tyrosine-phosphorylated substrates, B. subtilis is the bacterium with the highest number of presently known participants in the global network...

  3. Ebselen and analogs as inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis thioredoxin reductase and bactericidal antibacterials targeting Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Tomas N; Osman, Harer; Werngren, Jim; Hoffner, Sven; Engman, Lars; Holmgren, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease associated with a very high mortality rate in its invasive forms. We studied a number of ebselen analogs as inhibitors of B. anthracis thioredoxin reductase and their antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most potent compounds in the series gave IC(50) values down to 70 nM for the pure enzyme and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) down to 0.4 μM (0.12 μg/ml) for B. subtilis, 1.5 μM (0.64 μg/ml) for S. aureus, 2 μM (0.86 μg/ml) for B. cereus and 10 μg/ml for M. tuberculosis. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were found at 1-1.5 times the MIC, indicating a general, class-dependent, bactericidal mode of action. The combined bacteriological and enzymological data were used to construct a preliminary structure-activity-relationship for the benzoisoselenazol class of compounds. When S. aureus and B. subtilis were exposed to ebselen, we were unable to isolate resistant mutants on both solid and in liquid medium suggesting a high resistance barrier. These results suggest that ebselen and analogs thereof could be developed into a novel antibiotic class, useful for the treatment of infections caused by B. anthracis, S. aureus, M. tuberculosis and other clinically important bacteria. Furthermore, the high barrier against resistance development is encouraging for further drug development. We have characterized the thioredoxin system from B. anthracis as a novel drug target and ebselen and analogs thereof as a potential new class of antibiotics targeting several important human pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of garlic solution to Bacillus sp. removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, N.; Rahim, S. R.

    2018-04-01

    Biofilm is a microbial derived sessile community characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a substratum or interface to each other, embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances that they have produced. Bacillus sp. was used as biofilm model in this study. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Garlic solution in term of ratio of water and Garlic solution (W/G) and ratio of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. (GS/B) on Bacillus sp removal. Garlic solution was used to remove Bacillus sp. In this study, Garlic solution was prepared by crushing the garlic and mixed it with water. the Garlic solution was added into Bacillus sp. mixture and mixed well. The mixture then was spread on nutrient agar. The Bacillus sp. weight on agar plate was measured by using dry weight measurement method. In this study, initially Garlic solution volume and Garlic solution concentration were studied using one factor at time (OFAT). Later two-level-factorial analysis was done to determine the most contributing factor in Bacillus sp. removal. Design Expert software (Version 7) was used to construct experimental table where all the factors were randomized. Bacilus sp removal was ranging between 42.13% to 99.6%. The analysis of the results showed that at W/G of 1:1, Bacillus sp. removal increased when more Garlic solution was added to Bacillus sp. Effect of Garlic solution to Bacillus sp. will be understood which in turn may be beneficial for the industrial purpose.

  5. Evaluation of antifungal metabolites activity from bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against Colletotrichum gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Hafiz Husnain; Nelly Rajaofera, M J; He, Qiguang; Anam, Usmani; Lin, Chunhua; Miao, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    Anthracnose disease in the cotton plant caused by fungal pathogen Colletotrichum gossypii. It is supposed to be most critical diseases in the cotton crop as it causes infection and leads to complete damaging of the cotton crop by infecting the leaves, stems, and bolls in the field. The disease control is challenging due to the absence of an effective fungicide without damaging the farmer health and environment. So the series of experiments were designed to assess the antagonistic activity of biosurfactant released by strain Bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against the anthracnose causing agent in cotton and this strain was screened out from forty eight strain of rhizobacteria. We also estimated the heat stability and pH range and toxicity of biosurfactant produced by strain 0E-04. The results showed that biosurfactant has maximum antifungal activity against C. gossypii. In vitro study concluded that the biosurfactant can reduce fungal activity by inhibiting the spore germination of C. gossypii. Moreover, the biosurfactant also has wide pH and temperature range. We observed Antifungal activity of biosurfactant at 5 to 10 pH range and temperature range was also wide from room temperature to 100 °C. We also observed the toxicity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis against zebra fish (Danio rerio). We were noticed that biosurfactant have least harmful effect with maximum concentration. The study confirmed that biosurfactant of Bacillus licheniformis have high pH and heat stability range with least harmful effects so it can be a good replacement of chemical pesticides for cotton anthracnose control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hal Is a Bacillus anthracis Heme Acquisition Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Miriam A.; Nobles, Christopher L.; Honsa, Erin S.; Alicki, Embriette R.

    2012-01-01

    The metal iron is a limiting nutrient for bacteria during infection. Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax and a potential weapon of bioterrorism, grows rapidly in mammalian hosts, which suggests that it efficiently attains iron during infection. Recent studies have uncovered both heme (isd) and siderophore-mediated (asb) iron transport pathways in this pathogen. Whereas deletion of the asb genes results in reduced virulence, the loss of three surface components from isd had no effect, thereby leaving open the question of what additional factors in B. anthracis are responsible for iron uptake from the most abundant iron source for mammals, heme. Here, we describe the first functional characterization of bas0520, a gene recently implicated in anthrax disease progression. bas0520 encodes a single near-iron transporter (NEAT) domain and several leucine-rich repeats. The NEAT domain binds heme, despite lacking a stabilizing tyrosine common to the NEAT superfamily of hemoproteins. The NEAT domain also binds hemoglobin and can acquire heme from hemoglobin in solution. Finally, deletion of bas0520 resulted in bacilli unable to grow efficiently on heme or hemoglobin as an iron source and yielded the most significant phenotype relative to that for other putative heme uptake systems, a result that suggests that this protein plays a prominent role in the replication of B. anthracis in hematogenous environments. Thus, we have assigned the name of Hal (heme-acquisition leucine-rich repeat protein) to BAS0520. These studies advance our understanding of heme acquisition by this dangerous pathogen and justify efforts to determine the mechanistic function of this novel protein for vaccine or inhibitor development. PMID:22865843

  7. ABILITY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER IN CISIRUNG WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu SAFITRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the ability of bacterial consortium: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida in bioremediation of wastewater origin Cisirung WWTP. This study uses an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of two treatment factors (8x8 factorial design. The first factor is a consortium of bacteria (K, consisting of 8 level factors (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, and k8. The second factor is the time (T, consisting of a 7 level factors (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7. Test parameters consist of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid, Ammonia and Population of Microbes during bioremediation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consortium of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida with inoculum concentration of 5% (k6 is a consortium of the most effective in reducing BOD 71.93%, 64.30% COD, TSS 94.85%, and 88.58% of ammonia.

  8. Potential of Bacillus spp produces siderophores insuppressing thewilt disease of banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaulya, H.; Hasinu, J. V.; Tuhumury, G. NC

    2018-01-01

    In nature, different types of siderophore such as hydroxymate, catecholets and carboxylate, are produced by different bacteria. Bacillus spp were isolated from potato rhizospheric soil can produce siderophore of both catecholets and salicylate type with different concentrations. Various strains of Bacillus spp were tested for pathogen inhibition capability in a dual culture manner. The test results showed the ability of inhibition of pathogen isolated from banana wilt disease. From the result tested were found Bacillus niabensis Strain PT-32-1, Bacillus subtilis Strain SWI16b, Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC21, Bacillus mojavensis Strain JCEN3, and Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC24 showed different capabilities in suppressing pathogen.

  9. Plant methyl salicylate induces defense responses in the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a rhizobacterium that promotes plant growth and health. Cultivation of B. subtilis with an uprooted weed on solid medium produced pleat-like architectures on colonies near the plant. To test whether plants emit signals that affect B. subtilis colony morphology, we examined the effect of plant-related compounds on colony morphology. Bacillus subtilis formed mucoid colonies specifically in response to methyl salicylate, which is a plant-defense signal released in response to pathogen infection. Methyl salicylate induced mucoid colony formation by stimulating poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis, which formed enclosing capsules that protected the cells from exposure to antimicrobial compounds. Poly-γ-glutamic acid synthesis depended on the DegS-DegU two-component regulatory system, which activated DegSU-dependent gene transcription in response to methyl salicylate. Bacillus subtilis did not induce plant methyl salicylate production, indicating that the most probable source of methyl salicylate in the rhizosphere is pathogen-infected plants. Methyl salicylate induced B. subtilis biosynthesis of the antibiotics bacilysin and fengycin, the latter of which exhibited inhibitory activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We propose that B. subtilis may sense plants under pathogen attack via methyl salicylate, and express defense responses that protect both B. subtilis and host plants in the rhizosphere. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella with potential activity against Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X-X; Zhang, Y-Q; Freed, S; Yu, J; Gao, Y-F; Wang, S; Ouyang, L-N; Ju, W-Y; Jin, F-L

    2016-12-01

    Insect defensins, are cationic peptides that play an important role in immunity against microbial infection. In the present study, an anionic defensin from Plutella xylostella, (designated as PxDef) was first cloned and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that the mature peptide owned characteristic six-cysteine motifs with predicted isoelectric point of 5.57, indicating an anionic defensin. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that PxDef was significantly induced in epidermis, fat body, midgut and hemocytes after injection of heat-inactivated Bacillus thuringiensis, while such an induction was delayed by the injection of live B. thuringiensis in the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella. Knocking down the expression of nuclear transcription factor Dorsal in P. xylostella by RNA interference significantly decreased the mRNA level of PxDef, and increased the sensitivity of P. xylostella larvae to the infection by live B. thuringiensis. The purified recombinant mature peptide (PxDef) showed higher activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with the minimum inhibition concentrations of 1.6 and 2.6 µM against B. thuringiensis and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report about an anionic PxDef, which may play an important role in the immune system of P. xylostella against B. thuringiensis.

  11. Fast Neutron Radiation Effects on Bacillus Subtili

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoming; Zhang Jianguo; Chu Shijin; Ren Zhenglong; Zheng Chun; Yang Chengde; Tan Bisheng

    2009-01-01

    To examine the sterilizing effect and mechanism of neutron radiation, Bacillus subtilis var. niger. strain (ATCC 9372) spores were irradiated with the fast neutron from the Chinese fast burst reactor II(CFBR-II). The plate-count results indicated that the D 10 value was 384.6 Gy with a neutron radiation dose rate of 7.4 Gy/min. The rudimental catalase activity of the spores declined obviously with the increase in the radiation dose. Meanwhile, under the scanning electron microscope, no visible influence of the neutron radiation on the spore configuration was detected even if the dose was increased to 4 kGy. The content and distribution of DNA double-strand breaks induced by neutron radiation at different doses were measured and quantified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Further analysis of the DNA release percentage (PR), the DNA breakage level (L), and the average molecular weight, indicated that DNA fragments were obviously distributed around the 5 kb regions at different radiation doses, which suggests that some points in the DNA molecule were sensitive to neutron radiation. Both PR and L varied regularly to some extent with the increase in radiation dose. Thus neutron radiation has a high sterilization power, and can induce falling enzyme activity and DNA breakage in Bacillus subtilis spores

  12. A novel multiplex PCR discriminates Bacillus anthracis and its genetically related strains from other Bacillus cereus group species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Ogawa

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an important zoonotic disease worldwide that is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming pathogenic bacterium. A rapid and sensitive method to detect B. anthracis is important for anthrax risk management and control in animal cases to address public health issues. However, it has recently become difficult to identify B. anthracis by using previously reported molecular-based methods because of the emergence of B. cereus, which causes severe extra-intestinal infection, as well as the human pathogenic B. thuringiensis, both of which are genetically related to B. anthracis. The close genetic relation of chromosomal backgrounds has led to complexity of molecular-based diagnosis. In this study, we established a B. anthracis multiplex PCR that can screen for the presence of B. anthracis virulent plasmids and differentiate B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group species. Six sets of primers targeting a chromosome of B. anthracis and B. anthracis-like strains, two virulent plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, a bacterial gene, 16S rRNA gene, and a mammalian gene, actin-beta gene, were designed. The multiplex PCR detected approximately 3.0 CFU of B. anthracis DNA per PCR reaction and was sensitive to B. anthracis. The internal control primers also detected all bacterial and mammalian DNAs examined, indicating the practical applicability of this assay as it enables monitoring of appropriate amplification. The assay was also applied for detection of clinical strains genetically related to B. anthracis, which were B. cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infections in Japan, and field strains isolated in Zambia, and the assay differentiated B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group strains. Taken together, the results indicate that the newly developed multiplex PCR is a sensitive and practical method for detecting B. anthracis.

  13. Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov., isolated from ginseng root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Fubin; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Lin; Sun, Lei; Schumann, Peter; Song, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Four alkaligenous, moderately halotolerant strains, designated ge09, ge10(T), ge14(T) and ge15, were isolated from the internal tissue of ginseng root and their taxonomic positions were investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Cells of the four strains were Gram-positive-staining, non-motile, short rods. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) formed one cluster and strains ge14(T) and ge15 formed another separate cluster within the genus Bacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with type strains of other Bacillus species were less than 97 %. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness among the four strains showed that strains ge09 and ge10(T) and strains ge14(T) and ge15 belonged to two separate species; the mean level of DNA-DNA relatedness between ge10(T) and ge14(T) was only 28.7 %. Their phenotypic and physiological properties supported the view that the two strains represent two different novel species of the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C contents of strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were 49.9 and 49.6 mol%, respectively. Strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) showed the peptidoglycan type A4alpha l-Lys-d-Glu. The lipids present in strains ge10(T) and ge14(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, a minor amount of phosphatidylcholine and two unknown phospholipids. Their predominant respiratory quinone was MK-7. The fatty acid profiles of the four novel strains contained large quantities of branched and saturated fatty acids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (42.5 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (22.2 %), anteiso-C(17 : 0) (7.3 %) and C(16 : 1)omega7c alcohol (5.7 %) in ge10(T) and iso-C(15 : 0) (50.7 %) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) (20.1 %) in ge14(T). On the basis of their phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, two novel species of the genus Bacillus are proposed, Bacillus beijingensis sp. nov. (type strain ge10(T) =DSM 19037(T) =CGMCC 1.6762(T)) and Bacillus ginsengi sp. nov. (type strain ge14

  14. Bacillus NP5 Improves Growth Performance and Resistance Against Infectious Myonecrosis Virus in White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei (Bacillus NP5 Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan dan Ketahanan Terhadap Infeksi Virus Myonecrosis pada Udang Putih (L. vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widanarni Widanarni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN merupakan salah satu penyakit yang sering menyerang udang vaname. Probiotik banyak digunakan pada budidaya udang karena terbukti mampu mengurangi serangan penyakit pada udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh pemberian probiotik Bacillus NP5 melalui pakan terhadap kinerja pertumbuhan, respons imun, dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap infeksi Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV. Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei (2.41±0.07 g ekor-1 diberi pakan yang disuplementasi probiotik Bacillus NP5 dengan dosis yang berbeda, 102 CFU.g-1 (A, 104 CFU.g-1 (B, 106 CFU.g-1 (C, dan kontrol tanpa suplementasi probiotik (kontrol negatif, KN; kontrol positif, KP selama 30 hari dan dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing dosis, kemudian KP, perlakuan A, B, dan C diuji tantang secara intramuskular dengan IMNV (100 µl.ekor-1. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa udang vaname yang diberi pakan dengan suplementasi probiotik mempunyai laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH, rasio konversi pakan (RKP, dan respons imun yang lebih tinggi. Udang tersebut juga mempunyai total hemocyte count (THC dan resistensi terhadap IMNV yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol positif. Konsentrasi probiotik 106 CFU.g-1 memberikan hasil terbaik dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan, respon imun, dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap infeksi IMNV. Kata kunci: probiotik, Bacillus NP5, Litopenaeus vannamei, pertumbuhan, IMNV Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN is one of the most prevalent white shrimp diseases. Probiotics are widely used in shrimp cultivation because they have been proven to reduce shrimp disease outbreak. This study aimed to observe the effect of oraly administered probiotic Bacillus NP5 on the white shrimp's growth performance, immune response, and resistance to Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV infection. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2.41±0.07 g individual-1 were fed with a feed supplemented with different doses of the probiotic Bacillus NP5, i

  15. Surface display of Clonorchis sinensis enolase on Bacillus subtilis spores potentializes an oral vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Tian, Yanli; Mao, Qiang; Lv, Xiaoli; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing; Huang, Yan

    2014-03-10

    Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infections remain the common public health problem in freshwater fish consumption areas. New effective prevention strategies are still the urgent challenges to control this kind of foodborne infectious disease. The biochemical importance and biological relevance render C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) as a potential vaccine candidate. In the present study, we constructed Escherichia coli/Bacillus subtilis shuttle genetic engineering system and investigated the potential of Csenolase as an oral vaccine candidate for C. sinensis prevention in different immunization routes. Our results showed that, compared with control groups, both recombinant Csenolase protein and nucleic acid could induce a mixed IgG1/IgG2a immune response when administrated subcutaneously (Psinensis infection. Csenolase derived oral vaccine conferred worm reduction rate and egg reduction rate at 60.07% (Psinensis prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavy metals and their radionuclides uptake by Bacillus Licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Ahmed, M.M.; Abo-state, M.A.M.; Sarhan, M.; Faroqe, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is a gram positive spore forming bacterium. Different concentrations of cobalt affected the ability of Co uptake and growth of Bacillus licheniformis. As the concentration increased, both the uptake and growth were decreased. Maximum Co uptake was found at ph 7.0, while for growth was ph 8.0. The optimum temperature for uptake and growth was 40 degree C and 20% inoculum size represents the maximum cobalt uptake by Bacillus licheniformis. Also, maximum uptake was recorded after 72 hours, incubation period. As the concentration of cesium was increased till 400 mg/l, the uptake was also increased. The optimum cesium uptake and growth was at ph 8.0. The optimum growth was at 45 degree C while Cs uptake was found at 35 degree C and 15% inoculum size represented the maximum Cs uptake. After 72 hour incubation period, maximum Cs uptake was recorded. Generally, Bacillus licheniformis removed more than 80% of Co and 50% of Cs from the broth medium. Addition of clay to Bacillus licheniformis increased both Co or Cs uptake. Bacillus licheniformis was gamma resistant and 10 KGy reduced the viability by 5.3 log cycles. The irradiated and non-irradiated cultures can grow on 500 or 700 mg Co or Cs. Bacillus licheniformis removed 99.32% of the Co radionuclides and 99.28% of Cs radionuclides

  17. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  18. Identification of Bacillus anthracis by Using Monoclonal Antibody to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine Polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Bacillus circulans ATCC 4513 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus eugilitis B-61 f - - NR NT NT NT NT...American Society for Microbiology W Identification of Bacillus anthracis by-U-sing Monoclonal Antibody CC to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine...Received 22 June 1989/Accepted 31 October 1989 ’ Guanidine extracts of crude Bacillus anthracis cell wall were used to vaccinate BALB/c mice and to

  19. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium haemophilum infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L.E.; Soolingen, D. van; Prins, J.M.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slowly growing acid-fast bacillus (AFB) belonging to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) frequently found in environmental habitats, which can colonize and occasionally infect humans and animals. Several findings suggest that water reservoirs are a likely

  20. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium haemophilum infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L.E.S.; van Soolingen, D.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slowly growing acid-fast bacillus (AFB) belonging to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) frequently found in environmental habitats, which can colonize and occasionally infect humans and animals. Several findings suggest that water reservoirs are a likely

  1. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Adamu KUTA; Lohya NIMZING; Priscilla Yahemba ORKA’A

    2009-01-01

    Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cer...

  2. Reparation and Immunomodulating Properties of Bacillus sp. Metabolites from Permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenova, L F; Melnikov, V P; Besedin, I M; Bazhin, A S; Gabdulin, M A; Kolyvanova, S S

    2017-09-01

    An ointment containing metabolites of Bacillus sp. microorganisms isolated from permafrost samples was applied onto the skin wound of BALB/c mice. Metabolites isolated during culturing of Bacillus sp. at 37°C produced a potent therapeutic effect and promoted wound epithelialization by 30% in comparison with the control (ointment base) and by 20% in comparison with Solcoseryl. Treatment with Bacillus sp. metabolites stimulated predominantly humoral immunity, reduced the time of wound contraction and the volume of scar tissue, and promoted complete hair recovery. These metabolites can be considered as modulators of the wound process with predominance of regeneration mechanisms.

  3. Characteristics and Application of a Novel Species of Bacillus: Bacillus velezensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miao; Tang, Xiangfang; Yang, Ru; Zhang, Hongfu; Li, Fangshu; Tao, Fangzheng; Li, Fei; Wang, Zaigui

    2018-03-16

    Bacillus velezensis has been investigated and applied more and more widely recently because it can inhibit fungi and bacteria and become a potential biocontrol agent. In order to provide more clear and comprehensive understanding of B. velezensis for researchers, we collected the recent relevant articles systematically and reviewed the discovery and taxonomy, secondary metabolites, characteristics and application, gene function, and molecular research of B. velezensis. This review will give some direction to the research and application of this strain for the future.

  4. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Andersen, Sigrid R

    2005-01-01

    Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eat food products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains....../or content of cry genes. Thus, a large proportion of the B. cereus-like organisms present in food may belong to B. thuringiensis....

  5. Construction of novel shuttle expression vectors for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhao, Hongyan; Tan, Xuemei; Feng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A native plasmid (pSU01) was detected by genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis strain S1-4. Two pSU01-based shuttle expression vectors pSU02-AP and pSU03-AP were constructed enabling stable replication in B. subtilis WB600. These vectors contained the reporter gene aprE, encoding an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus BA06. The expression vector pSU03-AP only possessed the minimal replication elements (rep, SSO, DSO) and exhibited more stability on structure, suggesting that the rest of the genes in pSU01 (ORF1, ORF2, mob, hsp) were unessential for the structural stability of plasmid in B. subtilis. In addition, recombinant production of the alkaline protease was achieved more efficiently with pSU03-AP whose copy number was estimated to be more than 100 per chromosome. Furthermore, pSU03-AP could also be used to transform and replicate in B. pumilus BA06 under selective pressure. In conclusion, pSU03-AP is expected to be a useful tool for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus.

  6. Complete nucleotide sequence of Bacillus subtilis (natto) bacteriophage PM1, a phage associated with disruption of food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    "Natto", considered a traditional food, is made by fermenting boiled soybeans with Bacillus subtilis (natto), which is a natto-producing strain related to B. subtilis. The production of natto is disrupted by phage infections of B. subtilis (natto); hence, it is necessary to control phage infections. PM1, a phage of B. subtilis (natto), was isolated during interrupted natto production in a factory. In a previous study, PM1 was classified morphologically into the family Siphoviridae, and its genome, comprising approximately 50 kbp of linear double-stranded DNA, was assumed to be circularly permuted. In the present study, the complete nucleotide sequence of the PM1 genomic DNA of 50,861 bp (41.3 %G+C) was determined, and 86 open reading frames (ORFs) were deduced. Forty-one ORFs of PM1 shared similarities with proteins deduced from the genome of phages reported so far. Twenty-three ORFs of PM1 were associated with functions related to the phage multiplication process of gene control, DNA replication/modification, DNA packaging, morphogenesis, and cell lysis. Bacillus subtilis (natto) produces a capsular polypeptide of glutamate with a γ-linkage (called poly-γ-glutamate), which appears to serve as a physical barrier to phage adsorption. One ORF of PM1 had similarity with a poly-γ-glutamate hydrolase, which is assumed to degrade the capsular barrier to allow phage progenies to infect encapsulated host cells. The genome analysis of PM1 revealed the characteristics of the phage that are consistent as Bacillus subtilis (natto)-infecting phage.

  7. [New antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis strains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanicheva, I A; Kozlov, D G; Efimenko, T A; Zenkova, V A; Kastrukha, G S; Reznikova, M I; Korolev, A M; Borshchevskaia, L N; Tarasova, O D; Sineokiĭ, S P; Efremenkova, O V

    2014-01-01

    Two Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from the fruiting body of a basidiomycete fungus Pholiota squarrosa exhibited a broad range of antibacterial activity, including those against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus INA 00761 (MRSA) and Leuconostoc mes6nteroides VKPM B-4177 resistant to glycopep-> tide antibiotics, as well as antifungal activity. The strains were identified as belonging to the "B. subtilis" com- plex based on their morphological and physiological characteristics, as well as by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene fragments. Both strains (INA 01085 and INA 01086) produced insignificant amounts of polyene antibiotics (hexaen and pentaen, respectively). Strain INA 01086 produced also a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic containing Asp, Gly, Leu, Pro, Tyr, Thr, Trp, and Phe, while the antibiotic of strain INA 01085 contained, apart from these, two unidentified nonproteinaceous amino acids. Both polypeptide antibiotics were new compounds efficient against gram-positive bacteria and able to override the natural bacterial antibiotic resistance.

  8. Extracellular signaling and multicellularity in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Elizabeth Anne; Kolter, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis regulates its ability to differentiate into distinct, co-existing cell types in response to extracellular signaling molecules produced either by itself, or present in its environment. The production of molecules by B. subtilis cells, as well as their response to these signals, is not uniform across the population. There is specificity and heterogeneity both within genetically identical populations as well as at the strain-level and species-level. This review will discuss how extracellular signaling compounds influence B. subtilis multicellularity with regard to matrix-producing cannibal differentiation, germination, and swarming behavior, as well as the specificity of the quorum-sensing peptides ComX and CSF. It will also highlight how imaging mass spectrometry can aid in identifying signaling compounds and contribute to our understanding of the functional relationship between such compounds and multicellular behavior. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A singular enzymatic megacomplex from Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Paul D; Fischbach, Michael A; Walsh, Christopher T; Rudner, David Z; Kolter, Roberto

    2007-01-02

    Nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS), polyketide synthases (PKS), and hybrid NRPS/PKS are of particular interest, because they produce numerous therapeutic agents, have great potential for engineering novel compounds, and are the largest enzymes known. The predicted masses of known enzymatic assembly lines can reach almost 5 megadaltons, dwarfing even the ribosome (approximately 2.6 megadaltons). Despite their uniqueness and importance, little is known about the organization of these enzymes within the native producer cells. Here we report that an 80-kb gene cluster, which occupies approximately 2% of the Bacillus subtilis genome, encodes the subunits of approximately 2.5 megadalton active hybrid NRPS/PKS. Many copies of the NRPS/PKS assemble into a single organelle-like membrane-associated complex of tens to hundreds of megadaltons. Such an enzymatic megacomplex is unprecedented in bacterial subcellular organization and has important implications for engineering novel NRPS/PKSs.

  10. Studies on DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tadashi; Kada, Tsuneo

    1977-01-01

    An enzyme which enhances the priming activity of γ-irradiated DNA for type I DNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.7) was identified and partially purified from extracts of Bacillus subtilis cells. The enzyme preferentially degraded γ-irradiated DNA into acid-soluble materials. DNA preparations treated with heat, ultraviolet light, pancreatic DNAase (EC 3.1.4.5) or micrococcal DNAase (EC 3.1.4.7) were not susceptible to the enzyme. However, sonication rendered DNA susceptible to the enzyme to some extent. From these results, it is supposed that this enzyme may function by 'cleaning' damaged terminals produced by γ-irradiation to serve as effective primer of sites for repair synthesis by the type I DNA polymerase

  11. A love affair with Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losick, Richard

    2015-01-30

    My career in science was launched when I was an undergraduate at Princeton University and reinforced by graduate training at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. However, it was only after I moved to Harvard University as a junior fellow that my affections were captured by a seemingly mundane soil bacterium. What Bacillus subtilis offered was endless fascinating biological problems (alternative sigma factors, sporulation, swarming, biofilm formation, stochastic cell fate switching) embedded in a uniquely powerful genetic system. Along the way, my career in science became inseparably interwoven with teaching and mentoring, which proved to be as rewarding as the thrill of discovery. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  13. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamtesh; Patel, Sanjay Ks; Kalia, Vipin C

    2009-07-20

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process - for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  14. Cleaning and Disinfection of Bacillus cereus Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Amanda; Klein, Dan; Lopolito, Paul; Schwarz, John Spencer

    2016-01-01

    Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to disassociated B. cereus spores and biofilm from a non-spore-forming species. Further, we assessed the impact that pre-cleaning has on increasing that susceptibility. Methodology has been evolving for the testing of disinfectants against bacterial single-species biofilms, as the difficulty of biofilm remediation continues to gain much-needed attention. Bacterial single-species biofilm contamination presents a real risk to good manufacturing practice-regulated industries. However, mixed-species biofilms and biofilms containing bacterial spores remain an even greater challenge for cleaning and disinfection. Among spore-forming microorganisms frequently encountered in pharmaceutical manufacturing areas, the spores of Bacillus cereus are often determined to be the hardest to disinfect and eradicate. One of the reasons for the low degree of susceptibility to disinfection is the ability of these spores to be encapsulated within an exopolysachharide biofilm matrix. In this series of experiments, we evaluated the disinfectant susceptibility of B. cereus biofilms relative to

  15. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  16. Structural Characterization of Lipopeptides Isolated from Bacillus Globigii Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    .... Bacillus globigil spores, grown in new sporulation media (NSM), were suspended and then analyzed using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer to screen for biomarkers with 4-methoxycinnamic acid as matrix...

  17. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  18. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Key words: Bacillus sphaericus, carbohydrate metabolism, glycolytic enzymes. ... available in soil close to decaying plant materials. So when a medium .... citrate, isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, malate and acetate. The unit of.

  19. Analysis of Bacillus Globigii Spores Using the BioDetector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, William

    1999-01-01

    .... An automated immunoassay instrument capable of providing rapid identification of biological agents was used to analyses laboratory and field trial samples containing the field trial simulants Bacillus globigii (BG) spores...

  20. Global network reorganization during dynamic adaptations of Bacillus subtilis metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical...

  1. Two Genes Encoding Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Are Present in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Andersen, Paal S.

    1995-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) catalyzes the key reaction in the salvage of uracil in many microorganisms. Surprisingly, two genes encoding UPRTase activity were cloned from Bacillus subtilis by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The genes were sequenced, and the putative...

  2. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioassays were used to test the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis strains ... of crystal protein genes, 7 tested positive for cry 4, cry 11, and cyt toxin genes. ... mosquitocidal cry and cyt genes in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

  3. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Introduction. Application of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial ... Keywords: Bacillus spp, antibacterial activity, eyes pathogens, conjunctiva. African Health ... ml of respective test organism and allowed to dry. In the agar ...

  4. A parasporin from Bacillus thuringiensis native to Peninsular India ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thomas Chubicka

    2018-05-03

    May 3, 2018 ... Apoptosis; Bacillus thuringiensis; crystal protein; cytotoxicity; ... It acts by creating pores in the intestinal duct ... however diverse types of mechanisms of action have been ... parasporins that can be utilized in the cancer drug.

  5. Cloning and expression of an amylase gene from Bacillus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... Bacillus sp. isolated from an agricultural field in West. Bengal, India ... plants, even though, the competition is incipient (Sen,. 2007), and therefore ..... proteins: Engineering mesophilic–like activity and stability in a cold adapted ...

  6. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... Key words: Production, alkaline protease, Bacillus subtilis, animal wastes, enzyme activity. ... Generally, alkaline proteases are produced using submerged fermentation .... biopolymer concentrations were reported to have an influence ... adding nitrogenous compounds stimulate microorganism growth and ...

  7. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  8. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-22

    Nov 22, 2010 ... INTRODUCTION. Probiotic organisms find their potential use in food and ..... complex nutrients, temperature and pH on bacteriocin production by. Bacillus subtilis ... B, Gupta R (2004). Application of statistical experimental.

  9. Systematic Evaluation of Aggressive Air Sampling for Bacillus ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report The primary objectives of this project were to evaluate the Aggressive Air Sampling (AAS) method compared to currently used surface sampling methods and to determine if AAS is a viable option for sampling Bacillus anthracis spores.

  10. The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the viability of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact on the productivity of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa l.)

  11. antagonistic effect of native bacillus isolates against black root rot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A number of fungi and bacteria are known to be very effective .... Round. Convex. Smooth. Wrinkled. Slow. BS024. Irregular and spreading. Flat. Wavy .... Antibiotic effect of bacterial antagonist ..... antagonistic Bacillus and Trichoderma isolates ...

  12. effluent by bacillus cereus and clostridium butyricum using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Double-chambered MFCs was used for the study and operated ..... The third one is wire electron transfer, which uses ... phase indicates that the Bacillus cereus and Clostridium butyricum ..... Improving Start Up Performance With Carbon Mesh.

  13. Diversity and enzymatic characterization of Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation plays an important role in the production of cassava-based foods in West Africa. In Côte ... microorganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds ..... Bacillus species isolated from solid substrate fermentation of cassava for.

  14. Growth of Bacillus cereus isolated from some traditional condiments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-05

    Apr 5, 2010 ... (Kalogridou-vassiliodou, 1992) and food poisoning (Ynte et al., 2004). ... public health concern. B. cereus ... Effect of temperature on growth of Bacillus cereus. 5 ml sterile ..... Olutiola PO, Famurewa O, Sonntang HG (1991).

  15. Growth of Bacillus cereus isolated from some traditional condiments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth of Bacillus cereus isolated from some traditional condiments under different regimens. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... (fermented Prosopis africana seeds) and identified as B. cereus, B. subtilis, B. pumilus and B. lichenifomis.

  16. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Il; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy

  17. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae Il [Eulji University School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy.

  18. Bacillus As Potential Probiotics: Status, Concerns, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. F. Elshaghabee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spore-forming bacilli are being explored for the production and preservation of food for many centuries. The inherent ability of production of large number of secretory proteins, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, vitamins, and carotenoids specifies the importance of bacilli in food chain. Additionally, Bacillus spp. are gaining interest in human health related functional food research coupled with their enhanced tolerance and survivability under hostile environment of gastrointestinal tract. Besides, bacilli are more stable during processing and storage of food and pharmaceutical preparations, making them more suitable candidate for health promoting formulations. Further, Bacillus strains also possess biotherapeutic potential which is connected with their ability to interact with the internal milieu of the host by producing variety of antimicrobial peptides and small extracellular effector molecules. Nonetheless, with proposed scientific evidences, commercial probiotic supplements, and functional foods comprising of Bacillus spp. had not gained much credential in general population, since the debate over probiotic vs pathogen tag of Bacillus in the research and production terrains is confusing consumers. Hence, it’s important to clearly understand the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of selective beneficial Bacillus spp. and their substantiation with those having GRAS status, to reach a consensus over the same. This review highlights the probiotic candidature of spore forming Bacillus spp. and presents an overview of the proposed health benefits, including application in food and pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the growing need to evaluate the safety of individual Bacillus strains as well as species on a case by case basis and necessity of more profound analysis for the selection and identification of Bacillus probiotic candidates are also taken into consideration.

  19. Resistance of Bacillus Endospores to Extreme Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Munakata, Nobuo; Horneck, Gerda; Melosh, Henry J.; Setlow, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for exploration of the resistance of spores to environmental extremes both on Earth and during postulated interplanetary transfer through space as a result of natural impact processes. PMID:10974126

  20. Potensi Bacillus Coagulans Dari Serasah Hutan Sebagai Probiotik Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Wizna, Wizna; Abbas, H; Dharma, A; Kompiang, P

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms which controls the balance of pathogenic microbes in the digestive tract of cattle through competitive exclusion mechanism which lately has been widely used as a feed aditive both ruminants and poultry . One type of microbes used in probiotics in poultry livestock is a bacterium of the genus Bacillus . Bacillus coagulans (Lactobacillus sporogenes) had the same function as Lactobacillus sp known as probiotics were able to live in the digestive tract and pro...

  1. How Quorum Sensing Connects Sporulation to Necrotrophism in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchat, Stéphane; Talagas, Antoine; Poncet, Sandrine; Lazar, Noureddine; Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Inès; Gohar, Michel; Lereclus, Didier; Nessler, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate adaptation properties, cell fate or commitment to sporulation. The infectious cycle of Bacillus thuringiensis in the insect host is a powerful model to investigate the role of quorum sensing in natural conditions. It is tuned by communication systems regulators belonging to the RNPP family and directly regulated by re-internalized signaling peptides. One such RNPP regulator, NprR, acts in the presence of its cognate signaling peptide NprX as a transcription factor, regulating a set of genes involved in the survival of these bacteria in the insect cadaver. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of NprX and independently of its transcriptional activator function, NprR negatively controls sporulation. NprR inhibits expression of Spo0A-regulated genes by preventing the KinA-dependent phosphorylation of the phosphotransferase Spo0F, thus delaying initiation of the sporulation process. This NprR function displays striking similarities with the Rap proteins, which also belong to the RNPP family, but are devoid of DNA-binding domain and indirectly control gene expression via protein-protein interactions in Bacilli. Conservation of the Rap residues directly interacting with Spo0F further suggests a common inhibition of the sporulation phosphorelay. The crystal structure of apo NprR confirms that NprR displays a highly flexible Rap-like structure. We propose a molecular regulatory mechanism in which key residues of the bifunctional regulator NprR are directly and alternatively involved in its two functions. NprX binding switches NprR from a dimeric inhibitor of sporulation to a tetrameric transcriptional activator involved in the necrotrophic lifestyle of B. thuringiensis. NprR thus tightly coordinates sporulation and necrotrophism, ensuring survival and dissemination of the bacteria during host infection.

  2. Laser-induced speckle scatter patterns in Bacillus colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisung eKim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Label-free bacterial colony phenotyping technology called BARDOT (BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology provided successful classification of several different bacteria at the genus, species, and serovar level. Recent experiments with colonies of Bacillus species provided strikingly different characteristics of elastic light scatter (ELS patterns, which were comprised of random speckles compared to other bacteria, which are dominated by concentric rings and spokes. Since this laser-based optical sensor interrogates the whole volume of the colony, 3-D information of micro- and macro-structures are all encoded in the far-field scatter patterns. Here, we present a theoretical model explaining the underlying mechanism of the speckle formation by the colonies from Bacillus species. Except for Bacillus polymyxa, all Bacillus spp. produced random bright spots on the imaging plane, which presumably dependent on the cellular and molecular organization and content within the colony. Our scatter model-based analysis revealed that colony spread resulting in variable surface roughness can modify the wavefront of the scatter field. As the center diameter of the Bacillus spp. colony grew from 500 μm to 900 μm, average speckles area decreased 2-fold and the number of small speckles increased 7-fold. In conclusion, as Bacillus colony grows, the average speckle size in the scatter pattern decreases and the number of smaller speckle increases due to the swarming growth characteristics of bacteria within the colony.

  3. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Bacillus stearothermophilus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Bacillus stearothermophilus 名詞 一般 * * * * Bacillus stea...rothermophilus ... MeSH D001411 200906079736943583 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Bacillus stearothermophilus

  4. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D N

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (pBacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  5. Determining the source of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banykó, J; Vyletelová, M

    2009-03-01

    Strain-specific detection of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk, and yoghurt during processing. Randomly selected isolates of Bacillus spp. were subjected to PCR analysis, where single primer targeting to the repetitive sequence Box elements was used to fingerprint the species. The isolates were separated into six different fingerprint patterns. The results show that isolates clustered together at about the 57% similarity level with two main groups at the 82% and 83% similarity levels, respectively. Contamination with identical strains both of B. cereus and B. licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk was found as well as contaminated with different strains (in the case of raw milk and yoghurt/pasteurized milk and yoghurt). Several BOX types traced in processed milk samples were not discovered in the original raw milk. BOX-PCR fingerprinting is useful for characterizing Bacillus populations in a dairy environment. It can be used to confirm environmental contamination, eventually clonal transfer of Bacillus strains during the technological processing of milk. Despite the limited number of strains analysed, the two Bacillus species yielded adequately detectable banding profiles, permitting differentiation of bacteria at the strain level and showing their diversity throughout dairy processing.

  6. Scleral buckle infection by Serratia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of scleral buckle (SB infection with Serratia species. A 48-year-old male with a history of retinal detachment repair with scleral buckling presented with redness, pain, and purulent discharge in the left eye for 4 days. Conjunctival erosion with exposure of the SB and scleral thinning was noted. The SB was removed and sent for culture. Blood and chocolate agar grew Gram-negative rod-shaped bacillus identified as Serratia marcescens. On the basis of the susceptibility test results, the patient was treated with oral and topical antibiotics. After 6 weeks of the treatment, his infection resolved.

  7. Scleral buckle infection by Serratia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Ramesh; Agarwal, Manisha; Singh, Shalini; Mayor, Rahul; Bansal, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    We describe a rare case of scleral buckle (SB) infection with Serratia species. A 48-year-old male with a history of retinal detachment repair with scleral buckling presented with redness, pain, and purulent discharge in the left eye for 4 days. Conjunctival erosion with exposure of the SB and scleral thinning was noted. The SB was removed and sent for culture. Blood and chocolate agar grew Gram-negative rod-shaped bacillus identified as Serratia marcescens . On the basis of the susceptibility test results, the patient was treated with oral and topical antibiotics. After 6 weeks of the treatment, his infection resolved.

  8. Efficacy of Bacillus clausii and Saccharomyces boulardii in Treatment of Acute Rotaviral Diarrhea in Pediatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salloju Vineeth

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea disease is considered as major health problem in developing countries. Rotavirus is the most common identifiable viral cause of diarrhea in all children and belongs to Reoviridae family. Rotavirus infection occasionally leads to severe dehydration in infants and children. The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy of Bacillus clausii and Saccharomyces boulardii on the treatment of rotaviral diarrhea, and also to assess its effect on vomiting and fever in pediatric patients. This study conducted at Rainbow Children’s Hospital, Hyderabad, India, from January 2016 until June 2016 and adopts prospective observational parallel study design. From 104 patients enrolled, 80 fulfilled inclusion criteria and 24 were excluded from the study. Patients were divided into two groups based on the treatment. Group I patients were treated with Bacillus clausii and Group II patients were treated with Saccharomyces boulardii. Total mean duration of diarrhea was significantly shorter in Group II (S. boulardii in comparison with Group I (B. clausii. S. boulardii significantly (p≤0.005 decreased the duration of diarrhea which is 25.2 hours over B. clausii. Both probiotic preparations were equal in efficacy on treating the vomiting and fever (p≥0.005. S. boulardii and B. clausii were well accepted and tolerated by the children and there were no reports of any adverse effects during the study period.

  9. Unraveling aspects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens mediated enhanced production of rice under biotic stress of Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchi eSrivastava

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani (RS is a necrotrophic fungi causing sheath blight in rice leading to substantial loss in yield. Excessive and persistent use of preventive chemicals raises human health and environment safety concerns. As an alternative, use of biocontrol agents is highly recommended. In the present study an abiotic stress tolerant, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SN13 is demonstrated to act as a biocontrol agent and enhance immune response against RS in rice by modulating various physiological, metabolic and molecular functions. A sustained tolerance by SN13 primed plant over a longer period of time, post RS infection may be attributed to several unconventional aspects of the plants’ physiological status. The prolonged stress tolerance observed in presence of SN13 is characterized by (a involvement of bacterial mycolytic enzymes, (b sustained maintenance of elicitors to keep the immune system induced involving non-metabolizable sugars such as turanose besides the known elicitors, (c a delicate balance of ROS and ROS scavengers through production of proline, mannitol and arabitol and rare sugars like fructopyranose, β-d glucopyranose and myoinositol and expression of ferric reductases and hypoxia induced proteins, (d production of metabolites like quinozoline and expression of terpene synthase and (e hormonal cross talk. As the novel aspect of biological control this study highlights the role of rare sugars, maintenance of hypoxic conditions, and sucrose and starch metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquifaciens (SN13 mediated sustained biotic stress tolerance in rice.

  10. The role of DNA restriction-modification systems in the biology of Bacillus anthracis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan eSitaraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Restriction-modification (R-M systems are widespread among prokaryotes and, depending on their type, may be viewed as selfish genetic elements that persist as toxin-antitoxin modules or as cellular defense systems against phage infection. Studies in the last decade have made it amply clear that these two options do not exhaust the list of possible biological roles for R-M systems. Their presence in a cell may also have a bearing on other processes such as horizontal gene transfer and gene regulation. From genome sequencing and experimental data, we know that Bacillus anthracis encodes at least three methylation-dependent (typeIV restriction endonucleases, and an orphan DNA methyltransferase. In this article, we first present an outline of our current knowledge of R-M systems in Bacillus anthracis. Based on available DNA sequence data, and on our current understanding of the functions of similar genes in other systems, we conclude with hypotheses on the possible roles of the three restriction endonucleases and the orphan DNA methyltransferase.

  11. A portable cell-based optical detection device for rapid detection of Listeria and Bacillus toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Rickus, Jenna L.; Morgan, Mark T.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2005-11-01

    A mammalian cell-based optical biosensor was built to detect pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species. This sensor measures the ability of the pathogens to infect and induce cytotoxicity on hybrid lymphocyte cell line (Ped-2E9) resulting in the release of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that can be detected optically using a portable spectrophotometer. The Ped-2E9 cells were encapsulated in collagen gel matrices and grown in 48-well plates or in specially designed filtration tube units. Toxin preparations or bacterial cells were introduced and ALP release was assayed after 3-5 h. Pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains or the listeriolysin toxins preparation showed cytotoxicity ranging from 55% - 92%. Toxin preparations (~20 μg/ml) from B. cereus strains showed 24 - 98% cytotoxicity. In contrast, a non-pathogenic L. innocua (F4247) and a B. substilis induced only 2% and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. This cell-based detection device demonstrates its ability to detect the presence of pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species and can potentially be used onsite for food safety or in biosecurity application.

  12. MUTATION ON Bacillus subtilis BAC4 USING ACRIDINE ORANGE AS AN EFFORT FOR INCREASING ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supartono Supartono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to get a new antibiotic require to be done continuously, because infection diseases still become the main health problems in Indonesia. A new local strain of Bacillus subtilis BAC4 has been known producing an antibiotic that inhibites Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 growth. Nevertheless, the optimum conditions have not been studied seriously. The objective of this research was to conduct mutation on B. subtilis BAC4 in order to obtain a mutant cell that overproduct in producing antibiotic. The mutation process was performed by using acridine orange of 1 g.L-1 randomly at various volumes. The production of antibiotic was conducted using batch fermentation and antibiotic assay was performed with agar absorption method using S.  marcescens ATCC 27117 as bacteria assay. Research result provided a B. subtilis M10 mutant with overproduction of antibiotic. Characterization of B. subtilis M10 mutant showed that the mutant cell has size of (0.5-1.0 µm x (1.85-2.5 µm; spore has the form of ellipse with thick wavy wall, positive reaction for catalase, and forming acid from glucose and xylose.   Keywords: mutant, Bacillus, acridin, and antibiotics

  13. Chitosanase purified from bacterial isolate Bacillus licheniformis of ruined vegetables displays broad spectrum biofilm inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Sahira Nsayef; Al-Kadmy, Israa M S; Hussein, Nadheema Hammood; Mohammed Ali, Alaa Naseer; Taha, Buthainah Mohammed; Aziz, Sarah Naji; Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar

    2016-11-01

    A number of bacterial species produces chitosanases which has variety of applications because of its high biodegradability, non-toxicity and antimicrobial assets. In the present study chitosanase is purified from new bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis from spoiled vegetable. This novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples has the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Study also examined its antibiofilm properties against diverse bacterial species with biofilm forming ability. The purified chitosanase inhibited the biofilm formation ability for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria [biofilm producers] tested in this study in congo red agar and microtiter plate's methods. Highly antibiofilm activity of chitosanase was recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduction of biofilm formation upto 22 and 29%, respectively compared with [100] % of control. Biofilm formation has multiple role including ability to enhance resistance and self-protection from external stress. This chitosanase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria and has promising application as alternative antibiofilm agents to combat the growing number of multidrug resistant pathogen-associated infections, especially in situation where biofilms are involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles against Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Nafisi Bahabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. Use of nanotechnology and especially silver nanoparticles in control of bacterial diseases and infections has been studied in the recent years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles against Bacillus spp. Materials and methods: In this research, first, the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles against mentioned bacteria were evaluated by microdilution method in Broth medium. After confidence of inhibitory effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles, antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles was evaluated via in vitro microbiology tests (zone of inhibition test and test tube test. Results: Present study showed that colloidal silver nanoparticles have good antimicrobial effects against tested bacteria, so that MIC and MBC of silver nanoparticles for Bacillus spp. were calculated 3.9 and 31.25 mg/L, respectively. Also significant decrease was observed in bacterial growth after exposure to filter media coated with silver nanoparticles in test tube test and  zone of inhibition test (P≤ 5%. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate that filter media coated with silver nanoparticles have considerable antimicrobial effects; therefore they could possibly be used as excellent antibacterial water filters and would have several applications in other sectors.

  15. Small RNA profiling reveals important roles for miRNAs in Arabidopsis response to Bacillus velezensis FZB42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Jiang, Haiyang; Xu, Zhilan; Xu, Qianqian; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-09-20

    Bacillus velezensis FZB42 (previously classified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42) has been confirmed to successfully colonize plant roots and enhance defense response against pathogen infection. This study indicated that FZB42 inoculation enhanced Arabidopsis defense response against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 through inducing the expression of PR1, PDF1.2 and stomata closure. To further clarify the induced defense response at miRNA level, sRNA libraries from Arabidopsis roots inoculated with FZB42 and control were constructed and sequenced. The reads of 21nt and 24nt in length were the most abundant groups in FZB42-treated library and control library, respectively. 234 known miRNAs and 16 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 11 known miRNAs and 4 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed after FZB42 inoculation. Moreover cis-elements (TC-rich repeats, TCA-element and CGTCA-motif) associated with plant defense were also found in the promoters of these miRNAs. Additionally, 141 mRNAs were predicted as potential targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs. GO annotations of the target genes indicated their potential roles in polyamine biosynthetic process and intracellular protein transport biological process, which may contribute to increased defense response. Our findings indicated that Bacillus velezensis FZB42 inoculation altered the expression of Arabidopsis miRNAs and their target genes, which were associated with defense response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic characterization of Bacillus Genetic Stock Center Bacillus thuringiensis strains using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Shu, Changlong; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Zhang, Jie

    2018-04-30

    The goal of this work was to perform a systematic characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from the Bacillus Genetic Stock Center (BGSC) collection using Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Different genetic markers of 158 Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from 73 different serovars stored in the BGSC, that represented 92% of the different Bt serovars of the BGSC were analyzed, the 8% that were not analyzed were not available. In addition, we analyzed 72 Bt strains from 18 serovars available at the pubMLST bcereus database, and Bt strains G03, HBF18 and Bt185, with no H serovars provided by our laboratory. We performed a systematic MLST analysis using seven housekeeping genes (glpF, gmK, ilvD, pta, pur, pycA and tpi) and analyzed correlation of the results of this analysis with strain serovars. The 233 Bt strains analyzed were assigned to 119 STs from which 19 STs were new. Genetic relationships were established by phylogenetic analysis and showed that STs could be grouped in two major Clusters containing 21 sub-groups. We found that a significant number of STs (101 in total) correlated with specific serovars, such as ST13 that corresponded to nine Bt isolates from B. thuringiensis serovar kenyae. However, other serovars showed high genetic variability and correlated with multiple STs; for example, B. thuringiensis serovar morrisoni correlated with 11 different STs. In addition, we found that 16 different STs correlated with multiple serovars (2-4 different serovars); for example, ST12 correlated with B. thuringiensis serovar alesti, dakota, palmanyolensis and sotto/dendrolimus. These data indicated that only partial correspondence between MLST and serotyping can be established. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael W; Ramaiya, Preethi; Nelson, Beth A; Brody-Karpin, Shari D; Zaretsky, Elizabeth J; Tang, Maria; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Xiang, Henry; Gusti, Veronica; Clausen, Ib Groth; Olsen, Peter B; Rasmussen, Michael D; Andersen, Jens T; Jørgensen, Per L; Larsen, Thomas S; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Lapidus, Alla; Galleron, Nathalie; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Berka, Randy M

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 genome which comprises a circular chromosome of 4,222,336 base-pairs (bp) containing 4,208 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 873 bp, seven rRNA operons, and 72 tRNA genes. The B. licheniformis chromosome contains large regions that are colinear with the genomes of B. subtilis and Bacillus halodurans, and approximately 80% of the predicted B. licheniformis coding sequences have B. subtilis orthologs. Conclusions Despite the unmistakable organizational similarities between the B. licheniformis and B. subtilis genomes, there are notable differences in the numbers and locations of prophages, transposable elements and a number of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolic pathway operons that distinguish these species. Differences include a region of more than 80 kilobases (kb) that comprises a cluster of polyketide synthase genes and a second operon of 38 kb encoding plipastatin synthase enzymes that are absent in the B. licheniformis genome. The availability of a completed genome sequence for B. licheniformis should facilitate the design and construction of improved industrial strains and allow for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies within this group of Bacillaceae. PMID:15461803

  18. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

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    Hassan Ahmed Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel's skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium difficile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  19. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M; Caro, Lews; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-15

    In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis- produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA , for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis The interaction is mediated by the E

  20. Comparative sequence analyses on the 16S rRNA (rDNA) of Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus and proposal for creation of a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzkey, J. D.; Jurtshuk, P. Jr; Fox, G. E.; Deinhard, G.; Poralla, K.

    1992-01-01

    Comparative 16S rRNA (rDNA) sequence analyses performed on the thermophilic Bacillus species Bacillus acidocaldarius, Bacillus acidoterrestris, and Bacillus cycloheptanicus revealed that these organisms are sufficiently different from the traditional Bacillus species to warrant reclassification in a new genus, Alicyclobacillus gen. nov. An analysis of 16S rRNA sequences established that these three thermoacidophiles cluster in a group that differs markedly from both the obligately thermophilic organisms Bacillus stearothermophilus and the facultatively thermophilic organism Bacillus coagulans, as well as many other common mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus species. The thermoacidophilic Bacillus species B. acidocaldarius, B. acidoterrestris, and B. cycloheptanicus also are unique in that they possess omega-alicylic fatty acid as the major natural membranous lipid component, which is a rare phenotype that has not been found in any other Bacillus species characterized to date. This phenotype, along with the 16S rRNA sequence data, suggests that these thermoacidophiles are biochemically and genetically unique and supports the proposal that they should be reclassified in the new genus Alicyclobacillus.

  1. EFFECT OF BACILLUS OF CALMETTE-GUÉRIN, AVRIDINE AND Propionibacterium acnes AS IMMUNOMODULATORS ON RABIES IN MICE

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    MEGID J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular and humoral immune responses of mice inoculated with rabies virus and treated with the Bacillus of Calmette-Guérin, Avridine and Propionibacterium acnes were evaluated in this paper. There was a higher percentage of surviving mice in groups submitted to P. acnes treatment. Lower levels of interferon-g (IFN-g were found in infected mice. The intra-pad inoculation test (IPI was not effective to detect cellular immune response, contrary to the results found in MIF reaction. The survival of mice did not present correlation with the levels of antirabies serum neutralizing (SN antibodies titers, IFN-g concentration and MIF response.

  2. Mycotic Aneurysm after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Treatment: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Nathaniel D. Coddington

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is an effective adjunctive therapy for superficial bladder cancer that has been shown to delay recurrence and progression of disease. Serious side effects are relatively rare but are difficult to diagnosis and commonly overlooked. Case Presentation. We report the case of a patient who was found to have mycotic aortic aneurysms secondary to treatment with BCG after a prolonged course with multiple intervening hospitalizations. Conclusion. Through this report, we discuss our present understanding of BCG infection following treatment and review the literature regarding this particular rare manifestation.

  3. Characterization of antagonistic-potential of two Bacillus strains and their biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biocontrol mechanism of two antagonistic Bacillus strains (Bacillus subtilis MB14 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MB101), three in vitro antagonism assays were screened and the results were concluded that both strains inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth in a similar manner by dual culture assay, but the maximum percent of inhibition only resulted with MB101 by volatile and diffusible metabolite assays. Moreover, cell free supernatant (CFS) of MB101 also showed significant (p > 0.05) growth inhibition as compared to MB14, when 10 and 20% CFS mix with the growth medium of R. solani. After in vitro-validation, both strains were evaluated under greenhouse and the results concluded that strain MB101 had significant biocontrol potential as compared to MB14. Strain MB101 was enhanced the plant height, biomass and chlorophyll content of tomato plant through a higher degree of root colonization. In field trials, strain MB101 showed higher lessening in root rot symptoms with significant fruit yield as compare to strain MB14 and infected control. Next to the field study, the presence of four antibiotic genes (srfAA, fenD, ituC, and bmyB) also concluded the antifungal nature of both Bacillus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed a close relatedness of three genes (srfAA, fenD, and ituC) with earlier reported sequences of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. However, bmyB showed heterogeneity in among both strains (MB14 and MB101) and it may be concluded that higher degree of antagonism, root colonization and different antibiotic producing genes may play an important role in biocontrol mechanism of strain MB101. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Nonspecific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on early childhood infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitm......BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during...... during the first 3 mo....

  5. CASE REPORT Uncommon Pathogen Bacillus Cereus Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... Causing Subdural Empyema in a Child. Ethiop J ... 1Department of Child Health,. Airlangga ... secondary to middle ear infection, meningitis, brain surgery, ... classic clinical syndrome is an acute febrile illness punctuated by.

  6. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Four different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Despite the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways of the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. This greater deposition of spores in the upper airways in the human resulted in lower penetration and deposition in the tracheobronchial airways and the deep lung than that predict

  8. Bacillus subtilis biofilm induction by plant polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Pascale B; Chai, Yunrong; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-04-23

    Bacillus subtilis is a plant-beneficial Gram-positive bacterium widely used as a biofertilizer. However, relatively little is known regarding the molecular processes underlying this bacterium's ability to colonize roots. In contrast, much is known about how this bacterium forms matrix-enclosed multicellular communities (biofilms) in vitro. Here, we show that, when B. subtilis colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots it forms biofilms that depend on the same matrix genes required in vitro. B. subtilis biofilm formation was triggered by certain plant polysaccharides. These polysaccharides served as a signal for biofilm formation transduced via the kinases controlling the phosphorylation state of the master regulator Spo0A. In addition, plant polysaccharides are used as a source of sugars for the synthesis of the matrix exopolysaccharide. The bacterium's response to plant polysaccharides was observed across several different strains of the species, some of which are known to have beneficial effects on plants. These observations provide evidence that biofilm genes are crucial for Arabidopsis root colonization by B. subtilis and provide insights into how matrix synthesis may be triggered by this plant.

  9. Potassium sensing histidine kinase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Gontang, Erin A; Kolter, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    The soil-dwelling organism Bacillus subtilis is able to form multicellular aggregates known as biofilms. It was recently reported that the process of biofilm formation is activated in response to the presence of various, structurally diverse small-molecule natural products. All of these small-molecule natural products made pores in the membrane of the bacterium, causing the leakage of potassium cations from the cytoplasm of the cell. The potassium cation leakage was sensed by the membrane histidine kinase KinC, triggering the genetic pathway to the production of the extracellular matrix that holds cells within the biofilm. This chapter presents the methodology used to characterize the leakage of cytoplasmic potassium as the signal that induces biofilm formation in B. subtilis via activation of KinC. Development of novel techniques to monitor activation of gene expression in microbial populations led us to discover the differentiation of a subpopulation of cells specialized to produce the matrix that holds all cells together within the biofilm. This phenomenon of cell differentiation was previously missed by conventional techniques used to monitor transcriptional gene expression. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cannibalism enhances biofilm development in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2009-11-01

    Cannibalism is a mechanism to delay sporulation in Bacillus subtilis. Cannibal cells express the skf and sdp toxin systems to lyse a fraction of their sensitive siblings. The lysed cells release nutrients that serve to feed the community, effectively delaying spore formation. Here we provide evidence that the subpopulation of cells that differentiates into cannibals is the same subpopulation that produces the extracellular matrix that holds cells together in biofilms. Cannibalism and matrix formation are both triggered in response to the signalling molecule surfactin. Nutrients released by the cannibalized cells are preferentially used by matrix-producing cells, as they are the only cells expressing resistance to the Skf and Sdp toxins. As a result this subpopulation increases in number and matrix production is enhanced when cannibalism toxins are produced. The cannibal/matrix-producing subpopulation is also generated in response to antimicrobials produced by other microorganisms and may thus constitute a defense mechanism to protect B. subtilis from the action of antibiotics in natural settings.

  11. Bistability and Biofilm Formation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Yunrong; Chu, Frances; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Summary Biofilms of Bacillus subtilis consist of long chains of cells that are held together in bundles by an extracellular matrix of exopolysaccharide and the protein TasA. The exopolysaccharide is produced by enzymes encoded by the epsA-O operon and the gene encoding TasA is located in the yqxM-sipW-tasA operon. Both operons are under the control of the repressor SinR. Derepression is mediated by the antirepressor SinI, which binds to SinR with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Paradoxically, in medium promoting derepression of the matrix operons, the overall concentration of SinR in the culture greatly exceeded that of SinI. We show that under biofilm-promoting conditions sinI, which is under the control of the response regulator Spo0A, was expressed only in a small subpopulation of cells, whereas sinR was expressed in almost all cells. Activation of Spo0A is known to be subject to a bistable switch, and we infer that SinI reaches levels sufficient to trigger matrix production only in the subpopulation of cells in which Spo0A is active. Additionally, evidence suggests that sinI is expressed at intermediate, but not low or high, levels of Spo0A activity, which may explain why certain nutritional conditions are more effective in promoting biofilm formation than others. PMID:18047568

  12. The methionine salvage pathway in Bacillus subtilis

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    Danchin Antoine

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyamine synthesis produces methylthioadenosine, which has to be disposed of. The cell recycles it into methionine through methylthioribose (MTR. Very little was known about MTR recycling for methionine salvage in Bacillus subtilis. Results Using in silico genome analysis and transposon mutagenesis in B. subtilis we have experimentally uncovered the major steps of the dioxygen-dependent methionine salvage pathway, which, although similar to that found in Klebsiella pneumoniae, recruited for its implementation some entirely different proteins. The promoters of the genes have been identified by primer extension, and gene expression was analyzed by Northern blotting and lacZ reporter gene expression. Among the most remarkable discoveries in this pathway is the role of an analog of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco, the plant enzyme used in the Calvin cycle which recovers carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as a major step in MTR recycling. Conclusions A complete methionine salvage pathway exists in B. subtilis. This pathway is chemically similar to that in K. pneumoniae, but recruited different proteins to this purpose. In particular, a paralogue or Rubisco, MtnW, is used at one of the steps in the pathway. A major observation is that in the absence of MtnW, MTR becomes extremely toxic to the cell, opening an unexpected target for new antimicrobial drugs. In addition to methionine salvage, this pathway protects B. subtilis against dioxygen produced by its natural biotope, the surface of leaves (phylloplane.

  13. Association of RNAs with Bacillus subtilis Hfq.

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    Michael Dambach

    Full Text Available The prevalence and characteristics of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs have not been well characterized for Bacillus subtilis, an important model system for Gram-positive bacteria. However, B. subtilis was recently found to synthesize many candidate sRNAs during stationary phase. In the current study, we performed deep sequencing on Hfq-associated RNAs and found that a small subset of sRNAs associates with Hfq, an enigmatic RNA-binding protein that stabilizes sRNAs in Gram-negatives, but whose role is largely unknown in Gram-positive bacteria. We also found that Hfq associated with antisense RNAs, antitoxin transcripts, and many mRNA leaders. Several new candidate sRNAs and mRNA leader regions were also discovered by this analysis. Additionally, mRNA fragments overlapping with start or stop codons associated with Hfq, while, in contrast, relatively few full-length mRNAs were recovered. Deletion of hfq reduced the intracellular abundance of several representative sRNAs, suggesting that B. subtilis Hfq-sRNA interactions may be functionally significant in vivo. In general, we anticipate this catalog of Hfq-associated RNAs to serve as a resource in the functional characterization of Hfq in B. subtilis.

  14. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

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    Nan Jia

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  15. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

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    Viviane Zahner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR. Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap, encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.

  16. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  17. Effect of Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5 on Musa-Pseudocercospora fijiensis interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martín, Mileidy; Acosta-Suárez, Mayra; Mena, Eilyn; Roque, Berkis; Pichardo, Tatiana; Alvarado-Capó, Yelenys

    2018-02-01

    The effect of antifungal activity of culture filtrate (CF) of Bacillus pumilus strain CCIBP-C5, an isolate from a phyllosphere of banana ( Musa ) leaves, was determined on Pseudocercospora fijiensis challenged banana plants. The CF was shown to decrease the fungal biomass and induce changes in banana plant. In this sense, at 70 days post inoculation (dpi), a lower infection index as well as a decrease in fungal biomass after 6 dpi was obtained in treated plants with respect to control ones. At the same time, changes in the activities of several enzymes related to plant defense responses, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases and peroxidases were observed. These results indicate that B. pumilus CCIBP-C5 has a potential role for biological control of P. fijiensis possibly due to the production of antifungal metabolites.

  18. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  19. Morphogenesis of bacteriophage phi29 of Bacillus subtilis: cleavage and assembly of the neck appendage protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.E.; Reilly, B.E.; Anderson, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Each of the 12 neck appendages of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi 29 consists of a single protein molecular weight of about 75,000, and on the mature virion the appendages are assembled to the lower of two collars. The appendage protein is cleaved from a percursor protein, P(J), with a molecular weight of about 88,000. This cleavage is independent of neck assembly, occurring during infection by mutants that cannot synthesize the proteins of the upper and lower collars of the neck. The cleaved form of the appendage protein is efficiently complemented in vitro to particles lacking appendages. Thus, cleavage of the appendage precursor protein apparently does not occur in situ on the maturing virus

  20. In vitro antimicrobial effect of Satureja wiedemanniana against Bacillus species isolated from raw meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Nihal; Aslim, Belma; Ozdoğan, Hakan

    2009-08-01

    In this study a total of 30 raw meat samples obtained from Ankara, Turkey were screened for the presence of Bacillus species. Among the meat samples analyzed, the predominant species isolated was Bacillus circulans; other Bacillus species were identified as Bacillus firmus, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus sphaericus, and Bacillus cereus. Minced meat samples were more contaminated with Bacillus species than sliced beef sample. From these samples, 242 Bacillus species isolates were obtained, which were investigated for proteolytic and lipolytic activity, associated with meat spoilage. Interestingly, some Bacillus strains produced the highest values of proteolytic/lipolytic activities. Nineteen Bacillus strains were selected among the 242 isolates according to their proteolytic/lipolytic activity with a clear zone diameter of > or =6 mm. The essential oil of Satureja wiedemanniana (Lalem) Velen was also tested against these 19 Bacillus species that had proteolytic and lipolytic activity. The essential oil yield obtained from the aerial parts of the plant was 0.35% (vol/wt). The inhibition zones of the essential oil obtained against all the Bacillus species were in the range of 5.0-12.0 mm. The oil showed high antimicrobial activities against B. licheniformis M 6(26), M 11(16), and M 12(1) strains. B. licheniformis 12(1) showed high lipolytic activity (18.0 mm). Also, B. licheniformis M 6(26) and M 11(16) showed high proteolytic activity (16.0 and 14.0 mm). These results may suggest that an essential oil of S. wiedemanniana can be used as a natural preservative in meat against spoilage bacteria.

  1. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an “Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens” within the B. subtilis Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as “B. amyloliquefaciens.” Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7T, the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens. We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7T. Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens, (2) Bacillus siamensis, and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus, and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as “operational group B. amyloliquefaciens” consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens, and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis, whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style. PMID:28163698

  2. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for

  3. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  5. Effect of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine yield in Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine accumulation in Bacillus strains were investigated. Biotin enhanced lysine production in all the Bacillus strains, while folic acid and riboflavin stimulated lysine yields in Bacillus megaterium SP 86 only. All bivalent metals stimulated lysine accumulation in B. megaterium ...

  6. Genome sequence of the thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the type strain of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  7. Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the Type Strain of the Species

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  8. Bacillus Strains Most Closely Related to Bacillus nealsonii Are Not Effectively Circumscribed within the Taxonomic Species Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kealy Peak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains with >99.7% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity were characterized with DNA:DNA hybridization, cellular fatty acid (CFA analysis, and testing of 100 phenotypic traits. When paired with the most closely related type strain, percent DNA:DNA similarities (% S for six Bacillus strains were all far below the recommended 70% threshold value for species circumscription with Bacillus nealsonii. An apparent genomic group of four Bacillus strain pairings with 94%–70% S was contradicted by the failure of the strains to cluster in CFA- and phenotype-based dendrograms as well as by their differentiation with 9–13 species level discriminators such as nitrate reduction, temperature range, and acid production from carbohydrates. The novel Bacillus strains were monophyletic and very closely related based on 16S rRNA gene sequence. Coherent genomic groups were not however supported by similarly organized phenotypic clusters. Therefore, the strains were not effectively circumscribed within the taxonomic species definition.

  9. Reclassification of Bacillus marismortui as Salibacillus marismortui comb. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahal, D R; Márquez, M C; Volcani, B E; Schleifer, K H; Ventosa, A

    2000-07-01

    Recently, the features of a group of strains isolated from Dead Sea enrichments obtained in 1936 by one of us (B. E. Volcani) were described. They were gram-positive, moderately halophilic, spore-forming rods, and were placed in a new species, Bacillus marismortui. At the same time, the new genus Salibacillus was proposed for the halophilic species Bacillus salexigens. B. marismortui and Salibacillus salexigens have similar phenotypic characteristics and the same peptidoglycan type. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequence comparisons showed that they are sufficiently closely related (96.6% similarity) as to warrant placement in the same genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization experiments showed that they constitute two separate species (41% DNA similarity). Therefore the reclassification of Bacillus marismortui as Salibacillus marismortui comb. nov. is proposed.

  10. Fast neutron radiation inactivation of Bacillus subtilis: Absorbed dose determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lingli; Zheng Chun; Ai Zihui; Li Junjie; Dai Shaofeng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, fast neutron inactivation effects of Bacillus subtilis were investigated with fission fast neutrons from CFBR-II reactor of INPC (Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry) and mono-energetic neutrons from the Van de Graaff accelerator at Peking University. The method for determining the absorbed dose in the Bacillus subtilis suspension contained in test tubes is introduced. The absorbed dose, on account of its dependence on the volume and the form of confined state, was determined by combined experiments and Monte Carlo method. Using the calculation results of absorbed dose, the fast neutron inactivation effects on Bacillus subtilis were studied. The survival rates and absorbed dose curve was constructed. (authors)

  11. A Phosphate Starvation-Inducible Ribonuclease of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Nguyen, Minh Hung; Nguyen, Huy Thuan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Le, Thi Hoi; Schweder, Thomas; Jürgen, Britta

    2016-08-28

    The BLi03719 protein of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 belongs to the most abundant extracellular proteins under phosphate starvation conditions. In this study, the function of this phosphate starvation inducible protein was determined. An amino-acid sequence analysis of the BLi03719-encoding gene showed a high similarity with genes encoding the barnase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and binase-like RNase of Bacillus pumilus SARF-032. The comparison of the control strain and a BLi03719-deficient strain revealed a strongly reduced extracellular ribonuclease activity of the mutant. Furthermore, this knockout mutant exhibited delayed growth with yeast RNA as an alternative phosphate and carbon source. These results suggest that BLi03719 is an extracellular ribonuclease expressed in B. licheniformis under phosphate starvation conditions. Finally, a BLi03719 mutant showed an advantageous effect on the overexpression of the heterologous amyE gene under phosphate-limited growth conditions.

  12. Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and selection of a high-producing mutant, Bacillus subtilis HB-32, with enhanced acetoin yield and productivity. The mutant was obtained by the protoplast fusion of a Bacillus subtilis mutant TH-49 (Val− producing acetoin and Bacillus licheniformis AD-30 producing α-acetolactate decarboxylase, with the fusogen polyethylene glycol and after the regeneration and selection, etc. of the fusant. The acetoin production reached 49.64 g/L, which is an increase of 61.8% compared to that of B. subtilis strain TH-49. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed to determine the mutagenic and protoplast fusion effects and the genomic changes in the acetoin high-producing strain compared to the parent strains at the molecular level. The constructed strain was shown to be promising for large-scale acetoin production. Future studies should focus on the application of the mutant strain in practice.

  13. Ultrasensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Jatin; Devi, Seram N; Fujita, Masaya; Igoshin, Oleg A

    2012-12-11

    Starving Bacillus subtilis cells execute a gene expression program resulting in the formation of stress-resistant spores. Sporulation master regulator, Spo0A, is activated by a phosphorelay and controls the expression of a multitude of genes, including the forespore-specific sigma factor σ(F) and the mother cell-specific sigma factor σ(E). Identification of the system-level mechanism of the sporulation decision is hindered by a lack of direct control over Spo0A activity. This limitation can be overcome by using a synthetic system in which Spo0A activation is controlled by inducing expression of phosphorelay kinase KinA. This induction results in a switch-like increase in the number of sporulating cells at a threshold of KinA. Using a combination of mathematical modeling and single-cell microscopy, we investigate the origin and physiological significance of this ultrasensitive threshold. The results indicate that the phosphorelay is unable to achieve a sufficiently fast and ultrasensitive response via its positive feedback architecture, suggesting that the sporulation decision is made downstream. In contrast, activation of σ(F) in the forespore and of σ(E) in the mother cell compartments occurs via a cascade of coherent feed-forward loops, and thereby can produce fast and ultrasensitive responses as a result of KinA induction. Unlike σ(F) activation, σ(E) activation in the mother cell compartment only occurs above the KinA threshold, resulting in completion of sporulation. Thus, ultrasensitive σ(E) activation explains the KinA threshold for sporulation induction. We therefore infer that under uncertain conditions, cells initiate sporulation but postpone making the sporulation decision to average stochastic fluctuations and to achieve a robust population response.

  14. Recombination-deficient mutants of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaie, Y.; Kada, T.

    1976-01-01

    Two mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis Marburg, NIG43 and NIG45, were isolated. They showed high sensitivities to gamma rays, ultraviolet light (uv), and chemicals. Deficiencies in genetic recombination of these two mutants were shown by the experiments on their capacity in transformation, SPO2 transfection, and PBS1 phage transduction, as well as on their radiation and drug sensitivities and their Hcr + capacity for uv-exposed phage M2. Some of these characteristics were compared with those of the known strains possessing the recA1 or recB2 alleles. Mapping studies revealed that the mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 lies in the region of chromosome replication origin. The order was purA dna-8132 rec-43. Another mutation, rec-45, of strain NIG45 was found to be tightly linked to recA1. The mutation rec-43 reduced mainly the frequency of PBS1 transduction. On the other hand, the mutation rec-45 reduced the frequency of recombination involved both in transformation and PBS1 tranduction. The mutation rec-43 of strain NIG43 is conditional, but rec-45 of strain NIG45 is not. The uv impairment in cellular survival of strain NIG43 was gradually reverted at higher salt or sucrose concentrations, suggesting cellular possession of a mutated gene product whose function is conditional. In contrast to several other recombination-deficient strains, SPO2 lysogens of strains NIG43 and NIG45 were not inducible, indicating involvement of rec-43 + or rec-45 + gene product in the development of SPO2 prophage to a vegetative form. The uv-induced deoxyribonucleic acid degradation in vegetative cells was higher in rec-43 and rec-45 strains

  15. Production and Characterization of Bacillus firmus pectinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Roosdiana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is enzyme which functions to hydrolyze pectin become D-galacturonic acid unit. This enzyme is potential in various industries, especially in fruit juice industry.  Pectinase can be derived from various microorganisms resulting in different pectinase character. The aims of this research were to determine the optimum condition of pectinase production and to characterize the resulted pectinase including optimum condition of pectinase activity and the influence of metal ion.  The optimum condition of pectinase production was carried out by growing Bacillus firmus on basal media containing pectin as inducer at various  pH (5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50 oC and fermentation time (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36 hours. while the optimum pectinase activity was done at various pH ( 4, 6, 7, 8, 10 , temperature (30, 35, 40, 45, 50 oC and reaction time (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 minutes. The influence of Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ at 2-10 mM to pectinase activity were also investigated. The result showed that optimum condition of pectinase production occurred at pH7-8, temperature 40-50 oC and fermentation time 18hours, while the optimum condition of pectinase activity was pH 7, temperature 50 oC and reaction time 30 minutes. The existence of Zn2+, Mg2+, K+ ions  affected significantly to pectinase activity.  Mg2+ acted as non competitive inhibitor; however K+ and Zn2+ acted as un competitive inhibitor.

  16. Logarithmic sensing in Bacillus subtilis aerotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menolascina, Filippo; Rusconi, Roberto; Fernandez, Vicente I; Smriga, Steven; Aminzare, Zahra; Sontag, Eduardo D; Stocker, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Aerotaxis, the directed migration along oxygen gradients, allows many microorganisms to locate favorable oxygen concentrations. Despite oxygen's fundamental role for life, even key aspects of aerotaxis remain poorly understood. In Bacillus subtilis, for example, there is conflicting evidence of whether migration occurs to the maximal oxygen concentration available or to an optimal intermediate one, and how aerotaxis can be maintained over a broad range of conditions. Using precisely controlled oxygen gradients in a microfluidic device, spanning the full spectrum of conditions from quasi-anoxic to oxic (60 n mol/l-1 m mol/l), we resolved B. subtilis' 'oxygen preference conundrum' by demonstrating consistent migration towards maximum oxygen concentrations ('monotonic aerotaxis'). Surprisingly, the strength of aerotaxis was largely unchanged over three decades in oxygen concentration (131 n mol/l-196 μ mol/l). We discovered that in this range B. subtilis responds to the logarithm of the oxygen concentration gradient, a rescaling strategy called 'log-sensing' that affords organisms high sensitivity over a wide range of conditions. In these experiments, high-throughput single-cell imaging yielded the best signal-to-noise ratio of any microbial taxis study to date, enabling the robust identification of the first mathematical model for aerotaxis among a broad class of alternative models. The model passed the stringent test of predicting the transient aerotactic response despite being developed on steady-state data, and quantitatively captures both monotonic aerotaxis and log-sensing. Taken together, these results shed new light on the oxygen-seeking capabilities of B. subtilis and provide a blueprint for the quantitative investigation of the many other forms of microbial taxis.

  17. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Matseliukh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kherson, Odesa, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhiia regions of Ukraine. Purification of enzymes with elastase activity isolated from above mentioned strains was performed by gel-chromatography and insecticide activity was studied on the 3–4 larvae instar of Colorado beetle. The ability of a number of B. thuringiensis strains to synthesize the proteases with elastase activity has been established. The most active were enzymes obtained from strains IMV B-7465, IMV B-7324 isolated from sea water, and strains 9, 902, Bt-H and 0-239 isolated from Colorado beetles. The study of the physicochemical properties of the partially purified proteases of these strains showed that they belonged to enzymes of the serine type. Peptidases of a number of B. thuringiensis strains (IMV B-7324, IMV B-7465, 902, 0-239, 9 are metal-dependent enzymes. Optimal conditions of action of all tested enzymes are the neutral and alkaline рН values and the temperatures of 30–40 °С. The studies of influence of the complex enzyme preparations and partially purified ones of B. thuringiensis strains on the larvae instar of Colorado beetles indicated that enzymes with elastase activity could be responsible for insecticide action of the tested strains.

  18. Detection of biosurfactants in Bacillus species: genes and products identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, G; Chojniak, J; Rudnicka, K; Paraszkiewicz, K; Bernat, P

    2015-10-01

    To screen environmental Bacillus strains for detection of genes encoding the enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis and to evaluate their products e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. The taxonomic identification of isolated from the environment Bacillus strains was performed by Microgene ID Bacillus panel and GEN III Biolog system. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy for screening of genes in Bacillus strains was set up. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used for the identification of lipopeptides (LPs). All studied strains exhibited the presence of srfAA gene and produced surfactin mostly as four homologues (C13 to C16). Moreover, in 2 strains (KP7, T'-1) simultaneous co-production of 3 biosurfactants: surfactin, iturin and fengycin was observed. Additionally, it was found out that isolate identified as Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis (KP7), beside LPs co-production, synthesizes surfactin with the efficiency much higher than other studied strains (40·2 mg l(-1) ) and with the yield ranging from 0·8 to 8·3 mg l(-1) . We showed that the combined methodology based on PCR and LC-MS/MS technique is an optimal tool for the detection of genes encoding enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis as well as their products, e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. This approach improves the screening and the identification of environmental Bacillus co-producing biosurfactants-stimulating and facilitating the development of this area of science. The findings of this work will help to improve screening of biosurfactant producers. Discovery of novel biosurfactants and biosurfactants co-production ability has shed light on their new application fields and for the understanding of their interactions and properties. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Celandroni

    Full Text Available The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  20. Bacillus anthracis TIR Domain-Containing Protein Localises to Cellular Microtubule Structures and Induces Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Emil; Thwaite, Joanne E; Jenner, Dominic C; Spear, Abigail M; Flick-Smith, Helen; Atkins, Helen S; Byrne, Bernadette; Ding, Jeak Ling

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise invading pathogens and mediate downstream immune signalling via Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains. TIR domain proteins (Tdps) have been identified in multiple pathogenic bacteria and have recently been implicated as negative regulators of host innate immune activation. A Tdp has been identified in Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. Here we present the first study of this protein, designated BaTdp. Recombinantly expressed and purified BaTdp TIR domain interacted with several human TIR domains, including that of the key TLR adaptor MyD88, although BaTdp expression in cultured HEK293 cells had no effect on TLR4- or TLR2- mediated immune activation. During expression in mammalian cells, BaTdp localised to microtubular networks and caused an increase in lipidated cytosolic microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3), indicative of autophagosome formation. In vivo intra-nasal infection experiments in mice showed that a BaTdp knockout strain colonised host tissue faster with higher bacterial load within 4 days post-infection compared to the wild type B. anthracis. Taken together, these findings indicate that BaTdp does not play an immune suppressive role, but rather, its absence increases virulence. BaTdp present in wild type B. anthracis plausibly interact with the infected host cell, which undergoes autophagy in self-defence.

  1. A patented strain of Bacillus coagulans increased immune response to viral challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Mira

    2009-03-01

    Viral respiratory tract infection is the most common illness among humans. Probiotics have been known to enhance the immune system and, therefore, may represent a significant therapeutic advancement for treating viral respiratory tract infections. A controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the patented GanedenBC30 probiotic (Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, marketed as Sustenex [Ganeden Biotech, Inc., Mayfield Heights, OH]) on the immune system when exposed to adenovirus and influenza in otherwise healthy adults. Ten healthy men and women (average age, 44 years) were instructed to consume 1 capsule of GanedenBC30 with water once a day for 30 days. At baseline and after completion of the 30-day treatment, blood levels of cytokines were measured in vitro after T-cell exposure to adenovirus and influenza A. Each participant served as his/her own control with baseline blood draw. The use of GanedenBC30 significantly increased T-cell production of TNF-alpha in response to adenovirus exposure (P = 0.027) and influenza A (H3N2 Texas strain) exposure (P = 0.004), but it did not have a significant effect on the response to other strains of influenza. No serious adverse events were reported throughout the study. The patented GanedenBC30 probiotic may be a safe and effective therapeutic option for enhancing T-cell response to certain viral respiratory tract infections.

  2. Enhancement of Cellulase Production by Cellulomonas Fimi and Bacillus Subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Two bacterial strains identified as Cellulomonas fimi and Baciliius subtilus are cosidered as highly active cellulytic bacteria. Trials for maximizing the cellulolytic activites of the two strains were conducted. A maximum cellulase production was achieved at 1 and 1.5%carboxy methyl cellulose as carbon source, sodium nitrate and yeast as nitrogen source for Cellulomonas fimi and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Incubation temprature at 30 and 45 degree C, ph at 6 and 7 achieved the highest activity of cellulase for Cellulomonas fimi and bacillus subtilis, respectively

  3. Analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerovuo, J.; Rouvinen, J.; Hatzack, Frank-Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP(6)) hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase (PhyC) was studied. The enzyme hydrolyses only three phosphates from phytic acid. Moreover, the enzyme seems to prefer the hydrolysis of every second phosphate over that of adjacent ones. Furthermore, it is very...... a reaction mechanism different from that of other phytases. By combining the data presented in this study with (1) structural information obtained from the crystal structure of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens phytase [Ha, Oh, Shin, Kim, Oh, Kim, Choi and Oh (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 147-153], and (2) computer...

  4. Production of Cold Active Lipase from Bacillus sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Yasemin, Sara; Arabacı, Nihan; Korkmaz Güvenmez, Hatice

    2018-01-01

    A cold active lipase producing Bacillus sp. strains were isolated from sewage of oil. Bacillus sp. strain SY-7 was determined as the best lipase producing isolate. The highest enzyme production was found at 20°C and pH 8.0 on tributyrin media. Analyses of molecular mass of the partial purified lipase was carried out by SDS-PAGE which revealed a single band as 110.5 kDa. The enzyme activity and stability were determined by spectrophotometric and titrimetric methods. The enzyme was active betwe...

  5. Clinical Study of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 (ATCC PTA-11748) in the Treatment of Patients with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Sudha, M; Yelikar, Kanan A; Deshpande, Sonali

    2012-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent vaginal infection worldwide and is characterized by reduction of native lactobacilli. Antimicrobial therapy used to cure the disease is often found to be ineffective. We postulate that Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 (Unique Biotech Limited, India) might provide an appendage to antimicrobial treatment and improve curing rate. In the present study 40 Indian women diagnosed with BV by the presence of symptoms including white discharge, pH greater than 4.7, burning micturation, itching, soreness and redness at vulva. The subjects were divided in 2 groups probiotic (n = 20) and control (n = 20) based on age (control group, 33 ± 3 years and probiotic group, 32.5 ± 3 years), history of previous vaginosis (control group, 75% or 15/20 and probiotic group, 75% or 15/20) and severity of current vaginosis infection (burning micturation and itching, 35% in each group). Probiotic group subjects were assigned to receive a dose of antibiotic therapy [Ofloxacin-Ornidazole with strength of 200-500 mg per capsule/day for 5 days along with vaginal peccaries (co-kimaxazol) for 3 days] simultaneously with two probiotic capsules (10(9) CFUs of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 per capsule). The control group received only antibiotic therapy. At the end of the treatment the 80% of probiotic group subjects showed significant positive response as revealed by reduction of vaginosis symptoms compared to the control group which exhibited reduction in 45% subjects only. Thus, the results of present study indicate that strain Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 can provide benefits to women being treated with antibiotics to cure an infectious condition.

  6. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...

  7. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 To Include Residues of Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil... existing exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 in or on all food commodities by including residues of Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 variant soil...

  8. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  9. Induced resistance to hydrogen peroxide, UV and gamma radiation in bacillus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashandy, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The catalase activity produced in four bacillus spp.(bacillus cereus, B. laterosporus, B. pumilus and B. subtilis (Escherichia coli was used for comparison) was measured and the sensitivity of these bacteria to hydrogen peroxide was tested. Bacillus spp. had higher resistance to hydrogen peroxide than E. coil. cultures of bacillus spp . When pretreated with sublethal level of hydrogen peroxide, became relatively resistant to the lethal effects of hydrogen than untreated control cultures. These pretreated cells were also resistant to lethality mediated by UV light and gamma radiation. The obtained results suggest that bacillus spp. Possess inducible defense mechanism (s) against the deleterious effects of oxidants and /or ionizing radiation

  10. Ecological aspects of Bacillus thuringiensis in an Oxisol Ecologia do Bacillus thuringiensis num Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandra Heck Paes Leme Ferreira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram positive, sporangial bacterium, known for its insecticidal habilities. Survival and conjugation ability of B. thuringiensis strains were investigated; vegetative cells were evaluated in non-sterile soil. Vegetative cells decreased rapidly in number, and after 48 hours the population was predominantly spores. No plasmid transfer was observed in non-sterile soil, probably because the cells died and the remaining cells sporulated quickly. Soil is not a favorable environment for B. thuringiensis multiplication and conjugation. The fate of purified B. thuringiensis toxin was analyzed by extractable toxin quantification using ELISA. The extractable toxin probably declined due to binding on surface-active particles in the soil.O comportamento de células vegetativas do Bacillus thuringiensis foi estudado em solo não esterilizado. Após o inóculo grande parte das células morrem e o restante esporula em 24 horas. Não foi observada conjugação provavelmente porque poucas células sobrevivem no solo e rapidamente esporulam, mostrando que este não é o ambiente propício para a multiplicação e conjugação desta bactéria. A toxina purificada, portanto livre de células, diminui rapidamente sua quantidade em solo não esterilizado. Provavelmente a ligação da toxina na fração argilosa do solo é a principal responsável por este fenômeno.

  11. Quorum Sensing in Bacillus thuringiensis Is Required for Completion of a Full Infectious Cycle in the Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Slamti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS is a biological process commonly described as allowing bacteria belonging to a same pherotype to coordinate gene expression to cell density. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors regulated by secreted and re-imported signaling peptides. The Bacillus quorum sensors Rap, NprR, and PlcR were previously identified as the first members of a new protein family called RNPP. Except for the Rap proteins, these RNPP regulators are transcription factors that directly regulate gene expression. QS regulates important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. PlcR was first characterized as the main regulator of virulence in B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. More recently, the PlcR-like regulator PlcRa was characterized for its role in cysteine metabolism and in resistance to oxidative stress. The NprR regulator controls the necrotrophic properties allowing the bacteria to survive in the infected host. The Rap proteins negatively affect sporulation via their interaction with a phosphorelay protein involved in the activation of Spo0A, the master regulator of this differentiation pathway. In this review we aim at providing a complete picture of the QS systems that are sequentially activated during the lifecycle of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in an insect model of infection.

  12. Bacillus cereus in free-stall bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, M; Svensson, B; Kolstrup, C; Christiansson, A

    2007-12-01

    To increase the understanding of how different factors affect the bacterial growth in deep sawdust beds for dairy cattle, the microbiological status of Bacillus cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust-bedded free stalls was investigated over two 14-d periods on one farm. High counts of B. cereus and coliforms were found in the entire beds. On average, 4.1 log(10) B. cereus spores, 5.5 log(10) B. cereus, and 6.7 log(10) coliforms per gram of bedding could be found in the upper layers of the sawdust likely to be in contact with the cows' udders. The highest counts of B. cereus spores, B. cereus, and coliforms were found in the bedding before fresh bedding was added, and the lowest immediately afterwards. Different factors of importance for the growth of B. cereus in the bedding material were explored in laboratory tests. These were found to be the type of bedding, pH, and the type and availability of nutrients. Alternative bedding material such as peat and mixtures of peat and sawdust inhibited the bacterial growth of B. cereus. The extent of growth of B. cereus in the sawdust was increased in a dose-dependent manner by the availability of feces. Urine added to different bedding material raised the pH and also led to bacterial growth of B. cereus in the peat. In sawdust, a dry matter content greater than 70% was needed to lower the water activity to 0.95, which is needed to inhibit the growth of B. cereus. In an attempt to reduce the bacterial growth of B. cereus and coliforms in deep sawdust beds on the farm, the effect of giving bedding daily or a full replacement of the beds was studied. The spore count of B. cereus in the back part of the free stalls before fresh bedding was added was 0.9 log units lower in stalls given daily bedding than in stalls given bedding twice weekly. No effect on coliform counts was found. Replacement of the entire sawdust bedding had an effect for a short period, but by 1 to 2 mo after replacement, the counts of B. cereus spores in the

  13. [Non-tuberculous pleural infections versus tuberculous pleural infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horo, K; N'Gom, A; Ahui, B; Brou-Gode, C; Anon, J-C; Diaw, A; Bemba, P; Foutoupouo, K; Djè Bi, H; Ouattara, P; Kouassi, B; Koffi, N; Aka-Danguy, E

    2012-03-01

    In countries where tuberculosis is endemic, the main differential diagnosis for pleural infection by common bacteria is pleural tuberculosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the differences between pleural infection by common bacteria and that caused by pleural tuberculosis. Our study was a retrospective analysis and compared the characteristics of confirmed pleural infection by common bacteria (PIB) and that due to pleural tuberculosis (PT). For the PIB, the signs evolved for 2.4 ± 1.4 weeks versus 5.6 ± 2.2 weeks for the PT (P=0.01). In multivariate analysis, for PIB the onset of symptoms was more abrupt (OR=3.8 [1.5; 9.9]; P=0.01), asthenia was less frequent (OR=0.3 [0.1; 0.9]; P=0.03), pleural liquid was more purulent (OR=40.0 [15.0; 106.7]; Ppleural effusions caused by tuberculosis (TB) and those due to other bacterial infections. However, they are not sufficiently sensitive and therefore the search for the tuberculous bacillus must be systematic while waiting for implementation of new diagnostic tests for the organism. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of larvicidal activities of bacillus species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of larvicidal activities of bacillus species isolated from soil against the mosquito aedes aegyptia (diptera: culicidae) in Sokoto, northwestern Nigeria. S.B. Manga, A.H. Kawo, A.B. Rabah, A.A. Usman, A.I. Dabai, J.A. Bala ...

  15. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the

  16. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to

  17. Manipulating the autolytic pathway of a Bacillus protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenBurg, B; Eijsink, VGH; Vriend, G; Veltman, OR; Venema, G; HopsuHavu, VK; Jarvinen, M; Kirschke, H

    1997-01-01

    Autolytic degradation of Bacillus subtilis thermolysin-like proteinase (TLP-sub) is responsible for the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme at elevated temperatures. Previously, we reported five autolysis sites in B. subtilis neutral protease (Van den Burg et al., 1990, Biochem. J. 272:93-97).

  18. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  19. The impact of manganese on biofilm development of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mhatre, Eisha; Troszok, Agnieszka; Gallegos-Monterrosa, Ramses; Lindstädt, Stefanie; Hölscher, Theresa; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kovács, Ákos T.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are dynamic and structurally complex communities, involving cell-to-cell interactions. In recent years, various environmental signals were identified that induce the complex biofilm development of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis. These signaling molecules are often

  20. Biodestruction and deferritization of quartz sands by Bacillus species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štyriaková, I.; Štyriak, I.; Kraus, I.; Hradil, David; Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 8 (2003), s. 709-713 ISSN 0892-6875 Grant - others:Slovak Academy of Sciences(SK) VEGA 2/2107/22 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : bacteria * Bacillus spp. * bioleaching Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.438, year: 2003

  1. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture conditions of lactose fermenting, spore forming probiotic Bacillus subtilis SK09 isolated from dairy effluent were optimized by response surface methodology to maximize the biomass production. The student's t-test of the Placket-Burman screening design revealed that the effects of pH, ammonium citrate and ...

  2. Characterization of a thermostable Bacillus subtilis β-amylase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 70 0C respectively, and the thermal stability curve gave a maximum activity of 9.75 U at 70oC for 60 min of incubation. Bacillus subtilis â-amylase is valuable for maltose production, which can be hydrolyzed further by other groups of amylase for the production of high cassava glucose syrup used as sweeteners in the food ...

  3. The colonization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in bryophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lin, Q.; Zhu, P.; Carballar-Lejarazú, R.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Xu, L.; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1300-0152 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * GFP * plant colonization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016 http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/issues/biy-17-41-1/biy-41-1-5-1510-16.pdf

  4. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from some spices and assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred twenty five samples from five different Ethiopian sauce spices were examined for the incidence and level of contamination of Bacillus species. The spices consisted of fenugreek (Trigenella foenum-graecum), black cumin (Nigella sativa), Ethiopian caraway (Trachyspermum ammi), ginger (Zingiber officinale) ...

  5. Bacillus thuringiensis and its application in agriculture | Ali | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presently, a number of approaches to pest control via genetic engineering have been developed and genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal characteristics are under cultivation for the last 15 years. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding o̅ endotoxins with insecticidal characteristics is the major ...

  6. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  7. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacillus Cereus and Its enterotoxins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) and enterotoxins in milk and milk products. Design: A random sampling of milk products was carried out. Setting: Market milk and milk products were collected from retail shops in Nairobi and analysed for contamination with ...

  8. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  9. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome...

  10. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  11. Transformation of undomesticated strains of Bacillus subtilis by protoplast electroporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, Diego; Perez-Garcia, Alejandro; Veening, Jan-Willem; de Vicente, Antonio; Kuipers, Oscar P.; de, Vicente A.

    A rapid method combining the use of protoplasts and electroporation was developed to transform recalcitrant wild strains of Bacillus subtilis. The method described here allows transformation with both replicative and integrative plasmids, as well as with chromosomal DNA, and provides a valuable tool

  12. Enhancing the Production of a Novel Exopolysaccharide by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To improve the production of a novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Bacillus mucilaginosus CGMCC5766. Methods: The culture medium for production of EPS was optimized using statistical experiment design. Sucrose, CaCO3 and K2HPO4 were found to be the key factors based on the results obtained from ...

  13. Extracellular protease produced by Bacillus subtilis isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study to evaluate the microbiological safety of some paracetamol oral solutions sold in some Nigerian drug stores, 40.0% of the samples examined was contaminated with protease-producing Bacillus subtilis. The production of extracellular protease was induced by casein in the minimal medium and was found to be the ...

  14. Comparison of gene expression profiles in Bacillus megaterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The MP agent, prepared from Bacillus megaterium isolated from the soil near tobacco fields, can improve metabolic products, and hence the aroma, of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf. To explore genes regulating metabolic responses in tobacco leaf, we used microarrays to analyze differentially expressed genes ...

  15. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  16. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47ºC) and various ...

  17. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Jordan and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight serotypes with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis being the most common. Out of the twenty-six isolated strains, five strains (serotype: kenyae, kurstaki, kurstaki HD1 and thuringiensis) that produced bipyramid crystal proteins were toxic to the lepidoptera larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. The SDS-PAGE protein ...

  18. Isolation of protease producing novel Bacillus cereus and detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... Key words: Protease, production, optimization, Bacillus sp. INTRODUCTION ... Nutrient broth (5 g peptone and 3 g meat extract, pH 7.0, Merck) was used as the common growth ... nitrate through nitrite. It was determined that ...

  19. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  20. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  1. Purification and characterization of protease from Bacillus cereus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chitti

    2013-09-16

    Sep 16, 2013 ... Purification and characterization of protease from. Bacillus cereus SU12 isolated from oyster. Saccostrea cucullata. S. Umayaparvathi*, S. Meenakshi, M. Arumugam and T. Balasubramanian. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608.

  2. bmr3, a third multidrug transporter gene of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohki, R; Murata, M

    1997-01-01

    A third multidrug transporter gene named bmr3 was cloned from Bacillus subtilis. Although Bmr3 shows relatively low homology to Bmr and Blt, the substrate specificities of these three transporters overlap. Northern hybridization analysis showed that expression of the bmr3 gene was dependent on the growth phase.

  3. Improved keratinase production for feather degradation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal medium was used to improve the production of keratinase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410, which has a promising application in the transformation of feather into soluble protein. The results of single factor design revealed that the concentration of feather at 20 g/l and the initial pH at value 8 was the best for ...

  4. Identification of Bacitracin Produced by Local Isolate of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from soil of different house gardens. Diagnosis was performed according to Gram stain, motility, shape forming, aerobic condition and other tests. Bacitracin was primary identified after its activity was tested against some species of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Identification ...

  5. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the larvicidal activities of Bacillus sphaericus, against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes found in this area (Sokoto), was carried out. The B. sphaericus (SPH 88) was obtained from Paseur Institute in Paris (France) in the form of a water dispersible powder. About 50mg of the powder was dissolved in 10ml ...

  6. Ecology and diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis populations ranged between 4.23 x 105, 6.52 x 105 cfu/g soil and consist of 11 types of isolates with 3 polymorphic, 7 spherical and 1 bipyramidal type of crystals. Polymorphic crystal containing isolates were further characterized. B. thuringiensis isolates were circular, white, flat and undulate or entire.

  7. Characterisation of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki strains by toxicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... Southern analysis of restricted plasmid combined with cryIA profile can provide an ... Abbreviations: ICP, Insecticidal Crystal Protein; H.a., .... 70 kDa ICP component were purified as per protocol of Harlow and .... They are in principal .... on the interaction of Bacillus thuriengensis subsp. kurstaki with the.

  8. Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis genes in transgenic maize by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We optimized the PCR method to detect genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in open quarantine fields in Kenya. Many factors affect the extraction of the DNA from plants, such as the amount of tissue available, the condition of the plant material, the numbers of steps involved in the extraction procedure, ...

  9. Occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis in faeces of herbivorous farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), the insect pathogen has been isolated from a variety of habitat. It is understood that the habitat of B. thuringiensis has always been associated with their biological activity. In the present study, B. thuringiensis was isolated from faeces of cows and goats. The phenotypic characterization ...

  10. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore-forming bacteria.

  11. Screening of Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates for Toxicity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are a major source of pre-harvest maize crop losses in Kenya and many Sub- Saharan African countries. This menace needs to be addressed if food security is to be realized in this region. Seven local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soils collected from Kakamega and Machakos ...

  12. Profile of cry from native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characterization of 255 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates of Coorg, Sharavatti and BR hills, containing genes known to be active against coleopteran and lepidopteran insect species was done through PCR amplification using the specific and degenerate primers. The isolates were also tested for their insecticidal activity ...

  13. The Impact of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis (Bti) on Adult and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the year 2007, the Ministry of Health (MoH) initiated a larviciding program using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to mitigate the effects of black fly bites. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of Bti on adult and larvae black fly populations. Baseline data was collected prior to Bti application and after ...

  14. Antibiotic and surfactant effects on lysine accumulation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of antibiotics and surfactants on lysine accumulation in the culture broth of three strains of Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium SP 86, B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium SP 14) were investigated. Lincomycin, neomycin and tetracycline stimulated lysine increase in B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium ...

  15. Optimizing Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 for biofertilizer production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 biofertilizer was produced through solid state fermentation processes using food waste and feldspar. Results confirmed that solid state fermentation has considerable advantages compared to complex process (solid-state and bio-bleach). The control of pH, temperature, and ...

  16. Degradation of extracytoplasmic catalysts for protein folding in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krishnappa, Laxmi; Monteferrante, Carmine G; Neef, Jolanda; Dreisbach, Annette; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    The general protein secretion pathway of Bacillus subtilis has a high capacity for protein export from the cytoplasm, which is exploited in the biotechnological production of a wide range of enzymes. These exported proteins pass the membrane in an unfolded state, and accordingly, they have to fold

  17. Larvicidal efficacy of stock Bacillus sphaericus on local species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time of exposure to larvicide also had insignificant influence (p>0.05) on rate of larval mortality. It was concluded that employed larvicide had limited activity against local breed of mosquito with risk of early resistance against this biological agent. Keywords: larvicide, Bacillus, mosquito. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  18. Performance of Microbial Concrete Developed Using Bacillus Subtilus JC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. Seshagiri; Reddy, V. Srinivasa; Sasikala, Ch.

    2017-12-01

    Concrete is vulnerable to deterioration, corrosion, and cracks, and the consequent damage and loss of strength requires immensely expensive remediation and repair. So need for special concrete that they would respond to crack formation with an autonomous self-healing action lead to research and development of microbial concrete. The microbial concrete works on the principle of calcite mineral precipitation by a specific group of alkali-resistant spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Bacillus called Bacillus subtilis JC3, this phenomenon is called biomineralization or Microbiologically Induced Calcite Crystal Precipitation. Bacillus subtilis JC3, a common soil bacterium, has inherent ability to precipitate calcite crystals continuously which enhances the strength and durability performance of concrete enormously. This microbial concrete can be called as a "Self healing Bacterial Concrete" because it can remediate its cracks by itself without any human intervention and would make the concrete more durable and sustainable. This paper discuss the incorporation of microorganism Bacillus subtilis JC3 (developed at JNTU, India) into concrete and presents the results of experimental investigations carried out to study the improved durability and sustainability characteristics of microbial concrete.

  19. Production of alkaline proteases by alkalophilic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-11-23

    Nov 23, 2016 ... A new strain of Bacillus sp. was isolated from alkaline soil, which was able to produce extracellular alkaline ... rice and dates (Khosravi-Darani et al., 2008), protein by- products from lather ..... Pigeon pea waste as a novel ...

  20. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... many industrial processes leading to the development of ... streaked on tributyrin (Hi media 071) agar plates and the formation .... 3d. At pH 7.0. 3e. At pH 8.0. 3f. At pH 9.0. Figure 3. Effect of olive oil on lipase activity of Bacillus ...

  1. Interactions of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crops with spiders (Araneae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have dramatically increased in acreage since their introduction in the mid-1990’s. Although the insecticidal mechanisms of Bt target specific pests, concerns persist regarding direct and indirect effects on...

  2. Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in eastern Africa. Black root rot (Fusarium solani) is known to cause great yield losses in faba bean, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control ability of native Bacillus species on the basis of ...

  3. Isolation of protease producing novel Bacillus cereus and detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The highest protease activity was determined at 30°C temperature and 6.4 pH conditions and after the 18th hour, it decreased evidently. Key words: Protease, production, optimization, Bacillus sp. INTRODUCTION. Enzymes have been produced in large industrial scale for several decades (Falch, 1991).

  4. Protein export in bacillus subtilis and escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijl, Jan Maarten van

    1990-01-01

    The export of heterologous proteins in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli is often inefficient. Frequently observed problems are: 1) accumulation of the precursor form of the exported protein in the cytoplasm or in the membrane; 2), inefficient or incorrect processing of the precursor; 3),

  5. Reclassification of Bacillus axarquiensis Ruiz-Garcia et al. 2005 and Bacillus malacitensis Ruiz-Garcia et al. 2005 as later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis Roberts et al. 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Tai, Chun-Ju; Yokota, Akira; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping

    2007-07-01

    The Bacillus subtilis group encompasses the taxa Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. atrophaeus, B. mojavensis, B. vallismortis, B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. sonorensis, B. velezensis, B. axarquiensis and B. malacitensis. In this study, the taxonomic relatedness between the species B. axarquiensis, B. malacitensis and B. mojavensis was investigated. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and the gene for DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) confirmed the very high similarities between these three type strains and a reference strain of B. mojavensis (>99 and >97 %, respectively). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed high relatedness values between the type strains of B. axarquiensis, B. malacitensis and B. mojavensis and between these strains and a reference strain of B. mojavensis (83-98 %). Based on these molecular taxonomic data and the lack of phenotypic distinctive characteristics, Bacillus axarquiensis and Bacillus malacitensis should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus mojavensis.

  6. An outbreak of Bacillus cereus implicating a part-time banquet caterer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulin, Colette; Viger, Yv Bonnier; Fillion, Lise

    2002-01-01

    In the aftermath of a party, 70% (25 of 36) of attendees had gastroenteritis. The objectives of this study were to identify a risk factor associated with the food during the banquet and to identify measures of control for avoiding this kind of outbreak in the future. A retrospective cohort study was used. We tried to reach by telephone all guests who had attended this banquet. A standardized questionnaire was used to provide information about identification of a risk factor, especially in relation to food. The cohort study has shown that potato salad served at the party was significantly associated with the disease. The mayonnaise used to prepare the salad was analyzed and Bacillus cereus was isolated (10(3) bacteria per gram). Bacillus microorganisms are usually found in decaying organic matter, dust, soil, vegetables and water. The bacteria has a remarkable ability to survive strong environmental stresses. There are strains of B. cereus that can cause food poisoning episodes with infective doses as low as 10(3) to 10(4) bacteria per gram. B. cereus is an infrequently reported cause of foodborne illnesses in Quebec and in North America but this may be due to underreporting of episodes. In this outbreak, bacterial multiplication was facilitated at several points in the interval between the preparation of the meal and the consumption of the banquet by the guests. Because the spores are ubiquitous and resistant to inactivation with most food grade disinfectants, temperature control should be the main focus of B. cereus outbreak prevention. The meal was prepared by a restaurateur who was inexperienced in catering services and temperature control in particular when food is served outside the restaurant. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining meticulous hygienic procedures in food processing. Restaurateurs who offer catering services should be familiar with the constraints that are specific to this sector of the food industry.

  7. Presenting Influenza A M2e Antigen on Recombinant Spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łęga

    Full Text Available Effective vaccination against influenza virus infection is a serious problem mainly due to antigenic variability of the virus. Among many of investigated antigens, the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e features high homology in all strains of influenza A viruses and antibodies against M2e and is protective in animal models; this makes it a potential candidate for generation of a universal influenza vaccine. However, due to the low immunogenicity of the M2e, formulation of a vaccine based on this antigen requires some modification to induce effective immune responses. In this work we evaluated the possible use of Bacillus subtilis spores as a carrier of the Influenza A M2e antigen in mucosal vaccination. A tandem repeat of 4 consensus sequences coding for human-avian-swine-human M2e (M2eH-A-S-H peptide was fused to spore coat proteins and stably exposed on the spore surface, as demonstrated by the immunostaining of intact, recombinant spores. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant endospores carrying M2eH-A-S-H elicited specific antibody production without the addition of adjuvants. Bacillus subtilis endospores can serve as influenza antigen carriers. Recombinant spores constructed in this work showed low immunogenicity although were able to induce antibody production. The System of influenza antigen administration presented in this work is attractive mainly due to the omitting time-consuming and cost-intensive immunogen production and purification. Therefore modification should be made to increase the immunogenicity of the presented system.

  8. Modeling the potential distribution of Bacillus anthracis under multiple climate change scenarios for Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Andrew Joyner

    Full Text Available Anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is a zoonotic disease that persists throughout much of the world in livestock, wildlife, and secondarily infects humans. This is true across much of Central Asia, and particularly the Steppe region, including Kazakhstan. This study employed the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Prediction (GARP to model the current and future geographic distribution of Bacillus anthracis in Kazakhstan based on the A2 and B2 IPCC SRES climate change scenarios using a 5-variable data set at 55 km(2 and 8 km(2 and a 6-variable BioClim data set at 8 km(2. Future models suggest large areas predicted under current conditions may be reduced by 2050 with the A2 model predicting approximately 14-16% loss across the three spatial resolutions. There was greater variability in the B2 models across scenarios predicting approximately 15% loss at 55 km(2, approximately 34% loss at 8 km(2, and approximately 30% loss with the BioClim variables. Only very small areas of habitat expansion into new areas were predicted by either A2 or B2 in any models. Greater areas of habitat loss are predicted in the southern regions of Kazakhstan by A2 and B2 models, while moderate habitat loss is also predicted in the northern regions by either B2 model at 8 km(2. Anthrax disease control relies mainly on livestock vaccination and proper carcass disposal, both of which require adequate surveillance. In many situations, including that of Kazakhstan, vaccine resources are limited, and understanding the geographic distribution of the organism, in tandem with current data on livestock population dynamics, can aid in properly allocating doses. While speculative, contemplating future changes in livestock distributions and B. anthracis spore promoting environments can be useful for establishing future surveillance priorities. This study may also have broader applications to global public health surveillance relating to other diseases in addition to B

  9. [A sepsis case caused by a rare opportunistic pathogen: Bacillus pumilus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Barış Ata; Aldağ, Mehmet Ersoy; Tunalı, Birsen; Dinç, Uğur; Güngördü Dalar, Zeynep; Özalp, Veli Cengiz

    2016-07-01

    The high prevalence of Bacillus species in nature and the detection of these bacteria as contaminant in cultures may lead diagnostic dilemma, however they should still be considered as a pathogen particularly in case of repeated positive cultures from patients with risk factors. Bacillus pumilus is a bacteria, though rarely, been reported as the causative agent of various infections such as sepsis, endocarditis, skin infections and food poisoning in human. In this report, a sepsis case in an immunocompetent patient caused by B.pumilus was presented. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to emergency service of our hospital with the complaints of headache, dizziness and diarrhea. She had not any risk factors except a history of heart valve replacement operation two years ago. In physical examination, she had abdominal retention, high fever and hypotension, together with the high levels of sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The patient was hospitalized with the preliminary diagnosis of sepsis. Three sets of blood samples at two different periods were taken for the culture. All blood culture vials had a positive signal at the second day of incubation in BD BACTEC™ 9050 system, therefore subcultures were performed in sheep blood agar, chocolate agar and MacConkey agar, and incubated in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Beta-haemolytic, gray-colored large colonies were isolated from anaerobic culture at the end of 18-24 hours incubation, and Gram staining from colonies showed gram-positive rods. The isolate was identified as B.pumilus with 99% accuracy rate by using BD Phoenix™ 100 identification system. This result was also confirmed by MALDI-TOF based VITEK® MS system and 16S rRNA sequencing by Illumina MiSeq® platform. Antibiotic susceptibility test performed by BD Phoenix™ 100 system and the isolate was found to be resistant against penicillin, while it was susceptible to vancomycin, erythromycin, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and

  10. Antiviral activity of a Bacillus sp: P34 peptide against pathogenic viruses of domestic animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Scopel e Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by a Bacillus sp. strain isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish in the Brazilian Amazon basin with reported antibacterial activity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the peptide P34 for its in vitro antiviral properties against canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, canine coronavirus (CCoV, canine distemper virus (CDV, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2, equine arteritis virus (EAV, equine influenza virus (EIV, feline calicivirus (FCV and feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1. The results showed that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against EAV and FHV-1. The peptide P34 inhibited the replication of EAV by 99.9% and FHV-1 by 94.4%. Virucidal activity was detected only against EAV. When P34 and EAV were incubated for 6 h at 37 °C the viral titer reduced from 10(4.5 TCID50 to 10(2.75 TCID50, showing a percent of inhibition of 98.6%. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that P34 inhibited EAV and FHV-1 replication in infected cell cultures and it showed virucidal activity against EAV. Since there is documented resistance to the current drugs used against herpesviruses and there is no treatment for equine viral arteritis, it is advisable to search for new antiviral compounds to overcome these infections.

  11. Inhibition of biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis by new halogenated furanones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumov, Airat R; Khakimullina, Elvina N; Sharafutdinov, Irshad S; Trizna, Elena Y; Latypova, Lilia Z; Thi Lien, Hoang; Margulis, Anna B; Bogachev, Mikhail I; Kurbangalieva, Almira R

    2015-05-01

    Gram-positive bacteria can cause various infections including hospital-acquired infections. While in the biofilm, the resistance of bacteria to both antibiotics and the human immune system is increased causing difficulties in the treatment. Bacillus subtilis, a non-pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, is widely used as a model organism for studying biofilm formation. Here we investigated the effect of novel synthesized chloro- and bromo-containing 2(5H)-furanones on biofilm formation by B. subtilis. Mucobromic acid (3,4-dibromo-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone) and the two derivatives of mucochloric acid (3,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone)-F8 and F12-were found to inhibit the growth and to efficiently prevent biofilm formation by B. subtilis. Along with the low production of polysaccharide matrix and repression of the eps operon, strong repression of biofilm-related yqxM also occurred in the presence of furanones. Therefore, our data confirm that furanones affect significantly the regulatory pathway(s) leading to biofilm formation. We propose that the global regulator, Spo0A, is one of the potential putative cellular targets for these compounds.

  12. Growth and Cultivation of the Unusual Generalized Transducing Bacillus Bacteriophage SP-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martha J.; Goldberg, Ivan D.

    1971-01-01

    Additional properties of SP-15, a generalized transducing bacteriophage notable for the ability to transfer an unusually large fragment of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to Bacillus subtilis and B. licheniformis, are presented together with improved methods that enhance its utility. Simple means have been found to provide the rigid control over moisture that is necessary for the assay of plaque-forming units (PFU). Reproducible procedures for propagating transducing phage, which depend upon an appropriate mixing of PFU with uninfected bacteria, have replaced less reliable methods that utilized infected spores. Transduction of B. subtilis W-23 increased linearly when MgSO4 in recipient cell-SP-15 mixtures was increased from 0.005 to 0.03 m. Methods have been developed that protect SP-15 from the damaging effects of CsCl and of osmotic shock subsequent to dilution. Evidence that the PFU and transducing particles of lysates decay at the same slow rate during extended storage suggests that the decay is a result of damage to protein rather than to DNA. One-step growth experiments, in which SP-15 was propagated on B. subtilis W-23-Sr/1 mg, indicated a latent period of 100 min, a rise period of 60 min, and a burst size of 25 to 34 PFU per infected cell. These findings suggest explanations for some of the technical difficulties SP-15 has presented. PMID:4999971

  13. The secret life of the anthrax agent Bacillus anthracis: bacteriophage-mediated ecological adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Schuch

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecological and genetic factors that govern the occurrence and persistence of anthrax reservoirs in the environment are obscure. A central tenet, based on limited and often conflicting studies, has long held that growing or vegetative forms of Bacillus anthracis survive poorly outside the mammalian host and must sporulate to survive in the environment. Here, we present evidence of a more dynamic lifecycle, whereby interactions with bacterial viruses, or bacteriophages, elicit phenotypic alterations in B. anthracis and the emergence of infected derivatives, or lysogens, with dramatically altered survival capabilities. Using both laboratory and environmental B. anthracis strains, we show that lysogeny can block or promote sporulation depending on the phage, induce exopolysaccharide expression and biofilm formation, and enable the long-term colonization of both an artificial soil environment and the intestinal tract of the invertebrate redworm, Eisenia fetida. All of the B. anthracis lysogens existed in a pseudolysogenic-like state in both the soil and worm gut, shedding phages that could in turn infect non-lysogenic B. anthracis recipients and confer survival phenotypes in those environments. Finally, the mechanism behind several phenotypic changes was found to require phage-encoded bacterial sigma factors and the expression of at least one host-encoded protein predicted to be involved in the colonization of invertebrate intestines. The results here demonstrate that during its environmental phase, bacteriophages provide B. anthracis with alternatives to sporulation that involve the activation of soil-survival and endosymbiotic capabilities.

  14. Bacillus subtilis and yeast cell wall improve the intestinal health of broilers challenged by Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Wang, W; Lv, Z; Liu, D; Guo, Y

    2017-12-01

    1. The objective was to investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis, yeast cell wall (YCW) and their combination on intestinal health of broilers challenged by Clostridium perfringens over a 21-d period. 2. Using a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, 800 1-d-old male Cobb 500 broilers were used to study the effects of feed additives (without additive or with zinc bacitracin, B. subtilis, YCW, and the combination of B. subtilis and YCW), pathogen challenge (without or with Clostridium perfringens challenge), and their interactive effects. 3. C. perfringens infection increased intestinal lesions scores, damaged intestinal histomorphology, increased serum endotoxin concentration, cytokine mRNA expression and intestinal population of C. perfringens and Escherichia coli and decreased ileal bifidobacteria numbers. The 4 additives decreased serum endotoxin. Zinc bacitracin tended to decrease cytokine mRNA expression and the intestinal number of C. perfringens and E. coli. B. subtilis, YCW and their combination increased cytokine mRNA expression. B. subtilis and YCW decreased the number of C. perfringens and E. coli in the ileum, and their combination decreased pathogens numbers in the ileum and caecum. 4. In conclusion, B. subtilis, YCW and their combination improved the intestinal health of NE-infected broilers, and could be potential alternatives to antibiotics.

  15. A Simple Luminescent Adenylate-Cyclase Functional Assay for Evaluation of Bacillus anthracis Edema Factor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma’ayan Israeli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Edema Factor (EF, the toxic sub-unit of the Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin (ET is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase whose detrimental activity in the infected host results in severe edema. EF is therefore a major virulence factor of B. anthracis. We describe a simple, rapid and reliable functional adenylate-cyclase assay based on inhibition of a luciferase-mediated luminescence reaction. The assay exploits the efficient adenylate cyclase-mediated depletion of adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, and the strict dependence on ATP of the light-emitting luciferase-catalyzed luciferin-conversion to oxyluciferin, which can be easily visualized. The assay exhibits a robust EF-dose response decrease in luminescence, which may be specifically reverted by anti-EF antibodies. The application of the assay is exemplified in: (a determining the presence of EF in B. anthracis cultures, or its absence in cultures of EF-defective strains; (b evaluating the anti-EF humoral response in experimental animals infected/vaccinated with B. anthracis; and (c rapid discrimination between EF producing and non-producing bacterial colonies. Furthermore, the assay may be amenable with high-throughput screening for EF inhibitory molecules.

  16. Inhibition of quorum sensing-mediated virulence in Serratia marcescens by Bacillus subtilis R-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kannan Rama; Srinivasan, Subramaniyan; Ravi, Arumugam Veera

    2018-04-13

    Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic human pathogen causing various nosocomial infections, most importantly urinary tract infections (UTIs). It exhibits increased resistance towards the conventional antibiotics. This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-virulence effect of a rhizosphere soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis strain R-18 against the uropathogen S. marcescens. First, the bacterial cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of B. subtilis strain R-18 was evaluated for its quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential against biomarker strain Chromobacterium violaceum and the test pathogen S. marcescens. The B. subtilis R-18 CFCS effectively inhibited the quorum sensing (QS)-mediated violacein pigment production in C. violaceum and prodigiosin pigment production in S. marcescens. Furthermore, B. subtilis R-18 CFCS was successively extracted with different solvent systems. Of these solvents, B. subtilis R-18 petroleum ether (PE) extract showed inhibition in biofilm formation, protease, lipase, and hemolysin productions in S. marcescens. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis revealed the alterations in the cellular components of bacterial cell pellets obtained from B. subtilis R-18 PE extract treated and untreated S. marcescens. The differential gene expression study further validated the downregulation of virulence-associated genes. Characterization of the active principle in B. subtilis R-18 PE extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed the presence of multiple compounds with therapeutic values, which could possibly reduce the QS-dependent phenotypes in S. marcescens. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genome Sequencing of Bacillus subtilis SC-8, Antagonistic to the Bacillus cereus Group, Isolated from Traditional Korean Fermented-Soybean Food

    OpenAIRE

    Yeo, In-Cheol; Lee, Nam Keun; Hahm, Young Tae

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis SC-8 is a Gram-positive bacterium displaying narrow antagonistic activity for the Bacillus cereus group. B. subtilis SC-8 was isolated from Korean traditional fermented-soybean food. Here we report the draft genome sequence of B. subtilis SC-8, including biosynthetic genes for antibiotics that may have beneficial effects for control of food-borne pathogens.

  18. Expression of the neutral protease gene from a thermophilic Bacillus sp BT1 strain in Bacillus subtilis and its natural host : Identification of a functional promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecerek, B; Venema, G

    The expression of the neutral protease gene (npr) from the thermophilic Bacillus sp. BT1 strain was studied in its natural host and in mesophilic Bacillus subtilis. In the thermophilic BT1 strain, the transcription of the protease gene is initiated from its own promoter, just 5' to the gene. In

  19. Biological control of strawberry soil-borne pathogens Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani, using Trichoderma asperellum and Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María PASTRANA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In south-western Spain, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani were found to be associated in strawberry plants with, respectively, charcoal rot, and crown and root rot symptoms. For management of both fungal diseases, the antagonistic effects of two commercial formulations, one based on Trichoderma asperellum T18 strain (Prodigy® and the other on Bacillus megaterium and B. laterosporus (Fusbact®, were evaluated in vitro and under controlled environment and field conditions. Two inoculation methods (root-dipping and soil application and two application times (pre- and post-pathogen inoculation, as preventive and curative treatments, respectively were assessed. Dual plate confrontation experiments demonstrated the antagonistic effects of T. asperellum and Bacillus spp. by inhibiting radial growth of M. phaseolina and F. solani by more than 36%. Preventive application of T. asperellum by root-dipping reduced the incidence of charcoal rot (up to 44% in a growth chamber and up to 65% under field conditions and also reduced disease progression, the percentage of crown necrosis, as well as the level of infection measured as ng of pathogen DNA g-1 plant by quantitative real-time PCR. This treatment was also the most effective for reduction of crown and root rot caused by F. solani (up to 100% in a greenhouse and up to 81% under field conditions. These results were nearly comparable with the control achieved using chemical fungicides. The Bacillus spp.-based formulation was also effective for control of charcoal rot and showed variable results for control of F. solani, depending on the growth conditions.

  20. Infective Endocarditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Infective Endocarditis Updated:Mar 29,2018 View an illustration of endocarditis Infective ... procedure. Web Booklets on Congenital Heart Defects These online publications describe many defects and the procedures used ...

  1. MRSA Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to spread and sometimes become life-threatening. MRSA infections may affect your: Bloodstream Lungs Heart Bones Joints Prevention Preventing HA-MRSA In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA ...

  2. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  3. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... infection. People with skin problems like burns or eczema may be more likely to get staph skin ...

  4. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  5. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Naphthalene degradation and biosurfactant activity by Bacillus cereus 28BN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleva, B.; Christova, N. [Inst. of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Jordanov, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Sofia (Bulgaria); Petrov, P. [National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2005-08-01

    Biosurfactant activity and naphthalene degradation by a new strain identified as Bacillus cereus 28BN were studied. The strain grew well and produced effective biosurfactants in the presence of n-alkanes, naphthalene, crude oil and vegetable oils. The biosurfactants were detected by the surface tension lowering of the medium, thin layer chromatography and infrared spectra analysis. With (2%) naphthalene as the sole carbon source, high levels of rhamnolipids at a concentration of 2.3 g l{sup -1} were determined in the stationary growth. After 20 d of incubation 72 {+-} 4% of the initial naphthalene was degraded. This is the first report for a Bacillus cereus rhamnolipid producing strain that utilized naphthalene under aerobic conditions. The strain looks promising for application in environmental technologies. (orig.)

  7. Growth measurement of some amylolytic bacillus species in three media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, A.O.

    2009-01-01

    Study of the growth pattern of some Bacillus species on starchy substrates showed that the metabolic activity affected the enzymatic activity. B. subtilis (WBS), B. licheniformis (WBL) and B. coagulans (MBC) generally had higher growth rate. B. circulans (SBC) and B. coagulans (WBC) had higher growth on cornstarch medium with corresponding higher beta-amylase production as compared to other strains such as B. polymyxa. Ten of the 13 Bacillus species studied had better performance on cornstarch than on soluble starch except B. macerans (MBM), B. macerans (SMB2) and B. subtilis (WBS). The enzyme production ranged from 0.022 unit/cfu x 102 to 0.912 unit/cfu x 102 on cornstarch and 0.01 unit/cfu x 102 to 0.693 unit/cfu x 102 on soluble starch. Relatively higher a-amylase activity was observed in B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. macerans and B. circulans (WBC1). (author)

  8. Biodegradation of furfural by Bacillus subtilis strain DS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dan; Bao, Jianguo; Lu, Jueming; Lv, Quanxi

    2015-07-01

    An aerobic bacterial strain DS3, capable of growing on furfural as sole carbon source, was isolated from actived sludge of wastewater treatment plant in a diosgenin factory after enrichment. Based on morphological physiological tests as well as 16SrDNA sequence and Biolog analyses it was identified as Bacillus subtilis. The study revealed that strain DS3 utilized furfural, as analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Under following conditions: pH 8.0, temperature 35 degrees C, 150 rpm and 10% inoculum, strain DS3 showed 31.2% furfural degradation. Furthermore, DS3 strain was found to tolerate furfural concentration as high as 6000 mg(-1). The ability of Bacillus subtilis strain DS3 to degrade furfural has been demonstrated for the first time in the present study.

  9. Novel routes for improving biocontrol activity of Bacillus based bioinoculants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming eWu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol formulations prepared from plant-growth-promoting bacteria are increasingly applied in sustainable agriculture. Especially inoculants prepared from endospore-forming Bacillus strains have been proven as efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides due to their long shelf life, which is comparable with that of agrochemicals. However, these formulations of the first generation are sometimes hampered in their action and do not fulfill in each case the expectations of the appliers. In this review we use the well-known plant-associated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens type strain FZB42 as example for the successful application of different techniques offered today by comparative, evolutionary and functional genomics, site-directed mutagenesis and strain construction including marker removal, for paving the way for preparing a novel generation of biocontrol agents.

  10. Effects of gamma-rays on an indigenous Bacillus isolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Liew Pauline Woan Ying; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Siti Khadijah Abu Hadin; Nabilahuda Mohd Tumirin

    2010-01-01

    A preliminary study was carried out with the aim to obtain strong cellulolytic bacteria by ionizing radiation using a 60 Co source. An indigenous cellulolytic Bacillus sp. NMBCC 10023 originally isolated from soil origin was used in the study. The harvested bacterial pellets from overnight growth cultures were exposed to gamma-irradiation with doses ranging from 1 kGy to 40 kGy. The numbers of surviving bacteria on agar plate decreased as the gamma irradiation dose increased. No isolates were recovered after exposure to doses greater than 10 kGy. Based on the cell count using plate count method, the 90 % lethal dose (LD90) of gamma radiation of Bacillus sp. NMBCC 10023 was between 2-4 kGy. (author)

  11. Solid Culturing of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for α-Amylase Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Gangadharan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen different agroresidues were screened for alpha amylase production using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ATCC 23842. Among them, wheat bran (WB and groundnut oil cake (GOC in mass ratio of 1:1 was proved as the best substrate source. Supplementation with 0.01 M KH2PO4 and 1 % soluble starch enhanced the enzyme yield considerably. Maximum enzyme recovery from the solid mass was obtained when extracted with 0.1 M acetate buffer, pH=5.0. Maximum enzyme titer expressed as units per mass of dry substrate obtained was 62 470 U/g after 72 hours of fermentation at 37 °C by using the above solid substrate mixture (5 g with the initial moisture of 85 % and inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens of 2·109 CFU/mL.

  12. Effect of Bacillus subtilis microecological probiotics on livestock breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui ZHOU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a kind of green and healthy microecologics, Bacillus subtilis could balance the intestinal flora, promote the nutrient absorption and enhance immunity. Microecologics is one of the ideal antibiotics alternative, which are effective in preventing and treating animal disease and promoting the growth and development of the animal. Because of its advantages, such as no toxin side effect and no residual or drug-resistant, microecologics has been used in livestock breeding widely. Here, we concluded the characteristics and mechanism of Bacillus subtilis,elaborated application of microecologics on livestock breeding, discussed its problems and suggested its solved methods. In the end, the future of microecologics was expected in order to provide a reference for subsequent livestock breeding.

  13. Enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation by a newly isolated bacillus subtilis strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christova, N.; Tuleva, B.; Nikolova-Damyanova, B.

    2004-01-01

    The relation between hydrocarbon degradation and biosurfactant (rhamnolipid) production by a new bacillus subtilis 22BN strain was investigated. The strain was isolated for its capacity to utilize n-hexadecane and naphthalene and at the same time to produce surface-active compound at high concentrations (1.5 - 2.0 g l -1 ). Biosurfactant production was detected by surface tension lowering and emulsifying activity. The strain is a good degrader of both hydrocarbons used with degradability of 98.3 ± 1% and 75 ± 2% for n-hexadecane and naphthalene, respectively. Measurement of cell hydrophobicity showed that the combination of slightly soluble substrate and rhamnolipid developed higher hydrophobicity correlated with increased utilization of both hydrocarbon substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bacillus subtilis strain that degrades hydrophobic compounds and at the same time produces rhamnolipid biosurfactant. (orig.)

  14. Proteins that interact with GTP during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.; Vary, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    During sporulation of Bacillus subtilis, several proteins were shown to interact with GTP in specific ways. UV light was used to cross-link [α- 32 P]GTP to proteins in cell extracts at different stages of growth. After electrophoresis, 11 bands of radioactivity were found in vegetative cells, 4 more appeared during sporulation, and only 9 remained in mature spores. Based on the labeling pattern with or without UV light to cross-link either [α- 32 P]GTP or [γ- 32 P]GTP, 11 bands of radioactivity were apparent guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, and 5 bands appeared to be phosphorylated and/or guanylated. Similar results were found with Bacillus megaterium. Assuming the GTP might be a type of signal for sporulation, it could interact with and regulate proteins by at least three mechanisms

  15. Genetic Characterization of Bacillus anthracis 17 JB strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed-Mohamadi, Sakineh; Moradi Bidhendi, Soheila; Tadayon, Keyvan; Ghaderi, Rainak

    2015-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is one of the most homogenous bacteria ever described. Some level of diversity. Bacillus anthracis 17JB is a laboratory strain It is broadly used as a challenge strain in guinea pigs for potency test of anthrax vaccine. This work describes genetic characterization of B. anthracis 17 JB strain using the SNPs and MLVA genotyping. In SNPs typing, the originally French 17JB strain represented the A.Br. 008/009 subgroup. In Levy's genotyping method, 843, 451 and 864 bp long fragments were identified at AA03, AJ03 and AA07 loci, respectively. In the vaccine manufacturer perspective these findings are much valuable on their own account, but similar research is required to extend molecular knowledge of B. anthracis epidemiology in Persia.

  16. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Shigella Infections KidsHealth / For Parents / Shigella Infections What's in ... Doctor Print en español Infecciones por Shigella About Shigella Shigella are bacteria that can infect the digestive ...

  17. Genome Sequence of Antibiotic-Producing Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain KCTC 13012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Park, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2015-10-01

    We report the 4.0-Mb draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (syn. Bacillus velezensis) KCTC 13012, which exhibits a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against bacteria and fungi and promotes plant growth as well. The genome contains an array of biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites that are comparable to those in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T). Copyright © 2015 Jeong et al.

  18. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-08-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled "Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria" (Liu et al., 2017) [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  19. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guoqiang; Kong, Yingying; Fan, Yajing; Geng, Ce; Peng, Donghai; Sun, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled “Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria” (Liu et al., 2017) [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  20. Data on genome analysis of Bacillus velezensis LS69

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the published entitled “Whole-genome sequencing of Bacillus velezensis LS69, a strain with a broad inhibitory spectrum against pathogenic bacteria” (Liu et al., 2017 [1]. Genome analysis revealed B. velezensis LS69 has a good potential for biocontrol and plant growth promotion. This article provides an extended analysis of the genetic islands, core genes and amylolysin loci of B. velezensis LS69.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of the Bacillus subtilis menp1 promoter.

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, X; Taber, H W

    1996-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis men genes encode biosynthetic enzymes for formation of the respiratory chain component menaquinone. The menp1 promoter previously was shown to be the primary cis element for menFD gene expression. In the present work, it was found that either supplementation with nonfermentable carbon sources or reutilization of glycolytic end products increased menp1 activity in the late postexponential phase. The effect on menp1 activity by a particular end product (such as acetoin or ...

  2. Efektivitas Bacillus thuringiensis dalam Pengendalian Larva Nyamuk Anopheles sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Inneke Wibowo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Anopheles sp adalah vektor penyakit malaria. Pengendalian vektor penyakit malaria dapat dilakukan secara biologis yaitu dengan menggunakan Bacillus thuringiensis. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui efektivitas konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dalam pengendalian larva nyamuk Anopheles sp.Penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksperimental menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RAL Faktorial yang terdiri atas dua faktor yaitu konsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis dan stadia larva Anopheles dengan pengulangan tiga kali.Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalahkonsentrasi Bacillus thuringiensis (A yang terdiri atas 5 taraf:A0: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 0 CFU.mL-1, A1: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 102 CFU.mL-1, A2: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 104 CFU.mL-1, A3: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 106CFU.mL-1, A4: konsentrasi B.thuringiensis 108CFU.mL-1. Perlakuan tahapan instar larva Anopheles sp. (B adalah sebagai berikut:B1: stadia larva instar I, B2: stadia larva instar II, B3: stadia larva instar III, B4: stadia larva instar IVsehingga terdapat 60 satuan percobaan. Hasil penelitian  menunjukkan konsentrasi B. thuringiensis isolat CK dan IPB CC yang paling berpengaruh dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp adalah 108 CFU.mL-1 . Instar larva yang paling peka terhadap B. thuringiensis isolat IPB CC adalah instar I dan II sedangkan instar yang peka terhadap isolat CK adalah instar II, Perlakuan konsentrasi isolat B. thuringiensis dan tingkat instar larva yang paling baik dalam pengendalian larva Anopheles sp. adalah 108 CFU.mL-1, dan instar I dan II.

  3. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, K?r?ad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor pro...

  4. Functional Comparison of the Two Bacillus anthracis Glutamate Racemases▿

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Dylan; Reese, Joseph G.; Louer, Craig R.; Ballard, Jimmy D.; Spies, M. Ashley; Blanke, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Glutamate racemase activity in Bacillus anthracis is of significant interest with respect to chemotherapeutic drug design, because l-glutamate stereoisomerization to d-glutamate is predicted to be closely associated with peptidoglycan and capsule biosynthesis, which are important for growth and virulence, respectively. In contrast to most bacteria, which harbor a single glutamate racemase gene, the genomic sequence of B. anthracis predicts two genes encoding glutamate racemases, racE1 and rac...

  5. Fitness Trade-Offs in Competence Differentiation of Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Melih; Power, Jeffrey J.; Ribbe, Jan; Volkmann, Thorsten; Maier, Berenike

    2016-01-01

    In the stationary phase, Bacillus subtilis differentiates stochastically and transiently into the state of competence for transformation (K-state). The latter is associated with growth arrest, and it is unclear how the ability to develop competence is stably maintained, despite its cost. To quantify the effect differentiation has on the competitive fitness of B. subtilis, we characterized the competition dynamics between strains with different probabilities of entering the K-state. The relati...

  6. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bazinet, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Bacillus cereus sensu lato ( s . l .) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic traits (i.e., "pan-GWAS" analysis...

  7. Pan-genome and phylogeny of Bacillus cereus sensu lato

    OpenAIRE

    Bazinet, Adam L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s. l.) is an ecologically diverse bacterial group of medical and agricultural significance. In this study, I use publicly available genomes and novel bioinformatic workflows to characterize the B. cereus s. l. pan-genome and perform the largest phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of this group to date in terms of the number of genes and taxa included. With these fundamental data in hand, I identify genes associated with particular phenotypic tra...

  8. A novel hyaluronidase produced by Bacillus sp. A50.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueping Guo

    Full Text Available Hyaluronidases are a family of enzymes that degrade hyaluronic acid (hyaluronan, HA and widely used in many fields. A hyaluronidase producing bacteria strain was screened from the air. 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA analysis indicated that the strain belonged to the genus Bacillus, and the strain was named as Bacillus sp. A50. This is the first report of a hyaluronidase from Bacillus, which yields unsaturated oligosaccharides as product like other microbial hyaluronate lyases. Under optimized conditions, the yield of hyaluronidase from Bacillus sp. A50 could reach up to 1.5×10(4 U/mL, suggesting that strain A50 is a good producer of hyaluronidase. The hyaluronidase (HAase-B was isolated and purified from the bacterial culture, with a specific activity of 1.02×10(6 U/mg protein and a yield of 25.38%. The optimal temperature and pH of HAase-B were 44°C and pH 6.5, respectively. It was stable at pH 5-6 and at a temperature lower than 45°C. The enzymatic activity could be enhanced by Ca2+, Mg2+, or Ni2+, and inhibited by Zn2+, Cu2+, EDTA, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA, deferoxamine mesylate salt (DFO, triton X-100, Tween 80, or SDS at different levels. Kinetic measurements of HAase-B towards HA gave a Michaelis constant (Km of 0.02 mg/mL, and a maximum velocity (Vmax of 0.27 A232/min. HAase-B also showed activity towards chondroitin sulfate A (CSA with the kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, 12.30 mg/mL and 0.20 A232/min respectively. Meanwhile, according to the sequences of genomic DNA and HAase-B's part peptides, a 3,324-bp gene encoding HAase-B was obtained.

  9. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  10. Purification and medium optimization of α-amylase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Amylase was first time isolated and purified from Bacillus subtilis 168 (1A1). Purified α-amylase fraction showed a single protein band with a molecular weight of 55 kD. Chemical characterization of the purified α-amylase revealed optimum amylolytic activity at 37°C and pH 7.0 using starch as substrate. It was stable at pH ...

  11. 14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biocontrol: Bacillus penetrans and Related Parasites of Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans Mankau, 1975, previously described as Duboscqia penetrans Thorne 1940, is a candidate agent for biocontrol of nematodes. This review considers the life stages of this bacterium: vegetative growth phase, colony fragmentation, sporogenesis, soil phase, spore attachment, and penetration into larvae of root-knot nematodes. The morphology of the microthallus colonies and the unusual external features of the spore are discussed. Taxonomic affinities with the actinomycetes, partic...

  13. Development of Bacillus subtilis mutants to produce tryptophan in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Karin; Cantor, Mette D.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To generate tryptophan-overproducing Bacillus subtilis strains for in situ use in pigs, to reduce the feed cost for farmers and nitrogen pollution. Results A novel concept has been investigated—to generate B. subtilis strains able to produce tryptophan (Trp) in situ in pigs. Mutagenesis......-excreting B. subtilis strains were obtained with UV-mutagenesis and analogue selection and can be used in animal feed applications....

  14. Use of bacillus subtilis strains to inhibit postharvest pathogenic fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arras, G.; Gambella, F.; Demontis, S.; Petretto, A.

    1995-01-01

    An isolate (87) of the bacillus subtilis strains isolated from cold stored citrus fruit 13 proved to inhibit the growth in vitro of the penicillium italicum used in the experiment (from 50.6% to 92.2%) and to inhibit botrytis cinerea (from 65.3% to 95.9%). A further test, superimposing on plates containing PDA strains Nos. 13, 173, and 160, totally inhibited the fungi. Tested in vivo on artificially bruised oranges, they significantly inhibited two fungi

  15. Characterization of parasporin gene harboring Indian isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis

    OpenAIRE

    Lenina, N. K.; Naveenkumar, A.; Sozhavendan, A. E.; Balakrishnan, N.; Balasubramani, V.; Udayasuriyan, V.

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is popularly known as insecticidal bacterium. However, non-insecticidal Bt strains are more extensively available in natural environment than the insecticidal ones. Parasporin (PS) is a collection of genealogically heterogeneous Cry proteins synthesized in non-insecticidal isolates of Bt. An important character generally related with PS proteins is their strong cytocidal activity preferentially on human cancer cells of various origins. Identification and characteri...

  16. Biodegradation of malathion by Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malathion, a well-known organophosphate pesticide, has been used in agriculture over the last two decades for controlling pests of economically important crops. In the present study, a single bacterium, ML-1, was isolated by soil-enrichment technique and identified as Bacillus licheniformis on the basis of the 16S rRNA technique. The bacterium was grown in carbon-free minimal salt medium (MSM and was found to be very efficient in utilizing malathion as the sole source of carbon. Biodegradation experiments were performed in MSM without carbon source to determine the malathion degradation by the selected strain, and the residues of malathion were determined quantitatively using HPLC techniques. Bacillus licheniformis showed very promising results and efficiently consumed malathion as the sole carbon source via malathion carboxylesterase (MCE, and about 78% malathion was degraded within 5 days. The carboxylesterase activity was determined by using crude extract while using malathion as substrate, and the residues were determined by HPLC. It has been found that the MCE hydrolyzed 87% malathion within 96 h of incubation. Characterization of crude MCE revealed that the enzyme is robust in nature in terms of organic solvents, as it was found to be stable in various concentrations of ethanol and acetonitrile. Similarly, and it can work in a wide pH and temperature range. The results of this study highlighted the potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain ML-1 as a biodegrader that can be used for the bioremediation of malathion-contaminated soil.

  17. Characterization of Emetic Bacillus weihenstephanensis, a New Cereulide-Producing Bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Munk Hansen, Bjarne; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2006-01-01

    Cereulide production has until now been restricted to the species Bacillus cereus. Here we report on two psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains, MC67 and MC118, that produce cereulide. The strains are atypical with regard to pheno- and genotypic characteristics normally used for iden......Cereulide production has until now been restricted to the species Bacillus cereus. Here we report on two psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains, MC67 and MC118, that produce cereulide. The strains are atypical with regard to pheno- and genotypic characteristics normally used...

  18. The ComP-ComA quorum system is essential for "Trojan horse" like pathogenesis in Bacillus nematocida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xidan Deng

    Full Text Available Bacillus nematocida B16 has been shown to use "Trojan horse" mechanism in pathogenesis that has characteristics of "social" behavior. The ComP-ComA system, a conserved quorum sensing system in the genus Bacillus, functions in many physiological processes including competence development, lipopeptide antibiotic surfactin production, degradative enzyme production and even some unknown functions. Here we investigated the requirement of ComP-ComA system in B. nematocida B16 for its pathogenicity against nematodes. The ΔcomP mutant displayed deficiencies in attracting and killing nematodes, due to the absence of attractive signal molecules and the decreased expressions of virulence factors, respectively. Contrarily, a complemented comP mutant at least partially resumed its pathogenicity. Our data from transcriptional analysis further confirmed that this signaling system directly or indirectly regulated the expressions of two major virulence proteases in the infection of B. nematocida B16. Bioinformatics analyses from comparative genomics also suggested that the potential target genes of transcription factor ComA were involved in the processes such as the synthesis of attractants, production of extracellular degradative enzymes and sortase, secondary metabolites biosynthesis, regulation of transcription factors, mobility, as well as transporters, most of which were different from a saprophytic relative B. subtilis 168. Therefore, our investigation firstly revealed that the participation and necessity of ComP-ComA signaling system in bacterial pathogenesis.

  19. Cerebral infarctions due to CNS infection with Enterobacter sakazakii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, P.G.; Ball, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reports have implicated Enterobacter sakazakii, a gram-negative enteric bacillus, in neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Cases of severe central nervous system involvement, including ventriculitis, brain abscess, infarction, and cyst formation, have been described. We present serial head CT findings in a case of neonatal E. sakazakii meningitis complicated by a ring enhancing cerebral infarction which mimicked abscess formation. In meningitis secondary to this agent, a recognized pattern of cerebral hypodensity with or without cystic degeneration late in the course of the infection is likely to represent cerebral infarction rather than an abscess especially if there is a lack of culture evidence of a bacterial infection. (orig.)

  20. Heat and desiccation are the predominant factors affecting inactivation of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis spores during simulated composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K; Harvey, A; Barbieri, R; Xu, S; Reuter, T; Amoako, K K; Selinger, L B; McAllister, T A

    2016-01-01

    The suitability of composting for disposal of livestock mortalities due to Bacillus anthracis was assessed by measuring viability of surrogate spores from two strains each of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis after a heating cycle modelled on a cattle composting study. Sporulation was attempted from 10 to 37°C, but poor yields at lower temperatures resulted in 25, 30 and 37°C being selected to generate sufficient spores (8 log10  CFU ml(-1) ) for experiments. Spores were inoculated into 3 g autoclaved dried-ground compost rehydrated with 6 ml water or silica beads in a factorial design for each strain, sporulation temperature, matrix and sampling day (0, 25, 50, 100, 150). Maximum incubation temperature was 62°C, but spores were maintained at ≥55°C for 78 of 150 days. Although significant differences existed among Bacillus strains and sporulation temperatures, numbers of viable spores after 150 days averaged 1·3 log10  CFU g(-1) , a 5·2 log10 reduction from day 0. Spore inactivation was likely due to heat and desiccation as matrices were autoclaved prior to incubation, negating impacts of microflora. Results support composting for disposal of anthrax mortalities, provided long-term thermophillic heating is achieved. Due to limited sporulation at 10°C, livestock mortalities from anthrax at this or lower ambient temperatures would likely be of lower risk for disease transmission. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Modeling heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Bacillus licheniformis spores as function of sporulation temperature and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Eugénie; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier; Leguérinel, Ivan; Postollec, Florence; Boulais, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric; Mafart, Pierre

    2012-05-01

    Although sporulation environmental factors are known to impact on Bacillus spore heat resistance, they are not integrated into predictive models used to calculate the efficiency of heating processes. This work reports the influence of temperature and pH encountered during sporulation on heat resistance of Bacillus weihenstephanensis KBAB4 and Bacillus licheniformis AD978 spores. A decrease in heat resistance (δ) was observed for spores produced either at low temperature, at high temperature or at acidic pH. Sporulation temperature and pH maximizing the spore heat resistance were identified. Heat sensitivity (z) was not modified whatever the sporulation environmental factors were. A resistance secondary model inspired by the Rosso model was proposed. Sporulation temperatures and pHs minimizing or maximizing the spore heat resistance (T(min(R)), T(opt(R)), T(max(R)), pH(min(R)) and pH(opt(R))) were estimated. The goodness of the model fit was assessed for both studied strains and literature data. The estimation of the sporulation temperature and pH maximizing the spore heat resistance is of great interest to produce spores assessing the spore inactivation in the heating processes applied by the food industry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guèrin as a Vaccine Delivery Vector for Viral Antigens by Incorporation of Glycolipid Activators of NKT Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Venkataswamy, Manjunatha M.; Ng, Tony W.; Kharkwal, Shalu S.; Carreño, Leandro J.; Johnson, Alison J.; Kunnath-Velayudhan, Shajo; Liu, Zheng; Bittman, Robert; Jervis, Peter J.; Cox, Liam R.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Wen, Xiangshu; Yuan, Weiming; Tsuji, Moriya; Li, Xiangming

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guèrin (rBCG) has been explored as a vector for vaccines against HIV because of its ability to induce long lasting humoral and cell mediated immune responses. To maximize the potential for rBCG vaccines to induce effective immunity against HIV, various strategies are being employed to improve its ability to prime CD8+ T cells, which play an important role in the control of HIV infections. In this study we adopted a previously described approac...

  3. Treatment of the Infection after Fat Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For recent years, use of autologous fat injection has increased significantly in facial contouring surgery. Along with such increase in use, complications like atypical mycoplasma infection have been also on the increasing trend. The authors report two cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infection that occurred after autologous fat injection. Patients were treated as infection that resistant to common antibiotics and results were negative to routine culture and Gram staining. Acid-fast bacillus stain, polymerase chain reaction (PCR test and mycobacterial cultures were conducted for diagnosis under suspicion of atypical mycoplasma infection. Then, combination antibiotics therapy, surgical treatment, and steroid injection were performed for treatment. Both patients were diagnosed with Mycobacterium chelonae in PCR test. They were positive to mycobacterial cultures. Combination antibiotics therapy was repeated to improvement of symptom. However, they could not be free from side effects such as deformation in facial contour, scar and pigmentation even after full recovery. When chronic wound infections after autologous fat injection, we must suspect atypical or mycobacterial infection and conduct examinations for a early diagnosis and proper antibiotic therapy that is effective to the nontuberculous mycobacteria.

  4. The Pathology of Infection in the Department of Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Seong Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Dong a University Medical Center, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Yeong [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to understand the bacteriologic contamination level of radiological equipment which have frequent contacts with patients in the Department of Radiology of an university hospital in Busan area. Before sterilizing in-patient of the radiology rooms, MRSA, VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, candida albicans, and enterococcus sp. were detected. After sterilization, all the bacteria were not found. As examine times become longer, more bacteria were detected and after 7 hours, bacillus sp.(GPR), CNS, acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus sp. were detected. After examining infected patients, bacillus sp.(GPR), VRE, enterococcus sp. CNS, and micrococcus sp. were detected and on the hands of radiological technologists, CNS, enterococcus sp. escherichia coli, and enterobacter sp. were detected. Similar species of bacteria were detected from each radiology room, but pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on the handles of portable radiological equipment and the chair in the waiting room. Therefore, it is the most important to regularly sterilize radiological equipment and devices which have frequent contacts with patients and to sterilize them right after the use of infected patients in order to prevent the spread of infection. Also, thorough hand washing, education on infection and management for the characteristics of Department of Radiology should be performed for the systematic prevention of infection.

  5. The Pathology of Infection in the Department of Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seong Gyu; Lee, Hyo Yeong

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to understand the bacteriologic contamination level of radiological equipment which have frequent contacts with patients in the Department of Radiology of an university hospital in Busan area. Before sterilizing in-patient of the radiology rooms, MRSA, VRE, acinetobacter baumannii, candida albicans, and enterococcus sp. were detected. After sterilization, all the bacteria were not found. As examine times become longer, more bacteria were detected and after 7 hours, bacillus sp.(GPR), CNS, acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterococcus sp. were detected. After examining infected patients, bacillus sp.(GPR), VRE, enterococcus sp. CNS, and micrococcus sp. were detected and on the hands of radiological technologists, CNS, enterococcus sp. escherichia coli, and enterobacter sp. were detected. Similar species of bacteria were detected from each radiology room, but pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected on the handles of portable radiological equipment and the chair in the waiting room. Therefore, it is the most important to regularly sterilize radiological equipment and devices which have frequent contacts with patients and to sterilize them right after the use of infected patients in order to prevent the spread of infection. Also, thorough hand washing, education on infection and management for the characteristics of Department of Radiology should be performed for the systematic prevention of infection.

  6. [Diversity of Bacillus species inhabiting on the surface and endophyte of lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Cibin; Liu, Bo; Che, Jianmei; Chen, Meichun; Liu, Guohong; Wei, Jiangchun

    2015-05-04

    The present work reported the isolation, identification and diversity of Bacillus species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in lichens collected from Wuyi Mountain. Nine lichen samples of Evernia, Stereocaulon, Menegazzia and other 6 genera belonging to 7 families were collected from Wuyi mountain nature reserve. The bacillus-like species colonizing on the surface and endophyte in these lichens were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. There was no bacillus-like species isolated from Evernia, Ramalina and Lecarona. A total of 34 bacillus-like bacteria were isolated from another 6 lichen samples. These bacteria were identified as 24 species and were classified into Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillus. Paenibacillus and Bacillus are the dominant genera, and accounting for 41. 2% and 35. 3% of all isolated bacteria respectively. Brevibacillus, Lysinibacillus and Viridiibacillu were first reported being isolated from lichens. There were different species and quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in different lichens. The quantity of bacillus colonizing on the surface of Physcia was more than 3.85 x 10(6) cfu/g and was the largest in the isolated bacteria, while the species of bacillus colonizing on the surface and endophyte in Stereocaulon was the most abundant. Most of the isolated bacteria were colonizing on (in) one lichen genera, but Paenibacillus taichungensis, Paenibacillus odorifer, Brevibacillus agri, Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus was respectively colonizing on (in) 2-3 lichen genera and Bacillus mycoides was colonizing on (in) Menegazzia, Cladonia Physcia, and Stereocaulon. There are species and quantity diversity of bacillus colonizing on (in) lichens.

  7. Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases in Bacillus subtilis. Purification and some properties of the adenosine-specific phosphorylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Frank

    1978-01-01

    Two purine nucleoside phosphorylases (purine-nucleoside:orthophosphate ribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.1) were purified from vegetative Bacillus subtilis cells. One enzyme, inosine-guanosine phosphorylase, showed great similarity to the homologous enzyme of Bacillus cereus. It appeared...

  8. BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Rob J W; Moorlag, Simone J C F M; Novakovic, Boris; Li, Yang; Wang, Shuang-Yin; Oosting, Marije; Kumar, Vinod; Xavier, Ramnik J; Wijmenga, Cisca; Joosten, Leo A B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; Benn, Christine S; Aaby, Peter; Koopmans, Marion P; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2018-01-01

    The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide

  9. BCG Vaccination Protects against Experimental Viral Infection in Humans through the Induction of Cytokines Associated with Trained Immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arts, Rob J W; Moorlag, Simone J C F M; Novakovic, Boris

    2018-01-01

    The tuberculosis vaccine bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has heterologous beneficial effects against non-related infections. The basis of these effects has been poorly explored in humans. In a randomized placebo-controlled human challenge study, we found that BCG vaccination induced genome-wide ep...

  10. Developmentally-Regulated Excision of the SPβ Prophage Reconstitutes a Gene Required for Spore Envelope Maturation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kimihiro; Kawano, Yuta; Iwamoto, Keito; Arai, Kenji; Maruyama, Yuki; Eichenberger, Patrick; Sato, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Temperate phages infect bacteria by injecting their DNA into bacterial cells, where it becomes incorporated into the host genome as a prophage. In the genome of Bacillus subtilis 168, an active prophage, SPβ, is inserted into a polysaccharide synthesis gene, spsM. Here, we show that a rearrangement occurs during sporulation to reconstitute a functional composite spsM gene by precise excision of SPβ from the chromosome. SPβ excision requires a putative site-specific recombinase, SprA, and an accessory protein, SprB. A minimized SPβ, where all the SPβ genes were deleted, except sprA and sprB, retained the SPβ excision activity during sporulation, demonstrating that sprA and sprB are necessary and sufficient for the excision. While expression of sprA was observed during vegetative growth, sprB was induced during sporulation and upon mitomycin C treatment, which triggers the phage lytic cycle. We also demonstrated that overexpression of sprB (but not of sprA) resulted in SPβ prophage excision without triggering the lytic cycle. These results suggest that sprB is the factor that controls the timing of phage excision. Furthermore, we provide evidence that spsM is essential for the addition of polysaccharides to the spore envelope. The presence of polysaccharides on the spore surface renders the spore hydrophilic in water. This property may be beneficial in allowing spores to disperse in natural environments via water flow. A similar rearrangement occurs in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, where a SPβ-like element is excised during sporulation to reconstitute a polysaccharide synthesis gene, suggesting that this type of gene rearrangement is common in spore-forming bacteria because it can be spread by phage infection. PMID:25299644

  11. Lead biotransformation potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 with sesame oil cake in mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was aimed at assessing the potential of allochthonous Bacillus sp. SKK11 and sesame oil cake extract for transformation of Pb in mine soil. The bacteria were isolated from a brackish environment and identified as Bacillus sp. based on partial 16S rDNA sequences. The isolate SKK11 exhibite...

  12. SCREENING OF BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY BACILLUS SP ISOLATED FROM COASTAL REGION IN CUDDALORE TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvaneswari. M*and P. Sivagurunathan

    2016-01-01

    Marine microorganisms produce extracellular or membrane associated surface-active compounds (bio surfactants). Biosurfactant are organic compounds belonging to various classes including glycolipids, lipopeptides, fatty acids, phospholipids that reduce the interfacial tension between immiscible liquids.This study deals with production and characterization of biosurfactant from Bacillus sp. The efficiency of Bacillus spstrain isolated from a marine sediments soil sample from coastal region -Cud...

  13. 77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... information were submitted to support Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 pesticide products. The Draft... component of fermented fish sauce and cocoa bean fermentations (Ref. 4). Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180 is... described in Unit III. B. Other Non-Occupational Exposure Pesticide products with the active ingredient...

  14. Formulations of Bacillus subtilis BY-2 suppress Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    We are developing a collection of Bacillus strains, isolated from different environments, for use in controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape in China and elsewhere. Strain BY-2, isolated from internal tissues of an oilseed rape root, was demonstrated to be Bacillus subtilis based on bi...

  15. The sponge-associated bacterium Bacillus licheniformis SAB1: A source of antimicrobial compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Wahidullah, S.; Rodrigues, C.; DeSouza, L.

    investigation. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus sp. SAB1 showed a strong similarity (100%) with the 16S rDNA gene of Bacillus licheniformis HNL09. The bioactive compounds produced by B. licheniformis SAB1 (GenBank accession...

  16. Role of enzymes of homologous recombination in illegitimate plasmid recombination in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meima, R; Haijema, BJ; Haan, GJ; Venema, G; Bron, S

    The structural stability of plasmid pGP1, which encodes a fusion between the penicillinase gene (penP) of Bacillus licheniformis and the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, was investigated in Bacillus subtilis strains expressing mutated subunits of the ATP-dependent nuclease, AddAB, and strains lacking the

  17. Enhanced production of poly glutamic acid by Bacillus sp. SW1-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sp. SW1-2 producing poly glutamic acid (PGA), locally isolated from Eastern province in Saudi Arabia, was characterized and identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed its closeness to Bacillus megaterium. The homopolymer consists mainly of glutamic as indicated in the ...

  18. Engineering of thermotolerant Bacillus coagulans for production of D(-)-lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T; Ingram, Lonnie O

    2014-12-02

    Genetically modified microorganisms having the ability to produce D(-)-lactic acid at temperatures between 30.degree. C. and 55.degree. C. are provided. In various embodiments, the microorganisms may have the chromosomal lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene and/or the chromosomal acetolactate synthase (alsS) gene inactivated. Exemplary microorganisms for use in the disclosed methods are Bacillus spp., such as Bacillus coagulans.

  19. Production of milk-clotting enzyme by Bacillus subtilis B1 from wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three strains, Bacillus subtilis B1, B. subtilis B18 and Bacillus thuringiensis B12, were screened from wheat bran to produce milk-clotting enzyme. Among them, B. subtilis B1 exhibited considerable milkclotting activity with low proteolytic activity. After response surface methodology optimization, milkclotting activity was ...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1012 - α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1012 α-Amylase enzyme preparation from Bacillus stearothermophilus. (a) α-Amylase enzyme preparation is obtained from the culture...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus sp. FMQ74, a Dairy-contaminating Isolate from Raw Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okshevsky, Mira Ursula; Regina, Viduthalai R.; Marshall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Representatives of the genus Bacillus are common milk contaminants that cause spoilage and flavor alterations of dairy products. Bacillus sp. FMQ74 was isolated from raw milk on a Danish dairy farm. To elucidate the genomic basis of this strain’s survival in the dairy industry, a high-quality draft...

  2. Anti-Bacillus Activity Of Some Plants Used In Traditional Medicine Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on collected information about traditional use of plants, anti-bacillus activity of methanol extracts of 180 plant species belonging to 72 families were investigated by in vitro bioassays using agar diffusion-method against standard strains of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus and B. pumilis at 20 mg/ml. Seventy eight species ...

  3. Inhibitory effects of Bacillus probionts on growth and toxin production of Vibrio harveyi pathogens of shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Lu, H; Nomura, N

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus megaterium in terms of toxin and growth of pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. Three Bacillus probionts were isolated from probiotic BZT aquaculture and identified using a 16S rDNA sequence. Growth inhibition assay showed that supernatants from the 24-h culture of three Bacillus species were able to inhibit the growth of V. harveyi (LMG 4044); B. subtilis was the most effective based on the well diffusion method. Results of a liquid culture model showed that B. subtilis was also widely effective in inhibiting three strains of V. harveyi (isolated from Thailand, the Philippines and LMG 4044), and that both B. licheniformis and B. megaterium inhibit the growth of V. harveyi isolated from the Philippines. Moreover, a haemolytic activity assay demonstrated that V. harveyi (IFO 15634) was significantly decreased by the addition of B. licheniformis or B. megaterium supernatant. Bacillus subtilis inhibited Vibrio growth, and both B. licheniformis and B. megaterium suppressed haemolytic activity in Vibrio. The cell-free supernatants produced by Bacillus probionts inhibit Vibrio disease, and Bacillus probionts might have an influence on Vibrio cell-to-cell communications.

  4. APPLICATIONS OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER AND Bacillus sp. BIOPESTICIDE FOR INCREASING TOMATO RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL WILT DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Prihatiningsih

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt on tomato caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a crucial disease, because it can reduce yield until 50%. The aims of this research were: 1 to find out biopesticide formula for Bacillus sp.growth, 2 to test Bacillus sp. against R. solanacearum in vitro, 3 to test potassium fertilizer combined with Bacillus sp. for enhancing tomato resistance to the bacterial wilt disease. The research was conducted in 2 steps i.e to test the persistence of Bacillus sp. in biopesticide formula, and to test the best combination of both potassium and the Bacillus sp. biopesticide. The results showed that Bacillus B298 was the best isolate in its persistence on the biopesticide formula of organic growth medium+CaCO3+CMC 1%+mannitol 1%, and in inhibiting R. solanacearum. The best biopesticide formula for the Bacillus sp. persistence was growth organic media+ CaCO3+CMC 1%+mannitol 1%. Bacillus sp. was able to increase tomato resistance to the bacterial wilt disease from the category of susceptible to be tolerant and becoming resistant.

  5. Effect of Bacillus subtilis natto on growth performance in Muscovy ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sheng-Qiu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary Bacillus subtilis natto could affect growth performance of Muscovy ducks. A total of 120 hundred Muscovy ducks at the age of 1 day were randomly assigned to four groups (30 Muscovy ducks/group, and fed with diets supplemented with 0% (control group, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto, respectively during the 6-week feeding period. Weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency of Muscovy ducks were significantly improved by the dietary addition of Bacillus subtilis natto, and the results were more significant in 0.4% dietary Bacillus subtilis natto treatment group; Also, Bacillus subtilis natto reduced Escherichia coli and Salmonella colonies, and increased lactobacilli population in the ileum and the cecum. Biochemical parameters, including total protein, GOT (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, GPT (glutamic pyruvic transaminase, AKP (alkaline phosphatase, triiodothyronine (T3 and tetraiodothyronine (T4 contents (pBacillus subtilis natto was added to the diets (p0.05. The results of the present study indicate that diets with 0.4% Bacillus subtilis natto improved the growth performance of Muscovy ducks by increasing the absorption of protein, simulating hormone secretion, suppressing harmful microflora, and improving the duodenal structure and immune functions of Muscovy ducks. It is suggested that Bacillus subtilis natto is a potential candidate to be used use as a probiotic to improve the growth performance of Muscovy ducks.

  6. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect ofBacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of Bacillus subtilis, isolated ...

  7. Influence of Bacillus polymyxa on the growth and development of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Saniewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic effect of Bacillus polymyxa, strain S13, toward Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tulipae was evaluated iii vitro and in vivo. The growth of the pathogen was greatly inhibited in dual cultures with Bacillus polymyxa on potato dextrose agar. Suspension of B. polymyxa and its filtrate substantially inhibited spore germination and development of Fusarium oxysporuum f. sp. tulipae on tulip bulbs.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1209 - Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1209 Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713 when used in or on all food commodities. [65...

  10. Study of the radiation effect of "9"9Mo/"9"9"mTc generator on Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Endo, Erica M.M.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Osso Junior, João A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, molybdenum-99 loaded columns were challenged with Bacillus subtilis vegetative cells and Bacillus pumilus spores inside and outside the alumina column, and microbial recovery and radiation effect were assessed. Alumina was a barrier for the passage of microorganisms regardless the species, whilst spores were more retained than vegetative cells with a lower microbial recovery, without significant differences between 9.25 and 74 GBq generators. Bacillus pumilus biological indicator showed lower recoveries, suggesting a radiation inactivating effect on microorganisms. - Highlights: • Microorganisms in radionuclide generator may impair the quality of the product. • Killing of Bacillus pumilus was not complete even after 20 days of exposition. • Alumina column was a physical barrier for the microbial recovery. • An alternative biological indicator based on B. pumilus spores is proposed.

  11. Antifungal potential of Bacillus vallismortis R2 against different phytopathogenic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, P.K.; Kaur, J.; Saini, H.S.

    2015-07-01

    The cash crops grown in an agro-climatic region are prone to infection by various fungal pathogens. The use of chemical fungicides over the years has resulted in emergence of resistant fungal strains, thereby necessitating the development of effective and environmental friendly alternatives. The natural antagonistic interactions among different microbial populations have been exploited as an eco-friendly approach for controlling fungal pathogens resistant to synthetic chemicals. Morphologically distinct bacterial cultures (150), isolated from rhizospheric soils of wheat, rice, onion and tomato plants were screened for their antifungal potential against seven phytopathogenic fungi prevalent in the State of Punjab (India). The bacterial isolate R2, identified as Bacillus vallismortis, supported more than 50% inhibition of different phytopathogenic fungi (Alternaria alternata, Rhizoctonia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium moniliforme, Colletotrichum sp, Helminthosporium sp and Magnaporthe grisea) in dual culture plate assay. The thin layer chromatography based bio-autography of acid-precipitated biomolecules (APB) indicated the presence of more than one type of antifungal molecule, as evidenced from zones of inhibition against the respective fungal pathogen. The initial analytical studies indicated the presence of surfactin, iturin A and fengycin-like compounds in APB. The antifungal activity of whole cells and APB of isolate R2 was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy. The wheat grains treated with APB and exposed to spores of A. alternata showed resistance to the development of black point disease, thereby indicating the potential application of R2 and its biomolecules at field scale level. (Author)

  12. Modeling the Ecological Niche of Bacillus anthracis to Map Anthrax Risk in Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Matakarimov, Saitbek; Kozhokeeva, Sabira; Tagaeva, Zhyldyz; Bell, Lindsay K; Kracalik, Ian T; Zhunushov, Asankadyr

    2017-03-01

    AbstractAnthrax, caused by the environmental bacterium Bacillus anthracis , is an important zoonosis nearly worldwide. In Central Asia, anthrax represents a major veterinary and public health concern. In the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, ongoing anthrax outbreaks have been reported in humans associated with handling infected livestock and contaminated animal by-products such as meat or hides. The current anthrax situation has prompted calls for improved insights into the epidemiology, ecology, and spatial distribution of the disease in Kyrgyzstan to better inform control and surveillance. Disease control for both humans and livestock relies on annual livestock vaccination ahead of outbreaks. Toward this, we used a historic database of livestock anthrax reported from 1932 to 2006 mapped at high resolution to develop an ecological niche model-based prediction of B. anthracis across Kyrgyzstan and identified spatial clusters of livestock anthrax using a cluster morphology statistic. We also defined the seasonality of outbreaks in livestock. Cattle were the most frequently reported across the time period, with the greatest number of cases in late summer months. Our niche models defined four areas as suitable to support pathogen persistence, the plateaus near Talas and Bishkek, the valleys of western Kyrgyzstan along the Fergana Valley, and the low-lying areas along the shore of Lake Isyk-Kul. These areas should be considered "at risk" for livestock anthrax and subsequent human cases. Areas defined by the niche models can be used to prioritize anthrax surveillance and inform efforts to target livestock vaccination campaigns.

  13. Occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a systemic endophyte of vanilla orchids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James F; Torres, Mónica S; Sullivan, Raymond F; Jabbour, Rabih E; Chen, Qiang; Tadych, Mariusz; Irizarry, Ivelisse; Bergen, Marshall S; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Belanger, Faith C

    2014-11-01

    We report the occurrence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vanilla orchids (Vanilla phaeantha) and cultivated hybrid vanilla (V. planifolia × V. pompona) as a systemic bacterial endophyte. We determined with light microscopy and isolations that tissues of V. phaeantha and the cultivated hybrid were infected by a bacterial endophyte and that shoot meristems and stomatal areas of stems and leaves were densely colonized. We identified the endophyte as B. amyloliquefaciens using DNA sequence data. Since additional endophyte-free plants and seed of this orchid were not available, additional studies were performed on surrogate hosts Amaranthus caudatus, Ipomoea tricolor, and I. purpurea. Plants of A. caudatus inoculated with B. amyloliquefaciens demonstrated intracellular colonization of guard cells and other epidermal cells, confirming the pattern observed in the orchids. Isolations and histological studies suggest that the bacterium may penetrate deeply into developing plant tissues in shoot meristems, forming endospores in maturing tissues. B. amyloliquefaciens produced fungal inhibitors in culture. In controlled experiments using morning glory seedlings we showed that the bacterium promoted seedling growth and reduced seedling necrosis due to pathogens. We detected the gene for phosphopantetheinyl transferase (sfp), an enzyme in the pathway for production of antifungal lipopeptides, and purified the lipopeptide "surfactin" from cultures of the bacterium. We hypothesize that B. amyloliquefaciens is a robust endophyte and defensive mutualist of vanilla orchids. Whether the symbiosis between this bacterium and its hosts can be managed to protect vanilla crops from diseases is a question that should be evaluated in future research. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Concerted action of sphingomyelinase and non-hemolytic enterotoxin in pathogenic Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria M Doll

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus causes food poisoning and serious non-gastrointestinal-tract infections. Non-hemolytic enterotoxin (Nhe, which is present in most B. cereus strains, is considered to be one of the main virulence factors. However, a B. cereus ΔnheBC mutant strain lacking Nhe is still cytotoxic to intestinal epithelial cells. In a screen for additional cytotoxic factors using an in vitro model for polarized colon epithelial cells we identified B. cereus sphingomyelinase (SMase as a strong inducer of epithelial cell death. Using single and double deletion mutants of sph, the gene encoding for SMase, and nheBC in B. cereus we demonstrated that SMase is an important factor for B. cereus cytotoxicity in vitro and pathogenicity in vivo. SMase substantially complemented Nhe induced cytotoxicity in vitro. In addition, SMase but not Nhe contributed significantly to the mortality rate of larvae in vivo in the insect model Galleria mellonella. Our study suggests that the role of B. cereus SMase as a secreted virulence factor for in vivo pathogenesis has been underestimated and that Nhe and SMase complement each other significantly to cause full B. cereus virulence hence disease formation.

  15. Bacillus anthracis Co-Opts Nitric Oxide and Host Serum Albumin for Pathogenicity in Hypoxic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eSt John

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus anthracis is a dangerous pathogen of humans and many animal species. Its virulence has been mainly attributed to the production of Lethal and Edema toxins as well as the antiphagocytic capsule. Recent data indicate that the nitric oxide (NO synthase (baNOS plays an important pathogenic role at the early stage of disease by protecting bacteria from the host reactive species and S-nytrosylating the mitochondrial proteins in macrophages. In this study we for the first time present evidence that bacteria-derived NO participates in the generation of highly reactive oxidizing species which could be abolished by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME, free thiols, and superoxide dismutase but not catalase. The formation of toxicants is likely a result of the simultaneous formation of NO and superoxide leading to a labile peroxynitrite and its stable decomposition product, nitrogen dioxide. The toxicity of bacteria could be potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin. This effect is consistent with the property of serum albumin to serves as a trap of a volatile NO accelerating its reactions. Our data suggest that during infection in the hypoxic environment of pre-mortal host the accumulated NO is expected to have a broad toxic impact on host cell functions.

  16. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores during Laboratory-Scale Composting of Feedlot Cattle Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanwei; Harvey, Amanda; Barbieri, Ruth; Reuter, Tim; Stanford, Kim; Amoako, Kingsley K.; Selinger, Leonard B.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax outbreaks in livestock have social, economic and health implications, altering farmer’s livelihoods, impacting trade and posing a zoonotic risk. Our study investigated the survival of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. anthracis spores sporulated at 15, 20, or 37°C, over 33 days of composting. Spores (∼7.5 log10 CFU g-1) were mixed with manure and composted in laboratory scale composters. After 15 days, the compost was mixed and returned to the composter for a second cycle. Temperatures peaked at 71°C on day 2 and remained ≥55°C for an average of 7 days in the first cycle, but did not exceed 55°C in the second. For B. thuringiensis, spores generated at 15 and 21°C exhibited reduced (P composting for spores generated at 15, 21, and 37°C, respectively. For both species, spore viability declined more rapidly (P composting cycle. Our findings suggest that the duration of thermophilic exposure (≥55°C) is the main factor influencing survival of B. anthracis spores in compost. As sporulation temperature did not influence survival of B. anthracis, composting may lower the viability of spores associated with carcasses infected with B. anthracis over a range of sporulation temperatures. PMID:27303388

  17. Animal models for the study of Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Miszczyk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacillus Helicobacter pylori is widely recognized as a major etiologic agent responsible for chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcers, the development of gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma. Still, little is known about the natural history of H. pylori infection, since patients usually after many years of not suffering from symptoms of the infection are simply asymptomatic. Since the research investigators carried out on human models has many limitations, there is an urgent need for the development of an animal model optimal and suitable for the monitoring of H. pylori infections. This review summarizes the recent findings on the suitability of animal models used in H. pylori research. Several animal models are useful for the assessment of pathological, microbiological and immunological consequences of infection, which makes it possible to monitor the natural

  18. Architecture and assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of "nanodot" particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  19. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of “nanodot” particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  20. Zinc solubilizing Bacillus spp. potential candidates for biofortification in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Muhammad Zahid; Ahmad, Maqshoof; Jamil, Moazzam; Hussain, Tanveer

    2017-09-01

    Bioaugmentation of Zn solubilizing rhizobacteria could be a sustainable intervention to increase bioavailability of Zn in soil which can be helpful in mitigation of yield loss and malnutrition of zinc. In present study, a number of pure rhizobacterial colonies were isolated from maize rhizosphere and screened for their ability to solubilize zinc oxide. These isolates were screened on the basis of zinc and phosphate solubilization, IAA production, protease production, catalase activity and starch hydrolysis. All the selected isolates were also positive for oxidase activity (except ZM22), HCN production (except ZM27) and utilization of citrate. More than 70% of isolates produces ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, siderophores, exopolysaccharides and cellulase. More than half of isolates also showed potential for urease activity and production of lipase. The ZM31 and S10 were the only isolates which showed the chitinase activity. All these isolates were evaluated in a jar trial for their ability to promote growth of maize under axenic conditions. Results revealed that inoculation of selected zinc solubilizing rhizobacterial isolates improved the growth of maize. In comparison, isolates ZM20, ZM31, ZM63 and S10 were best compared to other tested isolates in stimulating the growth attributes of maize like shoot length, root length, plant fresh and dry biomass. These strains were identified as Bacillus sp. (ZM20), Bacillus aryabhattai (ZM31 and S10) and Bacillus subtilis (ZM63) through 16S rRNA sequencing. This study indicated that inoculation of Zn solubilizing strains have potential to promote growth and can be the potential bio-inoculants for biofortification of maize to overcome the problems of malnutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Bacillus cereus AR156 primes induced systemic resistance by suppressing miR825/825* and activating defense-related genes in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Dongdong; Xia, Jing; Jiang, Chunhao; Qi, Beibei; Ling, Xiaoyu; Lin, Siyuan; Zhang, Weixiong; Guo, Jianhua; Jin, Hailing; Zhao, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    Small RNAs play an important role in plant immune responses. However, their regulatory function in induced systemic resistance (ISR) is nascent. Bacillus cereus AR156 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that induces ISR in Arabidopsis against bacterial infection. Here, by comparing small RNA profiles of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000-infected Arabidopsis with and without AR156 pretreatment, we identified a group of Arabidopsis microRNAs (miRNAs) that are differentially regulated by AR156 pretreatment. miR825 and miR825* are two miRNA generated from a single miRNA gene. Northern blot analysis indicated that they were significantly downregulated in Pst DC3000-infected plants pretreated with AR156, in contrast to the plants without AR156 pretreatment. miR825 targets two ubiquitin-protein ligases, while miR825* targets toll-interleukin-like receptor (TIR)-nucleotide binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) type resistance (R) genes. The expression of these target genes negatively correlated with the expression of miR825 and miR825*. Moreover, transgenic plants showing reduced expression of miR825 and miR825* displayed enhanced resistance to Pst DC3000 infection, whereas transgenic plants overexpressing miR825 and miR825* were more susceptible. Taken together, our data indicates that Bacillus cereus AR156 pretreatment primes ISR to Pst infection by suppressing miR825 and miR825* and activating the defense related genes they targeted. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  2. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsholz, Alexander K W; Birk, Marlene S; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis . We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics.

  3. Ultra-violet-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D R; Karunakaran, V [Polytechnic of Central London (UK). Faculty of Engineering and Science, School of Biological and Health Sciences; Burges, H D [Institute of Horticultural Research, Littlehampton (UK); Hacking, A J [Reading Univ. (UK). Dextra Labs.Ltd.

    1991-06-01

    One of the main disadvantages of using Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide is that the spore and crystal preparations applied to foliage are readily washed away by rain and are inactivated by sunlight. Spores from some strains of B. thuringiensis have been shown to be highly sensitive to u.v. light. This study has demonstrated how mutants with increased resistance to u.v., isolated by successive rounds of u.v. irradiation, and additionally with increased specific pathogenicity can be isolated. These techniques should be applied to strains that are frequently used in the industrial production of B.thuringiensis toxin. (author).

  4. Ultra-violet-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.R.; Karunakaran, V.; Hacking, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the main disadvantages of using Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide is that the spore and crystal preparations applied to foliage are readily washed away by rain and are inactivated by sunlight. Spores from some strains of B. thuringiensis have been shown to be highly sensitive to u.v. light. This study has demonstrated how mutants with increased resistance to u.v., isolated by successive rounds of u.v. irradiation, and additionally with increased specific pathogenicity can be isolated. These techniques should be applied to strains that are frequently used in the industrial production of B.thuringiensis toxin. (author)

  5. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, and a number of studies have revealed that this process is regulated by several integrated pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms that control B. subtilis biofilm assembly, and then briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding biofilm disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of B. subtilis biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium.

  6. Synthesis of acid-soluble spore proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, J M; Chambliss, G H

    1982-01-01

    The major acid-soluble spore proteins (ASSPs) of Bacillus subtilis were detected by immunoprecipitation of radioactively labeled in vitro- and in vivo-synthesized proteins. ASSP synthesis in vivo began 2 h after the initiation of sporulation (t2) and reached its maximum rate at t7. This corresponded to the time of synthesis of mRNA that stimulated the maximum rate of ASSP synthesis in vitro. Under the set of conditions used in these experiments, protease synthesis began near t0, alkaline phos...

  7. Functional Diversity of AAA+ Protease Complexes in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsholz, Alexander K. W.; Birk, Marlene S.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Turgay, Kürşad

    2017-01-01

    Here, we review the diverse roles and functions of AAA+ protease complexes in protein homeostasis, control of stress response and cellular development pathways by regulatory and general proteolysis in the Gram-positive model organism Bacillus subtilis. We discuss in detail the intricate involvement of AAA+ protein complexes in controlling sporulation, the heat shock response and the role of adaptor proteins in these processes. The investigation of these protein complexes and their adaptor proteins has revealed their relevance for Gram-positive pathogens and their potential as targets for new antibiotics. PMID:28748186

  8. Sigma A recognition sites in the Bacillus subtilis genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2001-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists...... at the initiation site of transcription in both types of promoters than previously thought. When tested on the entire B. subtilis genome, the model predicts that approximately half of the sigma (A) recognition sites are of the extended type. Some of the response-regulator aspartate phosphatases were among...

  9. Higher antibiotic yielding mutants of bacillus subtilis by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.S.; Shaukat, G.A.; Malik, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    When Bacillus Subtilis AECL69 was grown in malt extract-pepetone-molasses-sugar (MPMS) medium, it could produce antibiotic substance(s) with antibacterial and antifungal properties in the culture fluid. The bacterial cells grown in MPMS medium were washed and suspended into distilled water and irradiated with gamma rays in Gammacell 220 at different doses. Higher antibiotic yielding isolates (plus mutants) were obtained from cell pollutions irradiated at 15 Kr. These gamma rays-induced plus mutants showed simultaneous higher production of antibacterial as well as antifungal activity. (author)

  10. Hyper production of alkaline protease by mutagenized bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, A.M.; Tanseem, F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to augment the alkaline protease production from Bacillus subtilis by using chemical mutagen (MMS) and UV mutagenesis. A number of mutants were isolated which produce high levels of extra cellular proteases. Analysis of culture supernatants of these mutants had shown that the total amounts of proteolysis activity were increased from 1 to 2 fold over the wild strain. Clones showing promote response were further characterized by analyzing different parameters; like of Temperature, pH substrate concentration and incubation period, to study the activity of protease enzyme. (author)

  11. Sticking together: building a biofilm the Bacillus subtilis way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamakis, Hera; Chai, Yunrong; Beauregard, Pascale; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Preface Biofilms are ubiquitous communities of tightly associated bacteria encased in an extracellular matrix. Bacillus subtilis has long-served as a robust model organism to examine the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and a number of studies have revealed that this process is subject to a number of integrated regulatory pathways. In this Review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms controlling biofilm assembly and briefly summarize the current state of knowledge regarding their disassembly. We also discuss recent progress that has expanded our understanding of biofilm formation on plant roots, which are a natural habitat for this soil bacterium. PMID:23353768

  12. Evolution of exploitative interactions during diversification in Bacillus subtilis biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragoš, Anna; Lakshmanan, Nivedha; Martin, Marivic

    2018-01-01

    variants. These variants can settle in alternative biofilm niches and develop new types of interactions that greatly influence population productivity. Here, we explore the evolutionary diversification of pellicle biofilms of the Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis. We discover that......-similarly to other species-B. subtilis diversifies into distinct colony variants. These variants dramatically differ in biofilm formation abilities and expression of biofilm-related genes. In addition, using a quantitative approach, we reveal striking differences in surface complexity and hydrophobicity...

  13. Bacterial determinants of the social behavior of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Diego

    2013-09-01

    Bacteria utilize sophisticated cellular machinery to sense environmental changes and coordinate the most appropriate response. Fine sensors located on cell surfaces recognize a myriad of triggers and initiate genetic cascades leading to activation or repression of certain groups of genes. Structural elements such as pilli, exopolysaccharides and flagella are also exposed at the cell surface and contribute to modulating the intimate interaction with surfaces and host cells. This review will cover the latest advances in our understanding of the biology and functionality of these bacterial determinants within the context of biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. TRANSGENIC PLANTS EXPRESSING BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS DELTA-ENDOTOXINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-rong,Li; BrendaOppert; KunYanZhu; RandallA.Higgins; Fang-nengHuang; LawrentL.Buschman

    2003-01-01

    Commercial varieties of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) plants have been developed in many countries to control target pests. Initially, the expression of native Bt genes in plants was low due to mRNA instability, improper splicing, and post-translation modifications. Subsequently, modifications of the native Bt genes greatly enhanced expression levels. This is a review of the developments that made modem high-expression transgenic Bt plants possible, with an emphasis on the reasons for the low-level expression of native Bt genes in plant systems, and the techniques that have been used to improve plant expression of Bt toxin genes.

  15. [Potential of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Berliner for controlling Aedes aegypti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Ricardo Antonio; Garcia, Marcelo de Oliveira; Alves, Sérgio Batista

    2003-12-01

    The importance of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the control of Aedes aegypti is presented. The use and potential of B. thuringiensis israelensis against the mosquito vector of dengue fever is described. Other aspects such as insect's resistance development against chemicals and advantages and constraints of using microbial control are discussed. Emphasis is given to the importance of the use of this bacterium in Brazil, which could contribute significantly to solving the mosquito problem without affecting the environment, humans and others invertebrate organisms in critical regions.

  16. Bacillus spp. Isolated from Puba as a Source of Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Lipopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Karla J.; Viana, Jaime dos Santos; Lopes, Fernanda C.; Pereira, Jamile Q.; dos Santos, Daniel M.; Oliveira, Jamil S.; Velho, Renata V.; Crispim, Silvia M.; Nicoli, Jacques R.; Brandelli, Adriano; Nardi, Regina M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Several products of industrial interest are produced by Bacillus, including enzymes, antibiotics, amino acids, insecticides, biosurfactants and bacteriocins. This study aimed to investigate the potential of two bacterial isolates (P5 and C3) from puba, a regional fermentation product from cassava, to produce multiple substances with antimicrobial and surface active properties. Phylogenetic analyses showed close relation of isolates P5 and C3 with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. Notably, Bacillus sp. P5 showed antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in addition to antifungal activity. The presence of genes encoding pre-subtilosin (sboA), malonyl CoA transacylase (ituD), and the putative transcriptional terminator of surfactin (sfp) were detected in Bacillus sp. P5, suggesting the production of the bacteriocin subtilosin A and the lipopeptides iturin A and surfactin by this strain. For Bacillus sp. C3 the presence of sboA and spas (subtilin) genes was observed by the first time in members of B. cereus cluster. Bacillus sp. P5 showed emulsifying capability on mineral oil, soybean biodiesel and toluene, while Bacillus sp. C3 showed emulsifying capability only on mineral oil. The reduction of the surface tension in culture medium was also observed for strain P5, confirming the production of surface-active compounds by this bacterium. Monoprotonated molecular species and adducts of sodium and potassium ions of surfactin, iturin, and fengycin were detected in the P5 culture medium. Comparative MS/MS spectra of the peak m/z 1030 (C14 surfactin A or C15 surfactin B [M+Na]+) and peak m/z 1079 (C15 iturin [M+Na]+) showed the same fragmentation profile of standards, confirming the molecular identification. In conclusion, Bacillus sp. P5 showed the best potential for the production of antifungal, antibacterial, and biosurfactant substances. PMID:28197131

  17. Glucose 6P binds and activates HlyIIR to repress Bacillus cereus haemolysin hlyII gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Guillemet

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium causing food poisoning and serious opportunistic infections. These infections are characterized by bacterial accumulation despite the recruitment of phagocytic cells. We have previously shown that B. cereus Haemolysin II (HlyII induces macrophage cell death by apoptosis. In this work, we investigated the regulation of the hlyII gene. We show that HlyIIR, the negative regulator of hlyII expression in B. cereus, is especially active during the early bacterial growth phase. We demonstrate that glucose 6P directly binds to HlyIIR and enhances its activity at a post-transcriptional level. Glucose 6P activates HlyIIR, increasing its capacity to bind to its DNA-box located upstream of the hlyII gene, inhibiting its expression. Thus, hlyII expression is modulated by the availability of glucose. As HlyII induces haemocyte and macrophage death, two cell types that play a role in the sequestration of nutrients upon infection, HlyII may induce host cell death to allow the bacteria to gain access to carbon sources that are essential components for bacterial growth.

  18. Genetic diversity of clinical isolates of Bacillus cereus using multilocus sequence typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruckler James M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is most commonly associated with foodborne illness (diarrheal and emetic but is also an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe and fatal infections. Several multilocus sequence typing (MLST schemes have recently been developed to genotype B. cereus and analysis has suggested a clonal or weakly clonal population structure for B. cereus and its close relatives B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis. In this study we used MLST to determine if B. cereus isolates associated with illnesses of varying severity (e.g., severe, systemic vs. gastrointestinal (GI illness were clonal or formed clonal complexes. Results A retrospective analysis of 55 clinical B. cereus isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention between 1954 and 2004 was conducted. Clinical isolates from severe infections (n = 27, gastrointestinal (GI illness (n = 18, and associated isolates from food (n = 10 were selected for analysis using MLST. The 55 isolates were diverse and comprised 38 sequence types (ST in two distinct clades. Of the 27 isolates associated with serious illness, 13 clustered in clade 1 while 14 were in clade 2. Isolates associated with GI illness were also found throughout clades 1 and 2, while no isolates in this study belonged to clade 3. All the isolates from this study belonging to the clade 1/cereus III lineage were associated with severe disease while isolates belonging to clade1/cereus II contained isolates primarily associated with severe disease and emetic illness. Only three STs were observed more than once for epidemiologically distinct isolates. Conclusion STs of clinical B. cereus isolates were phylogenetically diverse and distributed among two of three previously described clades. Greater numbers of strains will need to be analyzed to confirm if specific lineages or clonal complexes are more likely to contain clinical isolates or be associated with specific illness, similar to B. anthracis and

  19. Purification and DNA-binding properties of RNA polymerase from Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomoni, P U

    1980-05-01

    Four RNA-polymerizing activities having different subunit composition can be purified from uninfected and from SPO1-infected Bacillus subtilis. Lysozyme and sodium deoxycholate are used for lysing the cells. Polymin P is used for precipitating nucleic acids and DEAE-cellulose chromatography allows separation of enzymatic activity from the residual Polymin P. After these common steps, one can purify core + sigma + delta by chromatography on single-stranded DNA-agarose followed by gel filtration while pure core + sigma can be obtained by chromatography on double-stranded DNA cellulose. Core + delta is obtained by high-salt sucrose/glycerol gradient centrifugation. The host enzyme modified by the product of gene 28 of phage SPO1 can be purified from SPO1 infected cells by chromatography on DNA cellulose (or CNA agarose) followed by chromatography on phosphocellulose. The pH and salt dependance of the initial rate of RNA synthesis of core + sigma has been investigated using SPO1 and SPP1 DNA as templates. The optimum pH for the initial rate of transcription is 8.2 at 30 degrees C in 50 mM N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)glycine buffer, and the optimum Na+ concentration is between 0.1 and 0.15 M. The kinetics of formation and of dissociation of non-filterable complexes between SPP1 DNA and core + sigma have been analyzed at different cationic concentrations. The value of the rate constant of dissociation in 0.1 M NaCl at 30 degrees C is kd = 2.16 x 10(-4) S-1. The value of the rate constant of association, under the same conditions, is ka = 5.5 x 10(8) M-1 S-1; this value is compatible with a diffusion-controlled reaction for promoter selection.

  20. The identification of a tetracycline resistance gene tet(M), on a Tn916-like transposon, in the Bacillus cereus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Jensen, Lars Bogø; Givskov, Michael Christian

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate whether resistance genes present in bacteria in manure could transfer to indigenous soil bacteria, resistant isolates belonging to the Bacillus cereus group (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis) were isolated from farm soil (72 isolates) and manure...

  1. Bacillus cereus as indicator in the sterilization of residual water with high energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Z, E.

    2000-01-01

    One of the main causes of water pollution is the presence of microorganisms that provoke infections, moreover of chemical substances. The processes of residual water treatment finally require of the disinfection for its use or final disposition. The radiation technology for the residual water treatment by mean of electron beams is an innovator process because as well as decomposing the chemical substance or to degrade them, also it provokes a disinfection by which this is proposed as alternative for disinfection of residual water, with the purpose in reusing the water treated in the agriculture, recreation and industry among others secondary activities, solving environmental or health problems. The objective of this work is to evaluate the use of Bacillus cereus as biological indicator in the disinfection by radiation, using High Energy Electrons. To fulfil with this objective, the work was developed in three stages, the first one consisted in the acquisition, propagation and conservation of the Bacillus cereus stumps, considering Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium as pathogenic germs present in residual water. Moreover, the inocule standardization and the conditions of the Electron accelerator Type Pelletron. In the second stage it was performed the irradiation of aqueous samples of the microorganisms simulating biological pollution and the application to problem samples of a treatment plant sited in the Lerma River zone of mixed residual water. And in the third stage was performed a regression analysis to the reported survival for each kind of microorganisms. The results obtained show that with the use of Electron beams was reduced 6 logarithmic units de E. coli at 129 Gy, for S. typhimurium it was reduced 8 logarithmic units at 383 Gy and the B. cereus at 511 Gy was reduced 6.8 logarithmic units. Of the problem samples irradiated at 500 Gy, the concentration of the total account diminished from 8.70 x 10 7 UFC/ml to 550 UFC/ml, the presence of B. Cereus

  2. The immunological characteristics and probiotic function of recombinant Bacillus subtilis spore expressing Clonorchis sinensis cysteine protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zeli; Shang, Mei; Chen, Tingjin; Ren, Pengli; Sun, Hengchang; Qu, Hongling; Lin, Zhipeng; Zhou, Lina; Yu, Jinyun; Jiang, Hongye; Zhou, Xinyi; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-12-19

    Clonorchiasis, a food-borne zoonosis, is caused by Clonorchis sinensis. The intestinal tract and bile ducts are crucial places for C. sinensis metacercariae to develop into adult worms. The endospore of Bacillus subtilis is an ideal oral immunization vehicle for delivery of heterologous antigens to intestine. Cysteine protease of C. sinensis (CsCP) is an endogenous key component in the excystment of metacercariae and other physiological or pathological processes. We constructed a fusion gene of CotC (a coat protein)-CsCP and obtained B. subtilis spores with recombinant plasmid of pEB03-CotC-CsCP (B.s-CotC-CsCP). CotC-CsCP expressed on spores' surface was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Immunological characteristics of recombinant spore coat protein were evaluated in a mouse model. The levels of CsCP-specific antibodies were detected by ELISA. Effects of recombinant spores on mouse intestine were evaluated by histological staining. The activities of biochemical enzymes in serum were assayed by microplate. Liver sections of infected mice were evaluated by Ishak score after Masson's trichrome. The B.s-CotC-CsCP spores displayed CsCP on their coat. Specific IgG and isotypes were significantly induced by coat proteins of B.s-CotC-CsCP spores after subcutaneous immunization. IgA levels in intestinal mucus and bile of B.s-CotC-CsCP orally treated mice significantly increased. Additionally, more IgA-secreting cells were observed in enteraden and lamina propria regions of the mouse jejunum, and an increased amount of acidic mucins in intestines were also observed. There were no significant differences in enzyme levels of serum among groups. No inflammatory injury was observed in the intestinal tissues of each group. The degree of liver fibrosis was significantly reduced after oral immunization with B.s-CotC-CsCP spores. Bacillus subtilis spores maintained the original excellent immunogenicity of CsCP expressed on their surface. Both local and systemic

  3. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the control of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production on pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahmoshteh, Fatemeh; Siciliano, Ilenia; Banani, Houda; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Spadaro, Davide

    2017-08-02

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera) is an important nut for its economic, nutritional and health aspects but it can be contaminated by aflatoxigenic fungi in the field and during storage. Biological control could be considered as an alternative to chemical treatment. In this study, we evaluated the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic capability of two Bacillus spp. both in vitro and on pistachio kernels. In in vitro conditions, both strains were able to reduce the mycelial growth and they were able to degrade the four aflatoxins during the first three days after inoculation. AFG 1 and AFG 2 were rapidly degraded within two days of incubation with the bacterial strains. No aflatoxin was found in the bacterial cell walls, permitting exclusion of mycotoxin adsorption and hypothesis of an in vitro biodegradation as a mode of action. The cultivar of pistachio most susceptible to fungal colonization was 'Ahmad-Aghaei', selected among four main Iranian cultivars. A. parasiticus was able to grow and produce aflatoxins on pistachios, but at longer inoculation periods, a natural decrease of aflatoxins was registered. Both strains were able to reduce the fungal incidence and number of spores on pistachio with a stronger effect during the first 5dpi. The effect on aflatoxin content in vivo was less pronounced than in vitro, with a maximum effect at 8dpi. At longer times, there was a contrasting effect due to the lower activity of Bacillus spp. in stationary phase and higher growth of Aspergillus species. This consideration could explain the lack of aflatoxin reduction at 12dpi. Both bacterial strains showed good antifungal activity and aflatoxin reduction in in vitro conditions and on pistachio kernels. Altogether, these results indicate that Bacillus species could be considered as potential biocontrol agents to combat toxigenic fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin contamination of nuts and agricultural crops in practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Rotavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Sue E.; Ramani, Sasirekha; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Svensson, Lennart; Hagbom, Marie; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.; O’Ryan, Miguel; Kang, Gagandeep; Desselberger, Ulrich; Estes, Mary K.

    2017-01-01

    Rotavirus infections are a leading cause of severe, dehydrating gastroenteritis in children rotavirus over a decade ago, rotavirus infections still result in >200,000 deaths annually, mostly in low-income countries. Rotavirus primarily infects enterocytes and induces diarrhoea through the destruction of absorptive enterocytes (leading to malabsorption), intestinal secretion stimulated by rotavirus non-structural protein 4 and activation of the enteric nervous system. In addition, rotavirus infections can lead to antigenaemia (which is associated with more severe manifestations of acute gastroenteritis) and viraemia, and rotavirus can replicate in systemic sites, although this is limited. Reinfections with rotavirus are common throughout life, although the disease severity is reduced with repeat infections. The immune correlates of protection against rotavirus reinfection and recovery from infection are poorly understood, although rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin A has a role in both aspects. The management of rotavirus infection focuses on the prevention and treatment of dehydration, although the use of antiviral and anti-emetic drugs can be indicated in some cases. PMID:29119972

  5. Expression of the sigma35 and cry2AB genes involved in Bacillus thuringiensis virulence Expressão dos genes sigma35 e cry2AB envolvidos na virulência de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Guidelli-Thuler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several genes involved in Bacillus thuringiensis sporulation. The regulation and expression of these genes results in an upregulation in Cry protein production, and this is responsible for the death of insect larvae infected by Bacillus thuringiensis. Gene expression was monitored in Bacillus thuringiensis during three developmental phases. DNA macroarrays were constructed for selected genes whose sequences are available in the GenBank database. These genes were hybridized to cDNA sequences from B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1. cDNA probes were synthesized by reverse transcription from B. thuringiensis RNA templates extracted during the exponential (log growth, stationary and sporulation phases, and labeled with 33PadCTP. Two genes were differentially expressed levels during the different developmental phases. One of these genes is related to sigma factor (sigma35, and the other is a cry gene (cry2Ab. There were differences between the differential levels of expression of various genes and among the expression detected for different combinations of the sigma factor and cry2Ab genes. The maximum difference in expression was observed for the gene encoding sigma35 factor in the log phase, which was also expressed at a high level during the sporulation phase. The cry2Ab gene was only expressed at a high level in the log phase, but at very low levels in the other phases when compared to the sigma35.Muitos genes estão envolvidos nos mecanismos de esporulação da bactéria Bacillus thuringiensis. A regulação e expressão desses genes resultam em uma produção massiva da proteína Cry, responsável pela morte das larvas de muitos insetos. Neste trabalho monitorou-se a expressão de genes de Bacillus thuringiensis, ao longo de três fases de seu desenvolvimento. Foram construídos macroarrays de DNA dos genes selecionados, cujas seqüências estão disponibilizadas no GenBank. Estes genes foram hibridizados com cDNAs obtidos de B

  6. ASAI ISOLAT BAKTERI KITINOLITIK BACILLUS SP. BK17 PADA MEDIA PEMBAWA TANAH GAMBUT DAN KOMPOS JANJANG KELAPA SAWIT DALAM MENGHAMBAT PERTUMBUHAN JAMUR PATOGEN SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII DAN FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM PADA KECAMBAH CABAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswidya Hutauruk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Assay of chitinolytic bacterial isolate of Bacillus sp. Bk17 in peat and palm oil bunch compost as carrier media in inhibiting Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium oxysporum of chilli seedlings. Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium oxysporum have been known as causal agents of seedling-off of chilli. Biological control has been used as an alternative control to replace chemical control. This study was aimed to determine the viability and ability of chitinolityc bacteria Bacillus sp. BK17 in carrier media of peat and palm oil bunch compost and in growing media to control seedling-off caused by S. rolfsii dan F. oxysporum of chilli. Our previous study showed that Bacillus sp. BK17 could reduce disease severity and intensity. Bacterial viability was measured as colony number grown after 90 days of storage in minimum salt medium with colloidal chitin as sole C source. Reduction of disease infection was measured as seedling number infected by S. rolfsii dan F. oxysporum. Seedling performances were measured as seedling height, leaf number and dry-weight after 30-days of growth. The result showed that bacterial cell viability was still high in both peat and palm oil bunch compost both with and without colloidal chitin addition after 90 days of storage. It was also shown that during application bacterial cell could grow. Seedling performaces i.e. seedling height, leaf number and dry-weight showed to be normal or even increase compared to those of pathogenic fungal inoculation only and (- control.

  7. Tuberculosis Vaccines and Prevention of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Tracey A.; Scriba, Thomas J.; Hatherill, Mark; Hanekom, Willem A.; Evans, Thomas G.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Kublin, James G.; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Self, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide despite the availability of effective chemotherapy for over 60 years. Although Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination protects against active TB disease in some populations, its efficacy is suboptimal. Development of an effective TB vaccine is a top global priority that has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of protective immunity to TB. Thus far, preventing TB disease, rather than infection, has been the primary target for vaccine development. Several areas of research highlight the importance of including preinfection vaccines in the development pipeline. First, epidemiology and mathematical modeling studies indicate that a preinfection vaccine would have a high population-level impact for control of TB disease. Second, immunology studies support the rationale for targeting prevention of infection, with evidence that host responses may be more effective during acute infection than during chronic infection. Third, natural history studies indicate that resistance to TB infection occurs in a small percentage of the population. Fourth, case-control studies of BCG indicate that it may provide protection from infection. Fifth, prevention-of-infection trials would have smaller sample sizes and a shorter duration than disease prevention trials and would enable opportunities to search for correlates of immunity as well as serve as a criterion for selecting a vaccine product for testing in a larger TB disease prevention trial. Together, these points support expanding the focus of TB vaccine development efforts to include prevention of infection as a primary goal along with vaccines or other interventions that reduce the rate of transmission and reactivation. PMID:25428938

  8. Isolation and characterization of lipopeptide antibiotics produced by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Wang, L; Su, C X; Gong, G H; Wang, P; Yu, Z L

    2008-09-01

    Antibiotics from Bacillus subtilis JA show strong pathogen inhibition ability, which has potential market application; yet, the composition of these antibiotics has not been elucidated. The aim of this paper is to isolate and identify these antibiotics. The antagonistic activity of JA was tested in vitro; it exhibited strong inhibition against some important phytopathogens and postharvest pathogens. Crude antibiotic production was extracted with methanol from the precipitate by adding 6 mol l(-1) HCl to the bacillus-free culture broth. The crude extract was run on Diamonsil C18 column (5 microm, 250 x 4.6 mm) in HPLC system to separate the antibiotics. Major antibiotics were classified into three lipopeptide families according to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis. Subsequently, the classification of antibiotics was confirmed with typical collision-induced dissociation fragments. Three kinds of antibiotics were isolated from B. subtilis JA and were identified to the lipopeptide families, surfactin, iturin and fengycin. These compounds could function as biocontrol agents against a large spectrum of pathogens. This study provided a reliable and rapid method for isolation and structural characterization of lipopeptide antibiotics from B. subtilis.

  9. DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated spores of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.C.V.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown previously by others that at least two independent repair mechanisms are present in Bacillus subtilis for removing ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of ultraviolet (254 nm)-irradiated spores after germination. One of these, designated as ''spore repair,'' is shown in this study to restore ''spore photoproduct'' to two thymine residues, leaving the DNA backbone intact at the end of the process in vivo. The circumstances under which this repair can occur and some characteristics of its energy requirements have been clarified. The second repair process is identified as excision repair, which can excise both ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of irradiated spores and cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers from DNA of irradiated vegetative cells. In this study it is shown that the gene hcr 1 affects an enzyme activity for the incision step initiating this repair, while the gene hcr 42 affects a step subsequent to incision in the mechanism. In addition a third, independent repair system, termed ''germinative excision repair,'' is discovered and shown to be specific for excising only cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers but not ''spore photoproduct.'' This repair system is responsible for the observed high ultraviolet-resistance and temporary capacity for host cell reactivation on recently germinated spores of Bacillus subtilis HCR - strains

  10. Sterilization of Bacillus spores by converted X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ohki, Yumi; Watanabe, Yuhei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1991-01-01

    Relative sensitivities of endospores of Bacillus pumilus E601, B. subtilis IAM1069, B. megaterium S31 and B. brevis S5 to gamma-rays, converted X-rays (Bremsstrahlung), and electron beams were examined in order to estimate the conditions in which converted X-rays kill Bacillus spores. The radiation sensitivities to gamma-rays, X-rays and electron beams of each strain dried on glass fiber filter without additives were found to be almost equivalent, and D 10 values were obtained as follows: 1.5-1.6 kGy for B. pumilus, 1.4-1.5 kGy for B. subtilis, 1.9-2.0 kGy for B. megaterium, and 1.6-2.0 kGy for B. brevis. The radiation sensitivities of endospores of each strain to electron beams were slightly lower than those to gamma-rays in the dry condition with additives of 2% peptone + 1% glycerin on glass fiber filter. The increase of radiation resistance in the presence of additives was also observed with X-rays, and it was on an intermediate level between those with gamma-rays and electron beams. In the dry condition using cellulose filter paper, only the radiation resistances of B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives were increased. (author)

  11. Bacillus subtilis strain specificity affects performance improvement in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhayat, L; Jacquier, V; Brinch, K S; Nielsen, P; Nelson, A; Geraert, P-A; Devillard, E

    2017-07-01

    The study reports the effects on broiler performance of a newly isolated Bacillus subtilis strain, which is phylogenetically not closely related to already well-described strains of B. subtilis. In the first experiment, birds were reared in battery cages and exposed to C. perfringens. An increase in growth performance was observed with the strain when compared to the challenged animals. Three additional growth trials were conducted to 35 d of age, in different rearing conditions (genetic breeds, corn-soybean meal-based diet with or without animal proteins, in presence or absence of phytase, on fresh or used litter) to investigate the efficacy and the specificity of this new B. subtilis strain on the improvement of BWG and FCR of broilers in comparison with a B. subtilis-based DFM already used in the field. Whatever the rearing conditions tested, the new B. subtilis strain led to an average 3.2% improvement in feed conversion ratio or bodyweight. Comparatively, the commercial Bacillus strain significantly improved broiler performance in only one trial out of 3 with an average improvement reaching 2%. All these results indicate that this new B. subtilis strain consistently improves broiler performances. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Molecular mechanisms involved in Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielich-Süss, Benjamin; Lopez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Biofilms are the predominant lifestyle of bacteria in natural environments, and they severely impact our societies in many different fashions. Therefore, biofilm formation is a topic of growing interest in microbiology, and different bacterial models are currently studied to better understand the molecular strategies that bacteria undergo to build biofilms. Among those, biofilms of the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus subtilis are commonly used for this purpose. Bacillus subtilis biofilms show remarkable architectural features that are a consequence of sophisticated programs of cellular specialization and cell-cell communication within the community. Many laboratories are trying to unravel the biological role of the morphological features of biofilms, as well as exploring the molecular basis underlying cellular differentiation. In this review, we present a general perspective of the current state of knowledge of biofilm formation in B. subtilis. In particular, a special emphasis is placed on summarizing the most recent discoveries in the field and integrating them into the general view of these truly sophisticated microbial communities. PMID:24909922

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and Its Dipteran-Specific Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eitan Ben-Dov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti is the first Bacillus thuringiensis to be found and used as an effective biological control agent against larvae of many mosquito and black fly species around the world. Its larvicidal activity resides in four major (of 134, 128, 72 and 27 kDa and at least two minor (of 78 and 29 kDa polypeptides encoded respectively by cry4Aa, cry4Ba, cry11Aa, cyt1Aa, cry10Aa and cyt2Ba, all mapped on the 128 kb plasmid known as pBtoxis. These six δ-endotoxins form a complex parasporal crystalline body with remarkably high, specific and different toxicities to Aedes, Culex and Anopheles larvae. Cry toxins are composed of three domains (perforating domain I and receptor binding II and III and create cation-selective channels, whereas Cyts are composed of one domain that acts as well as a detergent-like membrane perforator. Despite the low toxicities of Cyt1Aa and Cyt2Ba alone against exposed larvae, they are highly synergistic with the Cry toxins and hence their combinations prevent emergence of resistance in the targets. The lack of significant levels of resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with Bti-bioinsecticide suggests that this bacterium will be an effective biocontrol agent for years to come.

  14. Methodology for fast evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Lúcia M. Carareto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the production and use of Bacillus thuringiensis in Brazil at a commercial scale faces certain difficulties, among them the establishment of efficient methodologies for the quantitation of toxic products to be commercialized. Presently, the amount of toxin is given in percentage by analyzing the samples total protein content. Such methodology however, does not measure the actual amount of active protein present in the product, since most strains express different endotoxin genes and might even produce b-toxin. Since the various types of toxins exhibit different antigenic characteristics, this work has as objective the utilization of fast immunological techniques to quantify the level of crystal protein. Crystal protein produced by a subspecies of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis was purified by ultracentrifugation and utilized to immunize rabbits and to produce hiperimmune sera. Such sera were latter used to evaluate the level of proteins on commercial bioinsecticide and on laboratory cultures of B. thuringiensis through the immunodot technique. The results were obtained by comparison of data obtained from reactions with known concentrations of crystal protein permitting to evaluate the level of such protein on various materials.

  15. Central carbon metabolism influences cellulase production in Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Liu, S; Li, Y; Wang, H; Xiao, S; Li, C; Liu, B

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis that can produce cellulase including endo glucanase and glucosidase is an important industrial microbe for cellulose degradation. The purpose of this research was to assess the effect of endo glucanase gene bglC and glucosidase gene bglH on the central metabolic flux in B. licheniformis. bglC and bglH were knocked out using homologous recombination method, respectively, and the corresponding knockout strains were obtained for 13 C metabolic flux analysis. A significant change was observed in metabolic fluxes after 13 C metabolic flux ratio analysis. In both of the knockout strains, the increased fluxes of the pentose phosphate pathway and malic enzyme reaction enabled an elevated supply of NADPH which provided enough reducing power for the in vivo synthesis reactions. The fluxes through tricarboxylic acid cycle and anaplerotic reactions increased fast in the two knockout strains, which meant more energy generated. The changed fluxes in central carbon metabolism provided a holistic view of the physiological status in B. licheniformis and possible targets for further strain engineering. Cellulase is very important in the field of agriculture and bioenergy because of its degrading effect on cellulosic biomass. This study presented the effect of central carbon metabolism on cellulase production in Bacillus licheniformis. The study also provided a holistic view of the physiological status in B. licheniformis. The shifted metabolism provided a quantitative evaluation of the biosynthesis of cellulase and a priority ranked target list for further strain engineering. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD 99 values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD 99 dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability

  17. Pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for Bacillus subtilis inactivation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Arias, A. N.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; López-Callejas, R.; Valencia-Alvarado, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Barocio, S. R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; de la Piedad Beneitez, A.

    2012-06-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria in water has been experimentally studied by means of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) in a coaxial reactor endowed with an alumina dielectric. The plasma source is capable of operating at atmospheric pressure with gas, water or hybrid gas-liquid media at adjustable 25 kV pulses, 30 μs long and at a 500 Hz frequency. In order to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of the system, a set of experiments were designed on the basis of oxygen flow control. The initial data have showed a significant bacterial rate reduction of 103-107 CFU/mL. Additional results proved that applying an oxygen flow for a few seconds during the PDBD treatment inactivates the Bacillus subtilis population with 99.99% effectiveness. As a reference, without gas flow but with the same exposure times, this percentage is reduced to ~90%. The analysis of the relationship between inactivation rate and chemical species in the discharge has been carried out using optical emission spectroscopy as to identifying the main reactive species. Reactive oxygen species such as atomic oxygen and ozone tuned out to be the dominant germicidal species. Some proposed inactivation mechanisms of this technique are discussed.

  18. Characteristics of bacillus strains with antifungal activity against phytopathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Keun; Senthilkumar, M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Four bacterial isolates that showed antifungal activity against Alternaria alternata and other phytopathogens were isolates from bean rhizosphere. 16S rDNA analysis and phylogenetic relationship indicated that these isolates belong to Genus Bacillus. Isolate A1 clustered with Bacillus licheniformis while other isolates A2, A3 and A4 clustered together with B.pumilus. n-Butanol extract of these isolates strongly inhibited the growth of A. alternata while, chloroform extract of isolate A2 and ethyl acetate extract of A1,A3, and A4 inhibited the test fungus partially. All the isolates except A4 produced chitinase enzyme. None of the isolates solubilized mineral phosphate. Radiation sensitivity of isolates A1, A2, A3 and A4 were assessed and the LD{sub 99} values are determined as 0.50, 6.69, 11,60, 1.53 kGy, respectively. Mutant libraries of each isolate were prepared by exposing them to gamma radiation at their respective LD{sub 99} dose. Crude metabolite caused drastic changes on A. alternata hyphal morphology. Appearance of shrunken and collapsed hyphae could be due to the leak of cell wall or changes in membrane permeability.

  19. Genome engineering using a synthetic gene circuit in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Eun; Park, Seung-Hwan; Pan, Jae-Gu; Kim, Eui-Joong; Choi, Soo-Keun

    2015-03-31

    Genome engineering without leaving foreign DNA behind requires an efficient counter-selectable marker system. Here, we developed a genome engineering method in Bacillus subtilis using a synthetic gene circuit as a counter-selectable marker system. The system contained two repressible promoters (B. subtilis xylA (Pxyl) and spac (Pspac)) and two repressor genes (lacI and xylR). Pxyl-lacI was integrated into the B. subtilis genome with a target gene containing a desired mutation. The xylR and Pspac-chloramphenicol resistant genes (cat) were located on a helper plasmid. In the presence of xylose, repression of XylR by xylose induced LacI expression, the LacIs repressed the Pspac promoter and the cells become chloramphenicol sensitive. Thus, to survive in the presence of chloramphenicol, the cell must delete Pxyl-lacI by recombination between the wild-type and mutated target genes. The recombination leads to mutation of the target gene. The remaining helper plasmid was removed easily under the chloramphenicol absent condition. In this study, we showed base insertion, deletion and point mutation of the B. subtilis genome without leaving any foreign DNA behind. Additionally, we successfully deleted a 2-kb gene (amyE) and a 38-kb operon (ppsABCDE). This method will be useful to construct designer Bacillus strains for various industrial applications. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SUBSP. plantarum PROBIOTIC STRAINS AS PROTEASE PRODUCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Маtseliukh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteases from probiotic strains of the genus Bacillus, just like the antibiotics, bacteriocins and other hydrolytic enzymes, are one of the main factors that determine their biological activity. The aim of this work was to study the synthesis and biochemical properties of proteases from two strains Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5139 and UCM B-5140 that included in the probiotic Endosporin. The cultivation of strains was carried out in flasks under rotating for two days. The influence of physico-chemical parameters of the reaction medium on proteolytic activity was studied on partially purified protease preparations. Lytic activity was determined by turbidimetric method. On the second day of cultivation B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM В-5139 and UCM В-5140 synthesized the metal-dependent peptidase and serine protease, respectively. The optimum conditions of their action were the following: temperature 37–40 °C and pH 6.5–7.0. Isolated proteases are able to lyse the living cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Thus we demonstrated that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum UCM B-5140 and UCM B-5139, included in the probiotic veterinary preparation Endosporin, produced proteolytic enzymes that hydrolyze the native insoluble proteins (elastin, fibrin and collagen. These enzymes belong to the group of neutral metal-dependent and serine proteases. They are active under physiological conditions against gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The application of these proteases in biotechnology is considered.

  1. Plasmid-associated sensitivity of Bacillus thuringiensis to UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, T.G.; Wilson, G.R.; Bull, D.L.; Aronson, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus thuringiensis were more sensitive to UV light than were spores or cells of plasmid-cured B. thuringiensis strains or of the closely related Bacillus cereus. Introduction of B. thuringiensis plasmids into B. cereus by cell mating increased the UV sensitivity of the cells and spores. Protoxins encoded by one or more B. thuringiensis plasmids were not involved in spore sensitivity, since a B. thuringiensis strain conditional for protoxin accumulation was equally sensitive at the permissive and nonpermissive temperatures. In addition, introduction of either a cloned protoxin gene, the cloning vector, or another plasmid not containing a protoxin gene into a plasmid-cured strain of B. thuringiensis all increased the UV sensitivity of the spores. Although the variety of small, acid-soluble proteins was the same in the spores of all strains examined, the quantity of dipicolinic acid was about twice as high in the plasmid-containing strains, and this may account for the differences in UV sensitivity of the spores. The cells of some strains harboring only B. thuringiensis plasmids were much more sensitive than cells of any of the other strains, and the differences were much greater than observed with spores

  2. Thiopeptide antibiotics stimulate biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Rachel; Watrous, Jeramie D; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Bowers, Albert A; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-10

    Bacteria have evolved the ability to produce a wide range of structurally complex natural products historically called "secondary" metabolites. Although some of these compounds have been identified as bacterial communication cues, more frequently natural products are scrutinized for antibiotic activities that are relevant to human health. However, there has been little regard for how these compounds might otherwise impact the physiology of neighboring microbes present in complex communities. Bacillus cereus secretes molecules that activate expression of biofilm genes in Bacillus subtilis. Here, we use imaging mass spectrometry to identify the thiocillins, a group of thiazolyl peptide antibiotics, as biofilm matrix-inducing compounds produced by B. cereus. We found that thiocillin increased the population of matrix-producing B. subtilis cells and that this activity could be abolished by multiple structural alterations. Importantly, a mutation that eliminated thiocillin's antibiotic activity did not affect its ability to induce biofilm gene expression in B. subtilis. We go on to show that biofilm induction appears to be a general phenomenon of multiple structurally diverse thiazolyl peptides and use this activity to confirm the presence of thiazolyl peptide gene clusters in other bacterial species. Our results indicate that the roles of secondary metabolites initially identified as antibiotics may have more complex effects--acting not only as killing agents, but also as specific modulators of microbial cellular phenotypes.

  3. Pulsed dielectric barrier discharge for Bacillus subtilis inactivation in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Arias, A N; López-Callejas, R; De la Piedad Beneitez, A; Rodríguez-Méndez, B G; Valencia-Alvarado, R; Mercado-Cabrera, A; Peña-Eguiluz, R; Barocio, S R; Muñoz-Castro, A E

    2012-01-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria in water has been experimentally studied by means of a pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (PDBD) in a coaxial reactor endowed with an alumina dielectric. The plasma source is capable of operating at atmospheric pressure with gas, water or hybrid gas-liquid media at adjustable 25 kV pulses, 30 μs long and at a 500 Hz frequency. In order to evaluate the inactivation efficiency of the system, a set of experiments were designed on the basis of oxygen flow control. The initial data have showed a significant bacterial rate reduction of 10 3 -10 7 CFU/mL. Additional results proved that applying an oxygen flow for a few seconds during the PDBD treatment inactivates the Bacillus subtilis population with 99.99% effectiveness. As a reference, without gas flow but with the same exposure times, this percentage is reduced to ∼90%. The analysis of the relationship between inactivation rate and chemical species in the discharge has been carried out using optical emission spectroscopy as to identifying the main reactive species. Reactive oxygen species such as atomic oxygen and ozone tuned out to be the dominant germicidal species. Some proposed inactivation mechanisms of this technique are discussed.

  4. Assembly and Function of the Bacillus anthracis S-Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf

    2017-09-08

    Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent, is a member of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which includes invasive pathogens of mammals or insects as well as nonpathogenic environmental strains. The genes for anthrax pathogenesis are located on two large virulence plasmids. Similar virulence plasmids have been acquired by other B. cereus strains and enable the pathogenesis of anthrax-like diseases. Among the virulence factors of B. anthracis is the S-layer-associated protein BslA, which endows bacilli with invasive attributes for mammalian hosts. BslA surface display and function are dependent on the bacterial S-layer, whose constituents assemble by binding to the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) via S-layer homology (SLH) domains. B. anthracis and other pathogenic B. cereus isolates harbor genes for the secretion of S-layer proteins, for S-layer assembly, and for synthesis of the SCWP. We review here recent insights into the assembly and function of the S-layer and the SCWP.

  5. Enterotoxigenic gene profiles of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus megaterium isolates recovered from honey Búsqueda de factores de virulencia en cepas de Bacillus cereus y de Bacillus megaterium aisladas de miel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. López

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and thirty two Bacillus cereus and 52 Bacillus megaterium isolates from honeys were evaluated for the presence of genes encoding enterotoxin HBL, enterotoxin-T, cytotoxin K and the NHE complex, respectively. The relationship between hemolytic and coagulase activity and its correlation with the presence of the four mentioned enterotoxins was determined by principal component analysis (PCA. PCA in B. cereus revealed a positive correlation among free coagulase, hemolysis and the presence of genes hblA, hblB, hblC, hblD (HBL complex and bceT (enterotoxin-T, but no correlation with the clumping factor (bound coagulase and the presence of sequences of the NHE complex. On the other hand, PCA in B. megaterium showed a high positive correlation between coagulase (bound and free and the haemolytic activity but no correlation in relation to the presence of genes of the HBL complex, cytotoxin K, enterotoxin T and the NHE complex. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the detection of cytotoxin K and of the NHE complex genes in B. megaterium. The relationship between the coagulase activity and the presence of virulence factors has not been described before in the genus Bacillus, being this work the first report of this correlation. Interestingly, the presence of the cytK gene was almost independent of the presence of the rest of virulence factors herein analyzed both in B. cereus and B. megaterium populations. Our results suggest that honey could be a possible vehicle for foodborne illness due to the presence of toxigenic B. cereus and B. megaterium strains containing different virulence factors.Se evaluaron 132 aislamientos de Bacillus cereus y 52 de Bacillus megaterium provenientes de mieles de distintos orígenes geográficos para investigar la presencia de secuencias de ADN relacionadas con genes de virulencia y su posible correlación con la actividad hemolítica y coagulasa. Con respecto a los genes de virulencia, se analizaron por

  6. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intestinal wall and suck blood, which results in iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Adult worms and larvae are ... problems that may result from hookworm infection include: Iron deficiency anemia , caused by loss of blood Nutritional deficiencies Severe ...

  7. Breast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastitis; Infection - breast tissue; Breast abscess ... must continue to breastfeed or pump to relieve breast swelling from milk production. In case if the abscess does not go away, needle aspiration under ultrasound ...

  8. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized...... as being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections...... such as diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well...

  9. Spinal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the wound and re-closing to more extensive debridements and removal of infected tissues. In some cases ... will want to obtain cultures to determine the type of bacteria or fungus that is causing the ...

  10. Neonatal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause serious problems such as heart disease, brain damage, deafness, visual impairment, or even miscarriage. Infection later in the pregnancy may lead to less severe effects on the fetus but can still cause problems ...

  11. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dental infection or procedure such as a tooth extraction or oral surgery or after trauma to the ... diagnosed, your doctor may treat it with intravenous antibiotics (eg, penicillin, ampicillin) for 4 to 6 weeks, ...

  12. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... within your body, to produce infections affecting: Internal organs, such as your brain, heart or lungs Bones and muscles Surgically implanted devices, such as artificial joints or cardiac pacemakers Toxic shock syndrome This ...

  13. Campylobacter infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stool sample testing for white blood cells Stool culture for Campylobacter jejuni Treatment The infection almost always ... some salty foods, such as pretzels, soup, and sports drinks. Eat some high-potassium foods, such as ...

  14. Bacillus species (BT42) isolated from Coffea arabica L. rhizosphere antagonizes Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum and also exhibits multiple plant growth promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejela, Tekalign; Thakkar, Vasudev R; Thakor, Parth

    2016-11-18

    Colletotrichum and Fusarium species are among pathogenic fungi widely affecting Coffea arabica L., resulting in major yield loss. In the present study, we aimed to isolate bacteria from root rhizosphere of the same plant that is capable of antagonizing Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Fusarium oxysporum as well as promotes plant growth. A total of 42 Bacillus species were isolated, one of the isolates named BT42 showed maximum radial mycelial growth inhibition against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (78%) and Fusarium oxysporum (86%). BT42 increased germination of Coffee arabica L. seeds by 38.89%, decreased disease incidence due to infection of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides to 2.77% and due to infection of Fusarium oxysporum to 0 (p Fusarium oxysporum. The mechanism of action of inhibition of the pathogenic fungi found to be synergistic effects of secondary metabolites, lytic enzymes, and siderophores. The major inhibitory secondary metabolite identified as harmine (β-carboline alkaloids).

  15. Synthesis of Silver-Doped Titanium TiO2 Powder-Coated Surfaces and Its Ability to Inactivate Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard, nonporous environmental surfaces in daily life are now receiving due recognition for their role in reducing the spread of several nosocomial infections. In this work, we established the photokilling effects of 1% silver-doped titanium dioxide TiO2. The nanoparticles synthesized by liquid impregnation method were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The Ag-TiO2 nanoparticle coatings that have been applied on glass and venetian blind surfaces were effective in generating a loss of viability of two bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis after two hours of illumination under normal light in the visible spectrum. Such surfaces can be applicable to medical and other facilities where the potential for infection should be controlled.

  16. Synthesis of Silver-Doped Titanium TiO2 Powder-Coated Surfaces and Its Ability to Inactivate Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S.; Qazi, I.A.; Hashmi, I.; Awan, M.A.; Zaidi, N.S.S.

    2013-01-01

    Hard, non porous environmental surfaces in daily life are now receiving due recognition for their role in reducing the spread of several nosocomial infections. In this work, we established the photo killing effects of 1% silver-doped titanium dioxide TiO 2 . The nanoparticles synthesized by liquid impregnation method were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Ag-TiO 2 nanoparticle coatings that have been applied on glass and venetian blind surfaces were effective in generating a loss of viability of two bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis) after two hours of illumination under normal light in the visible spectrum. Such surfaces can be applicable to medical and other facilities where the potential for infection should be controlled

  17. Lead (Pb) bioaccumulation; genera Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifiyanto, Achmad; Apriyanti, Fitria Dwi; Purwaningsih, Puput; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Agustina, Dyah; Surtiningsih, Tini; Shovitri, Maya; Zulaika, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lead (Pb) includes a group of large heavy metal in nature was toxic either on animal or human and did not provide an advantage function biologically. Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 known resistant to lead up to 50 mg / L PbCl2. In this research will be examined whether genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 could accumulate metal lead (Pb), their capability in accumulating and profile protein differences when the bacteria genera Bacillus isolates S1 and SS19 get exposed metal lead (Pb). Inoculum at age ± 9 hours are used, with a Nutrient Broth (NB) containing 50, 75 and 100 mg / L PbCl2. Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP) used to assessed Pb2+ concentrations. Bioaccumulation levels of Pb2+ by Bacillus isolate S1 and SS19 related to the distinction of beginning concentration to the final concentration. Bacillus isolate S1 achieved 53% and 51% bioaccumulation efficiency rate in lead presence concentration (75 and 100 mg/L) and 51% (50 mg/L). Another way Bacillus isolate SS19 was able to accumulate 57% (50 mg/L PbCl2) and kept stable on 36% bioaccumulation efficiency rate (75 and 100 mg/L PbCl2). Regarding SDS-PAGE electrophoresis protein profile result, protein in ± 127 kDa, molecule mass detected in the presence of Lead for Bacillus isolate S1.

  18. Puerperal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, D A; Wager, G P

    1980-12-01

    This comprehensive review on puerperal infections covers risk factors, causative bacteria, pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy of specific entities, and prevention. Puerperal infection is problematic to define especially with antibiotics that change the course of fever. I may present as endometritis (most common), myometritis, parametritis, pelvic abscess, salpingitis, septic pelvic thrombophlebitis or septicemia, and also includes infections of the urinary tract, episiotomy, surgical wounds, lacerations or breast. Each of these is discussed in terms of contributing factors, microbiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and complications. Risk factors in general are cesarean section, premature rupture of the membranes, internal fetal monitoring, general anesthesia, pelvic examinations. The most common bacterial involved are group B and other streptococci, E. coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Gram positive anaerobic cocci, Mycoplasma and pre-existing Chlamydial infections. Diagnosis of the causative organism is difficult because of polyinfection and difficulty of getting a sterile endometrial swab. Diagnosis of the infection is equally difficult because of the wide variety of symptoms: fever, abnormal lochia, tachycardia, tenderness, mass and abnormal bowel sounds are common. Therapy depends of the responsible microorganism, although 3 empirical tactics are suggested while awaiting results of culture: 1) choose an antibiotic for the most common aerobic bacteria; 2) an antibiotic effective against B. fragilis and one for aerobic bacteria, e.g. clindamycin and an aminoglycoside; 3) a nontoxic antibiotic active against most aerobic and anaerobic organisms, e.g. doxycycline or cefoxitin. An example of an infection recently described is pudendal-paracervical block infection, often signaled by severe hip pain. It is associated with vaginal bacteria, is usually complicated by abscess even with antibiotic coverage, and may end in paraplegia or fatal sepsis

  19. Spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap

    2005-01-01

    Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)

  20. Differences in the roles of a glutamine amidotransferase subunit of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate synthase between Bacillus circulans and Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itagaki, Shiori; Haga, Minami; Oikawa, Yuji; Sakoda, Ayaka; Ohke, Yoshie; Sawada, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Tadashi; Tamegai, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    BtrC2 of the butirosin producer Bacillus circulans is a non-catalytic subunit of 2-deoxy-scyllo-inosose (DOI) synthase that is involved in butirosin biosynthesis, and also a homolog of glutamine amidotransferase subunit (PdxT) of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) synthase of Bacillus subtilis. BtrC2 has been found to have functions in B. circulans both in primary and secondary metabolism. In this study, we investigated the properties of PdxT of B. subtilis in order to determine whether the property of enzyme stabilization is universal among PdxT homologs. Complementation with PdxT in the btrC2 disruptant of B. circulans restored the growth and short-term production of antibiotics, but long-term production of antibiotics cannot be restored. Additionally, PdxT did not bind physically with or stabilize BtrC. Our results indicate that the function of BtrC2 in secondary metabolism is specific properties, not universal among PdxT homologs.