WorldWideScience

Sample records for bacillus bombyseptieus infection

  1. A genome-wide survey for host response of silkworm, Bombyx mori during pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulin Huang

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori. Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt, Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs, including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin

  2. A genome-wide survey for host response of silkworm, Bombyx mori during pathogen Bacillus bombyseptieus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lulin; Cheng, Tingcai; Xu, Pingzhen; Cheng, Daojun; Fang, Ting; Xia, Qingyou

    2009-12-01

    Host-pathogen interactions are complex relationships, and a central challenge is to reveal the interactions between pathogens and their hosts. Bacillus bombysepticus (Bb) which can produces spores and parasporal crystals was firstly separated from the corpses of the infected silkworms (Bombyx mori). Bb naturally infects the silkworm can cause an acute fuliginosa septicaemia and kill the silkworm larvae generally within one day in the hot and humid season. Bb pathogen of the silkworm can be used for investigating the host responses after the infection. Gene expression profiling during four time-points of silkworm whole larvae after Bb infection was performed to gain insight into the mechanism of Bb-associated host whole body effect. Genome-wide survey of the host genes demonstrated many genes and pathways modulated after the infection. GO analysis of the induced genes indicated that their functions could be divided into 14 categories. KEGG pathway analysis identified that six types of basal metabolic pathway were regulated, including genetic information processing and transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, metabolism of cofactors and vitamins, and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism. Similar to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), Bb can also induce a silkworm poisoning-related response. In this process, genes encoding midgut peritrophic membrane proteins, aminopeptidase N receptors and sodium/calcium exchange protein showed modulation. For the first time, we found that Bb induced a lot of genes involved in juvenile hormone synthesis and metabolism pathway upregulated. Bb also triggered the host immune responses, including cellular immune response and serine protease cascade melanization response. Real time PCR analysis showed that Bb can induce the silkworm systemic immune response, mainly by the Toll pathway. Anti-microorganism peptides (AMPs), including of Attacin, Lebocin, Enbocin, Gloverin and Moricin

  3. Bacillus cereus infection outbreak in captive psittacines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, S N; Matushima, E R; Chaves, J Q; Cavados, C F G; Rabinovitch, L; Teixeira, R H F; Nunes, A L V; Melville, P; Gattamorta, M A; Vivoni, A M

    2012-12-28

    This study reports an uncommon epizootic outbreak of Bacillus cereus that caused the sudden death of 12 psittacines belonging to the species Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1 individual), Diopsittaca nobilis (1 individual), Ara severa (1 individual) and Ara ararauna (9 individuals) in a Brazilian zoo. Post-mortem examination of the animals reveled extensive areas of lung hemorrhage, hepatic congestion, hemorrhagic enteritis and cardiac congestion. Histopathological examination of the organs showed the presence of multiple foci of vegetative cells of Gram-positive bacilli associated with discrete and moderate mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate. Seventeen B. cereus strains isolated from blood and sterile organs of nine A. ararauna were analyzed in order to investigate the genetic diversity (assessed by Rep-PCR) and toxigenic profiles (presence of hblA, hblC and hblD; nheA, nheB and nheC as well as cytK, ces and entFM genes) of such strains. Amplification of genomic DNA by Rep-PCR of B. cereus strains generated two closely related profiles (Rep-PCR types A and B) with three bands of difference. All strains were classified as belonging to the toxigenic profile I which contained HBL and NHE gene complexes, entFM and cytK genes. Altogether, microbiological and histopathological findings and the evidence provided by the success of the antibiotic prophylaxis, corroborate that B. cereus was the causative agent of the infection that killed the birds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of Th17 Cell in Tubercle Bacillus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis is mainly a kind of lung disease. Normal immune cell expression can inhibit proliferation of tubercle bacillus in the lungs, but this may also lead to chronic inflammation and pathological lesion. Th17 cell is a newly discovered CD4 + effector T cell subsets, whose differentiation and roles are influenced by various cytokines in the surrounding environment. Th17 cell plays an important role in resisting tubercle bacillus infection, but also it may cause pathological damage through the inflammatory response. Therefore, to balance two kinds of roles of Th17 cells in tubercle bacillus infection can effectively protect the body. This paper intends to do a summary on differentiation, regulation, and biological functions of Th17 cell.

  5. Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin infections after intravesical therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gerogianni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder carcinoma. Disseminated BCG infection presenting as granulomatous hepatitis or pneumonitis is a very rare complication of this treatment. Here we report a case series of seven patients previously treated with BCG presenting with pneumonitis. In two of the cases, identification of Mycobacterium bovis was achieved with molecular methods.

  6. Combating Fusarium Infection Using Bacillus-Based Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to control toxigenic Fusarium species, wilt and head-blight infections are destructive and economically damaging diseases that have global effects. The utilization of biological control agents in disease management programs has provided an effective, safe, and sustainable means to control Fusarium-induced plant diseases. Among the most widely used microbes for biocontrol agents are members of the genus Bacillus. These species influence plant and fungal pathogen interactions by a number of mechanisms such as competing for essential nutrients, antagonizing pathogens by producing fungitoxic metabolites, or inducing systemic resistance in plants. The multivariate interactions among plant-biocontrol agent-pathogen are the subject of this study, in which we survey the advances made regarding the research on the Bacillus-Fusarium interaction and focus on the principles and mechanisms of action among plant-growth promoting Bacillus species. In particular, we highlight their use in limiting and controlling Fusarium spread and infestations of economically important crops. This knowledge will be useful to define strategies for exploiting this group of beneficial bacteria for use as inoculants by themselves or in combination with other microbes for enhanced crop protection.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Phages Infecting Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Krasowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages have been suggested as an alternative approach to reduce the amount of pathogens in various applications. Bacteriophages of various specificity and virulence were isolated as a means of controlling food-borne pathogens. We studied the interaction of bacteriophages with Bacillus species, which are very often persistent in industrial applications such as food production due to their antibiotic resistance and spore formation. A comparative study using electron microscopy, PFGE, and SDS-PAGE as well as determination of host range, pH and temperature resistance, adsorption rate, latent time, and phage burst size was performed on three phages of the Myoviridae family and one phage of the Siphoviridae family which infected Bacillus subtilis strains. The phages are morphologically different and characterized by icosahedral heads and contractile (SIOΦ, SUBω, and SPOσ phages or noncontractile (ARπ phage tails. The genomes of SIOΦ and SUBω are composed of 154 kb. The capsid of SIOΦ is composed of four proteins. Bacteriophages SPOσ and ARπ have genome sizes of 25 kbp and 40 kbp, respectively. Both phages as well as SUBω phage have 14 proteins in their capsids. Phages SIOΦ and SPOσ are resistant to high temperatures and to the acid (4.0 and alkaline (9.0 and 10.0 pH.

  8. EXPERIMENTAL-INFECTION IN MICE WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Jensen, H.E.; Jensen, N.E.

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Bacillus licheniformis was assessed in normal and immunodepressed BALB/c mice. The animals were challenged intravenously with 4 x 10(7) colony forming units of B, licheniformis (ATCC 14580) and both normal and immunodepressed mice were susceptible. However, the infection...... was more severe in the immunosuppressed animals. In normal mice, lesions were restricted to the liver and kidneys, while lesions also occurred in other organs of immunodepressed mice. By crossed immunoelectrophoresis it was shown that antigens of B. licheniformis are potent immunogens, and the bacteria...... could be identified in tissue sections by immunostaining. Immunohistochemically, B, licheniformis was demonstrated in hepatic and pulmonic macrophages, and from some animals the bacteria were also reisolated....

  9. The role of pili in Bacillus cereus intraocular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegan, Michelle C; Parkunan, Salai Madhumathi; Randall, C Blake; Coburn, Phillip S; Miller, Frederick C; LaGrow, Austin L; Astley, Roger A; Land, Craig; Oh, So-Young; Schneewind, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial endophthalmitis is a potentially blinding intraocular infection. The bacterium Bacillus cereus causes a devastating form of this disease which progresses rapidly, resulting in significant inflammation and loss of vision within a few days. The outer surface of B. cereus incites the intraocular inflammatory response, likely through interactions with innate immune receptors such as TLRs. This study analyzed the role of B. cereus pili, adhesion appendages located on the bacterial surface, in experimental endophthalmitis. To test the hypothesis that the presence of pili contributed to intraocular inflammation and virulence, we analyzed the progress of experimental endophthalmitis in mouse eyes infected with wild type B. cereus (ATCC 14579) or its isogenic pilus-deficient mutant (ΔbcpA-srtD-bcpB or ΔPil). One hundred CFU were injected into the mid-vitreous of one eye of each mouse. Infections were analyzed by quantifying intraocular bacilli and retinal function loss, and by histology from 0 to 12 h postinfection. In vitro growth and hemolytic phenotypes of the infecting strains were also compared. There was no difference in hemolytic activity (1:8 titer), motility, or in vitro growth (p > 0.05, every 2 h, 0-18 h) between wild type B. cereus and the ΔPil mutant. However, infected eyes contained greater numbers of wild type B. cereus than ΔPil during the infection course (p ≤ 0.05, 3-12 h). Eyes infected with wild type B. cereus experienced greater losses in retinal function than eyes infected with the ΔPil mutant, but the differences were not always significant. Eyes infected with ΔPil or wild type B. cereus achieved similar degrees of severe inflammation. The results indicated that the intraocular growth of pilus-deficient B. cereus may have been better controlled, leading to a trend of greater retinal function in eyes infected with the pilus-deficient strain. Although this difference was not enough to significantly alter the severity

  10. Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Gatifloxacin in a Lethal Murine Bacillus Anthracis Inhalation Infection Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambrose, Paul G; Forrest, Alan; Craig, William A; Rubino, Christopher M; Bhavnani, Sujata M; Drusano, George L; Heine, Henery S

    2007-01-01

    We determined the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) measure most predictive of gatifloxacin efficacy and the magnitude of this measure necessary for survival in a murine Bacillus anthracis inhalation infection model...

  11. Hepatitis in Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus U Göttke

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Local immunotherapy with an attenuated live strain of Mycobacterium bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, is an effective and frequently used treatment for in situ transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder. Success rates are high, and serious side effects are infrequent but can affect every organ system. A 79-year-old patient with recently diagnosed TCC who was treated with intravesical BCG for a recurrence after initial surgical treatment is reported. After unsuccessful attempts at bladder catheterization with the creation of a false passage for his third treatment, BCG was instilled via a suprapubic catheter the same day and again a week later. Two weeks after the third BCG instillation, the patient presented with profound lethargy and weakness to the point of not being able to get up out of a chair. He was febrile, anorexic, icteric and had hepatosplenomegaly. Disseminated BCG infection was suspected on the basis of history, clinical examination and a liver biopsy that showed noncaseating granulomatous hepatitis. Empirical treatment was started with antituberculous combination therapy. A short course of an oral corticosteroid was given. Clinical improvement was marked and sustained so that the patient could be discharged home for the full six-month course of his treatment. Disseminated BCG infection with granulomatous hepatitis can be severe and life-threatening in cases where a large intravascular inoculum of BCG may have been given inadvertently.

  12. Bacillus Cereus catheter related bloodstream infection in a patient in a patient with acute lymphblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lütfiye Öksüz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.

  13. [Maxillary sinus infection by Bacillus licheniformis: a case report from Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Hejl, C; Sanmartin, N; Samson, T; Soler, C; Koeck, J-L

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic, spore-forming gram-positive Bacillus spp infections are rare and reported mainly in immunocompromised hosts. We report a case of acute unilateral maxillary sinusitis, caused by Bacillus licheniformis, in a 35-year-old French soldier stationed in Djibouti. It was easily identifiable due to its typical culture and resistance profile. This case is interesting for two reasons: first, it is, to our knowledge, the first case of sinusitis attributed to this microbe, and second, it has rarely been described in immunocompetent patients without altered skin or mucous membranes.

  14. Role of TLR5 and flagella in bacillus intraocular infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Madhumathi Parkunan

    Full Text Available B. cereus possesses flagella which allow the organism to migrate within the eye during a blinding form of intraocular infection called endophthalmitis. Because flagella is a ligand for Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5, we hypothesized that TLR5 contributed to endophthalmitis pathogenesis. Endophthalmitis was induced in C57BL/6J and TLR5-/- mice by injecting 100 CFU of B. cereus into the mid-vitreous. Eyes were analyzed for intraocular bacterial growth, retinal function, and inflammation by published methods. Purified B. cereus flagellin was also injected into the mid-vitreous of wild type C57BL/6J mice and inflammation was analyzed. TLR5 activation by B. cereus flagellin was also analyzed in vitro. B. cereus grew rapidly and at similar rates in infected eyes of C57BL/6J and TLR5-/- mice. A significant loss in retinal function in both groups of mice was observed at 8 and 12 hours postinfection. Retinal architecture disruption and acute inflammation (neutrophil infiltration and proinflammatory cytokine concentrations increased and were significant at 8 and 12 hours postinfection. Acute inflammation was comparable in TLR5-/- and C57BL/6J mice. Physiological concentrations of purified B. cereus flagellin caused significant inflammation in C57BL/6J mouse eyes, but not to the extent of that observed during active infection. Purified B. cereus flagellin was a weak agonist for TLR5 in vitro. These results demonstrated that the absence of TLR5 did not have a significant effect on the evolution of B. cereus endophthalmitis. This disparity may be due to sequence differences in important TLR5 binding domains in B. cereus flagellin or the lack of flagellin monomers in the eye to activate TLR5 during infection. Taken together, these results suggest a limited role for flagellin/TLR5 interactions in B. cereus endophthalmitis. Based on this and previous data, the importance of flagella in this disease lies in its contribution to the motility of the organism within the

  15. New aspects of the infection mechanisms of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakowska, Dorota; Bartoszcze, Michał; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Kocik, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    Articles concerning new aspects of B. anthracis mechanisms of infection were reviewed. It was found, that the hair follicle plays an important role in the spore germination process. The hair follicle represent an important portal of entry in the course of the cutaneous form of disease infections. After mouse exposition to aerosol of spores prepared from B. anthracis strains, an increase in the level of TNF-α cytokines was observed. The TNF-α cytokines were produced after intrusion into the host by the microorganism. This process may play a significant role in the induced migration of infected cells APCs (Antigen Presenting Cells) via chemotactic signals to the lymph nodes. It was explained that IgG, which binds to the spore surface, activates the adaptive immune system response. As a result, the release C3b opsonin from the spore surface, and mediating of C3 protein fragments of B. anthracis spores phagocytosis by human macrophages, was observed. The genes coding germination spores protein in mutant strains of B. anthracis MIGD was a crucial discovery. According to this, it could be assumed that the activity of B. anthracis spores germination process is dependent upon the sleB, cwlJ1 and cwlJ2 genes, which code the GSLEs lithic enzymes. It was also discovered that the specific antibody for PA20, which binds to the PA20 antigenic determinant, are able to block further PA83 proteolytic fission on the surface of cells. This process neutralized PA functions and weakened the activity of free PA20, which is produced during the PA83 enzyme fission process. Interaction between PA63 monomer and LF may be helpful in the PA63 oligomerization and grouping process, and the creation of LF/PA63 complexes may be a part of an alternative process of assembling the anthrax toxin on the surface of cells. It was found that actin-dependent endocytosis plays an important role in the PA heptamerisation process and leads to blocking the toxin activity. Chaperones, a protein derived from

  16. Gastric pH and Toxin Factors Modulate Infectivity and Disease Progression After Gastrointestinal Exposure to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao; Rotstein, David; Sun, Chen; Fang, Hui; Frucht, David M

    2017-12-12

    Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax is the most prevalent form of naturally acquired Bacillus anthracis infection, which is associated with exposure to vegetative bacteria in infected meat (carnivores) or to fermented rumen contents (herbivores). We assessed whether key host and pathogen factors modulate infectivity and progression of infection using a mouse model of GI infection. Gastric acid neutralization increases infectivity, but 30%-40% of mice succumb to infection without neutralization. Mice either fed or fasted before exposure showed similar infectivity rates. Finally, the pathogen's anthrax lethal factor is required to establish lethal infection, whereas its edema factor modulates progression and dissemination of infection. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Alveolar macrophages infected with Ames or Sterne strain of Bacillus anthracis elicit differential molecular expression patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia D Langel

    Full Text Available Alveolar macrophages (AMs phagocytose Bacillus anthracis following inhalation and induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines to mediate the activation of innate immunity. Ames, the virulent strain of B. anthracis, contains two plasmids that encode the antiphagocytic poly-γ-d-glutamic acid capsule and the lethal toxin. The attenuated Sterne strain of B. anthracis, which lacks the plasmid encoding capsule, is widely adapted as a vaccine strain. Although differences in the outcome of infection with the two strains may have originated from the presence or absence of an anti-phagocytic capsule, the disease pathogenesis following infection will be manifested via the host responses, which is not well understood. To gain understanding of the host responses at cellular level, a microarray analysis was performed using primary rhesus macaque AMs infected with either Ames or Sterne spores. Notably, 528 human orthologs were identified to be differentially expressed in AMs infected with either strain of the B. anthracis. Meta-analyses revealed genes differentially expressed in response to B. anthracis infection were also induced upon infections with multiple pathogens such as Francisella Novicida or Staphylococcus aureus. This suggests the existence of a common molecular signature in response to pathogen infections. Importantly, the microarray and protein expression data for certain cytokines, chemokines and host factors provide further insights on how cellular processes such as innate immune sensing pathways, anti-apoptosis versus apoptosis may be differentially modulated in response to the virulent or vaccine strain of B. anthracis. The reported differences may account for the marked difference in pathogenicity between these two strains.

  18. Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infections in infants with immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammadi, Suleiman; Alsuwaidi, Ahmed R; Alshamsi, Eman T; Ghatasheh, Ghassan A; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2017-05-05

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) preparations are live-attenuated derivatives of Mycobacterium bovis. These products are used to vaccinate infants at birth, a practice that may result in a disseminated infection in those patients who have an unidentified immunodeficiency. Patients who were immunized at birth with BCG and who developed a disseminated infection are reported here to emphasize the importance of taking an extensive medical history before ‎giving the BCG vaccine. Patient 1 has a sibling who had familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Patient 2 has a severe immunodeficiency with profound lymphopenia. Patient 3 has a sibling who had a disseminated BCG infection. Patient 4 has two siblings with an immunodeficiency disorder; one sibling passed away in infancy and one is receiving regular immunoglobulin infusions. Patient 5 has profound lymphopenia and his brother had cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis and passed away in infancy. These unfortunate events could have been avoided by compiling the relevant clinical and laboratory information. These cases also underscore the importance of a strict adherence to the BCG vaccine policies. Local and international registries that estimate the birth prevalence of primary immune deficiencies are needed prior to implementing universal BCG vaccination administration.

  19. Contributions of cellular and humoral immunity of Galleria mellonella larvae in defence against oral infection by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizanova, E V; Dubovskiy, I M; Whitten, M M A; Glupov, V V

    2014-06-01

    In this study the cellular and humoral immune reactions of the Greater wax moth Galleria mellonella have been investigated during bacterial infection caused by oral administration of Bacillus thuringiensis. Two different dose strengths were investigated to assess the contribution of immune parameters to induced Bt resistance. Low-dose (sublethal LC15) infection resulted in significantly elevated haemolymph phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity, enhanced phagocytic activity of haemocytes, and increased encapsulation responses in infected larvae at 48 and 72 h post infection. Higher doses of Bt (half-lethal LC50) also triggered significantly elevated haemolymph phenoloxidase and lysozyme-like activity, but decreased the coagulation index and activity of phenoloxidase in haemocytes of infected larvae. In both types of infection, the pool of circulating haemocytes became depleted. The importance of cellular and humoral immune reactions in induced insect resistance to intestinal bacterial infection Bt is herein discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Infective endocarditis due to Bacillus cereus in a pregnant female: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahek Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of infective endocarditis during pregnancy is around 0.006% with high maternal and fetal mortality. Bacillus cereus is an extremely rare cause for endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers (IVDA or those with valvular disease or devices such as pacemakers. We report a case of B. cereus endocarditis, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been reported in pregnancy. A 30-year-old, 25-week pregnant female presented with right shoulder pain, swelling and erythema on the lateral aspect of deltoid muscle from large abscess over her deltoid muscle. She was found to have a vegetation on the native tricuspid valve. Cultures from abscess fluid and blood cultures grew B. cereus, she was appropriately treated with antimicrobials and had favorable outcomes. There are <20 cases of B. cereus endocarditis reported but none during pregnancy. When cultures grow unusual organisms the case must be thoroughly investigated. This case illustrates a rare situation (endocarditis in pregnancy with an unusual outcome (B. cereus on an uncommon valve (tricuspid valve.

  1. Cell Differentiation in a Bacillus thuringiensis Population during Planktonic Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Host Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplaetse, Emilie; Slamti, Leyla; Gohar, Michel; Lereclus, Didier

    2015-04-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is armed to complete a full cycle in its insect host. During infection, virulence factors are expressed under the control of the quorum sensor PlcR to kill the host. After the host's death, the quorum sensor NprR controls a necrotrophic lifestyle, allowing the vegetative cells to use the insect cadaver as a bioincubator and to survive. Only a part of the Bt population sporulates in the insect cadaver, and the precise composition of the whole population and its evolution over time are unknown. Using fluorescent reporters to record gene expression at the single-cell level, we have determined the differentiation course of a Bt population and explored the lineage existing among virulent, necrotrophic, and sporulating cells. The dynamics of cell differentiation were monitored during growth in homogenized medium, biofilm formation, and colonization of insect larvae. We demonstrated that in the insect host and in planktonic culture in rich medium, the virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation regulators are successively activated in the same cell. In contrast, in biofilms, activation of PlcR is dispensable for NprR activation and we observed a greater heterogeneity than under the other two growth conditions. We also showed that sporulating cells arise almost exclusively from necrotrophic cells. In biofilm and in the insect cadaver, we identified an as-yet-uncharacterized category of cells that do not express any of the reporters used. Overall, we showed that PlcR, NprR, and Spo0A act as interconnected integrators to allow finely tuned adaptation of the pathogen to its environment. Bt is an entomopathogen found ubiquitously in the environment and is a widely used biopesticide. Studies performed at the population level suggest that the infection process of Bt includes three successive steps (virulence, necrotrophism, and sporulation) controlled by different regulators. This study aimed to determine how these phenotypes are activated at the

  2. Synergistic effects of Cydia pomonella granulovirus GP37 on the infectivity of nucleopolyhedroviruses and the lethality of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyang; Ma, Xiaohe; Lei, Chengfeng; Xiao, Yuzhou; Zhang, Zhongxin; Sun, Xiulian

    2011-10-01

    To initiate an efficient primary infection, it is important for baculovirus virions to penetrate through the peritrophic membrane (PM) of the host insect. It is frequently reported that enhancins of baculoviruses significantly enhance viral infection by degrading the various protein components of PMs. However, not all baculoviruses encode enhancins. GP37s of baculoviruses share high amino acid identity with fusolins, synergistic factors found in entomopoxviruses. In this study, a truncated Cydia pomonella granulovirus GP37 was expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed GP37 effectively bound to chitin, and binding occurred predominantly within 3 h. GP37 altered the protein profiles of Spodoptera exigua PMs, from which a 50-kDa protein was dissociated. Droplet-feeding bioassays indicated that GP37 significantly enhanced the infectivity of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) and the lethality of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in S. exigua larvae. This is the first demonstration of the enhancement of NPVs and Bt infection by a baculovirus GP37.

  3. Cellular responses in Bacillus thuringiensis CS33 during bacteriophage BtCS33 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dandan; Yuan, Yihui; Liu, Pengming; Wu, Yan; Gao, Meiying

    2014-04-14

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been widely used for 50years as a biopesticide for controlling insect pests. However, bacteriophage infection can cause failures in 50%-80% of the batches during Bt fermentation, resulting in severe losses. In the present work, the physiological and biochemical impacts of Bt strain CS33 have been studied during bacteriophage infection. This study adopted a gel-based proteomics approach to probe the sequential changed proteins in phage-infected Bt cells. To phage, it depressed the host energy metabolism by suppressing the respiration chain, the TCA cycle, and the utilization of PHB on one hand; on the other hand, it hijacked the host translational machine for its own macromolecular synthesis. To host, superinfection exclusion might be triggered by the changes of S-layer protein and flagella related proteins, which were located on the cell surface and might play as the candidates for the phage recognition. More importantly, the growth rate, cell mass, and ICPs yield were significantly decreased. The low yield of ICPs was mainly due to the suppressed utilization of PHB granules. Further functional study on these altered proteins may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and the identification of new targets for phage control. B. thuringiensis (Bt) has been widely used for 50years as a safe biopesticide for controlling agricultural and sanitary insect pests. However, bacteriophage infection can cause severe losses during B. thuringiensis fermentation. The processes and consequences of interactions between bacteriophage and Bt were still poorly understood, and the molecular mechanisms involved were more unknown. This study adopted a gel-based proteomics approach to probe the physiological and biochemical impacts of Bt strain CS33 after phage-infection. The interactions between phage BtCS33 and its host Bt strain CS33 occurred mainly on four aspects. First, phage synthesized its nucleic acids through metabolic

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Host Responses to Four Different Types of Microorganisms in Bombyx Mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Tingcai; Lin, Ping; Huang, Lulin; Wu, Yuqian; Jin, Shengkai; Liu, Chun; Xia, Qingyou

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogenic microorganisms have been used to investigate the genome-wide transcriptional responses of Bombyx mori to infection. However, studies have so far each focused on one microorganism, and systematic genome-wide comparison of transcriptional responses to different pathogenic microorganisms has not been undertaken. Here, we surveyed transcriptional responses of B. mori to its natural bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens, Bacillus bombyseptieus, B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmN...

  5. Invasive Bacillus cereus Infection in a Renal Transplant Patient: A Case Report and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan John

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus is a common cause of gastrointestinal diseases. The majority of individuals with B cereus-related food poisoning recover without any specific treatment. It can, however, rarely cause invasive disease in immunocompromised patients.

  6. Reduction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Bacillus Calmette Guerin immunized people is due to training of innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The currently used vaccine for prevention of tuberculosis is Bacillus Calmette Guerin, which has been associated with a protective effect of 51% against tuberculosis. New vaccination strategies based on an enhancement of adaptive T-cell based immunity have been unsuccessful in increasing the efficiency of BCG immunisation. The proposed hypothesis is that a reduction of Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis infection in Bacillus Calmette Guerin immunized people is due to training of innate immunity. Evidence to support the hypothesis is a systematic review, which showed that BCG protects against M. tuberculosis infection as evident from negative interferon gamma release assay results in BCG immunised exposed people. BCG has been shown to enhance innate immunity in monocytes via nucleotide binding oligomerisation domain 2 receptor activation by muramyldipeptide. An alternative hypothesis may be that T-suppressor cells induced by BCG immunisation may be the reason for the absence of an interferon gamma response mimicking absence of infection in immunized people. In order to test the primary hypothesis an ultra-low dose mouse model of M. tuberculosis infection could be used. Innate immunity could be enhanced by administration of murabutide and groups with and without murabutide enhanced BCG immunisation and with and without elimination of T-suppressor cells compared. The contribution of training of innate immunity in reduction of infection could hereby be demonstrated by treatment of mice prior to immunisation with an inhibitor of epigenetic programming. Confirmation of the hypothesis could provide the foundation of a new approach to an improved vaccine against M. tuberculosis infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Human monoclonal antibodies against anthrax lethal factor and protective antigen act independently to protect against Bacillus anthracis infection and enhance endogenous immunity to anthrax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, Mark T.; Li, Han; Williamson, E. Diane; LeButt, Chris S.; Flick-Smith, Helen C.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Westra, Hans; Galloway, Darrell; Mateczun, Alfred; Goldman, Stanley; Groen, Herman; Baillie, Les W. J.

    2007-01-01

    The unpredictable nature of bioterrorism and the absence of real-time detection systems have highlighted the need for an efficient postexposure therapy for Bacillus anthracis infection. One approach is passive immunization through the administration of antibodies that mitigate the biological action

  8. A multicomponent sugar phosphate sensor system specifically induced in Bacillus cereus during infection of the insect gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fuping; Peng, Qi; Brillard, Julien; Buisson, Christophe; de Been, Mark; Abee, Tjakko; Broussolle, Véronique; Huang, Dafang; Zhang, Jie; Lereclus, Didier; Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina

    2012-08-01

    Using a previously developed Bacillus cereus in vivo expression technology (IVET) promoter trap system, we showed that spsA, a gene of unknown function, was specifically expressed in the larval gut during infection. Search for gut-related compounds inducing spsA transcription identified glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) as an activation signal. Analysis of the spsA-related 5-gene cluster indicated that SpsA is part of a new sugar phosphate sensor system composed of a 2-component system (TCS) encoded by spsR and spsK, and 2 additional downstream genes, spsB and spsC. In B. cereus, American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 14579, spsRK, and spsABC are separate transcriptional units, of which only spsABC was activated by extracellular G6P. lacZ transcriptional fusions tested in mutant and complemented strains showed that SpsRK, SpsA, and SpsB are essential for the transcription of spsABC. Deletion mutant analysis showed that SpsC is essential for the G6P uptake. gfp-transcriptional fusions showed that these genes are required for host-activated expression, as well. This sugar phosphate sensor and transport system is found in pathogenic Bacillus group and Clostridia bacteria and may be important for host adaptation. Our findings provide new insights into the function of 2-component sensor systems in host-pathogen interactions, specifically in the gut.

  9. Characteristics and complete genome analysis of a novel jumbo phage infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus causing ginger rhizome rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-12-01

    Tailed phages with genomes larger than 200 kbp are classified as jumbo phage and exhibit extremely high diversity. In this study, a novel jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus, the cause of ginger rhizome rot disease, was isolated. Notable features of phage vB_BpuM_BpSp are the large phage capsid of 137 nm and baseplate-attached curly tail fibers. The genome of the phage is 255,569 bp in size with G+C content of 25.9 %, and it shows low similarity to known biological entities. The phage genome contains 318 predicted coding sequences. Among these predicted coding sequences, 26 genes responsible for nucleotide metabolism were found, and seven structural genes could be identified. The findings of this study provide new understanding of the genetic diversity of phages.

  10. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: Quantification of Bacterial Replication within Cadavers, Transmission via Cannibalism, and Inhibition of Spore Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. PMID:26386058

  11. Infection of Tribolium castaneum with Bacillus thuringiensis: quantification of bacterial replication within cadavers, transmission via cannibalism, and inhibition of spore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Barbara; Höfling, Christina; Futo, Momir; Scharsack, Jörn P; Kurtz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Reproduction within a host and transmission to the next host are crucial for the virulence and fitness of pathogens. Nevertheless, basic knowledge about such parameters is often missing from the literature, even for well-studied bacteria, such as Bacillus thuringiensis, an endospore-forming insect pathogen, which infects its hosts via the oral route. To characterize bacterial replication success, we made use of an experimental oral infection system for the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and developed a flow cytometric assay for the quantification of both spore ingestion by the individual beetle larvae and the resulting spore load after bacterial replication and resporulation within cadavers. On average, spore numbers increased 460-fold, showing that Bacillus thuringiensis grows and replicates successfully in insect cadavers. By inoculating cadaver-derived spores and spores from bacterial stock cultures into nutrient medium, we next investigated outgrowth characteristics of vegetative cells and found that cadaver-derived bacteria showed reduced growth compared to bacteria from the stock cultures. Interestingly, this reduced growth was a consequence of inhibited spore germination, probably originating from the host and resulting in reduced host mortality in subsequent infections by cadaver-derived spores. Nevertheless, we further showed that Bacillus thuringiensis transmission was possible via larval cannibalism when no other food was offered. These results contribute to our understanding of the ecology of Bacillus thuringiensis as an insect pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Characterization of LysB4, an endolysin from the Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophage B4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Bokyung; Yun, Jiae; Lim, Jeong-A; Shin, Hakdong; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2012-03-15

    Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes emetic or diarrheal types of food poisoning. The incidence of B. cereus food poisoning has been gradually increasing over the past few years, therefore, biocontrol agents effective against B. cereus need to be developed. Endolysins are phage-encoded bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases and have received considerable attention as promising antibacterial agents. The endolysin from B. cereus phage B4, designated LysB4, was identified and characterized. In silico analysis revealed that this endolysin had the VanY domain at the N terminus as the catalytic domain, and the SH3_5 domain at the C terminus that appears to be the cell wall binding domain. Biochemical characterization of LysB4 enzymatic activity showed that it had optimal peptidoglycan hydrolase activity at pH 8.0-10.0 and 50°C. The lytic activity was dependent on divalent metal ions, especially Zn2+. The antimicrobial spectrum was relatively broad because LysB4 lysed Gram-positive bacteria such as B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes and some Gram-negative bacteria when treated with EDTA. LC-MS analysis of the cell wall cleavage products showed that LysB4 was an L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase, making LysB4 the first characterized endopeptidase of this type to target B. cereus. LysB4 is believed to be the first reported L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase from B. cereus-infecting bacteriophages. The properties of LysB4 showed that this endolysin has strong lytic activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, which makes LysB4 a good candidate as a biocontrol agent against B. cereus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Characterization of LysB4, an endolysin from the Bacillus cereus-infecting bacteriophage B4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Bokyung

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes emetic or diarrheal types of food poisoning. The incidence of B. cereus food poisoning has been gradually increasing over the past few years, therefore, biocontrol agents effective against B. cereus need to be developed. Endolysins are phage-encoded bacterial peptidoglycan hydrolases and have received considerable attention as promising antibacterial agents. Results The endolysin from B. cereus phage B4, designated LysB4, was identified and characterized. In silico analysis revealed that this endolysin had the VanY domain at the N terminus as the catalytic domain, and the SH3_5 domain at the C terminus that appears to be the cell wall binding domain. Biochemical characterization of LysB4 enzymatic activity showed that it had optimal peptidoglycan hydrolase activity at pH 8.0-10.0 and 50°C. The lytic activity was dependent on divalent metal ions, especially Zn2+. The antimicrobial spectrum was relatively broad because LysB4 lysed Gram-positive bacteria such as B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Listeria monocytogenes and some Gram-negative bacteria when treated with EDTA. LC-MS analysis of the cell wall cleavage products showed that LysB4 was an L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase, making LysB4 the first characterized endopeptidase of this type to target B. cereus. Conclusions LysB4 is believed to be the first reported L-alanoyl-D-glutamate endopeptidase from B. cereus-infecting bacteriophages. The properties of LysB4 showed that this endolysin has strong lytic activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria, which makes LysB4 a good candidate as a biocontrol agent against B. cereus and other pathogenic bacteria.

  14. Epidemiologic Investigation of a Cluster of Neuroinvasive Bacillus cereus Infections in 5 Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Chanu; Klompas, Michael; Tamburini, Fiona B; Fremin, Brayon J; Chea, Nora; Epstein, Lauren; Halpin, Alison Laufer; Guh, Alice; Gallen, Rachel; Coulliette, Angela; Gee, Jay; Hsieh, Candace; Desjardins, Christopher A; Pedamullu, Chandra Sekhar; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Manzo, Veronica E; Folkerth, Rebecca Dunn; Milner, Danny A; Pecora, Nicole; Osborne, Matthew; Chalifoux-Judge, Diane; Bhatt, Ami S; Yokoe, Deborah S

    2015-09-01

    Background.  Five neuroinvasive Bacillus cereus infections (4 fatal) occurred in hospitalized patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) during a 9-month period, prompting an investigation by infection control and public health officials. Methods.  Medical records of case-patients were reviewed and a matched case-control study was performed. Infection control practices were observed. Multiple environmental, food, and medication samples common to AML patients were cultured. Multilocus sequence typing was performed for case and environmental B cereus isolates. Results.  All 5 case-patients received chemotherapy and had early-onset neutropenic fevers that resolved with empiric antibiotics. Fever recurred at a median of 17 days (range, 9-20) with headaches and abrupt neurological deterioration. Case-patients had B cereus identified in central nervous system (CNS) samples by (1) polymerase chain reaction or culture or (2) bacilli seen on CNS pathology stains with high-grade B cereus bacteremia. Two case-patients also had colonic ulcers with abundant bacilli on autopsy. No infection control breaches were observed. On case-control analysis, bananas were the only significant exposure shared by all 5 case-patients (odds ratio, 9.3; P = .04). Five environmental or food isolates tested positive for B cereus, including a homogenized banana peel isolate and the shelf of a kitchen cart where bananas were stored. Multilocus sequence typing confirmed that all case and environmental strains were genetically distinct. Multilocus sequence typing-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that the organisms clustered in 2 separate clades. Conclusions.  The investigation of this neuroinvasive B cereus cluster did not identify a single point source but was suggestive of a possible dietary exposure. Our experience underscores the potential virulence of B cereus in immunocompromised hosts.

  15. Protective effect of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens against infections of Citrus aurantium seedlings by Phoma tracheiphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai-Grami, L; Ben Slimane, I; Mnari-Hattab, M; Rezgui, S; Aouani, M A; Hajlaoui, M R; Limam, F

    2014-02-01

    Isolate TEB1 an antagonistic endophytic bacterium, obtained from citrus leaves and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by 16S rDNA sequencing, was used for the biological control of mal secco disease of Citrus aurantium seedlings caused by the mitosporic fungus Phoma tracheiphila. The isolate TEB1 exhibited a good in vitro activity against P. tracheiphila in dual cultures as well as with the well diffusion method. C. aurantium seedlings watered with a suspension of TEB1 cells showed a reduction of 53.61 and 48.63% in disease severity and incidence, respectively. A PCR test with specific primers was performed 365 days after inoculation and P. tracheiphila was detected along the whole stem in inoculated control plant while no amplification product was obtained in TEB1 treated seedlings. Molecular analysis of TEB1 revealed a positive amplification of fenD and ituC genes responsible of the biosynthesis of fengycin and iturin lipopeptides, respectively. Moreover, observations by optical microscope showed that TEB1 reduced by 55% the germination of P. tracheiphila conidia and exhibited a marked effect on mycelia structure. Data suggest that lipopeptides produced by the bacterium interact with the cytoplasmic membrane of the fungus causing pore formation. TEB1 appears a potential candidate for the biological control of citrus mal secco disease.

  16. Bacillus calmette-guerin infection in NADPH oxidase deficiency: defective mycobacterial sequestration and granuloma formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Deffert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD lack generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS through the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2. CGD is an immune deficiency that leads to frequent infections with certain pathogens; this is well documented for S. aureus and A. fumigatus, but less clear for mycobacteria. We therefore performed an extensive literature search which yielded 297 cases of CGD patients with mycobacterial infections; M. bovis BCG was most commonly described (74%. The relationship between NOX2 deficiency and BCG infection however has never been studied in a mouse model. We therefore investigated BCG infection in three different mouse models of CGD: Ncf1 mutants in two different genetic backgrounds and Cybb knock-out mice. In addition, we investigated a macrophage-specific rescue (transgenic expression of Ncf1 under the control of the CD68 promoter. Wild-type mice did not develop severe disease upon BCG injection. In contrast, all three types of CGD mice were highly susceptible to BCG, as witnessed by a severe weight loss, development of hemorrhagic pneumonia, and a high mortality (∼ 50%. Rescue of NOX2 activity in macrophages restored BCG resistance, similar as seen in wild-type mice. Granulomas from mycobacteria-infected wild-type mice generated ROS, while granulomas from CGD mice did not. Bacterial load in CGD mice was only moderately increased, suggesting that it was not crucial for the observed phenotype. CGD mice responded with massively enhanced cytokine release (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-12 early after BCG infection, which might account for severity of the disease. Finally, in wild-type mice, macrophages formed clusters and restricted mycobacteria to granulomas, while macrophages and mycobacteria were diffusely distributed in lung tissue from CGD mice. Our results demonstrate that lack of the NADPH oxidase leads to a markedly increased severity of BCG infection through mechanisms including increased cytokine

  17. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Infection Following Intravesical BCG Administration as Adjunctive Therapy For Bladder Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jacoiste Asín, María Asunción; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; López-Medrano, Francisco; Lumbreras, Carlos; Tejido, Ángel; San Juan, Rafael; Arrebola-Pajares, Ana; Lizasoain, Manuel; Prieto, Santiago; Aguado, José María

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective intravesical immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer. Although generally well tolerated, BCG-related infectious complications may occur following instillation. Much of the current knowledge about this complication comes from single case reports, with heterogeneous diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and no investigation on risk factors for its occurrence. We retrospectively analyzed 256 patients treated with intravesical BCG in our institution during a 6-year period, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months after the last instillation. We also conducted a comprehensive review and pooled analysis of additional cases reported in the literature since 1975. Eleven patients (4.3%) developed systemic BCG infection in our institution, with miliary tuberculosis as the most common form (6 cases). A 3-drug antituberculosis regimen was initiated in all but 1 patient, with a favorable outcome in 9/10 cases. There were no significant differences in the mean number of transurethral resections prior to the first instillation, the time interval between both procedures, the overall mean number of instillations, or the presence of underlying immunosuppression between patients with or without BCG infection. We included 282 patients in the pooled analysis (271 from the literature and 11 from our institution). Disseminated (34.4%), genitourinary (23.4%), and osteomuscular (19.9%) infections were the most common presentations of disease. Specimens for microbiologic diagnosis were obtained in 87.2% of cases, and the diagnostic performances for acid-fast staining, conventional culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays were 25.3%, 40.9%, and 41.8%, respectively. Most patients (82.5%) received antituberculosis therapy for a median of 6.0 (interquartile range: 4.0–9.0) months. Patients with disseminated infection more commonly received antituberculosis therapy and adjuvant corticosteroids, whereas those with

  18. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination at birth: Effects on early childhood infections, growth, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper

    2016-11-01

    The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG), which is used to protect against tuberculosis, has been associated with a variety of other effects since it was developed almost 100 years ago. Most notably, observational studies and randomized clinical trials from low-income countries indicate that it protects against unrelated infections, i.e. a so-called non-specific effect. The Danish Calmette Study was conducted to study these effects in a high-income population. The immune response to BCG is not fully understood but involves a pro-inflammatory profiling of the immune system, also when exposed to unrelated pathogens. Immune changes have been implicated in changes in both child growth and child development and for that reason we also studied these outcomes. We randomized 4262 children at birth to receive BCG vaccination at birth or to a no-intervention control group. We had pre-specified subgroup analyses of child sex, prematurity, and maternal BCG vaccination. The statistical analysis plan was finalized prior to unblinding of the data. Follow-up for the outcomes reported in this thesis consisted of telephone interviews and clinical examination at age 3 and 13 months, as well as online developmental questionnaires distributed to the parents at 12 months and additionally to the parents of premature children at age 6 and 22 months. The outcomes of this thesis were number of parent reported infections, child growth and body composition, and child psychomotor development. Overall, there was no effect of BCG on either incidence of infections, growth, body composition or psychomotor development. A subgroup analysis of children of mothers who were BCG vaccinated showed a reduced incidence of infections from 0 to 3 months among BCG vaccinated children (incidence rate ratio = 0.62, CI: 0.39 to 0.98), but there was no effect from 3 to 13 months. Previous research has shown that maternal exposure to BCG or mycobacteria can alter the effect of BCG in the offspring, and thus the

  19. Bacillus licheniformis isolated from Korean traditional food sources enhances the resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans to infection by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyun Sun; Heo, Ju Hee; Son, Seok Jun; Park, Mi Ri; Oh, Sangnam; Song, Min-Ho; Kim, Jong Nam; Go, Gwang-Woong; Cho, Ho-Seong; Choi, Nag-Jin; Jo, Seung-Wha; Jeong, Do-Youn; Kim, Younghoon

    2014-08-01

    We investigated whether Bacillus spp., newly isolated from Korean traditional food resources, influence the resistance of hosts to foodborne pathogens, by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate host model. Initially, we selected 20 Bacillus spp. that possess antimicrobial activity against various foodborne pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus. Among the selected strains, six strains of Bacillus spp. used in preconditioning significantly prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to S. aureus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all six strains were identified as B. licheniformis. Our findings suggest that preconditioning with B. licheniformis may modulate the host defense response against S. aureus.

  20. Different transcriptional profiles of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells infected with distinct strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanarico, Nunzia; Colone, Alessia; Grassi, Manuela; Speranza, Viviana; Giovannini, Daniela; Ciaramella, Antonio; Colizzi, Vittorio; Mariani, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze dendritic cells (DCs) activation following infection with different mycobacterial strains, we studied the expression profiles of 165 genes of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with H37Rv, a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) laboratory strain, CMT97, a clinical MTB isolate, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), Aventis Pasteur, and BCG Japan, both employed as vaccine against tuberculosis. The analysis of the gene expression reveals that, despite a set of genes similarly modulated, DCs response resulted strain dependent. In particular, H37Rv significantly upregulated EBI3 expression compared with BCG Japan, while it was the only strain that failed to release a significant IL-10 amount. Of note, BCG Japan showed a marked increase in CCR7 and TNF-α expression regarding both MTB strains and it resulted the only strain failing in exponential intracellular growth. Our results suggest that DCs display the ability to elicit a tailored strain-specific immune response.

  1. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem Shahzad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser, and proline (Pro as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  2. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Bilal, Saqib

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser), and proline (Pro)) as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA) and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA) contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid) during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way. PMID:28321368

  3. Plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria versus pathogenic infections: an example ofBacillus amyloliquefaciensRWL-1 andFusarium oxysporumf. sp.lycopersiciin tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Khan, Abdul Latif; Bilal, Saqib; Asaf, Sajjad; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Fungal pathogenic attacks are one of the major threats to the growth and productivity of crop plants. Currently, instead of synthetic fungicides, the use of plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes has been considered intriguingly eco-friendly in nature. Here, we aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antagonistic approach by using seed-borne endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RWL-1 against pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici . The results revealed significant suppression of pathogenic fungal growth by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in vitro. Further to this, we inoculated tomato plants with RWL-1 and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in the root zone. The results showed that the growth attributes and biomass were significantly enhanced by endophytic-inoculation during disease incidence as compared to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici infected plants. Under pathogenic infection, the RWL-1-applied plants showed increased amino acid metabolism of cell wall related (e.g., aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine (Ser), and proline (Pro)) as compared to diseased plants. In case of endogenous phytohormones, significantly lower amount of jasmonic acid (JA) and higher amount of salicylic acid (SA) contents was recorded in RWL-1-treated diseased plants. The phytohormones regulation in disease incidences might be correlated with the ability of RWL-1 to produce organic acids (e.g., succinic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and citric acid) during the inoculation and infection of tomato plants. The current findings suggest that RWL-1 inoculation promoted and rescued plant growth by modulating defense hormones and regulating amino acids. This suggests that bacterial endophytes could be used for possible control of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in an eco-friendly way.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of vB_BveP-Goe6, a Virus Infecting Bacillus velezensis FZB42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tobias; Hoppert, Michael; Daniel, Rolf; Hertel, Robert

    2018-02-22

    The new virus vB_BveP-Goe6 was isolated on the host organism Bacillus velezensis FZB42. The virus morphology indicated its association with the genus Phi29virus The genome of vB_BveP-Goe6 (19,105 bp) comprises a linear chromosome with a GC content of 39.99%. The genome harbors 26 putative protein-coding genes and a noncoding packaging RNA. Copyright © 2018 Schilling et al.

  5. GFP tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2 infection and the protective effects of the probiotic Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 on the growth, immune and antioxidant responses in Pangasius hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobi, Narayanan; Malaikozhundan, Balasubramanian; Sekar, Vijayakumar; Shanthi, Sathappan; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Jayakumar, Rengarajan; Khudus Nazar, Abdul

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the pathogenicity of GFP tagged Vibrio parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and the protective effect of the probiotic strain, Bacillus licheniformis Dahb1 was studied on the Asian catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus. The experiment was carried out for 24 days with three groups and one group served as the control (without treatment). In the first group, P. hypophthalmus was orally infected with 1 mL of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). In the second group, P. hypophthalmus was orally administrated with 1 ml of the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). In the third group, P. hypophthalmus was orally infected first with 1 mL of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 followed by the administration of 1 mL of B. licheniformis Dahb1 (combined treatment) at two different doses (10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1)). The growth, immune (myeloperoxidase, respiratory burst, natural complement haemolytic and lysozyme activity) and antioxidant (glutathione-S-transferase, reduced glutathione and total glutathione) responses of P. hypophthalmus were reduced after post infection of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 compared to control. However, after administration with the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at 10(5) cfu mL(-1), P. hypophthalmus showed significant increase in the growth, immune and antioxidant responses compared to 10(7) cfu mL(-1). On the otherhand, the growth, immune and antioxidant responses of P. hypophthalmus infected and administrated with combined GFP tagged Vibrio + Bacillus at 10(5) cfu mL(-1) were relatively higher than that of GFP tagged V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 and control groups but lower than that of probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 groups. The results of the present study conclude that the probiotic B. licheniformis Dahb1 at 10(5) cfu mL(-1) has the potential to protect the P. hypophthalmus against V. parahaemolyticus Dahv2 infection by enhancing the growth

  6. Bacillus Coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and, as a result, is often misclassified as lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus. In fact, some commercial products ... sporogenes or "spore-forming lactic acid bacterium." Unlike lactic acid bacteria such as lactobacillus or bifidobacteria, Bacillus coagulans forms ...

  7. Nitric oxide and KLF4 protein epigenetically modify class II transactivator to repress major histocompatibility complex II expression during Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Devram Sampat; Holla, Sahana; Sinha, Akhauri Yash; Alagesan, Senthil Kumar; Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy

    2013-07-12

    Pathogenic mycobacteria employ several immune evasion strategies such as inhibition of class II transactivator (CIITA) and MHC-II expression, to survive and persist in host macrophages. However, precise roles for specific signaling components executing down-regulation of CIITA/MHC-II have not been adequately addressed. Here, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-mediated TLR2 signaling-induced iNOS/NO expression is obligatory for the suppression of IFN-γ-induced CIITA/MHC-II functions. Significantly, NOTCH/PKC/MAPK-triggered signaling cross-talk was found critical for iNOS/NO production. NO responsive recruitment of a bifunctional transcription factor, KLF4, to the promoter of CIITA during M. bovis BCG infection of macrophages was essential to orchestrate the epigenetic modifications mediated by histone methyltransferase EZH2 or miR-150 and thus calibrate CIITA/MHC-II expression. NO-dependent KLF4 regulated the processing and presentation of ovalbumin by infected macrophages to reactive T cells. Altogether, our study delineates a novel role for iNOS/NO/KLF4 in dictating the mycobacterial capacity to inhibit CIITA/MHC-II-mediated antigen presentation by infected macrophages and thereby elude immune surveillance.

  8. Bacillus cucumis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Kloepper, Joseph W; Hu, Chia-Hui; McInroy, John A

    2016-02-01

    A facultative anaerobic, Gram-positive staining, endospore-forming bacterium, isolated from the rhizosphere of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus ), was taxonomically investigated. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain AP-6 T clustered together with other species of the genus Bacillus and showed highest similarities with Bacillus drentensis LMG 21831 T (99.1 %), Bacillus vireti LMG 21834 T (98.7 %) and Bacillus soli LMG 21838 T (98.5 %). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the sequences of the type strains of other species of the genus Bacillus was 98.5 % or less. Chemotaxonomic features supported the grouping of the strain in the genus Bacillus ; for example, the major fatty acids were anteiso-C 15 : 0 , iso-C 15 : 0 and C 16 : 0 , the polar lipid profile contained the major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unidentified glycolipid, the major quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major compound in the polyamine pattern was spermidine. Additionally, DNA-DNA hybridization with B. drentensis LMG 21831 T , B. vireti LMG 21834 T and B. soli LMG 21838 T resulted in relatedness values that were clearly below 70 %. Physiological and biochemical test results were also different from those of the most closely related species. As a consequence, AP-6 T represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus , for which the name Bacillus cucumis sp. nov. is proposed, with AP-6 T ( = CIP 110974 T  = CCM 8651 T ) as the type strain.

  9. Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Weiwei; Zhu, Liqi; Yang, Qian

    2017-04-28

    Intestinal epithelial cells are the targets for transmissible gastroenteritis (TGE) virus (TGEV) infection. It is urgent to develop a novel candidate against TGEV entry. Bacillus subtilis is a probiotic with excellent anti-microorganism properties and one of its secretions, surfactin, has been regarded as a versatile weapon for most plant pathogens, especially for the enveloped virus. We demonstrate for the first time that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can effectively inhibit one animal coronavirus, TGEV, entering the intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). Then, several different experiments were performed to seek the might mechanisms. The plaque assays showed that surfactant could reduce the plaque generation of TGEV in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, after incubation with TGEV for 1.5 h, B. subtilis could attach TGEV particles to their surface so that the number of virus to bind to the host cells was declined. Furthermore, our data showed that the inhibition of B. subtilis was closely related to the competition with TGEV for the viral entry receptors, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and aminopeptidase N (APN) protein. In addition, Western blotting and apoptosis analysis indicated that B. subtilis could enhance the resistance of IPEC-J2 cells by up-regulating the expression of toll-like receptor (TLR)-6 and reducing the percentage of apoptotic cells. Taken together, our results suggest that B. subtilis OKB105 and its surfactin can antagonize TGEV entry in vitro and may serve as promising new candidates for TGEV prevention. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Different Transcriptional Profiles of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Infected with Distinct Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunzia Sanarico

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze dendritic cells (DCs activation following infection with different mycobacterial strains, we studied the expression profiles of 165 genes of human monocyte-derived DCs infected with H37Rv, a virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB laboratory strain, CMT97, a clinical MTB isolate, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Aventis Pasteur, and BCG Japan, both employed as vaccine against tuberculosis. The analysis of the gene expression reveals that, despite a set of genes similarly modulated, DCs response resulted strain dependent. In particular, H37Rv significantly upregulated EBI3 expression compared with BCG Japan, while it was the only strain that failed to release a significant IL-10 amount. Of note, BCG Japan showed a marked increase in CCR7 and TNF-α expression regarding both MTB strains and it resulted the only strain failing in exponential intracellular growth. Our results suggest that DCs display the ability to elicit a tailored strain-specific immune response.

  11. Successful Treatment of Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Disease in an HIV-Infected Child with a Linezolid-Containing Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Roglić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon HIV infection diagnosis, an 8-month-old boy was transferred for evaluation of worsening respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP was diagnosed; the boy also had a nonhealing ulcer at the site of vaccination with Statens Serum Institut (Danish strain Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG vaccine and associated axillary lymphadenopathy. PCP treatment resulted in weaning from mechanical ventilation. Antimycobacterial treatment was immediately attempted but was discontinued because of hepatotoxicity. Over several months, he developed splenic lesions and then disseminated skin and cystic bone lesions. M. bovis was repeatedly cultured from both skin and bone lesions despite various multidrug antimycobacterial regimens which included linezolid. Eventually, treatment with a regimen of rifabutin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and linezolid led to definitive cure. Clinicians should consider a linezolid-containing regimen for treatment of severe disseminated BCG infection, especially if other drug regimens have failed. Although drug toxicity is a particular concern for young children, this patient received linezolid for 13 months without serious toxicity. This case also highlights the need for universal screening among pregnant women to prevent vertical transmission of HIV. Finally, routine immunization with BCG vaccine at birth should be questioned in countries with low and declining burden of tuberculosis.

  12. Isolation of a chitinolytic Bacillus licheniformis S213 strain exerting a biological control against Phoma medicaginis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimene, Imen Ben; Tabbene, Olfa; Gharbi, Dorra; Mnasri, Bacem; Schmitter, Jean Marie; Urdaci, Maria-Camino; Limam, Ferid

    2015-04-01

    Among nine chitinase-producing strains isolated from Tunisian soil, one isolate called S213 exhibited a potent chitinolytic activity. S213 strain was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by API 50CH system and sequence analysis of its partial 16S ribosomal DNA. Chitinolytic activity was induced either by colloidal chitin or fungal cell walls, and the highest chitinase activity reached at the late stationary phase exhibiting optimal temperature and pH of 50-60 °C and pH 6.0, respectively. SDS-PAGE analysis of the secreted colloidal chitin-induced proteins showed a major protein of about 65 kDa. This protein was identified as chitinase on the basis of its peptide sequences which displayed high homology with chitinase sequence of B. licheniformis ATCC 14580. Moreover, chitinolytic activity containing supernatant inhibited the growth of several phytopathogenic fungi including Phoma medicaginis. Interestingly, S213 strain reduced efficiently the damping-off disease caused by P. medicaginis in Medicago truncatula and should be envisaged in enzyme-based biopesticides against phytopathogen application.

  13. Antimicrobial effect of lactobacillus and bacillus derived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus bacteria and their antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infections (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion.

  14. Infection of an axillo-bifemoral bypass graft following intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG immunotherapy for urothelial cancer due to Mycobacterium bovis and Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel C. DeSimone

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of occult Mycobacterium bovis left axillary-bifemoral bypass graft infection, with superimposed acute methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA infection in an 82 year old male following intravesicular bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG for adjuvant therapy of urothelial cancer. The patient underwent partial removal of the bypass graft and treated with antimycobacterial therapy—rifampin and isoniazid for 9 months, and intravenous cefazolin followed by oral cephalexin for chronic suppressive therapy for MSSA. This presentation highlights the need to consider indolent infection masquerading as mechanical erosion, even when an alternate infection is present. Keywords: Mycobacterium bovis, Bacille Calmette–Guerin, Vascular graft infection, Urothelial cancer, Staphylococcus aureus

  15. Influence of dietary probiotic Bacillus TC22 and Prebiotic fructooligosaccharide on growth, immune responses and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus infection in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yancui; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Yanjiao; Wang, Xiaojie; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2011-09-01

    The effects of probiotic Bacillus TC22 (isolated from intestine of infected sea cucumber) and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth, immunity and disease resistance in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus were studied. Six experimental diets were formulated with combinations of three levels of TC22 (0, 107 and 109 CFU g-1 diet) and two levels of FOS (0 and 0.5%) in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment. At the end of the 8-week feeding trial, animals were challenged by injecting Vibrio splendidus. The results revealed that the specific growth rates (SGR) of sea cucumbers were not affected by TC22 and FOS, or the interaction between TC22 and FOS ( P > 0.05). However, there were significant interactions between TC22 and FOS for immune response and disease resistance in sea cucumbers ( P 0.05). Therefore, further studies should examine the effects of combinations of other levels of FOS (> 0.5% or < 0.5%) and TC22 on the immunity and disease resistance of sea cucumbers.

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry5B protein is highly efficacious as a single-dose therapy against an intestinal roundworm infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic nematode diseases are one of the great diseases of our time. Intestinal roundworm parasites, including hookworms, whipworms, and Ascaris, infect well over 1 billion people and cause significant morbidity, especially in children and pregnant women. To date, there is only one drug, albendazole, with adequate efficacy against these parasites to be used in mass drug administration, although tribendimidine may emerge as a second. Given the hundreds of millions of people to be treated, the threat of parasite resistance, and the inadequacy of current treatments, new anthelmintics are urgently needed. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt crystal (Cry proteins are the most common used biologically produced insecticides in the world and are considered non-toxic to vertebrates.Here we study the ability of a nematicidal Cry protein, Cry5B, to effect a cure in mice of a chronic roundworm infection caused by the natural intestinal parasite, Heligmosomoides bakeri (formerly polygyrus. We show that Cry5B produced from either of two Bt strains can act as an anthelmintic in vivo when administered as a single dose, achieving a approximately 98% reduction in parasite egg production and approximately 70% reduction in worm burdens when delivered per os at approximately 700 nmoles/kg (90-100 mg/kg. Furthermore, our data, combined with the findings of others, suggest that the relative efficacy of Cry5B is either comparable or superior to current anthelmintics. We also demonstrate that Cry5B is likely to be degraded quite rapidly in the stomach, suggesting that the actual dose reaching the parasites is very small.This study indicates that Bt Cry proteins such as Cry5B have excellent anthelmintic properties in vivo and that proper formulation of the protein is likely to reveal a superior anthelmintic.

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Wemheuer, Franziska; Harting, Rebekka; Kolarzyk, Anna M; Diaz Valerio, Stefani M; Poehlein, Anja; Brzuszkiewicz, Elzbieta B; Nesemann, Kai; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A; Braus, Gerhard H; Daniel, Rolf; Liesegang, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Verticillium wilt causes severe yield losses in a broad range of economically important crops worldwide. As many soil fumigants have a severe environmental impact, new biocontrol strategies are needed. Members of the genus Bacillus are known as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) as well as biocontrol agents of pests and diseases. In this study, we isolated 267 Bacillus strains from root-associated soil of field-grown tomato plants. We evaluated the antifungal potential of 20 phenotypically diverse strains according to their antagonistic activity against the two phytopathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium longisporum . In addition, the 20 strains were sequenced and phylogenetically characterized by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) resulting in 7 different Bacillus thuringiensis and 13 Bacillus weihenstephanensis strains. All B. thuringiensis isolates inhibited in vitro the tomato pathogen V. dahliae JR2, but had only low efficacy against the tomato-foreign pathogen V. longisporum 43. All B. weihenstephanensis isolates exhibited no fungicidal activity whereas three B. weihenstephanensis isolates showed antagonistic effects on both phytopathogens. These strains had a rhizoid colony morphology, which has not been described for B. weihenstephanensis strains previously. Genome analysis of all isolates revealed putative genes encoding fungicidal substances and resulted in identification of 304 secondary metabolite gene clusters including 101 non-ribosomal polypeptide synthetases and 203 ribosomal-synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides. All genomes encoded genes for the synthesis of the antifungal siderophore bacillibactin. In the genome of one B. thuringiensis strain, a gene cluster for zwittermicin A was detected. Isolates which either exhibited an inhibitory or an interfering effect on the growth of the phytopathogens carried one or two genes encoding putative mycolitic chitinases, which might contribute to antifungal activities

  18. ATR/TEM8 is highly expressed in epithelial cells lining Bacillus anthracis' three sites of entry: implications for the pathogenesis of anthrax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuccelli, Gloria; Sotgia, Federica; Frank, Philippe G; Williams, Terence M; de Almeida, Cecilia J; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Scherer, Philipp E; Hotchkiss, Kylie A; Terman, Bruce I; Rollman, Brent; Alileche, Abdelkrim; Brojatsch, Jürgen; Lisanti, Michael P

    2005-06-01

    Anthrax is a disease caused by infection with spores from the bacteria Bacillus anthracis. These spores enter the body, where they germinate into bacteria and secrete a tripartite toxin that causes local edema and, in systemic infections, death. Recent studies identified the cellular receptor for anthrax toxin (ATR), a type I membrane protein. ATR is one of the splice variants of the tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) gene. ATR and TEM8 are identical throughout their extracellular and transmembrane sequence, and both proteins function as receptors for the toxin. ATR/TEM8 function and expression have been associated with development of the vascular system and with tumor angiogenesis. TEM8 is selectively upregulated in endothelial cells during blood vessel formation and tumorigenesis. However, selective expression of TEM8 in endothelial cells contradicts the presumably ubiquitous expression of the receptor. To resolve this controversial issue, we evaluated the distribution of ATR/TEM8 in a variety of tissues. For this purpose, we generated and characterized a novel anti-ATR/TEM8 polyclonal antibody. Here, we show that this novel antibody recognizes all three ATR/TEM8 isoforms, which are widely and differentially expressed in various tissue types. We found that ATR/TEM8 expression is not only associated with tumor endothelial cells, as previously described. Indeed, ATR/TEM8 is highly and selectively expressed in the epithelial cells lining those organs that constitute the anthrax toxin's sites of entry, i.e., the lung, the skin, and the intestine. In fact, we show that ATR/TEM8 is highly expressed in the respiratory epithelium of the bronchi of the lung and is particularly abundant in the ciliated epithelial cells coating the bronchi. Furthermore, immunostaining of skin biopsies revealed that ATR/TEM8 is highly expressed in the keratinocytes of the epidermis. Finally, we show that the epithelial cells lining the small intestine strongly express ATR/TEM8 isoforms. This

  19. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, Annika; Mahillon, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteriophages (phages) have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here. PMID:25010767

  20. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  1. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuxuan; Shang, Qingmao; Zhang, Ying; Li, Pinglan; Chai, Yunrong

    2017-01-01

    Vegetable plug seedling has become the most important way to produce vegetable seedlings in China. This seedling method can significantly improve the quality and yield of vegetables compared to conventional methods. In the process of plug seedling, chemical fertilizers or pesticides are often used to improve the yield of the seedlings albeit with increasing concerns. Meanwhile, little is known about the impact of beneficial bacteria on the rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of vegetables during plug seedling. In this study, we applied a culture-independent next-generation sequencing-based approach and investigated the impact of a plant beneficial bacterium, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens L-S60, on the composition and dynamics of rhizosphere microbiota and the growth conditions of cucumbers during plug seedling. Our results showed that application of L-S60 significantly altered the structure of the bacterial community associated with the cucumber seedling; presence of beneficial rhizosphere species such as Bacillus, Rhodanobacter, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Nonomuraea , and Agrobacterium was higher upon L-S60 treatment than in the control group. We also measured the impact of L-S60 application on the physiological properties of the cucumber seedlings as well as the availability of main mineral elements in the seedling at different time points during the plug seedling. Results from those measurements indicated that L-S60 application promoted growth conditions of cucumber seedlings and that more available mineral elements were detected in the cucumber seedlings from the L-S60 treated group than from the control group. The findings in this study provided evidence for the beneficial effects of plant growth-promoting rhizosphere bacteria on the bacterial community composition and growth conditions of the vegetables during plug seedling.

  2. The Role of the Third Acid-Fast Bacillus Smear in Tuberculosis Screening for Infection Control Purposes: A Controversial Topic Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wilmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have suggested that two negative acid-fast bacillus (AFB smears may be as effective as three when screening patients with suspected Mycobacterium tuberculosis for respiratory isolation purposes. However, current recommendations in Canada, the United States and Europe still support a three-smear approach.

  3. Bacillus cereus infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, A I; Evans, D M

    1983-05-01

    Two patients are reported in whom severe toxicity developed about 4 days after relatively minor burn injuries and in whom the burn areas then appeared to enlarge. In both patients, B. cereus and Staph. aureus were isolated and the affected burn areas had subcutaneous thrombosis and necrosis. The management is outlined and the dramatic rapidity of onset of toxicity emphasized, with special reference to increasing pain, lividity and extension of the burns.

  4. Anthrax Lethal Toxin Impairs Innate Immune Functions of Alveolar Macrophages and Facilitates Bacillus anthracis Survival

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribot, Wilson J; Panchal, Rekha G; Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Kenny, Tara A; Lane, Douglas; Curry, Bob; Hoover, Timothy A; Friedlander, Arthur M; Bavari, Sina

    2006-01-01

    .... Although several factors contribute to inhalational anthrax, we hypothesized that unimpeded infection of Bacillus anthracis is directly linked to disabling the innate immune functions contributed by AM...

  5. Bacillus coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulitto, Martina; Fusco, Salvatore; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Franzén, Carl Johan; Contursi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    The transition from a petroleum-based economy towards more sustainable bioprocesses for the production of fuels and chemicals (circular economy) is necessary to alleviate the impact of anthropic activities on the global ecosystem. Lignocellulosic biomass-derived sugars are suitable alternative feedstocks that can be fermented or biochemically converted to value-added products. An example is lactic acid, which is an essential chemical for the production of polylactic acid, a biodegradable bioplastic. However, lactic acid is still mainly produced by Lactobacillus species via fermentation of starch-containing materials, the use of which competes with the supply of food and feed. A thermophilic and cellulolytic lactic acid producer was isolated from bean processing waste and was identified as a new strain of Bacillus coagulans , named MA-13. This bacterium fermented lignocellulose-derived sugars to lactic acid at 55 °C and pH 5.5. Moreover, it was found to be a robust strain able to tolerate high concentrations of hydrolysate obtained from wheat straw pre-treated by acid-catalysed (pre-)hydrolysis and steam explosion, especially when cultivated in controlled bioreactor conditions. Indeed, unlike what was observed in microscale cultivations (complete growth inhibition at hydrolysate concentrations above 50%), B. coagulans MA-13 was able to grow and ferment in 95% hydrolysate-containing bioreactor fermentations. This bacterium was also found to secrete soluble thermophilic cellulases, which could be produced at low temperature (37 °C), still retaining an optimal operational activity at 50 °C. The above-mentioned features make B. coagulans MA-13 an appealing starting point for future development of a consolidated bioprocess for production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic biomass, after further strain development by genetic and evolutionary engineering. Its optimal temperature and pH of growth match with the operational conditions of fungal enzymes hitherto

  6. Toxicity of Tolyltriazole to Bacillus Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans Microbacterium lacticum Jupiter Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus cereus Bacillus Bacillus thuringiensis...TOXICITY OF TOLYLTRIAZOLE TO BACILLUS MICROORGANISMS THESIS Christopher J. Leonard, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/OOM-12 Approved for...AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TOXICITY OF TOLYLTRIAZOLE TO BACILLUS MICROORGANISMS 6. AUTHOR(S) Christopher J

  7. Complete Genome of Bacillus megaterium Podophage Pascal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Jeffery D; Vega Gonzalez, Alexander E; Maroun, Justin W; Hernandez, Adriana C; Kuty Everett, Gabriel F

    2015-01-29

    Podophage Pascal infects Bacillus megaterium, a commonly used model organism in biochemical research and an important industrial-scale protein production system. Here, we report the sequenced and annotated genome of Pascal and describe its prominent features. Bacteriophages such as Pascal may be valuable tools for research and industry. Copyright © 2015 Snowden et al.

  8. CASE REPORT Uncommon Pathogen Bacillus Cereus Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... Uncommon Pathogen Bacillus Cereus Causing Subdural Empyema in a Child. Prastiya Indra Gunawan1*, Leny Kartina1, Dwiyanti Puspitasari1, Erny Erny2. OPEN ACCESS ... secondary to middle ear infection, meningitis, brain surgery, ... classic clinical syndrome is an acute febrile illness punctuated by.

  9. The Effect of Smallpox and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Vaccination on the Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection in Guinea-Bissau and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieckmann, Andreas; Villumsen, Marie; Jensen, Mette Lundsby

    2017-01-01

    -Bissau including 1751 individuals and (2) a case-base study with a background population of 46239 individuals in Denmark. In Guinea-Bissau, HIV-1 transmission was almost exclusively sexually transmitted. In Denmark, we excluded intravenous drug users. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. RESULTS: Bacillus......: The studies from Guinea-Bissau and Denmark, 2 very different settings, both suggest that the BCG and smallpox vaccines could be associated with a decreased risk of sexually transmitted HIV-1. It might be informative to pursue this observation and explore possible protective mechanisms as part of the search...

  10. MicroRNA-144-3p inhibits autophagy activation and enhances Bacillus Calmette-Guérin infection by targeting ATG4a in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Le; Zhou, Linlin; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Aijun; Wei, Jun; Hong, Dantong; Chu, Yuankui; Duan, Xiangguo; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Guangxian

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding nucleotides that play major roles in the response of host immune cells. Autophagy plays a key role in activating the antimicrobial host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Whether miRNAs specifically influence the activation of macrophage autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection is largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection of macrophages leads to increased expression of miR-144-3p, which targets autophagy-related gene 4a (ATG4a), to inhibit autophagy activation and antimicrobial responses to BCG. Overexpression of miR-144-3p significantly decreased both mRNA and protein levels of ATG4a, inhibited the formation of autophagosomes in RAW264.7 cells and increased intracellular survival of BCG. However, transfection with miR-144-3p inhibitor led to an increase in ATG4a levels, accelerated the autophagic response in macrophages, and decreased BCG survival in macrophages. The experimental results of this study reveal a novel role of miR-144-3p in inhibiting autophagy activation by targeting ATG4a and enhancing BCG infection, and provide potential targets for developing improved treatment.

  11. Noncontiguous finished genome sequences and description of Bacillus massiliglaciei, Bacillus mediterraneensis, Bacillus massilinigeriensis, Bacillus phocaeensis and Bacillus tuaregi, five new species identified by culturomics

    OpenAIRE

    Cadoret, F.; Alou, M.T.; Afouda, P.; Traore, I.S.; Br?chard, L.; Michelle, C.; Di Pinto, F.; Andrieu, C.; Delerce, J.; Levasseur, A.; Fournier, P.-E.; Raoult, D.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial culturomics, which investigates microbial diversity by combining diversified culture conditions, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA identification, allowed to identify five new species within the Bacillus genus. Bacillus massiliglaciei strain Marseille-P2600T, Bacillus mediterraneensis strain Marseille-P2384T, Bacillus massilinigeriensis strain Marseille-P2366T, Bacillus tuaregi strain Marseille-P2489T and Bacillus phocaeensis s...

  12. Genetic evidence for the involvement of the S-layer protein gene sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in Phage AP50c infection of Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Roger D; Beaber, John W; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M; Pope, Robert K; Read, Timothy D; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga

    2014-03-01

    In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the S layer of each of the spo0 mutant strains was substantially reduced compared to that of the parent strain, and incubation of AP50c with purified recombinant Sap led to a substantial reduction in phage activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences of B. cereus sensu lato strains revealed several closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains that carry sap genes with very high similarities to the sap gene of B. anthracis. Complementation of the Δsap mutant in trans with the wild-type B. anthracis sap or the sap gene from either of two different B. cereus strains that are sensitive to AP50c infection restored phage sensitivity, and electron microscopy confirmed attachment of phage particles to the surface of each of the complemented strains. Based on these data, we postulate that Sap is involved in AP50c infectivity, most likely acting as the phage receptor, and that the spo0 genes may regulate synthesis of Sap and/or formation of the S layer.

  13. Identification of MBF2 family genes in Bombyx mori and their expression in different tissues and stages and in response to Bacillus bombysepticus infection and starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun-Yan; Zha, Xing-Fu; Liu, Chun; Han, Min-Jin; Zhang, Li-Ying; Shi, Pan-Pan; Wang, He; Zheng, Ren-Wen; Xia, Qing-You

    2016-08-01

    The Multiprotein bridge factor 2 (MBF2) gene was first identified as a co-activator involved in BmFTZ-F1-mediated activation of the Fushi tarazu gene. Herein, nine homologous genes of MBF2 gene are identified. Evolutionary analysis showed that this gene family is insect-specific and that the family members are closely related to response to pathogens (REPAT) genes. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that these genes could be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Developmental profiles analysis showed that the MBF2 gene family members were highly expressed in the different stages. Analysis of the expression patterns of nine MBF2 family genes showed that Bacillus bombysepticus treatment induced the up-regulation of several MBF2 family genes, including MBF2-4, -7, -9, -8. Furthermore, we found the MBF2 family genes were modulated by starvation and the expression of these genes recovered upon re-feeding, except for MBF2-5, -9. These findings suggested roles for these proteins in insect defense against pathogens and nutrient metabolism, which has an important guiding significance for designing pest control strategies. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Siderophores of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melissa K; Abergel, Rebecca J; Raymond, Kenneth N; Arceneaux, Jean E L; Byers, B Rowe

    2006-09-15

    Three Bacillus anthracis Sterne strains (USAMRIID, 7702, and 34F2) and Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 excrete two catecholate siderophores, petrobactin (which contains 3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl moieties) and bacillibactin (which contains 2,3-dihydroxybenzoyl moieties). However, the insecticidal organism Bacillus thuringiensis ATCC 33679 makes only bacillibactin. Analyses of siderophore production by previously isolated [Cendrowski et al., Mol. Microbiol. 52 (2004) 407-417] B. anthracis mutant strains revealed that the B. anthracis bacACEBF operon codes for bacillibactin production and the asbAB gene region is required for petrobactin assembly. The two catecholate moieties also were synthesized by separate routes. PCR amplification identified both asbA and asbB genes in the petrobactin producing strains whereas B. thuringiensis ATCC 33679 retained only asbA. Petrobactin synthesis is not limited to the cluster of B. anthracis strains within the B. cereus sensu lato group (in which B. cereus, B. anthracis, and B. thuringiensis are classified), although petrobactin might be prevalent in strains with pathogenic potential for vertebrates.

  15. Phosphorescence In Bacillus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinisch, Lou; Swartz, Barry A; Bronk, Burt V

    2003-01-01

    .... Our present work attempts to build on this approach for environmental applications. We have measured a change in the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of Bacillus bacteria between the vegetative bacteria and their spores at room temperature...

  16. Dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus oryzae enhance immunity and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus iniae infection in juvenile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Marina Keiko P; Nakandakare, Ivan B; Terhune, Jeffery S; Wood, Theresa; Ranzani-Paiva, Maria José T

    2015-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary administration of probiotic with Bacillus subtilis, Aspergillus oryzae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth, innate immune response, Hemato-immunological parameters and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Animals were distributed in three equal groups, each of five replicates and received one of the following experimental diets for four weeks: Control, non-supplemented diet; 5 g kg(-1) probiotic mixture (B. subtilis 1.5 × 10(9) CFU g(-1), S. cerevisiae 10(9) CFU g(-1) and A. oryzae 2 × 10(9) CFU g(-1)); and 10 g kg(-1) probiotic mixture (B. subtilis 3.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1), S. cerevisiae 2.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1) and A. oryzae 4.0 × 10(9) CFU g(-1)). The respiratory burst activity, white blood cells and hematological parameters were evaluated after four, five and six weeks of feeding. At the end of the growth trial, fish were sampled for intestinal microbiology and challenged by intraperitoneal injection of LD50 concentration of Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus iniae. Mortality was recorded for the following 3 weeks. Results showed that administration of the probiotic had no significant effect on the growth rates of Nile tilapias, although the fish fed probiotics had better feed conversion. Respiratory burst activity, erythrocyte fragility and levels of white blood cells were significantly improved in tilapias fed diet supplemented with probiotic levels (P tilapia immune parameters. The cumulative mortality after A. hydrophila and S. iniae challenge decreased in tilapias fed with probiotic (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrated the potential of B. subtilis, S. cerevisiae and A. oryzae combined as beneficial dietary probiotic in juvenile O. niloticus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of dietary Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunological parameters, intestinal morphology and resistance of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to challenge infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Biao; Long, Wei-Qing; He, Ju-Yun; Liu, Yong-Jian; Si, Yu-Qi; Tian, Li-Xia

    2015-10-01

    The effects of oral administration of Bacillus licheniformis on growth performance, immunity, intestinal morphology and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia were investigated. Six experimental diets supplemented with different concentrations of B. licheniformis (0%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.06%, 0.08% and 0.1% of AlCare(®), containing live germ 2 × 10(10) CFU/g) were formulated, viz. control, T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5. Each diet was randomly assigned to triplicate groups of 30 fishes (3.83 ± 0.03 g). After 10 weeks of feeding trial, weight gain (WG), final body wet weight (FBW) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased significantly in groups T2, T3, T4 and T5 compared with control and T1 (p 0.05). Compared with control, dietary B. licheniformis supplementation increased the content of complement C3 in serum significantly (P licheniformis supplementation (P > 0.05). When tilapia were challenged against Streptococcus iniae, survival rate improved significantly when tilapia fed with T2, T3, T4 and T5 (P licheniformis (T2, T3, T4, T5) tended to be regularly arranged and exhibited less exfoliation, twist and fusion. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of B. licheniformis not only increased the growth, immune response and disease resistance of juvenile tilapia, but also influenced anterior intestinal development and integrity. Furthermore, in our study, the optimal concentration of B. licheniformis in diets for tilapia was greater than or equal to 4.4 × 10(6) CFU/g. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Type b) How to Take Your Child's Temperature Impetigo Infant Botulism Infections That Pets Carry Influenza (Flu) ... Herpes Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Hives (Urticaria) Impetigo Infections That Pets Carry Lyme Disease Measles Molluscum ...

  19. Effects of probiotic Bacillus species in aquaculture – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Teodor BURUIANĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ingestion of a large amount of certain types of beneficial bacteria can reduce the multiplication and development of pathogenic bacteria in the gut. A “probiotic” is a product that contains live microorganisms which positively influence the host intestinal microbiota by preventing the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and promoting the growth and development of beneficial bacteria. Bacillus spp. are Gram-positive endospore-forming bacteria with beneficial effects in aquaculture industry. The dietary supplementation of Bacillus spp. in fish culture improved especially growth performance, immune response and the disease resistance of fish against pathogenic bacterial infections. The objective of the current paper is to review the recent published investigations reported in the scientific literature on the use of probiotic Bacillus spp. in aquaculture, focusing on their beneficial effects on the host. This review includes the main effects of Bacillus spp. administration in shrimp culture, carp culture, tilapia culture, and other fish culture.

  20. A New Approach for Designing A Potentially Vaccine Candidate against Urinary Tract Infection by Using Protein Display on Lacto-bacillus Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is really high in the world. Escherichia coli is a major agent of UTI. One of the strategies for decreasing UTI infections is vaccine development. As the attachment is a really important stage in colonization and infection, at­tachment inhibition has an applied strategy. FimH protein is a major factor during bacterial colonization in urinary tract and could be used as a vaccine. Thus, it was considered in this research as a candidate antigen. Methods: The sequences of fimH and acmA genes were used for designing a synthetic gene. It was cloned to pET23a expression vector and transformed to E. coli (DE3 Origami. To confirm the expression of recombinant protein, SDS-PAGE and western blotting methods were used. Subsequently, recombinant protein was purified. On the other hand, Lactobacillus reuteri was cultured and mixed with FimH / AcmA recombinant protein. The rate of protein localization on lactobacillus surface was assessed using ELISA method. Results: It was showed that the recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli (DE3 Origami and purified by affinity chromatography. Moreover, this protein could be localized on lactobacillus surface by 5 days. Conclusion: In current study, a fusion recombinant protein was pre­pared and displayed on L. reuteri surface. This strain could be used for animal experiment as a competitor against Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC. Using manipulated probiotics strains instead of antibiotic ther­apy could decrease the antibiotic consumption and reduce multi-drug resistant strains.

  1. Bacillus odysseyi isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri (Inventor); La Duc, Myron Thomas (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus odysseyi isolate with high adherence and sterilization resistant properties. B. odysseyi is a round spore forming Bacillus species that produces an exosporium. This novel species has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and the type strain is 34hs-1.sup.T (=ATCC PTA-4993.sup.T=NRRL B-30641.sup.T=NBRC 100172.sup.T). The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of strain 34hs-1.sup.T is AF526913.

  2. Children with lymphadenitis associated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination do not experience more infections when compared with BCG-vaccinated children without lymphadenitis: a three years paired-cohort in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Cruz, Enrique; Arellano-Estrada, Jorge Luis; Lopatynsky-Reyes, Erika; Alvelais-Palacios, Jorge; Becka, Chandra

    2017-08-01

    Vaccination against tuberculosis with live-attenuated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is widely used even though its effectiveness is controversial. BCG-lymphadenitis (BCG-LA) is its most common complication. Some studies have proposed that BCG-LA can be associated with primary immunodeficiencies (PIs). This study's aim is to see whether patients who developed BCG-LA (named as 'LA') developed more infections than BCG-vaccinated children without BCG-LA (named as 'NON-LA'). From January 2009 to April 2014, 31 LA children were seen at the outpatient clinic of the General Hospital of Tijuana, Mexico. Among them, 22 (70.97%), 5 (16.13%) and 4 (12.9%) had axillary, supraclavicular, or both BCG-LA, respectively. No treatment was given and complications were not seen. Per LA subject, a NON-LA not >1 month of age difference and same gender was paired and followed for 3 years to look for ambulatory infections (AINFs), acute otitis media (AOM) and hospitalizations. Surveillance per patient was performed by phone monthly, and they were seen at the clinic every 4 months. All patients were HIV-negative and had no family history of PI. Statistical analyses used were relative risk (RR) with confidence intervals (CI), t test for independent variables and z test. In total 62 subjects were enrolled: 31 LA paired with 31 NON-LA. Between them, there were no differences in age, day care attendance and breastfeeding. There were no differences in the total number of AINF per patient (LA: 18.61 avg. ± 5.03 SD versus NON-LA: 18.19 avg. ± 4.17 SD, RR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.33-0.66), AOM total episodes (LA: 30 versus NON-LA: 26, RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.31-0.68) and hospitalizations (LA: 5 versus NON-LA: 4, RR = 1, 95% CI = 0.25-0.74). This cohort strongly suggests that BCG-LA in healthy children is not associated with more episodes of AINF and hospitalizations, when paired and compared with children BCG-vaccinated without BCG-LA.

  3. Efficacy of Oritavancin in a Murine Model of Bacillus anthracis Spore Inhalation Anthrax

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heine, H. S; Bassett, J; Miller, L; Bassett, A; Ivins, B. E; Lehous, D; Arhin, F. F; Parr, Jr., T. R; Moeck, G

    2008-01-01

    The inhaled form of Bacillus anthracis infection may be fatal to humans. The current standard of care for inhalational anthrax postexposure prophylaxis is ciprofloxacin therapy twice daily for 60 days...

  4. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp plantarum and ‘Bacillus oryzicola’ are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rhizosphere isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of comm...

  5. Characterization of Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands LM; Dufrenne JB; Leusden FM; MGB

    2002-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitary microorganism that may cause food borne disease. Pathogenicity, however, depends on various characteristics such as the ability to form (entero)-toxin(s) that can not be detected by microbiological methods. Further characterization of pathogenic properties is not only

  6. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.; Amati, G.; Andersen, K.K.; Arnaud, M.; Asai, K.; Ashikaga, S.; Aymerich, S.; Bessieres, P.; Boland, F.; Brignell, S.C.; Bron, S; Bunai, K.; Chapuis, J; Christiansen, L.C.; Danchin, A.; Debarbouille, M.; Dervyn, E.; Deuerling, E.; Devine, K.; Devine, S.K.; Dreesen, O.; Errington, J.; Fillinger, S.; Foster, S.J.; Fujita, Y.; Galizzi, A.; Gardan, R.; Eschevins, C.; Fukushima, T.; Haga, K.; Harwood, C.R; Hecker, M.; Hosoya, D.; Hullo, M.F.; Kakeshita, H.; Karamata, D.; Kasahara, Y.; Kawamura, F.; Koga, K.; Koski, P.; Kuwana, R.; Imamura, D.; Ishimaru, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Ishio, I.; Le Coq, D.; Masson, A.; Mauel, C.; Meima, Roelf; Mellado, R.P.; Moir, A.; Moriya, S.; Nagakawa, E.; Nanamiya, H.; Nakai, S.; Nygaard, P.; Ogura, M.; Ohanan, T.; O'Reilly, M.; O'Rourke, M.; Pragai, Z.; Pooley, H.M.; Rapoport, G.; Rawlins, J.P.; Rivas, L.A.; Rivolta, C.; Sadaie, A.; Sadaie, Y.; Sarvas, M; Sato, T.; Saxild, H.H.; Scanlan, E.; Schumann, W; Seegers, J.F. M. L.; Sekiguchi, J.; Sekowska, A.; Seror, S.J.; Simon, M.; Stragier, P.; Studer, R.; Takamatsu, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takeuchi, M.; Thomaides, H.B.; Vagner, V.; van Dijl, J.M.; Watabe, K.; Wipat, A; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yamane, K.; Yata, K.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Zuber, U.; Ogasawara, N.; Ishio, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were

  7. Draft Genome Sequences of Three Alkaliphilic Bacillus Strains, Bacillus wakoensis JCM 9140T, Bacillus akibai JCM 9157T, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus JCM 9152T

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Masahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Suda, Wataru; Oshida, Yumi; Kitamura, Keiko; Iida, Toshiya; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequences of the type strains of three cellulolytic or hemicellulolytic alkaliphilic Bacillus species: Bacillus wakoensis, Bacillus akibai, and Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus. The genome information for these three strains will be useful for studies of alkaliphilic Bacillus species, their evolution, and biotechnological applications for their enzymes.

  8. Virulence of Bacillus cereus as natural facultative pathogen of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of 4407 Anopheles subpictus larvae collected from submerged rice-fields and shallow ponds, 1412 were found to be unhealthy and 2.8% of unhealthy larvae were naturally infected by Bacillus cereus. B. cereus formed circular, white and flat colonies. Bacteria were gram positive, ellipsoidal/oval spore forming aerobic ...

  9. Isolation and characterization of lactobacillus and bacillus producing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on the screening, production, extraction of biosurfactants from Lactobacillus and Bacillus, and its antimicrobial properties against causal microorganisms of food borne infection (food borne pathogens). The biosurfactants were investigated for potential antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion method ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Bacillus subtilis [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Bacillus_subtilis_S.png Bacillus_subtilis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus...+subtilis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Bacillus+subtilis&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=214 ...

  11. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae ). Staphylococcus species is by far the most studied pathogen in musculoskeletal infections and can produce a multilayered biofilm...the immune system and may be involved in both the response to sepsis and malignancy. For example, in neonatal mice, BMP signaling is a normal part of

  12. Microbial genotyping and differentiating between Bacillus mojavensis and Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacillus mojavensis, a specie recently distinguished from its previous Bacillus subtilis classification, was discovered in corn kernels and later determined to possess endophytic character. The bacterium was also determined to have biocontrol potential due to its growth inhibition of the maize mycot...

  13. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... as Bacillus macerans, Bacillus coagulans Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis. Heat treatment at 70oC denatured the β-amylase component of the amylase source while α-amylase retained its potency at this temperature. Calcium.

  14. Isolation and Identification of Bacillus Species From Soil and Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Bacillus species are the predominant soil bacteria because of their resistant-endospore formation and production of essential antibiotics such as bacitracin. Objectives The aim of this study was to isolate Bacillus spp. from riverside soil and investigate their antimicrobial characteristics against some pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods Fifty soil samples were collected from different sites of Bahmanshir riverside in Abadan city, Iran, and analyzed for the presence of Bacillus species. The media used in this research were nutrient broth and agar. Bacillus species were identified by their phenotypic and biochemical characteristics. The antimicrobial effects of Bacillus extract against the target bacteria including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Corynebacterium diphtheriae were examined. Results The identified Bacillus species included B. cereus (86.6%, B. subtilis (6.6%, B. thuringiensis (3.3%, and B. pumilus (3.3%. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of the extracted compounds was carried out against five different bacteria. Antibiotic production tests indicated that two Bacillus strains belong to B. cereus, which showed antimicrobial properties. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of these compounds ranged between 8.34-33.34 mg/mL for the target bacteria. Conclusions This study indicated that some Bacillus species have the potential to produce antimicrobial compounds which can be used to control microbial infections.

  15. Noncontiguous finished genome sequences and description of Bacillus massiliglaciei, Bacillus mediterraneensis, Bacillus massilinigeriensis, Bacillus phocaeensis and Bacillus tuaregi, five new species identified by culturomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cadoret

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culturomics, which investigates microbial diversity by combining diversified culture conditions, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and 16S rDNA identification, allowed to identify five new species within the Bacillus genus. Bacillus massiliglaciei strain Marseille-P2600T, Bacillus mediterraneensis strain Marseille-P2384T, Bacillus massilinigeriensis strain Marseille-P2366T, Bacillus tuaregi strain Marseille-P2489T and Bacillus phocaeensis strain SIT16T are each the type strain of the corresponding bacterial species. These strains, the genomes of which are described here, are facultative anaerobic Gram-positive bacilli. Here, we describe the main characteristics of each bacterium and present their complete genome sequence and annotation.

  16. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly H Ganz

    Full Text Available Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales, featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  17. Novel giant siphovirus from Bacillus anthracis features unusual genome characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Holly H; Law, Christina; Schmuki, Martina; Eichenseher, Fritz; Calendar, Richard; Loessner, Martin J; Getz, Wayne M; Korlach, Jonas; Beyer, Wolfgang; Klumpp, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    Here we present vB_BanS-Tsamsa, a novel temperate phage isolated from Bacillus anthracis, the agent responsible for anthrax infections in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tsamsa phage is a giant siphovirus (order Caudovirales), featuring a long, flexible and non-contractile tail of 440 nm (not including baseplate structure) and an isometric head of 82 nm in diameter. We induced Tsamsa phage in samples from two different carcass sites in Etosha National Park, Namibia. The Tsamsa phage genome is the largest sequenced Bacillus siphovirus, containing 168,876 bp and 272 ORFs. The genome features an integrase/recombinase enzyme, indicative of a temperate lifestyle. Among bacterial strains tested, the phage infected only certain members of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group (B. anthracis, B. cereus and B. thuringiensis) and exhibited moderate specificity for B. anthracis. Tsamsa lysed seven out of 25 B. cereus strains, two out of five B. thuringiensis strains and six out of seven B. anthracis strains tested. It did not lyse B. anthracis PAK-1, an atypical strain that is also resistant to both gamma phage and cherry phage. The Tsamsa endolysin features a broader lytic spectrum than the phage host range, indicating possible use of the enzyme in Bacillus biocontrol.

  18. Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to discovery and isolation of a biologically pure culture of a Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate with UV sterilization resistant properties. This novel strain has been characterized on the basis of phenotypic traits, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization. According to the results of these analyses, this strain belongs to the genus Bacillus. The GenBank accession number for the 16S rDNA sequence of the Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 isolate is AY167879.

  19. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  20. Successful Treatment of Bacillus cereus Bacteremia in a Patient with Propionic Acidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Deniz Aygun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.

  1. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), a natural bacteria found all over the Earth, has a fairly novel way of getting rid of unwanted insects. Bt forms a protein substance (shown on the right) that is not harmful to humans, birds, fish or other vertebrates. When eaten by insect larvae the protein causes a fatal loss of appetite. For over 25 years agricultural chemical companies have relied heavily upon safe Bt pesticides. New space based research promises to give the insecticide a new dimension in effectiveness and applicability. Researchers from the Consortium for Materials Development in Space along with industrial affiliates such as Abott Labs and Pern State University flew Bt on a Space Shuttle mission in the fall of 1996. Researchers expect that the Shuttle's microgravity environment will reveal new information about the protein that will make it more effective against a wider variety of pests.

  3. Protein and antigenic heterogeneity among isolates of Bacillus piliformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, L K; Besch-Williford, C; Waggie, K S

    1990-01-01

    Protein and antigenic heterogeneity among isolates of Bacillus piliformis, the etiologic agent of Tyzzer's disease, were investigated. The seven isolates utilized in this study were originally isolated from naturally infected animals of different animal species and diverse geographical locations. Isolates were propagated in mammalian cell lines, and bacterial extracts were prepared. Protein and antigenic profiles were compared among isolates, using Coomassie blue-stained polyacrylamide gels a...

  4. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis.

  5. N-terminal amino acid sequence of Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase: comparison with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus subtilis Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, H; Fietzek, P P; Lampen, J O

    1982-01-01

    The thermostable, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis was immunologically cross-reactive with the thermolabile, liquefying alpha-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their N-terminal amino acid sequences showed extensive homology with each other, but not with the saccharifying alpha-amylases of Bacillus subtilis. PMID:6172418

  6. PRODUKSI ANTIBIOTIKA OLEH Bacillus subtilis M10 DALAM MEDIA UREA-SORBITOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supartono Supartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS BY Bacillus subtilis M10 IN UREA-SORBITOL MEDIUM. Infection diseases still become the main health problems that suffered by people in Indonesia. Besides, there were many pathogen bacteria found to be resistant to the some antibiotics. Therefore, the efforts to get a new antibiotic require to be done continuously. A new local strain of Bacillus subtilis BAC4 has been known producing an antibiotic that inhibit Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 growth. To make efficient the local strain, mutation on Bacillus subtilis BAC4 was done by using acridine orange and a mutant cell of Bacillus subtilis M10 that overproduction for producing antibiotic was obtained. Nevertheless, the production kinetics of antibiotic by this mutant has not been reported. The objective of this research was to study the production kinetics of antibiotic by Bacillus subtilis M10 mutant. The production of antibiotic was conducted using batch fermentation and antibiotic assay was performed with agar absorption method using Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 as bacteria assay. Research result provided that Bacillus subtilis M10 mutant with overproduction of antibiotic produced an antibiotic since 8th hour’s fermentation and optimum of it production was at 14th hours after inoculation.  Penyakit infeksi masih menjadi masalah yang utama diderita oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Di samping itu, banyak bakteri patogen yang ditemukan resisten terhadap beberapa antibiotika. Oleh karena itu, upaya-upaya untuk mendapatkan antibiotika baru perlu dilakukan secara terus-menerus. Suatu galur lokal baru Bacillus subtilis BAC4 teridentifikasi memproduksi senyawa antibiotika yang menghambat pertumbuhan Serratia marcescens ATCC27117. Untuk memberdayakan galur tersebut, terhadap Bacillus subtilis BAC4 dilakukan mutasi dengan larutan akridin oranye dan diperoleh mutan Bacillus subtilis M10 yang memproduksi antibiotika berlebihan. Namun, kinetika produksi antibiotika oleh Bacillus

  7. Bacillus cereus panophthalmitis associated with intraocular gas bubble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Hemidan, A; Byrne-Rhodes, K A; Tabbara, K F

    1989-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that Bacillus cereus can cause a severe and devastating form of endophthalmitis following penetrating trauma by a metallic object. B. cereus is an uncommon aetiological agent in non-clostridial gas-forming infections. The patient studied in this single case report showed evidence of intraocular gas mimicking gas gangrene infection. The physiology of non-clostridial bacteria producing gas from anaerobic metabolic conditions is reviewed. Further intraocular and systemic complications which may be avoided by accurate and early diagnosis and the use of recommended treatment with antibiotics such as clindamycin. Images PMID:2493262

  8. Biochemical and molecular characterizaion of Bacillus pumilus isolated from coastal environment in Cochin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Krishna, K.; Jose, J.; Joseph, N.; Nair, S.

    , since the organism is not considered infectious to humans and animals. However, some recent studies have revealed that several Bacillus species including B. pumilus can cause infections, ranging from skin infection to life threatening bacteremia... in immunocompromised individuals (23,33). Thus, more studies need to be performed to understand the human health significance of B. pumilus, genetic basis of infections and resistance to antimicrobials. The whole genome comparison of B. pumilus strains by AP...

  9. Bacillus velezensis is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ting; Lee, Fwu-Ling; Tai, Chun-Ju; Kuo, Hsiao-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Strain BCRC 14193, isolated from soil, shared more than 99 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BCRC 11601(T) and Bacillus velezensis BCRC 17467(T). This strain was previously identified as B. amyloliquefaciens, based on DNA-DNA hybridization, but its DNA relatedness value with B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) was 89 %. To investigate the relatedness of strain BCRC 14193, B. amyloliquefaciens and B. velezensis, the partial sequence of the gene encoding the subunit B protein of DNA gyrase (gyrB) was determined. B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) shared high gyrB gene sequence similarity with B. amyloliquefaciens BCRC 14193 (98.4 %) and all of the B. amyloliquefaciens strains available (95.5-95.6 %). DNA-DNA hybridization experiments revealed high relatedness values between B. velezensis BCRC 17467(T) and B. amyloliquefaciens BCRC 11601(T) (74 %) and the B. amyloliquefaciens reference strains (74-89 %). Based on these data and the lack of phenotypic distinctive characteristics, we propose Bacillus velezensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

  10. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  11. TRANSDUCTION OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS AND BACILLUS SUBTILIS BY EACH OF TWO PHAGES1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Martha J.; Thorne, Curtis B.

    1963-01-01

    Taylor, Martha J. (U.S. Army Biological Laboratories, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.) and Curtis B. Thorne. Transduction of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis by each of two phages. J. Bacteriol. 86:452–461. 1963.—A second transducing bacteriophage, designated SP-15, was isolated from the same soil-sample culture filtrate that supplied the Bacillus subtilis transducing phage, SP-10, reported earlier from this laboratory. SP-10 and SP-15 differ serologically and in several other respects, but share the ability to propagate on B. subtilis W-23-Sr (streptomycin-resistant) and B. licheniformis ATCC 9945a, and to mediate general transduction in either species when propagated homologously. Attempts to transduce between the species have failed. SP-10 forms plaques readily on both W-23-Sr and 9945a; SP-15 forms minute plaques on W-23-Sr and has shown no evidence of any lytic activity on 9945a. Maximal recoveries of prototrophic colonies from mixtures of SP-10 with auxotrophs of either W-23-Sr or 9945a were obtained only when excess phage was neutralized by post-transduction treatment with specific phage antiserum. Such treatment was not necessary for maximal recovery of transductants effected by SP-15. Unlike SP-10, SP-15 propagated on W-23-Sr did not transduce B. subtilis 168 (indole−). SP-15 transduced B. licheniformis more efficiently than did SP-10. Neither phage was able to transduce B. licheniformis as efficiently as it transduced B. subtilis. The differing influences of multiplicity of infection were compared for the two phages in both species. PMID:14066421

  12. Bacillus: A Biological Tool for Crop Improvement through Bio-Molecular Changes in Adverse Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramalingam Radhakrishnan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection. Limited studies have been conducted to understand the physiological changes that occur in crops in response to Bacillus spp. to provide protection against adverse environmental conditions. This review describes the current understanding of Bacillus-induced physiological changes in plants as an adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. During water scarcity, salinity and heavy metal accumulate in soil, Bacillus spp. produce exopolysaccharides and siderophores, which prevent the movement of toxic ions and adjust the ionic balance and water transport in plant tissues while controlling the pathogenic microbial population. In addition, the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC deaminase by Bacillus regulates the intracellular phytohormone metabolism and increases plant stress tolerance. Cell-wall-degrading substances, such as chitosanase, protease, cellulase, glucanase, lipopeptides and hydrogen cyanide from Bacillus spp. damage the pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and pests to control their populations in plants and agricultural lands. The normal plant metabolism is affected by unfavorable environmental stimuli, which suppress crop growth and yield. Abiotic and biotic stress factors that have detrimental effects on crops are mitigated by Bacillus-induced physiological changes, including the regulation of water transport

  13. Bacillus: A Biological Tool for Crop Improvement through Bio-Molecular Changes in Adverse Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, Elsayed F

    2017-01-01

    Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas . Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection. Limited studies have been conducted to understand the physiological changes that occur in crops in response to Bacillus spp. to provide protection against adverse environmental conditions. This review describes the current understanding of Bacillus -induced physiological changes in plants as an adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. During water scarcity, salinity and heavy metal accumulate in soil, Bacillus spp. produce exopolysaccharides and siderophores, which prevent the movement of toxic ions and adjust the ionic balance and water transport in plant tissues while controlling the pathogenic microbial population. In addition, the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase by Bacillus regulates the intracellular phytohormone metabolism and increases plant stress tolerance. Cell-wall-degrading substances, such as chitosanase, protease, cellulase, glucanase, lipopeptides and hydrogen cyanide from Bacillus spp. damage the pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and pests to control their populations in plants and agricultural lands. The normal plant metabolism is affected by unfavorable environmental stimuli, which suppress crop growth and yield. Abiotic and biotic stress factors that have detrimental effects on crops are mitigated by Bacillus -induced physiological changes, including the regulation of water transport, nutrient up-take and

  14. Bacillus: A Biological Tool for Crop Improvement through Bio-Molecular Changes in Adverse Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.

    2017-01-01

    Crop productivity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Microbes that are beneficial to plants are used to enhance the crop yield and are alternatives to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Pseudomonas and Bacillus species are the predominant plant growth-promoting bacteria. The spore-forming ability of Bacillus is distinguished from that of Pseudomonas. Members of this genus also survive for a long time under unfavorable environmental conditions. Bacillus spp. secrete several metabolites that trigger plant growth and prevent pathogen infection. Limited studies have been conducted to understand the physiological changes that occur in crops in response to Bacillus spp. to provide protection against adverse environmental conditions. This review describes the current understanding of Bacillus-induced physiological changes in plants as an adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses. During water scarcity, salinity and heavy metal accumulate in soil, Bacillus spp. produce exopolysaccharides and siderophores, which prevent the movement of toxic ions and adjust the ionic balance and water transport in plant tissues while controlling the pathogenic microbial population. In addition, the synthesis of indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase by Bacillus regulates the intracellular phytohormone metabolism and increases plant stress tolerance. Cell-wall-degrading substances, such as chitosanase, protease, cellulase, glucanase, lipopeptides and hydrogen cyanide from Bacillus spp. damage the pathogenic bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viruses and pests to control their populations in plants and agricultural lands. The normal plant metabolism is affected by unfavorable environmental stimuli, which suppress crop growth and yield. Abiotic and biotic stress factors that have detrimental effects on crops are mitigated by Bacillus-induced physiological changes, including the regulation of water transport, nutrient up-take and

  15. 76 FR 14289 - Bacillus thuringiensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... a plant- incorporated protectant in accordance with the terms of Experimental Use Permit (EUP) No... chemistry data for eCry3.1Ab were required for a human health effects assessment. Even so, preliminary... EPA granting registrations or experimental use permits of Bacillus thuringiensis-based pesticides or...

  16. Controlling gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle by Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Natália Berne; de Castro, Leonardo Mortagua; de Almeida Capella, Gabriela; Motta, Tairan Ourique; de Souza Stori de Lara, Ana Paula; de Moura, Micaele Quintana; Berne, Maria Elisabeth Aires; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested the in vitro and in vivo larvicidal activity of Bacillus species against gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle, and their viability in the presence of anthelmintics. For in vitro tests, cattle feces naturally infected with trichostrongylides were incubated with spore suspensions of Bacillus circulans (Bcir), B. thuringiensis var. osvaldocruzi (Bto), B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) or B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Subsequently, residual larvae were counted and identified. All of the Bacillus species showed 60% or more larvicidal effects. Bcir and Bti were selected to be incubated with anthelmintics (moxidectin, nitroxynil and levamisole), and after 24, 72, and 144h, their viability was evaluated. Bti showed highest drug resistance, maintaining a concentration of 1×10 7 CFU/mL. Based on this result, Bti was selected for in vivo tests on calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The calves were dived into four groups: Group 1, Bti suspension of ∼1×10 9 CFU orally administered; Group 2, Bti suspension of ∼1×10 9 CFU orally administered with levamisole (subcutaneously, 150mg); Group 3, only levamisole (subcutaneously, 150mg), and Group 4 untreated. Then 24 and 48h after treatment, larvae numbers were counted. We observed a reduction of 84%, 100%, and 100% after 48h of treatment, respectively, for Groups 1, 2 and 3 treatments in comparison with the untreated. The tested Bacillus species showed larvicidal activity against bovine trichostrongylides, and its association with anthelmintics. It may serve as a promising integrated alternative for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterisation and profiling of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis by MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Díaz-Bao, M; Cepeda, A; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2013-04-01

    The Bacillus genus includes species such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis, some of which may be pathogenic or causative agents in the spoilage of food products. The main goal of this work was to apply matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass fingerprinting to the classification of these Bacillus species. Genetic analyses were also compared to phyloproteomic analyses. A collection of 57 Bacillus strains isolated from fresh and processed food and from culture collections were studied and their mass spectra compiled. The resulting mass fingerprints were compared and characteristic peaks at the strain and species levels were assigned. The results showed that MALDI-TOF was a good complementary approach to 16S rRNA sequencing and even a more powerful tool in the accurate classification of Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. MALDI-TOF was also found to provide valuable information at both intra- and interspecies levels in the Bacillus species studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chitinase production by Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus licheniformis: their potential in antifungal biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2012-02-01

    Thirty bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of plants collected from Egypt and screened for production of chitinase enzymes. Bacillus thuringiensis NM101-19 and Bacillus licheniformis NM120-17 had the highest chitinolytic activities amongst those investigated. The production of chitinase by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis was optimized using colloidal chitin medium amended with 1.5% colloidal chitin, with casein as a nitrogen source, at 30°C after five days of incubation. An enhancement of chitinase production by the two species was observed by addition of sugar substances and dried fungal mats to the colloidal chitin media. The optimal conditions for chitinase activity by B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis were at 40°C, pH 7.0 and pH 8.0, respectively. Na(+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Ca(2+) caused enhancement of enzyme activities whereas they were markedly inhibited by Zn(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+). In vitro, B. thuringiensis and B. licheniformis chitinases had potential for cell wall lysis of many phytopathogenic fungi tested. The addition of B. thuringiensis chitinase was more effective than that of B. licheniformis in increasing the germination of soybean seeds infected with various phytopathogenic fungi.

  19. Effect of microencapsulated probiotic Bacillus vireti 01-polysaccharide extract of Gracilaria folifera with alginate-chitosan on immunity, antioxidant activity and disease resistance of Macrobrachium rosenbergii against Aeromonas hydrophila infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidhya Hindu, S; Thanigaivel, S; Vijayakumar, S; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan; Mukherjee, Amitava; Thomas, John

    2018-02-01

    Polysaccharide from red seaweed Gracilaria folifera has an interesting functional property of antioxidant activity and prebiotic effect. A feeding trial experiment was directed to examine the effect of probiotic bacteria Bacillus vireti 01 microencapsulated with G. folifera polysaccharide against freshwater prawn M. rosenbergii. Three different feeding trials were conducted for 15 days. The first group contained prawns fed with commercial diet. The second group was comprised of Aeromonas hydrophila challenged prawns fed with commercial feed. The third group consisted of A. hydrophila challenged prawns fed with microencapsulated probiotic-polysaccharide. Survival percentage was significantly decreased in prawns of group2 as compared to that of group1 and group3 prawns (p < 0.0001). The immunological parameters and antioxidant activities (p < 0.001) were found to be increased in group three prawns which were fed with encapsulated probiotic-seaweed polysaccharide and challenged with A. hydrophila as compared to that of group1 and group2. Tissue necrosis, fused lamella, haemocyte infiltration and damage of hepatopancreas lumen and tubule were noted in group2 prawns. There was no histological changes were observed in group3 prawns in which the histological architecture was similar to the control group1. The results suggested that combination of encapsulated probiotic B. vireti 01 and seaweed polysaccharide as dietary feed showed an enhancement of immune response, antioxidant activity and disease resistant of M. rosenbergii against A. hydrophila. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genomic study of the cereolysin A and B genes in Bacillus cereus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AMAJU

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... Infect. 2(2): 189-. 198. Miller SA, Dykes DD, Polesky HF (1988). A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 16 (3): p. 1215. Nduhiu J, Jackson NO, Dorcas WN, Michael MG (2009). Genetic characterization of food borne Bacillus cereus strains from milk,.

  1. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine- induced lupus vulgaris in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najem, Nabeel M; Zadeh, Valid Bagher; Al-Abdulrazzaq, Adel H; Al-Otaibi, Sultan R; Kadyan, S; Joneja, Munish

    2009-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris (LV) is a rare form of cutaneous mycobacterial infection in children. Most cases follow hematogenous or lymphatic seeding, and more rarely from exposure to bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We report a child that received BCG vaccination and developed LV 2 months later.

  2. Screening of Bacillus Species with Potentials of Antibiotics Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Adamu KUTA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen soil samples were collected from different refuse dump sites in Minna, the capital Niger State, and analysed for the presence of Bacillus species. Physical-chemical analysis of the soil samples revealed the followings: PH value 6.89-8.47; moisture content 1.58 – 21.21% and temperature 27-28ºC. Using both pour plate and streak method of inoculation, total bacterial count in the soil samples ranged from 3.8×104 cfu/g 16.0×104 cfu/g. The identified Bacillus species included: Bacillus cereus (30.8%, Bacillus brevis (1.9% Bacillus polymyxa (3.8%, Bacillus lichenifomis (13.5%, Bacillus spherericus (7.7%, Bacillus mycoides (13.5%, Bacillus pumilus (7.7%, Bacillus subtilis (3.8%, Bacillus alvei (1.9%, Bacillus laterosporous (1.9%, Bacillus firmus (9.6% and Bacillus circulars (3.8%. Antibiotic production tests indicated that nine Bacillus species out of twelve isolated in this study could be used to produce antibiotics that had effect on the test organisms. However, Bacillus polymyxa, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus laterosporous had little or no effect on the tested organisms. This study suggests that some Bacillus species have potential to produce high quality antibiotics that can be use to control microbial growth in future.

  3. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  4. [Can industrial laundry remove Bacillus cereus from hospital linen?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoh, Myonsun; Matsuyama, Junko; Shime, Akiko; Okayama, Kana; Sakamoto, Rei; Honda, Takeshi

    2010-09-01

    Contaminated hospital linen has caused some cases of Bacillus cereus bacteremia in Japan. We analyzed the disinfection efficacy of industrial washing of hospital towels and sheets by counting the number of B. cereus on linen before and after washing. That before washing averaged 7.6 cells/cm2 on unwashed sheets, decreasing to 1.2 cells/cm2 after washing. That on unwashed towels, however, averaged 10(6) cells/cm2 before washing and 1096 cells/cm2 after washing, which was very high and suggested the possibility of causing nosocomial infection.

  5. Bacillus licheniformis in geogenic dust induces inflammation in respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Janessa; Teo, Teck Hui; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Zosky, Graeme R; Clifford, Holly D

    2018-07-01

    Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter Bacillus licheniformis, a spore-forming, environmentally abundant bacterium. We next investigated the interaction of B. licheniformis with respiratory epithelium in vitro to determine whether this exacerbated infection with a bacterial respiratory pathogen (non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, NTHi). Heat treatment (100 °C) of all PM 10 samples eliminated B. licheniformis contamination and reduced epithelial inflammatory responses, suggesting that heat-labile and/or microbial factors were involved in the host response to geogenic dust PM 10 . We then exposed NuLi-1 epithelium to increasing doses of the isolated Bacillus licheniformis (multiplicity of infection of 10:1, 1:1 or 0.1:1 bacteria: cells) for 1, 3, and 24 h. B. licheniformis and NTHi infection (association and invasion) was assessed using a standard gentamicin survival assay, and epithelial release of IL-6 and IL-8 was measured using a bead based immunoassay. B. licheniformis was cytotoxic to NuLi-1 cells at 24 h. At 3 h post-challenge, B. licheniformis elicited high IL-6 and IL-8 inflammatory responses from NuLi-1 cells compared with cells treated with heat-treated geogenic dust PM 10 (p licheniformis increased inflammation, this did not make the cells more susceptible to NTHi infection. This study highlights that geogenic dust PM 10 can harbour viable bacterial spores that induce inflammation in respiratory epithelium. The impact on respiratory health from inhalation of bacterial spores in PM 10 in arid environments may be underestimated. Further investigation into the contribution of B. licheniformis and the wider dust microbiome to respiratory infection is warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Meningitis due to Bacillus cereus in an infant with Reye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, A; Odièvre, M H; Abachin, E; Révy, P; Casanova, J L; Saudubray, J M; Berche, P; Nassif, X

    1998-10-01

    We report the case of a 2.5-month-old infant with Bacillus cereus meningitis who was initially admitted for Reye syndrome. Gram positive bacteria was isolated in CSF and shown to be located inside the polymorphonuclears. This pathogen was further identified by sequencing of the 16S RNA. Early administration of imipenem in association with amikacin resulted in a rapid recovery. No obvious immune defect or invasive procedure could be assessed. Although Bacillus cereus is mainly associated with contamination, repeated isolations of this bacteria may be due to true infection.

  7. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the stick insects Bacillus rossius rossius, Bacillus rossius redtenbacheri and Bacillus whitei (Insecta : Phasmatodea)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, DH; Pertoldi, C; Loeschcke, V

    2005-01-01

    Five microsatellite markers were obtained from a dinucleotide enriched genomic library of the stick insect Bacillus rossius rossius. The markers were tested in three species of Bacillus. All loci were polymorphic when tested across species. The number of alleles at each locus was low (maximum four...

  8. Pathogenomic sequence analysis of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis isolates closely related to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cliff S; Xie, Gary; Challacombe, Jean F; Altherr, Michael R; Bhotika, Smriti S; Brown, Nancy; Bruce, David; Campbell, Connie S; Campbell, Mary L; Chen, Jin; Chertkov, Olga; Cleland, Cathy; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Doggett, Norman A; Fawcett, John J; Glavina, Tijana; Goodwin, Lynne A; Green, Lance D; Hill, Karen K; Hitchcock, Penny; Jackson, Paul J; Keim, Paul; Kewalramani, Avinash Ramesh; Longmire, Jon; Lucas, Susan; Malfatti, Stephanie; McMurry, Kim; Meincke, Linda J; Misra, Monica; Moseman, Bernice L; Mundt, Mark; Munk, A Christine; Okinaka, Richard T; Parson-Quintana, B; Reilly, Lee Philip; Richardson, Paul; Robinson, Donna L; Rubin, Eddy; Saunders, Elizabeth; Tapia, Roxanne; Tesmer, Judith G; Thayer, Nina; Thompson, Linda S; Tice, Hope; Ticknor, Lawrence O; Wills, Patti L; Brettin, Thomas S; Gilna, Paul

    2006-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis are closely related gram-positive, spore-forming bacteria of the B. cereus sensu lato group. While independently derived strains of B. anthracis reveal conspicuous sequence homogeneity, environmental isolates of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis exhibit extensive genetic diversity. Here we report the sequencing and comparative analysis of the genomes of two members of the B. cereus group, B. thuringiensis 97-27 subsp. konkukian serotype H34, isolated from a necrotic human wound, and B. cereus E33L, which was isolated from a swab of a zebra carcass in Namibia. These two strains, when analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism within a collection of over 300 of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, and B. anthracis isolates, appear closely related to B. anthracis. The B. cereus E33L isolate appears to be the nearest relative to B. anthracis identified thus far. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis 97-27and B. cereus E33L was undertaken to identify shared and unique genes among these isolates in comparison to the genomes of pathogenic strains B. anthracis Ames and B. cereus G9241 and nonpathogenic strains B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Comparison of these genomes revealed differences in terms of virulence, metabolic competence, structural components, and regulatory mechanisms.

  9. Myocardial infection due to Fusobacterium nucleatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Jeremy C; Ford, Bradley A; Streit, Judy A

    2013-12-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum is an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus, which inhabits the oropharynx, gastrointestinal tract, and female genital tract. Infections classically affect the head and neck. We report a patient with a myocardial mass due to F. nucleatum, initially thought to be a neoplasm, and discuss anaerobic cardiac infections. © 2013.

  10. Isolation and characterization of cellulolytic Bacillus licheniformis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase activity during the stationary ...

  11. Isolat Bacillus Pelarut Fosfat dari Kalimas Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Zulaika, Enny; Ulfiyati, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ketersediaan fosfat terlarut di dalam tanah sangat terbatas karena kecenderungannya terikat dengan mineral tanah membentuk fosfat kompleks. Bakteri pelarut fosfat, salah satunya adalah Bacillus, dapat digunakan untuk membantu ketersediaan fosfat terlarut di dalam tanah sehingga dapat menggantikan pupuk fosfat. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui potensi isolat Bacillus spp. koleksi laboratorium Mikrobiologi dan Bioteknologi Biologi ITS Surabaya dalam melarutkan fosfat. Potensi pelarutan...

  12. Disinfection of Vegetative Cells of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Society for Microbiology ; New Orleans, LA, 2004. American Public Health Association. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater...Disinfection kinetics of vegetative cells of Bacillus anthracis in water with free available chlorine ([FAC] 2 mg/L) and monochloramine ([MC] 2 mg/L) were...anthracis. Bacillus anthracis cells Drinking water Chlorine demand-free (CDF

  13. Real-Time PCR Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    13061 Neisseria lactamica .............................................................. 23970 Bacillus coagulans ...NEG Bacillus coagulane 7050 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13472 NEG NEG Bacillus licheniforms 12759 NEG NEG Bacillus cereus 13824 NEG NEG Bacillus ...Assay for a Unique Chromosomal Sequence of Bacillus anthracis Elizabeth Bode,1 William Hurtle,2† and David Norwood1* United States Army Medical

  14. The pore-forming protein Cry5B elicits the pathogenicity of Bacillus sp. against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie F Kho

    Full Text Available The soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis is a pathogen of insects and nematodes and is very closely related to, if not the same species as, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis. The defining characteristic of B. thuringiensis that sets it apart from B. cereus and B. anthracis is the production of crystal (Cry proteins, which are pore-forming toxins or pore-forming proteins (PFPs. Although it is known that PFPs are important virulence factors since their elimination results in reduced virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, the functions by which PFPs promote virulence are incompletely understood. Here we study the effect of Cry proteins in B. thuringiensis pathogenesis of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We find that whereas B. thuringiensis on its own is not able to infect C. elegans, the addition of the PFP Cry protein, Cry5B, results in a robust lethal infection that consumes the nematode host in 1-2 days, leading to a "Bob" or bag-of-bacteria phenotype. Unlike other infections of C. elegans characterized to date, the infection by B. thuringiensis shows dose-dependency based on bacterial inoculum size and based on PFP concentration. Although the infection process takes 1-2 days, the PFP-instigated infection process is irreversibly established within 15 minutes of initial exposure. Remarkably, treatment of C. elegans with Cry5B PFP is able to instigate many other Bacillus species, including B. anthracis and even "non-pathogenic" Bacillus subtilis, to become lethal and infectious agents to C. elegans. Co-culturing of Cry5B-expressing B. thuringiensis with B. anthracis can result in lethal infection of C. elegans by B. anthracis. Our data demonstrate that one potential property of PFPs is to sensitize the host to bacterial infection and further that C. elegans and probably other roundworms can be common hosts for B. cereus-group bacteria, findings with important ecological and research implications.

  15. Production dynamics of extracellular protease from Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... showed that Bacillus species under study are good producers of extracellular protease at high temperature. This might be an indication that proteases produced would be thermostable. Keywords Protease; proteolytic bacteria; Bacillus macerans; Bacillus licheniformis; Bacillus subtilis. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  16. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores : the role of germination receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus sensu lato group forms a highly homogeneous subdivision of the genus Bacillus and comprises several species that are relevant for humans. Notorious is Bacillus anthracis, the cause of the often-lethal disease anthrax, while the insect pathogen Bacillus

  17. EVALUASI PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK BACILLUS PADA MEDIA PEMELIHARAAN TERHADAP LAJU PERTUMBUHAN DAN PERUBAHAN HISTOPATOLOGI IKAN LELE DUMBO (Clarias gariepinus YANG DIINFEKSI Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mariana Lusiastuti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the addition of a probiotic Bacillus on culture medium through growth rate and histopathological change in African Catfish who was infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The study consisted of five treatments such as the addition of probiotic Bacillus ND2, Bacillus P4I2, Bacillus ND2 + Bacillus P4I2 (Kom, positive control (K+ and negative control (K- (without probiotic addition. African Catfish (13.354±2.8 g was maintained in 15 aquariums (40 L in volume with 30 fishes each for 30 days. Probiotic bacteria was applied in water once a day, whereas pathogenic bacteria A. hydrophila  (103 CFU/mL were added once in earlier treatment (except for the negative control as assumption that A. hydrophila will shape up quorum sensing in unfortunate condition. The result showed that the highest spesific growth rate in the treatment of Bacillus ND2 probiotics (1,708 ± 0.114%. Histopathology showed that damaged of liver dan kidney in probiotics treatment were lightner than positive control (K+.  The addition of Bacillus P4I1 (104 CFU/mL efective to increased the spesific growth rate of African Catfish and prevent the damage of liver and kidney of African Catfish was infected by Aeromoniasis.

  18. Protective effects ofBacillus subtilisagainstSalmonellainfection in the microbiome of Hy-Line Brown layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ju Kyoung; Pajarillo, Edward Alain B; Chae, Jong Pyo; Kim, In Ho; Kang, Dae-Kyung

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of Bacillus subtilis CSL2 ( B. subtilis CSL2) administration before Salmonella challenge on the fecal microbiota and microbial functionality of Hy-line Brown (HLB) laying hens. Fecal samples were collected from control (CON), Salmonella -infected (SAL) and Salmonella -infected, probiotic-treated (PRO) groups before and after Salmonella challenge for microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Infection with Salmonella led to decreased microbial diversity in hen feces; diversity was recovered with Bacillus administration. In addition, Salmonella infection triggered significant alterations in the composition of the fecal microbiota. The abundance of the phylum Firmicutes decreased while that of Proteobacteria, which includes a wide variety of pathogens, increased significantly. Bacillus administration resulted in normal levels of abundance of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Analysis of bacterial genera showed that Salmonella challenge decreased the population of Lactobacillus , the most abundant genus, and increased populations of Pseudomonas and Flavobacterium genera by a factor of 3 to 5. On the other hand, Bacillus administration caused the abundance of the Lactobacillus genus to recover to control levels and decreased the population of Pseudomonas significantly. Further analysis of operational taxonomic units revealed a high abundance of genes associated with two-component systems and secretion systems in the SAL group, whereas the PRO group had more genes associated with ribosomes. The results of this study indicate that B. subtilis CSL2 administration can modulate the microbiota in HLB laying hens, potentially acting as a probiotic to protect against Salmonella Gallinarum infection.

  19. Identification of Early Response Genes in Human Peripheral Leukocytes Infected with Orientia tsutsugamushi: The Emergent of a Unique Gene Expression Profile for Diagnosis of O. tsutsugamush Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Orientia tsutaugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the etiologic agent of scrub typhus, which is transmitted by the bite of larvae of...gonorrhoeae co-infection Human papillomavirus Hepatitus C Syncytial virus bacillus Calmette-Guerin Pseudomanas aeruginosa rsmA mutant...Hepatitus C Syncytial virus bacillus Calmette-Guerin Pseudomanas aeruginosa rsmA mutant Neisseria meningitidis Malaria Aspergillus fumigatus Measles

  20. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus Strains Isolated from Various Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golnari Maranni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prevalence extension of antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns about control of infections especially nosocomial infections. Many attempts have been done to replace antibiotics or limit their use. The use of antimicrobial agents produced by bacteria as antibiotic replacement has been promising in recent years. The goal of this study was to isolate Bacillus strains and evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains. Materials and Methods: In the present study, Bacillus strains were isolated from various resources and identified by 16S rDNA PCR method. Then, the phylogenetic tree of the isolates was constructed and antimicrobial activity of the isolates was investigated against some standard pathogens and clinical antibiotic resistant strains using spotting and well diffusion methods. Results: Eight Bacillus strains were isolated from 15 different samples. Based on the molecular identification, the isolates were identified as B.pumilus, B.coagulans, B.licheniformis, B.endophitycus and B.amiloliquefaciens. The results showed that isolates have antimicrobial activity against meticilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin resistant enterococci, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Streptococcus and Escherichia coli. Conclusion: In this study, isolated Bacillus strains produced antimicrobial agents against pathogens and antibiotic resistant strains and inhibited their growth.

  1. Bacteriophage PBC1 and its endolysin as an antimicrobial agent against Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Minsuk; Ryu, Sangryeol

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for food poisoning and other, nongastrointestinal infections. Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant B. cereus strains, the demand for alternative therapeutic options is increasing. To address these problems, we isolated and characterized a Siphoviridae virulent phage, PBC1, and its lytic enzymes. PBC1 showed a very narrow host range, infecting only 1 of 22 B. cereus strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on the major capsid protein revealed that PBC1 is more closely related to the Bacillus clarkii phage BCJA1c and phages of lactic acid bacteria than to the phages infecting B. cereus. Whole-genome comparison showed that the late-gene region, including the terminase gene, structural genes, and holin gene of PBC1, is similar to that from B. cereus temperate phage 250, whereas their endolysins are different. Compared to the extreme host specificity of PBC1, its endolysin, LysPBC1, showed a much broader lytic spectrum, albeit limited to the genus Bacillus. The catalytic domain of LysPBC1 when expressed alone also showed Bacillus-specific lytic activity, which was lower against the B. cereus group but higher against the Bacillus subtilis group than the full-length protein. Taken together, these results suggest that the virulent phage PBC1 is a useful component of a phage cocktail to control B. cereus, even with its exceptionally narrow host range, as it can kill a strain of B. cereus that is not killed by other phages, and that LysPBC1 is an alternative biocontrol agent against B. cereus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine-induced lupus vulgaris in a child adopted from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Amber; Browning, John; Campbell, Judith; Metry, Denise

    2007-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is a rare form of cutaneous mycobacterial infection that can occur from mycobacterial exposure and even more rarely from exposure to the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine. We report a child who received this vaccination in China and then developed lupus vulgaris shortly after being adopted in the United States. After histopathologic confirmation, the infection was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotics. This occurrence demonstrates the need for heightened surveillance of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine-induced lupus vulgaris, given the increasing numbers of overseas adoptions taking place in the United States. To our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunization-induced lupus vulgaris in the United States.

  3. Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on the Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, J.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Sala, F.

    1972-01-01

    Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis spores in quarter-strength Ringer solution decreases markedly after ultrasonic treatments which are unable to kill a significant proportion of the spore population. This effect does not seem to be caused by a loss of Ca2+ or dipicolinic acid. The use of ultrasonics to eliminate vegetative cells or to break aggregates in Bacillus spore suspensions to be used subsequently in heat resistance experiments appears to be unadvisable. PMID:4627969

  4. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an ?Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens? within the B. subtilis Species Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as “B. amyloliquefaciens.” Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its con...

  5. Bacillus and biopolymer: Prospects and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mohapatra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbially derived polyhydroxyalkanoates biopolymers could impact the global climate scenario by replacing the conventional non-degradable, petrochemical-based polymer. The biogenesis, characterization and properties of PHAs by Bacillus species using renewable substrates have been elaborated by many for their wide applications. On the other hand Bacillus species are advantageous over other bacteria due to their abundance even in extreme ecological conditions, higher growth rates even on cheap substrates, higher PHAs production ability, and the ease of extracting the PHAs. Bacillus species possess hydrolytic enzymes that can be exploited for economical PHAs production. This review summarizes the recent trends in both non-growth and growth associated PHAs production by Bacillus species which may provide direction leading to future research towards this growing quest for biodegradable plastics, one more critical step ahead towards sustainable development.

  6. Characterization of 21 Strains of Bacillus Anthracis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kournikakis, B

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-one strains of Bacillus anthracis currently held in the culture collection at DRES were characterized by colonial morphology, antibiotic sensitivity and BiologTM metabolic identification profiles...

  7. Lama Penyimpanan, Karakterisasi Fisiologi, dan Viabilitas Bakteri Endofit Bacillus sp. dalam Formula Tepung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana putri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria can be formulated to retain its ability as disease control agents. Three of endophytic bacteria which had the capability to suppress infection of Meloidogyne sp, and to enhance pepper growth were gained from the previous study. This research was aimed to evaluate the influence of storage time on the viability of endophytic bacteria, Bacillus sp. AA2, Bacillus sp. MER and MSJ, and to study its physiological charaterization during storage. The formulation evaluated in this study was : formulation 1 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, and brown sugar 1.5 g, formulation 2 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, and 1.5 g white sugar, formulation 3 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, 1 g yeast extract, and 1.5 gwhite sugar and formulation 4 (50 g talc, 1 g pepton, 0.5 g CMC, 1 g yeast extract, 3 mL molasses, 1 gbentonite, 0.75 g calcium carbonate, and 1 g dextrose. The results of the bacterial characterization showed that Bacillus sp AA2 and Bacillus sp MER belongs to Gram positive, produced lipase and protease enzyme, as well as  IAA hormone. N2 fixation is only existed in Bacillussp. AA2 and MSJ isolate. The highest viability was shown on MSJ isolate with 2.5×106 cfu mL-1. in the fourth formulation, whereas Bacillus sp. AA2 and Bacillus sp. MER viability was 1.9×106 cfu mL-1. and 1.2×106 cfu mL-1. , respectively. 

  8. Screen for agents that induce autolysis in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacriola, Christopher J; Falk, Shaun P; Weisblum, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The growing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infections underscores the need to discover new antibiotics and to use them with maximum effectiveness. In response to these needs, we describe a screening protocol for the discovery of autolysis-inducing agents that uses two Bacillus subtilis reporter strains, SH-536 and BAU-102. To screen chemical libraries, autolysis-inducing agents were first identified with a BAU-102-based screen and then subdivided with SH-536 into two major groups: those that induce autolysis by their direct action on the cell membrane and those that induce autolysis secondary to inhibition of cell wall synthesis. SH-536 distinguishes between the two groups of autolysis-inducing agents by synthesizing and then releasing β-galactosidase (β-Gal) in late stationary phase at a time that cells have nearly stopped growing and are therefore tolerant of cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Four hits, named compound 2, compound 3, compound 5, and compound 24, obtained previously as inducers of autolysis by screening a 10,080-compound discovery library with BAU-102, were probed with SH-536 and found to release β-Gal, indicating that their mode of action was to permeabilize the B. subtilis cell membrane. The four primary hits inhibited growth in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis, with MICs in the 12.5- to 25-μg/ml (20 to 60 μM) range. The four primary hits were further used to probe B. subtilis, and their action was partially characterized with respect to the dependence of induced autolysis on specific autolysins.

  9. Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through

  10. Bacillus spp as a biological control agent against panama disease in banana

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gumede, WHN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available reported in some banana producing regions (Figure 1). The ability of the fungal pathogens (especially race 4) to infect a wide range of banana cultivars and to establish resistance to chemical pesticides is a threat to the continued cultivation... of bananas. Alternative remedies to curb proliferation of Panama disease have therefore been initiated. CSIR Biosciences is extensively engaged in the development of biological control strategies and has identified an isolate of Bacillus spp., which...

  11. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) complications associated with primary immunodeficiency diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Sayna; Aghamohammadi, Asghar; Mamishi, Setareh; Rosenzweig, Sergio D.; Rezaei, Nima

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are a group of inherited disorders, characterized by defects of the immune system predisposing individuals to variety of manifestations, including recurrent infections and unusual vaccine complications. There are a number of PIDs prone to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) complications. This review presents an update on our understanding about the BCGosis-susceptible PIDs, including severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, and Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. PMID:22430715

  12. Impedance Measurements Could Accelerate Phage-Based Identification of Bacillus anthracis and Other Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Impedance Measurements Could Accelerate Phage-Based Identification of Bacillus anthracis And Other Bacteria Thomas Brown, Salwa Shan, Teresa...infection can be detected as early as one hour after exposing as few as 105 CFU bacteria to the stressor. We predicted that similar responses could be used... bacteria to form confluent growth and for phage-induced plaques to appear. Techniques that permit faster detection of species-specific bacteria /phage

  13. Cell Physiology and Protein Secretion of Bacillus licheniformis Compared to Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voigt, Birgit; Antelmann, Haike; Albrecht, Dirk; Ehrenreich, Armin; Maurer, Karl-Heinz; Evers, Stefan; Gottschalk, Gerhard; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Schweder, Thomas; Hecker, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus subtilis was published in 1997 and since then many other bacterial genomes have been sequenced, among them Bacillus licheniformis in 2004. B. subtilis and B. licheniformis are closely related and feature similar saprophytic lifestyles in the soil. Both species can

  14. Antifungal activity of indigenous bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jošić Dragana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marshmallow is a host of a number of saprophytic and parasitic fungi in Serbia. The seeds of marshmallow are contaminated with fungi from different genera, especially Alternaria and Fusarium, which significantly reduced seed germination and caused seedling decay. In this study we investigate antagnonism of indigenous Bacillus sp. isolate Q3 against marshmallow mycopopulation. Bacillus sp. Q3 was isolated from maize rhizosphere, characterized by polyphasic approch and tested for plant growth promoting treats. Bacillus sp. Q3 produced antifungal metabolites with growth inhibition activity against numerous fungi in dual culture: 61.8% of Alternaria alternata, 74.8% of Myrothecium verrucaria and 33.6% of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. That effect could be caused by different antifungal metabolites including siderophores, hydrolytic enzymes, organic acids and indole acetic acid (IAA. Suppression of natural marshmallow seed infection by Q3 isolate was observed. The seeds were immersed in different concentrations of bacterial suspension during 2h and their infections by phytopathogenic fungi were estimated. The results showed significant reduction of seed infection by Alternaria spp. The presented results indicate possible application of this isolate as promising biological agent for control of marshmallow seed pathogenic fungi.

  15. Bacillus velezensis is not a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens; Bacillus methylotrophicus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and 'Bacillus oryzicola' are later heterotypic synonyms of Bacillus velezensis based on phylogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus velezensis was previously reported to be a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens , based primarily on DNA-DNA relatedness values. We have sequenced a draft genome of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T . Comparative genomics and DNA-DNA relatedness calculations show that it is not a synonym of B. amyloliquefaciens. It was instead synonymous with Bacillus methylotrophicus. ' Bacillus oryzicola ' is a recently described species that was isolated as an endophyte of rice ( Oryza sativa ). The strain was demonstrated to have plant-pathogen antagonist activity in greenhouse assays, and the 16S rRNA gene was reported to have 99.7 % sequence similarity with Bacillus siamensis and B. methylotrophicus , which are both known for their plant pathogen antagonism. To better understand the phylogenetics of these closely related strains, we sequenced the genome of ' B . oryzicola ' KACC 18228. Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genomes of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T , B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 T . The pairwise in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values calculated in comparisons between the strains were all greater than 84 %, which is well above the standard species threshold of 70 %. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the strains share phenotype and genotype coherence. Therefore, we propose that B. methylotrophicus KACC 13015 T , B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42 T , and ' B. oryzicola' KACC 18228 should be reclassified as later heterotypic synonyms of B. velezensis NRRL B-41580 T , since the valid publication date of B. velezensis precedes the other three strains.

  16. Production of amylolytic enzymes by bacillus spp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, Elham Shareif

    1997-12-01

    Sixty six bacteria and twenty fungi were isolated from various sources. These varied from rotten fruites to local drinks and soil samples from different parts of Sudan. On the basis of index of amylolytic activity, forty one bacteria and twelve fungi were found to hydrolyse strach. The best ten strach hydrolysing isolates were identified all as bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 2 , SUD-K 4 , SUD-O, SUD-SRW, SUD-BRW, SUD-By, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 , and Bacillus circulans SUD-D and SUD-K 7 ). Their amylase productivity was studied with respect to temperature and time. Amylolytic activity was measured by spectrophotometer, the highest activity was produced in around 24 hours of growth in all; six of which gave the highest amylase activity at 50 deg C and the rest at 45C. Based on the thermal production six isolates were chosen for further investigation. These were Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 2 , SUD-K 4 , SUD-O, Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K 7 . The inclusion of strach and Mg ++ ions in the culture medium gave the highest enzyme yield. The Ph 9.0 was found to be the optimum for amylase production for all isolates except Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 which had an optimum at pH 7.0. Three isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 , SUD-K 4 and SUD-O recorded highestamylase production in a medium supplemented with peptone while the rest (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 2 , Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 and Bacillus circulans SUD-K 7 ) gave highest amylase productivity in a medium supplemented with malt extract. Four isolates (Bacillus licheniformis SUD-K 1 and Bacillus subtilis SUD-K 3 gave maximum amylase production in a medium containing 0.5% soluble strach while the rest (gave maximum amylase production at 2%. Soluble strach was found to be best substrate among the different carbon sources tested. The maximum temperature for amylase activity ranged from 60-70 deg C and 1% strach concentration was optimum for all isolates

  17. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  18. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  19. Heat activation and stability of amylases from Bacillus species | Ajayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leitch and Collier sporulating Bacillus medium was used to isolate some strains of Bacillus species from soil, wastewater and food sources in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, by heat activation method. Heat treatment at 80oC allowed the growth of sporulating Bacillus species, in the culture sample source without other bacteria ...

  20. Multidrug Resistant Acinetobacter Infection and Their Antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acinetobacter baumannii, a non-glucose fermenting Gram negative bacillus, has emerged in the last three decades as a major etiological agent of hospital-associated infections giving rise to significant morbidity and mortality particularly in immunocompromised patients. Multidrug resistant A. baumannii ...

  1. ENT infection caused by Raoultella ornithinolytica | Singh | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENT infection caused by Raoultella ornithinolytica. M Singh, I Kaur, D.K. Mundi, A Kaur. Abstract. Raoultella ornithinolytica is an encapsulated gram-negative aerobic bacillus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is one of the three species of Raoultella. Human infections related to R. ornithinolytica are exceedingly ...

  2. Bacillus anthracis infections – new possibilities of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Żakowska

    2015-05-01

    Recently, progress has been achieved in inhalation anthrax treatment. The most promising new possibilities include: new antibiotics, peptides and bacteriophages enzymes, monoclonal antibodies, antigen PA mutants, and inter alpha inhibitors applications. In the case of the possibility of bioterrorist attacks, the examination of inhalation anthrax treatment should be intensively continued.

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis membrane-damaging toxins acting on mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is widely used as a biopesticide in forestry and agriculture, being able to produce potent species-specific insecticidal toxins and considered nonpathogenic to other animals. More recently, however, repeated observations are documenting the association of this microorganism with various infectious diseases in humans, such as food-poisoning-associated diarrheas, periodontitis, bacteremia, as well as ocular, burn, and wound infections. Similar to B. cereus, B. thuringiensis produces an array of virulence factors acting against mammalian cells, such as phosphatidylcholine- and phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC and PI-PLC), hemolysins, in particular hemolysin BL (HBL), and various enterotoxins. The contribution of some of these toxins to B. thuringiensis pathogenicity has been studied in animal models of infection, following intravitreous, intranasal, or intratracheal inoculation. These studies lead to the speculation that the activities of PC-PLC, PI-PLC, and HBL are responsible for most of the pathogenic properties of B. thuringiensis in nongastrointestinal infections in mammals. This review summarizes data regarding the biological activity, the genetic basis, and the structural features of these membrane-damaging toxins. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Insights into the molecular basis of biocontrol of Brassica pathogens by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 lipopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Shashidar; Ongena, Marc; Debois, Delphine; De Pauw, Edwin; Chen, Kunling; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan

    2017-10-17

    Certain micro-organisms can improve plant protection against pathogens. The protective effect may be direct, e.g. due to antibiotic compounds, or indirect, by priming of plant defence as induced systemic resistance (ISR). The plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens UCMB5113 shows potential for disease management of oilseed rape. To investigate the mode of action of this protection, especially in relation to jasmonic acid-dependent ISR, Bacillus UCMB5113 was tested with Arabidopsis thaliana mutants and several important fungal pathogens of Brassica species. Secreted lipopeptide fractions from Bacillus UCMB5113, together with synthetic peptide mimics, were evaluated for their effects on fungal phytopathogens and A. thaliana . The structures of secreted lipopeptides were analysed using mass spectrometry. Plant mutants and reporter lines were used to identify signalling steps involved in disease suppression by lipopeptides. In plate tests Bacillus UCMB5113 and lipopeptide extracts suppressed growth of several fungal pathogens infecting Brassica plants. Separation of secreted lipopeptides using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography revealed several fractions that inhibited fungal growth. Analysis by mass spectrometry identified the most potent compounds as novel linear forms of antifungal fengycins, with synthetic peptide mimics confirming the biological activity. Application of the lipopeptide extracts on Arabidopsis roots provided systemic protection against Alternaria brassicicola on leaves. Arabidopsis signalling mutants and PDF1.2 and VSP2 promoter-driven GUS lines indicated that the lipopeptide fraction involved jasmonic-acid-dependent host responses for suppression of fungal growth indicative of ISR. The ability of Bacillus UCMB5113 to counteract pathogens using both antagonistic lipopeptides and through ISR provides a promising tool for sustainable crop production. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press

  5. BOOK REVIEW – BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  6. [Geno- and phenotypic characteristic of Bacillus strains--components of endosporin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safronova, L A; Zelenaia, L B; Klochko, V V; Avdeeva, L V; Reva, O N; Podgorskiĭ, V S

    2012-01-01

    Endosporin is used in veterinary for the prophylaxis and treatment of disbacteriosis, intestinal infections, festering wounds and postpartum pyoinflammatory complications in agricultural animals. The probiotic is based on two Bacillus strains which inhibit growth of a broad spectrum of pathogenic microorganisms and synthesise proteolytic enzymes and other biologically active secondary metabolites, particularly - polysaccharides. The activity of these two strains was supplementary. For the species identification of these strains, sequences of 16S rRNA genes and fatty acid content of cell walls were analysed. It was found that the both strains belong to B. velezensis. Limitations of application of 16S rRNA sequences for identification of closely related species are discussed in the paper. A method of 16S rRNA sequence profiling by polymorphic nucleotides was proposed. It was also shown that usefulness of Bacillus strains in probiotics is mostly based on their unique strain specific properties rather than on general species characteristics.

  7. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an "Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens" within the B. subtilis Species Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42 T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as " B. amyloliquefaciens ." Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7 T , the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens . We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7 T . Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens , (2) Bacillus siamensis , and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus , and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum . The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7 T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as "operational group B. amyloliquefaciens " consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens , and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis , whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style.

  8. Elizabethkingia meningosepticum (Chryseobacterium meningosepticum Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ceyhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chryseobacterium meningosepticum is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacillus historically associated primarily with meningitis in neonates and a wide variety of infections in immunocompromised patients. Neonatal infections often occur as outbreaks with environmental contamination being the source. C. meningosepticum infections are not common but are clinically important because the organism is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics. In this paper, we have reviewed the nosocomial outbreaks of C. meningosepticum in newborns and infants reported so far in the literature and overviewed the infection control interventions, treatment modalities, and prevention measures.

  9. Comparative genome analysis of Bacillus cereus group genomes withBacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Iain; Sorokin, Alexei; Kapatral, Vinayak; Reznik, Gary; Bhattacharya, Anamitra; Mikhailova, Natalia; Burd, Henry; Joukov, Victor; Kaznadzey, Denis; Walunas, Theresa; D' Souza, Mark; Larsen, Niels; Pusch,Gordon; Liolios, Konstantinos; Grechkin, Yuri; Lapidus, Alla; Goltsman,Eugene; Chu, Lien; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S. Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos; Ivanova, Natalia

    2005-09-14

    Genome features of the Bacillus cereus group genomes (representative strains of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis sub spp israelensis) were analyzed and compared with the Bacillus subtilis genome. A core set of 1,381 protein families among the four Bacillus genomes, with an additional set of 933 families common to the B. cereus group, was identified. Differences in signal transduction pathways, membrane transporters, cell surface structures, cell wall, and S-layer proteins suggesting differences in their phenotype were identified. The B. cereus group has signal transduction systems including a tyrosine kinase related to two-component system histidine kinases from B. subtilis. A model for regulation of the stress responsive sigma factor sigmaB in the B. cereus group different from the well studied regulation in B. subtilis has been proposed. Despite a high degree of chromosomal synteny among these genomes, significant differences in cell wall and spore coat proteins that contribute to the survival and adaptation in specific hosts has been identified.

  10. tolerant alkaline protease from Bacillus coagulans PSB

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oyaide

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... optimum activity at 60°C and pH 8.0 with casein as substrate. The enzyme was .... appropriate buffers. 50 mM of buffer solutions (sodium citrate, pH .... Table 2. Hydrolysis of protein substrates by protease from Bacillus coagulans PSB-07. Substrate. Relative activity (%). Casein. 100. Gelatin. 18. BSA. 72.

  11. Probiotic Bacillus species and Saccharomyces boulardii improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotic Bacillus species and Saccharomyces boulardii improve performance, gut histology and immunity in broiler chickens. ... Carcass yield, liver weights, breast muscle values, and abdominal fat weights were reduced in groups fed with 100 or 150 g/ton of Microguard. Caecal coliforms, Salmonella and Escherichia coli ...

  12. Antibacterial potential components of Bacillus species and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey is a sweet viscous liquid produced by honey bee, Apis mellifera from the nectar of plants. Honey is a natural product that has been used from ancient times till now as food and for medicinal purpose. This study was carried out to determine the mode of action of Bacillus species and antibiotics residues in branded and ...

  13. Bacillus subtilis Spore Inner Membrane Proteome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, L.; Abhyankar, W.; Ouwerling, N.; Dekker, H.L.; van Veen, H.; van der Wel, N.N.; Roseboom, W.; de Koning, L.J.; Brul, S.; de Koster, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    The endospore is the dormant form of Bacillus subtilis and many other Firmicutes. By sporulation, these spore formers can survive very harsh physical and chemical conditions. Yet, they need to go through germination to return to their growing form. The spore inner membrane (IM) has been shown to

  14. Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Bottini, N.

    2005-01-01

    phosphorylation, indicating that this post-translational modifi cation could regulate physiological processes ranging from stress response and exopolysaccharide synthesis to DNA metabolism. Some interesting work in this fi eld was done in Bacillus subtilis , and we here present the current state of knowledge...

  15. strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa and bacillus cereus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    DETERMINATION OF THE GENETIC MARKER OF THE MUTAGENIZED. STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA AND BACILLUS CEREUS. ISOLATED FROM EFFLUENT OF PETROLEUM REFINERY. Idise, O. E.1, Ameh, J.B.2 Yakubu, S.E. 2, Okuofu, C.A. 3 and Ado, S.A.2. 1 Department of Microbiology, Delta ...

  16. Preliminary investigations reveal that Bacillus thuringiensis δ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The imminent introduction of transgenic crops into Kenya requires a rigorous assessment of the potential risks involved. This study focused on the possible effect of Bacillus thuringiensisδ-endotoxin [CryIA(c)] on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with sorghum. In green house experiments, sorghum seedlings ...

  17. Isolation and characterization of native Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (<30% mortality) or non insecticidal activity. However, results of motility, hemolytic activity, antibiotic-susceptibility patterns, and crystal shape, seem to suggest that many of our Bt isolates may exhibit parasporins activity. Key words: Bacillus thuringiensis, parasporal crystal, isolation, biochemical type, insecticidal, cry gene, ...

  18. Purification And Characterization Of Marine Bacillus Thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urease was purified to homogeneity from Bacillus thuringiensis N2 using different purification steps namely, 55% acetone precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex A50 anion exchange column and Sephadex G120-200 gel filtration chromatography. The enzyme was purified 95.27 fold and showed a final specific activity of 10.48 ...

  19. Molecular characterization of Lepidopteran specific Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains pathogenic to Lepidopteran insects and native to hilly zone soils of Karnataka (India) were explored. 19 strains were isolated from the soils and identified by morphological and microscopic characters. Toxicity level of the Bt isolates was tested by treating third Instar larvae of silkworm ...

  20. Molecular characterization of Lepidopteran specific Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... Department of Plant Biotechnology, University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore, India. Accepted 24 April, 2013. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains pathogenic to Lepidopteran insects and native to hilly zone soils of. Karnataka ... In one of the isolates (Bt9), the cry gene was not detected.

  1. Antimicrobials of Bacillus species: mining and engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. have been successfully used to suppress various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Due to the wide availability of whole genome sequence data and the development of genome mining tools, novel antimicrobials are being discovered and updated,;not only bacteriocins, but also NRPs and PKs. A

  2. Exopolysaccharide production by Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2862 and Streptococcus mutans MTCC 1943 were examined for their exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing ability at the laboratory level. Basal salts solution (BSS), minimal salts medium (MSM), nitrogen free medium (NFM), chemically ...

  3. CASE REPORT Uncommon Pathogen Bacillus Cereus Causing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... A complete blood count showed white blood cell count of 13.800/mm3 and the CRP level was 8.3 mg/L. Craniotomy following burr hole drainage procedure was performed to decrease intracranial pressure. The liquor culture indicated Bacillus cereus. A meropenem injection and metronidazole infusion ...

  4. Utilization of corn starch as sustrate for ß-Amylase by Bacillus SPP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corn starch was used as substrate for ß -amylase production from ten(10) amylolytic species of the genus Bacillus isolated locally from soil, waste water and food sources. Ten bacillus strains was made up of two strains each of Bacillus macerans, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus circulans. Also included are B. coagulans, ...

  5. L-Glutamic acid production by Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogiri” (fermented vegetable proteins) in Nigeria. The isolates were identified as Bacillus subtilis (6), (27.3%), Bacillus pumilus (5), (22.7%), Bacillus licheniformis (5), (27.3%) and Bacillus polymyxa (6), (22.7%). Four species of the Bacillus isolates ...

  6. Genotype Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Strains Circulating in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam Rume

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, anthrax, caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is considered an endemic disease affecting ruminants with sporadic zoonotic occurrences in humans. Due to the lack of knowledge about risks from an incorrect removal of infected carcasses, the disease is not properly monitored, and because of the socio-economic conditions, the situation is under-reported and under-diagnosed. For sensitive species, anthrax represents a fatal outcome with sudden death and sometimes bleeding from natural orifices. The most common source of infection for ruminants is ingestion of spores during grazing in contaminated pastures or through grass and water contaminated with anthrax spores. Domestic cattle, sheep and goats can also become infected through contaminated bone meal (used as feed originating from anthrax-infected carcasses. The present investigation was conducted to isolate B. anthracis organisms from 169 samples (73 soil, 1 tissue, 4 bone and 91 bone meal samples collected from 12 different districts of Bangladesh. The sampling was carried out from 2012 to 2015. Twelve samples resulted positive for B. anthracis. Biomolecular analyses were conducted starting from the Canonical Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (CanSNP to analyze the phylogenetic origin of strains. The analysis of genotype, obtained through the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA with the analysis of 15 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTR, demonstrated four different genotypes: two of them were previously identified in the district of Sirajganj. The sub-genotyping, conducted with Single Nucleotide Repeats analysis, revealed the presence of eight subgenotypes. The data of the present study concluded that there was no observed correlation between imported cattle feed and anthrax occurrence in Bangladesh and that the remarkable genetic variations of B. anthracis were found in the soil of numerous outbreaks in this country.

  7. Investigation of biosurfactant production by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shila khajavi shojaei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biosurfactants are unique amphipathic molecules with extensive application in removing organic and metal contaminants. The purpose of this study was to investigate production of biosurfactant and determine optimal conditions to produce biosurfactant by Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI. Materials and methods: In this study, effect of carbon source, temperature and incubation time on biosurfactant production was evaluated. Hemolytic activity, emulsification activity, oil spreading, drop collapse, cell hydrophobicity and measurement of surface tension were used to detect biosurfactant production. Then, according to the results, the optimal conditions for biosurfactant production by and Bacillus subtilis WPI was determined. Results: In this study, both bacteria were able to produce biosurfactant at an acceptable level. Glucose, kerosene, sugarcane molasses and phenanthrene used as a sole carbon source and energy for the mentioned bacteria. Bacillus subtilis WPI produced maximum biosurfactant in the medium containing kerosene and reduced surface tension of the medium to 33.1 mN/m after 156 hours of the cultivation at 37°C. Also, the highest surface tension reduction by Bacillus pumilus 1529 occurred in the medium containing sugarcane molasses and reduce the surface tension of culture medium after 156 hours at 37°C from 50.4 to 28.83 mN/m. Discussion and conclusion: Bacillus pumilus 1529 and Bacillus subtilis WPI had high potential in production of biosurfactant and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons and Phenanthrene. Therefore, it could be said that these bacteria had a great potential for applications in bioremediation and other environmental process.

  8. Current development in genetic engineering strategies of Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The complete sequencing and annotation of the genomes of industrially-important Bacillus species has enhanced our understanding of their properties, and allowed advances in genetic manipulations in other Bacillus species. Post-genomic studies require simple and highly efficient tools to enable genetic manipulation. Here, we summarize the recent progress in genetic engineering strategies for Bacillus species. We review the available genetic tools that have been developed in Bacillus species, as well as methods developed in other species that may also be applicable in Bacillus. Furthermore, we address the limitations and challenges of the existing methods, and discuss the future research prospects in developing novel and useful tools for genetic modification of Bacillus species. PMID:24885003

  9. Lipid composition in a strain of Bacillus subtilis, a producer of iturin A lipopeptides that are active against uropathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Bernat, Przemys?aw; Paraszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Siewiera, Paulina; Moryl, Magdalena; P?aza, Gra?yna; Chojniak, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Urinary tract infections are a common disease in humans. Therefore, new methods are needed to destroy biofilms that are formed by uropathogens. Iturin A lipopeptides (LPs) C14 and C15 are potent biosurfactants synthetized by the Bacillus subtilis I?1a strain. The biological activity of extracted LPs was confirmed by examining extracts from I?1a cultures against uropathogenic bacteria that had been isolated from biofilms on urinary catheters. Compared with cultures of DSM 3257, which ...

  10. Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kihyun; Lee, Yoonji; Ha, Areum; Kim, Ji-In; Park, Ae Ran; Yu, Nan Hee; Son, Hokyoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Park, Hae Woong; Lee, Chul Won; Lee, Theresa; Lee, Yin-Won; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides for controlling FHB without the negative effects of chemical management. Out of 500 bacterial strains isolated from soil, Bacillus amyloliquefacie...

  11. Rapid Detection of the Poly-γ-d-Glutamic Acid Capsular Antigen of Bacillus anthracis by Latex Agglutination

    Science.gov (United States)

    AuCoin, David P.; Sutherland, Marjorie D.; Percival, Ann L.; Lyons, C. Rick; Lovchik, Julie A.; Kozel, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Latex agglutination has been used to detect capsular polysaccharides from a variety of bacteria in body fluids. A latex agglutination assay was constructed for detection of the poly-γ-d-glutamic acid (γdPGA) capsular polypeptide of Bacillus anthracis in serum from animal models of pulmonary anthrax. The assay was able to detect γdPGA in serum from infected animals at concentrations of 100–200 ng/ml. PMID:19345041

  12. Modeling Radiation Effectiveness for Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES DISSERTATION Emily A. Knight, Major, USAF AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 DEPARTMENT OF THE...not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENC-DS-15-S-001 MODELING RADIATION EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES...EFFECTIVENESS FOR INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS SPORES Emily A. Knight, B.A., M.S. Major, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. William P. Baker Chair Dr. Larry W

  13. Bacillus spp. toxicity against Haemonchus contortus larvae in sheep fecal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinott, M C; Cunha Filho, N A; Castro, L L D; Lorenzon, L B; Pinto, N B; Capella, G A; Leite, F P L

    2012-10-01

    The gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus is a major productivity constraint in sheep. In this study, the nematicidal effects of Bacillus circulans, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Bt. var. osvaldocruzi, Bt. var. morrisoni, and Bt. var. kurstaki were assessed in free-living larval stages of H. contortus. A spore-crystal suspension containing approximately 2×10(8)UFC/mL of each strain was added to sheep feces that were naturally infected with H. contortus eggs, and the presence of larvae was then evaluated. We observed a significant (p>0.05) reduction in larval development when using B. circulans, B. thuringiensis var. israelensis, Bt. var. osvaldocruzi and Bt. var. kurstaki, and these effects were proportional with the amount of bacteria added to the feces. However, no effect was observed when Bt. var. morrisoni or B. cereus was added. These observations suggest that these bacteria might be effective as nematicides and may allow for the development of integrated biological control of zooparasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biocontrol of gray mold on Rosa Hybrida cv. Baccara with Bacillus Subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Mousavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria Bacillus subtilis was investigated for control of gray mold, postharvest quality and antioxidant enzymes of Rosa hybrida cv. Baccara. The results indicated that the treatment of Bacillus subtilis suspension of 1 × 108cfu mL−1 with resulted in a remarkably improved control of Botrytis cinerea infections. CAT activity in treated flower by antagonism were significantly more than those control (P ≤ 0.05 at 25◦C, RH 60-70%. POD activity cut flowers increased during the flower bud development with the lowest activity present at water-sprayed control. Enhanced by antagonism could be due to either induced resistance or direct effects of these chemicals on Botrytis. The proper concentration of Bacillus subtilis can thus provide an effective strategy to increase postharvest vase life of Rosa. Postharvest antagonism application prolonged vase-life in cut rose flowers by improving the reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging capacity related to CAT and POD activity

  15. Bacillus caldolyticus prs gene encoding phosphoribosyldiphosphate synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    The prs gene, encoding phosphoribosyl-diphosphate (PRPP) synthase, as well as the flanking DNA sequences were cloned and sequenced from the Gram-positive thermophile, Bacillus caldolyticus. Comparison with the homologous sequences from the mesophile, Bacillus subtilis, revealed a gene (gca......D) encoding N-acetylglucosamine-l-phosphate uridyltransferase upstream of prs, and a gene homologous to ctc downstream of prs. cDNA synthesis with a B. caldolyticus gcaD-prs-ctc-specified mRNA as template, followed by amplification utilising the polymerase chain reaction indicated that the three genes are co......-transcribed. Comparison of amino acid sequences revealed a high similarity among PRPP synthases across a wide phylogenetic range. An E. coli strain harbouring the B. caldolyticus prs gene in a multicopy plasmid produced PRPP synthase activity 33-fold over the activity of a haploid B. caldolyticus strain. B. caldolyticus...

  16. Bioakumulasi logam berat Cu oleh Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesta Primaharinastiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the ability of Bacillus sp in accumulating Cu and how much it can be acumulated. Themedium used to growth the bacterium was Nutrient Broth and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry methods was used to assay theCu, both in the cells and medium. The result of this study showed that Bacillus sp incubated in the Nutrient Broth medium containing10 ppm of Cu, with continuous stirring in the room temperature was able to reduce Cu in the medium 8.912–12.623% and accumulateCu in the cell 0.1149–0.1400 %/mg cells. Based on this result, it is necessary to develop more studies to find out what factors thatinfluence the accumulation process and to optimize the bioprocess.

  17. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, J F; Wakim, J; Fischer, R S

    1981-01-01

    The activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis was influenced by the carbon source, but not the nitrogen source, in the growth medium. The highest specific activity for this enzyme was found when B. subtilis was grown in a minimal or rich medium that contained glutamate as the carbon source. It is proposed that glutamate dehydrogenase serves a catabolic function in the metabolism of glutamate, is induced by glutamate, and is subjec...

  18. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J F; Wakim, J; Fischer, R S

    1981-01-01

    The activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis was influenced by the carbon source, but not the nitrogen source, in the growth medium. The highest specific activity for this enzyme was found when B. subtilis was grown in a minimal or rich medium that contained glutamate as the carbon source. It is proposed that glutamate dehydrogenase serves a catabolic function in the metabolism of glutamate, is induced by glutamate, and is subject to catabolite repression. PMID:6118356

  19. Identification of Fatty Acids in Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginies, Christian; Brillard, Julien; Nguyen-The, Christophe

    2016-12-05

    The Bacillus species contain branched chain and unsaturated fatty acids (FAs) with diverse positions of the methyl branch (iso or anteiso) and of the double bond. Changes in FA composition play a crucial role in the adaptation of bacteria to their environment. These modifications entail a change in the ratio of iso versus anteiso branched FAs, and in the proportion of unsaturated FAs relative to saturated FAs, with double bonds created at specific positions. Precise identification of the FA profile is necessary to understand the adaptation mechanisms of Bacillus species. Many of the FAs from Bacillus are not commercially available. The strategy proposed herein identifies FAs by combining information on the retention time (by calculation of the equivalent chain length (ECL)) with the mass spectra of three types of FA derivatives: fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), 4,4-dimethyl oxazoline derivatives (DMOX), and 3-pyridylcarbinyl ester (picolinyl). This method can identify the FAs without the need to purify the unknown FAs. Comparing chromatographic profiles of FAME prepared from Bacillus cereus with a commercial mixture of standards allows for the identification of straight-chain saturated FAs, the calculation of the ECL, and hypotheses on the identity of the other FAs. FAMEs of branched saturated FAs, iso or anteiso, display a constant negative shift in the ECL, compared to linear saturated FAs with the same number of carbons. FAMEs of unsaturated FAs can be detected by the mass of their molecular ions, and result in a positive shift in the ECL compared to the corresponding saturated FAs. The branching position of FAs and the double bond position of unsaturated FAs can be identified by the electron ionization mass spectra of picolinyl and DMOX derivatives, respectively. This approach identifies all the unknown saturated branched FAs, unsaturated straight-chain FAs and unsaturated branched FAs from the B. cereus extract.

  20. Isolation of bacillus thuringiensis from different samples from Mansehra District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, F.; Lodhi, A.F.; Raza, G.

    2009-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis has made it very interesting for the control of a variety of agricultural pests and human disease vectors. The present study is an attempt to explore the potential and diversity. of Bacillus thuringiensis. from the local environment for the control of cotton spotted bollworm (Earias sp.), a major pest of cotton. Two hundred and ninety eight samples of soil, grain dust, wild animal dung, birds dropping, decaying leaves and dead insects were collected from different ecological environments of Mansehra District yielding 438 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates that produce parasporal crystalline inclusions. In this study the soil samples were found to be the richest source for Bacillus thuringiensis. (author)

  1. Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawlankar, Rahul; Thorat, Meghana N; Krishnamurthi, Srinivasan; Dastager, Syed G

    2016-01-01

    A novel bacterial strain NIO-1130(T) was isolated from sediment sample taken from Chorao Island, Goa Province, India, and subjected to a taxonomic investigation. The strain was Gram-positive, aerobic, and motile. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate within the genus Bacillus and strain NIO-1130(T) showed highest sequence similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) (98.4%) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T) (98.1%), whereas other Bacillus species showed bacillus group. The major menaquinone was MK-7 and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C17:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The strain showed a DNA G+C content of 39.9 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization studies revealed that strain NIO-1130(T) exhibits 70% similarity with Bacillus halosaccharovorans DSM 25387(T) and Bacillus niabensis CIP 109816(T). On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses, we consider the isolate to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cellulasensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NIO-1130(T) (=NCIM 5461(T)=CCTCC AB 2011126(T)).

  2. How the insect pathogen bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Xenorhabdus/Photorhabdus occupy their hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-LeRoux, Christina; Gaudriault, Sophie; Ramarao, Nalini; Lereclus, Didier; Givaudan, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Insects are the largest group of animals on earth. Like mammals, virus, fungi, bacteria and parasites infect them. Several tissue barriers and defense mechanisms are common for vertebrates and invertebrates. Therefore some insects, notably the fly Drosophila and the caterpillar Galleria mellonella, have been used as models to study host-pathogen interactions for several insect and mammal pathogens. They are excellent tools to identify pathogen determinants and host tissue cell responses. We focus here on the comparison of effectors used by two different groups of bacterial insect pathogens to accomplish the infection process in their lepidopteran larval host: Bacillus thuringiensis and the nematode-associated bacteria, Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus. The comparison reveals similarities in function and expression profiles for some genes, which suggest that such factors are conserved during evolution in order to attack the tissue encountered during the infection process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis in the roots of Robinia pseudoacacia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B; Lv, C; Zhuang, P; Zhang, H; Fan, L

    2011-11-01

    The endophytic colonisation of Bacillus subtilis strain GXJM08, isolated from roots of Podocarpus imbricatus B1. Enum. P1. Jav., in roots of the leguminous plant Robinia pseudoacacia L. was investigated. Ultrastructure observations showed that B. subtilis caused morphological changes in the root hair and colonised the plant through infected root hairs. The structure of the infection thread was similar to that of rhizobia, but the structure of infected cells was different. B. subtilis is also different from rhizobia and plant pathogens in terms of the formation of a peribacteroid membrane and the mode of penetration through the host cell wall. Our results provide a basis for studying development of the mutualistic symbiotic relationship between B. subtilis and plants, and a basis for studying the mechanism of the B. subtilis-plant interaction. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Multiparametric ultrasound findings of tuberculous orchitis following bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumman Ahmed, MB BS, BSc (Hons, FRCR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG infection, both localized and disseminated, as a complication of intravesical therapy for transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is a recognized but highly unusual phenomenon. We report the case of an 89-year-old gentleman with a history of bladder transitional cell carcinoma and subsequent intravesical BCG instillation of the bladder who presented to his general practitioner with a non-tender lump in his left testis. Histopathologic and microbiological evaluation of the subsequent orchidectomy specimen revealed granuloma formation secondary to BCG infection. The use of bubble contrast agents and elastography in ultrasound to evaluate focal testicular lesions is a relatively novel concept, and we aim to highlight the imaging features of testicular BCG infection using these techniques.

  5. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, T. N. C.; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions. PMID:27258038

  6. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Khatri

    Full Text Available Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  7. Complete Genomes of Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, Two Phylogenetically Distinct Probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Indu; Sharma, Shailza; Ramya, T N C; Subramanian, Srikrishna

    2016-01-01

    Several spore-forming strains of Bacillus are marketed as probiotics due to their ability to survive harsh gastrointestinal conditions and confer health benefits to the host. We report the complete genomes of two commercially available probiotics, Bacillus coagulans S-lac and Bacillus subtilis TO-A JPC, and compare them with the genomes of other Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The taxonomic position of both organisms was established with a maximum-likelihood tree based on twenty six housekeeping proteins. Analysis of all probiotic strains of Bacillus and Lactobacillus reveal that the essential sporulation proteins are conserved in all Bacillus probiotic strains while they are absent in Lactobacillus spp. We identified various antibiotic resistance, stress-related, and adhesion-related domains in these organisms, which likely provide support in exerting probiotic action by enabling adhesion to host epithelial cells and survival during antibiotic treatment and harsh conditions.

  8. Bioaccumulation of copper, zinc, cadmium and lead by Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus and Bacillus subtilis Bioacumulação de cobre, zinco, cádmio e chumbo por Bacillus sp., Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus e Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Augusto da Costa

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some results on the use of microbes from the genus Bacillus for uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and lead ions. Maximum copper bioaccumulations were 5.6 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 5.9 mol/g biomass for B. cereus and B. subtilis, and 6.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. Maximum zinc bioaccumulations were 4.3 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 4.6 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 4.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 5.0 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. Maximum cadmium bioaccumulations were 8.0 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 9.5 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis, 10.8 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 11.8 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus. Maximum lead biomaccumulations were 0.7 mol/g biomass for B. sphaericus, 1.1 mol/g biomass for B. cereus, 1.4 mol/g biomass for Bacillus sp. and 1.8 mol/g biomass for B. subtilis. The different Bacillus strains tested presented distinct uptake capacities, and the best results were obtained for B. subtilis and B. cereus.Este trabalho apresenta resultados de acumulação dos íons metálicos cádmio, zinco, cobre e chumbo por bactérias do gênero Bacillus. A bioacumulação máxima de cobre foi 5,6 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 5,9 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus e B. subtilis, e 6,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp.. A bioacumulação máxima de zinco foi 4,3 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 4,6 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 4,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 5,0 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. A bioacumulação máxima de cádmio foi 8,0 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 9,5 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis, 10,8 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 11,8 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus. A bioacumulação máxima de chumbo foi 0,7 mol/g biomassa para B. sphaericus, 1,1 mol/g biomassa para B. cereus, 1,4 mol/g biomassa para Bacillus sp. e 1,8 mol/g biomassa para B. subtilis. As distintas linhagens de Bacillus testadas apresentaram variáveis capacidades de carregamento de íons metálicos, sendo os

  9. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  10. Disseminated bacillus calmette guerin disease in a twin infant with severe combined immunodeficiency disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hema Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatal-disseminated Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG disease is well known in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency after BCG vaccination. We report a 7 month male infant delivered as a product of in vitro fertilization and twin gestation that presented with fever, cough and multiple nodular skin lesions. A biopsy of skin lesions revealed the presence of acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterium bovis infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and molecular studies. Immunological profile confirmed the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency. Only few reports of similar case exist in the literature.

  11. Influence of Bacillus subtilis and acetic acid on Cobb500 intestinal microflora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial modes of probiotic action include regulation of intestinal microbial homeostasis, stabilization of the gastrointestinal barrier function expression of bacteriocins and interference with the ability of pathogens to colonize and infect the mucosa. Organic acids as feed additives have been used to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria and fungal contamination, control microbial growth and reduction of microbial metabolites. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis, acetic acid and their combination on the intestinal microflora of broiler chickens (Cobb 500. The experiment was carried out on 4 groups each contains 100 chicks as follows: control (without addition, treatment 1 (acetic acid, treatment 2 (Bacillus subtilis and treatment 3 (acetic acid + Bacillus subtilis. Six samples from each group were selected as a sample (mixed sex. The highest average number of log CFU.g-1 Lactobacillus sp. was in the treatment 3 – 7.11 log CFU.g-1 and the lowest was in the control group – 6.85. The highest average number of log CFU.g-1 Enterococcus sp. was in the treatment 2 – 7.17 log CFU.g-1 and the lowest was in the control group – 5.65. In both observing additions of Bacillus subtilis and acetic acid increase the number of log CFU.g-1 Lactobacillus sp. and Enterococcus sp. compared with control group. The lower average number of log CFU.g-1 coliform bacteria was in the treatment 2 – 5.9 log CFU.g-1 and the higher was in control group – 6.98. The additional supplement decreased the number of log CFU.g-1 coliform bacteria in the treatment groups compared with the control.

  12. Characterization of amylolysin, a novel lantibiotic from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguelles Arias, Anthony; Ongena, Marc; Devreese, Bart; Terrak, Mohammed; Joris, Bernard; Fickers, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Lantibiotics are heat-stable peptides characterized by the presence of thioether amino acid lanthionine and methyllanthionine. They are capable to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus, the causative agents of food-borne diseases or nosocomial infections. Lantibiotic biosynthetic machinery is encoded by gene cluster composed by a structural gene that codes for a pre-lantibiotic peptide and other genes involved in pre-lantibiotic modifications, regulation, export and immunity. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1 was found to produce an antimicrobial peptide, named amylolysin, active on an array of Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin resistant S. aureus. Genome characterization led to the identification of a putative lantibiotic gene cluster that comprises a structural gene (amlA) and genes involved in modification (amlM), transport (amlT), regulation (amlKR) and immunity (amlFE). Disruption of amlA led to loss of biological activity, confirming thus that the identified gene cluster is related to amylolysin synthesis. MALDI-TOF and LC-MS analysis on purified amylolysin demonstrated that this latter corresponds to a novel lantibiotic not described to date. The ability of amylolysin to interact in vitro with the lipid II, the carrier of peptidoglycan monomers across the cytoplasmic membrane and the presence of a unique modification gene suggest that the identified peptide belongs to the group B lantibiotic. Amylolysin immunity seems to be driven by only two AmlF and AmlE proteins, which is uncommon within the Bacillus genus. Apart from mersacidin produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains Y2 and HIL Y-85,544728, reports on the synthesis of type B-lantibiotic in this species are scarce. This study reports on a genetic and structural characterization of another representative of the type B lantibiotic in B. amyloliquefaciens.

  13. Occurrence and significance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in ready-to-eat food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenquist, Hanne; Ørum-Smidt, Lasse; Andersen, Sigrid R

    2005-01-01

    Among 48,901 samples of ready-to-eat food products at the Danish retail market, 0.5% had counts of Bacillus cereus-like bacteria above 10(4) cfu g(-1). The high counts were most frequently found in starchy, cooked products, but also in fresh cucumbers and tomatoes. Forty randomly selected strains...... had at least one gene or component involved in human diarrhoeal disease, while emetic toxin was related to only one B. cereus strain. A new observation was that 31 out of the 40 randomly selected B. cereus-like strains could be classified as Bacillus thuringiensis due to crystal production and...

  14. Identification of Ochrobactrum oryzae in Bloodstream Primary Infection in a Dialysis Patient: Can it be an Emerging Pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana S Borges, Jussimara N Monteiro, Lisia Miglioli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ochrobactrum spp is a gram-negative bacillus currently considered an emerging and opportunistic infection, rare in humans, and generally associated with indwelling foreign bodies. We report a case of primary bloodstream infection related to a dialysis catheter, caused by Ochrobactrum oryzae misidentified as Ochrobactrum anthropi. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016; 6(3: 128-131

  15. Biodiversity of predominant Bacillus isolated from afitin, iru and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred (200) presumptive isolates of Bacillus collected at different fermentation time from spontaneous fermented samples of afitin, iru and sonru produced in three different regions of Benin were identified at species and strains levels. ITS-PCR-RFLP revealed that 79% of the isolates were really identified as Bacillus, ...

  16. The use of two biological formulations of Bacillus Thuringiensis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two biological formulations of the microbial agents Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus, known by their trade names Vectobac 12 AS and VectoLex CG (Corn Cob) granules, respectively, were obtained from Valent Biosciences Company (formerly Abbott Laboratories) of North Chicago, USA, and applied to control ...

  17. Production of cellulase by a novel cellulolytic Bacillus sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    squ

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... Eight cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from compost and were identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA sequencing. Among the eight isolates, Bacillus licheniformis B4, B7 and B8 showed the highest cellulase activity. B. licheniformis B4 and B8 showed the maximum cellulase.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a novel Bacillus subtilis WD23 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strain Bacillus sp. WD23 exhibiting laccase activity was screened from forest soil. The M9 medium containing Cu2+ was used for enriching and isolating bacterial strains capable of oxidizing syringaldazine. One isolated strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis WD23 based on the results of physiological and biochemical ...

  19. Monitoring of marine Bacillus diversity among the bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    germination an indication of manganese reduction by Bacillus. Two strains identified as Bacillus pumilus using 16S rRNA gene sequence were isolated from Buzzers Bay seawater at 45 feet dept. The strains spores were centrally located and they were able to tolerate 1.0 M NaCl concentration indicating their marine origin.

  20. Biodegradation of naphthalene and phenanthren by Bacillus subtilis 3KP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni'matuzahroh, Trikurniadewi, N.; Pramadita, A. R. A.; Pratiwi, I. A.; Salamun, Fatimah, Sumarsih, Sri

    2017-06-01

    The purposes of this research were to know growth response, degradation ability, and uptake mechanism of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. Bacillus subtilis 3KP was grown on Mineral Synthetic (MS) medium with addition of 1% yeast extract and naphthalene and phenanthrene respectively 200 ppm in different cultures. Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth response was monitored by Total Plate Count (TPC) method, the degradation ability was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, and the uptake mechanism of hydrocarbon was monitored by emulsification activity, decrease of surface tension, and activity of Bacterial Adherence to Hydrocarbon (BATH). Bacillus subtilis 3KP was able to grow and show biphasic growth pattern on both of substrates. Naphthalene and phenanthrene were used as a carbon source for Bacillus subtilis 3KP growth that indicated by the reduction of substrate concomitant with the growth. At room temperature conditions (± 30°C) and 90 rpm of agitation for 7 days, Bacillus subtilis 3KP could degrade naphthalene in the amount of 70.5% and phenanthrene in the amount of 24.8%. Based on the analysis of UV-Vis spectrophotometer, three metabolites, 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid, salicylic acid, and pyrocatechol were found in both cultures. The metabolite identification became basis of propose degradation pathway of naphthalene and phenanthrene by Bacillus subtilis 3KP. The results of hydrocarbon uptake mechanism test show that Bacillus subtilis 3KP used all of the mechanism to degrade naphthalene and phenanthrene.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis from soils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 110 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates analyzed for the presence of crystal protein genes, 7 tested positive for cry 4, cry 11, and cyt toxin genes. Sequencing of these genes in positive strains demonstrated 99–100 % homology to known mosquitocidal cry and cyt genes in Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The present ...

  2. Hydrolytic and synthetic activities of esterases produced by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel esterase producer strain named Bacillus sp. A60 was isolated from a soil sample contaminated with hydrocarbons. It was found to belong to Bacillus subtilis species through morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. This strain which can tolerate 15% (w/v) NaCl and growth at 55°C, ...

  3. by lipase from Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study reported production of lipase by Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Bacteria isolates were screened on Bushnell-Hass Mineral Salt medium containing 1% PMS for oil degradation. Two potent isolates were identified using 16S rRNA as Bacillus thuringiensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus.

  4. Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Esther Diomande

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The large bacterial genus genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbour pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

  5. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on Culex Mosquito Found in Sokoto. SB Manga, M Galadima. Abstract. Studies on the larvicidal activities of Bacillus sphaericus, against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes found in this area (Sokoto), was carried out. The B. sphaericus (SPH 88) was obtained ...

  6. Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, 30 bacterial strains isolated from marine biofilms were screened for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani by dual culture assay. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showed a clear antagonism against R. solani on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The antagonistic activity ...

  7. Antagonistic activity of selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to determine, in vitro, the antagonistic effectiveness of 60 strains of Bacillus thuringiensis against damping-off and root and stem rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The strains were obtained from the International Collection of Entomopathogenic Bacillus at the FCB-UANL. During the in vitro dual ...

  8. Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    effect of SWNTs in combination with antimicrobial chemicals on inactivation of B. anthracis spores; 4) the effect of CNTs coated surfaces on the...2010 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: (Life Science Division/ Biochemistry ) Inactivation of Bacillus... Biochemistry ) Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes Report Title The Specific Aims of the project were to investigate: 1) the

  9. Recombinant EXLX1 from Bacillus subtilis for enhancing enzymatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant EXLX1 from Bacillus subtilis for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover with low cellulase loadings. ... These results provided a feasible way for the potential application of BsEXLX1 in the efficient saccharification of cellulose materials for bioethanol production. Key word: Bacillus subtilis, BsEXLX1, ...

  10. Genome analysis-based reclassification of Bacillus weihenstephanensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mycoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the taxonomic status of the species Bacillus weihenstephanensis. A complete genome sequence for the type strain of B. weihenstephanensis was compared against that of the closely related type strain of Bacillus mycoides. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity values between the two type strains was greater than two recognized thresholds for bacterial species delineation, indicating that they should belong to the same genomospecies. The psychrotolerant characteristic and signature sequences of 16S rRNA and cspA genes were incapable of distinguishing B. weihenstephanensis from some non-B. weihenstephanensis strains. Meanwhile, the metabolic, physiological and chemotaxonomic features for the type strain of B. weihenstephanensis were shown to be congruent with those of B. mycoides. On this basis, the taxonomic affiliations of related strains from the Genbank database were determined using multilocus sequence typing and genomic analyses. Therefore, we propose Bacillus weihenstephanensis as a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus mycoides and correction of erroneous species identifications for several strains.

  11. Identification and characterization of clinical Bacillus spp. isolates phenotypically similar to Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Cari A; Vanner, Cynthia L; Helsel, Leta O; Gee, Jay E; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2010-12-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is a gram-positive, spore-forming rod, with colonies exhibiting a unique ground-glass appearance, and lacking hemolysis and motility. In addition to these phenotypes, several others traits are characteristic of B. anthracis such as susceptibility to gamma phage, the presence of two virulence plasmids (pX01 and pX02), and specific cell wall and capsular antigens that are commonly detected by direct fluorescent-antibody assays. We report on the identification and characterization of 14 Bacillus megaterium and four Bacillus sp. clinical isolates that are nonhemolytic, nonmotile, and produce a capsule antigenically similar to B. anthracis. This work furthers our understanding of Bacillus diversity and the limitations of the assays and phenotypes that are used to differentiate species in this genus. Further work is necessary to understand whether these strains are opportunistic pathogens or just contaminates. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  12. [Bacillus cereus endocarditis and a probable cutaneous gateway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudet, S; Becquart, C; Dezoteux, F; Faure, K; Staumont-Salle, D; Delaporte, E

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous telluric organism. B. cereus endocarditis is a rare condition seen mostly in prosthetic heart valves and among intravenous drug users. We report a new case of a patient without risk factors and with a good clinical outcome not requiring valve replacement. In October 2014, a 50-year-old woman was referred to the dermatology department of Lille University Hospital for lower-limb wounds developing 6 months earlier. She presented fever without clinical signs of infection, except for the lower-limbs wounds. Blood cultures revealed the presence of B. cereus. Transesophageal echocardiography was performed and revealed two foci of aortic valve vegetation with a diameter of 5mm. After bacterial sensitivity testing, rifampicin and levofloxacin treatment was given for six weeks, with complete remission. A skin graft was performed and good improvement was seen. Nineteen cases of B. cereus endocarditis have been described previously, only one of which was without risk factors. We described a case of complete remission after a 6-week course of antibiotics. Our case demonstrates that BC should not be considered as a blood culture contamination, and that treatment may be complex due to antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of antifungal metabolites activity from bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against Colletotrichum gossypii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Hafiz Husnain; Nelly Rajaofera, M J; He, Qiguang; Anam, Usmani; Lin, Chunhua; Miao, Weiguo

    2018-04-01

    Anthracnose disease in the cotton plant caused by fungal pathogen Colletotrichum gossypii. It is supposed to be most critical diseases in the cotton crop as it causes infection and leads to complete damaging of the cotton crop by infecting the leaves, stems, and bolls in the field. The disease control is challenging due to the absence of an effective fungicide without damaging the farmer health and environment. So the series of experiments were designed to assess the antagonistic activity of biosurfactant released by strain Bacillus licheniformis OE-04 against the anthracnose causing agent in cotton and this strain was screened out from forty eight strain of rhizobacteria. We also estimated the heat stability and pH range and toxicity of biosurfactant produced by strain 0E-04. The results showed that biosurfactant has maximum antifungal activity against C. gossypii. In vitro study concluded that the biosurfactant can reduce fungal activity by inhibiting the spore germination of C. gossypii. Moreover, the biosurfactant also has wide pH and temperature range. We observed Antifungal activity of biosurfactant at 5 to 10 pH range and temperature range was also wide from room temperature to 100 °C. We also observed the toxicity of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus licheniformis against zebra fish (Danio rerio). We were noticed that biosurfactant have least harmful effect with maximum concentration. The study confirmed that biosurfactant of Bacillus licheniformis have high pH and heat stability range with least harmful effects so it can be a good replacement of chemical pesticides for cotton anthracnose control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of Mycobacterium haemophilum infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L.E.S.; van Soolingen, D.; Prins, J.M.; Kuijper, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium haemophilum is a slowly growing acid-fast bacillus (AFB) belonging to the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) frequently found in environmental habitats, which can colonize and occasionally infect humans and animals. Several findings suggest that water reservoirs are a likely

  15. Bacillus swezeyi sp. nov. and Bacillus haynesii sp. nov., isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Schisler, David A; Perry, Elizabeth B; Connor, Nora; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2017-08-01

    Two isolates of Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria were identified during a survey of the diversity of strains belonging to the genus Bacillus deposited in the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil in Evolution Canyon III (Israel) in a survey of ecological diversification. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strains NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T determined they were closely related to members of the Bacillus licheniformis clade. The genome of each strain was sequenced, and further analysis indicated that the strains represented unique species based on in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. A phylogenomic analysis revealed that NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T were closely related to the group that includes B. licheniformis. In phenotypic characterization, both NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T were found to grow at temperatures of between 15 and 60 °C and tolerated up to 12 % NaCl (w/v). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0, and peptidoglycan from cell walls contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 45.7 and 44.3 mol% for NRRL B-41327T and NRRL B-41294T, respectively. Furthermore, each strain had a unique carbon utilization pattern that distinguished it from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, we conclude that these strains represent two novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus swezeyi sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41294T (=CCUG 70177T), and the name Bacillus haynesii sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41327T (=CCUG 70178T).

  16. Emetic food poisoning caused by Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, J R; Plunkett, T; Pate, P; Roper, W L; Alexander, W J

    1981-05-01

    Symptoms of acute food poisoning developed in eight members of a group who ate lunch at a cafeteria. After brief incubation periods, all affected individuals complained of nausea and abdominal cramps. Four persons promptly experienced vomiting. None of those affected was found to have fever and all recovered with 48 hours. Epidemiologic investigation incriminated macaroni and cheese as a cause of the illness and samples of this food contained large numbers of Bacillus cereus. Previous outbreaks of B cereus emetic food poisoning have been associated with consumption of contaminated fried rice and may occur after ingestion of other foods.

  17. Plant methyl salicylate induces defense responses in the rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis is a rhizobacterium that promotes plant growth and health. Cultivation of B. subtilis with an uprooted weed on solid medium produced pleat-like architectures on colonies near the plant. To test whether plants emit signals that affect B. subtilis colony morphology, we examined the effect of plant-related compounds on colony morphology. Bacillus subtilis formed mucoid colonies specifically in response to methyl salicylate, which is a plant-defense signal released in response to pathogen infection. Methyl salicylate induced mucoid colony formation by stimulating poly-γ-glutamic acid biosynthesis, which formed enclosing capsules that protected the cells from exposure to antimicrobial compounds. Poly-γ-glutamic acid synthesis depended on the DegS-DegU two-component regulatory system, which activated DegSU-dependent gene transcription in response to methyl salicylate. Bacillus subtilis did not induce plant methyl salicylate production, indicating that the most probable source of methyl salicylate in the rhizosphere is pathogen-infected plants. Methyl salicylate induced B. subtilis biosynthesis of the antibiotics bacilysin and fengycin, the latter of which exhibited inhibitory activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum. We propose that B. subtilis may sense plants under pathogen attack via methyl salicylate, and express defense responses that protect both B. subtilis and host plants in the rhizosphere. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Genomic and transcriptomic insights into the efficient entomopathogenicity of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Peng, Donghai; Wang, Yueying; Ye, Weixing; Zheng, Jinshui; Zhao, Changming; Han, Dongmei; Geng, Ce; Ruan, Lifang; He, Jin; Yu, Ziniu; Sun, Ming

    2015-09-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been globally used as a microbial pesticide for over 70 years. However, information regarding its various adaptions and virulence factors and their roles in the entomopathogenic process remains limited. In this work, we present the complete genomes of two industrially patented Bacillus thuringiensis strains (HD-1 and YBT-1520). A comparative genomic analysis showed a larger and more complicated genome constitution that included novel insecticidal toxicity-related genes (ITRGs). All of the putative ITRGs were summarized according to the steps of infection. A comparative genomic analysis showed that highly toxic strains contained significantly more ITRGs, thereby providing additional strategies for infection, immune evasion, and cadaver utilization. Furthermore, a comparative transcriptomic analysis suggested that a high expression of these ITRGs was a key factor in efficient entomopathogenicity. We identified an active extra urease synthesis system in the highly toxic strains that may aid B. thuringiensis survival in insects (similar to previous results with well-known pathogens). Taken together, these results explain the efficient entomopathogenicity of B. thuringiensis. It provides novel insights into the strategies used by B. thuringiensis to resist and overcome host immune defenses and helps identify novel toxicity factors.

  19. Potential of Bacillus spp produces siderophores insuppressing thewilt disease of banana plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaulya, H.; Hasinu, J. V.; Tuhumury, G. NC

    2018-01-01

    In nature, different types of siderophore such as hydroxymate, catecholets and carboxylate, are produced by different bacteria. Bacillus spp were isolated from potato rhizospheric soil can produce siderophore of both catecholets and salicylate type with different concentrations. Various strains of Bacillus spp were tested for pathogen inhibition capability in a dual culture manner. The test results showed the ability of inhibition of pathogen isolated from banana wilt disease. From the result tested were found Bacillus niabensis Strain PT-32-1, Bacillus subtilis Strain SWI16b, Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC21, Bacillus mojavensis Strain JCEN3, and Bacillus subtilis Strain HPC24 showed different capabilities in suppressing pathogen.

  20. Bacillus NP5 Improves Growth Performance and Resistance Against Infectious Myonecrosis Virus in White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei (Bacillus NP5 Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan dan Ketahanan Terhadap Infeksi Virus Myonecrosis pada Udang Putih (L. vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widanarni Widanarni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN merupakan salah satu penyakit yang sering menyerang udang vaname. Probiotik banyak digunakan pada budidaya udang karena terbukti mampu mengurangi serangan penyakit pada udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh pemberian probiotik Bacillus NP5 melalui pakan terhadap kinerja pertumbuhan, respons imun, dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap infeksi Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV. Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei (2.41±0.07 g ekor-1 diberi pakan yang disuplementasi probiotik Bacillus NP5 dengan dosis yang berbeda, 102 CFU.g-1 (A, 104 CFU.g-1 (B, 106 CFU.g-1 (C, dan kontrol tanpa suplementasi probiotik (kontrol negatif, KN; kontrol positif, KP selama 30 hari dan dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing dosis, kemudian KP, perlakuan A, B, dan C diuji tantang secara intramuskular dengan IMNV (100 µl.ekor-1. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa udang vaname yang diberi pakan dengan suplementasi probiotik mempunyai laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH, rasio konversi pakan (RKP, dan respons imun yang lebih tinggi. Udang tersebut juga mempunyai total hemocyte count (THC dan resistensi terhadap IMNV yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol positif. Konsentrasi probiotik 106 CFU.g-1 memberikan hasil terbaik dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan, respon imun, dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap infeksi IMNV. Kata kunci: probiotik, Bacillus NP5, Litopenaeus vannamei, pertumbuhan, IMNV Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN is one of the most prevalent white shrimp diseases. Probiotics are widely used in shrimp cultivation because they have been proven to reduce shrimp disease outbreak. This study aimed to observe the effect of oraly administered probiotic Bacillus NP5 on the white shrimp's growth performance, immune response, and resistance to Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV infection. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2.41±0.07 g individual-1 were fed with a feed supplemented with different doses of the probiotic Bacillus NP5, i

  1. ABILITY OF BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp. and Pseudomonas putida IN BIOREMEDIATION OF WASTE WATER IN CISIRUNG WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratu SAFITRI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to determine the ability of bacterial consortium: Bacillus coagulans, Bacilus licheniformis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida in bioremediation of wastewater origin Cisirung WWTP. This study uses an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD, which consists of two treatment factors (8x8 factorial design. The first factor is a consortium of bacteria (K, consisting of 8 level factors (k1, k2, k3, k4, k5, k6, k7, and k8. The second factor is the time (T, consisting of a 7 level factors (t0, t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, t6, and t7. Test parameters consist of BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand, TSS (Total Suspended Solid, Ammonia and Population of Microbes during bioremediation. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, followed by Duncan test. The results of this study showed that the consortium of Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus coagulans, Nitrosomonas sp., and Pseudomonas putida with inoculum concentration of 5% (k6 is a consortium of the most effective in reducing BOD 71.93%, 64.30% COD, TSS 94.85%, and 88.58% of ammonia.

  2. A novel multiplex PCR discriminates Bacillus anthracis and its genetically related strains from other Bacillus cereus group species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohito Ogawa

    Full Text Available Anthrax is an important zoonotic disease worldwide that is caused by Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming pathogenic bacterium. A rapid and sensitive method to detect B. anthracis is important for anthrax risk management and control in animal cases to address public health issues. However, it has recently become difficult to identify B. anthracis by using previously reported molecular-based methods because of the emergence of B. cereus, which causes severe extra-intestinal infection, as well as the human pathogenic B. thuringiensis, both of which are genetically related to B. anthracis. The close genetic relation of chromosomal backgrounds has led to complexity of molecular-based diagnosis. In this study, we established a B. anthracis multiplex PCR that can screen for the presence of B. anthracis virulent plasmids and differentiate B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group species. Six sets of primers targeting a chromosome of B. anthracis and B. anthracis-like strains, two virulent plasmids, pXO1 and pXO2, a bacterial gene, 16S rRNA gene, and a mammalian gene, actin-beta gene, were designed. The multiplex PCR detected approximately 3.0 CFU of B. anthracis DNA per PCR reaction and was sensitive to B. anthracis. The internal control primers also detected all bacterial and mammalian DNAs examined, indicating the practical applicability of this assay as it enables monitoring of appropriate amplification. The assay was also applied for detection of clinical strains genetically related to B. anthracis, which were B. cereus strains isolated from outbreaks of hospital infections in Japan, and field strains isolated in Zambia, and the assay differentiated B. anthracis and its genetically related strains from other B. cereus group strains. Taken together, the results indicate that the newly developed multiplex PCR is a sensitive and practical method for detecting B. anthracis.

  3. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staph is short for Staphylococcus, a type of bacteria. There are over 30 types, but Staphylococcus aureus causes most staph infections (pronounced "staff infections"), including Skin infections Pneumonia ...

  4. The Roles of AtxA Orthologs in Virulence of Anthrax-like Bacillus cereus G9241

    OpenAIRE

    Scarff, Jennifer M.; Raynor, Malik J.; Seldina, Yuliya I.; Ventura, Christy L.; Koehler, Theresa M.; O’Brien, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    AtxA is a critical transcriptional regulator of plasmid-encoded virulence genes in Bacillus anthracis. Bacillus cereus G9241, which caused an anthrax-like infection, has two virulence plasmids, pBCXO1 and pBC210, that each harbor toxin genes and a capsule locus. G9241 also produces two orthologs of AtxA: AtxA1, encoded on pBCXO1, and AtxA2, encoded on pBC210. The amino acid sequence of AtxA1 is identical to that of AtxA from B. anthracis, while the sequences of AtxA1 and AtxA2 are 79% identic...

  5. Karakterisasi protease Bacillus sp. UGM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Purwati Widowati

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment is to indentify the characters of proetease produced by Bacillus sp.UGM5.the protease secreted by Bacillus sp.UGM5 was first isolated,purified and then charactirezed.The crude enzyme has spesific actifity of 1.14 U/mg,however,the spesific activity of purified enzyme was increased by 23.8 times fold and recovery was 33.69%.The Page of nondenatured crude enzymes showes two type of proreases,however ,the SDS-Page of denatured purified enzyme showed four protein-bends with molecular weights of 55.5 kDa,18kDa respecetively.The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme acrivity are 8.5 and 420C and belongs to serin protease type,with Km 3 X 10-3mM and Vmax 0.0890mM/30 minutes.The activity is not inhibited by Ca+2,Fe+2 and EDTA.

  6. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Il; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy

  7. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae Il [Eulji University School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy.

  8. Identification of Bacillus anthracis by Using Monoclonal Antibody to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine Polysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    Bacillus circulans ATCC 4513 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus coagulans ATCC 7050 b - - NR NT NT NT NT Bacillus eugilitis B-61 f - - NR NT NT NT NT...American Society for Microbiology W Identification of Bacillus anthracis by-U-sing Monoclonal Antibody CC to Cell Wall Galactose-N-Acetylglucosamine...Received 22 June 1989/Accepted 31 October 1989 ’ Guanidine extracts of crude Bacillus anthracis cell wall were used to vaccinate BALB/c mice and to

  9. Antifungal activity of indigenous Bacillus spp. isolated from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Dragana Đ.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR represents an alternative approach to disease management, since PGPR are known to promote growth and reduce diseases in various crops. Among the different PGPR, members of the genus Bacillus are prefered for most biotechnological uses due to their capability to form extremely resistant spores and produce a wide variety of metabolites with antimicrobial activity. The objective of this research was to identify antagonistic bacteria for management of the plant diseases. Eleven isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the soil samples collected from different localities in the Province of Vojvodina. The antifungal activity of bacterial isolates against five fungal species was examined using a dual plate assay. Bacillus isolates exhibited the highest antifungal activity against Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae and Alternaria padwickii, while they had the least antagonistic effect on Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium graminearum. Molecular identification showed that effective bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus safensis (B2, Bacillus pumilus (B3, B11, Bacillus subtilis (B5, B7 and Bacillus megaterium (B8, B9. The highest antagonistic activity was exhibited by isolates B5 (from 39% to 62% reduction in fungal growth and B7 (from 40% to 71% reduction in fungal growth. These isolates of B. subtilis could be used as potential biocontrol agents of plant diseases. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-31073

  10. Heavy metals and their radionuclides uptake by Bacillus Licheniformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Ahmed, M.M.; Abo-state, M.A.M.; Sarhan, M.; Faroqe, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis is a gram positive spore forming bacterium. Different concentrations of cobalt affected the ability of Co uptake and growth of Bacillus licheniformis. As the concentration increased, both the uptake and growth were decreased. Maximum Co uptake was found at ph 7.0, while for growth was ph 8.0. The optimum temperature for uptake and growth was 40 degree C and 20% inoculum size represents the maximum cobalt uptake by Bacillus licheniformis. Also, maximum uptake was recorded after 72 hours, incubation period. As the concentration of cesium was increased till 400 mg/l, the uptake was also increased. The optimum cesium uptake and growth was at ph 8.0. The optimum growth was at 45 degree C while Cs uptake was found at 35 degree C and 15% inoculum size represented the maximum Cs uptake. After 72 hour incubation period, maximum Cs uptake was recorded. Generally, Bacillus licheniformis removed more than 80% of Co and 50% of Cs from the broth medium. Addition of clay to Bacillus licheniformis increased both Co or Cs uptake. Bacillus licheniformis was gamma resistant and 10 KGy reduced the viability by 5.3 log cycles. The irradiated and non-irradiated cultures can grow on 500 or 700 mg Co or Cs. Bacillus licheniformis removed 99.32% of the Co radionuclides and 99.28% of Cs radionuclides

  11. Identification of Bacillus Strains for Biological Control of Catfish Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A.; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C. T.; Newton, Joseph C.; Kloepper, Joseph W.; Ooi, Ei L.; Browdy, Craig L.; Terhune, Jeffery S.; Liles, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×107 CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture. PMID:23029244

  12. Identification of Bacillus strains for biological control of catfish pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Chao; Carrias, Abel; Williams, Malachi A; Capps, Nancy; Dan, Bui C T; Newton, Joseph C; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ooi, Ei L; Browdy, Craig L; Terhune, Jeffery S; Liles, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus strains isolated from soil or channel catfish intestine were screened for their antagonism against Edwardsiella ictaluri and Aeromonas hydrophila, the causative agents of enteric septicemia of catfish (ESC) and motile aeromonad septicaemia (MAS), respectively. Twenty one strains were selected and their antagonistic activity against other aquatic pathogens was also tested. Each of the top 21 strains expressed antagonistic activity against multiple aquatic bacterial pathogens including Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, Yersinia ruckeri, Flavobacterium columnare, and/or the oomycete Saprolegnia ferax. Survival of the 21 Bacillus strains in the intestine of catfish was determined as Bacillus CFU/g of intestinal tissue of catfish after feeding Bacillus spore-supplemented feed for seven days followed by normal feed for three days. Five Bacillus strains that showed good antimicrobial activity and intestinal survival were incorporated into feed in spore form at a dose of 8×10(7) CFU/g and fed to channel catfish for 14 days before they were challenged by E. ictaluri in replicate. Two Bacillus subtilis strains conferred significant benefit in reducing catfish mortality (PBacillus strains also showed protective effects against E. ictaluri in striped catfish. Safety of the four strains exhibiting the strongest biological control in vivo was also investigated in terms of whether the strains contain plasmids or express resistance to clinically important antibiotics. The Bacillus strains identified from this study have good potential to mediate disease control as probiotic feed additives for catfish aquaculture.

  13. Real-Time PCR Identification of Unique Bacillus anthracis Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieślik, P; Knap, J; Kolodziej, M; Mirski, T; Joniec, J; Graniak, G; Zakowska, D; Winnicka, I; Bielawska-Drózd, A

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming, Gram-positive microorganism. It is a causative agent of anthrax, a highly infectious disease. It belongs to the "Bacillus cereus group", which contains other closely related species, including Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus weihenstephanensis, and Bacillus pseudomycoides. B. anthracis naturally occurs in soil environments. The BA5345 genetic marker was used for highly specific detection of B. anthracis with TaqMan probes. The detection limit of a real-time PCR assay was estimated at the level of 16.9 copies (CI95% - 37.4 to 37.86, SD = 0.2; SE = 0.118). Oligonucleotides designed for the targeted sequences (within the tested locus) revealed 100 % homology to B. anthracis strain reference sequences deposited in the database (NCBI) and high specificity to all tested B. anthracis strains. Additional in silico analysis of plasmid markers pag and cap genes with B. anthracis strains included in the database was carried out. Our study clearly indicates that the BA5345 marker can be used with success as a chromosomal marker in routine identification of B. anthracis; moreover, detection of plasmid markers indicates virulence of the examined strains.

  14. Identification of strains Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304T as Bacillus altitudinis and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305T as a Proteus sp. and the status of the species Bacillus aeriusShivaji et al. 2006. Request for an Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Ramesh Kumar, N; Lai, Qiliang; Du, Juan; Dobritsa, Anatoly P; Samadpour, Mansour; Shao, Zongze

    2015-09-01

    On the basis of 16S rRNA, rpoB, gyrB and pycA gene sequence analyses, characterization of biochemical features and other phenotypic traits and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprinting, it was ascertained that strains Bacillus aerius MTCC 7303T, Bacillus aerophilus MTCC 7304(T) and Bacillus stratosphericus MTCC 7305(T) do not conform to the descriptions of the type strains of the respective species. Strains MTCC 7303(T) and MTCC 7304(T) were indistinguishable from Bacillus altitudinis DSM 21631(T), while strain MTCC 7305(T) should be classified as a representative of a Proteus sp. Our attempts to find other deposits of the type strains of these species were unsuccessful. Therefore, the results support the Request for an Opinion on the status of the species Bacillus aerophilus and Bacillus stratosphericus by Branquinho et al. [Branquinho, R., Klein, G., Kämpfer, P. & Peixe, L. V. (2015). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 65, 1101]. It is also proposed that the Judicial Commission should place the name Bacillus aerius on the list of rejected names if a suitable replacement type strain cannot be found or a neotype is not proposed within two years following the publication of this Request (Rule 18c).

  15. Granulomatous hepatitis, choroiditis and aortoduodenal fistula complicating intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder carcinoma. Complications of BCG therapy include local infections and disseminated BCG infection with multiple endorgan complications. Case Presentation We report a case of disseminated, post-treatment BCG infection that initially presented with granulomatous hepatitis and choroiditis. After successful anti-mycobacterial therapy and resolution of the hepatic and ocular abnormalities, the patient developed an acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from an aortoduodenal fistula that required emergency surgery. The resection specimen revealed multifocal, non-caseating granulomas, indicating mycobacterial involvement. Conclusions This case highlights the varied end organ complications of disseminated BCG infection, and the need for vigilance even in immuno-competent patients with a history of intravesical BCG treatment.

  16. Bacillus camelliae sp. nov., isolated from Pu'er tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Lili; Xiong, Mengjie; Zhang, Juan; Xiang, Yangquan; Song, Lei; Hua, Ziyi; Li, Wenying

    2018-02-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, sporogenous, rod-shaped bacterial strain, 7578-1 T , was isolated from ripened Pu'er tea. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity comparisons, strain 7578-1 T was grouped into the genus Bacillus and appeared to be closely related to the type strains Bacillus shackletoniiLMG 18435 T (98.4 %), Bacillus acidicolaDSM 14745 T (97.6 %), Bacillus paralicheniformis KACC 18426 T (97.2 %) and Bacillus ginsengihumi KCTC 13944 T (96.7 %). The fatty acid profile containing the major fatty acids, iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 supported the allocation of strain 7578-1 T to the genus Bacillus. The strain had a cell-wall type A1γ peptidoglycan with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major menaquinone was MK-7 (95 %). The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified phospholipid and one unidentified lipid. The average nucleotide identity values between strain 7578-1 T and its most closely related species were 67.8-82.4 % by OrthoANIu analysis. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain 7578-1 T and the type strains of closely related species were 17-39 %, again indicating that strain 7578-1 T represented a novel species in the genus Bacillus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7578-1 T was 36.0 mol%. On the basis of the presented polyphasic evidence, strain 7578-1 T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which we propose the name Bacillus camelliae sp. nov. The type strain is 7578-1 T (=CGMCC 1.15374 T =KCTC 33845 T ).

  17. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    483 489. 15. Abhyankar W, Ter Beek A, Dekker H, Kort R, Brul S, et al. (2011) Gel-free proteomic identification of the Bacillus subtilis insoluble coat... identification of additional sporulation genes in Bacillus subtilis. J Mol Biol 327: 945 972. AFM of Spore Coat Architecture PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 16 September 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 9 | e108560 ...1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER Architecture and assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat W911NF-09-l-0286 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  18. Multilocus sequence analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis and Bacillus weihenstephanensis reveals a common phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufiane, Brahim; Baizet, Mathilde; Côté, Jean-Charles

    2013-01-01

    The Bacillus cereus group sensu lato includes six closely-related bacterial species: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus weihenstephanensis. B. thuringiensis is distinguished from the other species mainly by the appearance of an inclusion body upon sporulation. B. weihenstephanensis is distinguished based on its psychrotolerance and the presence of specific signature sequences in the 16S rRNA gene and cspA genes. A total of seven housekeeping genes (glpF, gmK, ilvD, pta, purH, pycA and tpi) from different B. thuringiensis serovars and B. weihenstephanensis strains were amplified and their nucleotide sequences determined. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree was inferred from comparisons of the concatenated sequences. B. thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis clustered not with the other B. thuringiensis serovars but rather with the B. weihenstephanensis strains, indicative of a common phylogeny. In addition, specific signature sequences and single nucleotide polymorphisms common to B. thuringiensis serovars navarrensis, bolivia and vazensis and the B. weihenstephanensis strains, and absent in the other B. thuringiensis serovars, were identified.

  19. Micro-Etched Platforms for Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis and Bacillus Thuringiensis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    gentlemen are approachable and extremely well versed in their fields. Dr. Burggraf’s passion for learning coupled with the patience necessary to allow...wide spread employment on civilian targets has increased. Indeed, the well known biological agent Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis (B.a.), was recently...reached at 0.5 seconds with the heat from the fireball lasting a total of 4 seconds ( Orson , J.A. 2003; 104). From this data, the short time-temperature

  20. Description of Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov., isolated from hydrothermal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Yu, Chao; Luan, Zhen-Dong; Lian, Chao; Hu, Yong-Hua; Sun, Li

    2018-03-01

    Two Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic bacilli, designated as strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T , were isolated from the hydrothermal sediments of Manus Basin in the western Pacific Ocean. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T were most closely related to Bacillus alveayuensis (97.0 and 97.2 % identity, respectively). The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity between strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T was 97.4 %. The identities between strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T and other closely related organisms were below 97.0 %. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T were 43.4 and 47.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in both strains was menaquinone-7. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological analyses suggested that strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-5 T =KCTC 33881 T =CCTCC AB 2017020 T ) and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-6 T =KCTC 33882 T =CCTCC AB 2017019 T ), respectively, are proposed.

  1. Characteristics and Application of a Novel Species of Bacillus: Bacillus velezensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miao; Tang, Xiangfang; Yang, Ru; Zhang, Hongfu; Li, Fangshu; Tao, Fangzheng; Li, Fei; Wang, Zaigui

    2018-03-16

    Bacillus velezensis has been investigated and applied more and more widely recently because it can inhibit fungi and bacteria and become a potential biocontrol agent. In order to provide more clear and comprehensive understanding of B. velezensis for researchers, we collected the recent relevant articles systematically and reviewed the discovery and taxonomy, secondary metabolites, characteristics and application, gene function, and molecular research of B. velezensis. This review will give some direction to the research and application of this strain for the future.

  2. Complete nucleotide sequence of Bacillus subtilis (natto) bacteriophage PM1, a phage associated with disruption of food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umene, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    "Natto", considered a traditional food, is made by fermenting boiled soybeans with Bacillus subtilis (natto), which is a natto-producing strain related to B. subtilis. The production of natto is disrupted by phage infections of B. subtilis (natto); hence, it is necessary to control phage infections. PM1, a phage of B. subtilis (natto), was isolated during interrupted natto production in a factory. In a previous study, PM1 was classified morphologically into the family Siphoviridae, and its genome, comprising approximately 50 kbp of linear double-stranded DNA, was assumed to be circularly permuted. In the present study, the complete nucleotide sequence of the PM1 genomic DNA of 50,861 bp (41.3 %G+C) was determined, and 86 open reading frames (ORFs) were deduced. Forty-one ORFs of PM1 shared similarities with proteins deduced from the genome of phages reported so far. Twenty-three ORFs of PM1 were associated with functions related to the phage multiplication process of gene control, DNA replication/modification, DNA packaging, morphogenesis, and cell lysis. Bacillus subtilis (natto) produces a capsular polypeptide of glutamate with a γ-linkage (called poly-γ-glutamate), which appears to serve as a physical barrier to phage adsorption. One ORF of PM1 had similarity with a poly-γ-glutamate hydrolase, which is assumed to degrade the capsular barrier to allow phage progenies to infect encapsulated host cells. The genome analysis of PM1 revealed the characteristics of the phage that are consistent as Bacillus subtilis (natto)-infecting phage.

  3. Scleral buckle infection by Serratia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of scleral buckle (SB infection with Serratia species. A 48-year-old male with a history of retinal detachment repair with scleral buckling presented with redness, pain, and purulent discharge in the left eye for 4 days. Conjunctival erosion with exposure of the SB and scleral thinning was noted. The SB was removed and sent for culture. Blood and chocolate agar grew Gram-negative rod-shaped bacillus identified as Serratia marcescens. On the basis of the susceptibility test results, the patient was treated with oral and topical antibiotics. After 6 weeks of the treatment, his infection resolved.

  4. Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Natalia; Sorokin, Alexei; Anderson, Iain; Galleron, Nathalie; Candelon, Benjamin; Kapatral, Vinayak; Bhattacharyya, Anamitra; Reznik, Gary; Mikhailova, Natalia; Lapidus, Alla; Chu, Lien; Mazur, Michael; Goltsman, Eugene; Larsen, Niels; D'Souza, Mark; Walunas, Theresa; Grechkin, Yuri; Pusch, Gordon; Haselkorn, Robert; Fonstein, Michael; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Overbeek, Ross; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2003-05-01

    Bacillus cereus is an opportunistic pathogen causing food poisoning manifested by diarrhoeal or emetic syndromes. It is closely related to the animal and human pathogen Bacillus anthracis and the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis, the former being used as a biological weapon and the latter as a pesticide. B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are readily distinguished from B. cereus by the presence of plasmid-borne specific toxins (B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis) and capsule (B. anthracis). But phylogenetic studies based on the analysis of chromosomal genes bring controversial results, and it is unclear whether B. cereus, B. anthracis and B. thuringiensis are varieties of the same species or different species. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the type strain B. cereus ATCC 14579. The complete genome sequence of B. cereus ATCC 14579 together with the gapped genome of B. anthracis A2012 enables us to perform comparative analysis, and hence to identify the genes that are conserved between B. cereus and B. anthracis, and the genes that are unique for each species. We use the former to clarify the phylogeny of the cereus group, and the latter to determine plasmid-independent species-specific markers.

  5. Construction of novel shuttle expression vectors for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Huanhuan; Cao, Qinghua; Zhao, Hongyan; Tan, Xuemei; Feng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    A native plasmid (pSU01) was detected by genome sequencing of Bacillus subtilis strain S1-4. Two pSU01-based shuttle expression vectors pSU02-AP and pSU03-AP were constructed enabling stable replication in B. subtilis WB600. These vectors contained the reporter gene aprE, encoding an alkaline protease from Bacillus pumilus BA06. The expression vector pSU03-AP only possessed the minimal replication elements (rep, SSO, DSO) and exhibited more stability on structure, suggesting that the rest of the genes in pSU01 (ORF1, ORF2, mob, hsp) were unessential for the structural stability of plasmid in B. subtilis. In addition, recombinant production of the alkaline protease was achieved more efficiently with pSU03-AP whose copy number was estimated to be more than 100 per chromosome. Furthermore, pSU03-AP could also be used to transform and replicate in B. pumilus BA06 under selective pressure. In conclusion, pSU03-AP is expected to be a useful tool for gene expression in Bacillus subtilis and B. pumilus.

  6. Nosocomial infections and their control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ahmed Khan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections are also known as hospital-acquired/associated infections. National Healthcare Safety Network along with Centers for Disease Control for surveillance has classified nosocomial infection sites into 13 types with 50 infection sites, which are specific on the basis of biological and clinical criteria. The agents that are usually involved in hospital-acquired infections include Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Legionella and Enterobacteriaceae family members, namely, Proteus mirablis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens. Nosocomial pathogens can be transmitted through person to person, environment or contaminated water and food, infected individuals, contaminated healthcare personnel's skin or contact via shared items and surfaces. Mainly, multi-drug-resistant nosocomial organisms include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia, whereas Clostridium difficile shows natural resistance. Excessive and improper use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, especially in healthcare settings, is elevating nosocomial infections, which not only becomes a big health care problem but also causes great economic and production loss in the community. Nosocomial infections can be controlled by measuring and comparing the infection rates within healthcare settings and sticking to the best healthcare practices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides the methodology for surveillance of nosocomial infections along with investigation of major outbreaks. By means of this surveillance, hospitals can devise a strategy comprising of infection control practices.

  7. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  8. Kingella kingae infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Ehud; Rudensky, Bernard; Karasik, Michael; Itzchaki, Menachem; Schlesinger, Yechiel

    2006-07-01

    Kingella kingae is a beta-hemolytic gram-negative bacillus. It was first described in the 1960's by EO King and has been reported as a cause of osteo-articular pediatric infections since the early 1980's. We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric cases of invasive K. kingae infection between 1997 and 2002, in order to define the incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of invasive K. kingae infections in a pediatric population. During the study period, a total of 24 pediatric patients with K. kingae infection were identified. There were 15 blood culture isolates of K. kingae, out of a total of 1151 (1.3%) positive blood cultures, and 9 synovial fluid culture isolates out of a total of 76 (11.8%) positive synovial fluids. Fifteen patients had osteo-articular infections and 9 had primary bacteremia without osteo-articular infection. Outcome was favorable in all cases and only in 2 patients with knee joint infection was surgical intervention performed, by means of formal knee arthrotomy. All patients recovered uneventfully, in 7 cases without any intervention and in the others with intravenous or oral antibiotic. In conclusion, invasive K. kingae infection is not uncommon in Israel. It usually has a mild course and thus is not always detected and treated. As K. kingae grows best in blood culture broth, blood and joint fluid should always be inoculated into blood culture bottles in suspected cases. This bacterium is highly sensitive to betalactame antibiotics and infection resolves quickly with antibiotic treatment. Surgical intervention for osteo-articular infection is seldom indicated.

  9. Bacillus subtilis as potential producer for polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Sanjay KS

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are biodegradable polymers produced by microbes to overcome environmental stress. Commercial production of PHAs is limited by the high cost of production compared to conventional plastics. Another hindrance is the brittle nature and low strength of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB, the most widely studied PHA. The needs are to produce PHAs, which have better elastomeric properties suitable for biomedical applications, preferably from inexpensive renewable sources to reduce cost. Certain unique properties of Bacillus subtilis such as lack of the toxic lipo-polysaccharides, expression of self-lysing genes on completion of PHA biosynthetic process – for easy and timely recovery, usage of biowastes as feed enable it to compete as potential candidate for commercial production of PHA.

  10. Morphologies and phenotypes in Bacillus subtilis biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Meng, Shuo; Han, Jingshi

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we explored Bacillus subtilis biofilm growth under various conditions such as the use of substrates with different stiffnesses and nutrient levels using a well-developed optical imaging technique to spatially and temporally track biofilm growth. We also developed a quantitative method to characterize B. subtilis biofilm morphologies under various growth conditions. To determine biofilm rim irregularities, we used the dimensionless P2A ratio, defined as P 2 /4πA, where P is the perimeter and A is the area of the biofilm. To estimate biofilm thickness from transmission images, we developed a calibration procedure based on Beer- Lambert's law and cross sectioning. Furthermore, to determine the distributions of different B. subtilis cell phenotypes during biofilm growth, we used a triple-fluorescence-labeled B. subtilis strain that expressed motility, matrix production, and sporulation. Based on this work, we are able to tune biofilm growth by changing its growing environment.

  11. Germination Requirements of Bacillus macerans Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, L. E.; Thompson, P. A.

    1971-01-01

    2-Phenylacetamide is an effective germinant for spores of five strains of Bacillus macerans, particularly in the presence of fructose. Benzyl penicillin, the phenyl acetamide derivative of penicillin, and phenylacetic acid are also good germinants. l-Asparagine is an excellent germinant for four strains. α-Amino-butyric acid is moderately effective. Pyridoxine, pyridoxal, adenine, and 2,6-diaminopurine are potent germinants for NCA strain 7X1 only. d-Glucose is a powerful germinant for strain B-70 only. d-Fructose and d-ribose strongly potentiate germination induced by other germinants (except l-asparagine) but have only weak activity by themselves. Niacinamide and nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide, inactive by themselves, are active in the presence of fructose or ribose. Effects of pH, ion concentration, and temperature are described. PMID:4251279

  12. Protein engineering of cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Bacillus circulans strain 251

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penninga, Dirk

    1996-01-01

    An enormous diversity of molecular functions in living organisms is carried out by proteins. Our studies have focussed on the functional analysis of a starch-converting enzyme, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus circulans strain 251. Zie: Summary

  13. BOOK REVIEW: BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: A CORNERSTONE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are you interested in the technical issues surrounding the use of Bacillus thuringiensis pesticidal traits as sprays and as plant incorporated protectants (transgenic crops)? Should the dimensions of human health, ecology, entomology, risk assessment, resistance management, and d...

  14. Isolation of protease producing novel Bacillus cereus and detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    1991). Industrial enzymes-developments in production and application, Biotechnol. Adv. 9: 643-658. Ferrero MA, Castro GR, Abate CM, Baigori MD, Sineriz F (1996). Thermostable alkaline proteases of Bacillus licheniformis MIR ...

  15. Determination of Levan from Bacillus licheniformis by Ultraviolet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Derivative spectrophotometry, Bacillus licheniformis, Levan, Total carbohydrate determination. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,. International Pharmaceutical Abstract, Chemical Abstracts, Embase, Index Copernicus, EBSCO, African.

  16. Two Genes Encoding Uracil Phosphoribosyltransferase Are Present in Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Jan; Glaser, Philippe; Andersen, Paal S.

    1995-01-01

    Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTase) catalyzes the key reaction in the salvage of uracil in many microorganisms. Surprisingly, two genes encoding UPRTase activity were cloned from Bacillus subtilis by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant. The genes were sequenced, and the putative...

  17. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  18. Analysis of Bacillus Globigii Spores Using the BioDetector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, William

    1999-01-01

    .... An automated immunoassay instrument capable of providing rapid identification of biological agents was used to analyses laboratory and field trial samples containing the field trial simulants Bacillus globigii (BG) spores...

  19. Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus spp. (SH 20 and SH 26) and P. aeruginosa SH 29 isolated from the rhizosphere soil of an Egyptian salt marsh plant for the cleaning of oil - contaminataed vessels and enhancing the biodegradat.

  20. Detoxification of cyanides in cassava flour by linamarase of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Ugwuanyi et al., 2007). Effect of enzymatic treatment on cassava flour. An aliquot of 500 .... depends exclusively on endogenous enzyme level which shows considerable variation. Several microorganisms including Bacillus sp. (Amoa-.

  1. The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promotive effect of N 2 fixers, Bacillus circulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the viability of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the impact on the productivity of alfalfa ( Medicago sativa l.)

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895

    OpenAIRE

    Karlyshev, Andrey V.; Melnikov, Vyacheslav G.; Chistyakov, Vladimir A.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we present a draft genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain B-1895. Comparison with the genome of a reference strain demonstrated similar overall organization, as well as differences involving large gene clusters.

  3. Intramembrane protease RasP boosts protein production in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, Jolanda; Bongiorni, Cristina; Goosens, Vivianne J.; Schmidt, Brian; van Dijl, Jan Maarten

    2017-01-01

    Background: The microbial cell factory Bacillus subtilis is a popular industrial platform for high- level production of secreted technical enzymes. Nonetheless, the effective secretion of particular heterologous enzymes remains challenging. Over the past decades various studies have tackled this

  4. Diversity and enzymatic characterization of Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , phosphatases, lipases and proteases. Seventeen enzymes from these different enzyme groups were synthesized by the identified Bacillus species. The dominant and enzyme-producing species could be used for the development of a starter ...

  5. Cytotoxic effects of delfin insecticide ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) on cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effects of delfin insecticide ( Bacillus thuringiensis ) on cell behaviour, phagocytosis, contractile vacuole activity and macronucleus in a protozoan ciliate Paramecium caudatum. ... macronucleus, fragmentation, vacuolization and complete diffusion of macronucleus were observed and were dose dependent.

  6. Antimicrobial Peptidomimetics for Recurrent Septicemia Infections: In Vitro Study for Immuno Compromised Disease Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Nagarajan, Kandasamy; Panda, Bihu Prasad

    2018-04-16

    The frequency of Bacillus subtilis infection such as pneumonia pan-opthalmitis, visceral abscess or musculoskeletal infection etc. complications following bacteremia, meningitis in children & the infection associated with majority of motor vehicle accidents associated with trauma & gun shoot injury. Antibiotics which appear especially useful in the treatment of Bacillus. infection are clindamycin and vancomycin to which vast majority of strains are susceptible in vitro. Our objective is to test the synthesized peptidomimetics with the efforts mainly directed towards the identification of antibacterial compounds against recurrent septicemia infection. Six peptidomimetics namely G-A-L-D (C 60 -soot Glu-ala-leu-Asp), D-P-F (C 60 -soot Asp-pro-Phe), I-R (C 60 -soot Ile-Arg), L-R (C 60 -soot leu-Arg), E-R (C 60 -soot Glu-Arg), D-E (C 60 -soot Asp-Glu), the column eluted compounds were tested for disc diffusion using gram positive Bacillus Subtilis strains at different concentrations predicted by pH and inhibitory concentrations. I-R (C 60 -soot Ile-Arg), & D-E (C 60 -soot Asp-Glu) was found to be very effective along with 5 compounds against Bacillus Subtilis strain tested. Maximum activity 100 µg/ml for synthesized peptidomimetics with the corresponding zonal inhibition diameter (11 mm; 11 mm; 14 mm; 11 mm; 11 mm; 14 mm) against Bacillus subtilis strain. This is the first evidence based report that proves I-R (C 60 -soot Ile-Arg) & D-E (C 60 -soot Asp-Glu) has shown antibacterial action against gram positive strains of Bacillus Subtilis against recurrent septicemia infection. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Joseph F; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie M; Scheib, Ulrike; Yiu, Ying Y; Aroian, Raffi V

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg) of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Proposal of nine novel species of the Bacillus cereus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juan; Lai, Qiliang; Zeng, Runying; Ye, Dezan; Xu, Jun; Shao, Zongze

    2017-08-01

    Nine novel Gram-stain-positive bacteria were investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, these strains belonged to the Bacillus cereus group, sharing over 97 % similarity with the known species of this group, and less than 95 % similarity with other species of the genus Bacillus. Multilocus sequence typing analysis showed that they formed nine robust and well-separated branches from the known species. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values between the nine strains were, respectively, below the 70 and 96 % threshold values for species definition, and between each strain and the known type strains of this group were also below the two threshold values. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, along with low dDDH and ANI values among these strains, these bacteria are assigned to the following nine novel species of the B. cereus group: Bacillus paranthracis sp. nov., type strain Mn5T (=MCCC 1A00395T=KCTC 33714T=LMG 28873T); Bacillus pacificus sp. nov., type strain EB422T (=MCCC 1A06182T=KCTC 33858T); Bacillus tropicus sp. nov., type strain N24T (=MCCC 1A01406T=KCTC 33711T=LMG 28874T); Bacillus albus sp. nov., type strain N35-10-2T (=MCCC 1A02146T=KCTC 33710T=LMG 28875T); Bacillus mobilis sp. nov., type strain 0711P9-1T (=MCCC 1A05942T=KCTC 33717T=LMG 28877T); Bacillus luti sp. nov., type strain TD41T (=MCCC 1A00359T=KCTC 33716T=LMG 28872T); Bacillus proteolyticus sp. nov., type strain TD42T (=MCCC 1A00365T=KCTC 33715T=LMG 28870T); Bacillus nitratireducens sp. nov., type strain 4049T (=MCCC 1A00732T=KCTC 33713T=LMG 28871T); and Bacillus paramycoides sp. nov., type strain NH24A2T (=MCCC 1A04098T=KCTC 33709T=LMG 28876T).

  9. Resistance of Bacillus Endospores to Extreme Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; Munakata, Nobuo; Horneck, Gerda; Melosh, Henry J.; Setlow, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Endospores of Bacillus spp., especially Bacillus subtilis, have served as experimental models for exploring the molecular mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of spores and their resistance to environmental insults. In this review we summarize the molecular laboratory model of spore resistance mechanisms and attempt to use the model as a basis for exploration of the resistance of spores to environmental extremes both on Earth and during postulated interplanetary transfer through space as a result of natural impact processes. PMID:10974126

  10. Bacillus As Potential Probiotics: Status, Concerns, and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad M. F. Elshaghabee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Spore-forming bacilli are being explored for the production and preservation of food for many centuries. The inherent ability of production of large number of secretory proteins, enzymes, antimicrobial compounds, vitamins, and carotenoids specifies the importance of bacilli in food chain. Additionally, Bacillus spp. are gaining interest in human health related functional food research coupled with their enhanced tolerance and survivability under hostile environment of gastrointestinal tract. Besides, bacilli are more stable during processing and storage of food and pharmaceutical preparations, making them more suitable candidate for health promoting formulations. Further, Bacillus strains also possess biotherapeutic potential which is connected with their ability to interact with the internal milieu of the host by producing variety of antimicrobial peptides and small extracellular effector molecules. Nonetheless, with proposed scientific evidences, commercial probiotic supplements, and functional foods comprising of Bacillus spp. had not gained much credential in general population, since the debate over probiotic vs pathogen tag of Bacillus in the research and production terrains is confusing consumers. Hence, it’s important to clearly understand the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of selective beneficial Bacillus spp. and their substantiation with those having GRAS status, to reach a consensus over the same. This review highlights the probiotic candidature of spore forming Bacillus spp. and presents an overview of the proposed health benefits, including application in food and pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, the growing need to evaluate the safety of individual Bacillus strains as well as species on a case by case basis and necessity of more profound analysis for the selection and identification of Bacillus probiotic candidates are also taken into consideration.

  11. Potensi Bacillus Coagulans Dari Serasah Hutan Sebagai Probiotik Ayam Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Wizna, Wizna; Abbas, H; Dharma, A; Kompiang, P

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are living microorganisms which controls the balance of pathogenic microbes in the digestive tract of cattle through competitive exclusion mechanism which lately has been widely used as a feed aditive both ruminants and poultry . One type of microbes used in probiotics in poultry livestock is a bacterium of the genus Bacillus . Bacillus coagulans (Lactobacillus sporogenes) had the same function as Lactobacillus sp known as probiotics were able to live in the digestive tract and pro...

  12. Induction of natural competence in Bacillus cereus ATCC14579

    OpenAIRE

    Mirończuk, Aleksandra M.; Kovács, Ákos T.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Natural competence is the ability of certain microbes to take up exogenous DNA from the environment and integrate it in their genome. Competence development has been described for a variety of bacteria, but has so far not been shown to occur in Bacillus cereus. However, orthologues of most proteins involved in natural DNA uptake in Bacillus subtiliscould be identified in B. cereus. Here, we report that B. cereus ATCC14579 can become naturally competent. When expressing the B. subtilis...

  13. Resistensi Bacillus Endogenik Kalimas Surabaya terhadap Logam Besi (Fe)

    OpenAIRE

    Zulaika, Enny; Farisna, Septa Tri

    2015-01-01

    Besi merupakan logam yang dibutuhkan oleh organisme untuk metabolismenya, namun dalam konsentrasi tinggi besi dapat membahayakan organisme dan lingkungan. Beberapa bakteri resisten terhadap logam besi, salah satu genus bakteri resisten besi adalah Bacillus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui isolat Bacillus yang resisten terhadap logam besi dan viabilitasnya saat terpapar logam besi. Uji resistensi Fe dilakukan di medium nutrient agar-FeCl3.6H2O 0,1 mg/L dan dilanjutkan sampai dengan k...

  14. Efficient transformation of Bacillus thuringiensis requires nonmethylated plasmid DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Macaluso, A; Mettus, A M

    1991-01-01

    The transformation efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis depends upon the source of plasmid DNA. DNA isolated from B. thuringiensis, Bacillus megaterium, or a Dam- Dcm- Escherichia coli strain efficiently transformed several B. thuringiensis strains, B. thuringiensis strains were grouped according to which B. thuringiensis backgrounds were suitable sources of DNA for transformation of other B. thuringiensis strains, suggesting that B. thuringiensis strains differ in DNA modification and restri...

  15. Transformation of Bacillus Subtilis with cloned thymidylate synthetases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Edward M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Biology and Biophysics

    1980-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis carries two genes, thyA and thyB, each encoding different protein products, with thymidylate synthetase (TSase) activity. Either of these genes alone is sufficient for thymidine independence in B. subtilis. In addition there exist two B. subtilis temperate bacteriophages which upon infection of thymine requiring auxotrophs results in conversion of the organism to thymine independence. Chimeric plasmids selected for Thy+ transforming activity in E. coli were constructed and then used as a source of defined highly enriched DNA with which to transform competent B. subtilis. These plasmids were studied for their: (1) abiility to transform B. subtilis to thymine independence; (2) site of integration within the B. subtilis chromosome upon transformation; (3) phenotype of Thy+ plasmid generated transformants; and (4) nucleotide sequence homology among the cloned DNA fragments conferring thymine independence. Plasmids containing the two bacteriophage thy genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyA, whereas the plasmids containing the cloned B. subtilis chromosomal genes displayed the phenotype associated with thyB. Utilizing similar technology, the ability of an entirely foreign hybred bacterial plasmiid to transform B. subtilis was examined. In this case the gene from E. coli encoding thymidylate synthetase was cloned in the plasmid pBR322. The resulting chimeric plasmid was effective in transforming both E. coli and B. subtilis to thymine prototrophy. Uncloned linear E. coli chromosomal DNA was unable to transform thymine requiring strains of B. subtilis to thymine independence. Although the Thy/sup +/ transformants of E. coli contained plasmid DNA, the Thy+ transformants derived from the transformation of B. subtilis did not contain detectable extrachromosomal DNA. Instead the DNA from the chimeric plasmid was integrated into the chromosome of B. subtilis. (ERB)

  16. How Quorum Sensing Connects Sporulation to Necrotrophism in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Perchat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate adaptation properties, cell fate or commitment to sporulation. The infectious cycle of Bacillus thuringiensis in the insect host is a powerful model to investigate the role of quorum sensing in natural conditions. It is tuned by communication systems regulators belonging to the RNPP family and directly regulated by re-internalized signaling peptides. One such RNPP regulator, NprR, acts in the presence of its cognate signaling peptide NprX as a transcription factor, regulating a set of genes involved in the survival of these bacteria in the insect cadaver. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of NprX and independently of its transcriptional activator function, NprR negatively controls sporulation. NprR inhibits expression of Spo0A-regulated genes by preventing the KinA-dependent phosphorylation of the phosphotransferase Spo0F, thus delaying initiation of the sporulation process. This NprR function displays striking similarities with the Rap proteins, which also belong to the RNPP family, but are devoid of DNA-binding domain and indirectly control gene expression via protein-protein interactions in Bacilli. Conservation of the Rap residues directly interacting with Spo0F further suggests a common inhibition of the sporulation phosphorelay. The crystal structure of apo NprR confirms that NprR displays a highly flexible Rap-like structure. We propose a molecular regulatory mechanism in which key residues of the bifunctional regulator NprR are directly and alternatively involved in its two functions. NprX binding switches NprR from a dimeric inhibitor of sporulation to a tetrameric transcriptional activator involved in the necrotrophic lifestyle of B. thuringiensis. NprR thus tightly coordinates sporulation and necrotrophism, ensuring survival and dissemination of the bacteria during host infection.

  17. [Screening and antibacterial function of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X030].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhu, Yingling; Chi, Liqing; Zhao, Zizhao; Wang, Ting; Zuo, Mingxing; Zhang, Tong; Zhou, Fengjuan; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi

    2015-09-04

    We isolated 339 bacillus strains from 72 soil samples all over the country, then purified their antimicrobial compounds and studied the antibacterial activity, to enrich bacillus resources and explore their second metabolites. A bacillus strain with strong antibacterial activity was selected by dilution plate and water bath heating from a soil sample from a peanut plantation in Henan Province; this strain was identified according to morphological observation, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and consequences of 16S rRNA homologous analysis. Antibacterial compound from the identified strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X030, was separated and purified by acetone precipitation, Sephadex chromatography, C18 reverse phase column chromatography. Its molecular weight was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The antibacterial activity was characterized by disc diffusion and plate two-way cultivation. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens was isolated that not only has antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albican and Saccharomycetes; but also against Pyriculariaoryzae, Chili pointed cell anthrax, Gloeosporium eriobotryae speg and Phytophthora parasitica. The compound was confirmed as polypeptide. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens X030 can produce a polypeptide that inhibits pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi.

  18. Nonspecific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on early childhood infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas N

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during the recruitm......BACKGROUND: Childhood infections are common and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth may prevent these via nonspecific effects. METHODS: A randomized, clinical multicenter trial. All women planning to give birth (n = 16,521) at the three study sites were invited during...... during the first 3 mo....

  19. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Bacillus anthracis: From Fingerprint Analysis of the Bacterium to Quantification of its Toxins in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfitt, Adrian R.; Boyer, Anne E.; Quinn, Conrad P.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Kozel, Thomas R.; de, Barun K.; Gallegos, Maribel; Moura, Hercules; Pirkle, James L.; Barr, John R.

    A range of mass spectrometry-based techniques have been used to identify, characterize and differentiate Bacillus anthracis, both in culture for forensic applications and for diagnosis during infection. This range of techniques could usefully be considered to exist as a continuum, based on the degrees of specificity involved. We show two examples here, a whole-organism fingerprinting method and a high-specificity assay for one unique protein, anthrax lethal factor.

  20. Identification of the promoter for a peptide antibiotic biosynthesis gene from Bacillus brevis and its regulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Marahiel, M A; Zuber, P; Czekay, G; Losick, R

    1987-01-01

    Tyrocidine is a cyclic decapeptide antibiotic which is produced and secreted by stationary-phase cells of the sporeforming bacterium Bacillus brevis. We identified the promoter for the B. brevis structural gene (tycA) for tyrocidine synthetase I, the enzyme catalyzing the first step in tyrocidine biosynthesis, and studied its regulation in cells of B. brevis and Bacillus subtilis. Transcription from the tycA promoter was induced at the end of the exponential phase of the growth cycle in B. br...

  1. PCR screening for the surfactin (sfp) gene in marine Bacillus strains and its molecular characterization from Bacillus tequilensis NIOS11

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Porob, S.; Nayak, S.; Fernandes, Areena; Padmanabhan, P.; Patil, B.A.; Meena, R.M.; Ramaiah, N.

    The large surface-to-volume ratio enables many bacterial species to produce several types of structurally diverse surface-active compounds, collectively known as biosurfactants. From the perspective of their applications, biosurfactants are definitely... uses (3). The amphipathic structure of surfactins enables them to be involved in a large number of complex interactions within biological systems. Most strains of Bacillus spp. produce surface-active compounds like surfactins, and Bacillus subtilis...

  2. Small RNA profiling reveals important roles for miRNAs in Arabidopsis response to Bacillus velezensis FZB42.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shanshan; Jiang, Haiyang; Xu, Zhilan; Xu, Qianqian; Cheng, Beijiu

    2017-09-20

    Bacillus velezensis FZB42 (previously classified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42) has been confirmed to successfully colonize plant roots and enhance defense response against pathogen infection. This study indicated that FZB42 inoculation enhanced Arabidopsis defense response against Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 through inducing the expression of PR1, PDF1.2 and stomata closure. To further clarify the induced defense response at miRNA level, sRNA libraries from Arabidopsis roots inoculated with FZB42 and control were constructed and sequenced. The reads of 21nt and 24nt in length were the most abundant groups in FZB42-treated library and control library, respectively. 234 known miRNAs and 16 novel miRNAs were identified. Among them, 11 known miRNAs and 4 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed after FZB42 inoculation. Moreover cis-elements (TC-rich repeats, TCA-element and CGTCA-motif) associated with plant defense were also found in the promoters of these miRNAs. Additionally, 141 mRNAs were predicted as potential targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs. GO annotations of the target genes indicated their potential roles in polyamine biosynthetic process and intracellular protein transport biological process, which may contribute to increased defense response. Our findings indicated that Bacillus velezensis FZB42 inoculation altered the expression of Arabidopsis miRNAs and their target genes, which were associated with defense response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Lopamudra; Gandhi, D N

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1) was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2) and (T3) groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4) was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat) were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. The rats those (T2 and T3) received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (pBacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4) and the group fed only skim milk (T1). In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  4. Determining the source of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banykó, J; Vyletelová, M

    2009-03-01

    Strain-specific detection of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk, and yoghurt during processing. Randomly selected isolates of Bacillus spp. were subjected to PCR analysis, where single primer targeting to the repetitive sequence Box elements was used to fingerprint the species. The isolates were separated into six different fingerprint patterns. The results show that isolates clustered together at about the 57% similarity level with two main groups at the 82% and 83% similarity levels, respectively. Contamination with identical strains both of B. cereus and B. licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk was found as well as contaminated with different strains (in the case of raw milk and yoghurt/pasteurized milk and yoghurt). Several BOX types traced in processed milk samples were not discovered in the original raw milk. BOX-PCR fingerprinting is useful for characterizing Bacillus populations in a dairy environment. It can be used to confirm environmental contamination, eventually clonal transfer of Bacillus strains during the technological processing of milk. Despite the limited number of strains analysed, the two Bacillus species yielded adequately detectable banding profiles, permitting differentiation of bacteria at the strain level and showing their diversity throughout dairy processing.

  5. Chitosanase purified from bacterial isolate Bacillus licheniformis of ruined vegetables displays broad spectrum biofilm inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Sahira Nsayef; Al-Kadmy, Israa M S; Hussein, Nadheema Hammood; Mohammed Ali, Alaa Naseer; Taha, Buthainah Mohammed; Aziz, Sarah Naji; Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar

    2016-11-01

    A number of bacterial species produces chitosanases which has variety of applications because of its high biodegradability, non-toxicity and antimicrobial assets. In the present study chitosanase is purified from new bacterial species Bacillus licheniformis from spoiled vegetable. This novel strain of Bacillus licheniformis isolated from spoilt cucumber and pepper samples has the ability to produce the chitosanase enzyme when grown on chitosan substrate. Study also examined its antibiofilm properties against diverse bacterial species with biofilm forming ability. The purified chitosanase inhibited the biofilm formation ability for all Gram-negative and Gram-positive biofilm-forming bacteria [biofilm producers] tested in this study in congo red agar and microtiter plate's methods. Highly antibiofilm activity of chitosanase was recorded against Pseudomonas aeruginosa followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae with reduction of biofilm formation upto 22 and 29%, respectively compared with [100] % of control. Biofilm formation has multiple role including ability to enhance resistance and self-protection from external stress. This chitosanase has promising benefit as antibiofilm agent against biofilm forming pathogenic bacteria and has promising application as alternative antibiofilm agents to combat the growing number of multidrug resistant pathogen-associated infections, especially in situation where biofilms are involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A portable cell-based optical detection device for rapid detection of Listeria and Bacillus toxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pratik; Banada, Padmapriya P.; Rickus, Jenna L.; Morgan, Mark T.; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2005-11-01

    A mammalian cell-based optical biosensor was built to detect pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species. This sensor measures the ability of the pathogens to infect and induce cytotoxicity on hybrid lymphocyte cell line (Ped-2E9) resulting in the release of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) that can be detected optically using a portable spectrophotometer. The Ped-2E9 cells were encapsulated in collagen gel matrices and grown in 48-well plates or in specially designed filtration tube units. Toxin preparations or bacterial cells were introduced and ALP release was assayed after 3-5 h. Pathogenic L. monocytogenes strains or the listeriolysin toxins preparation showed cytotoxicity ranging from 55% - 92%. Toxin preparations (~20 μg/ml) from B. cereus strains showed 24 - 98% cytotoxicity. In contrast, a non-pathogenic L. innocua (F4247) and a B. substilis induced only 2% and 8% cytotoxicity, respectively. This cell-based detection device demonstrates its ability to detect the presence of pathogenic Listeria and Bacillus species and can potentially be used onsite for food safety or in biosecurity application.

  7. Isolation and identification of chemical constituents from the bacterium Bacillus sp. and their nematicidal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Liming; Jin, Hui; Lu, Dengxue; Yang, Xiaoyan; Pan, Le; Cui, Haiyan; He, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Qin, Bo

    2015-10-01

    A strain SMrs28 was isolated from the rhizosphere soil of a toxic plant Stellera chamaejasme and identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The crude extract of SMrs28 fermentation broth showed strong nematocidal activities in preliminary test. To define the active nematocidal metabolites of SMrs28, a novel compound (1), 4-oxabicyclo[3.2.2]nona-1(7), 5,8-triene, along with five known compounds (2-6), were isolated from the strain by various column chromatographic techniques and characterized on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Results of the in vitro nematicidal tests showed that the metabolites presented different levels of activity at certain exposure conditions. Compounds (1-3) displayed LC50 values of 904.12, 451.26, 232.98 µg/ml and 1594.0, 366.62, 206.38 µg/ml against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Ditylenchus destructor at 72 h, respectively. This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of the compounds as constituents of Bacillus sp.. Our findings help to find potential chemical structures to develop nematicides from microbial source for the management of nematode-infected plant diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. MUTATION ON Bacillus subtilis BAC4 USING ACRIDINE ORANGE AS AN EFFORT FOR INCREASING ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supartono Supartono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The efforts to get a new antibiotic require to be done continuously, because infection diseases still become the main health problems in Indonesia. A new local strain of Bacillus subtilis BAC4 has been known producing an antibiotic that inhibites Serratia marcescens ATCC 27117 growth. Nevertheless, the optimum conditions have not been studied seriously. The objective of this research was to conduct mutation on B. subtilis BAC4 in order to obtain a mutant cell that overproduct in producing antibiotic. The mutation process was performed by using acridine orange of 1 g.L-1 randomly at various volumes. The production of antibiotic was conducted using batch fermentation and antibiotic assay was performed with agar absorption method using S.  marcescens ATCC 27117 as bacteria assay. Research result provided a B. subtilis M10 mutant with overproduction of antibiotic. Characterization of B. subtilis M10 mutant showed that the mutant cell has size of (0.5-1.0 µm x (1.85-2.5 µm; spore has the form of ellipse with thick wavy wall, positive reaction for catalase, and forming acid from glucose and xylose.   Keywords: mutant, Bacillus, acridin, and antibiotics

  9. Unraveling aspects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens mediated enhanced production of rice under biotic stress of Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchi eSrivastava

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani (RS is a necrotrophic fungi causing sheath blight in rice leading to substantial loss in yield. Excessive and persistent use of preventive chemicals raises human health and environment safety concerns. As an alternative, use of biocontrol agents is highly recommended. In the present study an abiotic stress tolerant, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SN13 is demonstrated to act as a biocontrol agent and enhance immune response against RS in rice by modulating various physiological, metabolic and molecular functions. A sustained tolerance by SN13 primed plant over a longer period of time, post RS infection may be attributed to several unconventional aspects of the plants’ physiological status. The prolonged stress tolerance observed in presence of SN13 is characterized by (a involvement of bacterial mycolytic enzymes, (b sustained maintenance of elicitors to keep the immune system induced involving non-metabolizable sugars such as turanose besides the known elicitors, (c a delicate balance of ROS and ROS scavengers through production of proline, mannitol and arabitol and rare sugars like fructopyranose, β-d glucopyranose and myoinositol and expression of ferric reductases and hypoxia induced proteins, (d production of metabolites like quinozoline and expression of terpene synthase and (e hormonal cross talk. As the novel aspect of biological control this study highlights the role of rare sugars, maintenance of hypoxic conditions, and sucrose and starch metabolism in Bacillus amyloliquifaciens (SN13 mediated sustained biotic stress tolerance in rice.

  10. MEKANISME ANTIBIOSIS BACILLUS SUBTILIS B315 UNTUK PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT LAYU BAKTERI KENTANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Prihatiningsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiosis mechanism of Bacillus subtilis B315 for controlling potato bacterial wilt disease. Bacillus subtilis B315 isolated from rhizospheric potato has antibiosis mechanism against Ralstonia solanacearum in vitro and become potentially used as controlling method of bacterial wilt in the field. The objectives of this research were to study the mechanism of B.subtilis B315 in controlling bacterial wilt disease, to study of B. subtilis B315 potency as both biocontrol and plant growth promoter, and to evaluate the mechanism as biocontrol agent. This green house experiment used CRD (Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments and 6 replicates. The treatments were control (without B. subtilis B315, B. subtilis B315 wild type, antibiosis mutant M16, antibiosis mutant M4, and antibiosis mutant M14. Variables observed were incubation period, disease index, infection rate, effectiveness of control, and growth components (i.e number of bud, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh and dry weight. The result of this research showed that B. subtilis B315 could delay incubation period, suppressed the disease index up to 64,9% and could promote the plant growth (leaf area. B. subtilis B315 had the antibiosis and other mechanisms that induced sistemic resistance. The implication of this research was that B. subtilis B315 could be used for biocontrol the bacterial wilt and promoted the potato growth.

  11. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens G1: A Potential Antagonistic Bacterium against Eel-Pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haipeng Cao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that the use of probiotics is an alternative to control marine aeromonas. However, few probiotics are available against Aeromonas hydrophila infections in eels. In the present study, a potential antagonistic strain G1 against the eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila was isolated from sediment underlying brackish water. Its extracellular products with antibacterial activities were shown to be stable under wide range of pH, temperature, and proteinase K. It was initially identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens using API identification kits and confirmed to be B. amyloliquefaciens strain (GenBank accession number DQ422953 by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, it was shown to be safe for mammalians, had a wide anti-A. hydrophila spectrum, and exhibited significant effects on inhibiting the growth of the eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila both in vitro and in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on a promising antagonistic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain from brackish water sediment against eel-pathogenic A. hydrophila.

  12. Assessing antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles against Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Nafisi Bahabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. Use of nanotechnology and especially silver nanoparticles in control of bacterial diseases and infections has been studied in the recent years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles against Bacillus spp. Materials and methods: In this research, first, the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles against mentioned bacteria were evaluated by microdilution method in Broth medium. After confidence of inhibitory effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles, antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles was evaluated via in vitro microbiology tests (zone of inhibition test and test tube test. Results: Present study showed that colloidal silver nanoparticles have good antimicrobial effects against tested bacteria, so that MIC and MBC of silver nanoparticles for Bacillus spp. were calculated 3.9 and 31.25 mg/L, respectively. Also significant decrease was observed in bacterial growth after exposure to filter media coated with silver nanoparticles in test tube test and  zone of inhibition test (P≤ 5%. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate that filter media coated with silver nanoparticles have considerable antimicrobial effects; therefore they could possibly be used as excellent antibacterial water filters and would have several applications in other sectors.

  13. Postpartum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Peder; Petersen, Line Kirkeby; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    % of all women had experienced one or more self-reported episode of infection. Breast infections (12%) were most frequent, followed by wound (3%), airway (3%), vaginal (3%) and urinary tract infections (3%), endometritis (2%) and "other infections" (2%). Of the women with an infection, 66% (265 of 395...

  14. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Elizabeth Kempsell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins using sera from groups of donors with (a confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection (c occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory (d humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naïve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups.Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frames were also recognised by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g. BA4182 are not recognised by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo and are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP. These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis ‘infectome’. These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesised, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from the

  15. Whole genome protein microarrays for serum profiling of immunodominant antigens of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempsell, Karen E.; Kidd, Stephen P.; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Elmore, Michael J.; Charlton, Sue; Yeates, Annemarie; Cuthbertson, Hannah; Hallis, Bassam; Altmann, Daniel M.; Rogers, Mitch; Wattiau, Pierre; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Brooks, Tim; Vipond, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A commercial Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax) whole genome protein microarray has been used to identify immunogenic Anthrax proteins (IAP) using sera from groups of donors with (a) confirmed B. anthracis naturally acquired cutaneous infection, (b) confirmed B. anthracis intravenous drug use-acquired infection, (c) occupational exposure in a wool-sorters factory, (d) humans and rabbits vaccinated with the UK Anthrax protein vaccine and compared to naïve unexposed controls. Anti-IAP responses were observed for both IgG and IgA in the challenged groups; however the anti-IAP IgG response was more evident in the vaccinated group and the anti-IAP IgA response more evident in the B. anthracis-infected groups. Infected individuals appeared somewhat suppressed for their general IgG response, compared with other challenged groups. Immunogenic protein antigens were identified in all groups, some of which were shared between groups whilst others were specific for individual groups. The toxin proteins were immunodominant in all vaccinated, infected or other challenged groups. However, a number of other chromosomally-located and plasmid encoded open reading frame proteins were also recognized by infected or exposed groups in comparison to controls. Some of these antigens e.g., BA4182 are not recognized by vaccinated individuals, suggesting that there are proteins more specifically expressed by live Anthrax spores in vivo that are not currently found in the UK licensed Anthrax Vaccine (AVP). These may perhaps be preferentially expressed during infection and represent expression of alternative pathways in the B. anthracis “infectome.” These may make highly attractive candidates for diagnostic and vaccine biomarker development as they may be more specifically associated with the infectious phase of the pathogen. A number of B. anthracis small hypothetical protein targets have been synthesized, tested in mouse immunogenicity studies and validated in parallel using human sera from

  16. New developments in vaccines, inhibitors of anthrax toxins, and antibiotic therapeutics for Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beierlein, J M; Anderson, A C

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent responsible for anthrax infections, poses a significant biodefense threat. There is a high mortality rate associated with untreated anthrax infections; specifically, inhalation anthrax is a particularly virulent form of infection with mortality rates close to 100%, even with aggressive treatment. Currently, a vaccine is not available to the general public and few antibiotics have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of inhalation anthrax. With the threat of natural or engineered bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the limited population for whom the current drugs are approved, there is a clear need for more effective treatments against this deadly infection. A comprehensive review of current research in drug discovery is presented in this article, including efforts to improve the purity and stability of vaccines, design inhibitors targeting the anthrax toxins, and identify inhibitors of novel enzyme targets. High resolution structural information for the anthrax toxins and several essential metabolic enzymes has played a significant role in aiding the structure-based design of potent and selective antibiotics.

  17. Enterotoxins and emetic toxins production by Bacillus cereus and other species of Bacillus isolated from Soumbala and Bikalga, African alkaline fermentedfood condiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouoba, Labia Irene I.; Thorsen, Line; Varnam, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    -hemolytic enterotoxin (NheA, NheB, NheC) and EM1 specific of emetic toxin producerswas also investigated using PCR with single pair and multiplex primers. Of 41 isolates, 29 Bacillus belonging to the species of B. cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus showed haemolysis on blood agar......The ability of various species of Bacillus from fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa known as African locust bean(Soumbala) and fermented seeds of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Bikalga) was investigated. The study included screening of the isolates by haemolysis on blood agar, detection of toxins in broth...... and during the fermentation of African locust bean using the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test kit (BCETRPLA) and the Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Visual Immunoassay (BDEVIA). Detection of genes encoding´cytotoxin K (CytK), haemolysin BL (Hbl A, Hbl C, Hbl D), non...

  18. Comparative Genomics of Bacillus thuringiensis Reveals a Path to Specialized Exploitation of Multiple Invertebrate Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinshui; Gao, Qiuling; Liu, Linlin; Liu, Hualin; Wang, Yueying; Peng, Donghai; Ruan, Lifang; Raymond, Ben; Sun, Ming

    2017-08-08

    Understanding the genetic basis of host shifts is a key genomic question for pathogen and parasite biology. The Bacillus cereus group, which encompasses Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus anthracis , contains pathogens that can infect insects, nematodes, and vertebrates. Since the target range of the essential virulence factors (Cry toxins) and many isolates is well known, this group presents a powerful system for investigating how pathogens can diversify and adapt to phylogenetically distant hosts. Specialization to exploit insects occurs at the level of the major clade and is associated with substantial changes in the core genome, and host switching between insect orders has occurred repeatedly within subclades. The transfer of plasmids with linked cry genes may account for much of the adaptation to particular insect orders, and network analysis implies that host specialization has produced strong associations between key toxin genes with similar targets. Analysis of the distribution of plasmid minireplicons shows that plasmids with orf156 and orf157 , which carry genes encoding toxins against Lepidoptera or Diptera, were contained only by B. thuringiensis in the specialized insect clade (clade 2), indicating that tight genome/plasmid associations have been important in adaptation to invertebrate hosts. Moreover, the accumulation of multiple virulence factors on transposable elements suggests that cotransfer of diverse virulence factors is advantageous in terms of expanding the insecticidal spectrum, overcoming insect resistance, or through gains in pathogenicity via synergistic interactions between toxins. IMPORTANCE Population genomics have provided many new insights into the formation, evolution, and dynamics of bacterial pathogens of humans and other higher animals, but these pathogens usually have very narrow host ranges. As a pathogen of insects and nematodes, Bacillus thuringiensis , which produces toxins showing toxicity to many orders of insects and

  19. Mycotic Aneurysm after Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Treatment: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel D. Coddington

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Intravesicular Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is an effective adjunctive therapy for superficial bladder cancer that has been shown to delay recurrence and progression of disease. Serious side effects are relatively rare but are difficult to diagnosis and commonly overlooked. Case Presentation. We report the case of a patient who was found to have mycotic aortic aneurysms secondary to treatment with BCG after a prolonged course with multiple intervening hospitalizations. Conclusion. Through this report, we discuss our present understanding of BCG infection following treatment and review the literature regarding this particular rare manifestation.

  20. EFFECT OF BACILLUS OF CALMETTE-GUÉRIN, AVRIDINE AND Propionibacterium acnes AS IMMUNOMODULATORS ON RABIES IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEGID J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The cellular and humoral immune responses of mice inoculated with rabies virus and treated with the Bacillus of Calmette-Guérin, Avridine and Propionibacterium acnes were evaluated in this paper. There was a higher percentage of surviving mice in groups submitted to P. acnes treatment. Lower levels of interferon-g (IFN-g were found in infected mice. The intra-pad inoculation test (IPI was not effective to detect cellular immune response, contrary to the results found in MIF reaction. The survival of mice did not present correlation with the levels of antirabies serum neutralizing (SN antibodies titers, IFN-g concentration and MIF response.

  1. Germination and persistence of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis in soil microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A H

    2014-11-01

    Decontaminating large, outdoor spaces of Bacillus anthracis spores presents significant problems, particularly in soil. Proof was sought that the addition of germinant chemicals could cause spores of B. anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis, a commonly used simulant of the threat agent, to convert to the less resistant vegetative form in a microcosm. Nonsterile plant/soil microcosms were inoculated with spores of B. thuringiensis and two nonpathogenic strains of B. anthracis. A combination of L-alanine (100 mmol l(-1)) and inosine (10 mmol l(-1)) resulted in a 6 log decrease in spore numbers in both strains of B. anthracis over 2 weeks at 22°C; a 3 log decrease in B. anthracis Sterne spore numbers was observed after incubation for 2 weeks at 10°C. Negligible germination nor a decrease in viable count occurred in either strain when the concentration of L-alanine was decreased to 5 mmol l(-1). Germinated spores of B. thuringiensis were able to persist in vegetative form in the microcosms, whereas those of B. anthracis rapidly disappeared. The pleiotropic regulator PlcR, which B. anthracis lacks, does not contribute to the persistence of B. thuringiensis in vegetative form in soil. The principle of adding germinants to soil to trigger the conversion of spores to vegetative form has been demonstrated. Bacillus anthracis failed to persist in vegetative form or resporulate in the microcosms after it had been induced to germinate. The large scale, outdoor decontamination of B. anthracis spores may be facilitated by the application of simple, defined combinations of germinants. © 2014 Crown Copyright. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology This article is Published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  2. Comparison of sampling methods to recover germinated Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis endospores from surface coupons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, T M; Shoe, J L; Hunter, M; Woodson, A M; Fritts, K A; Klimko, C P; Quirk, A V; Welkos, S L; Cote, C K

    2017-05-01

    In an attempt to devise decontamination methods that are both effective and minimally detrimental to the environment, we evaluated germination induction as an enhancement to strategies for Bacillus anthracis spore decontamination. To determine an optimal method for the recovery of germinating spores from different matrices, it was critical to ensure that the sampling procedures did not negatively impact the viability of the germinating spores possibly confounding the results and downstream analyses of field trial data. Therefore, the two main objectives of this study were the following: (i) development of an effective processing protocol capable of recovering the maximum number of viable germinating or germinated spores from different surface materials; and (ii) using a model system of spore contamination, employ this protocol to evaluate the potential applicability of germination induction to wide-area decontamination of B. anthracis spores. We examined parameters affecting the sampling efficiencies of B. anthracis and the surrogate species Bacillus thuringiensis on nonporous and porous materials. The most efficient extraction from all matrices was observed using PBS with 0·01% Tween 80 extraction buffer. The addition of a sonication and/or extended vortex treatment did not yield significant increases in spore or germinated spore recovery. Our data demonstrate that previous germination-induction experiments performed in suspension can be reproduced when Bacillus spores are deposited onto reference surfaces materials. Our proof of concept experiment illustrated that a germination pretreatment step significantly improves conventional secondary decontamination strategies and remediation plans. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Complete genome sequence of the industrial bacterium Bacillus licheniformis and comparisons with closely related Bacillus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Michael W; Ramaiya, Preethi; Nelson, Beth A; Brody-Karpin, Shari D; Zaretsky, Elizabeth J; Tang, Maria; de Leon, Alfredo Lopez; Xiang, Henry; Gusti, Veronica; Clausen, Ib Groth; Olsen, Peter B; Rasmussen, Michael D; Andersen, Jens T; Jørgensen, Per L; Larsen, Thomas S; Sorokin, Alexei; Bolotin, Alexander; Lapidus, Alla; Galleron, Nathalie; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Berka, Randy M

    2004-01-01

    Background Bacillus licheniformis is a Gram-positive, spore-forming soil bacterium that is used in the biotechnology industry to manufacture enzymes, antibiotics, biochemicals and consumer products. This species is closely related to the well studied model organism Bacillus subtilis, and produces an assortment of extracellular enzymes that may contribute to nutrient cycling in nature. Results We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 genome which comprises a circular chromosome of 4,222,336 base-pairs (bp) containing 4,208 predicted protein-coding genes with an average size of 873 bp, seven rRNA operons, and 72 tRNA genes. The B. licheniformis chromosome contains large regions that are colinear with the genomes of B. subtilis and Bacillus halodurans, and approximately 80% of the predicted B. licheniformis coding sequences have B. subtilis orthologs. Conclusions Despite the unmistakable organizational similarities between the B. licheniformis and B. subtilis genomes, there are notable differences in the numbers and locations of prophages, transposable elements and a number of extracellular enzymes and secondary metabolic pathway operons that distinguish these species. Differences include a region of more than 80 kilobases (kb) that comprises a cluster of polyketide synthase genes and a second operon of 38 kb encoding plipastatin synthase enzymes that are absent in the B. licheniformis genome. The availability of a completed genome sequence for B. licheniformis should facilitate the design and construction of improved industrial strains and allow for comparative genomics and evolutionary studies within this group of Bacillaceae. PMID:15461803

  4. Genes of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis encoding proteins of the exosporium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sarah J; Moir, Arthur J G; Johnson, Matt J; Moir, Anne

    2003-06-01

    The exosporium is the outermost layer of spores of Bacillus cereus and its close relatives Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus thuringiensis. For these pathogens, it represents the surface layer that makes initial contact with the host. To date, only the BclA glycoprotein has been described as a component of the exosporium; this paper defines 10 more tightly associated proteins from the exosporium of B. cereus ATCC 10876, identified by N-terminal sequencing of proteins from purified, washed exosporium. Likely coding sequences were identified from the incomplete genome sequence of B. anthracis or B. cereus ATCC 14579, and the precise corresponding sequence from B. cereus ATCC 10876 was defined by PCR and sequencing. Eight genes encode likely structural components (exsB, exsC, exsD, exsE, exsF, exsG, exsJ, and cotE). Several proteins of the exosporium are related to morphogenetic and outer spore coat proteins of B. subtilis, but most do not have homologues in B. subtilis. ExsE is processed from a larger precursor, and the CotE homologue appears to have been C-terminally truncated. ExsJ contains a domain of GXX collagen-like repeats, like the BclA exosporium protein of B. anthracis. Although most of the exosporium genes are scattered on the genome, bclA and exsF are clustered in a region flanking the rhamnose biosynthesis operon; rhamnose is part of the sugar moiety of spore glycoproteins. Two enzymes, alanine racemase and nucleoside hydrolase, are tightly adsorbed to the exosporium layer; they could metabolize small molecule germinants and may reduce the sensitivity of spores to these, limiting premature germination.

  5. Pumilacidin-Like Lipopeptides Derived from Marine Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain 176 Suppress the Motility of Vibrio alginolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Pengyuan; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Dechao; Sun, Chaomin

    2017-06-15

    Bacterial motility is a crucial factor during the invasion and colonization processes of pathogens, which makes it an attractive therapeutic drug target. Here, we isolated a marine bacterium ( Vibrio alginolyticus strain 178) from a seamount in the tropical West Pacific that exhibits vigorous motility on agar plates and severe pathogenicity to zebrafish. We found that V. alginolyticus 178 motility was significantly suppressed by another marine bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain 176, isolated from the same niche. We isolated, purified, and characterized two different cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) from Bacillus sp. 176 using high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The two related CLPs have a pumilacidin-like structure and were both effective inhibitors of V. alginolyticus 178 motility. The CLPs differ by only one methylene group in their fatty acid chains. In addition to motility suppression, the CLPs also induced cell aggregation in the medium and reduced adherence of V. alginolyticus 178 to glass substrates. Notably, upon CLP treatment, the expression levels of two V. alginolyticus flagellar assembly genes ( flgA and flgP ) dropped dramatically. Moreover, the CLPs inhibited biofilm formation in several other strains of pathogenic bacteria without inducing cell death. This study indicates that CLPs from Bacillus sp. 176 show promise as antimicrobial lead compounds targeting bacterial motility and biofilm formation with a low potential for eliciting antibiotic resistance. IMPORTANCE Pathogenic bacteria often require motility to establish infections and subsequently spread within host organisms. Thus, motility is an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel antibiotics. We found that cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) produced by marine bacterium Bacillus sp. strain 176 dramatically suppress the motility of the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus strain 178, reduce biofilm formation, and promote

  6. [Study of the incidence and cost of nosocomial infections in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennigrou, S; Mokhtar, L; Ben Alaya, N; Dziri, C; Cherif, A; Najah, N; Ben Redjeb, S; Zouari, B

    2000-11-01

    Nosocomial infection incidence and its cost were study. We have identified 61 infected patients and 75 infectious episodes, is an incidence of 9.4% infected for 100 hospitalized by trimester. Operative site infections are the most frequent (60%), operative site infection (9.1%), inferior respiratory ways infections (2.2%). Incriminated germs are represented essentially by negative gram Bacillus (77.3%) with predominance of enterobacterias (59%). Invasive technique usage, surgery types and contamination classes have been identified as risk factors of nosocomial infection occurrence. The supplementary stay duration estimated by simple comparison between infected group and no-infected one is 9.3% days, responsible of an over cost of 336 TD by infected patient and 273 TD by infectious episode. The curative antibiotic costs have been estimated at 70 TD by infected patient being equivalent to two hospitalization days and to 57 TD by infectious episode.

  7. Pinworm Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinworm infection Overview Pinworm infection is the most common type of intestinal worm infection in the United States and one of the most common worldwide. Pinworms are thin and white, measuring about 1/4 ...

  8. Pirated Siderophores Promote Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandchamp, Gabrielle M; Caro, Lews; Shank, Elizabeth A

    2017-05-15

    In microbial communities, bacteria chemically and physically interact with one another. Some of these interactions are mediated by secreted specialized metabolites that act as either intraspecies or interspecies signals to alter gene expression and to change cell physiology. Bacillus subtilis is a well-characterized soil microbe that can differentiate into multiple cell types, including metabolically dormant endospores. We were interested in identifying microbial interactions that affected sporulation in B. subtilis Using a fluorescent transcriptional reporter, we observed that coculturing B. subtilis with Escherichia coli promoted sporulation gene expression via a secreted metabolite. To identify the active compound, we screened the E. coli Keio Collection and identified the sporulation-accelerating cue as the siderophore enterobactin. B. subtilis has multiple iron acquisition systems that are used to take up the B. subtilis- produced siderophore bacillibactin, as well as to pirate exogenous siderophores such as enterobactin. While B. subtilis uses a single substrate binding protein (FeuA) to take up both bacillibactin and enterobactin, we discovered that it requires two distinct genes to sporulate in response to these siderophores (the esterase gene besA for bacillibactin and a putative esterase gene, ybbA , for enterobactin). In addition, we found that siderophores from a variety of other microbial species also promote sporulation in B. subtilis Our results thus demonstrate that siderophores can act not only as bacterial iron acquisition systems but also as interspecies cues that alter cellular development and accelerate sporulation in B. subtilis IMPORTANCE While much is known about the genetic regulation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation, little is understood about how other bacteria influence this process. This work describes an interaction between Escherichia coli and B. subtilis that accelerates sporulation in B. subtilis The interaction is mediated by the E

  9. 77 FR 19109 - Bacillus Pumilus Strain GHA 180; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), requesting an exemption from the requirement of... Bacillus pumilus strain GHA 180. 2. Logan, N.A., and P. de Vos. 2009. Genus I. Bacillus, pp. 21-128 In: P...

  10. Characterization of the Surface Morphology of Bacillus Spores by Atomic Force Microscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zolock, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    .... kurstaki, Bacillus cereus strain 569, and Bacillus globigii var. niger. The spores were separated from a nutrient agar culture by filtering and centrifugation, suspended in deionized water, and immobilized on a graphite substrate by spin-coating...

  11. Evaluation of bottlenecks in the late stages of protein secretion in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, A; Tjalsma, H; Smith, H.E; Meima, R.; Venema, G; Bron, S; van Dijl, J.M

    Despite a high capacity for secretion of homologous proteins, the secretion of heterologous proteins by Bacillus subtilis is frequently inefficient. In the present studies, we have investigated and compared bottlenecks in the secretion of four heterologous proteins: Bacillus lichenifomis

  12. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-Induced Macrophage Cytotoxicity against Bladder Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Luo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many details of the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy of bladder cancer have been discovered in the past decades. However, information on a potential role for macrophage cytotoxicity as an effector mechanism is limited. Macrophages play pivotal roles in the host innate immunity and serve as a first line of defense in mycobacterial infection. In addition to their function as professional antigen-presenting cells, the tumoricidal activity of macrophages has also been studied with considerable interest. Studies have shown that activated macrophages are potent in killing malignant cells of various tissue origins. This review summarizes the current understanding of the BCG-induced macrophage cytotoxicity toward bladder cancer cells with an intention to inspire investigation on this important but underdeveloped research field.

  13. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BOVINE ABORTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH BACILLUS-LICHENIFORMIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Krogh, H.V.; Jensen, H.E.

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of bovine abortions associated with Bacillus licheniformis is described. The material consisted of 2445 bovine abortions submitted for diagnostics from 1986 through 1993. Initially, B, licheniformis had been isolated from 81 cases. Sections of these cases were reexamined...... microscopically and immunohistochemically by a PAP technique using a primary antibody against B, licheniformis. Of these abortions, 47 were most likely associated with B. licheniformis as tissue lesions with immunostained bacteria were present in these. In the remaining cases the diagnosis may not have been...... established due to the lack of sufficient materials, or the isolation of the bacterium was considered to be a result of contamination. In four cases concomitant infections with B, licheniformis and bovine virus diarrhoea virus were present. Abortions caused by B. licheniformis were predominantly seen during...

  14. Morphogenesis of bacteriophage phi29 of Bacillus subtilis: cleavage and assembly of the neck appendage protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, M.E.; Reilly, B.E.; Anderson, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    Each of the 12 neck appendages of the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi 29 consists of a single protein molecular weight of about 75,000, and on the mature virion the appendages are assembled to the lower of two collars. The appendage protein is cleaved from a percursor protein, P(J), with a molecular weight of about 88,000. This cleavage is independent of neck assembly, occurring during infection by mutants that cannot synthesize the proteins of the upper and lower collars of the neck. The cleaved form of the appendage protein is efficiently complemented in vitro to particles lacking appendages. Thus, cleavage of the appendage precursor protein apparently does not occur in situ on the maturing virus

  15. Isotryptophan from Antarctic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Pc3: purification, identification, characterization, and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pengfei; Guo, Wenbin; Chen, Xinhua

    2017-09-01

    Strain Pc3 was isolated from Antarctic seawater and identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. A compound with antifungal activity was purified from the fermentation supernatant of B. amyloliquefaciens Pc3. Its structure was determined to be (S)-2-amino-3-(1H-indol-2-yl) propanoic acid, named as isotryptophan, based on detailed analysis of its nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS). Isotryptophan exhibited good thermal stability and antifungal activity against several plant-pathogenic fungi with low minimum inhibitory concentrations. Therefore, the characterisation of isotryptophan from the Antarctic B. amyloliquefaciens Pc3 will facilitate its potential application in the control of plant-pathogenic fungal infection.

  16. Effect of Bacillus pumilus CCIBP-C5 on Musa-Pseudocercospora fijiensis interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martín, Mileidy; Acosta-Suárez, Mayra; Mena, Eilyn; Roque, Berkis; Pichardo, Tatiana; Alvarado-Capó, Yelenys

    2018-02-01

    The effect of antifungal activity of culture filtrate (CF) of Bacillus pumilus strain CCIBP-C5, an isolate from a phyllosphere of banana ( Musa ) leaves, was determined on Pseudocercospora fijiensis challenged banana plants. The CF was shown to decrease the fungal biomass and induce changes in banana plant. In this sense, at 70 days post inoculation (dpi), a lower infection index as well as a decrease in fungal biomass after 6 dpi was obtained in treated plants with respect to control ones. At the same time, changes in the activities of several enzymes related to plant defense responses, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases and peroxidases were observed. These results indicate that B. pumilus CCIBP-C5 has a potential role for biological control of P. fijiensis possibly due to the production of antifungal metabolites.

  17. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  18. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Jia

    Full Text Available Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  19. Characterization of alkaline xylanases from Bacillus pumilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline xylanases produced by four different strains of Bacillus pumilus were characterized. The optimal pH and temperature were pH 9.0 and 60ºC for strain 13a, and pH 8.0 and 55ºC for strains 5(2, 5(14, and 4a. Under these conditions the following activities were found after 10 min in the presence of 1% xylan (birchwood: 328 U.ml-1, 131 U.ml-1, 90 U.ml-1, and 167 U.ml-1, respectively, for the four strains. The enzymes were stable at 40ºC, with 40% of the xylanase activity remaining after 2 hours for the enzymes of strain 5(2 and 60% for the other three strains. Stability at 50ºC was improved by addition of glycerol. Taking into account the conditions under which kraft pulps are bleached during the manufacture of paper, xylanases from B. pumilus exhibit favorable potential for application to bleaching in the paper making process.

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugation in Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuls, Elise; van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0-g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1-g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  1. Directed evolution of a Bacillus chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songsiriritthigul, Chomphunuch; Pesatcha, Putarika; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Yamabhai, Montarop

    2009-04-01

    Chitinases have potential in various industrial applications including bioconversion of chitin waste from crustacean shells into chito-oligosaccharide-based value-added products. For industrial applications, obtaining suitable chitinases for efficient bioconversion processes will be beneficial. In this study, we established a straightforward directed evolution method for creating chitinase variants with improved properties. A library of mutant chitinases was constructed by error-prone PCR and DNA shuffling of two highly similar (99% identical) chitinase genes from Bacillus licheniformis. Activity screening was done in two steps: first, activity towards colloidal chitin was screened for on culturing plates (halo formation). This was followed by screening activity towards the chitotriose analogue p-nitrophenyl-beta-1,4-N, N'-diacetyl-chitobiose at various pH in microtiter plates. From a medium-throughput screening (517 colonies), we were able to isolate one mutant that demonstrated improved catalytic activity. When using p-nitrophenyl-beta-1,4-N, N'-diacetyl-chitobiose as substrate, the overall catalytic efficiency, k(cat)/K(m) of the improved chitinase was 2.7- and 2.3-fold higher than the average k(cat)/K(m) of wild types at pH 3.0 and 6.0, respectively. The mutant contained four residues that did not occur in either of the wild types. The approach presented here can easily be adopted for directed evolution of suitable chitinases for various applications.

  2. Transferrin Impacts Bacillus thuringiensis Biofilm Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Garner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the impact of transferrin on Bacillus thuringiensis biofilms. Three commercial strains, an environmental strain (33679, the type strain (10792, and an isolate from a diseased insect (700872, were cultured in iron restricted minimal medium. All strains produced biofilm when grown in vinyl plates at 30°C. B. thuringiensis 33679 had a biofilm biomass more than twice the concentration exhibited by the other strains. The addition of transferrin resulted in slightly increased growth yields for 2 of the 3 strains tested, including 33679. In contrast, the addition of 50 μg/mL of transferrin resulted in an 80% decrease in biofilm levels for strain 33679. When the growth temperature was increased to 37°C, the addition of 50 μg/mL of transferrin increased culture turbidity for only strain 33679. Biofilm levels were again decreased in strain 33679 at 37°C. Growth of B. thuringiensis cultures in polystyrene resulted in a decrease in overall growth yields at 30°C, with biofilm levels significantly decreased for 33679 in the presence of transferrin. These findings demonstrate that transferrin impacts biofilm formation in select strains of B. thuringiensis. Identification of these differences in biofilm regulation may be beneficial in elucidating potential virulence mechanisms among the differing strains.

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Bacillus anthracis ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived from computed tomography (CT) or µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation-exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Four different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Despite the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the upper conducting airways of the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. This greater deposition of spores in the upper airways in the human resulted in lower penetration and deposition in the tracheobronchial airways and the deep lung than that predict

  4. Ferrisiderophore reductase activity in Bacillus megaterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceneaux, J E; Byers, B R

    1980-01-01

    The release of iron from ferrisiderophores (microbial ferric-chelating iron transport cofactors) by cell-free extracts of Bacillus megaterium was demonstrated. Reductive transfer of iron from ferrisiderophores to the ferrous-chelating agent ferrozine was measured spectrophotometrically. This ferrisiderophore reductase activity (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:ferrisiderophore oxidoreductase) was associated primarily with the cell soluble rather than particulate (membrane) fraction. Ferrisiderophore reductase was inhibited by oxygen and required the addition of a reductant (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate was most effective) for maximal activity. The activity was destroyed by both heat and protease treatments and was inhibited by iodoacetamide treatment. Ferrisiderophore reductase activity for several microbial ferrisiderophores was measured; highest activity was displayed for ferrischizokinen, the ferrisiderophore produced by this organism. The Km and Vmax values of the reductase for ferrischizokinen were 2.5 x 10(-4) M and 35.7 nmol/min per mg of the ferrisiderophore reductase reaction. Preliminary fractionation of the cell soluble material by gel filtration chromatography resulted in the demonstration of ferrisiderophore reductase activity in three peaks of different molecular weight. Ferrisiderophore reductase probably mediates entrance of iron into cellular metabolism. PMID:6444944

  5. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  6. Evaluation of antagonistic activities of Bacillus spp. against certain bacteria of medical importance

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, K.K. and Rana, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this work we focused on the antagonistic potential of Bacillus spp. isolates from cow dung. Out of fourteen bacterial strains, isolate KD104 and KD117 were probably identified as Bacillus spp. These two isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against 14 test organisms viz., Vibrio Cholera (MTCC 3904), Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3216), Escherichia coli (SGPGI), Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 7443), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 441), Bacillus cereus (MTCC 6728), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC 426...

  7. In vitro antimicrobial effect of Satureja wiedemanniana against Bacillus species isolated from raw meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Nihal; Aslim, Belma; Ozdoğan, Hakan

    2009-08-01

    In this study a total of 30 raw meat samples obtained from Ankara, Turkey were screened for the presence of Bacillus species. Among the meat samples analyzed, the predominant species isolated was Bacillus circulans; other Bacillus species were identified as Bacillus firmus, Bacillus lentus, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus sphaericus, and Bacillus cereus. Minced meat samples were more contaminated with Bacillus species than sliced beef sample. From these samples, 242 Bacillus species isolates were obtained, which were investigated for proteolytic and lipolytic activity, associated with meat spoilage. Interestingly, some Bacillus strains produced the highest values of proteolytic/lipolytic activities. Nineteen Bacillus strains were selected among the 242 isolates according to their proteolytic/lipolytic activity with a clear zone diameter of > or =6 mm. The essential oil of Satureja wiedemanniana (Lalem) Velen was also tested against these 19 Bacillus species that had proteolytic and lipolytic activity. The essential oil yield obtained from the aerial parts of the plant was 0.35% (vol/wt). The inhibition zones of the essential oil obtained against all the Bacillus species were in the range of 5.0-12.0 mm. The oil showed high antimicrobial activities against B. licheniformis M 6(26), M 11(16), and M 12(1) strains. B. licheniformis 12(1) showed high lipolytic activity (18.0 mm). Also, B. licheniformis M 6(26) and M 11(16) showed high proteolytic activity (16.0 and 14.0 mm). These results may suggest that an essential oil of S. wiedemanniana can be used as a natural preservative in meat against spoilage bacteria.

  8. SR450 and Superhawk XP Applications of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis Against Culex Quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    SR450 AND SUPERHAWK XP APPLICATIONS OF BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELENSIS AGAINST CULEX QUINQUEFASCIATUS1 JAMES C. DUNFORD,2 CRAIG A. STOOPS,3 ALDEN...thermal fogger applications of VectobacH WDG Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) against Culex quinquefasciatus. Bacillus thuringiensis ...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SR450 and Superhawk XP Applications of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis

  9. Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    B_amyloliq – B. amyloliquefaciens ; B_NRRL - Bacillus . spp. NRRL; B_SG-1 – Bacillus spp. SG-1; B_thur – B. thuringiensis strains Al Hakam and var...Genomic Signatures of Strain Selection and Enhancement in Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii, a Historical Biowarfare Simulant Henry S. Gibbons1...States of America, 11 Excet Inc., Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, United States of America Abstract Background: Despite the decades-long use of Bacillus

  10. Production of Alpha Amylase by Bacillus cereus in Submerged Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen H. Raplong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have the ability to secrete enzymes when they are grown in the presence of certain substrates. Amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in biotechnological studies. Bacteria belonging to the genus Bacillus were isolated using mannitol egg yolk polymyxin B (MYP agar a highly selective media for Bacillus cereus isolation. The isolates were tested for α-amylase production on nutrient agar supplemented with starch and in submerged fermentation. The bacteria isolated and identified (using the Microgen Bacillus identification kit were all Bacillus cereus and SB2 had the largest zone of hydrolysis of 12mm on nutrient agar supplemented with starch as well as the highest enzyme activity of 1.62U/ml. Amylase activity of 2.56U/ml was obtained after 24 hours incubation in submerged fermentation. When amylase enzyme production parameters where optimized, maximum amylase activity was obtained at a pH of 6.5, temperature of 350C, incubation time of 24 hours and 4% inoculums concentration. Bacillus cereus SB2 is a potential isolate for alpha-amylase production with soluble starch as the sole carbon source in submerged fermentation.

  11. Bacillus terrae sp. nov. isolated from Cistus ladanifer rhizosphere soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Méndez, Alexandra; Rivas, Raúl; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Santín, Primitivo Julio; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Velázquez, Encarna

    2017-05-01

    A bacterial strain designated RA9T was isolated from a root of Cistus ladanifer in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate into the genus Bacillus with its closest relatives being Bacillus fortis R-6514T and Bacillus fordii R-7190T with 98.2 % similarity in both cases. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed mean relatedness values of 29 and 30 %, respectively, between strain RA9T and the type strains of B. fortis and B. fordii. Cells of the isolate were Gram-stain-positive, motile, sporulating rods. Catalase and oxidase were positive. Gelatin, starch and casein were not hydrolysed. Menaquinone MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The polar lipid profile consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified phospholipid, one unidentifed glycolipid and one unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 43.1 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RA9T should be considered as representing a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus terrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RA9T (=LMG 29736T=CECT 9170T).

  12. Occurrence of Toxigenic Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in Doenjang, a Korean Fermented Soybean Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung Min; Kim, Hyun Jung; Jeong, Moon Cheol; Koo, Minseon

    2016-04-01

    This study determined the prevalence and toxin profile of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis in doenjang, a fermented soybean food, made using both traditional and commercial methods. The 51 doenjang samples tested were broadly contaminated with B. cereus; in contrast, only one sample was positive for B. thuringiensis. All B. cereus isolates from doenjang were positive for diarrheal toxin genes. The frequencies of nheABC and hblACD in traditional samples were 22.7 and 0%, respectively, whereas 5.1 and 5.1% of B. cereus isolates from commercial samples possessed nheABC and hblACD, respectively. The detection rate of ces gene was 10.8%. The predominant toxin profile among isolates from enterotoxigenic B. cereus in doenjang was profile 4 (entFM-bceT-cytK). The major enterotoxin genes in emetic B. cereus were cytK, entFM, and nheA genes. The B. thuringiensis isolate was of the diarrheagenic type. These results provide a better understanding of the epidemiology of the enterotoxigenic and emetic B. cereus groups in Korean fermented soybean products.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis HD-1 Cry- : development of a safe, non-insecticidal simulant for Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A H; Robinson, C V

    2014-09-01

    A representative simulant for spores of Bacillus anthracis is needed for field testing. Bacillus thuringiensis is gaining recognition as a suitable organism. A strain that does not form the insecticidal, parasporal crystals that are characteristic of this species is a more accurate physical representative of B. anthracis spores. We developed noninsecticidal derivatives of two isolates of B. thuringiensis HD-1. Two plasmid-cured derivatives of B. thuringiensis HD-1, unable to make crystal toxins ('Cry(-) '), were isolated. These isolates and the existing Cry(-) strain, B. thuringiensis Al Hakam, were probed with PCR assays against the known insecticidal genes cry, vip and cyt. Their genomic DNA was sequenced to demonstrate a lack of insecticidal genes. This was confirmed by bioassays against a number of invertebrate species. Real-time PCR assays were developed to identify the B. thuringiensis HD-1 Cry(-) derivatives and an effective differential and selective medium was assessed. All three Cry(-) isolates are devoid of known insecticidal determinants. The B. thuringiensis HD-1 Cry(-) derivatives can easily be recovered from soil and identified by PCR with some selectivity. The B. thuringiensis HD-1 Cry(-) derivatives represent accurate, nongenetically manipulated simulants for B. anthracis with excellent human and environmental safety records. © 2014 Crown Copyright. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology This article is published with the permission of the Controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland.

  14. Extended genetic analysis of Brazilian isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Zahner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple locus sequence typing (MLST was undertaken to extend the genetic characterization of 29 isolates of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis previously characterized in terms of presence/absence of sequences encoding virulence factors and via variable number tandem repeat (VNTR. Additional analysis involved polymerase chain reaction for the presence of sequences (be, cytK, inA, pag, lef, cya and cap, encoding putative virulence factors, not investigated in the earlier study. MLST analysis ascribed novel and unique sequence types to each of the isolates. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from a single sequence of 2,838 bp of concatenated loci sequences. The strains were not monophyletic by analysis of any specific housekeeping gene or virulence characteristic. No clear association in relation to source of isolation or to genotypic profile based on the presence or absence of putative virulence genes could be identified. Comparison of VNTR profiling with MLST data suggested a correlation between these two methods of genetic analysis. In common with the majority of previous studies, MLST was unable to provide clarification of the basis for pathogenicity among members of the B. cereus complex. Nevertheless, our application of MLST served to reinforce the notion that B. cereus and B. thuringiensis should be considered as the same species.

  15. Phylogenomic analysis shows that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum is a later heterotypic synonym of Bacillus methylotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2015-07-01

    The rhizosphere-isolated bacteria belonging to the Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum and Bacillus methylotrophicus clades are an important group of strains that are used as plant growth promoters and antagonists of plant pathogens. These properties have made these strains the focus of commercial interest. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of B. methylotrophicus KACC 13105(T) ( = CBMB205(T)). Comparative genomic analysis showed only minor differences between this strain and the genome of the B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum type strain, with the genomes sharing approximately 95% of the same genes. The results of morphological, physiological, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the type strains of these two taxa are highly similar. In fact, our results show that the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) ( = DSM 23117(T) = BGSC 10A6(T)) does not cluster with other members of the B. amyloliquefaciens taxon. Instead, it clusters well within a clade of strains that are assigned to B. methylotrophicus, including the type strain of that species. Therefore, we propose that the subspecies B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of B. methylotrophicus.

  16. Bacillus anthracis Overcomes an Amino Acid Auxotrophy by Cleaving Host Serum Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, Austen; Swick, Michelle C.; Pflughoeft, Kathryn J.; Pomerantsev, Andrei; Lyons, C. Rick; Koehler, Theresa M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteria sustain an infection by acquiring nutrients from the host to support replication. The host sequesters these nutrients as a growth-restricting strategy, a concept termed “nutritional immunity.” Historically, the study of nutritional immunity has centered on iron uptake because many bacteria target hemoglobin, an abundant circulating protein, as an iron source. Left unresolved are the mechanisms that bacteria use to attain other nutrients from host sources, including amino acids. We employed a novel medium designed to mimic the chemical composition of human serum, and we show here that Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax disease, proteolyzes human hemoglobin to liberate essential amino acids which enhance its growth. This property can be traced to the actions of InhA1, a secreted metalloprotease, and extends to at least three other serum proteins, including serum albumin. The results suggest that we must also consider proteolysis of key host proteins to be a way for bacterial pathogens to attain essential nutrients, and we provide an experimental framework to determine the host and bacterial factors involved in this process. IMPORTANCE The mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens acquire nutrients during infection are poorly understood. Here we used a novel defined medium that approximates the chemical composition of human blood serum, blood serum mimic (BSM), to better model the nutritional environment that pathogens encounter during bacteremia. Removing essential amino acids from BSM revealed that two of the most abundant proteins in blood—hemoglobin and serum albumin—can satiate the amino acid requirement for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax. We further demonstrate that hemoglobin is proteolyzed by the secreted protease InhA1. These studies highlight that common blood proteins can be a nutrient source for bacteria. They also challenge the historical view that hemoglobin is solely an iron source for

  17. Effect of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine yield in Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of vitamins and bivalent metals on lysine accumulation in Bacillus strains were investigated. Biotin enhanced lysine production in all the Bacillus strains, while folic acid and riboflavin stimulated lysine yields in Bacillus megaterium SP 86 only. All bivalent metals stimulated lysine accumulation in B. megaterium ...

  18. Initial Study of Production of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Using Locally Obtained Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Soesanto, Soesanto

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis diketahui sebagai entomopatogen nyamuk ades aegypti yang merupakan vektor penyakit demam berdarah.Telah dilakukan percobaan produksi Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis dengan menggunakan medium yang mengandung bahan lokal terasi udang, melase dan tepung kedelai. Hasil uji toksisitas (bioassay) terhadap Final Whole Culture (FWC) dengan bahan lokal yang murah menunjukkan potensi sebagai agensia bioinsektisida.Key Words: entomopathogen - Bacillus thuringiensis ...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1269 - Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1269 Bacillus mycoides Isolate J: exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Bacillus mycoides isolate J is temporarily exempt from the requirement of a tolerance...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1282 - Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1282 Bacillus firmus I-1582; exemption from the requirement of a..., for residues of Bacillus firmus I-1582 when used as a soil application or seed treatment. [73 FR 25528...

  1. 78 FR 35147 - Bacillus pumilus Strain BU F-33; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0264; FRL-9389-2] Bacillus... of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus pumilus strain BU F-33 in or on all food commodities when... regulation eliminates the need to establish a maximum permissible level for residues of Bacillus pumilus...

  2. 77 FR 2910 - Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0944; FRL-9334-3] Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens Strain D747; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance; Technical Correction AGENCY... requirement of a tolerance for residues of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain D747 (formerly known as Bacillus...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1111 - Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1111 Bacillus subtilis GB03; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biofungicide Bacillus subtilis GB03 is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on...

  4. Molecular detection of TasA gene in endophytic Bacillus species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TasA, the gene which play an important role in bacteria development, physiology and bacteria biofilm formation in Bacillus species was detected in the endophytic bacteria by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. In ten endophytic Bacillus strains tested, TasA gene was readily detected in Bacillus ...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1224 - Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1224 Bacillus pumilus GB34; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticide Bacillus pumilus GB34 when used as a seed treatment in or on all food commodities. An exemption is...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1128 - Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1128 Bacillus subtilis MBI 600; exemption from the requirement of... biofungicide Bacillus subtilis MBI 600 in or on all food commodities, including residues resulting from post...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1202 - Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1202 Bacillus sphaericus; exemption from the requirement of a... pesticides, Bacillus sphaericus when used in or on all food crops. [63 FR 48597, Sept. 11, 1998] ...

  8. Genome Sequence of the Thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the Type Strain of the Species

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  9. Genome sequence of the thermophile Bacillus coagulans Hammer, the type strain of the species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Tao, Fei; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2012-11-01

    Here we announce a 3.0-Mb assembly of the Bacillus coagulans Hammer strain, which is the type strain of the species within the genus Bacillus. Genomic analyses based on the sequence may provide insights into the phylogeny of the species and help to elucidate characteristics of the poorly studied strains of Bacillus coagulans.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1011 Section 180.1011... microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) For the... authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner conforming to the morphological and biochemical...

  11. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus siamensis Form an “Operational Group B. amyloliquefaciens” within the B. subtilis Species Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ben; Blom, Jochen; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Borriss, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The plant growth promoting model bacterium FZB42T was proposed as the type strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum (Borriss et al., 2011), but has been recently recognized as being synonymous to Bacillus velezensis due to phylogenomic analysis (Dunlap C. et al., 2016). However, until now, majority of publications consider plant-associated close relatives of FZB42 still as “B. amyloliquefaciens.” Here, we reinvestigated the taxonomic status of FZB42 and related strains in its context to the free-living soil bacterium DSM7T, the type strain of B. amyloliquefaciens. We identified 66 bacterial genomes from the NCBI data bank with high similarity to DSM7T. Dendrograms based on complete rpoB nucleotide sequences and on core genome sequences, respectively, clustered into a clade consisting of three tightly linked branches: (1) B. amyloliquefaciens, (2) Bacillus siamensis, and (3) a conspecific group containing the type strains of B. velezensis, Bacillus methylotrophicus, and B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum. The three monophyletic clades shared a common mutation rate of 0.01 substitutions per nucleotide position, but were distantly related to Bacillus subtilis (0.1 substitutions per nucleotide position). The tight relatedness of the three clusters was corroborated by TETRA, dDDH, ANI, and AAI analysis of the core genomes, but dDDH and ANI values were found slightly below species level thresholds when B. amyloliquefaciens DSM7T genome sequence was used as query sequence. Due to these results, we propose that the B. amyloliquefaciens clade should be considered as a taxonomic unit above of species level, designated here as “operational group B. amyloliquefaciens” consisting of the soil borne B. amyloliquefaciens, and plant associated B. siamensis and B. velezensis, whose members are closely related and allow identifying changes on the genomic level due to developing the plant-associated life-style. PMID:28163698

  12. Odontogenic Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Orrett E

    2017-04-01

    The pathogenesis of odontogenic infection is polymicrobial, consisting of various facultative and strict anaerobes. The dominant isolates are strictly anaerobic gram-negative rods and gram-positive cocci. The periapical infection is the most common form of odontogenic infection. Although odontogenic infections are usually confined to the alveolar ridge vicinity, they can spread into deep fascial spaces. Cavernous sinus thrombosis, brain abscess, airway obstruction, and mediastinitis are possible complications of dental infections. The most important element in treating odontogenic infections is elimination of the primary source of the infection with antibiotics as adjunctive therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bacillus cereus food poisoning: international and Indian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anita; Abdullah, Swaid

    2015-05-01

    Food borne illnesses result from eating food or drinking beverages that are contaminated with chemical matter, heavy metals, parasites, fungi, viruses and Bacteria. Bacillus cereus is one of the food-borne disease causing Bacteria. Species of Bacillus and related genera have long been troublesome to food producers on account of their resistant endospores. Their spores may be present on various types of raw and cooked foods, and their ability to survive high cooking temperatures requires that cooked foods be served hot or cooled rapidly to prevent the growth of this bacteria. Bacillus cereus is well known as a cause of food poisoning, and much more is now known about the toxins produced by various strains of this species, so that its significance in such episodes are clearer. However, it is still unclear why such cases are so rarely reported worldwide.

  14. A Phosphate Starvation-Inducible Ribonuclease of Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Nguyen, Minh Hung; Nguyen, Huy Thuan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Le, Thi Hoi; Schweder, Thomas; Jürgen, Britta

    2016-08-28

    The BLi03719 protein of Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 belongs to the most abundant extracellular proteins under phosphate starvation conditions. In this study, the function of this phosphate starvation inducible protein was determined. An amino-acid sequence analysis of the BLi03719-encoding gene showed a high similarity with genes encoding the barnase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and binase-like RNase of Bacillus pumilus SARF-032. The comparison of the control strain and a BLi03719-deficient strain revealed a strongly reduced extracellular ribonuclease activity of the mutant. Furthermore, this knockout mutant exhibited delayed growth with yeast RNA as an alternative phosphate and carbon source. These results suggest that BLi03719 is an extracellular ribonuclease expressed in B. licheniformis under phosphate starvation conditions. Finally, a BLi03719 mutant showed an advantageous effect on the overexpression of the heterologous amyE gene under phosphate-limited growth conditions.

  15. Construction of acetoin high-producing Bacillus subtilis strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Tian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the construction and selection of a high-producing mutant, Bacillus subtilis HB-32, with enhanced acetoin yield and productivity. The mutant was obtained by the protoplast fusion of a Bacillus subtilis mutant TH-49 (Val− producing acetoin and Bacillus licheniformis AD-30 producing α-acetolactate decarboxylase, with the fusogen polyethylene glycol and after the regeneration and selection, etc. of the fusant. The acetoin production reached 49.64 g/L, which is an increase of 61.8% compared to that of B. subtilis strain TH-49. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis was performed to determine the mutagenic and protoplast fusion effects and the genomic changes in the acetoin high-producing strain compared to the parent strains at the molecular level. The constructed strain was shown to be promising for large-scale acetoin production. Future studies should focus on the application of the mutant strain in practice.

  16. Clinical Study of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 (ATCC PTA-11748) in the Treatment of Patients with Bacterial Vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna Sudha, M; Yelikar, Kanan A; Deshpande, Sonali

    2012-09-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent vaginal infection worldwide and is characterized by reduction of native lactobacilli. Antimicrobial therapy used to cure the disease is often found to be ineffective. We postulate that Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 (Unique Biotech Limited, India) might provide an appendage to antimicrobial treatment and improve curing rate. In the present study 40 Indian women diagnosed with BV by the presence of symptoms including white discharge, pH greater than 4.7, burning micturation, itching, soreness and redness at vulva. The subjects were divided in 2 groups probiotic (n = 20) and control (n = 20) based on age (control group, 33 ± 3 years and probiotic group, 32.5 ± 3 years), history of previous vaginosis (control group, 75% or 15/20 and probiotic group, 75% or 15/20) and severity of current vaginosis infection (burning micturation and itching, 35% in each group). Probiotic group subjects were assigned to receive a dose of antibiotic therapy [Ofloxacin-Ornidazole with strength of 200-500 mg per capsule/day for 5 days along with vaginal peccaries (co-kimaxazol) for 3 days] simultaneously with two probiotic capsules (10(9) CFUs of Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 per capsule). The control group received only antibiotic therapy. At the end of the treatment the 80% of probiotic group subjects showed significant positive response as revealed by reduction of vaginosis symptoms compared to the control group which exhibited reduction in 45% subjects only. Thus, the results of present study indicate that strain Bacillus coagulans Unique IS-2 can provide benefits to women being treated with antibiotics to cure an infectious condition.

  17. Inhibition of equine arteritis virus by an antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus sp. P34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Scopel e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT P34 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus sp. P34, isolated from the intestinal contents of a fish from the Amazon basin. This peptide showed antibacterial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and was characterized as a bacteriocin like substance. It was demonstrated that the peptide P34 exhibited antiviral activity against feline herpesvirus type 1 in vitro. The aim of this work was to evaluate P34 for its antiviral properties in vitro, using RK 13 cells, against the equine arteritis virus, since it has no specific treatment and a variable proportion of stallions may become persistently infected. The results obtained show that P34 exerts antiviral and virucidal activities against equine arteritis virus, probably in the viral envelope. The antiviral assays performed showed that P34 reduces significantly the viral titers of treated cell cultures. The mechanism of action of P34 seems to be time/temperature-dependent. This peptide tends to be a promising antiviral compound for the prevention and treatment of arteriviral infections since it has a high therapeutic index. However, more detailed studies must be performed to address the exact step of viral infection where P34 acts, in order to use this peptide as an antiviral drug in vivo in the future.

  18. Biological control of strawberry gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea using Bacillus licheniformis N1 formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Lee, Soo Hee; Kim, Choul Sung; Lim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Ki Hyuck; Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Seon-Woo; Moon, Byung Ju

    2007-03-01

    Bacillus licheniformis N1 is a biological control agent to control gray mold diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea. Various formulations of B. licheniformis N1 were generated and evaluated for the activity to control strawberry gray mold. The wettable powder type formulation N1E was selected in pot experiments with remarkable disease control activity on both strawberry leaves and flowers. The N1E formulation contained 400 g of corn starch, 50 ml of olive oil, and 50 g of sucrose per a liter of bacterial fermentation culture. Optimum dilution of N1E to appropriately control the strawberry gray mold appeared to be 100-fold dilution in plastic house artificial infection experiments. The significant reduction of symptom development in the senescent leaves was apparent by the treatment of N1E at 100-fold dilution when N1E was applied before Bo. cinerea inoculation, but not after the inoculation. Both artificial infection experiments in a plastic house and natural infection experiments in the farm plastic house under production conditions revealed that the disease severity of gray mold on strawberry leaves and flowers was significantly reduced by N1E treatment. The disease control value of N1E on strawberry leaves was 81% under production conditions, as compared with the 61.5% conferred by a chemical fungicide, iprodione. This study suggests that our previously generated formulation of B. licheniformis N1 will be effective to control strawberry gray mold by its preventive activity.

  19. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Celandroni

    Full Text Available The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  20. Identification and Pathogenic Potential of Clinical Bacillus and Paenibacillus Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Mazzantini, Diletta; Lupetti, Antonella; Senesi, Sonia; Ghelardi, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The soil-related Bacillus and Paenibacillus species have increasingly been implicated in various human diseases. Nevertheless, their identification still poses problems in the clinical microbiology laboratory and, with the exception of Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus, little is known on their pathogenicity for humans. In this study, we evaluated the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical isolates of these genera and conducted genotypic and phenotypic analyses to highlight specific virulence properties. Seventy-five clinical isolates were subjected to biochemical and MALDI-TOF MS identification. 16S rDNA sequencing and supplemental tests were used to solve any discrepancies or failures in the identification results. MALDI-TOF MS significantly outperformed classical biochemical testing for correct species identification and no misidentification was obtained. One third of the collected strains belonged to the B. cereus species, but also Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus subtilis were isolated at high rate. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that all the B. cereus, B. licheniformis, B. simplex, B. mycoides, Paenibacillus glucanolyticus and Paenibacillus lautus isolates are resistant to penicillin. The evaluation of toxin/enzyme secretion, toxin-encoding genes, motility, and biofilm formation revealed that B. cereus displays the highest virulence potential. However, although generally considered nonpathogenic, most of the other species were shown to swim, swarm, produce biofilms, and secrete proteases that can have a role in bacterial virulence. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS appears useful for fast and accurate identification of Bacillus and Paenibacillus strains whose virulence properties make them of increasing clinical relevance.

  1. Detection of biosurfactants in Bacillus species: genes and products identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaza, G; Chojniak, J; Rudnicka, K; Paraszkiewicz, K; Bernat, P

    2015-10-01

    To screen environmental Bacillus strains for detection of genes encoding the enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis and to evaluate their products e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. The taxonomic identification of isolated from the environment Bacillus strains was performed by Microgene ID Bacillus panel and GEN III Biolog system. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy for screening of genes in Bacillus strains was set up. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was used for the identification of lipopeptides (LPs). All studied strains exhibited the presence of srfAA gene and produced surfactin mostly as four homologues (C13 to C16). Moreover, in 2 strains (KP7, T'-1) simultaneous co-production of 3 biosurfactants: surfactin, iturin and fengycin was observed. Additionally, it was found out that isolate identified as Bacillus subtilis ssp. subtilis (KP7), beside LPs co-production, synthesizes surfactin with the efficiency much higher than other studied strains (40·2 mg l(-1) ) and with the yield ranging from 0·8 to 8·3 mg l(-1) . We showed that the combined methodology based on PCR and LC-MS/MS technique is an optimal tool for the detection of genes encoding enzymes involved in biosurfactant synthesis as well as their products, e.g. surfactin, iturin and fengycin. This approach improves the screening and the identification of environmental Bacillus co-producing biosurfactants-stimulating and facilitating the development of this area of science. The findings of this work will help to improve screening of biosurfactant producers. Discovery of novel biosurfactants and biosurfactants co-production ability has shed light on their new application fields and for the understanding of their interactions and properties. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ELASTASES WITH INSECTICIDE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Matseliukh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was a screening of proteases with elastase activity among Bacillus thuringiensis strains, their isolation, partially purification, study of physicochemical properties and insecticide activity in relation to the larvae of the Colorado beetle. The objects of the investigation were 18 strains of B. thuringiensis, isolated from different sources: sea water, dry biological product "Bitoksibatsillin" and also from natural populations of Colorado beetles of the Crimea, Kherson, Odesa, Mykolaiv and Zaporizhiia regions of Ukraine. Purification of enzymes with elastase activity isolated from above mentioned strains was performed by gel-chromatography and insecticide activity was studied on the 3–4 larvae instar of Colorado beetle. The ability of a number of B. thuringiensis strains to synthesize the proteases with elastase activity has been established. The most active were enzymes obtained from strains IMV B-7465, IMV B-7324 isolated from sea water, and strains 9, 902, Bt-H and 0-239 isolated from Colorado beetles. The study of the physicochemical properties of the partially purified proteases of these strains showed that they belonged to enzymes of the serine type. Peptidases of a number of B. thuringiensis strains (IMV B-7324, IMV B-7465, 902, 0-239, 9 are metal-dependent enzymes. Optimal conditions of action of all tested enzymes are the neutral and alkaline рН values and the temperatures of 30–40 °С. The studies of influence of the complex enzyme preparations and partially purified ones of B. thuringiensis strains on the larvae instar of Colorado beetles indicated that enzymes with elastase activity could be responsible for insecticide action of the tested strains.

  3. 77 FR 73934 - Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2011-0669; FRL-9369-3] Bacillus... Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 To Include Residues of Bacillus subtilis Strain QST 713 Variant Soil... existing exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis strain QST 713...

  4. 21 CFR 173.115 - Alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... preparation derived from a recombinant Bacillus subtilis. 173.115 Section 173.115 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... Bacillus subtilis. The food additive alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase (α-ALDC) enzyme preparation, may be... derived from a modified Bacillus subtilis strain that contains the gene coding for α-ALDC from Bacillus...

  5. Antagonism of Bacillus spp. against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Monteiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antagonism of eight Bacillus isolates was investigated against nine strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (causal agent of crucifers black rot to assess the role of lipopeptides in this process. Antimicrobial and hemolytic (surfactant activity tests were performed in vitro using agar diffusion methods. Antibiosis and hemolysis were positive for four Bacillus isolates against all X. campestris pv. campestris strains. The correlation observed between antimicrobial and hemolytic activities indicated that lipopeptides were involved in the antibiosis mechanism of the studied antagonists. Fermentation studies were carried out with the isolates that showed highest antimicrobial and hemolytic activities, to follow up growth and production of bioactive and surfactant compounds. Production of bioactive and surfactant compounds was observed during the late growth phase of the Bacillus isolates.Investigação sobre o antagonismo de oito isolados de Bacillus: B. subtilis R14, B. megaterium pv. cerealis RAB7, B. megaterium pv. cerealis C211, B. megaterium C116, Bacillus sp. RAB9, B. cereus C240, Bacillus sp. C11 e B. cereus C210, contra nove linhagens de X. campestris pv. campestris (bactéria responsável pela podridão negra das crucíferas foi realizada para se verificar a participação de lipopeptídeos neste mecanismo. Testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica (surfactante foram realizados, utilizando-se o método de difusão em ágar. Antibiose e hemólise foram positivas para quatro isolados de Bacillus: R14, RAB7, C116 e C210. A correlação observada entre as atividades antimicrobiana e a hemolítica indica que lipopeptídeos estão envolvidos no mecanismo de antibiose dos isolados investigados. As fermentações foram realizadas com os isolados que demonstraram melhores resultados nos testes de atividades antimicrobiana e hemolítica: R14, RAB7 e C116, para acompanhar o crescimento e a produção de compostos bioativos e

  6. Production of {alpha}-glucosidases by Bacillus sp. strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, G.R. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina); Baigori, M.D. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina); Sineriz, F. [Univ. Nacional de Tucuman, Facultad de Bioquimica, Quimica y Farmacia, Catedra de Microbiologia Superior, PROIMI-MIRCEN, Tucuman (Argentina)

    1995-12-31

    {alpha}-Glucosidase was detected in four wild-type amylolytic production strains belonging to the Bacillus genus. The strains showed {alpha}-glucosidase activity in extracellular and membrane-bound fractions. Kinetic studies of the {alpha}-glucosidase synthesis in the batch cultures of four strains of the Bacillus genus showed two profiles: partially and totally growth-linked synthesis. The presence of different activities and production profiles of {alpha}-glucosidase in the strains at high or low glucose concentrations in the medium would indicate that {alpha}-glucosidase may have a role in the regulation of the metabolism of {alpha}-polysaccharides. (orig.)

  7. Sigma A recognition sites in the Bacillus subtilis genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard; Larsen, Thomas Schou; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    2001-01-01

    A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists at the ini......A hidden Markov model of sigma (A) RNA polymerase cofactor recognition sites in Bacillus subtilis, containing either the common or the extended -10 motifs, has been constructed based on experimentally verified sigma (A) recognition sites. This work suggests that more information exists...

  8. Induced adaptation of Bacillus sp. to antimicrobial nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P; Amal, Rose

    2013-11-11

    The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Characterization of Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus pumilus, and Paenibacillus polymyxa isolated from a Pinot noir wine from Western Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cosmos, Nicolas H; Watson, Bruce A; Fellman, J K; Mattinson, D S; Edwards, Charles G

    2017-10-01

    This report provides the first confirmed evidence of Bacillus-like bacteria present in a wine from Washington State. These bacteria were isolated from a 2013 Pinot noir wine whose aroma was sensorially described as being 'dirty' or 'pond scum.' Based on physiological traits and genetic sequencing, three bacterial isolates were identified as Bacillus megaterium (strain NHO-1), Bacillus pumilus (strain NHO-2), and Paenibacillus polymyxa (strain NHO-3). These bacteria grew in synthetic media of low pH (pH 3.5) while some survived ethanol concentrations up to 15% v/v. However, none tolerated molecular SO 2 concentrations ≥0.4 mg/l. Growth of strains NHO-1 and NHO-3 in a Merlot grape juice resulted in increases of titratable and volatile acidities while decreases in titratable acidity were noted for NHO-2. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Quorum Sensing in Bacillus thuringiensis Is Required for Completion of a Full Infectious Cycle in the Insect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyla Slamti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cell-cell communication or quorum sensing (QS is a biological process commonly described as allowing bacteria belonging to a same pherotype to coordinate gene expression to cell density. In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-cell communication mainly relies on cytoplasmic sensors regulated by secreted and re-imported signaling peptides. The Bacillus quorum sensors Rap, NprR, and PlcR were previously identified as the first members of a new protein family called RNPP. Except for the Rap proteins, these RNPP regulators are transcription factors that directly regulate gene expression. QS regulates important biological functions in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. PlcR was first characterized as the main regulator of virulence in B. thuringiensis and B. cereus. More recently, the PlcR-like regulator PlcRa was characterized for its role in cysteine metabolism and in resistance to oxidative stress. The NprR regulator controls the necrotrophic properties allowing the bacteria to survive in the infected host. The Rap proteins negatively affect sporulation via their interaction with a phosphorelay protein involved in the activation of Spo0A, the master regulator of this differentiation pathway. In this review we aim at providing a complete picture of the QS systems that are sequentially activated during the lifecycle of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis in an insect model of infection.

  11. Taxonomic description and genome sequence of Bacillus campisalis sp. nov., a member of the genus Bacillus isolated from a solar saltern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajendran Mathan; Kaur, Gurwinder; Kumar, Anand; Bala, Monu; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Kaur, Navjot; Kumar, Narender; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2015-10-01

    The taxonomic position of a Gram-stain positive bacterium isolated from a solar saltern sample collected from Kanyakumari, coastal region of the Bay of Bengal, India, was analysed by using a polyphasic approach. The isolated strain, designated SA2-6T, had phenotypic characteristics that matched those of the genus Bacillus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence (1493 bases) of the novel strain was compared with those of previously studied Bacillus type strains and confirmed that the strain belongs to the genus Bacillus and was moderately closely related to the type strain of Bacillus foraminis at 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, followed by those of Bacillus thioparans (96.9 %), Bacillus subterraneus (96.8 %), Bacillus jeotgali (96.6 %), Bacillus selenatarsenatis (96.6 %) and Bacillus boroniphilus (96.6 %). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain SA2-6T differs from all other species of the genus Bacillus by at least 2.5 %. It contained MK-7 as the predominant menaquinone, meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic cell-wall diamino acid, and iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major fatty acids. Major lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Based on data from this polyphasic study, strain SA2-6T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus campisalis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SA2-6T ( = MTCC 11848T = DSM 28801T). The draft genome of strain SA2-6T consisted of 5 183 363 bp with G+C content of 45.44 mol%, 5352 predicted coding sequences, 191 RNAs and 479 subsystems.

  12. Effect of oral administration of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9 strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Haldar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of oral administration of two Bacillus strains on fecal coliforms, Lactobacillus and Bacillus spp. in rat animal model. Materials and Methods: An in vivo experiment was conducted for 49-day period on 36 adult male albino Wister rats divided equally into to four groups. After 7-day adaptation period, one group (T1 was fed on sterile skim milk along with basal diet for the next 28 days. Second (T2 and (T3 groups received spore biomass of Bacillus coagulans B37 and Bacillus pumilus B9, respectively, suspended in sterilized skim milk at 8-9 log colony-forming units/ml plus basal diet for 28 days, while control group (T4 was supplied with clean water along with basal diet. There was a 14-day post-treatment period. A total of 288 fecal samples (8 fecal collections per rat were collected at every 7-day interval starting from 0 to 49 days and subjected to the enumeration of the counts of coliforms and lactobacilli and Bacillus spores using respective agar media. In vitro acid and bile tolerance tests on both the strains were performed. Results: The rats those (T2 and T3 received either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 spore along with non-fermented skim milk showed decrease (p<0.01 in fecal coliform counts and increase (p<0.05 in both fecal lactobacilli and Bacillus spore counts as compared to the control group (T4 and the group fed only skim milk (T1. In vitro study indicated that both the strains were found to survive at pH 2.0 and 3.0 even up to 3 h and tolerate bile up to 2.0% concentration even after 12 h of exposure. Conclusions: This study revealed that oral administration of either B. coagulans B37 or B. pumilus B9 strains might be useful in reducing coliform counts accompanied by concurrent increase in lactobacilli counts in the intestinal flora in rats.

  13. Genetic discrimination of foodborne pathogenic and spoilage Bacillus spp. based on three housekeeping genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño-Antelo, S; Fernández-No, I C; Böhme, K; Ezzat-Alnakip, M; Quintela-Baluja, M; Barros-Velázquez, J; Calo-Mata, P

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus genus includes foodborne pathogenic and spoilage-associated species, such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Bacillus is also a heterogeneous genus that includes closely related species that are difficult to discriminate among, especially when well-conserved genes such as 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA are considered. The main goal of the present work was to study the usefulness of three housekeeping genes, the TU elongation factor (tuf), the DNA gyrase β subunit (gyrB) and the RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB) genes, for use in differentiating among the most important foodborne Bacillus spp. sequences from 20 foodborne isolated Bacillus strains, and sequences belonging to different Bacillus spp. retrieved from the GenBank were analysed. In general terms, gyrB, rpoB and tuf gene regions for the strains considered in this study exhibited interspecific similarities of 57.8%, 67.23% and 77.66% respectively. Novel tufGPF and tufGPR universal primers targeted to the tuf gene were designed and proved to be useful for the amplification of all Bacillus spp considered. In conclusion, the tuf gene can be considered to be a good target for the differential characterisation of foodborne Bacillus species, especially for differentiating B. subtilis and B. cereus from other closely related species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ecological aspects of Bacillus thuringiensis in an Oxisol Ecologia do Bacillus thuringiensis num Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lessandra Heck Paes Leme Ferreira

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram positive, sporangial bacterium, known for its insecticidal habilities. Survival and conjugation ability of B. thuringiensis strains were investigated; vegetative cells were evaluated in non-sterile soil. Vegetative cells decreased rapidly in number, and after 48 hours the population was predominantly spores. No plasmid transfer was observed in non-sterile soil, probably because the cells died and the remaining cells sporulated quickly. Soil is not a favorable environment for B. thuringiensis multiplication and conjugation. The fate of purified B. thuringiensis toxin was analyzed by extractable toxin quantification using ELISA. The extractable toxin probably declined due to binding on surface-active particles in the soil.O comportamento de células vegetativas do Bacillus thuringiensis foi estudado em solo não esterilizado. Após o inóculo grande parte das células morrem e o restante esporula em 24 horas. Não foi observada conjugação provavelmente porque poucas células sobrevivem no solo e rapidamente esporulam, mostrando que este não é o ambiente propício para a multiplicação e conjugação desta bactéria. A toxina purificada, portanto livre de células, diminui rapidamente sua quantidade em solo não esterilizado. Provavelmente a ligação da toxina na fração argilosa do solo é a principal responsável por este fenômeno.

  15. Occurrence of natural Bacillus thuringiensis contaminants and residues of Bacillus thuringiensis-based insecticides on fresh fruits and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristine; Rosenquist, Hanne; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    A total of 128 Bacillus cereus-like strains isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables for sale in retail shops in Denmark were characterized. Of these strains, 39% (50/128) were classified as Bacillus thuringiensis on the basis of their content of cry genes determined by PCR or crystal proteins v...... isolated from fruits and vegetables. The same was seen for a third enterotoxin, CytK. In conclusion, the present study strongly indicates that residues of B. thuringiensis-based insecticides can be found on fresh fruits and vegetables and that these are potentially enterotoxigenic....

  16. Antibacterial potential components of Bacillus species and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obaks-Agbagwa

    2017-01-11

    Jan 11, 2017 ... that can be applied against human infections due to resistant microorganisms. Enzyme assay. Results obtained from starch hydrolysis showed that 90% of the isolates could hydrolyze starch except SJ1, 2, 3 and PR1 & PR2. Hemolytic activity was seen in most of the isolates which suggests that they are ...

  17. Growth inhibition of HeLa cell by internalization of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asahina Izumi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intravesical BCG immunotherapy is effective for preventing recurrence and progression in none muscle-invasive bladder cancer but the dosing schedule and duration of treatment remain empirical. The mechanisms by which intravesical BCG treatment mediates antitumor activity are currently poorly understood. Results HeLa cell infected with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin(BCG Tokyo which were different multiplicity of infection(MOI. Proliferation of HeLa cell reduced in a dose-dependent manner by live BCG. The cytoplasm of the HeLa cell showed variety lysosomal stages by internalized and interacted BCG. Conclusion Proliferated Live BCG secreted the protein and depressed the growth of tumor. The possibility for clinical introduction of BCG therapy for carcinoma reported with review of literature.

  18. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You usually get it from eating contaminated food, especially raw ... You can also get it from drinking contaminated water or raw milk, or handling infected animal feces ( ...

  19. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis), and a number of skin infections (eg, impetigo, pimples, boils). Staphylococcus aureus also causes toxin-related ... cases clear up in 7 to 10 days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in ...

  20. Rotavirus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotavirus is a virus that causes gastroenteritis. Symptoms include severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. Almost all ... the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Infections happen most often ...

  1. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around your vagina , or a problem with your vaginal discharge (fluid). If you've had sexual contact with ... discharge Types of vaginal infections Ways to avoid vaginal infections Abnormal discharge top You may wonder if the fluid, or ...

  2. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The culture conditions of lactose fermenting, spore forming probiotic Bacillus subtilis SK09 isolated from dairy effluent were optimized by response surface methodology to maximize the biomass production. The student's t-test of the Placket-Burman screening design revealed that the effects of pH, ammonium citrate and ...

  3. Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains | Diallo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains. ... These bacterial additives allowed greater biodegradation compared to control compost. The inoculated composts were more degraded than the control compost with compost3 which presented the highest OM loss with 91.37%, compost1 with 90.15% and compost2 ...

  4. Purification and characterization of two polyhydroxyalcanoates from Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zribi-Maaloul, Emna; Trabelsi, Imen; Elleuch, Lobna; Chouayekh, Hichem; Ben Salah, Riadh

    2013-10-01

    This work aimed to study the potential of 155 strains of Bacillus sp., isolated from a collection of Tunisian microorganisms, for polyhydroxyalcanoates production. The strains were submitted to a battery of standard tests commonly used for determining bioplastic properties. The findings revealed that two of the isolates, namely Bacillus US 163 and US 177, provided red excitations at a wavelength of approximately 543 nm. The polyhydroxyalcanoates produced by the two strains were purified. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) were used to characterize the two biopolymers. Bacillus US 163 was noted to produce a poly methyl-3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acid (P-3HTD) with an average molecular weight of 455 kDa, a completely amorphous homopolymer without crystallinity. The US 177 strain produced a homopolymer of methyl-3-hydroxy octadecanoic acid (P3-HOD) with an average molecular weight of 555 kDa. Exhibiting the highest performance, US 163 and US 177 were submitted to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the results revealed that they belonged to the Bacillus cereus species. Overall, the findings indicated that the Bacilli from petroleum soil have a number of promising properties that make them promising candidates for bioplastic production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The colonization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains in bryophytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lin, Q.; Zhu, P.; Carballar-Lejarazú, R.; Gelbič, Ivan; Guan, X.; Xu, L.; Zhang, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2017), s. 41-48 ISSN 1300-0152 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis * GFP * plant colonization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2016 http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/issues/biy-17-41-1/biy-41-1-5-1510-16.pdf

  6. Purification and characterization of protease from Bacillus cereus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chitti

    2013-09-16

    Sep 16, 2013 ... Purification and characterization of protease from. Bacillus cereus SU12 isolated from oyster. Saccostrea cucullata. S. Umayaparvathi*, S. Meenakshi, M. Arumugam and T. Balasubramanian. Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608.

  7. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was assessed as ...

  8. Surfing of bacterial droplets:Bacillus subtilissliding revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Ákos T.; Grau, Roberto; Pollitt, Eric J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Hennes et al. (1) report on the collective slipping of Bacillus subtilis colonies across the agar surface, termed “colony surfing.” We read this article with great interest. However, we understand that specific points require a more detailed discussion. We would like to highlight complementary...

  9. independent, thermostable and acidophilic α-amylase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... Bacillus sp. RM16 was isolated from a hot spring in Karachi and screened for the production of α- amylase. The enzyme was obtained after 72 h cultivation of strain in Luria broth containing 1% starch. (w/v). Enzyme Amy RM16 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a series of sequential steps.

  10. Enhanced biomass production study on probiotic Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-11-22

    Nov 22, 2010 ... The culture conditions of lactose fermenting, spore forming probiotic Bacillus subtilis SK09 isolated from dairy effluent were optimized by response surface methodology to maximize the biomass production. The student's t-test of the Placket-Burman screening design revealed that the effects of pH,.

  11. Maltodextrin-dependent Crystallization of Cyclomaltodextrin Glucanotransferase from Bacillus circulans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, Catherine L.; Bergsma, Jack; Bruinenberg, Peter M.; Vries, Gert de; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1990-01-01

    Crystals of cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase from Bacillus circulans (EC 2.4.1.19) suitable for high-resolution X-ray analysis were obtained by vapor diffusion against 60% (v/v) 2-methyl 2,4-pentanediol buffered with 100 mM-sodium Hepes, pH 7.55. The crystals have P212121 space group symmetry,

  12. The signal peptidase II (lsp) gene of Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pragai, Z; Tjalsma, H; Bolhuis, A; vanDijl, JM; Venema, G; Bron, S

    The gene encoding the type II signal peptidase (SPase III) of Bacillus subtilis was isolated by screening a genomic DNA library of this bacterium for the ability of increase the levels of globomycin resistance in Escherichia coli, and to complement the growth deficiency at the non-permissive

  13. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with

  14. Linking Bacillus cereus genotypes and carbohydrate utilization capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H.J.; Jong, de Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis were obtained from soil samples collected from farmers' fields in Kakamega and Machakos districts. Soil samples from Machakos yielded more B. thuringiensis isolates t han those from Kakamega. Three isolates K13-1, 12F-K and K10-2 were obtained from Kakamega soil samples.

  16. Profile of cry from native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oyaide

    2013-05-29

    May 29, 2013 ... The characterization of 255 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates of Coorg, Sharavatti and BR hills, containing genes known to be active against coleopteran and lepidopteran insect species was done through PCR amplification using the specific and degenerate primers. The isolates were also tested for their.

  17. Prevalence of enterotoxigenic Bacillus Cereus and Its enterotoxins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Ninety six milk samples including 36 raw milk, 42 pasteurised milk, 10 yogurt and eight fermented milk samples. Forty seven Bacillus cereus isolated from milk and milk products. Main outcome measures: Isolation of enterotoxigenic B. cereus from milk and milk products and detection of B. cereus hemolytic ...

  18. Antagonistic activity of selected strains of Bacillus thuringiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... funguicidas. Memorias Primera Convención Mundial del Chile. León,. Guanajuato, México. Resumen, pp. 144-150. Podile AR, Laxmi VDV (1998). Seed bacterization with Bacillus subtilis. AF1 increases phenylalanine ammnonia lyase and reduces the incidence of fusarial wilt in pigeonpea. J. Phytophatol.

  19. Bacillus subtilis Biosensor Engineered To Assess Meat Spoilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daszczuk, Alicja; Dessalegne, Yonathan; Drenth, Ismael; Hendriks, Elbrich; Jo, Emeraldo; van Lente, Tom; Oldebesten, Arjan; Parrish, Jonathon; Poljakova, Wlada; Purwanto, Annisa A.; van Raaphorst, Renske; Boonstra, Mirjam; van Heel, Auke; Herber, Martijn; van der Meulen, Sjoerd; Siebring, Jeroen; Sorg, Robin A.; Heinemann, Matthias; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Veening, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Here, we developed a cell-based biosensor that can assess meat freshness using the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis as a chassis. Using transcriptome analysis, we identified promoters that are specifically activated by volatiles released from spoiled meat. The most strongly activated

  20. Characterization of Bacillus spp. from some spices and assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred twenty five samples from five different Ethiopian sauce spices were examined for the incidence and level of contamination of Bacillus species. The spices consisted of fenugreek (Trigenella foenum-graecum), black cumin (Nigella sativa), Ethiopian caraway (Trachyspermum ammi), ginger (Zingiber officinale) ...

  1. Factors affecting the solubility of Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Cornelius; Hobley, Timothy John; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A detailed study of the solubility of recombinant Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase has been conducted. A semi-purified preparation from a bulk crystallisation was chos en that contained six isoforms with pI-values of between 5.5 and 6.1. The solubility was strongly affected by pH and could...

  2. Production and optimization of L-asparaginase by Bacillus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L-Asparaginase (L-asparagine amido hydrolase, E.C.3.5.1.1) is an important enzyme which has antitumor properties. This paper describes the production and optimization of L-asparaginase by Bacillus sp. KK2S4 utilization of ground corn cob waste as substrate to reduce and manage the waste in our environment.

  3. Improved keratinase production for feather degradation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal medium was used to improve the production of keratinase by Bacillus licheniformis ZJUEL31410, which has a promising application in the transformation of feather into soluble protein. The results of single factor design revealed that the concentration of feather at 20 g/l and the initial pH at value 8 was the best for ...

  4. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity among Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIRECTOR

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... representatives of eight species (licheniformis, polymyxa, laterosporus, cereus, circulans, subtilis, pumilus and brevis) were studied. Results of genotypic analyses were not concurrent with previous phenotypic identification. Bacillus from different species were able to cluster together to form phylogenetic ...

  5. Identification of Bacitracin Produced by Local Isolate of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus licheniformis was isolated from soil of different house gardens. Diagnosis was performed according to Gram stain, motility, shape forming, aerobic condition and other tests. Bacitracin was primary identified after its activity was tested against some species of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Identification ...

  6. Germination of Bacillus cereus spores adhered to stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Leeuw, de P.P.L.A.; Moezelaar, R.; Wolbert, E.J.H.; Vries, de Y.P.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2007-01-01

    Adhered spores of Bacillus cereus represent a significant part of the surface-derived contamination in processing equipment used in the dairy industry. As germinated spores lose their resistance capacities instantaneously, efficient germination prior to a cleaning in place treatment could aid to the

  7. bmr3, a third multidrug transporter gene of Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohki, R; Murata, M

    1997-01-01

    A third multidrug transporter gene named bmr3 was cloned from Bacillus subtilis. Although Bmr3 shows relatively low homology to Bmr and Blt, the substrate specificities of these three transporters overlap. Northern hybridization analysis showed that expression of the bmr3 gene was dependent on the growth phase.

  8. effluent by bacillus cereus and clostridium butyricum using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    use of pure culture Bacillus cereus and Clostridium butyricum as inoculums in MFCs for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and ... to be used as inoculums for simultaneous bioelectricity generation and treatment of petroleum refinery effluent in MFCs. Keywords: ...... [10] Feng, Y., Wang, X., Logan, B. E., Lee, H. Brewery.

  9. Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to iron and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article This study examines the effectiveness of decontaminating Bacillus globigii spores attached to corroded iron and cement-mortar coupons with free chlorine at two pH levels, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, peracetic acid (PAA) and acidified nitrite, followed by flushing.

  10. Evaluation of the Larvicidal Activities of Bacillus Sphaericus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the larvicidal activities of Bacillus sphaericus, against Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes found in this area (Sokoto), was carried out. The B. sphaericus (SPH 88) was obtained from Paseur Institute in Paris (France) in the form of a water dispersible powder. About 50mg of the powder was dissolved in 10ml ...

  11. Engineering of Bacillus subtilis 168 for increased nisin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wangari, Romilda; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2009-01-01

    . Bacillus subtilis had been suggested as a potential host for the biosynthesis of nisin but was discarded due to its sensitivity to the lethal action of nisin. In this study, we have reevaluated the potential of B. subtilis as a host organism for the heterologous production of nisin. We applied...

  12. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity among Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dichotomous keys based on morphological, cultural and biochemical tests have long been used to identify Bacillus species. The analysis of 16S rDNA is suggested to be used for identification that is more exact. The present study was carried out to compare a conventional phenotypic method with the analysis of the 16S ...

  13. Development of Bacillus subtilis mutants to produce tryptophan in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Karin; Cantor, Mette D.; Nørgaard, Jan Værum

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To generate tryptophan-overproducing Bacillus subtilis strains for in situ use in pigs, to reduce the feed cost for farmers and nitrogen pollution. Results A novel concept has been investigated—to generate B. subtilis strains able to produce tryptophan (Trp) in situ in pigs. Mutagenesis...

  14. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome...

  15. Bacillus subtilis Hfq: A role in chemotaxis and motility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, in Bacillus subtilis, a role for Hfq in stationary phase survival has been suggested, although the possibilityof Hfq having an additional role(s) cannot be ruled out. In this study we show that an ortholog of Hfq in B. subtilis isregulated by the stress sigma factor, σB, in addition to the stationary phase sigma factor, σH.

  16. Isolation, identification and characterization of novel Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhenxiang; Guo, Weina; Liu, Chang

    2018-03-24

    In this study, we have identified a bacterium that can inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and further analyzed its antibacterial activity and other biological characteristics and laid the foundation for its future application. Through isolation and culture of the unknown bacteria, the culture characteristics, morphology observation, biochemical test, preliminary antibacterial test, 16S rRNA PCR amplification, sequence analysis, and homology analysis were performed. It was found that the bacteria are Gram positive spore chain Bacillus. The bacteria could only ferment glucose for acid production, but could not utilize lactose and maltose. The VP test for this bacteria was positive, while indole and methyl red tests were negative. Further analysis showed that these bacteria shared a homology up to 99.4% with Bacillus subtilis DQ198162.1. Thus, this newly identified bacterium was classified as Bacillus subtilis. Importantly, the crude bacteriocin of this Bacillus subtilis could inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and Salmonella, which implies its potential usage in the future.

  17. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas , Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  18. Alkaline Protease from Bacillus firmus 7728 | Rao | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracellular alkaline protease producing Bacillus firmus MTCC 7728 was isolated from the soil samples taken from the leather factories in Nacharam industrial area, Hyderabad. Maximum activity was found after 48 h of fermentation. Optimum pH and temperature for maximum enzyme activity were 9 and 40°C, respectively.

  19. Isolation and characterization of lipase-producing Bacillus strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus strains (B1 - B5) producing extra cellular lipase were isolated from the soil sample of coconut oil industry. The strains were identified by morphological and biochemical characters. Growth of the organisms and lipase production were measured with varying pH (4 - 9) temperature (27, 37 and 47ºC) and various ...

  20. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore- forming bacteria.

  1. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains from Jordan and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight serotypes with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis being the most common. Out of the twenty-six isolated strains, five strains (serotype: kenyae, kurstaki, kurstaki HD1 and thuringiensis) that produced bipyramid crystal proteins were toxic to the lepidoptera larvae of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. The SDS-PAGE protein ...

  2. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  3. Characterization of a thermostable Bacillus subtilis β-amylase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 70 0C respectively, and the thermal stability curve gave a maximum activity of 9.75 U at 70oC for 60 min of incubation. Bacillus subtilis â-amylase is valuable for maltose production, which can be hydrolyzed further by other groups of amylase for the production of high cassava glucose syrup used as sweeteners in the food ...

  4. Original Article Failure of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) Therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    a second tumor recurrence or progression according to the tumor aggressiveness and the patient's preference. Keywords : Superficial bladder cancer, Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), tumor .... from the remaining bladder in high-risk pa- tients. Statistical analysis was performed with. Student's t-test and Chi-square test and.

  5. New restriction endonucleases from Acetobacter aceti and Bacillus aneurinolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, H; Maekawa, Y; Kanazawa, S; Takanami, M

    1982-10-11

    Two restriction endonucleases with new sequence specificities have been isolated from Acetobacter aceti IFO 3281 and Bacillus aneurinolyticus IAM 1077 and named AatII and BanII, respectively. Based on analysis of the sequences around the restriction sites, the recognition sequences and cleavage sites of these endonucleases were deduced as below: (formula; see text)

  6. New restriction endonucleases from Acetobacter aceti and Bacillus aneurinolyticus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sugisaki, H; Maekawa, Y; Kanazawa, S; Takanami, M

    1982-01-01

    Two restriction endonucleases with new sequence specificities have been isolated from Acetobacter aceti IFO 3281 and Bacillus aneurinolyticus IAM 1077 and named AatII and BanII, respectively. Based on analysis of the sequences around the restriction sites, the recognition sequences and cleavage sites of these endonucleases were deduced as below: (formula; see text)

  7. Manipulating the autolytic pathway of a Bacillus protease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenBurg, B; Eijsink, VGH; Vriend, G; Veltman, OR; Venema, G; HopsuHavu, VK; Jarvinen, M; Kirschke, H

    1997-01-01

    Autolytic degradation of Bacillus subtilis thermolysin-like proteinase (TLP-sub) is responsible for the irreversible inactivation of the enzyme at elevated temperatures. Previously, we reported five autolysis sites in B. subtilis neutral protease (Van den Burg et al., 1990, Biochem. J. 272:93-97).

  8. antagonistic effect of native bacillus isolates against black root rot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Postharvest biological control of anthracnose. (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) on mango. (Mangifera indica). Postharvest Biology and. Technology 50: 8-11. Young, F.E., Tupper, J. and Strominger, J.L. 1974. Autolysis of cell walls of Bacillus subtilis mechanism and possible relationship to competence. Journal of Biology ...

  9. Bacillus nakamurai sp. nov., a black pigment producing strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of a Gram-positive, strictly aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacterium were identified during a survey of the Bacillus diversity of the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil and have a phenotype of producing a da...

  10. Global network reorganization during dynamic adaptations of Bacillus subtilis metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and...

  11. Global Network Reorganization During Dynamic Adaptations of Bacillus subtilis Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buescher, Joerg Martin; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Jules, Matthieu; Uhr, Markus; Muntel, Jan; Botella, Eric; Hessling, Bernd; Kleijn, Roelco Jacobus; Le Chat, Ludovic; Lecointe, Francois; Maeder, Ulrike; Nicolas, Pierre; Piersma, Sjouke; Ruegheimer, Frank; Becher, Doerte; Bessieres, Philippe; Bidnenko, Elena; Denham, Emma L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Devine, Kevin M.; Doherty, Geoff; Drulhe, Samuel; Felicori, Liza; Fogg, Mark J.; Goelzer, Anne; Hansen, Annette; Harwood, Colin R.; Hecker, Michael; Hubner, Sebastian; Hultschig, Claus; Jarmer, Hanne; Klipp, Edda; Leduc, Aurelie; Lewis, Peter; Molina, Frank; Noirot, Philippe; Peres, Sabine; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Pohl, Susanne; Rasmussen, Simon; Rinn, Bernd; Schaffer, Marc; Schnidder, Julian; Schwikowski, Benno; Van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Veiga, Patrick; Walsh, Sean; Wilkinson, Anthony J.; Stelling, Joerg; Aymerich, Stephane; Sauer, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation of cells to environmental changes requires dynamic interactions between metabolic and regulatory networks, but studies typically address only one or a few layers of regulation. For nutritional shifts between two preferred carbon sources of Bacillus subtilis, we combined statistical and

  12. Comparison of gene expression profiles in Bacillus megaterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The MP agent, prepared from Bacillus megaterium isolated from the soil near tobacco fields, can improve metabolic products, and hence the aroma, of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf. To explore genes regulating metabolic responses in tobacco leaf, we used microarrays to analyze differentially expressed genes ...

  13. Arsenic, boron and salt resistant Bacillus safensis MS11 isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. safensis MS11 was also associated with resistance to multiple heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. Hence, this bacterium could be useful in the remediation of salt affected soils and biogeochemical cycles of arsenic pollution. Key words: Desert soil, toxic metals, Bacillus, salt tolerant, bioremediation.

  14. Toxigenic Bacillus cereus isolated from Nunu and Wara, two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional fermented dairy foods are produced by small scale processors in different parts of West Africa without adequate attention to good manufacturing practices (GMPs), microbial contamination and ... Further enrichment using chromogenic selective agar medium detected Bacillus cereus in 95% of the tested samples.

  15. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    Abstract. The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic ...

  16. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Micrococcus spp on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in crude oil was carried out using standard microbiological methods. Spectrophotometer, gas chromatography and viable count which determined the optical density, the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and ...

  17. Genome engineering reveals large dispensable regions in Bacillus subtilis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westers, Helga; Dorenbos, Ronald; Dijl, Jan Maarten van; Kabel, Jorrit; Flanagan, Tony; Devine, Kevin M.; Jude, Florence; Séror, Simone J.; Beekman, Aäron C.; Darmon, Elise; Eschevins, Caroline; Jong, Anne de; Bron, Sierd; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Albertini, Alessandra M.; Antelmann, Haike; Hecker, Michael; Zamboni, Nicola; Sauer, Uwe; Bruand, Claude; Ehrlich, Dusko S.; Alonso, Juan C.; Salas, Margarita; Quax, Wim J.

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial genomes contain 250 to 500 essential genes, as suggested by single gene disruptions and theoretical considerations. If this view is correct, the remaining nonessential genes of an organism, such as Bacillus subtilis, have been acquired during evolution in its perpetually changing

  18. Ecology and diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in soil environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis populations ranged between 4.23 x 105, 6.52 x 105 cfu/g soil and consist of 11 types of isolates with 3 polymorphic, 7 spherical and 1 bipyramidal type of crystals. Polymorphic crystal containing isolates were further characterized. B. thuringiensis isolates were circular, white, flat and undulate or entire.

  19. Effects of Ingesting Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) Spores on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner was isolated from dead Sesamia calamistis Hampson (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected from maize farms in Cape Coast, Ghana. Spores produced from the vegetative cells were incorporated into an artificial diet and fed to 2nd instar S. calamistis larvae. The duration of larval and pupal ...

  20. Laboratory evaluation of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis , neem oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (L.), remains a major pest of brassica crops worldwide. Chemical control of this pest remains difficult due to the rapid development of resistance to insecticides and to their effect on natural enemies. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), ...

  1. Characterization and evaluation of Bacillus isolates for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-04-05

    Apr 5, 2012 ... 1State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Ministry of. Agriculture ... Key words: Tomato, Ralstonia solanacearum, Bacillus spp, biological control, plant growth promotion activities. .... Preliminary screening for antagonistic activity in vitro.

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis and its application in agriculture | Ali | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presently, a number of approaches to pest control via genetic engineering have been developed and genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal characteristics are under cultivation for the last 15 years. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis genes encoding o̅ endotoxins with insecticidal characteristics is the major ...

  3. Performance of Microbial Concrete Developed Using Bacillus Subtilus JC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. Seshagiri; Reddy, V. Srinivasa; Sasikala, Ch.

    2017-12-01

    Concrete is vulnerable to deterioration, corrosion, and cracks, and the consequent damage and loss of strength requires immensely expensive remediation and repair. So need for special concrete that they would respond to crack formation with an autonomous self-healing action lead to research and development of microbial concrete. The microbial concrete works on the principle of calcite mineral precipitation by a specific group of alkali-resistant spore-forming bacteria related to the genus Bacillus called Bacillus subtilis JC3, this phenomenon is called biomineralization or Microbiologically Induced Calcite Crystal Precipitation. Bacillus subtilis JC3, a common soil bacterium, has inherent ability to precipitate calcite crystals continuously which enhances the strength and durability performance of concrete enormously. This microbial concrete can be called as a "Self healing Bacterial Concrete" because it can remediate its cracks by itself without any human intervention and would make the concrete more durable and sustainable. This paper discuss the incorporation of microorganism Bacillus subtilis JC3 (developed at JNTU, India) into concrete and presents the results of experimental investigations carried out to study the improved durability and sustainability characteristics of microbial concrete.

  4. Antibiotic and surfactant effects on lysine accumulation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of antibiotics and surfactants on lysine accumulation in the culture broth of three strains of Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium SP 86, B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium SP 14) were investigated. Lincomycin, neomycin and tetracycline stimulated lysine increase in B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium ...

  5. Extracellular protease produced by Bacillus subtilis isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study to evaluate the microbiological safety of some paracetamol oral solutions sold in some Nigerian drug stores, 40.0% of the samples examined was contaminated with protease-producing Bacillus subtilis. The production of extracellular protease was induced by casein in the minimal medium and was found to be the ...

  6. A Short Communication-Isolation and characterization of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta endotoxins represent the most successful use of biological control agents targeting crop pests to date. Studies have shown that Bt produces a wider range of toxins targeting a variety of unrelated pests than was initially documented. This further increases the prospects for its wider use as a ...

  7. Evaluation of potency of native Bacillus thuringiensis against maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most used biological control agent to date. Among major constraints to maize production, safety and hence food sufficiency in Kenya is infestation, damage and contamination by insect pests. Maize grains are adversely damaged by. Prostephanus truncatus which occasionally paves way for the ...

  8. Population dynamics of soil microbes and diversity of Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population dynamics of soil microbes and diversity of Bacillus thuringiensis in agricultural and botanic garden soils of India. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about ...

  9. Effects of Ingesting Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) Spores on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Ingesting Bacillus Thuringiensis (Berliner) Spores on Developmental Stages and Fecundity of Surviving Sesamia Calamistis (Hampson) (Lepidoptera: ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).

  10. Fungicidal effect of bacteriocins harvested from Bacillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetunji, V. O.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study investigated the ability of bacteriocins isolated from Bacillus spp. (Bacillus species to inhibit fourdifferent yeast isolates obtained from common food products (nono, yoghurt, ogi and cheese commonly consumed byNigerians with minimal heat treatment.Methodology and results: Forty-five Bacillus spp. was isolated and identified from common food products usingcultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. These isolates were tested for antimicrobialactivity against Salmonella enteritidis (3, Micrococcus luteus (1 and Staphylococcus aureus (2. Eight bacteriocinproducing strains were identified from an over- night broth culture centrifugated at 3500 revolutions for five minutes.Fungicidal effects of these bacteriocins were tested against four yeast strains using the Agar Well Diffusion method. Thebacteriocins produced wide zones of inhibition ranging from 5.9±0.000 to 24.00±0.000 mm against the 4 yeast strainstested. There was a significant difference (at p<0.05 between the yeast organisms and the bacteriocins from theBacillus spp.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The study reveals the antifungal property of bacteriocins from Bacillusspp. and serves therefore as a base for further studies in its use in the control of diseases and extension of shelf-life ofproducts prone to fungi contamination.

  11. Control of Bean Rust using Antibiotics Produced by Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic culture filtrates produced by Bacillus (CA5) and Streptomyces spp. were tested for translocation and persistence when applied on snap beans inoculated with rust (Uromyces appendiculatus) in greenhouse pot experiments. The antibiotics were applied on the first trifoliate leaves and translocation was ...

  12. Protein export in bacillus subtilis and escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijl, Jan Maarten van

    1990-01-01

    The export of heterologous proteins in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli is often inefficient. Frequently observed problems are: 1) accumulation of the precursor form of the exported protein in the cytoplasm or in the membrane; 2), inefficient or incorrect processing of the precursor; 3),

  13. Optimizing Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 for biofertilizer production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Bacillus circulans Xue-113168 biofertilizer was produced through solid state fermentation processes using food waste and feldspar. ... Yields of selenium-enriched jujube and jujube increased, respectively, in the CMF compared to the matrix control; rates of anthracnose and rust diseases also decreased.

  14. Bacillusin A, an antibacterial macrodiolide from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the organic extracts of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain (AP183) led to the discovery of a new macrocyclic polyene antibiotic, bacillusin A (1). Its structure was assigned by interpretation of NMR and MS spectroscopic data as a novel macrodiolide composed of dimer...

  15. Heat resistance of Bacillus spores : Natural variation and genomic adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Erwin Mathijs

    2016-01-01

    Ons onderzoek heeft zich gericht op de hitteresistentie van sporen van verschillende Bacillus soorten. Het is een bekend probleem dat sporen van bepaalde stammen hittebehandelingen die worden toegepast bij voedselproductie kunnen overleven. In ons onderzoek hebben we allereerst aangetoond dat er

  16. Antibiotic and surfactant effects on lysine accumulation by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The effects of antibiotics and surfactants on lysine accumulation in the culture broth of three strains of. Bacillus megaterium (B. megaterium SP 86, B. megaterium SP 76 and B. megaterium SP 14) were investigated. Lincomycin, neomycin and tetracycline stimulated lysine increase in B. megaterium SP 76.

  17. Characterization of germination receptors of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornstra, L.M.; Vries, de Y.P.; Wells-Bennik, M.H.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Abee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Specific amino acids, purine ribonucleosides, or a combination of the two is required for efficient germination of endospores of Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579. A survey including 20 different amino acids showed that L-alanine, L-cysteine, L-threonine, and L-glutamine are capable of initiating the

  18. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to

  19. Biodegradation of Polyethylene by Bacillus sp. Indigenous to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Available online at www.biotechsocietynigeria.org. Biodegradation of Polyethylene by Bacillus sp. Indigenous to the. Niger Delta Mangrove Swamp. Ibiene, A. A., Stanley, H. O., Immanuel, O. M.. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, College of Applied and Natural Sciences,. University of Port Harcourt, ...

  20. Assessment of larvicidal activities of bacillus species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of larvicidal activities of bacillus species isolated from soil against the mosquito aedes aegyptia (diptera: culicidae) in Sokoto, northwestern Nigeria. S.B. Manga, A.H. Kawo, A.B. Rabah, A.A. Usman, A.I. Dabai, J.A. Bala ...

  1. Purification and some properties of glucose isomerase from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to produce and purify glucose isomerase (GI) from Bacillus megaterium and to determine some of its properties. Soil sample was collected from cassava starch processing site and used immediately for bacterial isolation. Selected isolate produced the best GI activity in a preliminary test.

  2. Bioenergetic consequences of nisin combined with carvacrol towards Bacillus cereus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.; Krommer, J.; Smid, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of a combination of nisin and carvacrol on the membrane potential, the pH gradient and the intracellular ATP pools of vegetative cells of Bacillus cereus. Both the membrane potential and the pH gradient were dissipated by nisin and carvacrol. The intracellular ATP

  3. Loop grafting of Bacillus subtilis lipase A : Inversion of enantioselectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Y.L.; Pijning, Tjaard; Bosma, Margriet; van der Sloot, Almer Martinus; da Silva Godinho, Luis; Dröge, Melloney; Winter, R.T.; van Pouderoyen, Gertie; Dijkstra, B.W.; Quax, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Lipases are successfully applied in enantioselective biocatalysis. Most lipases contain a lid domain controlling access to the active site, but Bacillus subtilis Lipase A (LipA) is a notable exception: its active site is solvent exposed. To improve the enantioselectivity of LipA in the kinetic

  4. An alkaliphilic cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from a new Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(32), pp. 6107-6119, 4 ... Paselli starch than soluble starch. Key words: Alkaliphiles, soda lakes, cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase, Bacillus agaradhaeren, purification, 16S. rDNA. INTRODUCTION .... The enzyme samples were applied to 10% native PAGE. After gel.

  5. Enhancing the Production of a Novel Exopolysaccharide by Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To improve the production of a novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) by Bacillus mucilaginosus CGMCC5766. Methods: The culture medium for production of EPS was optimized using statistical experiment design. Sucrose, CaCO3 and K2HPO4 were found to be the key factors based on the results obtained from ...

  6. Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in eastern Africa. Black root rot (Fusarium solani) is known to cause great yield losses in faba bean, especially in the highlands of Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological control ability of native Bacillus species on the basis of ...

  7. Studies on carbohydrate metabolism in Bacillus sphaericus 1593 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus sphaericus 1593 was found to grow poorly on glucose when provided as sole carbon source. However, growth was significantly much higher when acetate was provided as the carbon source, as compared to glucose. The activities of aconitase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ...

  8. Bacillus Spp. isolated from the conjunctiva and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Most resistant microorganism to these bacteria was Proteus mirabilis. Two of Gram positive bacteria, S. lugdenensis (K15-9) and S. aureus (SDA48), were also found as resistant. Conclusions: In this study, Bacillus spp isolated from conjunctiva showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria.

  9. Gene cloning of phenolic acid decarboxylase from Bacillus subtilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic acid decarboxylase (PADC) gene, encoding phenolic acid decarboxylase, was cloned from Bacillus subtilis and ligated with a shuttle vector YEp352 to generate a novel plasmid YPADC. By analysis of sequencing and the restriction endonuclease digestion, the validity of construction was proved. Subsequently ...

  10. An oxidant, detergent and salt stable alkaline protease from Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A novel soil bacterium, Bacillus cereus SIU1 was earlier isolated from non-saline, slightly alkaline soil of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. The isolate B. cereus SIU1 was grown in modified glucose yeast extract (modified GYE) medium at pH 9.0 and 45°C. It produced maximum protease at 20 h incubation. The enzyme was ...

  11. Larvicidal efficacy of stock Bacillus sphaericus on local species of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graded concentrations (15, 30, 60, 90, 100, 120 mg/l) of stock, water dispersed powder of Bacillus sphaericus (SPH88: lot number BSP247) and potency of 17001TU/mg obtained from Pasteur Institute in Paris, France was tested against fourth instar larvae of local breed of Anopheles gambiae for larvicidal efficacy.

  12. Screening of Local Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates for Toxicity to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem borers are a major source of pre-harvest maize crop losses in Kenya and many Sub- Saharan African countries. This menace needs to be addressed if food security is to be realized in this region. Seven local isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains were isolated from soils collected from Kakamega and Machakos ...

  13. The Impact of Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis (Bti) on Adult and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the year 2007, the Ministry of Health (MoH) initiated a larviciding program using Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to mitigate the effects of black fly bites. This study was aimed at assessing the impact of Bti on adult and larvae black fly populations. Baseline data was collected prior to Bti application and after ...

  14. Profile of cry from native Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The characterization of 255 Bacillus thuringiensis isolates of Coorg, Sharavatti and BR hills, containing genes known to be active against coleopteran and lepidopteran insect species was done through PCR amplification using the specific and degenerate primers. The isolates were also tested for their insecticidal activity ...

  15. Occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis in faeces of herbivorous farm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), the insect pathogen has been isolated from a variety of habitat. It is understood that the habitat of B. thuringiensis has always been associated with their biological activity. In the present study, B. thuringiensis was isolated from faeces of cows and goats. The phenotypic characterization ...

  16. Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis genes in transgenic maize by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We optimized the PCR method to detect genetically engineered Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize in open quarantine fields in Kenya. Many factors affect the extraction of the DNA from plants, such as the amount of tissue available, the condition of the plant material, the numbers of steps involved in the extraction procedure, ...

  17. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore-forming bacteria.

  18. Isolation of protease producing novel Bacillus cereus and detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The highest protease activity was determined at 30°C temperature and 6.4 pH conditions and after the 18th hour, it decreased evidently. Key words: Protease, production, optimization, Bacillus sp. INTRODUCTION. Enzymes have been produced in large industrial scale for several decades (Falch, 1991).

  19. Production of bacterial amylase by Bacillus species isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimum pH activity was obtained at 4.0 with a concentration of 0.376 mg/ml. Bacillus licheniformis has the greatest potential for producing amylase than the other isolates and rice husk can be exploited for amylase production. The B. licheniformis strain produced thermostable alpha-amylase with characteristics suitable for ...

  20. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol toward Bacillus cereus on rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.; Slump, R.A.; Steging, G.; Smid, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of carvacrol, a compound present in the essential oil fraction of oreganum and thyme, toward the foodborne pathogen Bacillus cereus on rice was studied. Carvacrol showed a dose-related inhibition of growth of the pathogen. Concentrations of 0.15 mg/g and higher inhibited