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Sample records for bacharach smoke numbers

  1. Number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva versus the status of cigarette smoking, considering duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked daily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    A large number of colonies of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) cariogenic bacteria in the saliva show a high risk of dental caries development. Cotinine is a biomarker of exposure to the tobacco smoke. The aim of the study was assessment of the number of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in the saliva of non-smokers and smokers considering the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked daily. The number of SM and LB was analysed in relation to the frequency of oral health check-ups. The investigated group comprised 124 people aged 20-54. 58 (46.8%) reported cigarette smoking; 66 (53.2%) reported they had never smoked cigarettes and had never attempted to smoke. Cotinine concentration in the saliva was assayed using the Cotinine test (Calbiotech), and the number of SM and LB with the use of the CRT bacteria test (Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi2 and Mann-Whitney tests. Test values of pSM and LB and the status of smoking, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of cigarette smoking. Smokers who reported having dental check-ups at least once a year significantly more frequently had a small number of LB stated in relation to people who had dental check-ups to control their oral health less frequently than once a year. The number of SM and LB in saliva does not depend on the smoking status, the number of cigarettes smoked daily and duration of smoking.

  2. Effect of the number of cigarettes smoked and of radon exposure on the lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, R.; Holy, K.; Sedlak, A.

    2012-01-01

    The relation between the extent of cigarette smoking and the lung cancer risk in people exposed to radon was examined. The changes in the airway geometry due to an increased production of mucus caused by smoking were taken into account. The mucous layer protects the target cells from the effects of ionizing radiation. The radiation risk per unit exposure decreases with the number of cigarettes smoked, in contrast to the total risk, which increases to stagnate in the range of extensive daily cigarette smoking. Lung damage in chronic smokers should be taken into account, though. (orig.)

  3. Effects of the economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Ghislandi, Simone; Muttarak, Raya

    2015-01-01

    Scanty and controversial information is available on the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on smoking behaviour. No study has quantified the effects of fiscal crises on smoking prevalence. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the 2007-2008 economic crisis on smoking prevalence and number of smokers in the USA. Using data from the repeated Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys in pre-crisis (2005-2007) and post-crisis (2009-2010) periods on a total of 1,981,607 US adults, we separated the expected (after allowance for the demographic growth of the US population, secular smoking prevalence trends and changes in sociodemographic characteristics) from the unexpected (assumed attributable to the economic crisis) changes in the number of smokers across different employment statuses. Joinpoint regression analysis revealed no significant changes in smoking prevalence trends over the period 2005-2010. The crisis resulted in an increase in the number of smokers in the US by 0.6 million. This is largely due to an unexpected decrease of 1.7 million smokers among employed and an increase of 2.4 million smokers among unemployed individuals, whose smoking prevalence also remains extremely high in the post-crisis period (32.6%). The 2008 financial crisis had a weak effect on smoking prevalence. The pro-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a lower number of smokers) found among the employed is offset by the counter-cyclical relationship (ie, the crisis results in a higher number of smokers) found among unemployed individuals. Public health interventions should specifically target those in unemployment, particularly in hard times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Cigarette smoking during early pregnancy reduces the number of embryonic germ and somatic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn; Lutterodt, M C; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first-trimeste......BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with negative reproductive consequences for male fetuses in adult life such as reduced testicular volume and sperm concentration. The present study evaluates the number of germ and somatic cells present in human embryonic first......-trimester gonads in relation to maternal smoking. METHODS: The study includes 24 human first-trimester testes, aged 37-68 days post-conception, obtained from women undergoing legal termination of pregnancy. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about smoking and drinking habits during pregnancy. Validated...... confounders such as alcohol and coffee consumption (P = 0.002). The number of germ cells in embryonic gonads, irrespective of gender, was also significantly reduced by 41% (95% CI 58-19%, P = 0.001) in exposed versus non-exposed embryonic gonads. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoke...

  5. Reduced probability of smoking cessation in men with increasing number of job losses and partnership breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    and to study joint exposure to both. Methods Birth cohort study of smoking cessation of 6232 Danish men born in 1953 with a follow-up at age 51 (response rate 66.2%). History of unemployment and cohabitation was measured annually using register data. Information on smoking cessation was obtained...... by a questionnaire. Results The probability of smoking cessation decreased with the number of job losses (ranging from 1 OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.64) to 3+ OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.55)) and of broken partnerships (ranging from 1 OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.85) to 3+ OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.63)). Furthermore......–23 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.52)). Those who never cohabited and experienced one or more job losses had a particular low chance of smoking cessation (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.30). Conclusion The numbers of job losses and of broken partnerships were both inversely associated with probability...

  6. Evaluation of the performance and response of the bacharach TLV sniffer and H-Nu photoionization gas analyzer to common hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelton, C F; Zakraysek, N; Lautner, G M; Confer, R G

    1983-10-01

    Two direct reading instruments, the H-Nu PI 101 photoionization analyzer and the J.W. Bacharach TLV Sniffer, were evaluated under laboratory conditions to determine their performance characteristics when challenged by vapors of common hydrocarbon solvent mixtures. Each instrument was evaluated against the manufacturer's recommended test solvent for rise time, fall time, noise, span drift, zero drift, position sensitivity, battery life, and recharge time. The precision, accuracy, and operating linear range were also determined for the test solvents and some petroleum solvent mixtures which are common refinery products. For these latter mixtures, correction factors are presented which allow for an improved estimate of ambient concentrations when monitoring with each of these instruments. All tests except operating humidity range were performed by challenging each instrument with a known concentration of hydrocarbon generated by evaporating calculated liquid volumes into a static chamber. Humidity tests were performed using a dynamic dilution apparatus generating a fixed concentration of hydrocarbon while relative humidity was varied. Concentrations in both systems were verified by gas injection into gas chromatograph. Each instrument performed well when challenged by manufacturers' recommended test solvents. Humidity was shown to influence each instrument's readings. Also, the instruments were shown to have application as monitors of airborne concentrations of common hydrocarbon solvent mixtures.

  7. [What measures can be taken to reduce the number of smoking adolescents and young women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard-Lalande, G; Halimi, A

    2005-04-01

    A proper understanding of the factors exposing adolescents and young women to the risk of smoking dependence is necessary to develop effective preventive measures. These measures will be different depending on whether they are designed for adolescents and young women in general or for the context of pregnancy. For adolescents, efforts should be continued to provide information about smoking and the dangers of tobacco as well as about the social manipulation involved. The image of a natural, active woman, free of tobacco and capable of making her own decisions should be promoted. Health education and communication professionals should make use of different media with an audience among the young. Messages should be validated with a target population before diffusion. A better coherence between the adult and young populations concerning legal obligations and mutual respect is significantly useful. Educational structures (schools and universities) should participate in long-term community projects implicating peer groups and trained professionals. Values which should be reinforced include self-esteem, affirmation of personal competence and difference, self-respect and respect of others. Early identification of factors favoring psychosocial vulnerability at this age is indispensable to facilitate referral to professional support and care centers, the number of which remains insufficient to date. Support when ceasing smoking, based on individual and group assistance, should take into account the individual's phase of maturation, and must be proposed and operated by trained professionals working in a network. During pregnancy, it is crucial to recognize that the woman's specific physical and psychological situation is a unique opportunity to propose a new approach to smoking, taking into consideration the fragile context during this period of maturation and its impact on the woman's general life. Beyond sociopolitical measures and a philosophical debate on the position of

  8. Smoking Prevention Strategies for Urban and Minority Youth. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Wendy

    Urban areas are the sites of many smoking prevention strategies targeting special populations. This digest provides an overview of these initiatives. Adolescents smoke for the same reasons that they use alcohol and other drugs. Personal factors that contribute to risk are enhanced by tobacco company advertising that makes smoking seem attractive.…

  9. Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Lampert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Every year on May 31 is World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). The current issue of GBE kompakt deals with the prevalence and development of tobacco use in Germany. Data of the telephone survey "German Health Update" 2009 (GEDA) show a decrease in smoking for the last years but only for the younger age groups.

  10. The analyze of lung’s GSH number in rats exposed by cigarette smoke and inducted by rambutan peel extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana

    2018-03-01

    The cigarette smoke is one of the pollutants in human and environment. It contains free radical compounds which cause oxidative stress. In the oxidative stress condition, the free radical causing peroxidation of cell membrane lipid as well as damages the cell membrane. One of the biomarkers of oxidative stress happens the number of GSH. The purpose of this study was to analyze the amount of rat's GSH which exposed by cigarette smoke as well as inducted by rambutan pell extract. This study applied to 25 male rats of Wistar which divided into five groups; K1 (control), K2 (negative), K3, K4, and K5 were the treatment groups of rambutan peel extract with various dosage; 3, 6, 12 mg/200 gramBB and cigarette smoke exposure along 30 days. The number of GSH measured by the DTNB of lung tissue. To know the difference of GSH number of each group did the data analysis with one way ANOVA test and LSD advance test. The result of statistic analysis showed that there was a significant difference between the control group and treatment group. The conclusion of this study was the rambutan peel extract with 3 mg/200 gramBB dosage could increase the number of lung's GSH of rats exposed to cigarette smoke.

  11. Effects of Rambutan Peel Extract to The Number of Erythrocytes and Haemoglobin in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana; Dewi, F. K.

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals sources. When it is inhaled, its activity may damage the structure of erythrocyte membrane function. The impacts of free radicals can be reduced through the provision of antioxidants. Rambutan fruit peel contains the phenolic compound in the form of polyphenols that are antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of rambutan fruit peel extracts to the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. This design used Post Test Control Group Design. A sample of 25 rats was divided into five groups, each group consisting of 5 rats. The positive control group (K+) were given a standard food and drinking water. The negative control group (K) by three cigarettes, the treatment group (KP1, KP2, KP3) by three cigarettes and skin extract of rambutan each treatment group with a dose 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg for 30 days. Data on the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rat blood was analysed with LSD and to determine the optimum dosage was analysed by using regression test. Research results shown that the content of rambutan fruit peel extract may increase the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin of blood. Conclusions from this research are the rambutan fruit peel extract at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight can increase and maintain the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in the blood of rat exposed to cigarette smoke.

  12. Teenage Smoking: Higher Excise Tax Should Significantly Reduce the Number of Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    12 to 17, in the United States, about 3.5 million use tobacco products, almost 3 million smoke marijuana , 6 million drink alcohol, and 1 million use...particularly in indoor environments. As a result nonsmokers tend to face a greater risk of cancer and of becoming less healthy in general. (The details on

  13. Impaired serum inhibin-B and number of germ cells in boys with cryptorchidism following heavily gestational maternal smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildorf, Simone; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Dong, Lihua

    2018-01-01

    heavily (>10 cigarettes/day) during pregnancy with age matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers (1:6). We studied: birthweight, germ-cell number/tubular cross section, frequency of germ cells positive for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), gonadotropins and inhibin-B. RESULTS: 501 boys...... were sons of nonsmokers, 72 boys of intermittent smokers and 28 boys of heavy smokers. 39%, 44% and 61% respectively had bilateral cryptorchidism. Compared to age-matched cryptorchid controls of nonsmoking mothers, sons of heavy smokers had lower birthweight (p = 0.006), germ-cell number/tubular cross...... could add detailed knowledge to the impact of maternal gestational smoking on pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. METHODS: 601 cryptorchid boys aged 4 months to 14 years old were included. Because normal hormones have a pronounced age dependency, we compared results from boys whose mothers had smoked...

  14. Reduced number of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium of rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, D.; Kato, G.

    1981-04-09

    The concentration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors--as measured by specific (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 and (-)-(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding--was diminished by 60% below control values in the hearts of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. These changes in receptor numbers took place almost immediately after tobacco smoke exposure and were rapidly reversible after termination of the exposure. The dissociation constant, KD, for (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 was identical in exposed (KD . 0.34 +/- 0.09 nM) and control (KD . 0.35 +/- 0.07 nM) hearts but was significantly different in the case of (-)-(3H)dihydroalprenolol binding (exposed, KD . 2.83 +/- 0.30 mM vs. control KD . 5.22 +/- 0.61 nM). For beta-receptor binding there was no significant difference between exposed and control animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-)-norepinephrine, (-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-propranolol or timolol. (-)-Isoproterenol, however, was found to bind with lower affinity in exposed compared with control hearts. For alpha-receptor binding there was no significant difference between control and 'smoked' animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-0)-norepinephrine or phentolamine. The decrease in alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor concentration may be related to the phenomenon of receptor desensitization resulting from a release of catecholamines in rats exposed to tobacco smoke.

  15. The relation between number of smoking friends, and quit intentions, attempts, and success: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchman, Sara C; Fong, Geoffrey T; Zanna, Mark P; Thrasher, James F; Laux, Fritz L

    2014-12-01

    Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be exposed to more positive norms toward smoking and more cues to smoke. This study examines the relation between number of smoking friends and changes in number of smoking friends, and smoking cessation outcomes. Data were drawn from Wave 1 (2002) and Wave 2 (2003) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Project Four Country Survey, a longitudinal cohort survey of nationally representative samples of adult smokers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, and United States (N = 6,321). Smokers with fewer smoking friends at Wave 1 were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 1 and were more likely to succeed in their attempts to quit at Wave 2. Compared with smokers who experienced no change in their number of smoking friends, smokers who lost smoking friends were more likely to intend to quit at Wave 2, attempt to quit between Wave 1 and Wave 2, and succeed in their quit attempts at Wave 2. Smokers who inhabit social contexts with a greater number of smokers may be less likely to successfully quit. Quitting may be particularly unlikely among smokers who do not experience a loss in the number of smokers in their social context.

  16. Effect of number of cigarettes smoked per day on red blood cell, lecocyte and platelet count in adult Indian male smokers – A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharati Anil Sherke

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cigarette smoking are fatal. Present study was done to compare cell counts of blood in males smoking different number of cigarettes per day and non smokers of Hyderabad city. 150 consenting subjects of which 30 controls (non-smokers and 120 cases (smokers were studied. Smokers were divided into four groups based on number of cigarettes smoked per day. Blood samples processed using Hematology analyser (ABX Micros60®, HORIBA, Kyoto, Japan. The smokers had significantly different red blood cell counts (p<0.0001, white blood cells counts (p<0.0001 including neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils. This effect was significant irrespective of the number of cigarettes. There was no significant change in the percentage of basophils and platelet counts. Conclusion: Our findings showed that cigarette smoking has a significant effect on hematological cell counts and these counts changed significantly with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day.

  17. The number of oogonia and somatic cells in the human female embryo and fetus in relation to whether or not exposed to maternal cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutterodt, M C; Sørensen, K P; Larsen, K B

    2009-01-01

    of in utero exposure to cigarette smoking. METHODS: Twenty-nine human first-trimester ovaries from legal abortions [aged 38-64 days post-conception (p.c.)] were collected. Mothers filled out a questionnaire about their smoking habits and delivered a urine sample for cotinine analysis. The ovarian cell numbers...

  18. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Fetterman

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3 total suspended particulate of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal. Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  19. Developmental exposure to second-hand smoke increases adult atherogenesis and alters mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletions in apoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E; Ballinger, Scott W

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m(3) total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1-19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12-14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis.

  20. Developmental Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke Increases Adult Atherogenesis and Alters Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Deletions in apoE−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L.; Pompilius, Melissa; Westbrook, David G.; Uyeminami, Dale; Brown, Jamelle; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. While many studies have focused upon the effects of adult second-hand smoke exposure on cardiovascular disease development, disease development occurs over decades and is likely influenced by childhood exposure. The impacts of in utero versus neonatal second-hand smoke exposure on adult atherosclerotic disease development are not known. The objective of the current study was to determine the effects of in utero versus neonatal exposure to a low dose (1 mg/m3 total suspended particulate) of second-hand smoke on adult atherosclerotic lesion development using the apolipoprotein E null mouse model. Consequently, apolipoprotein E null mice were exposed to either filtered air or second-hand smoke: (i) in utero from gestation days 1–19, or (ii) from birth until 3 weeks of age (neonatal). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to filtered air and sacrificed at 12–14 weeks of age. Oil red-O staining of whole aortas, measures of mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress were performed. Results show that both in utero and neonatal second-hand smoke exposure significantly increased adult atherogenesis in mice compared to filtered air controls. These changes were associated with changes in aconitase and mitochondrial superoxide dismutase activities consistent with increased oxidative stress in the aorta, changes in mitochondrial DNA copy number and deletion levels. These studies show that in utero or neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke significantly influences adult atherosclerotic lesion development and results in significant alterations to the mitochondrion and its genome that may contribute to atherogenesis. PMID:23825571

  1. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  2. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the Uni...

  3. Smoking and The Simpsons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslick, Guy D; Eslick, Marielle G

    2009-06-01

    To determine the frequency of smoking on The Simpsons television show, and the relationship with the sex and age groups of characters shown smoking, and with positive, negative and neutral connotations associated with instances of smoking. Content analysis (performed from January to October 2008) of instances of smoking that appeared in the first 18 seasons of The Simpsons television show, which aired from 1989 to 2007. Frequency, impact (positive, negative, neutral) of instances of smoking; and frequency associated with age (child or adolescent versus adult characters), sex and types of characters on the show. There were 795 instances of smoking in the 400 episodes observed. Most (498; 63%) involved male characters. Only 8% of instances of smoking (63) involved child or adolescent characters. Just over a third of instances of smoking (275; 35%) reflected smoking in a negative way, compared with the majority, which reflected smoking in a neutral way (504; 63%) and the minority, which reflected smoking in a positive way (16; 2%). Child and adolescent characters were much more likely to be involved in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way compared with adult characters (odds ratio, 44.93; 95% CI, 16.15-172.18). There are a large number of instances of smoking in The Simpsons television show. Child and adolescent characters are much more likely to be portrayed in instances of smoking reflected in a negative way than adult characters. Viewing The Simpsons characters smoking may prompt children to consider smoking at an early age.

  4. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  5. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  6. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  7. Smoking out carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, David; Griffiths, Huw; Parker, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Smoked foods are becoming increasingly popular and are being produced by large and small food operations, artisan producers, chefs and consumers themselves. Epidemiological studies conducted over a number of decades have linked the consumption of smoked foods with various cancers and these findings have been supported by animal testing. Smoke contains a group of dangerous carcinogens that are responsible for lung cancer in cigarette smokers and implicated as causative agents for colorectal an...

  8. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tween and teen health Want to prevent teen smoking? Understand why teens smoke and how to talk ... teen about cigarettes. By Mayo Clinic Staff Teen smoking might begin innocently, but it can become a ...

  9. Childhood myopia and parental smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, S-M; Chia, K-S; Lindstrom, J M; Tan, D T H; Stone, R A

    2004-07-01

    To examine the relation between exposure to passive parental smoke and myopia in Chinese children in Singapore. 1334 Chinese children from three schools in Singapore were recruited, all of whom were participants in the Singapore Cohort study Of the Risk factors for Myopia (SCORM). Information on whether the father or mother smoked, number of years smoked, and the number of cigarettes smoked per day during the child's lifetime were derived. These data were correlated with contemporaneously obtained data available in SCORM. The children's cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius, and biometry measures were compared with reported parental smoking history. There were 434 fathers (33.3%) and 23 mothers (1.7%) who smoked during their child's lifetime. There were no significant trends observed between paternal smoking and refractive error or axial length. After controlling for age, sex, school, mother's education, and mother's myopia, children with mothers who had ever smoked during their lifetime had more "positive" refractions (adjusted mean -0.28 D v -1.38 D) compared with children whose mother did not smoke (p = 0.012). The study found no consistent evidence of association between parental smoking and refractive error. There was a suggestion that children whose mothers smoked cigarettes had more hyperopic refractions, but the absence of a relation with paternal smoking and the small number of mothers who smoked in this sample preclude definite conclusions about a link between passive smoking exposure and myopia.

  10. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  11. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  12. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L; Kokkala, M [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1996-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  13. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to not allow smoking indoors. Separating smokers from non-smokers (like “no smoking” sections in restaurants)‚ cleaning the air‚ and airing out buildings does not get rid of secondhand smoke. Other Ways Smoking Affects Others Smoking affects the people in your life ...

  14. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  15. [Smoking in movies and established smoking in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, R; Blohmke, S; Sargent, J D

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether smoking in movies can predict established smoking in adolescence. A longitudinal study was conducted over a period of 13 months with 4112 German students. Adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies was assessed by asking each student to indicate which film he or she had seen from a unique list of 50 movies, which was randomly selected for each individual survey from a sample of 398 popular contemporary movies. We calculated exposure to movie smoking for each respondent by summing the number of smoking occurrences for each movie that the respondent reported seeing. At follow-up, a total of 272 young people had smoked more than 100 cigarettes during their lifetime. While 2.1% of the young people with the lowest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking, 13.4% of the group with the highest exposure to movie smoking initiated established smoking. The adjusted relative risk of initiation of established smoking was 2.05 times higher in the group with the highest movie smoking exposure compared to the group with the lowest exposure (95% confidence interval: 1.25-3.35). Our data indicate that smoking in movies can be regarded as an independent risk factor for the initiation of established smoking in adolescence. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  17. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  18. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure is High in Multiunit Housing Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Products Tobacco Ingredient ... smoke from burning tobacco products, such as cigarettes, cigars, or pipes. 1,5,6 Secondhand smoke also ...

  19. Wood Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke is made up of a complex mixture of gases and fine, microscopic particles produced when wood and other organic matter burn. The biggest health threat from wood smoke comes from fine particles (also called particulate matter).

  20. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Armero, Alicia; Calleja Hernandez, Miguel A; Perez-Vicente, Sabina; Martinez-Martinez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients' access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre-post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy's smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation.

  1. Group Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Increases Smoke Toxicant Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramôa, Carolina P; Shihadeh, Alan; Salman, Rola; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is a global health concern. Laboratory research has focused on individual waterpipe users while group use is common. This study examined user toxicant exposure and smoke toxicant yield associated with individual and group waterpipe smoking. Twenty-two pairs of waterpipe smokers used a waterpipe individually and as a dyad. Before and after smoking, blood was sampled and expired carbon monoxide (CO) measured; puff topography was recorded throughout. One participant from each pair was selected randomly and their plasma nicotine and expired air CO concentrations were compared when smoking alone to when smoking as part of a dyad. Recorded puff topography was used to machine-produce smoke that was analyzed for toxicant content. There was no difference in mean plasma nicotine concentration when an individual smoked as part of a dyad (mean = 14.9 ng/ml; standard error of the mean [SEM] = 3.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean = 10.0 ng/ml; SEM = 1.5). An individual smoking as part of as a dyad had, on average, lower CO (mean = 15.8 ppm; SEM = 2.0) compared to when smoking alone (mean= 21.3 ppm; SEM = 2.7). When two participants smoked as a dyad they took, on average, more puffs (mean = 109.8; SEM = 7.6) than a singleton smoker (mean = 77.7; SEM = 8.1) and a shorter interpuff interval (IPI; dyad mean = 23.8 seconds; SEM = 1.9; singleton mean = 40.8 seconds; SEM = 4.8). Higher concentrations of several toxicants were observed in dyad-produced smoke. Dyad smoking may increase smoke toxicant content, likely due to the dyad's shorter IPIs and greater puff number. More work is needed to understand if group waterpipe smoking alters the health risks of waterpipe tobacco smoking. This study is the first to measure toxicants in smoke generated from a waterpipe when used by a dyad. Relative to smoke generated by a singleton, dyad smoke had higher concentration of some toxicants. These differences may be attributed to differences in puffing behavior

  2. Close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking: reevaluating their influence on children's smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Robyn Andersen, M; Leroux, Brian G; Bharat Rajan, K; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-04-01

    A number of longitudinal studies have explored the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking acquisition. A reasonable implication of this previous research is that intervention efforts could be beneficially directed toward countering the potential influence of friends' and possibly older siblings' smoking but not parents' smoking. However, methodological limitations of this previous research motivated our reevaluation of the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking. Close friends' smoking status was assessed when children were in 5th grade, whereas parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade. The outcome, children's daily smoking status, was assessed in 12th grade. The setting was 40 Washington state school districts that participated in the long-term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project. Participants were the 4,576 families for whom close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking status as well as children's smoking status were available. The probability that each close friend's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 9% (95% CI = 6%-12%), the probability that each parent's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 11% (95% CI = 9%-14%), and the probability that each older sibling's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 7% (95% CI = 1%-13%). These results suggest that close friends', parents', and siblings' smoking were similarly important influences on children's smoking. Family-focused interventions could be a valuable future direction of prevention research.

  3. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  4. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  5. Cigarette smoke induced genotoxicity and respiratory tract pathology: evidence to support reduced exposure time and animal numbers in tobacco product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Annette; Ordoñez, Patricia; Thorne, David; Walker, David; Camacho, Oscar M; Büttner, Ansgar; Dillon, Debbie; Meredith, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Many laboratories are working to develop in vitro models that will replace in vivo tests, but occasionally there remains a regulatory expectation of some in vivo testing. Historically, cigarettes have been tested in vivo for 90 days. Recently, methods to reduce and refine animal use have been explored. This study investigated the potential of reducing animal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to 3 or 6 weeks, and the feasibility of separate lung lobes for histopathology or the Comet assay. Rats were exposed to sham air or CS (1 or 2 h) for 3 or 6 weeks. Respiratory tissues were processed for histopathological evaluation, and Alveolar type II cells (AEC II) isolated for the Comet assay. Blood was collected for Pig-a and micronucleus quantification. Histopathological analyses demonstrated exposure effects, which were generally dependent on CS dose (1 or 2 h, 5 days/week). Comet analysis identified that DNA damage increased in AEC II following 3 or 6 weeks CS exposure, and the level at 6 weeks was higher than 3 weeks. Pig-a mutation or micronucleus levels were not increased. In conclusion, this study showed that 3 weeks of CS exposure was sufficient to observe respiratory tract pathology and DNA damage in isolated AEC II. Differences between the 3 and 6 week data imply that DNA damage in the lung is cumulative. Reducing exposure time, plus analyzing separate lung lobes for DNA damage or histopathology, supports a strategy to reduce and refine animal use in tobacco product testing and is aligned to the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  6. Survey of restaurants regarding smoking policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alcia; Peterson, Elizabeth; Knight, Susan; Hiller, Marc; Pelletier, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The New Hampshire Indoor Smoking Act was implemented in 1994 to protect the public's health by regulating smoking in enclosed places. A survey was conducted of New Hampshire restaurants to determine smoking policies, to determine restaurant characteristics associated with smoking policies, and to evaluate compliance with the Indoor Smoking Act. A list of New Hampshire restaurants was obtained from a marketing firm. Establishments were selected randomly until 400 had completed a 22-question telephone survey. Forty-four percent of restaurants permitted smoking. Characteristics positively associated with permitting smoking were being a non-fast-food restaurant, selling alcohol, selling tobacco, and having greater than the median number of seats. Of restaurants permitting smoking, 96.1% had a designated smoking area, 87.0% had a ventilation system to minimize secondhand smoke, 83.6% had a physical barrier between smoking and nonsmoking areas, and 53.1% exhibited signs marking the smoking area. Forty percent of restaurants permitting smoking met all four requirements of the Indoor Smoking Act. Smoking policies differ, by type of restaurant. Compliance with the Indoor Smoking Act is low.

  7. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of dying from cancer goes down. Your blood pressure goes down. Your pulse and blood oxygen level return to normal. If you have children, you can help them be healthier by quitting smoking. Children whose parents smoke around them are at higher risk for ...

  8. Surgical smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Joe King-Man; Chan, Fion Siu-Yin; Chu, Kent-Man

    2009-10-01

    Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.

  9. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter; Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-10-20

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke-associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption.

  10. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  11. Pharmaceutical care in smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín Armero A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alicia Marín Armero,1 Miguel A Calleja Hernandez,2 Sabina Perez-Vicente,3 Fernando Martinez-Martinez4 1Community Pharmacy, Murcia, Spain; 2Hospital Pharmacy, University Hospital Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain; 3Result Evaluation Unit, Institute of Biomedicine, Sevilla, Spain; 4Research Unit in Pharmaceutical Care, University of Granada, Granada, Spain Abstract: As a determining factor in various diseases and the leading known cause of preventable mortality and morbidity, tobacco use is the number one public health problem in developed countries. Facing this health problem requires authorities and health professionals to promote, via specific programs, health campaigns that improve patients’ access to smoking cessation services. Pharmaceutical care has a number of specific characteristics that enable the pharmacist, as a health professional, to play an active role in dealing with smoking and deliver positive smoking cessation interventions. The objectives of the study were to assess the efficacy of a smoking cessation campaign carried out at a pharmaceutical care center and to evaluate the effects of pharmaceutical care on patients who decide to try to stop smoking. The methodology was an open, analytical, pre–post intervention, quasi-experimental clinical study performed with one patient cohort. The results of the study were that the promotional campaign for the smoking cessation program increased the number of patients from one to 22, and after 12 months into the study, 43.48% of the total number of patients achieved total smoking cessation. We can conclude that advertising of a smoking cessation program in a pharmacy increases the number of patients who use the pharmacy’s smoking cessation services, and pharmaceutical care is an effective means of achieving smoking cessation. Keywords: community pharmacy, health campaign, tobacco cessation, nicotine replacement therapy

  12. Tobacco Smoke Exposure in Non-smoking Hospitality Workers Before and After a State Smoking Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A.; Schillo, Barbara A.; Moilanen, Molly M.; Lindgren, Bruce R.; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3000 cancer deaths per year. While several countries and states in the U.S. have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of non-smoking employees (N=24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking prior to the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues. PMID:20354127

  13. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In line with the requirements of the World Health Organization. (WHO) Framework ... meals.6,7 For this reason, it is important to deal with the patient's physical nicotine ... habits associated with smoking, and helps to motivate them to.

  14. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  15. Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs (SAMMEC) - Smoking-Attributable Mortality (SAM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2005-2009. SAMMEC - Smoking-Attributable Mortality, Morbidity, and Economic Costs. Smoking-attributable mortality (SAM) is the number of deaths caused by cigarette...

  16. Ionization chamber smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    One kind of smoke detector, the ionization-type, is regulated by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) because it uses a radioactive substance in its mechanism. Radioactivity and radiation are natural phenomena, but they are not very familiar to the average householder. This has led to a number of questions being asked of the AECB. These questions and AECB responses are outlined

  17. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, L; Ogilvie, A; Pelkonen, M; Notkola, I; Tukiainen, H; Tervahauta, M; Tuomilehto, J; Nissinen, A

    2002-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  18. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  19. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  20. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  1. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    This describes a smoke detector comprising a self-luminous light source and a photosensitive device which is so arranged that the light source is changed by the presence of smoke in a detecting region. A gaseous tritium light source is used. This consists of a borosilicate glass bulb with an internal phosphor coating, filled with tritium gas. The tritium emits low energy beta particles which cause the phosphor to glow. This is a reliable light source which needs no external power source. The photosensitive device may be a phototransistor and may drive a warning device through a directly coupled transistor amplifier. (U.K.)

  2. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  3. Proactive and Brief Smoking Cessation Intervention for Smokers at Outdoor Smoking "Hotspots" in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Cheung, Yee Tak Derek; Wan, Zoe; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2018-04-01

    Increased outdoor smoking is a common phenomenon after indoor smoking bans were in place. A series of observational studies were conducted to evaluate a novel, proactive, and brief smoking cessation intervention at outdoor smoking "hotspots," i.e., outdoor public areas where ashtrays were available and smokers clustered to smoke. The number of smokers at 26 selected hotspots were observed and counted for two consecutive days. Further observations of the smokers' characteristics and brief smoking cessation intervention were conducted at ten of the hotspots with the greatest number of smokers. Responses of the smokers to the brief intervention, including a leaflet and brief smoking cessation advice using AWAR protocol delivered by trained smoking cessation ambassadors, were assessed. A total of 24,034 smokers were observed within 464 h, which equals 51.8 smokers per hour. Of the 5070 pedestrians observed at the ten hotspots during the intervention sessions, 1228 (24.2 %) were smokers. In the 1228 smokers who were approached during our intervention sessions, about two thirds were willing to receive the self-help leaflet on smoking cessation whereas about half received the brief smoking cessation advice. Recruiting smokers and delivering brief smoking cessation interventions at smoking hotspots are feasible and likely effective to reach large numbers of smokers. Studies to evaluate the effectiveness of using this approach for smoking cessation are warranted.

  4. Perceived smoking norms, socioenvironmental factors, personal attitudes and adolescent smoking in China: a mediation analysis with longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stanton, Bonita; Fang, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Danhua; Zhang, Jintao; Liu, Hongjie; Yang, Hongmei

    2006-04-01

    To gather information on inter-relationships among risk factors affecting adolescent smoking for tobacco control in China, the world's largest tobacco producer and consumer. Longitudinal data were collected six months apart in 2003 from 813 students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 from two schools in Beijing, China. Linear regression was used to assess both the direct effect from predictor variables (smoking among influential others, pro-tobacco media, and attitudes toward smoking) on cigarette use and the indirect effect mediated through the perceived smoking norms (percentage of smokers among peers). Among the 803 subjects (mean age of 15.5 years, SD = 1.7; 52.1% female), 18.3% of males and 1.7% of females smoked in the past 30 days. Smoking among influential others (best friends, father, mother, male teachers, female teachers, and adults in general) and perceived positive psychological and social rewards from smoking at baseline were associated with number of cigarettes smoked at follow-up, whereas exposure to pro-tobacco media was not significantly associated with smoking. The mediated effect was greater for adult smoking (70% to 90%) than for best friend smoking (11% to 16%). Smoking among influential others and attitudes toward smoking influence adolescent smoking both directly and indirectly. The finding of the indirect effect mediated through perceived smoking norms expands our knowledge on smoking etiology. Effective adolescent smoking intervention programs in China need to include a component targeting adult smoking to reduce perceived smoking norms.

  5. Where is smoking research published?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A.; Hughes, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify journals that have a focus on human nicotine/smoking research and to investigate the coverage of smoking in "high-impact" journals. DESIGN: The MEDLINE computer database was searched for English-language articles on human studies published in 1988-1992 using "nicotine", "smoking", "smoking cessation", "tobacco", or "tobacco use disorder" as focus descriptors. This search was supplemented with a similar search of the PSYCLIT computer database. Fifty-eight journals containing at least 20 nicotine/smoking articles over the five years were analysed for impact factor (IF; citations per article). RESULTS: Among the journals with the highest percentage of nicotine- or smoking-focused articles (that is, 9-39% of their articles were on nicotine/smoking), Addiction, American Journal of Public Health, Cancer Causes and Control, Health Psychology, and Preventive Medicine had the greatest IF (range = 1.3-2.6). Among the journals highest in impact factor (IF > 3), only American Journal of Epidemiology, American Review of Respiratory Disease, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, and Journal of the American Medical Association published more than 10 nicotine/smoking articles per year (3-5% of all articles). Of these, only Journal of the American Medical Association published a large number of nicotine/smoking articles (32 per year). CONCLUSIONS: Although smoking causes 20% of all mortality in developed countries, the topic is not adequately covered in high-impact journals. Most smoking research is published in low-impact journals. 




 PMID:8795857

  6. Are social norms associated with smoking in French university students? A survey report on smoking correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riou França Lionel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the correlates of smoking is a first step to successful prevention interventions. The social norms theory hypothesises that students' smoking behaviour is linked to their perception of norms for use of tobacco. This study was designed to test the theory that smoking is associated with perceived norms, controlling for other correlates of smoking. Methods In a pencil-and-paper questionnaire, 721 second-year students in sociology, medicine, foreign language or nursing studies estimated the number of cigarettes usually smoked in a month. 31 additional covariates were included as potential predictors of tobacco use. Multiple imputation was used to deal with missing values among covariates. The strength of the association of each variable with tobacco use was quantified by the inclusion frequencies of the variable in 1000 bootstrap sample backward selections. Being a smoker and the number of cigarettes smoked by smokers were modelled separately. Results We retain 8 variables to predict the risk of smoking and 6 to predict the quantities smoked by smokers. The risk of being a smoker is increased by cannabis use, binge drinking, being unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceived friends' approval of regular smoking, positive perceptions about tobacco, a high perceived prevalence of smoking among friends, reporting not being disturbed by people smoking in the university, and being female. The quantity of cigarettes smoked by smokers is greater for smokers reporting never being disturbed by smoke in the university, unsupportive of smoke-free universities, perceiving that their friends approve of regular smoking, having more negative beliefs about the tobacco industry, being sociology students and being among the older students. Conclusion Other substance use, injunctive norms (friends' approval and descriptive norms (friends' smoking prevalence are associated with tobacco use. University-based prevention campaigns

  7. Predictors of smoking lapse in a human laboratory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Daniel J O; Bujarski, Spencer; Moallem, Nathasha R; Guzman, Iris; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-07-01

    During a smoking quit attempt, a single smoking lapse is highly predictive of future relapse. While several risk factors for a smoking lapse have been identified during clinical trials, a laboratory model of lapse was until recently unavailable and, therefore, it is unclear whether these characteristics also convey risk for lapse in a laboratory environment. The primary study goal was to examine whether real-world risk factors of lapse are also predictive of smoking behavior in a laboratory model of smoking lapse. After overnight abstinence, 77 smokers completed the McKee smoking lapse task, in which they were presented with the choice of smoking or delaying in exchange for monetary reinforcement. Primary outcome measures were the latency to initiate smoking behavior and the number of cigarettes smoked during the lapse. Several baseline measures of smoking behavior, mood, and individual traits were examined as predictive factors. Craving to relieve the discomfort of withdrawal, withdrawal severity, and tension level were negatively predictive of latency to smoke. In contrast, average number of cigarettes smoked per day, withdrawal severity, level of nicotine dependence, craving for the positive effects of smoking, and craving to relieve the discomfort of withdrawal were positively predictive of number of cigarettes smoked. The results suggest that real-world risk factors for smoking lapse are also predictive of smoking behavior in a laboratory model of lapse. Future studies using the McKee lapse task should account for between subject differences in the unique factors that independently predict each outcome measure.

  8. Assessment of Nicotine Exposure From Active Human Cigarette Smoking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The burning of a cigarette is a series of consecutive sequences of both passive and active burnings when a smoking cycle is applied to the cigarette. A previous study, using a smoking machine, showed that cigarette nicotine yields are dependent linearly on the difference between the time of smouldering (passive burning and the time of smoking (active burning. It is predicted that the smoker’s nicotine yield increases when the intensity of smoking increases, i.e., when the time to smoke a cigarette (smoking time decreases. Note that observations made on machines might not be comparable to human behaviours. The aim of this study was to determine whether nicotine mouth-level exposure could be predicted through measurement of human smoking time. A smoking behaviour study was conducted to compare human smoking nicotine yields obtained from both filter tip analysis and the cigarette burning time model. Results showed that smokers’ exposure to the smoke depends essentially on the speed at which the cigarette is smoked. An increase in human smoking intensity, resulting in a decrease in smoking time, generates an increase in smoke exposure, whatever the puff number, puff duration, puff volume and filter ventilation (open or blocked. The association of a machine smoking yield with a corresponding smoking time, and the time taken by a consumer to smoke the cigarette would provide information on the exposure to smoke constituents in a simple and effective manner.

  9. Passive exposure to tobacco smoke: saliva cotinine concentrations in a representative population sample of non-smoking schoolchildren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C; Eiser, J R; Morgan, M; Gammage, P; Gray, E M

    1985-10-05

    Saliva cotinine concentrations in 569 non-smoking schoolchildren were strongly related to the smoking habits of their parents. When neither parent smoked the mean concentration was 0.44 ng/ml, rising to 3.38 ng/ml when both parents were cigarette smokers. Mothers smoking had a stronger influence than did fathers (p less than 0.01). In addition, there was a small independent effect of number of siblings who smoked (p less than 0.01). The dose of nicotine received from fathers smoking was estimated as equivalent to the active smoking of 30 cigarettes a year, that from mothers smoking as equivalent to smoking 50 cigarettes a year, and that from both parents smoking as equivalent to smoking 80 cigarettes a year. This unsolicited burden may be prolonged throughout childhood and poses a definite risk to health.

  10. [Smoking and educational status in Africans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, B; Kpebo, O D; Horo, K; N'Gom, A; Godé, C; Ahui, B; Koffi, N; Aka-Danguy, E

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is a scourge that continues to increase in developing countries despite its known consequences. Is the population of the Ivory Coast sufficiently informed about the consequences of smoking? For this reason, we decided to evaluate the knowledge of the effects of smoking among the people of Abidjan. To evaluate the knowledge of the effects of smoking in the population of Abidjan. To relate this knowledge to the educational level and smoking status. We evaluated knowledge about smoking and its consequences as a function of educational level and smoking status in the population of Abidjan over the age of 15 years. This was undertaken in 3 months, from November 2005 to January 2006, in the two busiest communes in Abidjan. The minimum number of persons required was 1152 but, in fact, we interviewed 1409. The prevalence of smoking was 36.5% with a predominance of males (sex ratio = 3:11). They were mainly young with a mean age of 27.44 years. This population's main sources of information on the ill effects of smoking were the mass media. In general, the subjects did not have a good understanding of smoking and its consequences. With regard to the diseases related to smoking, bronchial carcinoma and cardiovascular disorders were the best known, in 53.1 and 18.1%, respectively. With regard to the components of tobacco, nicotine was the best known (92.6%). Knowledge was related to the level of education: the subjects of a higher educational level were the most knowledgeable about the consequences of smoking. As a result, these subjects were less attached to smoking than the less educated. The consequences of smoking are poorly understood by the general population. With regard to the level of education, the better educated had a better understanding of the effects of smoking and were also those who smoked the least. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  12. Legislative smoking bans for reducing harms from secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; Callinan, Joanne E; McHugh, Jack; van Baarsel, Susan; Clarke, Anna; Doherty, Kirsten; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-02-04

    provided in this update, an increase of eight countries from the original review. The nature of the intervention precludes randomized controlled trials. Thirty-six studies used an interrupted time series study design, 23 studies use a controlled before-and-after design and 18 studies are before-and-after studies with no control group; six of these studies use a cohort design. Seventy-two studies reported health outcomes, including cardiovascular (44), respiratory (21), and perinatal outcomes (7). Eleven studies reported national mortality rates for smoking-related diseases. A number of the studies report multiple health outcomes. There is consistent evidence of a positive impact of national smoking bans on improving cardiovascular health outcomes, and reducing mortality for associated smoking-related illnesses. Effects on respiratory and perinatal health were less consistent. We found 24 studies evaluating the impact of national smoke-free legislation on smoking behaviour. Evidence of an impact of legislative bans on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption is inconsistent, with some studies not detecting additional long-term change in existing trends in prevalence. Since the first version of this review was published, the current evidence provides more robust support for the previous conclusions that the introduction of a legislative smoking ban does lead to improved health outcomes through reduction in SHS for countries and their populations. The clearest evidence is observed in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. There is evidence of reduced mortality from smoking-related illnesses at a national level. There is inconsistent evidence of an impact on respiratory and perinatal health outcomes, and on smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

  13. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Corrêa da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases.

  14. Smoking control: challenges and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa; de Araújo, Alberto José; de Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. PMID:27832238

  15. Effects of active non-smoking programmes on smoking behaviour in oral precancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadah, O; Hepburn, S; Thomson, P J

    2007-08-01

    Smoking is the commonest risk factor for oral cancer and precancer. The objective of this study was to characterize smoking behaviour and attitude in a cohort of oral precancer patients in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, and to determine changes in behaviour during diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Twenty-seven consecutive, smoking patients with dysplastic oral lesions were recruited to the study and a detailed smoking history obtained, quantifying types and numbers of cigarettes smoked, length of smoking history, and changes in smoking behaviour during treatment episodes and long-term follow-up. All patients underwent an interventional management protocol comprising risk-factor education, histopathological diagnosis by incisional biopsy and laser excision of lesions. Patients were followed up for 5 years. Whilst there was a significant decrease in the number of cigarettes smoked at patients' most recent follow-up compared with initial presentation (p<0.001), 74% continued to smoke. Patients received advice from a smoking cessation adviser on support available to them from the local NHS (National Health Service) Stop Smoking services. Six out of 10 patients who set a 'quit date' and attended a programme had quit at the 4-week follow-up but only 5 remained non-smokers. Smoking remains a considerable problem in oral precancer patients even after interventional treatment, with the risk of further precancerous lesions and malignant transformation.

  16. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  17. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  18. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  19. Young adult smoking in peer groups: an experimental observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.

  20. [Factors affecting re-smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2005-05-01

    This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking

  1. Smoking behaviour in young families. Do parents take practical measures to prevent passive smoking by the children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, W; Bruusgaard, D

    1995-12-01

    To investigate smoking behaviour in young families. Cross-sectional study. Mother and child health centres in Oslo, Norway. The families of 1,046 children attending the health centres for 6-weeks-, 2- or 4- year well child visits. Daily smoking, smoking quantity and practical measures taken by the parents to prevent passive smoking among the children as assessed by parental reports. In 48% of the families at least one adult was smoking. 33% of the smoking parents smoked more than ten cigarettes per day. 47% of the smoking families reported that they did not smoke indoors. The parents were less likely to smoke if they were more than 35 years of age, had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee or had a long education. Smoking parents smoked less if they had a spouse/co-habitee, had a child aged less than one year or had few children. Smoking parents were more often careful and did not smoke indoors if they had a child aged less than one year, had a spouse/co-habitee, did not have a smoking spouse/co-habitee or smoked a low number of cigarettes per day.

  2. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  3. SMOKING HABITS OF NIS PRESCHOOL CHILDREN'S PARENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Vucic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The greatest threat for the public health in Serbia is definitively smoking. 1,3 billion of people in the world are smokers and 4,9 million of death at the global level are direct consequences of smoking. If this smoking rhythm continues until 2020. the number of deaths caused by smoking will have been doubled. There are 4000 identified substances in the tobacco smoke, 50 of which have been proven to be carcinogenic. Nowdays, 14000 to 15000 young people in the developed countries and 68000-84000 in the underdeveloped contries begin to smoke. 700 millions of children, the half of the whole children population, are exposed to the passive smoking.The prevalence of smoking in Serbia, although reduced by 6,9% compared to 2000 is still very high and makes 33,6% of the whole population (38,1% of men and 29,9% of women.The aim of this study was to investigate the smoking habits of preschool children's parents, motivated by the fact that the children of that age are highly sensitive and susceptible to the toxic influence of tobacco smoke, but also to check the necessity for an aggressive public health programme implementation in the aimed populations.This research, as a cross-sectional stady, is carried out among preschool children's parents, children being 4 to 6 years old that attend nursery schools in Nis.The prevalence of smoking in preschool children's parents is extremely high, and makes 46% (45,1% of men and 46,9% of women. Having taken into consideration the parental role in upbringing and education of children, as well as the influence of passive smoking, the main conclusion is that the children's health is seriously endangered. Education, making new and maintaining already existing programmes and legal obligations considering smoking are significant steps for reducing smoking and promoting health.

  4. Modifying exposure to smoking depicted in movies: a novel approach to preventing adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Dalton, Madeline A; Heatherton, Todd; Beach, Mike

    2003-07-01

    Most behavioral approaches to adolescent smoking address the behavior directly. We explore an indirect approach: modifying exposure to portrayals of smoking in movies. To describe adolescents' exposure to smoking in movies and to examine factors that could modify such exposure. Occurrences of smoking were counted in each of 601 popular movies. Four thousand nine hundred ten northern New England junior high school students were asked to report which movies they had seen from a randomly generated subsample of 50 films, and responses were used to estimate exposure to the entire sample. Analysis The outcome variable was exposure to movie smoking, defined as the number of smoking occurrences seen. Risk factors for exposure included access to movies (movie channels, videotape use, and movie theater); parenting (R [restricted]-rated movie restrictions, television restrictions, parenting style); and characteristics of the child (age, sex, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, rebelliousness, and self-esteem). We used multiple regression to assess the association between risk factors and exposure to movie smoking. Subjects had seen an average of 30% of the movie sample (interquartile range, 20%-44%), from which they were exposed to 1160 (interquartile range, 640-1970) occurrences of smoking. In a multivariate model, exposure to movie smoking increased (all P values Parent restriction on viewing R-rated movies resulted in a 50% reduction in exposure to movie smoking. There was no association between parenting style and exposure to movie smoking. Much of the protective effect of parent R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking was mediated through lower exposure to movie smoking. Adolescents see thousands of smoking depictions in movies, and this influences their attitudes and behavior. Exposure to movie smoking is reduced when parents limit movie access. Teaching parents to monitor and enforce movie access guidelines could reduce adolescent smoking in an

  5. Smoking Through a Topography Device Diminishes Some of the Acute Rewarding Effects of Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Juliano, Laura M

    2016-05-01

    Smoking topography (ST) devices are an important methodological tool for quantifying puffing behavior (eg, puff volume, puff velocity) as well as identifying puffing differences across individuals and situations. Available ST devices are designed such that the smoker's mouth and hands have direct contact with the device rather than the cigarette itself. Given the importance of the sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking in smoking reward, it is possible that ST devices may interfere with the acute rewarding effects of smoking. Despite the methodological importance of this issue, few studies have directly compared subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device to naturalistic smoking. Smokers (N = 58; 38% female) smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes one time through a portable topography device and one time naturalistically, in counterbalanced order across two laboratory sessions. Smoking behavior (eg, number of puffs) and subjective effects (eg, urge reduction, affect, smoking satisfaction) were assessed. Negative affect reduction was greater in the natural smoking condition relative to the topography condition, but differences were not significant on measures of urge, withdrawal, or positive affect. Self-reported smoking satisfaction, enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations, psychological reward, craving reduction, and other rewarding effects of smoking were also significantly greater in the naturalistic smoking condition. The effects of using a ST device on the smoking experience should be considered when it is used in research as it may diminish some of the rewarding effects of smoking. When considering the inclusion of a smoking topography device in one's research, it is important to know if use of that device will alter the smoker's experience. This study assessed affective and subjective reactions to smoking through a topography device compared to naturalistic smoking. We found that smoking satisfaction, psychological reward, enjoyment

  6. Austrian Students and Smoking: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glawischnig, Markus; Reichmann, Gerhard; Sommersguter-Reichmann, Margit

    2009-01-01

    There is little data on the smoking behaviour of the population of Austria. The available information hardly goes beyond some figures on the number of regular smokers and the amount of cigarettes consumed per person per year. Equally, statutory anti-smoking measures in Austria lag considerably behind those of other countries, especially the U.S.…

  7. Lawsuits and secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweda, E L

    2004-03-01

    This paper describes secondhand smoke (SHS) litigation over the past quarter century where non-smoking litigants have prevailed and attempts to decipher trends in the law that may impact the course of future cases. Since the early 1980s, the author has sought and examined legal cases in which SHS exposure is an important factor. Law library searches using the official reporter system (for example, Shimp v. New Jersey Bell Telephone Co., 368 A.2d 408) have more recently been combined with computerised online searches using LexisNexis and Westlaw. The author has learned of other cases through personal correspondence and from articles in newspapers. Over 420 cases involving exposure to SHS were identified. Each case was reviewed and summarised. Since 1976, the year of the first reported SHS lawsuit, this type of litigation has increased both in number and in scope with increasing success. While it is common for initial cases to lose in a new area where the law eventually evolves, litigants and their lawyers who later bring similar cases can learn from those previous, unsuccessful cases. It is now apparent that the judicial branch has begun to recognise the need to protect the public-especially some of the most vulnerable members of our society-from the serious threat to their health that is exposure to SHS. Successful cases brought on behalf of individuals exposed to SHS produce an additional benefit for the public health by both paving the way for other non-smoking litigants to succeed in their cases and persuading business owners and others voluntarily to make their facilities 100% smoke-free.

  8. A nurse-led 'stop smoking' initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, E; MacAuley, D; Anderson, U

    A one-week smoking awareness initiative and subsequent audit in a general practice are described. All patients attending morning surgery during the study period were offered the opportunity to discuss smoking habits at a smoking awareness clinic: 84 smokers attended. They were interviewed by the practice preventive care nurse who took a smoking history, monitored carbon monoxide (CO Hb) levels and offered a follow-up appointment. CO Hb provided immediate feedback on the effect of smoking and patients who smoked 20 or more cigarettes per day had an average CO Hb of 16.1 per cent. Fifteen per cent of smokers made a commitment to stop smoking and agreed to attend follow-up clinics. A random sample (50) of attenders at the initial Smoking Awareness Clinic (84) were followed up by questionnaire six months later. There were 29 replies (58 per cent); 19 patients (65 per cent) found the visit to the clinic helpful, 14 (48 per cent) reduced the number of cigarettes they smoked, and 11 (38 per cent) altered some other aspect of their lifestyle, of whom four modified their diet and four increased exercise. Five patients claimed they had given up smoking.

  9. Smoking habits and obesity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.

  10. [A study on male high school students' smoking patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Y

    1997-01-01

    This study aims to investigate smoking patterns in high school student and to give student smoker effective information. The sample of 250 male high school students out of two different schools in Tae-Jŏn was questioned from July 10th to 15th, 1995. In analyzing these date, the statistics shows the realities by means of number of students. The results are summarized into 17 items as follows. Regarding the level of smoking, 140 students out of 250 admit that they have ever smoked, 52.1% of smoking students say that the motivation of beginning smoking is mainly curiosity. The survey shows that 22.9% of smoking students feel very good when smoking. It also shows that 30.0% of smoking students began smoking in the first grade of high school. With regard to the volume of smoking per day, 41.4% of smoking students smoke variably, 42.1% drink when smoking, 15.0% spend more than W 70,000 a month. About the question who knows the fact of their smoking, 51.5% answer that their friends know the fact of their smoking. In regard to the reslationship between smoking and school performance, 18.2% of non smoking students make poor grades as compared with 40% of smoking students, 9.3% of smoking students say that they are satisfied with the school life, but 35.7% of them are not satisfied. Regarding the attitude to smoking teachers, 35% of smoking students state that they are affected by them. 69.3% of smoking students say that they will stop smoking, while the remaining 30.7% say that they will keep smoking. The reason of 63.9% to stop smoking is that smoking is bad for the health. The reason of 46.5% to keep smoking is the acquired habit of smoking. 97.2% know the fact that the major element of cigarettes is nicotine and it is very harmful to the health. 40.8% recognize the harmful effect of smoking by TV and radio programs. 97.2% know that smoking could cause lung cancer. From the above results. I propose as follows We should make specific plan to keep smoking by simple

  11. Domestic smoke detectors - a radioactive waste problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    A common form of domestic smoke detector is the ionization chamber smoke detector. A small radioactive source provides the ionization and when smoke enters the sensitive volume the change in voltage is sensed electronically. The use of domestic ionization chamber smoke detectors is widespread and is recommended by fire authorities and insurance companies. That one million such detectors were imported into New South Wales in 1994 is an indication of the numbers involved. The typical radioactive source in a domestic smoke detector is Am 241, which is regarded as one of the more hazardous radionuclides. If it is such a hazardous material, should it be allowed in the normal household without any control? Or, in a smoke detector, is it in a less hazardous form than assumed in the ICRP recommendations and do its benefits outweigh its possible risks? In spite of the apparent hazard of Am 241, the possession of the radioactive source in smoke detectors is generally exempt from any form of regulation. Waste regulations, however, set requirements for the disposal of Am 241 and these regulations can be interpreted as applying to smoke detectors. We appear to have a situation where a home owner can legally purchase any number of smoke detectors but when they fail there are codes of practice that prevent them being disposed of. On the other hand, smoke detectors have a direct life saving function and reports indicate that smoke detectors can reduce both injury and property damage by up to 50%. Do these benefits from the use of smoke detectors compensate for any radiological risk? (author)

  12. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  13. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  14. Smoking during pregnancy and hospitalization of the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, Kirsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Obel, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    with children whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy, children with mothers who smoked 1 to 14 cigarettes per day had no increased risk of being hospitalized (relative risk: 1.1; 95% confidence interval: 0.8-1.5), whereas children whose mothers smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day had twice as high a risk...... of the child persisted after adjustment for postpartum smoking habits and a number of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy influenced the health of the children, and several points indicated that the effect of in utero exposure...... was independent of postpartum smoking habits. If all pregnant women smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day stopped smoking, approximately 5% of all admissions to hospitals before 8 months of age could be avoided. smoking during pregnancy, hospitalization of children. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Oct...

  15. Admission to a psychiatric unit and changes in tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, Suzy; Owens, David

    2008-05-06

    Smoking and withdrawal from smoking complicates the assessment and treatment of mental illness. We aimed to establish whether psychiatric inpatients smoke different amounts after admission than beforehand and, if so, to find out why. Forty-three inpatients on a working age adult psychiatry ward completed self-report questionnaires about smoking habits. Those who smoked a different amount after admission had a follow-up interview to find out why they thought this had occurred. The interview incorporated qualitative and quantitative aspects which were analysed accordingly.Fifty-six percent of participants were smokers before admission, rising to 70% afterwards. Of the smokers, 17% smoked less after admission, and 63% smoked more. The average number of cigarettes smoked per person per day increased from five to thirteen. The main reasons for smoking more were boredom, stress and the wish to socialise.

  16. Secondhand smoke exposure and other correlates of susceptibility to smoking: a propensity score matching approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Russell K; Nelson, Ashlyn A; Macy, Jonathan T; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2015-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is responsible for numerous diseases of the lungs and other bodily systems among children. In addition to the adverse health effects of SHS exposure, studies show that children exposed to SHS are more likely to smoke in adolescence. Susceptibility to smoking is a measure used to identify adolescent never-smokers who are at risk for smoking. Limited research has been conducted on the influence of SHS on susceptibility to smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine a robust measure of the strength of correlation between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking U.S. adolescents. This study used data from the 2009 National Youth Tobacco Survey to identify predictors of susceptibility to smoking in the full (pre-match) sample of adolescents and a smaller (post-match) sample created by propensity score matching. Results showed a significant association between SHS exposure and susceptibility to smoking among never-smoking adolescents in the pre-match (OR=1.47) and post-match (OR=1.52) samples. The odds ratio increase after matching suggests that the strength of the relationship was underestimated in the pre-match sample. Other significant correlates of susceptibility to smoking identified include: gender, race/ethnicity, personal income, smoke-free home rules, number of smoking friends, perception of SHS harm, perceived benefits of smoking, and exposure to pro-tobacco media messages. The use of propensity score matching procedures reduced bias in the post-match sample, and provided a more robust estimate of the influence of SHS exposure on susceptibility to smoking, compared to the pre-match sample estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Momentary smoking context as a mediator of the relationship between SES and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnel, Tina; Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Thrul, Johannes; Schüz, Benjamin

    2018-08-01

    There is a well-established socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior: those with lower socioeconomic status smoke more. However, much less is known about the mechanisms explaining how SES is linked to smoking. This study takes a social-ecological perspective by examining whether socioeconomic status affects smoking behavior by differential exposure to places where smoking is allowed. Exposure to smoking restrictions was assessed in real-time using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods. A sample of 194 daily smokers, who were not attempting to quit, recorded their smoking and information about situational and contextual factors for three weeks using an electronic diary. We tested whether a smoker's momentary context mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (educational attainment) and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Momentary context was operationalized as the proportion of random assessments answered in locations where smoking was allowed versus where smoking was not allowed. Data were analysed using multilevel regression (measurements nested within participants) with a lower level mediation model (2-1-1 mediation). Although no significant direct effect of SES on CPD were observed, there was a significant indirect effect of SES on CPD via the momentary context. Compared to participants with higher education, lower educated participants were more likely to encounter places where smoking was allowed, and this in turn, was associated with a higher number of CPD. These findings suggest that SES is associated with smoking at least partially via differential exposure to smoking-friendly environments, with smokers from lower SES backgrounds accessing more places where smoking is allowed. Implications for current smoke-free legislation are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of pharmacotherapy role in smoking cessation giving an insight into the frequency of smoking among Zagazig University Hospitals’ staff in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: (1 Programs promoting smoking cessation including behavioral therapy in addition to the complementary role of pharmacotherapy (Bubropion SR enhanced the chance of success in smoking cessation. (2 This pilot study (regarding the number of the studied individuals pointed to the smoking dilemma in a locality where smoking behavior should be brought to a minimum especially among physicians.

  19. Smoking and Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Lars-H.R. Siemers

    2007-01-01

    We study the social interaction of non-smokers and smokers as a sequential game, incorporating insights from social psychology and experimental economics into an economic model. Social norms a®ect human behavior such that non-smokers do not ask smokers to stop smoking and stay with them, even though disutility from smoking exceeds utility from social interaction. Overall, smoking is unduly often accepted when accommodating smoking is the social norm. The introduction of smoking and non-smokin...

  20. Exposure to secondhand smoke and associated factors among non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands in Sichuan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian; Tong, Elisa K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure harms pregnant women and the fetus. China has the world's largest number of smokers and a high male smoking prevalence rate. To compare exposure to SHS among rural and urban Chinese non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands, and analyze factors associated with the level of SHS exposure and hair nicotine concentration. Sichuan province, China. In all 1,181 non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands recruited from eight district/county Women and Children's hospitals. The women completed a questionnaire in April and May 2008. Based on systematic sampling, 186 pregnant women were selected for sampling the nicotine concentration in their hair. Ordinal logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine correlates with self-reported SHS exposure (total and at home); linear regression was conducted for the sub-sample of hair nicotine concentrations. Secondhand smoking exposure rates, hair nicotine levels. About 75.1% of the non-smoking pregnant women with smoking husbands reported regular SHS exposure. The major source of exposure was through their husband. In the multivariate analysis, the risk of greater SHS exposure (total and at home) and hair nicotine concentration was increased for women who were rural, had a husband with greater cigarette consumption, less knowledge about SHS, less negative attitudes about SHS, and no smoke-free home rules. The high prevalence rate of SHS exposure suggests that it is important for non-smoking pregnant women, especially rural women, to establish smoke-free home rules and increase knowledge and negative attitudes towards SHS.

  1. Effect of Smoke-Free Legislation on Adult Smoking Behaviour in England in the 18 Months following Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, John Tayu; Glantz, Stanton A.; Millett, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008. Method and Findings Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE). In total there are 54,333 respondents from ...

  2. Smoking topography in Korean American and white men: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first study of Korean Americans' smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 h. Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking with greater puff flows and shorter interpuff intervals than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day.

  3. Circumstances of tobacco smoking by pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.

  4. Universal smoking installation of rotary type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminov V. A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the research carried out by the authors the most technological installations for producing meat and fish products are oriented only on one type of raw material (meat or fish, as well as the kind of smoking (cold or hot. Limitations are related to the maximum temperature of the drying agent that affects the product; presence of the system for maintaining the relative humidity of the air mixture; presence of the smoke cooling system coming from the smoke generator and a number of other factors. Enterprises expanding the range of products are forced to purchase new equipment. With a limited production area especially for small businesses this is not convenient. In the paper, a universal smoking installation of the rotor type (USIRT is considered for the production of both meat and fish products using cold or hot smoking. The installation is oriented to a wide range of products. The presence of the smoke cooling system will allow the production of cold smoking products, the presence of the dehumidification and humidification system for the smoke-air mixture will ensure the maintenance of the required technological regime for producing fish and meat products. Based on the example of cold smoking studies have shown that the duration of the process should be reduced while maintaining the quality of the product. For this purpose, ultrasonic (US vibrations have been applied to the smoke-air mixture in USIRT. The studies have been carried out to identify the best type of ultrasound radiators capable of transmitting vibrations of the installation metal surface and from it to pass into the smoke-air mixture in order to intensify the process of cold smoking. The necessary power of ultrasonic generators has been determined. Comparative results of technological processes with the application of ultrasound in the production of fish products have been presented.

  5. [Association between smoking/smoking cessation and glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Qin, Y; Shen, C; Gao, Y; Pan, E C; Pan, X Q; Tao, R; Zhang, Y Q; Wu, M

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To explore the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control in male patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From December 2013 to January 2014, a total of 7 763 male patients with type 2 diabetes, who received national basic public health service in Changshu county of Suzhou city, Huai'an and Qinghe districts of Huai'an city, Jiangsu province, were recruited by cluster sampling. Questionnaire survey and anthropometric measurements were conducted, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels were measured. Multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate the association of smoking and smoking cessation with glycemic control. Results: The prevalence of current smoking was 45.5% in male patients with type 2 diabetes. The levels of FPG and HbA1c increased with number of cigarettes smoked per day compared with non-smokers ( P smoking duration ≥30 years and smoking index ≥40 pack-years were 0.27% (95 %CI : 0.05%-0.49%) and 0.38% (95 %CI : 0.23%-0.53%), respectively. FPG and HbA1c level decreased obviously with smoking cessation years among former smokers ( P smoking duration, smoking cessation years and levels of FPG and HbA1c. Conclusion: Cigarette smoking was negatively related with glycemic control in male type 2 diabetes patients, especially in patients with drug treatment. Smoking cessation may be beneficial for glycemic control. Smoking cessation should be encouraged for diabetes patients as early as possible.

  6. Toward a more systematic assessment of smoking: development of a smoking module for PROMIS®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelen, Maria O; Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Stucky, Brian D; Cai, Li

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the PROMIS® Smoking Initiative is to develop, evaluate, and standardize item banks to assess cigarette smoking behavior and biopsychosocial constructs associated with smoking for both daily and non-daily smokers. We used qualitative methods to develop the item pool (following the PROMIS® approach: e.g., literature search, "binning and winnowing" of items, and focus groups and cognitive interviews to finalize wording and format), and quantitative methods (e.g., factor analysis) to develop the item banks. We considered a total of 1622 extant items, and 44 new items for inclusion in the smoking item banks. A final set of 277 items representing 11 conceptual domains was selected for field testing in a national sample of smokers. Using data from 3021 daily smokers in the field test, an iterative series of exploratory factor analyses and project team discussions resulted in six item banks: Positive Consequences of Smoking (40 items), Smoking Dependence/Craving (55 items), Health Consequences of Smoking (26 items), Psychosocial Consequences of Smoking (37 items), Coping Aspects of Smoking (30 items), and Social Factors of Smoking (23 items). Inclusion of a smoking domain in the PROMIS® framework will standardize measurement of key smoking constructs using state-of-the-art psychometric methods, and make them widely accessible to health care providers, smoking researchers and the large community of researchers using PROMIS® who might not otherwise include an assessment of smoking in their design. Next steps include reducing the number of items in each domain, conducting confirmatory analyses, and duplicating the process for non-daily smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Smoke-free Policy in Philadelphia Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Ann C; Lee, Nora L; Pankiewicz, Aaron; Ward, Rikki; Shuster, Michelle; Ogbenna, Bethany Townsend; Wade, Anita; Boamah, Maxwell; Osayameh, Olufunlayo; Rule, Ana M; Szymkowiak, Dorota; Coffman, Ryan; Bragg, Virginius; Mallya, Giridhar

    2017-04-01

    Multi-unit housing environments remain significant sources of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, especially for vulnerable populations in subsidized housing. In Philadelphia, the largest US housing authority to implement smoke-free policies, we measured baseline resident smoking-related behaviors and attitudes, and longitudinal exposures to airborne nicotine, during policy development and implementation. In 4 communities, we collected data in 2013, 2014, and 2016, before and after introduction of comprehensive smoke-free policies, interviewing persons in 172 households, and monitoring air-borne nicotine in non-smoking homes and public areas. Average nicotine level differences across years were estimated with multi-level models. Fifty-six percent of respondents smoked. Only 37% of households were smoke-free, with another 41% restricting smoking by area or time of day. The number of locations with detectable nicotine did not differ before and after policy implementation, with approximately 20% of non-smoking homes and 70%-80% of public areas having detectable nicotine. However, public area nicotine levels were lower in 2016, after policy implementation, than in 2013 and 2014 (-0.19 μg/m 3 , p = .03). Findings suggest that initial policy implementation was associated with reduced SHS exposure in Philadelphia. As HUD strengthens smoke-free policies, SHS monitoring can be useful to educate stakeholders and build support for policy enforcement.

  8. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  9. Smoking during pregnancy and hyperactivity-inattention in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Linnet, Karen Markussen; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2008-01-01

    -pregnancy and pregnancy smoking habits and followed the children to school age where teachers and parents rated hyperactivity and inattention symptoms. RESULTS: Children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, had an increased prevalence of a high hyperactivity-inattention score compared with children of nonsmokers......BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to smoking has been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a number of epidemiological studies. However, mothers with the ADHD phenotype may 'treat' their problem by smoking and therefore be more likely to smoke even in a society where...... smoking is not acceptable. This will cause genetic confounding if ADHD has a heritable component, especially in populations with low prevalence rates of smoking since this reason for smoking is expected to be proportionally more frequent in a population with few 'normal' smokers. We compared...

  10. Smoking-a true periodontal hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mani Ameet M, Mani Shubhangi A, Tejnani Avneesh H, Gupta Ankit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available It is now well established that tobacco use in general and cigarette smoking in particular, is a major risk factor in the incidence and severity of several forms of periodontal diseases.A large number of studies have been published in the dental literature regarding this possible role. Much of the literature has also indicated that smokers affected with periodontitis respond less favourably to periodontal treatment be it non-surgical, surgical or regenerative. Numerous studies of the potential mechanisms whereby smoking tobacco may predispose to periodontal disease have been conducted, and it appears that smoking may affect the vasculature, the humoral immune system, and the cellular immune and inflammatory systems, and have effects throughout the cytokine and adhesion molecule network. The aim of this review is to consider the evidence for the association between smoking and periodontal diseases and to highlight the biological mechanisms whereby smoking may affect the periodontium.

  11. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C O P Y PATIENT EDUCATION | INFORMATION SERIES Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs Marijuana, also known as ... a safe way to smoke marijuana. How can smoking marijuana damage my lungs? Tobacco smoke of any ...

  12. Responses to environmental smoking in never-smoking children: can symptoms of nicotine addiction develop in response to environmental tobacco smoke exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Kleinjan, Marloes; Otten, Roy; Engels, Rutger C M E; DiFranza, Joseph R

    2013-06-01

    A recent line of studies has brought attention to the question whether repeated exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is capable of producing psycho-physiological effects in non-smokers and whether symptoms of nicotine dependence can develop in the absence of active smoking. Children seem to be particularly vulnerable to the effects of ETS. We examined the occurrence of psycho-behavioural symptoms, designed to assess nicotine addiction and nicotine withdrawal, in a sample of 778 never-smoking children aged 9-12 years using cross-sectional survey data collected in 15 Dutch primary schools. In the present study, 6% of never-smoking children reported symptoms of craving, 8% reported cue-triggered wanting to smoke, and 20% reported subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In never-smoking children, a higher number of smokers in the child's social environment was associated with more symptoms of cue-triggered wanting to smoke and more subjective symptoms in response to ETS. Never-smoking children and children who had initiated smoking were equally likely to report subjective symptoms in response to ETS exposure. In conclusion, environmental smoking is associated with self-reported psycho-behavioural symptoms in never-smoking children. Future research needs to investigate whether symptoms in children exposed to ETS are physiologically based or whether they reflect other characteristics which predispose youth for smoking initiation in the future.

  13. Smoking and Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consequences because building healthy bones in youth helps prevent osteoporosis and fractures later in life. However, it is never too late to adopt new habits for healthy bones. Smoking and Osteoporosis Cigarette smoking was first identified as ...

  14. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  15. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cigar Smoking and Cancer On This Page How are cigars ... to quit? How can I get help quitting smoking? How are cigars different from cigarettes? Cigarettes usually ...

  16. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... enable JavaScript. Things that make your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger ...

  17. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - smoking; COPD - secondhand smoke ... Things that make COPD symptoms worse are called triggers. Knowing what your triggers are and how to avoid them can help you feel ...

  18. School connectedness and susceptibility to smoking among adolescents in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azagba, Sunday; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Smoking susceptibility in early adolescence is strongly predictive of subsequent smoking behavior in youth. As such, smoking susceptibility represents a key modifiable factor in reducing the onset of smoking in young people. A growing literature has documented a number of factors that influence susceptibility to smoking; however, there is limited amount of research examining associations of susceptibility to smoking and school connectedness. The current study examines whether school connectedness has an independent protective effect on smoking susceptibility among younger adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 12,894 Canadian students in grades 6-8 (11-14 years old), surveyed as part of the 2010-2011 Youth Smoking Survey, was analyzed. Multilevel logistic regression models examined unadjusted and adjusted associations between school connectedness and smoking susceptibility. The impacts of other covariates on smoking susceptibility were also explored. Approximately 29% of never-smokers students in grades 6-8 in Canada were susceptible to future smoking. Logistic regression analysis, controlling for standard covariates, found that school connectedness had strong protective effects on smoking susceptibility (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.94). The finding that school connectedness is protective of smoking susceptibility, together with previous research, provides further evidence that improving school conditions that promote school connectedness could reduce risky behavior in adolescents. While prevention efforts should be directed at youth of all ages, particular attention must be paid to younger adolescents in the formative period of 11-14 years of age.

  19. Smoking reduced in urban restaurants: the effect of Beijing Smoking Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lin; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Xiurong; Li, Yuqin; Gan, Quan; Liu, Fan

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Beijing Smoking Control Regulation, occurrence of smoking in restaurants was compared before and after the law took effect. A cohort study design was used in a randomly selected sample of 176 restaurants in two districts of Beijing. Undercover visits were paid by investigators to the same restaurants at lunch or dinner time 5 months before the law took effect and 1-month after. The occurrence of smoking and presence of no-smoking signs were observed. Much less smoking was observed (14.8%) in restaurants compared to that before the law took effect (40.3%). The drop in smoking occurrence was more evident in open dining areas (from 32.4% to 5.1%) compared to the men's restrooms of the restaurants (23.8% to 18.8%). No intervention from restaurant staff was observed whenever smoking occurred. Posting of no-smoking signage increased considerably after the law came into effect (from 52.6% to 82.4%), but very few no-smoking signs included the symptom hotline number (38.5%) or the amount of penalty (5.6%). The Beijing Smoking Control Regulation achieved one of its intended goals of reducing smoking occurrences in restaurants, but further effort of strengthening implementation is still needed and should focus on boosting compliance with no-smoking sign requirements, reducing smoking in restrooms of the restaurants and mobilising the restaurant staff to intervene in case of violations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Electrocardiographic changes associated with smoking and smoking cessation: outcomes from a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D Gepner

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD can be detected and quantified by analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG; however the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the ECG have not been characterized.Standard 12-lead ECGs were performed at baseline and 3 years after subjects enrolled in a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. ECGs were interpreted using the Minnesota Code ECG Classification. The effects of (i smoking burden on the prevalence of ECG findings at baseline, and (ii smoking and smoking cessation on ECG changes after 3 years were investigated by multivariable and multinomial regression analyses.At baseline, 532 smokers were (mean [SD] 43.3 (11.5 years old, smoked 20.6 (7.9 cigarettes/day, with a smoking burden of 26.7 (18.6 pack-years. Major and minor ECG criteria were identified in 87 (16.4% and 131 (24.6% of subjects, respectively. After adjusting for demographic data and known CVD risk factors, higher pack-years was associated with major ECG abnormalities (p = 0.02, but current cigarettes/day (p = 0.23 was not. After 3 years, 42.9% of subjects were abstinent from smoking. New major and minor ECG criteria were observed in 7.2% and 15.6% of subjects respectively, but in similar numbers of abstinent subjects and continuing smokers (p>0.2 for both. Continuing smokers showed significant reduction in current smoking (-8.4 [8.8] cigarettes/day, p<0.001 compared to baseline.In conclusion, major ECG abnormalities are independently associated with lifetime smoking burden. After 3 years, smoking cessation was not associated with a decrease in ECG abnormalities, although cigarettes smoked/day decreased among continuing smokers.

  1. Efficacy of electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Katherine Kelly; Asal, Nicole J

    2014-11-01

    To review data demonstrating effective smoking cessation with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed (1946-March 2014) was performed using the search terms e-cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, and smoking cessation. Additional references were identified from a review of literature citations. All English-language clinical studies assessing efficacy of e-cigarettes compared with baseline, placebo, or other pharmacological methods to aid in withdrawal symptoms, smoking reduction, or cessation were evaluated. A total of 6 clinical studies were included in the review. In small studies, e-cigarettes significantly decreased desire to smoke, number of cigarettes smoked per day, and exhaled carbon monoxide levels. Symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and adverse effects were variable. The most common adverse effects were nausea, headache, cough, and mouth/throat irritation. Compared with nicotine patches, e-cigarettes were associated with fewer adverse effects and higher adherence. Most studies showed a significant decrease in cigarette use acutely; however, long-term cessation was not sustained at 6 months. There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation; however, there may be a place in therapy to help modify smoking habits or reduce the number of cigarettes smoked. Studies available provided different administration patterns such as use while smoking, instead of smoking, or as needed. Short-term studies reviewed were small and did not necessarily evaluate cessation with a focus on parameters associated with cessation withdrawal symptoms. Though long-term safety is unknown, concerns regarding increased poisoning exposures among adults in comparison with cigarettes are alarming. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Lenticels as indicators of atmospheric smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesek, F.

    1960-01-01

    The invasion of smoke pollution gets from the atmosphere into the plants only by lenticels and stomata. The most toxic smoke constituents penetrating into the stele are SO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/SiF/sub 6/, H/sub 3/AsO/sub 4/, HCl and C/sub 6/H/sub 5/OH. Lenticels are bark stomata filled with merenchym tissue, which hinders the entrance of mechanical smoke particles into the interior tissues of the stele. In autumn, the lenticels are packed by cork slabs formed by the cork cambium. In spring, this cork slab is broken by a new mechanical tissue. Sambucus nigra L. has a merenchym sensitive to the presence of smoke pollution, and the lenticels may serve, therefore, as indicators of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The intensity of damage caused by smoke constituents penetrating into the plants through lenticels depends upon a series of exterior and interior factors. They are the number of lenticels per area unit of bark surface in the whole circumference, the pH of the biocomplex near the lenticel in the interior tissues of stele, and the concentration of smoke pollution in the atmosphere. The most effective way of preventing smoke damage is to install pollution control equipment in the industrial works.

  3. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  4. The impact of active and passive peer influence on young adult smoking: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-03-01

    Peers influence adolescent and young adult smoking, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. It is necessary to understand whether the current assumption of peer pressure is valid, or whether an alternative explanation as imitation is more appropriate. We examined whether passive (imitation) and/or active (pressure) peer influence affects young adult smoking. An experiment was conducted among 68 daily-smoking students aged 16-24. The actual study aim was masked. Participants had to do a 30-min music task with a confederate. The experiment consisted of a 2 (smoking condition: confederate smokes or not) by 2 (pressure condition: confederate offers the participant a cigarette or not) factorial design, resulting in four conditions: (1) no smoking and no pressure (N=15); (2) smoking but no pressure (N=16); (3) pressure but no smoking (N=20); and (4) smoking and pressure (N=17). The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during this music assignment. Peer smoking significantly predicted the total number of cigarettes smoked by young adults while peer pressure did not. The interaction effect of peer pressure and peer smoking was not significant. Peer pressure did not have a significant additional contribution, over and above smoking of the peer. Passive (imitation) peer influence affected young adult smoking rather than active (pressure) peer influence. Thus, smoking cessation efforts should aim at preventing interaction with smoking peers and raising awareness about its impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of a City-Wide Indoor Smoking Ban on Smoking and Drinking Behaviors Across Emerging Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Talley, Anna E; Fromme, Kim

    2016-02-01

    Almost one-third of college students report recent cigarette use, primarily as "social smoking," and often in conjunction with alcohol use. While city-wide indoor smoking bans effectively reduce the number of social opportunities to smoke (eg, bars and music clubs), little is known about how these bans may impact the smoking behaviors of college students. Furthermore, nothing is known about how indoor smoking bans may impact students' drinking behaviors. The current study aims to determine the impact of a city-wide comprehensive indoor smoking ban on smoking and alcohol behaviors among a longitudinal sample of emerging adults. Data are from a 6-year longitudinal study (10 waves of data collection) that began the summer before college enrollment. Participants (N = 2244; 60% female) reported on their past 3-month smoking and drinking behaviors using Internet-based surveys at each wave. Piecewise linear growth modeling was used to determine how a city-wide comprehensive indoor smoking ban (implemented in the Fall of 2005 between Waves 4 and 5) impacted smoking frequency, cigarette quantity, drinking frequency, and number of binge drinking episodes. Smoking and alcohol use increased from the summer before college through the semester before implementation of the city-wide smoking ban. While smoking frequency (P < .001) and cigarette quantity (P < .05) declined after the ban, drinking frequency increased (P < .001) and the number of binge drinking episodes remained stable. Current findings suggest that comprehensive indoor smoking bans can influence the smoking behaviors of emerging adults, whereas trajectories of drinking are relatively unchanged. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p smoking initiation of young Chinese children in Hong Kong independent of parental smoking status. On the other hand, the effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  7. Smoking in the movies increases adolescent smoking: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Annemarie; Glantz, Stanton A

    2005-12-01

    Despite voluntary restrictions prohibiting direct and indirect cigarette marketing to youth and paid product placement, tobacco use remains prevalent in movies. This article presents a systematic review of the evidence on the nature and effect of smoking in the movies on adolescents (and others). We performed a comprehensive literature review. We identified 40 studies. Smoking in the movies decreased from 1950 to approximately 1990 and then increased rapidly. In 2002, smoking in movies was as common as it was in 1950. Movies rarely depict the negative health outcomes associated with smoking and contribute to increased perceptions of smoking prevalence and the benefits of smoking. Movie smoking is presented as adult behavior. Exposure to movie smoking makes viewers' attitudes and beliefs about smoking and smokers more favorable and has a dose-response relationship with adolescent smoking behavior. Parental restrictions on R-rated movies significantly reduces youth exposure to movie smoking and subsequent smoking uptake. Beginning in 2002, the total amount of smoking in movies was greater in youth-rated (G/PG/PG-13) films than adult-rated (R) films, significantly increasing adolescent exposure to movie smoking. Viewing antismoking advertisements before viewing movie smoking seems to blunt the stimulating effects of movie smoking on adolescent smoking. Strong empirical evidence indicates that smoking in movies increases adolescent smoking initiation. Amending the movie-rating system to rate movies containing smoking as "R" should reduce adolescent exposure to smoking and subsequent smoking.

  8. [Smoking history worldwide--cigarette smoking, passive smoking and smoke free environment in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brändli, Otto

    2010-08-01

    After the invention of the cigarette 1881 the health consequences of active smoking were fully known only in 1964. Since 1986 research findings allow increasingly stronger conclusions about the impact of passive smoking on health, especially for lung cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory disease in adults and children and the sudden infant death syndrome. On the basis of current consumption patterns, approximately 450 million adults will be killed by smoking between 2000 and 2050. At least half of these adults will die between age 30 and 69. Cancer and total deaths due to smoking have fallen so far only in men in high-income countries but will rise globally unless current smokers stop smoking before or during middle age. Higher taxes, regulations on smoking, including 100 % smoke free indoor spaces, and information for consumers could avoid smoking-associated deaths. Irland was 2004 the first country worldwide introducing smoke free bars and restaurants with positive effects on compliance, health of employees and business. In the first year after the introduction these policies have resulted in a 10 - 20 % reduction of acute coronary events. In Switzerland smoke free regulations have been accepted by popular vote first in the canton of Ticino in 2006 and since then in 15 more cantons. The smoking rate dropped from 33 to 27 % since 2001.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among non-smoking waiters: measurement of expired carbon monoxide levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Laranjeira

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is a health risk that is of concern to patrons and of particular concern to employees of restaurants and bars. OBJECTIVE: To assess environmental tobacco smoke exposure (using expired carbon monoxide levels in non-smoking waiters before and after a normal day's shift and to compare pre-exposure levels with non-smoking medical students. DESIGN: An observational study. SETTING: Restaurants with more than 50 tables or 100 places in São Paulo. SUBJECTS: 100 non-smoking restaurant waiters and 100 non-smoking medical students in São Paulo, Brazil. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Levels of expired carbon monoxide, measured with a Smokerlyser (Bedfont EC 50 Scientific, before and after a normal day's work. RESULTS: Waiters' pre-exposure expired carbon monoxide levels were similar to those of medical students, but after a mean of 9 hours exposure in the workplace, median levels more than doubled (2.0 ppm vs. 5.0 ppm, P <0.001. Post-exposure carbon monoxide levels were correlated with the number of tables available for smokers (Kendall's tau = 0.2, P <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is the most likely explanation for the increase in carbon monoxide levels among these non-smoking waiters. These findings can be used to inform the ongoing public health debate on passive smoking.

  10. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  11. Smoke-Free Universities Help Students Avoid Establishing Smoking by Means of Facilitating Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to clarify whether smoke-free policies affect the initiation or the quit­ting of smoking among young adults. Methods: In this natural quasi-experiment study, three universities with different enforcement of smoke-free policies were considered in Kazan City, Russian Federation. Exposure data were collected in 2008-2009 through measurement of particulate matter concentrations in typical sets of premises in each university to distinguish smoke-free universities (SFU and those not smoke-free (NSFU. All present third year students were surveyed in class in April-June 2011. Number of valid questionnaires equaled 635. The questionnaire was adapted from the Health Professions Students Survey and con­tained questions on smoking initiation, current tobacco use, willingness to quit, quit attempts, percep­tion of smoke-free policies enforcement, and the demographic data. Results: Among students of SFU, the percentage of current smokers was smaller than in NSFU: 42% vs. 64% in men and 32% vs. 43% in women. Prevalence of daily smoking was 11-12% in SFU, 26% in NSFU overall and 42% among male students. No advantage of SFU in limiting smoking initiation was found. Percentage of former smokers in SFU was 33% vs. 10% in NSFU. Among current smokers, 57% expressed willingness to quit in SFU and only 28% in NSFU. About 60% of current smokers in SFU attempted to quit within a year and only 36% did so in NSFU with 23% vs. 3% having done three or more attempts. Conclusion: Smoke-free universities help young adults to avoid establishing regular smoking by means of facilitating quitting smoking.

  12. Effects of smoking on brain aging, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Fujiwara, Takehiko; Seo, Shinya; Sasaki, Yuichiro.

    1985-01-01

    The chronic effects of smoking on regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), and on serum lipids and lipoprotein levels in neurologically normal subjects from 25 to 85 years old were studied. CBF was studied by the 133-Xenon inhalation method and gray matter flow was calculated following the method of Obrist et al. A hundred and twentyfive subjects who had no abnormalities in neurological examinations nor in CT scan, were divided into two groups smokers (48) and non-smokers (77). Those who had a smoking index (Number of cigarettes/day) x (years of smoking history)>200 were designated as smokers. The mean smoking index of smokers was 697. sixty-five of the 77 subjects in the non-smoking group had never smoked, and the mean smoking index of non-smokers was 16. Increased reduction of CBF with advancing age was clearly observed. In the male, CBF was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (mean CBF 15% lower in smokers, p<0.001). Compared to non-smokers, CBF in smokers was found to be significantly lower than the expected age matched value. Serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol values in smokers were significantly lower, and total cholesterol levels significantly higher than in non-smokers. We concluded that smoking chronically reduced CBF. Age dependent decrease of CBF was deteriorated by chronic smoking. Then, chronic smoking was suggested to be a risk factor for brain aging. Decrease of CBF in smokers was probably due to advanced atherosclerosis which produces vascular narrowing and raised resistance in cerebral blood vessels. (author)

  13. Impact of smoking images in magazines on the smoking attitudes and intentions of youth: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Donovan, Robert J; Weller, Narelle M; Jalleh, Geoffrey

    2007-12-01

    To determine the effect of magazine incidental smoking imagery on youths' smoking intentions. A magazine was developed incorporating photographs of smokers (Smoking Magazine). A second version of the magazine (Non-smoking Magazine) included these photographs with the tobacco paraphernalia digitally erased. Equal numbers of smokers and non-smokers aged 14-17 years (n = 357) were randomly assigned to look through one version of the magazine and then asked a series of questions. Smokers made more unprompted mention of smoking imagery than non-smokers after viewing Smoking Magazine (52% vs 34%; pNon-smoking Magazine to state a future intention to smoke (13% vs 0%; pNon-smoking Magazine (49% vs 24%; pnon-smoking females (46% vs 46%). Male smokers and non-smokers did not differ in their responses by magazine type. Incidental positive smoking imagery in magazines can generate the same sorts of consumer effects attributed to advertising in general, including tobacco advertising. Sex specific results of our study may be explained by the choice of smoking images used.

  14. Smoking and adolescent health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-hee Park

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available With the Westernization and opening of our society, adolescents’ smoking is increasing and being popularized. Many adolescents start smoking at an early age out of curiosity and venturesomeness, and earlier start of smoking makes it more difficult to quit smoking. Adolescents’ habitual smoking not only becomes a gateway to all kinds of substance abuse but also causes various health problems including upper respiratory infection, immature lung development, reduced maximum vital capacity, and lung cancer. Therefore, it is quite important to prevent adolescents from smoking. The lowering of adolescents’ smoking rate cannot be achieved only through social restrictions such as stereotyped education on the harms of smoking and ID checking. In order to lower adolescents’ smoking rate substantially, each area of society should develop standardized programs and make related efforts. As adolescents’ smoking is highly influenced by home environment or school life, it is necessary to make efforts in effective education and social reinforcement in school, to establish related norms, and to execute preventive education using peer groups. When these efforts are spread throughout society in cooperation with homes and communities, they will be helpful to protect adolescents’ health and improve their quality of life.

  15. Factors associated with smoking cessation success in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacha ZA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to assess factors associated with the success rate of smoking cessation among Lebanese smokers in a smoking cessation center. Methods: A cross-sectional data study, conducted between March 2014 and March 2016 in an outpatient smoking cessation center with 156 enrolled patients. The patient’s nicotine dependence and motivation to quit smoking were evaluated according to the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and Richmond tests respectively. Results: The number of packs smoked per year decreased the odds of smoking cessation success (p=0.004, ORa=0.982, CI 0.97-0.994, while the compliance with the offered treatment increased the odds of success by 7.68 times (p<0.001, ORa=7.68, CI 3.438-17.187. Highly dependent and highly motivated smokers had more success in the quitting process compared to those with a lower dependence and motivation respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that many factors can influence smoking cessation, an experience described as difficult, most significantly the number of packs per year and compliance with the smoking cessation treatment. Moreover, although these outcomes are not representative of the entire Lebanese population, we believe that health authorities could utilize these results when implementing upcoming smoking cessations programs. All attempts at cessation should have a goal of reducing the number of packs smoked per year to improve the chances of ceasing into the future.

  16. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  17. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  18. Attitudes to smoking and smoking cessation among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakumar, Sreejith; Adams, John

    2015-10-28

    This article presents a literature review on smoking rates among nurses and the nursing role in promoting smoking cessation worldwide. Findings included wide variations between countries in smoking rates among nurses, and the important influence of peers and family members on smoking behaviours. Several studies indicated that nurses would value more education on techniques to promote smoking cessation.

  19. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  20. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete

    2005-01-01

    Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases.......Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases....

  1. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  2. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  3. YouTube as a source of quitting smoking information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backinger, Cathy L; Pilsner, Alison M; Augustson, Erik M; Frydl, Andrea; Phillips, Todd; Rowden, Jessica

    2011-03-01

    To conduct analyses to determine the extent to which YouTube videos posted specific to smoking cessation were actually about quitting smoking and if so, whether or not they portrayed evidence-based practices (EBPs). In August 2008, researchers identified YouTube videos by search strategies, 'relevance' and 'view count' using the following three search terms: 'stop smoking', 'quit smoking' and 'smoking cessation (n=296 for full sample and n=191 for unique videos). Overall, almost 60% of videos contained a message about quitting smoking. Differences were found across search terms for videos about quitting smoking, with 'stop smoking' yielding the highest percentage (80.8%) of videos about quitting smoking. Almost half of the videos (48.9%) contained EBPs for cessation strategies; however, a significant portion contained either non--EBPs (28.4%) or both EBPs and non-EBPs (22.7%). The number of views per an individual video across the six categories ranged from a low of 8 in the 'relevance' strategy and 'smoking cessation' search term to a high of 1,247,540 in the 'view count' strategy and 'stop smoking' search term. Of the top three most viewed videos by strategy and search term, 66.7% included a specific mention of quitting smoking and, of these, the majority included EBPs. Results highlight the need to develop and upload videos containing EBPs both to increase the overall proportion of EBP videos in all categories, particularly in 'quit smoking' and 'stop smoking.' Research is needed to study whether YouTube videos influence knowledge, attitudes and behaviours regarding quitting smoking.

  4. Smoking Topography in Korean American and White Men: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study of Korean Americans’ smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. population. Methods Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 hours. Results Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p < 0.001) and have lower Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.04). Koreans smoked fewer cigarettes with the device (p = 0.01) than Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p < 0.001) than Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking more frequently with greater puff flows than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day. PMID:24068611

  5. Smoking habits, exposure to passive smoking and attitudes to a non-smoking policy among hospital staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, F; Gambi, A; Bergamaschi, A; Gentilini, F; De Luca, G; Monti, C; Stampi, S

    1998-01-01

    A survey was carried out into the smoking habits and exposure to passive smoking among health staff in the hospitals of Faenza, Forli and Rimini (Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy), 2453 subjects answered anonymously a 41 question questionnaire. 53% of the subjects were professionals nurses, 16% doctors, 15% maintenance staff, 10% ancillary staff, 1% non-medical graduates, 2% were administrators and 3% were assigned to the category ¿other'. Of the subjects answering the questionnaire 39% were smokers, 19% ex-smokers and 42% non smokers. The highest number of smokers was found among women (41%) compared to men (37%) and among ancillary staff (48%) compared to nurses (41%) and doctors (31%). The males were mostly heavy smokers (> or = 20 cigarettes/d) and smoked strong cigarettes (> or = 12 mg/cig condensate content). The females were mostly light smokers (< 10 cigarettes/d) and smoked light cigarettes (1-6 mg/cig condensate content). A high percentage of subjects (87%) smoked at work especially in areas reserved for staff. 43% and 26% of shift workers and non-shift workers tended not to modify their habit when on morning or afternoon shifts. During night shifts the majority of them increased their tobacco consumption. Around 87% of hospital employees stated they were exposed to passive smoking inside the hospital especially in cooking areas, at information desks and corridors. Nurses, ancillaries and maintenance staff were those most exposed and for a greater number of hours per day compared to doctors. Almost all subjects were aware of the harm caused by passive smoking. 56% of smokers, 65% of ex-smokers and 72% of non smokers said they were willing to participate in future campaigns to limit smoking in their hospitals.

  6. Youth Smoking in the Country and in the Military: Findings and Ideas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quester, A

    1999-01-01

    This briefing examines the rising number of youth smoking in the United States, the effects smoking has on bootcamp performance, the success of cessation programs in the military, and proposes several...

  7. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection.

  8. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 2. Advantages of quitting smoking. Strategies to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediate and remote benefits of smoking cessation are considered. Within one year after quitting smoking the ischemic heart disease (IHD risk will be 2 folds lower than the risk in smoking patient. Within 15 years the IHD risk declines to non-smoking population level. After 5-15 years after quitting smoking the risk of stroke also declines to non-smoker risk. Smoking cessation prior to cardio surgical intervention leads to reduction of complications incidence by 41%. Smoking cessation significantly reduces the risk of developing stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, peripheral arterial diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm at any age, in both sexes in comparison to patients who continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is the most cost-effective strategy of cardiovascular disease prevention. Today, the most effective smoking cessation strategy is the identification of smokers and continuous advice on smoking cessation, and offer of the appropriate medication, primarily varenicline. The article contains data from a number of studies showing that varenicline is an effective and safe drug for tobacco dependence treatment, in particular, in patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. 

  9. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  10. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  11. Characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking at a teaching hospital in Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qidwai, W.; Zahid, N.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking, among Family Practice Patients, at a teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Main outcome measures: Age at starting smoking, duration and number of cigarettes smoked, started smoking under influence of friends, colleagues, family members or self motivation, number of friends and colleagues who smoked, whether smoking is unhealthy, and actual chance of harm to an individual due to smoking is very rare or not. Results: One hundred patients who visited Family Practice Center were interviewed. Sixty one percent were young married men, well educated and either student, in private service, self employed or unemployed. Eighty-four (84%) smokers started smoking between 16-25 years of age, and smoked 6-20 cigarettes daily for two to twenty five years. Sixty-nine (69%) of them started smoking under the influence of friends and had 3-5 friends and colleagues who smoked. 91% of smokers believed that smoking is unhealthy and were aware that it causes lung cancer and heart disease. Majority of them (69%) believed that the actual harm of smoking to an individual is not very rare. Conclusion: We have documented the characteristics of smokers and their knowledge about smoking among Family Practice patients. Majority of the respondents started smoking at a young age under the influence of friends though they were aware of its harmful effects. Though the sample size is small but it does give an indication about the responsible factors to plan interventional preventive strategies. (author)

  12. Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site provides an online Smoke Ready Toolbox for Wildfires, which lists resources and tools that provide information on health impacts from smoke exposure, current fire conditions and forecasts and strategies to reduce exposure to smoke.

  13. Smoking and Your Digestive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Smoking and the Digestive System Smoking affects the entire body, increasing the ... caused by cigarette smoking. 2 What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ...

  14. How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Cassandra A; Papandonatos, George; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E; Kazura, Alessandra; Shiu, Shang-Ying; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers' smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers' smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.

  15. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  16. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  17. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  18. Russia SimSmoke: the long-term effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Galina Ya; Oganov, Rafael G; Boytsov, Sergey A; Ross, Hana; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee; Kotov, Alexey; Berezhnova, Irina; Levy, David T

    2014-11-01

    Russia has high smoking rates and weak tobacco control policies. A simulation model is used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies on past and future smoking prevalence and premature mortality in Russia. The Russia model was developed using the SimSmoke tobacco control model previously developed for the USA and other nations. The model inputs population size, birth, death and smoking rates specific to Russia. It assesses, individually and in combination, the effect of seven types of policies consistent with the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC): taxes, smoke-free air, mass media campaign, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies. Outcomes are smoking prevalence and the number of smoking-attributable deaths by age and gender from 2009 to 2055. Increasing cigarette taxes to 70% of retail price, stronger smoke-free air laws, a high-intensity media campaign and comprehensive treatment policies are each potent policies to reduce smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable premature deaths in Russia. With the stronger set of policies, the model estimates that, relative to the status quo trend, smoking prevalence can be reduced by as much as 30% by 2020, with a 50% reduction projected by 2055. This translates into 2 684 994 male and 1 011 985 female premature deaths averted from 2015-2055. SimSmoke results highlight the relative contribution of policies to reducing the tobacco health burden in Russia. Significant inroads to reducing smoking prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through strengthening tobacco control policies in line with FCTC recommendations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to determine whether cigarette smoking increases the probability of plutonium-induced lung cancer. Initial experiments, designed to characterize the effect of chronic cigarette smoke exposure on pulmonary clearance of plutonium aerosols, are described

  20. Secondhand Smoke and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the workplace, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In the United States, the source of most secondhand smoke is from cigarettes, followed by pipes, cigars, and other tobacco products ( 4 ). The amount of smoke created by a tobacco product depends on the amount ...

  1. Smoking - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 3 - Smoking - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  2. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  3. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  4. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  5. Cigarette smoking: knowledge and attitudes among Mexican physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPIA-CONYER ROBERTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence of the smoking habit among Mexican physicians as well as some of their attitudes and information on specific issues concerning smoking. Material and methods. In 1993, a survey was carried out among 3 568 physicians of the three major official health care institutions in Mexico City. A questionnaire designed for The Mexican National Survey of Addictions (ENA 1993 was used. Prevalence of cigarette smoking, age of onset, number of cigarettes per day; also information and attitudes concerning smoking were assessed. Results. The mean age was 37, 66% were males. Of the 3,488 (98% surveyed, 26.9% were smokers (62% daily, 20.6% were ex-smokers and 52.5% non-smokers. There were differences related to age and sex (p< 0.05. Of daily smokers, 36% smoked between 1 and 5 cigarettes. There was a significant trend among ex-smokers that linked the time they had ceased smoking with the fear to start smoking again. Physicians were well informed of the relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Over 80% considered tobacco an addictive drug but only 65% were in favor of banning smoking from their workplaces and over 10% were not aware that it is forbidden to smoke inside health care facilities. Conclusions. These results differ from other studies that find the prevalence of smoking among physicians lower than in the general population. Our study revealed a greater prevalence of the smoking habit among female physicians and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was greater than in the general population regardless of sex.

  6. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, B; Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E

    1996-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental factors that influence children to smoke, and to understand the reasons why children smoke. The results of this study may help lead to the development of more effective smoking prevention programs. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of all students in grades 6 to 11 (ages: 11 to 17 years) in two high schools in the Jerusalem area, using an anonymous self-completion questionnaire. The students were asked questions regarding the age at which they began smoking, initiation, their smoking habits, their reasons for smoking, and their views on children who smoke. In addition, they were asked about the smoking status of their parents, siblings, and friends. Finally they were asked about the health hazards of smoking. Of the 847 students who answered the questionnaire, 35% stated that they had smoked at least once and 14% stated that they were currently smoking. The percentage of students who were currently smoking increased gradually with age to 36%. There was a sharp increase in experimental smoking after seventh grade (ages 12 to 13 years). Having a friend who smoked substantially increased the likelihood of smoking, whereas parental smoking or having a sibling who smoked did not increase the likelihood of smoking. The most common reason for starting to smoke was "to try something new" (55%). There was a significant difference between the views of students with different smoking statuses regarding children who smoke: nonsmoking children associated more negative characteristics to smoking. All of the children studied were well aware of the health hazards of cigarette smoking. Smoking is highly prevalent among schoolchildren in Jerusalem. The increase in the rate of smoking at the age of 12

  7. What determines levels of passive smoking in children with asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, L.; Crombie, I. K.; Clark, R. A.; Slane, P. W.; Goodman, K. E.; Feyerabend, C.; Cater, J. I.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with parents who smoke are often exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke, and children with asthma are particularly susceptible to the detrimental effects of passive smoking. Data were collected from parents who smoke and from their asthmatic children. The families are currently taking part in a randomised controlled trial to test an intervention designed to reduce passive smoking in children with asthma. This paper reports on the baseline data. Questionnaire data and cotinine levels were compared in an attempt to assess exposure and to identify factors which influence exposure of the children. The aim of the study was to identify the scope for a reduction in passive smoking by these children. METHODS: A sample of 501 families with an asthmatic child aged 2-12 years was obtained. Factors influencing passive smoking were assessed by interviewing parents. Cotinine levels were measured from saliva samples using gas liquid chromatography with nitrogen phosphorous detection. RESULTS: Cotinine levels in children were strongly associated with the age of the child, the number of parents who smoked, contact with other smokers, the frequency of smoking in the same room as the child, and crowding within the home. Parental cotinine levels, the amount smoked in the home, and whether the home had a garden also exerted an independent effect on cotinine levels in the children. CONCLUSIONS: Many children are exposed to high levels of environmental tobacco smoke and their cotinine levels are heavily dependent upon proximity to the parent who smokes. Parents who smoke have a unique opportunity to benefit their child's health by modifying their smoking habits within the home. 


 PMID:9371205

  8. Predicting the onset of smoking in boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, A; Blair, V

    1989-01-01

    The problem of the high prevalence of smoking among girls and young women is of great concern. In an attempt to identify the factors which influence girls and boys respectively to attempt smoking, the study examines social background, advertising and brand awareness, knowledge, teaching and personal beliefs in conjunction as predictors of smoking. In this study which involved the administration of identical pre- and post-test questionnaires to a sample of boys and girls aged 12 and 13 years, nine variables expressed by never-smokers at pre-test stage were assessed as predictors of immediate future smoking. The two tests were administered 4 months apart to 1125 boys and 1213 girls in northern England. The nine variables included were parental smoking, best friends' smoking, perceived positive values of smoking, perceived negative values of smoking, correct health knowledge, cigarette-brand awareness, having a favourite cigarette advertisement, having a cigarette-brand sponsored sport in four top favourites on television. One group received teaching about smoking between the pre- and post-tests and this was also included as a variable. For boys, no variable investigated had any consistently statistically significant correlation with the uptake of smoking. The most important predictor of smoking for boys, having a best friend who smoked, was significant on application of the chi 2 test (P 0.037), although it was non-significant when included singly in a logistic regression model (0.094); the discrepancy was probably due to the small number of best friends known to smoke. For girls, four variables were found to be significant predictors of smoking when included singly in a logistic regression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  10. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmelin Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. Methods A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls. The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Results Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1 "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2 "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3 "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Conclusion Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  11. "Immortal but frightened"-smoking adolescents' perceptions on smoking uptake and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Emmelin, Maria

    2010-12-21

    To curb the tobacco epidemic a combination of comprehensive interventions are needed at different levels. Smoking uptake is a multi-factorial process that includes societal factors as well as social and individual characteristics. An understanding of the process is essential in order to model interventions. The aim of this study was to explore the role of smoking for young smokers by focusing on the mechanisms that facilitate young people starting to smoke as well as what could have prevented them from starting. A qualitative research design using focus group discussions was chosen as the basis for a content analysis approach. Eight focus groups were conducted with five to six participants in each (four groups with boys, four with girls). The informants were purposively selected to represent smokers in the age range of 15-16 years within the county. The total number of group participants was 44; 21 were girls and 23 boys. The study was performed at 7-9th grade schools in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Three themes related to different aspects of youth smoking behaviour emerged from the analysis. Theme 1) "gaining control" reflects what makes young people become smokers; theme 2) "becoming a part of the self" focuses on what facilitates youths to start smoking; theme 3) "concerned adults make a difference" indicates what may prevent them from starting. Young smokers described starting to smoke as a means of gaining control of feelings and situations during early adolescence. Smoking adolescents expect adults to intervene against smoking. Close relations with concerned adults could be a reason for less frequent smoking or trying to quit smoking. Interventions aimed at normative changes, with consistent messages from both schools and parents about the negative aspects of tobacco seem to be a feasible approach for preventing youth from using tobacco.

  12. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  13. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexander V

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. Methods In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Results Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03–1.68; Wald χ2 = 4.78 (df = 1 p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51–3.10; Wald χ2 = 17.80 (df = 1 p 2 = 54.71 (df = 1 p 2 = 26.45 (df = 1 p Conclusion Children of smokers were more likely to smoke and reported more favorable attitudes toward smoking compared to children of non-smokers. One interpretation of our findings is that parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results

  15. The moderating role of parental smoking on their children's attitudes toward smoking among a predominantly minority sample: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Anna V; Shete, Sanjay; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2008-07-14

    In general having a parent who smokes or smoked is a strong and consistent predictor of smoking initiation among their children while authoritative parenting style, open communication that demonstrates mutual respect between child and parent, and parental expectations not to smoke are protective. It has been hypothesized that parental smoking affects their children's smoking initiation through both imitation of the behavior and effects on attitudes toward smoking. The goals of the current analysis were to examine these two potential mechanisms. In 2003, 1,417 high school students in Houston, Texas, completed a cross-sectional survey as part of the evaluation of an interactive smoking prevention and cessation program delivered via CD-ROM. To assess the relationship between number of parents who currently smoke and children's smoking status, we completed an unconditional logistic regression. To determine whether the attitudes that children of smokers hold toward smoking are significantly more positive than the attitudes of children of non-smokers we examined whether the parents smoking status moderated the relationship between children's attitudes toward smoking and their ever smoking using unconditional logistic regressions. Compared to participants whose parents did not currently smoke, participants who reported one or both parents currently smoke, had increased odds of ever smoking (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.03-1.68; Wald chi2 = 4.78 (df = 1) p = 0.03 and OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.51-3.10; Wald chi2 = 17.80 (df = 1) p parent currently smokes (OR = 2.50; 95% CI: 1.96-3.19; Wald chi2 = 54.71 (df = 1) p parents did not smoke (OR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.40-2.12; Wald chi2 = 26.45 (df = 1) p parental smoking not only directly influences behavior; it also moderates their children's attitudes towards smoking and thereby impacts their children's behavior. Our results demonstrate a continued need for primary prevention smoking interventions to be sensitive to the family context. They also

  16. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Miodrag; Musović, Dijana; Petrović, Branislav; Milosević, Zoran; Milosavljević, Ivica; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Sokolović, Dusan

    2013-05-01

    According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the "ever" and "never" smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared with Serbian physicians in order to improve their smoking behavior and

  17. Smoking habits, knowledge about and attitudes toward smoking among employees in health institutions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the number of active smokers, Serbia occupies a high position in Europe, as well as worldwide. More than 47% of adults are smokers according to WHO data, and 33.6% according to the National Health Survey Serbia in 2006. Smoking physicians are setting a bad example to patients, they are uncritical to this habit, rarely ask patients whether they smoke and rarely advise them not to smoke. These facts contribute to the battle for reducing the number of medical workers who smoke, as well as the number of smokers among general population. The aim of the study was to determine the smoking behavior, knowledge and attitudes and cessation advice given to patients by healthcare professionals in Serbia. Methods. A stratified random cluster sample of 1,383 participants included all types of health institutions in Serbia excluding Kosovo. The self administrated questionnaire was used to collect data about smoking habits, knowledge, attitudes and cessation advice to patients given by health professionals in Serbia. Results. Out of 1,383 participants, 45.60% were smokers, of whom 34.13% were physicians and 51.87% nurses. There were 46.4% male and 45.4% female smokers. The differences in agreement with the statements related to the responsibilities of health care professionals and smoking policy are significant between the “ever” and “never” smokers, and also between physicians and nurses. Twenty-five percent of nurses and 22% of doctors claimed they had received formal training. However, only 35.7% of the healthcare professionals felt very prepared to counsel patients, while 52.7% felt somewhat prepared and 11.6% were not prepared at all. Conclusions. According to the result of this survey, there are needs for more aggressive nationwide non-smoking campaigns for physicians and medical students. Experiences from countries where physicians smoke less and more effectively carry out smoking cessation practices need to be shared

  18. [The consequences of passive smoking in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trédaniel, J; Savinelli, F; Vignot, S; Bousquet, G; Le Maignan, C; Misset, J-L

    2006-04-01

    Passive smoking is the involuntary inhalation by a non-smoker of smoke generated in his neighbourhood by one or more smokers. The effect of this exposure is already generally recognised in children. In adults the induction of chronic obstructive lung disease has not been demonstrated. This is no longer the case for ischaemic heart disease and lung cancer where the effect of passive exposure of non-smokers to cigarette smoke is recognised. The biological plausibility together with the concordance of results obtained over successive years, as well as the large numbers of patients included in the studies, lead to a confident conclusion that the risks in adult non-smokers are increased by the order of 25%. There is no evidence that bias affects the conclusions reached and the World Health Organisation has recently classified passive smoking as being carcinogenic in man. As a result of these data prevention of passive exposure to cigarette smoke should be part of a larger framework of smoking prevention, especially among the young.

  19. Smoking habit and benign breast disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziewulska-Bokiniec, A.

    1995-01-01

    The possible association between cigarette smoking and the risk of benign breast disease (BBD) was assessed in a case-control study conducted in Gdansk, Poland, between 1990 and 1994. The study compared 160 women with newly diagnosed BBD admitted to the Gdansk Cancer Outpatients Clinic and 160 controls, women from outpatients clinics at the Medical University of Gdansk. There was no convincing evidence of an association, either positive or negative, between various indicators of smoking habit (smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day, duration of smoking) and the risk of BBD. Slightly lower relative risk (RRs) of BBD in ex-smokers of 10 or more cigarettes per day (RR = 0.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.4-2.2), and with duration of smoking >= (RR = 0.1-3.4), were also observed in current smokers (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.4-1.5), and (RR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1-3.4), but these findings were not statistically significant. (author)

  20. Manitoba Health's emerging work on wildland fire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Joaquin; Darlene Oshanski

    2015-01-01

    Smoke caused by wildland fire events is an important public health issue, involving major risks to the health of people and the environment. Smoke from wildland fires can travel hundreds of kilometers, affecting air quality far from the flames. Through a partnership with Health Canada, Manitoba Health's Office of Disaster Management (ODM) has undertaken a number...

  1. Reducing Smoking at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Ruth A.

    Company policies and programs aimed at reducing smoking among employees have a number of other important benefits to employees and the company alike. Limiting or banning smoking helps create a safe and healthy workplace and may reduce direct health care costs, health and life insurance costs, employee absenteeism, costs associated with maintaining…

  2. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete

    2005-01-01

    Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases....

  3. Smoking in korean-chinese middle school students: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soonbok E; Yun, Soon-Nyung; Cui, Wenying; Kim, Hyang

    2013-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is rising among Chinese adolescents, and adolescent smoking is a crucial public health issue. Despite the number of studies that have explored the prevalence and various aspects of adolescent smoking in China, we know of no data currently available on smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. This article studies the prevalence of smoking and factors affecting smoking behavior among Korean-Chinese adolescents. Data were collected from six Korean-Chinese middle schools in the Yanbian region of Jilin, China. The differences in data from three groups (never-smokers, ever-smokers, and current smokers) were analyzed using χ2 tests and analysis of variance. Logistic regression was used to analyze the factors affecting smoking behavior. Among the 2,116 participants, 7.3% of the boys and 3.7% of the girls were ever-smokers, and 7.2% of the boys and 0.8% of the girls were current smokers. Differences among groups in terms of gender, number of friends currently smoking, parental smoking behavior, academic performance, alcohol consumption, and intention not to smoke were all significant (p smoking and ever-smoking students, currently smoking students perceived a significantly less antismoking environment (p = .000). The smoking rate was 2.24 times higher in boys than girls and was 11.57 times higher in students who had three smoking friends compared with those who had no smoking friends. The findings may help develop more effective intervention approaches to prevent adolescent smoking. Preventive programs should involve smoking parents by increasing the value they place on their children's nonsmoking behavior and equipping them to help deter adolescent smoking.

  4. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  5. Control beliefs are related to smoking prevention in prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Meyer-Leu, Yvonne; Samochowiec, Jakub; Grob, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is one of the most important avoidable health risks for the unborn child. Gynaecologists and midwives play a fundamental role in the prevention of smoking during pregnancy. However, a large number of health care practitioners still do not address smoking in pregnant patients. We examined whether gynaecologists and midwives engage in screening and counselling of pregnant women and conducting interventions to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Further, we examined the role of gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs. Control beliefs involve efficacy expectations--the practitioner's confidence in his capacity to conduct prevention efforts adequately--and outcome expectations--the practitioner's expectation that such prevention efforts are successful in general. A total of 486 gynaecologists and 366 midwives completed a questionnaire on screening of smoking, counselling and other interventions they conduct to prevent smoking during pregnancy. Moreover, gynaecologists and midwives rated their control beliefs regarding their influence on pregnant patients' smoking habits. The majority of gynaecologists and midwives reported screening all pregnant patients regarding smoking, explaining the risks and recommending smoking cessation. By contrast, only a minority engages in more extensive prevention efforts. Strong control beliefs were predictive of a higher likelihood of screening and counselling, as well as of engaging in more extensive interventions. The findings point to the importance of strengthening gynaecologists' and midwives' control beliefs by professional education and training on smoking prevention. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Tribal casinos in California: the last vestige of indoor smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background High levels of airborne particles from secondhand smoke have been reported in California Indian casinos. Yet, little is known regarding the smoking status of casino patrons, their avoidance of secondhand smoke while visiting, and their views on a hypothetical smoking ban. Methods Predictors of visiting an Indian casino were assessed among participants of the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (n = 10, 397). Exposure to and avoidance of secondhand smoke were subsequently analyzed among a subset of participants who had visited a casino in the year prior to the survey (n = 3, 361). Results Ethnic minorities, older individuals, current smokers and residents of sparsely populated regions of California were more likely than other demographic groups to visit a tribal casino. Avoidance of secondhand smoke was more frequent among the never smokers than former and current smokers, particularly those who last visited a casino lacking physical separation between non-smoking and smoking sections. The never smokers versus current smokers disproportionately expressed a willingness to extend their stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited. Conclusions If casinos became smoke free, then it is anticipated that they would be visited by a significantly larger number of Californians, including both patrons and those who otherwise would not have visited a casino. PMID:22364487

  7. Tribal casinos in California: the last vestige of indoor smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timberlake David S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of airborne particles from secondhand smoke have been reported in California Indian casinos. Yet, little is known regarding the smoking status of casino patrons, their avoidance of secondhand smoke while visiting, and their views on a hypothetical smoking ban. Methods Predictors of visiting an Indian casino were assessed among participants of the 2008 California Tobacco Survey (n = 10, 397. Exposure to and avoidance of secondhand smoke were subsequently analyzed among a subset of participants who had visited a casino in the year prior to the survey (n = 3, 361. Results Ethnic minorities, older individuals, current smokers and residents of sparsely populated regions of California were more likely than other demographic groups to visit a tribal casino. Avoidance of secondhand smoke was more frequent among the never smokers than former and current smokers, particularly those who last visited a casino lacking physical separation between non-smoking and smoking sections. The never smokers versus current smokers disproportionately expressed a willingness to extend their stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited. Conclusions If casinos became smoke free, then it is anticipated that they would be visited by a significantly larger number of Californians, including both patrons and those who otherwise would not have visited a casino.

  8. Constructing an integrated model of the antecedents of adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dawn; Abraham, Charles

    2004-09-01

    Reviews have called for integrative, theoretically informed models of the 'hundreds of associations' (Miller & Slap, 1989, p. 131) between psychosocial measures and adolescent smoking (e. g. Tyas & Pederson, 1998). Such a model was tested. A prospective, classroom-based survey measuring previously identified correlates of smoking allowed comparison of the strength of relationships between antecedents and smoking status six months later. The prospective sample included 225 13 to 14-year-olds. Measures of behaviour-specific cognitions derived from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-as well as personality, self-esteem, parental support and parental control, sociodemographic factors, and descriptive norms-were included. Relationships between antecedents were explored using path analyses. High initial rates of smoking were observed. Of the variance in smoking six months later, 56% was explained by seven direct predictors: intention, perceived ease of smoking, estimated number of friends smoking, percentage of older brothers smoking, self-esteem, extraversion and car access. Results emphasize the importance of behaviour-specific cognitions specified by the TPB but suggest that other factors, including extraversion and self-esteem, need to be included in models of the antecedents of smoking. The findings also imply that some antecedents, such as parental support, may indirectly influence adolescent smoking through their effect on other variables.

  9. Women and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1996-01-01

    Smoking kills over half a million women each year and is the most important preventable cause of female premature death in several developed countries. However, in many countries, cigarette smoking still tends to be regarded as a mainly male problem. This paper explores the reasons why more attention needs to be paid to issues around smoking and women, even in countries which currently have low levels of female cigarette smoking. The article includes an overview of current patterns and trends of smoking among women, and the factors which influence smoking uptake and cessation in women compared to men. The experience of countries with the longest history of widespread female smoking is used to identify some of the key challenges facing developed and developing countries. Tobacco companies have identified women as a key target group, therefore particular attention is given to the ways in which they have attempted to reach women through advertising and other marketing strategies. It is concluded that in order to halt and ultimately reverse the tobacco epidemic among women, tobacco control policies need to encompass both gender-specific and gender-sensitive approaches. Examples are given of the types of action that are needed in relation to research, public policy and legislation, and education.

  10. Parental smoking and children's attention to smoking cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Otten, R.; Voogd, H.F.J.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that children with smoking parents are more likely to initiate smoking than children with non-smoking parents. So far, these effects have been explained through genetic factors, modelling and norm-setting processes. However, it is also possible that parental smoking affects

  11. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  12. The Cost of Smoking in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, Wendy; Sung, Hai-Yen; Shi, Yanling; Stark, Brad

    2016-05-01

    The economic impact of smoking, including healthcare costs and the value of lost productivity due to illness and mortality, was estimated for California for 2009. Smoking-attributable healthcare costs were estimated using a series of econometric models that estimate expenditures for hospital care, ambulatory care, prescriptions, home health care, and nursing home care. Lost productivity due to illness was estimated using an econometric model predicting how smoking status affects the number of days lost from work or other activities. The value of lives lost from premature mortality due to smoking was estimated using an epidemiological approach. Almost 4 million Californians still smoke, including 146 000 adolescents. The cost of smoking in 2009 totaled $18.1 billion, including $9.8 billion in healthcare costs, $1.4 billion in lost productivity from illness, and $6.8 billion in lost productivity from premature mortality. This amounts to $487 per California resident and $4603 per smoker. Costs were greater for men than for women. Hospital costs comprised 44% of healthcare costs. Despite extensive efforts at tobacco control in California, healthcare and lost productivity costs attributable to smoking remain high. Compared to costs for 1999, the total cost was 15% greater in 2009. However, after adjusting for inflation, real costs have fallen by 13% over the past decade, indicating that efforts have been successful in reducing the economic burden of smoking in the state. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  14. Mortality in women and men in relation to smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Per Kragh

    1998-01-01

    characteristics differed considerably with gender, particularly in the older subjects. Overall mortality rates in smokers were approximately twice those in people who never smoked. Positive associations with smoking in both men and women were confirmed for all-cause mortality as well as mortality from respiratory...... disease, vascular disease, lung cancer, and other tobacco-related cancers. Despite large gender differences in age at smoking debut, total and cause-specific relative mortality in smokers was similar in men and women. After excluding non-inhalers, relative risks associated with smoking for respiratory......BACKGROUND: Mortality from smoking-related diseases in women is increasing worldwide. Studies comparing hazards associated with smoking in women and men based on a sufficient number of heavy smokers of both genders are lacking. METHODS: We used pooled data from three prospective population studies...

  15. Avoidable cancers in the Nordic countries. Tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Winther, J F; Pukkala, E

    1997-01-01

    Active smoking is causally associated with cancers of the lung, larynx, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, renal parenchyma, renal pelvis and urinary bladder, and passive smoking appears to be causally associated with cancer of the lung. Information on smoking habits for the years 1965......, 1975 and 1985 shows that more men than women in the Nordic countries were current smokers. The rates of women were stable over time and those of men were decreasing, approaching those of women. Lung cancer, in particular, is strongly associated with active smoking: by increasing the number...... of cigarettes smoked per day (lifelong) to 5, 10, 20 and 40 or more, the risk increases by five-, eight-, 16- and 30-fold, respectively, over that of people who have never smoked. Thus, with approximately 35% current smokers and 25% former smokers among Nordic men in 1985 and approximately 30% current smokers...

  16. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E; Omoto, Jason; Ong, Seow Ling; Omoto, Harmeena Sahota; Dhaliwal, Narinder

    2012-09-22

    unenclosed, area had PM(2.5) levels that were 10 to 60 μg/m(3) and 6 to 23 μg/m(3) higher than outdoor levels, respectively, indicating contamination from smoking. Although fewer than roughly 10% of casino patrons are actively smoking on average, these individuals substantially increase PM(2.5) exposure for all patrons in smoking and unenclosed nonsmoking areas. Nonsmoking areas may be too inconvenient, small, or undesirable to serve a substantial number of nonsmoking patrons. Imposing indoor smoking bans, or contained smoking areas with a maximum capacity of up to 10% of the total patronage, would offer protection from PM2.5 exposures for nonsmoking patrons and reduce employee exposures.

  17. [Medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfel, József; Oberling, János; Tóth, Ildikó; Prugberger, László; Nagy, Lajos

    2011-03-20

    Medical years are very important in shaping the attitudes of future doctors. It is proven that doctors who smoke do not advise their patient to stop smoking. We have to know the students' smoking habits and attitudes about smoking cessation to make them interested in the fight against tobacco. To investigate medical students' smoking habits and attitudes about cessation. We applied the Hungarian translation of the Global Health Professionals Student Survey. Medical students from the first and fifth year filled in the survey anonymously during the seminars. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS. In both years 245 students filled in the questionnaire. In the first year 30.8%, in the fifth year 38.9% of the students were defined as smokers. During the academic study the number of daily smokers and the number of smoked cigarettes increases. Students require training about smoking cessation, however they would entrust it to a specialist. Based on our data we need a teaching block in the curricula about smoking and smoking cessation.

  18. Smoking and Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markidan, Janina; Cole, John W; Cronin, Carolyn A; Merino, Jose G; Phipps, Michael S; Wozniak, Marcella A; Kittner, Steven J

    2018-05-01

    There is a strong dose-response relationship between smoking and risk of ischemic stroke in young women, but there are few data examining this association in young men. We examined the dose-response relationship between the quantity of cigarettes smoked and the odds of developing an ischemic stroke in men under age 50 years. The Stroke Prevention in Young Men Study is a population-based case-control study of risk factors for ischemic stroke in men ages 15 to 49 years. The χ 2 test was used to test categorical comparisons. Logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio for ischemic stroke occurrence comparing current and former smokers to never smokers. In the first model, we adjusted solely for age. In the second model, we adjusted for potential confounding factors, including age, race, education, hypertension, myocardial infarction, angina, diabetes mellitus, and body mass index. The study population consisted of 615 cases and 530 controls. The odds ratio for the current smoking group compared with never smokers was 1.88. Furthermore, when the current smoking group was stratified by number of cigarettes smoked, there was a dose-response relationship for the odds ratio, ranging from 1.46 for those smoking strong dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked daily and ischemic stroke among young men. Although complete smoking cessation is the goal, even smoking fewer cigarettes may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke in young men. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Influences on adolescent smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Koprivnikar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are numerous and intertwining factors that influence adolescent smoking and have to be considered when we develop and implement programmes and measures for the prevention and reduction of adolescent smoking. In different environments (schools, health system, local communities we have to reduce risk factors and strenghten protective factors through programmes incorporated in the system. The protective factors are low prevalence of smoking, healthy lifestyle, physical activity and good mental health, indicating the importance of links to programmes outside of the tobacco control.

  20. Smoking, health and ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicita-Mauro Claudio

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Here, the lecture of V. Nicita-Mauro on Smoking, health and ageing is summarized. Smoking represents an important ageing accelerator, both directly by triggering an inflammatory responses, and indirectly by favoring the occurrence of several diseases where smoking is a recognized risk factor. Hence, non-smokers can delay the appearance of diseases and of ageing process, so attaining longevity.

  1. Smoking in Malaysia: promotion and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon Kee Teoh

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the promotion and control of smoking in Malaysia covers: tobacco cultivation; cigarette manufacture, advertising, and smoking; action against smoking; smoking in public; price increases; and future targets. About 62,000 families (120,000 people) of Malaysia's 14 million population are involved in tobacco farming, and 360 independent curers employ about 25,000 workers. Tobacco output has increased from 1.82 million kilograms in 1970 to a peak of 9.4 million kilograms in 1982, worth $38 million. Tobacco manufacturers have direct interest in tobacco growing. 60% of the tobacco required for cigarette manufacturing is locally produced and is expected to increase to 65-70% by 1985. The industry, unable to deny the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, is now exploiting the economy of the tobacco farmers to justify their business and to influence the government from taking any action against smoking. The government still provides technical expertise, guarantees purchase of tobacco, and provides almost 75% of the fertilizers used. There are 7 cigarette manufacturing companies. Cigarette sales in 1982 totaled nearly $460 million. The government received over $210 million or 47% of the total sales in various forms of taxes, a factor which influenced government handling of the smoking issue. Cigarettes were the most advertised product in 1981 when $9 million was spent. In 1982, all cigarette ads were banned from television and radio and in all government publications. The government stated that the revenue could be replaced. The number of cigarette smokers increased from 5 to 7% over the last decade. Recent studies of secondary school children showed a smoking incidence of about 20%; about half were habitual smokers and about 1% had smoked for over 3 years. Except for elderly villagers, few women smoke. After 7 years of lobbying by the Malaysian Medical Association and the Ministry of Health, the Cabinet approved legislation in 1977 requiring all cigarette

  2. Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation, and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a 'surgical smoke' containing ultrafine ( Methods To measure the amount of generated particulates in 'surgical smoke' during different surgical procedures and to quantify the particle number concentration for operation room personnel a condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Inc. was applied. Results Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation induced the production of very high number concentration (> 100000 cm-3 of particles in the diameter range of 10 nm to 1 μm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surrounding of the production side. In the presence of a very efficient air conditioning system the increment and decrement of ultrafine particle occurrence was a matter of seconds, with accumulation of lower particle number concentrations in the operation room for only a few minutes. Conclusion Our investigation showed a short term very high exposure to ultrafine particles for surgeons and close assisting operating personnel – alternating with longer periods of low exposure.

  3. Sweden SimSmoke: the effect of tobacco control policies on smoking and snus prevalence and attributable deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Aimee M; Blackman, Kenneth; Currie, Laura M; Levy, David T

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the effect of past tobacco control policies and projects the effect of future policies on smoking and snus use prevalence and associated premature mortality in Sweden. The established SimSmoke model was adapted with population, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data from Sweden. SimSmoke evaluates the effect of taxes, smoke-free air, mass media, marketing bans, warning labels, cessation treatment and youth access policies on smoking and snus prevalence and the number of deaths attributable to smoking and snus use by gender from 2010 to 2040. Sweden SimSmoke estimates that significant inroads to reducing smoking and snus prevalence and premature mortality can be achieved through tax increases, especially when combined with other policies. Smoking prevalence can be decreased by as much as 26% in the first few years, reaching a 37% reduction within 30 years. Without effective tobacco control policies, almost 54 500 lives will be lost in Sweden due to tobacco use by the year 2040. Besides presenting the benefits of a comprehensive tobacco control strategy, the model identifies gaps in surveillance and evaluation that can help better focus tobacco control policy in Sweden. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camlin, Nicole J.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.; Holt, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function

  5. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  6. Through the smoke: Use of in vivo and in vitro cigarette smoking models to elucidate its effect on female fertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camlin, Nicole J. [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, Eileen A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Holt, Janet E. [School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    A finite number of oocytes are established within the mammalian ovary prior to birth to form a precious ovarian reserve. Damage to this limited pool of gametes by environmental factors such as cigarette smoke and its constituents therefore represents a significant risk to a woman's reproductive capacity. Although evidence from human studies to date implicates a detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on female fertility, these retrospective studies are limited and present conflicting results. In an effort to more clearly understand the effect of cigarette smoke, and its chemical constituents, on female fertility, a variety of in vivo and in vitro animal models have been developed. This article represents a systematic review of the literature regarding four of experimental model types: 1) direct exposure of ovarian cells and follicles to smoking constituents’ in vitro, 2) direct exposure of whole ovarian tissue with smoking constituents in vitro, 3) whole body exposure of animals to smoking constituents and 4) whole body exposure of animals to cigarette smoke. We summarise key findings and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each model system, and link these to the molecular mechanisms identified in smoke-induced fertility changes. - Highlights: • In vivo exposure to individual cigarette smoke chemicals alters female fertility. • The use of in vitro models in determining molecular mechanisms • Whole cigarette smoke inhalation animal models negatively affect ovarian function.

  7. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  8. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  9. The African American Youth Smoking Experience: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E; Gardiner, Phillip S; Wright, La Tanisha C; Pechacek, Terry F

    2016-04-01

    Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the

  10. The African American Youth Smoking Experience: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860

  11. Smoking in hospital: a survey of attitudes of staff, patients, and visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garratt, D J; Gough, N A; Taylor, E J; Banks, M H; Sönksen, P H

    1978-01-01

    A survey was carried out on attitudes to smoking in hospital. Analysis of 411 interviews showed that the majority (64%) of those questioned approved of some restrictions on patients smoking in the wards. Eighteen per cent would have liked to see a complete ban on smoking, while an identical number favoured no restrictions at all. Smoking habit influenced response; only 8% of smokers, compared with 25% of non-smokers, would have liked to see a total ban on smoking. Attitudes to smoking varied according to the status of the persons interviewed; only 6% of visitors and 7% of nurses approved of a complete ban on smoking, compared with 32% of medical students and 27% of doctors. The results suggest that the introduction of smoking and non-smoking areas in hospital wards would be approved by the majority of patients, staff, and visitors. PMID:711983

  12. Smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, K; Rahu, K; Rahu, M

    2005-05-01

    This study examined the smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking among Estonian physicians. Cross-sectional data for 2668 physicians were gathered by a self-administered postal survey. The current smoking prevalence was 24.9% for male physicians and 10.8% for female physicians. The percentages of ex-smokers were 32.9 and 16.8%, respectively. Smoking prevalence among physicians was below the levels reported for the highest educational bracket of the total population in Estonia. Non-smoking physicians had more unfavourable views towards smoking than those who smoked. The majority of physicians were aware of the association between smoking and various diseases, with significant differences between smokers and non-smokers. Non-smoking physicians were more active in asking patients about smoking habits than those who smoked. Most Estonian physicians, especially those who smoked, failed to perceive themselves as positive role models. This study found a lower prevalence of smoking among physicians compared with the general population, and demonstrated the impact of personal smoking on physicians' attitudes towards smoking. The results provide an important challenge to medical education in Estonia.

  13. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Hearing Loss: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Nagahama, Satsue; Akter, Shamima; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kashino, Ikuko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kentaro; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2018-03-14

    We aimed to determine the prospective association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of hearing loss in a large Japanese cohort. The cohort study included 50195 employees, who were aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 8 years. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and hearing loss. During follow-up, 3532 individuals developed high-frequency hearing loss, and 1575 developed low-frequency hearing loss. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with current smokers was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 1.7) and 1.2 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.4) for high- and low-frequency hearing loss, respectively, as compared with never smokers. The risk of high- and low-frequency hearing loss increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (both p for trend hearing loss, respectively. The analysis by quitting years showed a decline in risk of hearing loss after quitting smoking, even among those who quitted less than 5 years before baseline. Smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss, especially at the high frequency, in a dose-response manner. The excess risk of hearing loss associated with smoking disappears in a relatively short period after quitting. The prospective association between smoking and hearing loss has not been well studied. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the largest to date investigating the association between smoking and incident hearing loss. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in a dose-response manner. Quitting smoking virtually eliminates the excess risk of hearing loss, even among quitters with short duration of cessation. These results suggest that smoking may be a causal factor for hearing loss, although further research would

  14. A survey of UK optometry trainees' smoking cessation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorencatto, Fabiana; Harper, Alice M; Francis, Jill J; Lawrenson, John G

    2016-07-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for a number of eye conditions, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts and thyroid eye disease. Smoking cessation interventions have been shown to be highly cost-effective when delivered by a range of healthcare professionals. Optometrists are well placed to deliver smoking cessation advice to a wide population of otherwise healthy smokers. Yet optometrists remain a relatively neglected healthcare professional group in smoking cessation research and policy. Surveys of UK medical/nursing schools and of optometrists' training internationally demonstrate significant deficits in current curricular coverage regarding smoking cessation. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation training in UK optometry trainees' undergraduate and pre-registration training. All undergraduate optometry schools in the UK (n = 9) were invited to participate in a web-based survey of their curricular coverage and assessment related to smoking cessation, and of perceived barriers to delivering smoking cessation training. A content analysis of the College of Optometrists Scheme for Registration Trainee Handbook 2014 was conducted to identify competence indicators related to smoking cessation. Nine undergraduate optometry schools (100%) responded to the survey. The majority reported dedicating limited hours (0-3) to teaching smoking cessation, and predominantly focused on teaching the harmful effects of smoking (89%). Only one school provides practical skills training for delivering evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, including very brief advice. The majority of schools (78%) reported that they did not formally examine students on their knowledge or skills for supporting smoking cessation, and rated confidence in their graduates' abilities to deliver smoking cessation interventions as 'poor' (78%). Lack of knowledge amongst staff was identified as the key barrier to teaching about smoking cessation support. The pre

  15. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low Socioeconomic Status Tobacco Use Among Adults with Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders Tobacco Use by Geographic ... Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report ...

  16. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... around along with the pipe. Also beware of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), which contain cancer-causing chemicals ... smoking. Nicotine and the other toxins in cigarettes, cigars, and pipes can affect a person's body quickly, ...

  17. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  18. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  19. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  20. Determinants of passive smoking in children in Edinburgh, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, M J; Strachan, D P; Feyerabend, C

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Using saliva cotinine as a quantitative marker, we examined the contribution of factors other than parental smoking to children's passive exposure to tobacco smoke. METHODS. Saliva specimens from a random sample of 734 7-year-old schoolchildren in Edinburgh, Scotland, were analyzed for cotinine. Their parents completed a questionnaire covering smoking habits and conditions in the home. RESULTS. A number of independent predictors of cotinine were identified in addition to the main one of smoking by household members. These predictors included home ownership, social class, day of the week, season of the year, number of parents present, crowding in the home, the number of children in the household, and sex. Cotinine was higher in children from less advantaged backgrounds, during winter, on Mondays, in girls, and when fewer other children were present. The effects were similar between children from nonsmoking and smoking homes. CONCLUSIONS. Questionnaire measures of parental smoking are insufficient to fully characterize young children's exposure to passive smoking. Because socioeconomic variables contribute to measured exposure, passive-smoking studies that treat class as a confounder and control for it may be overcontrolling. PMID:1503162

  1. Are We Marketing the Right Message: Can Kids "Just Say 'No'" to Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Assesses the compliance-resisting strategies children use when rejecting pressure to smoke. Finds that strategies vary with conditions such as relationship, number of people present, amount of pressure, and risk for future smoking. Suggests that researchers consider situational variations and risk status for future smoking when developing…

  2. Secondhand Smoke PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  3. Smoking habits of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jacka

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available There is little debate as to the harmful effects of cigarette smoking on health. Most health workers advise their patients to cease the practice. The impact of the advice is however diluted if it is seen to be ignored by the professionals themselves. As nurses play an increasing role in all levels of health care a survey was undertaken to investigate the smoking habits of two groups of nurses - those operating within the community and those working in institutions.

  4. Parental Smoking and Adult Offspring's Smoking Behaviors in Ethnic Minority Groups: An Intergenerational Analysis in the HELIUS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Derks, Eske M; Peters, Ron J G; Kunst, Anton E; Stronks, Karien

    2017-06-21

    To understand smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups, studies have largely focused on societal factors, with little attention to family influences. Yet studies among majority groups have identified parental smoking as an important risk factor. It is unknown whether this applies to ethnic minority groups. We investigated the association between parental smoking and adult offspring's smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups with an immigrant background. We used data from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study from Amsterdam (the Netherlands) from January 2011 to December 2015. The sample consisted of 2184 parent-offspring pairs from South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, and Ghanaian origin. We collected self-reported smoking data: current status, duration of exposure to parental smoking, number of daily cigarettes, heavy smoking ( > 10 cigarettes/day), and nicotine dependency (using the Fagerström Test). Analyses were stratified by offspring's age, cohabitation with parent, education (parent/offspring), offspring's cultural orientation, and gender concordance within pairs. Logistic regression was used. Overall, parental smoking was associated with offspring's smoking behaviors (eg, current smoking: odds ratio 2.33; 95% confidence interval 1.79-3.03), with little ethnic variation. We found dose-response associations between exposure to parental smoking and offspring's smoking. The associations were similar across different strata but stronger in gender-concordant pairs (3.16; 2.12-4.51 vs. 1.73; 1.15-2.59 in gender-discordant pairs; p-value for interaction .017). Parental smoking is associated with offspring's smoking behaviors in ethnic minority groups across different strata but particularly in gender-concordant pairs. Similar to majority groups, family influences matter to smoking behaviors in ethnic minority groups. Our findings have deepened our understanding of smoking behaviors among ethnic minority groups. Future

  5. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  6. The Stages of Change in Smoking Cessation in a Representative Sample of Korean Adult Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Seo, Hong-Gwan

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the stages of change in smoking cessation in a representative sample of Korean adult smokers. The study subjects, all adult smokers (n=2,422), were recruited from the second Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2001. The stages of change were categorized using demographic (age and sex), socioeconomic (education, residence, and household income), and smoking characteristics (age at smoking onset, duration of smoking, and number of cigarettes sm...

  7. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  8. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  9. Heubach Smoking Habits and Attitudes Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heubach, Philip Gilbert

    This Questionnaire, consisting of 74 yes/no, multiple choice, and completion items, is designed to assess smoking practices and attitudes toward smoking in high school students. Questions pertain to personal data, family smoking practices and attitudes, personal smoking habits, reasons for smoking or not smoking, and opinions on smoking. Detailed…

  10. Acupuncture for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A R; Rampes, H; Ernst, E

    2000-01-01

    Acupuncture is promoted as a treatment for smoking cessation, and is believed to reduce withdrawal symptoms. The objective of this review is to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in smoking cessation in comparison with: a) sham acupuncture b) other interventions c) no intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, Medline, PsycLit, Dissertation Abstracts, Health Planning and Administration, Social SciSearch, Smoking & Health, Embase, Biological Abstracts and DRUG. Randomised trials comparing a form of acupuncture with either sham acupuncture, another intervention or no intervention for smoking cessation. We extracted data in duplicate on the type of subjects, the nature of the acupuncture and control procedures, the outcome measures, method of randomisation, and completeness of follow-up. We assessed abstinence from smoking at the earliest time-point (before 6 weeks), at six months and at one year follow-up in patients smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically validated rates if available. Those lost to follow-up were counted as continuing to smoke. Where appropriate, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed effects model. We identified 18 publications involving 20 comparisons. Acupuncture was not superior to sham acupuncture in smoking cessation at any time point. The odds ratio (OR) for early outcomes was 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 1.49); the OR after 6 months was 1.38 (95% confidence interval 0.90 to 2.11) and after 12 months 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.72 to 1.43). Similarly, when acupuncture was compared with other anti-smoking interventions, there were no differences in outcome at any time point. Acupuncture appeared to be superior to no intervention in the early results, but this difference was not sustained. The results with different acupuncture techniques do not show any one particular method (i.e. auricular acupuncture or non

  11. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  12. Smoking habits and smoking cessation among North Carolina nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I E

    1989-01-01

    A 1987 questionnaire survey of a 1% random sample (n = 356) of registered nurses in North Carolina provided data on the smoking habits and smoking cessation. Fifty-six percent were never smokers; 19% were current smokers. Among the ever smokers, 31% had quit smoking for at least one year. Twenty-two percent of the former smokers had smoked less than 5 years and 39% less than 10 years before quitting. Anecdotal notes from never smokers suggested that their major deterrent to smoking was their own parents smoking. Concerns about the addictive smoking behavior and health effects of smoking observed in their parents as well as concerns about potential health risks to themselves deterred them from smoking. Concerns about the adverse consequences of smoking was the most influential factor influencing smoking cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking. Friends' and family's encouragement to stop smoking was the most influential external factor motivating nurses to quit or reduce cigarette consumption. Fifty-seven percent of the former smokers quit smoking after one or two attempts while 53 of the current smokers had tried to quit 3 or more times - 90% had tried at least once to quit smoking; however, only 18% of the current smokers had abstained for more than one year during any of their attempts to quit. Implications of the results include: (1) smoking cessation programs for nurses in the workplace may have considerable impact since the majority of nurses who smoke are tying to quit; (2) relapse prevention strategies need to be an integral part of such smoking cessation programs including involvement of family and friends to support the smokers in their cessation efforts.

  13. Effect of Smoking Scenes in Films on Immediate Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmueli, Dikla; Prochaska, Judith J.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The National Cancer Institute has concluded that exposure to smoking in movies causes adolescent smoking and there are similar results for young adults. Purpose This study investigated whether exposure of young adult smokers to images of smoking in films stimulated smoking behavior. Methods 100 cigarette smokers aged 18–25 years were randomly assigned to watch a movie montage composed with or without smoking scenes and paraphernalia followed by a10-minute recess. The outcome was whether or not participants smoked during the recess. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008 and 2009. Results Smokers who watched the smoking scenes were more likely to smoke during the break (OR3.06, 95% CI=1.01, 9.29). In addition to this acute effect of exposure, smokers who had seen more smoking in movies before the day of the experiment were more likely to smoke during the break (OR 6.73; 1.00–45.25 comparing the top to bottom percentiles of exposure) were more likely to smoke during the break. Level of nicotine dependence (OR 1.71; 1.27–2.32 per point on the FTND scale), “contemplation” (OR 9.07; 1.71–47.99) and “precontemplation” (OR 7.30; 1.39–38.36) stages of change, and impulsivity (OR 1.21; 1.03–1.43), were also associated with smoking during the break. Participants who watched the montage with smoking scenes and those with a higher level of nicotine dependence were also more likely to have smoked within 30 minutes after the study. Conclusions There is a direct link between viewing smoking scenes and immediate subsequent smoking behavior. This finding suggests that individuals attempting to limit or quit smoking should be advised to refrain from or reduce their exposure to movies that contain smoking. PMID:20307802

  14. The Design of a Fire Source in Scale-Model Experiments with Smoke Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Brohus, Henrik; la Cour-Harbo, H.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the design of a fire and a smoke source for scale-model experiments with smoke ventilation. It is only possible to work with scale-model experiments where the Reynolds number is reduced compared to full scale, and it is demonstrated that special attention to the fire source...... (heat and smoke source) may improve the possibility of obtaining Reynolds number independent solutions with a fully developed flow. The paper shows scale-model experiments for the Ofenegg tunnel case. Design of a fire source for experiments with smoke ventilation in a large room and smoke movement...

  15. Employee and employer support for workplace-based smoking cessation: results from an international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Michael T; Taylor, Humphrey

    2010-01-01

    Workplace smoking cessation programs can increase smoking cessation rates, improve employee health, reduce exposure to second-hand smoke, and decrease costs. To assist with the development of such programs, we conducted a Global Workplace Smoking Survey to collect information on workplace attitudes towards smoking cessation programs. Data were collected from 1,403 employers (smoking and non-smoking) and 3,525 smoking employees participating in surveys in 14 countries in Asia, Europe, and South America in 2007. Results were weighted to ensure that they were representative of smokers and employers at companies with the specified number of employees. More than two-thirds of employers (69%) but less than half of employees (48%) indicated that their company should help employees with smoking cessation. Approximately two-thirds of employees and 81% of employers overall felt that smoke-free policies encourage cessation, but fewer individuals from Europe (vs. from Asia or South America) agreed with this. In companies with a smoke-free policy, 76% of employees and 80% of employers felt that their policy had been somewhat, very, or extremely effective in motivating employees to quit or reduce smoking. Employers and employees differed substantially regarding appropriate methods for encouraging cessation, with more employees favouring financial incentives and more employers favouring education. Both employees and employers value smoke-free workplace programs and workplace cessation support activities, although many would like their companies to offer more support. These results will be useful for organizations exploring means of facilitating smoking cessation amongst employees.

  16. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions. PMID:22649464

  17. Adult current smoking: differences in definitions and prevalence estimates--NHIS and NSDUH, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Heather; Trosclair, Angela; Gfroerer, Joe

    2012-01-01

    To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen) were used. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  18. Adult Current Smoking: Differences in Definitions and Prevalence Estimates—NHIS and NSDUH, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare prevalence estimates and assess issues related to the measurement of adult cigarette smoking in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH. Methods. 2008 data on current cigarette smoking and current daily cigarette smoking among adults ≥18 years were compared. The standard NHIS current smoking definition, which screens for lifetime smoking ≥100 cigarettes, was used. For NSDUH, both the standard current smoking definition, which does not screen, and a modified definition applying the NHIS current smoking definition (i.e., with screen were used. Results. NSDUH consistently yielded higher current cigarette smoking estimates than NHIS and lower daily smoking estimates. However, with use of the modified NSDUH current smoking definition, a notable number of subpopulation estimates became comparable between surveys. Younger adults and racial/ethnic minorities were most impacted by the lifetime smoking screen, with Hispanics being the most sensitive to differences in smoking variable definitions among all subgroups. Conclusions. Differences in current cigarette smoking definitions appear to have a greater impact on smoking estimates in some sub-populations than others. Survey mode differences may also limit intersurvey comparisons and trend analyses. Investigators are cautioned to use data most appropriate for their specific research questions.

  19. Investigation of the decline in reported smoking-caused wildfires in the USA from 2000 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Butry; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Douglas S. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The number of smoking-caused wildfires has been falling nationwide. In national forests in 2011, smoking-caused wildfires represented only 10% of their 1980 level. No other cause of wildfire has experienced this level of decline. For 12 states, we evaluate the rate of smoking-caused wildfires and find it is a function of weather, other ignitions, the number of adult...

  20. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  1. Increased suicidal risk among smoking schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Sapir, Anna Piccone; Shaked, Ginette; Poreh, Amir; Dannon, Pinhas Nadim; Chelben, Joseph; Kotler, Moshe

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients display a high suicidal risk, although this risk is difficult to predict. One of the variables associated with increased suicide risk is smoking. In the present study, we assessed the suicidal risk in schizophrenia patients, smokers and nonsmokers. We also evaluated the impact of various variables such as psychotic symptoms, impulsivity, and extra-pyramidal side effects on suicidal risk. Sixty-one schizophrenia patients responded to a battery of measures, including the suicidal risk scale (SRS), the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the impulsivity control scale, and the Simpson Angus Scale for extrapyramidal side effects. The effect of smoking on the various measures, especially suicidal risk, was examined. Schizophrenia patients who smoke obtained higher PANSS scores (both total score and positive and negative subscales), but did not differ on the Simpson Angus scale of extrapyramidal side effects. They also exhibited higher suicide risk as reflected by higher scores on the SRS, and a trend for higher impulsivity as measured by the impulsivity control scale. Women that smoked had higher SRS scores as compared with female nonsmokers, and also higher than in males, smokers and nonsmokers. Smoking and a history of suicide attempt predicted in our regression analysis a higher SRS score. When conducting separate analyses for the male and female patients, the significant contributors were the PANSS total score among the males and the number of pack-years among the female patients. Despite hints toward the role of smoking in suicidal behavior in Schizophrenia, especially among female patients, more studies are needed to elucidate the association between smoking and suicidality in schizophrenia patients.

  2. The Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Salivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Petrušić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the detrimental effect of smoking on the function of the salivary glands. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 patients who were divided into two groups: a test group which included smokers and control group represented by non-smokers. Each group included 30 patients. General information was collected from all the respondents via a questionnaire as well as the data on the duration of smoking and number of cigarettes smoked per day. Saliva was collected by spitting method in a graduated tube and the amount of unstimulated and stimulated saliva was measured and recorded in ml per minute. Stimulated saliva was collected immediately after rinsing the mouth with a 2% aqueous solution of citric acid which is carried salivary stimulation. The presence of pigmentation on the teeth and coated tongue were recorded during clinical examination. The degree of oral hygiene was determined by plaque index. All the obtained data were statistically analyzed with significance level p <0.05. Results: The results showed no significant differences in the amount of saliva between smokers and non-smokers, however, the amount of saliva decreases significantly with the duration of smoking and increasing age of smokers. Also proven was the difference in the quality of saliva: smokers have thick saliva and nonsmokers predominantly serous. In addition, smokers have poorer oral hygiene status than non-smokers, and demonstrated a positive correlation between the level of oral hygiene and length of smoking tobacco. Conclusion: This study has proven that smoking adversely affects salivation: long-term smoking reduces the secretion of saliva and changes its quality.

  3. Smoking characteristics of Polish immigrants in Dublin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study examined two main hypotheses: a) Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are greater than their Irish counterparts (b) Polish immigrants purchasing cigarettes from Poland smoke "heavier" (>\\/= 20 cigarettes a day) when compared to those purchasing cigarettes from Ireland. The study also set out to identify significant predictors of \\'current\\' smoking (some days and everyday) among the Polish immigrants. METHODS: Dublin residents of Polish origin (n = 1,545) completed a previously validated Polish questionnaire in response to an advertisement in a local Polish lifestyle magazine over 5 weekends (July-August, 2007). The Office of Tobacco Control telephone-based monthly survey data were analyzed for the Irish population in Dublin for the same period (n = 484). RESULTS: Age-sex adjusted smoking estimates were: 47.6% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 47.3%; 48.0%) among the Poles and 27.8% (95% CI: 27.2%; 28.4%) among the general Irish population (p < 0.001). Of the 57% of smokers (n = 345\\/606) who purchased cigarettes solely from Poland and the 33% (n = 198\\/606) who purchased only from Ireland, 42.6% (n = 147\\/345) and 41.4% (n = 82\\/198) were "heavy" smokers, respectively (p = 0.79). Employment (Odds Ratio [OR]: 2.89; 95% CI: 1.25-6.69), lower education (OR: 3.76; 95%CI: 2.46-5.74), and a longer stay in Ireland (>24 months) were significant predictors of current smoking among the Poles. An objective validation of the self-reported smoking history of a randomly selected sub-sample immigrant group, using expired carbon monoxide (CO) measurements, showed a highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.64) of expired CO levels with the reported number of cigarettes consumed (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Polish immigrants\\' smoking estimates are higher than their Irish counterparts, and particularly if employed, with only primary-level education, and are overseas >2 years.

  4. Maternal smoking and testicular germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Katherine A; Zhang, Yawei; Sakoda, Lori C; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, Ralph L; Graubard, Barry I

    2006-10-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common cancer among men ages 15 to 35 years in the United States. The well-established TGCT risk factors cryptorchism, prior diagnosis of TGCT, and family history of testicular cancer indicate that exposures in early life and/or in the familial setting may be critical to determining risk. Previous reports of familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and testicular cancers in sons suggest that passive smoking in childhood may be such an exposure. To clarify the relationship of passive smoking exposure to TGCT risk, data from 754 cases and 928 controls enrolled in the Servicemen's Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants study were analyzed. Data from 1,086 mothers of the cases and controls were also examined. Overall, there was no relationship between maternal [odds ratio (OR), 1.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.9-1.3] or paternal smoking (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.3) and TGCT risk. Although living with a non-parent smoker was marginally related to risk (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-2.1), there was no relationship with number of smokers, amount smoked, or duration of smoking. Responses from both case-control participants and mothers also revealed no relationship between either maternal smoking while pregnant or while breast-feeding. Results did not differ by TGCT histology (seminoma, non-seminoma). These results do not support the hypothesis that passive smoking, either in utero or in childhood, is related to risk of TGCT. Other early life exposures, however, may explain the familial clustering of lung cancer in mothers and TGCT in sons.

  5. Bacoside A: Role in Cigarette Smoking Induced Changes in Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking (CS is a major health hazard that exerts diverse physiologic and biochemical effects mediated by the components present and generated during smoking. Recent experimental studies have shown predisposition to several biological consequences from both active and passive cigarette smoke exposure. In particular, passive smoking is linked to a number of adverse health effects which are equally harmful as active smoking. A pragmatic approach should be considered for designing a pharmacological intervention to combat the adverse effects of passive smoking. This review describes the results from a controlled experimental condition, testing the effect of bacoside A (BA on the causal role of passive/secondhand smoke exposure that caused pathological and neurological changes in rat brain. Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke induced significant changes in rat brain histologically and at the neurotransmitter level, lipid peroxidation states, mitochondrial functions, membrane alterations, and apoptotic damage in rat brain. Bacoside A is a neuroactive agent isolated from Bacopa monnieri. As a neuroactive agent, BA was effective in combating these changes. Future research should examine the effects of BA at molecular level and assess its functional effects on neurobiological and behavioral processes associated with passive smoke.

  6. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  7. Frequency and habits of cigarette smoking among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kozłowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the habits and frequency of cigarette smoking. The study included 112 participants. In the study group, 67,64% of respondents were females whereas 32,36% were males. The age of participants ranged from 15 to 26 years. The study conducted in the period from January 2017 to February 2017 and it employed standardized interview research method. Research tool, which was used for data collection was a questionnaire consisted of 16 questions single-choice or multiple- choice questions. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test. All values for which p <0.05 (probability of error were considered statistically significant. In the study group 28.8% of respondents answered that they smoked cigarettes in the past, while smoking a cigarette at the moment declared by 12.6% of people. Half of the respondents smoked about 10 cigarettes a day. Over 60% of respondents declared to start smoking over 18 years of age. More than 30% of respondents smoked e-cigarettes. Almost 100% of the respondents aware of the dangers of smoking. Over ¾ respondents have ever tried to break up with addiction. The respondents were asked where they most often they smoke cigarettes. Nearly half (46.9% of the respondents choose a public place as the place where cigarettes are most commonly smoked (work, school. Nearly half of the respondents (46.9% indicated that at least one parent in the household smokes cigarettes. However, only 9.74% of respondents said they smoked cigarettes at home with the company of a family. The question "What prompted you to first try a cigarette?" The most common answer was the "curiosity" and "friends suggestion" (78,1%. As many as 46.9% of respondents say that stress increases the number of smoked cigarettes.

  8. Domestic smoke detectors using radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-02-01

    Increasing numbers of technical and consumer products incorporating radioactive material are becoming available to the Australian public. One consumer device of this type coming into common use is the domestic smoke detector that uses Americium 241 in detecting smoke. This device has obvious life-saving and property-saving advantages and is attractive in that it is attractive in that it is self-contained, battery powered and needs little maintenance. The National Health and Medical Research Council in October 1978 recommended conditions, which are listed, are intended to ensure that radiation safety is preserved. They provide for the testing and approval of all models of domestic smoke detectors using radioactive material. The National Health and Medical Research Council stated that provided these conditions are applied it had no objection to the sale of these detectors by retailers

  9. Smoking control: challenges and achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Carlos Corrêa da; Araújo, Alberto José de; Queiroz, Ângela Maria Dias de; Sales, Maria da Penha Uchoa; Castellano, Maria Vera Cruz de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable and controllable health risk. Therefore, all health care professionals should give their utmost attention to and be more focused on the problem of smoking. Tobacco is a highly profitable product, because of its large-scale production and great number of consumers. Smoking control policies and treatment resources for smoking cessation have advanced in recent years, showing highly satisfactory results, particularly in Brazil. However, there is yet a long way to go before smoking can be considered a controlled disease from a public health standpoint. We can already perceive that the behavior of our society regarding smoking is changing, albeit slowly. Therefore, pulmonologists have a very promising area in which to work with their patients and the general population. We must act with greater impetus in support of health care policies and social living standards that directly contribute to improving health and quality of life. In this respect, pulmonologists can play a greater role as they get more involved in treating smokers, strengthening anti-smoking laws, and demanding health care policies related to lung diseases. RESUMO O tabagismo é o fator de risco mais prevenível e controlável em saúde e, por isso, precisa ter a máxima atenção e ser muito mais enfocado por todos os profissionais da saúde. O tabaco é um produto de alta rentabilidade pela sua grande produção e pelo elevado número de consumidores. As políticas de controle e os recursos terapêuticos para o tabagismo avançaram muito nos últimos anos e têm mostrado resultados altamente satisfatórios, particularmente no Brasil. Entretanto, ainda resta um longo caminho a ser percorrido para que se possa considerar o tabagismo como uma doença controlada sob o ponto de vista da saúde pública. Já se observam modificações do comportamento da sociedade com relação ao tabagismo, mas ainda em escala muito lenta, de modo que os pneumologistas têm nesse setor um campo

  10. Smoking, health, and survival: prospects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N

    1981-05-16

    Smoking is an increasingly prevalent habit in Bangladesh, particularly among men. In the past 10-15 years cigarette consumption has more than doubled. Over 100000 acres (405 Km2) of land that could produce food are planted with tobacco, and cereal imports making up for these production losses generally do not reach the below-subsistence cultivator and landless. Cancer of the lung is already the third commonest cancer among males, and annual deaths from this cause can be expected to increase by 12000 within 15 years. At present respiratory disease is the best-recognised direct health consequence of smoking. However, a more important health risk may be the reduction in nutritional status of young children which results from expenditure on smoking in households whose income for food purchase is already marginal. Smoking of only 5 cigarettes a day in poor household in Bangladesh might lead to a monthly dietary deficit of 8000 calories (33.5 MJ). The existence of young children in Bangladesh is already precarious owing to poor nutrition. If, as seems likely, expenditure on smoking means that they get even less food, then the survival of a large number of children is being seriously endangered.

  11. Movie Smoking, Movie Horror, and Urge to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    SARGENT, James D.; MARUSKA, Karin; MORGENSTERN, Matthis; ISENSEE, Barbara; HANEWINKEL, Reiner

    2010-01-01

    It is known that exposure to smoking cues increases urge to smoke (UTS), but little is known about other media factors that might also increase UTS. We hypothesized that horror/thriller movies might also increase UTS by increasing negative affect. We surveyed 536 movie patrons who were smokers aged 18 years or older. Subjects had exited 26 movies, of which 12 contained smoking and two were horror films, one with and one without smoking. We used random effects regression to assess the association between exposure to movie smoking, movie horror, both and UTS, controlling for confounding factors. Median age was 26 years and 52% were female. Mean UTS was 5.9, 6.6, 6.6, and 8.7 for smokers exiting movies without smoking, with smoking, horror without smoking and horror with smoking respectively. Smoking in movies was associated with a significantly higher UTS (0.63 [95% CI 0.31–0.94]). Horror with smoking increased UTS by 2.8 points (95% C.I. 2.3, 3.5); the horror without smoking estimate was 0.88, but not statistically significant. This short report offers preliminary evidence that movie horror as one factor besides visual smoking cues that could increase UTS in a community setting. PMID:20301876

  12. Peers and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobus, Kimberly

    2003-05-01

    There is a considerable body of empirical research that has identified adolescent peer relationships as a primary factor involved in adolescent cigarette smoking. Despite this large research base, many questions remain unanswered about the mechanisms by which peers affect youths' smoking behavior. Understanding these processes of influence is key to the development of prevention and intervention programs designed to address adolescent smoking as a significant public health concern. In this paper, theoretical frameworks and empirical findings are reviewed critically which inform the current state of knowledge regarding peer influences on teenage smoking. Specifically, social learning theory, primary socialization theory, social identity theory and social network theory are discussed. Empirical findings regarding peer influence and selection, as well as multiple reference points in adolescent friendships, including best friendships, romantic relationships, peer groups and social crowds, are also reviewed. Review of this work reveals the contribution that peers have in adolescents' use of tobacco, in some cases promoting use, and in other cases deterring it. This review also suggests that peer influences on smoking are more subtle than commonly thought and need to be examined more carefully, including consideration of larger social contexts, e.g. the family, neighborhood, and media. Recommendations for future investigations are made, as well as suggestions for specific methodological approaches that offer promise for advancing our knowledge of the contribution of peers on adolescent tobacco use.

  13. Radiological hazards of smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oraby, M. N. A.

    2011-01-01

    A study of Polonium-210 and Lead -210 contents of tobacco has a great importance because of the increase in the incidence of lung cancer observed among smokers. The carcinogenic effect of 210 Po and 210 Pb with respect to lung cancer is an important problem in many countries with very high cigarette consumption. Naturally occurring primordial radionuclides of the uranium-radium series have long been associated with tobacco plants. The properties and distribution of trichomes on tobacco leaf surfaces suggest that they are effective collectors of small particles. It was reported that for an individual smoking two packages of cigarettes a day, the radiation dose to bronchial epithelium from 210 Po inhaled in cigarette smoking probably is at least seven times that from background sources. The effective dose of persons who smoke one or more packs per day of low quality brands is much higher than that resulting from intake with food and water. This indicates that smoke absorbed through the respiratory system is the main source and the principal pathway of 210 Po and 210 Pb intake. Cigarette smoking can be the reason for the higher incidence of cancer of all organs of the respiratory system. (author)

  14. Ion smoke detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, Georges.

    1976-01-01

    This invention covers an ion smoke detector in which the capacity that the smoke will cross, in the event of an accident, is irradiated by a very low energy radioactive source. The gas in the containment is thus partially ionised. Smoke in this containment reduces the mobility of the ions, thereby increasing the impedance of the measuring chamber. A leak tight reference chamber that therefore receives no smoke is added to the measuring chamber. This chamber is filled with the same gas as that present in the measuring chamber and undergoes the same irradiation. It is of course subjected to the same conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure and hygrometry as the measuring chamber. This makes it possible to break free from the fluctuations of the impedance of the chamber which would seem to be due to these interferences. One only radioactive source irradiates the measuring chamber and the reference chamber. The measuring chamber is in the shape of a cylinder open at one end and the reference chamber is annular and encompasses the measuring chamber. Provision is made for detecting an increase in the potential across the terminals of the measuring chamber in relation to the reference chamber, which is characteristic of the presence of smoke and other provisions separate from the former for dectecting a reduction in potential between the electrodes of the first ionisation chamber, which is characteristic of a change in the detector [fr

  15. [Does elitism of school influence the smoking-related health behaviour among grammar school students?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józwicki, Wojciech; Gołda, Ryszard; Domaniewska, Jolanta; Skok, Zdzisław; Jarzemski, Piotr; Przybylski, Grzegorz; Domaniewski, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was connected with smoking health behaviour estimation among public (SZP) and nonpublic (SZN) grammar school students. The analysis of 156 anonymous questionnaires was made. Questionnaires contained questions of parents' education, material situation of family, physical education, social relations with family and peers and positive or negative perception of smoking. In total trial we observed a strong positive correlation between style of smoking or number of smoked cigarettes and positive perception of smoking (r = 0.62 or r = 0.36 respectively). The latter correlated significantly with family presence of smoking (r = 0.18). Percentages of smoking students of SZP and SZN differed and amounted 22% and 18% respectively. Within I/II SZP classes the smoking depended on material position of family (r = 0.28) and positive perception of smoking (r = 0.68). Among students of III SZP classes the dependence on material situation was stronger (r = 0.49), while students of III SZN classes became to perceive smoking more positive (r = 0.82). Social relations of students of I/II SZN classes were inversely proportional to prevalence of smoking in their families. Smoking students of III SZN classes worked out much more variously in comparison with pupils of SZP. The main motivation of smoking within school students was the positive perception of smoking. The differences of smoking prevalence within both types of school probably formed in the families and observed in I/II classes pupils, vanished during the time of III class of studying. Elitism of school do not protect the student from smoking: during the time of III SZN class the smoking receives clearly positive appearance and became established. Probably existing antinicotinic school programs should much more decidedly deliver the negative appearance of health effects of smoking.

  16. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adults. The report finds a causal relationship between secondhand smoke exposure and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS), and declares ... Learn more about asthma at the CDC site . Exposure to secondhand smoke may cause new cases of asthma in children ...

  17. Comparison of onset age and pattern of male adolescent smoking in two different socioeconomic districts of tehran, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Golestan, Banafsheh; Majdzadeh, Reza

    2011-10-01

    One of the main strategies to prevent smoking is delaying onset of smoking in adolescents. Thus, identifying the age of smoking and smoking pattern in adolescents gives important knowledge for planning the intervention programs on smoking. Students aged 13-15 years old living in the Northern and the Southern Tehran were selected through two separate snowball samplings. In each area six smokers were considered as the seeds and were asked to introduce a smoker friend. The sampling continued until one hundred study subjects were recruited in each area. Although in the area with wealthier socioeconomic status the age at which smoking started was one year more, the number of days of smoking, number of consumed cigarettes, not willingness to quit smoking, ease of access to cigarettes, mother and siblings smoking were more frequent. In contrast, seeing anti-smoking advertisements, father smoking, teachers smoking and education about the adverse effects of smoking were lower than the area with poorer socioeconomic status. The community level interventions such as not selling cigarettes to juniors, quit smoking help and support, and education of families must be revised. The role of families, through the supervision and control over their children, and parents' avoidance of smoking should be emphasized.

  18. Smoking and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Chang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by both genetic and environmental factors. Smoking has been implicated as one of the most important extrinsic risk factors for its development and severity. Recent developments have shed light on the pathophysiology of RA in smokers, including oxidative stress, inflammation, autoantibody formation and epigenetic changes. The association of smoking and the development of RA have been demonstrated through epidemiologic studies, as well as through in vivo and animal models of RA. With increased use of biological agents in addition to standard disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs, there has been interest in how smoking affects drug response in RA treatment. Recent evidence suggests the response and drug survival in people treated with anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF therapy is poorer in heavy smokers, and possible immunological mechanisms for this effect are presented in the current paper.

  19. Impact of the 2005 smoke-free policy in Italy on prevalence, cessation and intensity of smoking in the overall population and by educational group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Bruno; Mackenbach, Johan P; Eikemo, Terje A; Kunst, Anton E

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2005 smoke-free law on smoking prevalence, cessation and intensity both in the overall population and separately by educational level. Interrupted time-series analyses of 11 cross-sectional nationally representative surveys. Italy, 1999-2010. Adults aged 20-64 years. For each year we computed the prevalence of current smoking, the quit ratio and the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day. All measures were standardized by age. Segmented linear regression analyses were performed for each smoking variable separately by sex. Among males, smoking prevalence decreased by 2.6% (P = 0.002) and smoking cessation increased by 3.3% (P = 0.006) shortly after the ban, but both measures tended to return to pre-ban values in the following years. This occurred among both highly and low-educated males. Among low-educated females, the ban was followed by a 1.6% decrease (P = 0.120) in smoking prevalence and a 4.5% increase in quit ratios (P educated females, trends in smoking prevalence and cessation were not altered by the ban. Among both males and females, long-term trends in the daily number of cigarettes, which were already declining well before the implementation of the policy, changed to a minor extent. The impact of the Italian smoke-free policy on smoking and inequalities in smoking was short-term. Smoke-free policies may not achieve the secondary effect of reducing smoking prevalence in the long term, and they may have limited effects on inequalities in smoking. © 2012 The Authors. Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Social Smoking among Intermittent Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Li, Xiaoxue; Dunbar, Michael S.; Ferguson, Stuart G.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Scholl, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    Background “Social smoking” - smoking mostly or even only with others – may be an important pattern that implies smoking motivated extrinsically by social influences. Non-daily smokers (intermittent smokers; ITS) are often assumed to be social smokers, with some authors even assuming that all ITS are social smokers (SS+). We sought to identify and characterize social smokers in a sample of ITS. Methods 204 adult ITS (smoking 4–27 days/month) recorded the circumstances of smoking in their natural settings using Ecological Momentary Assessment, while also recording their circumstances in nonsmoking moments. SS+ were defined as ITS who were with others when they smoked most of their cigarettes, and who were ≥ 50% more likely to be with others when smoking than when not. Results Only 13% of ITS were SS+. Although defined solely on the basis of presence of others, SS+ showed a distinct pattern of smoking across multiple dimensions: Compared to other ITS (who were significantly less likely to smoke when with others), SS+ smoking was more associated with socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, drinking alcohol, weekends, evening or nighttime, being in other people’s homes, but not their own home. SS+ smoking was low in the morning and increased in the evening. SS+ smoked fewer days/week and were less dependent, but did not differ demographically. Conclusions Social smoking does constitute a highly distinct smoking pattern, but is not common among adult ITS. PMID:26205313

  1. Connecting smoke plumes to sources using Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke and fire location data over North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Steven J.; Ruminski, Mark; Atwood, Samuel A.; Fischer, Emily V.

    2018-02-01

    Fires represent an air quality challenge because they are large, dynamic and transient sources of particulate matter and ozone precursors. Transported smoke can deteriorate air quality over large regions. Fire severity and frequency are likely to increase in the future, exacerbating an existing problem. Using the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke data for North America for the period 2007 to 2014, we examine a subset of fires that are confirmed to have produced sufficient smoke to warrant the initiation of a U.S. National Weather Service smoke forecast. We find that gridded HMS-analyzed fires are well correlated (r = 0.84) with emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Inventory Database 4s (GFED4s). We define a new metric, smoke hours, by linking observed smoke plumes to active fires using ensembles of forward trajectories. This work shows that the Southwest, Northwest, and Northwest Territories initiate the most air quality forecasts and produce more smoke than any other North American region by measure of the number of HYSPLIT points analyzed, the duration of those HYSPLIT points, and the total number of smoke hours produced. The average number of days with smoke plumes overhead is largest over the north-central United States. Only Alaska, the Northwest, the Southwest, and Southeast United States regions produce the majority of smoke plumes observed over their own borders. This work moves a new dataset from a daily operational setting to a research context, and it demonstrates how changes to the frequency or intensity of fires in the western United States could impact other regions.

  2. Smoking outside: The effect of the Irish workplace smoking ban on smoking prevalence among the employed

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In March 2004, Ireland became the first country to introduce a nationwide workplace smoking ban. The smoking ban increased the non-monetary cost of smoking by prohibiting smoking in the majority of indoor workplaces. The aim of this paper is to examine whether the extra non-monetary cost of smoking was concentrated on the employed. Using two waves of the nationally representative Slán survey, a difference-in-differences approach is used to measure changes in smoking behaviour among the employ...

  3. General parenting, anti-smoking socialization and smoking onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical model was tested in which general parenting and parental smoking predicted anti-smoking socialization, which in turn predicted adolescent smoking onset. Participants were 4351 Dutch adolescents between 13 and 15 years of age. In the model, strictness and psychological autonomy granting

  4. Method and device for measuring the smoke concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rennemo, B.

    1994-01-01

    The patent deals with a method and a device for measuring the smoke concentration in air. In a smoke chamber are located two electrodes, connected to a voltage source for forming a circuit in which a DC current flows. A radioactive radiation source to ionize the air molecules is located in the vicinity of the smoke chamber, so that the number of ionized air molecules which are formed is dependent upon the radiation intensity of the ion source and the concentration of smoke particles in the smoke chamber. The charging voltage will further imply that a cloud of high ion concentration is built up close to the surface of the electrodes. The ion cloud will be discharged capacitively upon a plurality of short voltages pulses applied to the electrodes to thereby result in current pulses substantially greater than the DC current flowing through the chamber. 8 figs

  5. Calls to Poison Centers for hookah smoking exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retzky, Sandra S; Spiller, Henry A; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2018-06-01

    Over the past decade, smoking behaviors have changed in the US. Hookah or waterpipe smoking is increasing, especially among youth and young adults. Social media sites describe the "hookah high" or "buzz", which may be related to nicotine, carbon monoxide, or other inhalants in hookah smoke. Most important is the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. Case reports include a high number of victims presenting with loss of consciousness from either syncope or seizures. Anaphylaxis and a very rare respiratory hypersensitivity reaction, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, have also been reported from hookah smoking in previously healthy young adults. This article provides background information on hookah smoking, describes hookah-induced acute injuries that could precipitate poison center calls, and offers suggestions for exposure characterization.

  6. Smoking during pregnancy and hospitalization of the child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisborg, Kirsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Obel, Carsten

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between smoking during pregnancy and hospitalization of the child before 8 months of age. DESIGN: A follow-up study of 1974 children born in 1991 and 1992. RESULTS: Overall, 158 (8%) of the children were hospitalized during the first 8 months of life. Compared...... of being hospitalized (relative risk: 2.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.3). When only hospitalizations before 2 months of age were analyzed, smoking during pregnancy was associated an increased risk similar to that described above. Hospitalization of the child was independent of the smoking habits...... of the child persisted after adjustment for postpartum smoking habits and a number of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking 15 or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy influenced the health of the children, and several points indicated that the effect of in utero exposure...

  7. [Study on smoking-attributed mortality by using all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guohong; Zhang, Hui; Li, Wei; Wang, Dezheng; Xu, Zhongliang; Song, Guide; Zhang, Ying; Shen, Chengfeng; Zheng, Wenlong; Xue, Xiaodan; Shen, Wenda

    2016-03-01

    To understand the smoking-attributed mortality by inclusion of smoking information into all causes of death surveillance. Since 2010, the information about smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily had been added in death surveillance system. The measures of training, supervision, check, sampling survey and telephone verifying were taken to increase death reporting rate and reduce data missing rate and underreporting rate. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify risk factors for smoking-attributed mortality. During the study period (2010-2014), the annual death reporting rates ranged from 6.5‰ to 7.0‰. The reporting rates of smoking status, smoking history and the number of cigarettes smoked daily were 95.53%, 98.63% and 98.58%, respectively. Compared with the nonsmokers, the RR of males was 1.38 (1.33-1.43) for all causes of death and 3.07 (2.91-3.24) for lung cancer due to smoking, the RR of females was 1.46 (1.39-1.54) for all causes of death and 4.07 (3.81-4.35) for lung cancer due to smoking, respectively. The study of smoking attributed mortality can be developed with less investment by using the stable and effective all causes of death surveillance system in Tianjin.

  8. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (Phospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed.

  9. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Handbook of smoke control engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Klote, John H; Turnbull, Paul G; Kashef, Ahmed; Ferreira, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Smoke Control Engineering extends the tradition of the comprehensive treatment of smoke control technology, including fundamental concepts, smoke control systems, and methods of analysis. The handbook provides information needed for the analysis of design fires, including considerations of sprinklers, shielded fires, and transient fuels. It is also extremely useful for practicing engineers, architects, code officials, researchers, and students. Following the success of Principles of Smoke Management in 2002, this new book incorporates the latest research and advances in smoke control practice. New topics in the handbook are: controls, fire and smoke control in transport tunnels, and full-scale fire testing. For those getting started with the computer models CONTAM and CFAST, there are simplified instructions with examples. This is the first smoke control book with climatic data so that users will have easy-to-use weather data specifically for smoke control design for locations in the U.S., Can...

  11. [Smoking among undergraduate university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra C, Lisseth; Fernández P, Paola; Granada G, Felipe; Ávila C, Paula; Mallea M, Javier; Rodríguez M, Yeniffer

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students.

  12. cigarette smoking and adolescent health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-15

    Feb 15, 2013 ... CI (95%) = 0.22 – 0.96). Conclusively, the prevalence of smoking was high among in-school adolescents in the ... The link between cigarette smoking and many non- ..... potential. Epidemiologic Perspectives & Innovations;.

  13. Health risks of passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papier, C M; Stellman, S D

    1986-01-01

    Passive or involuntary smoking is the inhalation of smoke which escapes directly into the air from the lit end of a burning cigarette. This unfiltered smoke contains the same toxic components of the mainstream smoke inhaled directly by the smoker, including numerous carcinogens, many in greater concentrations. It has long been known that exposure to this type of smoke leads to increased respiratory and other adverse health conditions in non-smokers, especially children. During the past five years, evidence has been accumulating that risk of lung cancer is also higher, particularly in non-smoking women whose husbands smoke. Despite uncertainties and differences in interpretation of various cancer studies, there is ample justification for public health measures now in place or proposed, such as restriction or elimination of smoking in the workplace and in public places.

  14. Kids and Smoking (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause cancer, heart disease, and lung disease. E-cigarettes , vape pens, and hookahs (water pipes) , which have ... and Asthma Nicotine: What Parents Need to Know E-Cigarettes Secondhand Smoke What Are the Risks of Smoking ...

  15. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  16. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Not reported 7% In transport 1% 195 incidents Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  17. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  18. Smoking Behaviors Among Adolescents in Foster Care: A Gender-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpiegel, Svetlana; Sussman, Steve; Sherman, Scott E; El Shahawy, Omar

    2017-09-19

    Adolescents in foster care are at high risk for cigarette smoking. However, it is not clear how their smoking behaviors vary by gender. The present study examined lifetime and current smoking among males and females, and explored gender-specific risk factors for engagement in smoking behaviors. Data from the Multi Site Evaluation of Foster Youth Programs was used to evaluate patterns of smoking among adolescents aged 12-18 years (N = 1121; 489 males, 632 females). Males and females did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and current smoking, or in the age of smoking initiation and number of cigarettes smoked on a typical day. Gender-based analyses revealed that older age and placement in group homes or residential treatment facilities were associated with heightened risk of smoking among males. In contrast, sexual minority status (i.e., nonheterosexual orientation) and increased childhood victimization were associated with heightened risk of smoking among females. A history of running away was linked to smoking in both genders. Gender should be considered when designing intervention programs to address cigarette smoking among foster youth, as the stressors associated with smoking may differ for males and females.

  19. Self-reported motivation to smoke in schizophrenia is related to antipsychotic drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Alasdair M; Procyshyn, Ric M; Hui, Philip; Johnson, Joy L; Honer, William G

    2008-03-01

    The prevalence of smoking in schizophrenia has reliably been reported as being higher than for any other psychiatric disorder. While a number of theories have been proposed to account for such high rates of smoking, little is known about the subjective motivation for why schizophrenia patients smoke in comparison with those without the disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare smoking motivation in control subjects and schizophrenia patients, and determine if factors such as type of medication or access to cigarettes could contribute to self-reported motivation for smoking. We assessed motivation to smoke in 61 schizophrenia inpatients and 33 non-psychiatric health worker controls at a tertiary care psychiatric facility in a cross-sectional study. Nicotine dependency and smoking behavior were evaluated using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence and a validated questionnaire that assesses motivation for smoking along seven different dimensions. Schizophrenia patients reported a stronger motivation to smoke than controls for reasons related to pleasure from the act of smoking, as well as a need for psychomotor stimulation. Scores on both these factors were significantly associated with daily antipsychotic drug dose. The sedative and anxiolytic effects of smoking were related to anticholinergic load of psychiatric medications. The findings highlight important differences in self-reported motivation to smoke between schizophrenia patients and normals. Antipsychotic drugs may also influence aspects of motivation to smoke.

  20. E-cigarettes: Comparing the Possible Risks of Increasing Smoking Initiation with the Potential Benefits of Increasing Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kenneth E; Mendez, David

    2018-03-29

    The public health community is divided regarding electronic cigarettes. Skeptics emphasize potential vaping-induced increases in smoking among children and possible health hazards for adults. Enthusiasts consider e-cigarettes much less dangerous than smoking and believe they increase adult smoking cessation. We compare potential health benefits and costs to put these two perspectives in context. Using a dynamic model that tracks the US adult population's smoking status and smoking-related deaths over time, we simulate the effects of vaping-induced smoking initiation and cessation on life-years saved or lost to the year 2070. The base case assumes that vaping annually increases smoking initiation by 2% and smoking cessation by 10%. Sensitivity analyses raise the initiation rate increase to 6% while decreasing the cessation rate increase to 5%. Sensitivity analyses also test vaping's reducing the health benefits of quitting smoking by 10%. With base-case assumptions, the population gains almost 3.3 million life-years by 2070. If all people who quit smoking by vaping lose 10% of the benefit of quitting smoking, the net life-year gain falls to 2.4 million. Under worst-case assumptions, in which vaping increases smoking initiation by 6% and cessation by 5%, and vaping-induced quitters lose 10% of the health benefits, the population gains over 580,000 life-years. Potential life-years gained as a result of vaping-induced smoking cessation are projected to exceed potential life-years lost due to vaping-induced smoking initiation. These results hold over a wide range of plausible parameters. Our analysis strongly suggests that the upside health benefit associated with e-cigarettes, in terms of their potential to increase adult smoking cessation, exceeds their downside risk to health as a result of their possibly increasing the number of youthful smoking initiators. Public messaging and policy should continue to strive to reduce young people's exposure to all nicotine and

  1. Effect of smoke-free legislation on adult smoking behaviour in England in the 18 months following implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Tayu Lee

    Full Text Available Comprehensive smoke-free legislation covering all enclosed public places and workplaces was implemented in England on 1 July 2007. This study examines the impact of this legislation on smoking prevalence, number of cigarettes smoked and location of smoking, controlling for secular trends through the end of 2008.Repeat cross sectional survey using nationally representative data from the Health Survey for England (HSE. In total there are 54,333 respondents from 2003-2008. Logit and linear regression models were used to examine the effect of the legislation on smoking prevalence and the number of cigarettes smoked daily among continuing smokers which took the underlying trend into account. Our finding suggest that smoking prevalence (current smoker decreased from 25% in 2003 to 21% in 2008 (AOR = 0.96 per year, 95% CI = 0.95-0.98, P<0.01 and the mean number of cigarettes consumed daily by smokers decreased from 14.1 in 2003 to 13.1 in 2008 (coefficient for time trend = -0.28±0.06 SE cig/day per year, P<0.01. After adjusting for these trends the introduction of smoke-free legislation was not associated with additional reductions in smoking prevalence (AOR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.94-1.11, P = 0.596 or daily cigarette use in smokers (0.42±0.28 SE; P = 0.142. The percentage of respondents reporting smoking 'at work' and 'inside pubs or bars' decreased significantly from 14% to 2% (p<0.001 and from 34% to 2% (p<0.001, respectively, after the legislation. The percentage reporting smoking 'inside restaurants, cafes, or canteens' decreased significantly from 9% to 1% (p<0.001 and 'inside their home' decreased significantly from 65% to 55% (p<0.01.There is widespread compliance with the smoke-free legislation in England, which has led to large drops in indoor smoking in all venues, including at home. Declines in smoking prevalence and consumption continued along existing trends; they did not accelerate during the 18 months

  2. Effects of marijuana smoking on the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, Donald P

    2013-06-01

    Regular smoking of marijuana by itself causes visible and microscopic injury to the large airways that is consistently associated with an increased likelihood of symptoms of chronic bronchitis that subside after cessation of use. On the other hand, habitual use of marijuana alone does not appear to lead to significant abnormalities in lung function when assessed either cross-sectionally or longitudinally, except for possible increases in lung volumes and modest increases in airway resistance of unclear clinical significance. Therefore, no clear link to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been established. Although marijuana smoke contains a number of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, findings from a limited number of well-designed epidemiological studies do not suggest an increased risk for the development of either lung or upper airway cancer from light or moderate use, although evidence is mixed concerning possible carcinogenic risks of heavy, long-term use. Although regular marijuana smoking leads to bronchial epithelial ciliary loss and impairs the microbicidal function of alveolar macrophages, evidence is inconclusive regarding possible associated risks for lower respiratory tract infection. Several case reports have implicated marijuana smoking as an etiologic factor in pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum and bullous lung disease, although evidence of a possible causal link from epidemiologic studies is lacking. In summary, the accumulated weight of evidence implies far lower risks for pulmonary complications of even regular heavy use of marijuana compared with the grave pulmonary consequences of tobacco.

  3. Smoking among Hong Kong Chinese women: behavior, attitudes and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia Sc; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-02-25

    The numbers of women smoking have risen 72.5% since 1990 with the increasing population - from 56,100 to 96,800 in 2012, reflecting an alarming situation in Hong Kong. The study aimed to describe the smoking behaviour, attitudes and associated factors among women in Hong Kong. A qualitative cross-sectional study involving semi-structured interview was conducted with Chinese women from five community centres in different districts in Hong Kong in 2010. A purposive sample of 73 female participants (24 current smokers, 20 ex-smokers and 29 never-smokers) were recruited. The 73 women were classified by their smoking status and age to form 15 focus groups. Most informants knew about the general health hazards of smoking, such as cancer and heart or respiratory diseases, but not about the female-specific health consequences of smoking. A few smokers considered smoking to be a weight control strategy, fearing a gain in weight if they gave up. Moreover, a few relied on smoking as a coping strategy to relieve negative emotions and stress. Additionally, a few smokers had misconceptions about giving up: that a loss of concentration would result, that continued smoking would not further affect their health as they had become desensitised to the chemicals in tobacco smoke or that quitting would harm their health. This study generates new knowledge about the behavior, attitudes, and experiences related to smoking of current female smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers in Hong Kong, which is unique as a Chinese but highly westernized community but with a very low female smoking prevalence.

  4. Childhood obesity is associated with maternal smoking in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André Michael; Koletzko, Berthold; Slikker, William; Hermann, Monika; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2002-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health issues. Childhood obesity often persists throughout adulthood. Recently a higher prevalence of obesity in adults whose mothers smoked during pregnancy was reported. The aim of this study was to assess whether this association is also detectable in pre-school children in a different setting and to identify the critical period for intrauterine exposure to inhaled smoke products in pregnancy. We analysed questionnaire data on early feeding and lifestyle factors of 8,765 German children aged 5.00 to 6.99 years. Obesity was defined as a body mass index >97th percentile. The prevalence estimates for obesity were: mother never smoked 2.8% (95% CI 2.4%-3.2%), smoked after pregnancy only 1.6% (95%CI 0.4%-4.1%), smoked throughout pregnancy 6.2% (95% CI 4.5%-8.3%), smoked before pregnancy, but not throughout 4.5% (95%CI 3.6%-5.7%). These associations could not be explained by confounding due to a number of constitutional, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. The unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios were: smoked during pregnancy: 2.32 (95% CI 1.63%-3.30%)/1.92 (95% CI 1.29%-2.86%); smoked before, but not throughout pregnancy: 1.67 (95%CI 1.26%-2.22%)/1.74 (95%CI 1.29%-2.34%). the association of maternal smoking in pregnancy and obesity was also detectable in children at school entry. Since smoking after pregnancy was not associated with childhood obesity, intrauterine exposure rather than family lifestyle factors associated with smoking appears to be instrumental. There appears to be a role for early intrauterine exposure.

  5. Gender and the social context of smoking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedobbeleer, Nicole; Béland, François; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Adrian, Manuella

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the relative effect of both individual and societal factors that impinge directly on smoking behaviour of women and men. The societal factors are cigarettes price, tobacco control legislation, newspaper coverage of tobacco issues, overall economic factors, and social milieu characteristics. Three Canadian provinces are studied, from 1978 to 1995. A repeated cross-section design is used. Data are derived from national surveys and official documents. Results show that smoking occurs in social contexts within which the price of cigarettes appears to have a significant negative impact on the prevalence of smoking and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by men, but no effect on either the prevalence of smoking or the amount smoked by women. More comprehensive and restrictive no-smoking legislation and legislation on youth access to tobacco influence negatively the prevalence of smoking both for men and women. However, these laws do not have the same effects on the number of cigarettes smoked by women and men. Newspaper articles on the other hand, negatively influence smoking prevalence for women and men. As differences are observed in the responsiveness of men and women to tobacco control policies, policymakers and practitioners need to keep in mind that tobacco control policies have to be tailored to the broader context of the lives of women and men. Future work needs also to be done to clarify the interrelationships between social influences on smoking such as price, laws and media, and the relationships between these and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, as well as other social and cultural factors.

  6. No Borders for Tobacco Smoke in Hospitality Venues in Vienna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Neuberger

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In public places many countries banned smoking as the most important indoor source of fine airborne particulate matter. In Austria partial bans have been in force since 2009, with exemptions for the hospitality industry. From February to October 2010 we investigated PM2.5 concentrations in the breathing area of guests in well frequented Viennese establishments of all sizes, and compared these chance indoor samples with PM2.5 concentrations measured during the same half hour at the next outdoor monitoring station. The laser particle counter (OPC1.108, Grimm® used for indoor measurements had been calibrated by ß-attenuation (FH 62 I-R, Eberline®, which was used outdoors. 48% of 112 venues visited did not fully comply with the law, notwithstanding its weakness.  Highest median concentrations (in µg/m3 were found in bars (443.7, followed by nightclubs/discotheques (421.1, pubs (147.7, cafes (106.1 and restaurants (23.4. Concentrations increased with number of smokers present (p < 0.01, with medians of 282.4/241,3/67.6/6.9 µg/m³ in smoking venues/smoking rooms/adjacent non-smoking rooms/exclusive non-smoking venues. Only for the latter, a significant correlation was found with outdoor concentrations (r = 0.48, p < 0.01, while concentrations in non-smoking rooms were higher (p < 0.01 and unrelated to outdoor concentrations, but significantly dependent on concentrations in the adjacent smoking room (r = 0.64, p < 0.01. In conclusion, the partial smoking ban failed and guests of Viennese hospitality venues continue to risk disease from passive smoking, even in so-called “non-smoking rooms”, which are second-hand smoke rooms.

  7. Understanding the association between authoritative parenting and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Gerlach, Karen K

    2006-03-01

    Research on adolescent cigarette smoking has attempted to measure the role of parents in preventing smoking experimentation and uptake. However, aspects of parental influence have often been limited to parental smoking behavior or antismoking socialization. Only a limited number of studies considered the hypothesis that the influence of parenting on adolescent current cigarette smoking may extend beyond parental behavior and antismoking socialization to consider broader measures of the parent-child relationship, such as parenting style. The sample was nationally representative and included 17,287 high school students nationwide. Data were used to categorize the parenting style--authoritative, permissive, autocratic, and unengaged--experienced by each respondent. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between parenting style and adolescent current cigarette smoking. Authoritative parenting was associated with a reduction in the odds of adolescent current cigarette smoking (OR: 0.74, 99% CI: 0.58, 0.95). When authoritative parenting is simultaneously considered with believing parents' opinions about smoking are important, authoritative parenting was no longer a significant correlate of adolescent current cigarette smoking, while believing parents' opinions about smoking are important was associated with a 45% (99% CI: 0.48, 0.64) reduction in the odds of adolescent current cigarette smoking. Authoritative parenting was associated with a more than three-fold increase (OR: 3.65, 99% CI: 2.87, 4.66) in the odds of believing parents' opinions about smoking are important. Interventions may want to educate parents about authoritative parenting, which includes the importance of having appropriate and routine conversations with their children, requiring chores, and implementing general rules and boundaries.

  8. Second-hand smoke in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S

    2015-12-01

    particular concerns. Inside vehicles, in fact, the smoke of one single cigarette causes concentrations of fine particulate matter three times higher than what is considered the threshold of hazard. According to surveys conducted by DOXA (an Italian statistical and opinion research company) in 2011-2012, two thirds of Italian smokers smoked in private cars [Martinez-Sanchez, Gallus et al., 2014]. Despite this, 80% of Italian adults (and 49% of current smokers) supported a smoking ban in private cars, and 93% (and 84% of current smokers) supported such a ban in cars carrying children [Martinez-Sanchez, Gallus et al., 2014]. We therefore welcome the incoming Minister's Decree banning tobacco smoking in private vehicles in presence of minors or pregnant women. The risk associated to SHS exposure is still largely underestimated. To give an idea of its harmful effect, we recommend viewing a video realised by colleagues at the National Cancer Institute of Milan, showing how the indoor air pollution generated by one single cigarette is 4 to 6 times higher than that produced by a diesel truck [Ruprecht et al., 2015]. There is a need to further inform the (Italian) population, including in particular smokers with young children, about the harmful effects of SHS, in order to increase the number of smoke-free homes and cars. In this sense, paediatricians or paediatric dentists have today the opportunity to give a major help. Their contribution can imply a minimum effort, e.g., providing informative leaflets, or making available, in the waiting rooms of their clinics, monitors showing informative videos, including the one previously described [Ruprecht et al., 2015].

  9. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  10. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...... strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults....

  11. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  12. Smoking and Asthma (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking and Asthma KidsHealth / For Teens / Smoking and Asthma Print en español Fumar y el asma Does Smoking Make Asthma Worse? Yes. If you have asthma, ...

  13. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Adriana Ávila; Bandeira, Celso Muller; Gonçalves, Antonio José; Araújo, Alberto José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND) in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2%) presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1%) smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011) and with smoking history (p = 0.047). We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer. PMID:25029652

  14. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ávila de Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2% presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3% smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1% smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011 and with smoking history (p = 0.047. We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer.

  15. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  16. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques with liquid photographic emulsion and cellulose nitrate track-etch film are being used to investigate the spatial distribution of inhaled plutonium in the lungs of beagle dogs exposed to cigarette smoke or to the plutonium aerosol only. More plutonium than expected was detected on the inner surfaces of bronchi, and particles were observed beneath the bronchial mucosa. 2 figures, 2 tables

  17. Einstein Up in Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisle, John

    2016-01-01

    Albert Einstein's biographers have not explained why he developed the abdominal aortic aneurysm that led to his death. Early conjectures proposed that it was caused by syphilis, without accurate evidence. The present article gives evidence to the contrary, and argues that the principal cause of Einstein's death was smoking.

  18. Ionic smoke detectors

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Ionic smoke detectors are products incorporating radioactive material. This article summarises the process for their commercialization and marketing, and how the activity is controlled, according to regulations establishing strict design and production requisites to guarantee the absence of radiological risk associated both with their use and their final handling as conventional waste. (Author)

  19. Smoking and thyroid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2013-01-01

    Current smoking in population surveys is associated with a slight dose-dependent fall of serum TSH, likely secondary to a rise of serum FT4 and FT3 induced by activation of the sympathetic nervous system; it is independent of iodine intake. In contrast, the slightly greater thyroid size in smokers

  20. Smoke Detector Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Pamela, Ed.; Portugill, Jestyn, Ed.

    This manual, one in a series developed for public education, provides information on smoke detector selection, installation, operation, and maintenance. For the prospective buyer, the importance of looking for the seal of a recognized national testing laboratory--such as Underwriters' Laboratories, Inc. (UL)--indicating adequate laboratory testing…

  1. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  2. Classifying smoking urges via machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Antoine; Beckjord, Ellen; Shiffman, Saul; Sejdić, Ervin

    2016-12-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and diseases in the developed world, and advances in modern electronics and machine learning can help us deliver real-time intervention to smokers in novel ways. In this paper, we examine different machine learning approaches to use situational features associated with having or not having urges to smoke during a quit attempt in order to accurately classify high-urge states. To test our machine learning approaches, specifically, Bayes, discriminant analysis and decision tree learning methods, we used a dataset collected from over 300 participants who had initiated a quit attempt. The three classification approaches are evaluated observing sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and precision. The outcome of the analysis showed that algorithms based on feature selection make it possible to obtain high classification rates with only a few features selected from the entire dataset. The classification tree method outperformed the naive Bayes and discriminant analysis methods, with an accuracy of the classifications up to 86%. These numbers suggest that machine learning may be a suitable approach to deal with smoking cessation matters, and to predict smoking urges, outlining a potential use for mobile health applications. In conclusion, machine learning classifiers can help identify smoking situations, and the search for the best features and classifier parameters significantly improves the algorithms' performance. In addition, this study also supports the usefulness of new technologies in improving the effect of smoking cessation interventions, the management of time and patients by therapists, and thus the optimization of available health care resources. Future studies should focus on providing more adaptive and personalized support to people who really need it, in a minimum amount of time by developing novel expert systems capable of delivering real-time interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  3. Smoking among American adolescents: a risk and protective factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scal, Peter; Ireland, Marjorie; Borowsky, Iris Wagman

    2003-04-01

    Cigarette smoking remains a substantial threat to the current and future health of America's youth. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk and protective factors for cigarette smoking among US adolescents. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health was used, comparing the responses of all non-smokers at Time 1 for their ability to predict the likelihood of smoking at Time 2, one year later. Data was stratified into four gender by grade group cohorts. Cross-cutting risk factors for smoking among all four cohorts were: using alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs; violence involvement; having had sex; having friends who smoke and learning problems. Having a higher grade point average and family connectedness were protective across all cohorts. Other gender and grade group specific risk and protective factors were identified. The estimated probability of initiating smoking decreased by 19.2% to 54.1% both in situations of high and low risk as the number of protective factors present increased. Of the factors that predict or protect against smoking some are influential across all gender and grade group cohorts studied, while others are specific to gender and developmental stage. Prevention efforts that target both the reduction of risk factors and enhancement of protective factors at the individual, family, peer group and community are likely to reduce the likelihood of smoking initiation.

  4. Smoking habit profile and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becoña, Elisardo; Vázquez, Ma Isabel; Míguez, Ma del Carmen; Fernández del Río, Elena; López-Durán, Ana; Martínez, Úrsula; Piñeiro, Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and the results are not consistent. The aim of this study is to explore the association between smoking and HRQOL. Cross-sectional study of 714 Spanish adults (44.7% never smokers and 55.3% smokers) without diagnosis of physical or mental disorder. Each participant provided information about different sociodemographic variables and data on HRQOL. Smokers also reported smoking-related information about smoking-related variables. Nicotine dependence was not associated with the physical dimension of HRQOL, but in the mental component, nicotine dependent smokers showed worse HRQOL than never smokers (p = 0.004) and than non-nicotine dependent smokers (p = 0.014). There were no differences between no-nicotine dependent smokers and never smokers. Smoking status (non smokers vs. smokers), number of cigarettes smoked per day, stage of change, quit attempts in the past year or age of smoking onset were not related to HRQOL. In subjects without physical or mental diseases, only nicotine dependent smokers showed a significant impairment in the mental component of HRQOL. Therefore, it is important to consider nicotine dependence in the relationship between smoking and HRQOL.

  5. Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Smoking Decreases Endometrial Thickness in IVF/ICSI Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, Anna; Sator, Michael; Walch, Katharina; Pietrowski, Detlef

    2018-01-01

    Smoking is a serious problem for the health care system. Many of the compounds identified in cigarette smoke have toxic effects on the fertility of both females and males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether smoking affects clinical factors during IVF/ICSI therapy in a single-center reproductive unit. In a retrospective study of 200 IVF/ICSI cycles, endometrial thickness and the outcome of IVF/ICSI therapy were analyzed. Endometrial thickness was significantly lower in smoking patients than in non-smoking patients (10.4 ± 1.5 mm vs. 11.6 ± 1.8 mm). Age was significantly higher in women who failed to conceive. The total dose of gonadotropins administered was significantly lower in pregnant patients and the highest pregnancy rate was achieved with an rFSH protocol. BMI and number of cigarettes smoked did not influence treatment outcomes in this study. We showed that smoking has a negative effect on endometrial thickness on the day of embryo transfer. This may help to further explain the detrimental influence of tobacco smoke on implantation and pregnancy rates during assisted reproduction therapy.

  7. [Knowledge and attitudes toward smoke-free law among smoking and non-smoking medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Danch, Wioleta; Goniewicz, Maciej Ł; Koszowski, Bartosz; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Czogała, Jan; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Antosiewicz, Beata; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is common among various social groups. There is still high prevalence of smoking among health care professionals. The aim of the study was to assess knowledge about smoke-free law in public places in Poland among smoking and nonsmoking students of selected medical university. We surveyed 50 students of one medical university aged 23 +/- 2 years. Control group consisted with 61 students of other universities located in the same region aged 23 +/- 3 years. We developed a new survey to assess students knowledge about smoke-free regulations and their implementations in various public places. Smoking status was verified with exhaled carbon monoxide levels (COex). 57% off all surveyed students declared being familiar with smoke-free law. However, we detected a significant difference between the knowledge of medical vs. nonmedical students (76% vs. 41%, p < 0.05). The knowledge about smoke-free law in Poland among students is not sufficient, especially among nonmedical students.

  8. Parental smoking, rejection of parental smoking, and smoking susceptibility and behaviors in Hong Kong adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjiu; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2018-07-01

    We explored the role of rejection of parental smoking in the association between parental smoking and smoking in adolescents. In 2010-11 cross-sectional survey, 61,810 Hong Kong secondary school students (mean age 14.6 years, 50.5% boys) reported their smoking (never, not susceptible; never, susceptible; ever, not current; current), paternal and maternal smoking, and whether they accepted paternal and maternal smoking (acceptance/rejection). We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of students' smoking in relation to acceptance and rejection of parental smoking, compared with no parental smoking. The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of paternal smoking was 1.81 (1.67-1.96), 2.46 (2.25-2.69), and 2.79 (2.51-3.10), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.70 (0.64-0.76), 1.23 (1.13-1.35), and 0.47 (0.40-0.56). The OR (95% CI) of "never, susceptible", "ever, not current", and "current", compared with "never, not susceptible", in relation to acceptance of maternal smoking was 2.05 (1.80-2.33), 2.57 (2.29-2.88), and 6.33 (5.39-7.44), respectively. The corresponding ORs for rejection were 0.85 (0.69-1.05), 1.59 (1.39-1.81), and 2.14 (1.71-2.68). No overlapping was observed between the 95% CIs for acceptance and rejection of paternal or maternal smoking. While adolescent smoking was associated with parental smoking, especially in those who accepted parental smoking, the association was attenuated or reversed in those who rejected parental smoking. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Has Childhood Smoking Reduced Following Smoke-Free Public Places Legislation? A Segmented Regression Analysis of Cross-Sectional UK School-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Der, Geoff; Roberts, Chris; Haw, Sally

    2016-07-01

    Smoke-free legislation has been a great success for tobacco control but its impact on smoking uptake remains under-explored. We investigated if trends in smoking uptake amongst adolescents differed before and after the introduction of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom. Prevalence estimates for regular smoking were obtained from representative school-based surveys for the four countries of the United Kingdom. Post-intervention status was represented using a dummy variable and to allow for a change in trend, the number of years since implementation was included. To estimate the association between smoke-free legislation and adolescent smoking, the percentage of regular smokers was modeled using linear regression adjusted for trends over time and country. All models were stratified by age (13 and 15 years) and sex. For 15-year-old girls, the implementation of smoke-free legislation in the United Kingdom was associated with a 4.3% reduction in the prevalence of regular smoking (P = .029). In addition, regular smoking fell by an additional 1.5% per annum post-legislation in this group (P = .005). Among 13-year-old girls, there was a reduction of 2.8% in regular smoking (P = .051), with no evidence of a change in trend post-legislation. Smaller and nonsignificant reductions in regular smoking were observed for 15- and 13-year-old boys (P = .175 and P = .113, respectively). Smoke-free legislation may help reduce smoking uptake amongst teenagers, with stronger evidence for an association seen in females. Further research that analyses longitudinal data across more countries is required. Previous research has established that smoke-free legislation has led to many improvements in population health, including reductions in heart attack, stroke, and asthma. However, the impacts of smoke-free legislation on the rates of smoking amongst children have been less investigated. Analysis of repeated cross-sectional surveys across the four countries of the United Kingdom

  11. Exploring smoking, mental health and smoking-related disease in a nationally representative sample of older adults in Ireland - A retrospective secondary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Annette; Strawbridge, Judith D; Clancy, Luke; Doyle, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death among individuals with mental health difficulties (MHD). The aim of the current study was to determine the impact of smoking on the physical health of older adults with MHD in Ireland and to explore the extent to which smoking mediated or moderated associations between MHD and smoking-related diseases. Cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of 8175 community-dwelling adults aged 50 and over from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was undertaken. Multivariate adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess the association between MHD, smoking (current/past/never) and smoking-related diseases (respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, smoking-related cancers). A number of variables were employed to identify individuals with MHD, including prescribed medication, self-reported diagnoses and self-report scales. MHD was associated with current (RRRs ranging from 1.84 [1.50 to 2.26] to 4.31 [2.47 to 7.53]) and former (RRRs ranging from 1.26 [1.05 to 1.52] to 1.99 [1.19 to 3.33]) smoking and also associated with the presence of smoking-related disease (ORs ranging from 1.24 [1.01 to 1.51] to 1.62 [1.00 to 2.62]). Smoking did not mediate and rarely moderated associations between MHD and smoking-related disease. Older adults in Ireland with MHD are more likely to smoke than those without such difficulties. They also experience higher rates of smoking-related disease, although smoking had no mediating and no consistent moderating role in these analyses. Findings underscore the need for attention to the physical health of those with MHD including support in smoking cessation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of a workplace-smoking ban in combination with tax increases on smoking in the Dutch population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Candel, Math J J M; Knibbe, Ronald A; Willemsen, Marc C; de Vries, Hein

    2011-06-01

    In the Netherlands, between 2003 and 2005, 3 tobacco control measures were implemented: a workplace-smoking ban and 2 tax increases on tobacco products. This study explores how the combination of measures influences the smoking behavior of the general population divided into subpopulations with and without paid work (all aged 16-65 years). Data from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits were used. The total sample consisted of 32,014 respondents (27,150 with paid work and 4,864 without paid work) aged 16-65 years. Analyses were done by linear and logistic regression, controlling for relevant factors. For respondents with paid work, the combination of a smoking ban and 2 tax increases led to a decrease in the number of cigarettes per day and in the prevalence of daily smoking. For respondents without paid work, there was no significant effect on any of the outcome parameters. In both groups, there was no evidence that the effect of the measures on smoking was moderated by the respondent's gender, age, or level of education. The combination of policy measures has influenced the smoking behavior of respondents with paid work in a positive way. Compared with most other studies, the effect of the workplace-smoking ban alone is smaller. However, the effect of the combined interventions is higher than the that of tax increases in other studies. Among respondents without paid work who were exposed to tax increases only, no significant effects were found.

  13. The Relations between Parents' Smoking, General Parenting, Parental Smoking Communication, and Adolescents' Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Zeena; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; de Vries, Hein; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined whether the associations between general parenting practices (i.e., support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and parental smoking on the one hand and older and younger siblings' smoking on the other were mediated by parental smoking communication (i.e., frequency and quality of parent-adolescent…

  14. Adolescent smoking and parenting : Associations between smoking related parental behaviors and adoslescent smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exter Blokland, E.A.W. den

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this dissertation is to address the link between parenting and adolescent smoking. We address this question since the role of parents has been traditionally neglected in smoking research as well as prevention programs. Recent research has shown that the prevention of adult smoking in

  15. Is the smoking decision an 'informed choice'? Effect of smoking risk factors on smoking beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, H; Glynn, K; Fleming, R

    1987-06-26

    The argument that people freely choose to smoke assumes that individuals at the point of initiation of smoking (often in adolescence) hold accurate beliefs about smoking. Smoking beliefs and the presence of known smoking risk factors were assessed in interviews with a sample of 895 urban young people. The respondents greatly overestimated the prevalence of adult and peer smoking, negative attitudes of their peers were greatly underestimated, a large proportion believed that they would be less likely than other people to contract a smoking-related illness if they became smokers, and there was a general lack of understanding of the adverse consequences experienced upon smoking cessation. These misperceptions were more common among youngsters who were smokers, who intended to smoke, or who had friends or family members who smoked. Because misinformation among young people is widespread and those at greatest risk for smoking are the most misinformed, the tobacco industry's argument that the decision to smoke reflects an "informed choice" is without merit.

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity and Smoking Behavior Among Trauma-Exposed Daily Smokers: The Explanatory Role of Smoking-Related Avoidance and Inflexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshaie, Jafar; Zvolensky, Michael J; Salazar, Adriana; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), defined as the extent to which individuals believe that anxiety-related sensations have harmful consequences, is associated with smoking processes and poorer clinical outcomes among trauma-exposed smokers. Yet the specific mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility is a construct implicated in multiple manifestations of mood regulation that may underlie smoking behavior. The current study examined the explanatory role of smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility in terms of the relation between AS and indices of smoking behavior among trauma-exposed smokers. The sample consisted of 217 treatment-seeking adult smokers (44% female; M age = 37.8; SD = 13.2; age range: 18-65 years), who were exposed to at least one lifetime Criterion A trauma event (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR] Criterion A for trauma exposure). Bootstrap analysis (5,000 re-samples) revealed that AS was indirectly related to the (a) number of cigarettes smoked per day, (b) number of years being a daily smoker, (c) number of failed quit attempts, and (d) heaviness of smoking index among trauma-exposed smokers through its relation with smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility. These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility may be an important construct in better understanding AS-smoking relations among trauma-exposed smokers. Future work is needed to explore the extent to which smoking-specific avoidance and inflexibility account for relations between AS and other smoking processes (e.g., withdrawal, cessation outcome) in the context of trauma and smoking comorbidity. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  18. Parental behaviours, but not parental smoking, influence current smoking and smoking susceptibility among 14 and 15 year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waa, Andrew; Edwards, Richard; Newcombe, Rhiannon; Zhang, Jane; Weerasekera, Deepa; Peace, Jo; McDuff, Ingrid

    2011-12-01

    To explore whether parental behaviours related to smoking socialisation and parenting are associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking in 14-15 year old students. Data were sourced from the New Zealand 2006 Year 10 In-depth Survey, a school-based survey of 3,189 students. Outcome measures were susceptibility to smoking and current smoking. Potential determinants were second-hand smoke exposure in the home, parental smoking, parental anti-smoking expectations, anti-smoking rules, pocket money, monitoring of pocket money expenditure, general rule setting and monitoring, and concern about education. Analysis used logistic regression to adjust for potential confounding factors. Exposure to second-hand smoke and lack of parental anti-smoking expectations were independently associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Parental smoking was not independently associated with current smoking or susceptibility. Receiving pocket money and an absence of monitoring of expenditure were associated with smoking susceptibility and current smoking. Lack of parental rule setting was associated with smoking susceptibility. Findings were similar whether or not one or more parents were smokers. Not allowing smoking in the home, communicating non-smoking expectations to children, monitoring pocket money, and setting rules to guide behaviour are strategies which are likely to reduce risk of smoking uptake. The study provides evidence to inform the development of parent-focused interventions to reduce the risk of smoking initiation by children. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Kuwaiti oil fires: Composition of source smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cofer, W.R. III; Cahoon, D.R. [Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Stevens, R.K.; Pinto, J.P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Winstead, E.L.; Sebacher, D.I. [Hughes STX Corp., Hampton, VA (United States); Abdulraheem, M.Y. [Kuwait Environmental Protection Dept., Kuwait City (Kuwait); Al-Sahafi, M. [Ministry of Defense and Aviation, Eastern Province (Saudi Arabia); Mazurek, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Rasmussen, R.A. [Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Beaverton, OR (United States)] [and others

    1992-09-20

    While the Kuwaiti oil-fire smoke plumes manifested a pronounced impact on solar radiation in the Gulf region (visibility, surface temperatures, etc.), smoke plume concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants suggest that the overall chemical impact on the atmosphere of the smoke from these fires was probably much less than anticipated. Combustion in the Kuwaiti oil fires was surprisingly efficient, releasing on average more than 93% of the combusted hydrocarbon fuels as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, combustion-produced quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbonaceous particles were low, each {approximately} 2% by weight. The fraction of methane (CH{sub 4}) produced by the fires was also relatively low ({approximately} 0.2%), but source emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons were high ({approximately} 2%). Processes other than combustion (e.g., volatilization) probably contributed significantly to the measured in-plume hydrocarbon concentrations. Substantially, different elemental to organic carbon ratios were obtained for aerosol particles from several different types of fires/smokes. Sulfur emissions (particulate and gaseous) measured at the source fires were lower ({approximately} 0.5%) than predicted based on average sulfur contents in the crude. Sulfur dioxide measurements (SO{sub 2}) reported herein, however, were both limited in actual number and in the number of well fires sampled. Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions from the Kuwaiti oil fires were very low and often could not be distinguished from background concentrations. About 25-30% of the fires produced white smoke plumes that were found to be highly enriched in sodium and calcium chlorides. 18 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Risk reduction: perioperative smoking intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Smoking is a well-known risk factor for perioperative complications. Smokers experience an increased incidence of respiratory complications during anaesthesia and an increased risk of postoperative cardiopulmonary complications, infections and impaired wound healing. Smokers have a greater risk...... of postoperative intensive care admission. Even passive smoking is associated with increased risk at operation. Preoperative smoking intervention 6-8 weeks before surgery can reduce the complications risk significantly. Four weeks of abstinence from smoking seems to improve wound healing. An intensive, individual...... approach to smoking intervention results in a significantly better postoperative outcome. Future research should focus upon the effect of a shorter period of preoperative smoking cessation. All smokers admitted for surgery should be informed of the increased risk, recommended preoperative smoking cessation...

  1. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  2. Cigarette brand preference as a function of price among smoking youths in Canada: are they smoking premium, discount or native brands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, S T; Ahmed, R; Barisic, A; Murnaghan, D; Manske, S

    2009-12-01

    Given that little is known about the price-related cigarette brand preferences of youths, the current study seeks to characterise cigarette brand preferences and examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands among Canadian youths who are current smokers. This study used nationally representative data collected from 71,003 grade 5-12 students as part of the 2006-7 Canadian Youth Smoking Survey (YSS). Using data from current smokers, logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with smoking discount or native cigarette brands relative to premium cigarette brands. In 2006, premium cigarettes were the most prevalent brand of cigarette youths report usually smoking (49.4%); a substantial number of youths do report usually smoking either discount (12.9%) or native (9.3%) cigarette brands. Occasional smokers were more likely to report usually smoking premium cigarettes whereas daily smokers were more likely to report smoking either discount or native cigarettes. In particular, discount and native brands appear to be appealing among smoking youths with less spending money or those who are heavier smokers compared to youths smoking premium brands. Discount and native cigarette brands are commonly used by a substantial number of smoking youths in Canada. Additional research is required to better understand the reasons behind different cigarette brand preferences and how youths are able to access premium, discount and illicit native cigarettes. Moreover, ongoing surveillance of the cigarette brand preferences of youths is required for guiding future tobacco control policy and programming activities.

  3. Time trends in cigarette smoking in two German cohorts--results from EPIC Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, S; Kroke, A; Boeing, H; Becker, N

    2003-08-01

    Smoking prevention is less advanced in Germany compared with other European and North American countries, and fewer data exist, especially on the consumption habits at the individual level over time. EPIC Germany, which is part of a European multicentre study on diet and cancer, collected data on individual smoking behaviour and allows for consideration of the changing consumption pattern for both centres and different age groups. Within EPIC 25 546 and 27 548 participants, respectively, were recruited in Heidelberg and Potsdam. Data on smoking habits were collected by means of a computer-guided interview during the baseline examination between 1994 and 1998. For each birth cohort smoking prevalence and mean number of cigarettes smoked per day at different ages were calculated. Additionally, the prevalence of non-filter cigarette smoking was computed. Smoking prevalence in the 1990s was still higher among men (Heidelberg 16.3-32.3%; Potsdam 18.2-29.3%) than among women (Heidelberg 12.8-32.0%; Potsdam 10.4-27.8%). However, the percentage of women smokers was still increasing. Filter cigarettes comprised a growing percentage of the cigarettes smoked, but especially among men differences between both German cohorts can still be seen: depending on age, 10.0-12.7% of men in the Heidelberg cohort smoked non-filter cigarettes, but only 1.1-2.3% in the Potsdam cohort. The quantity smoked was higher in the Heidelberg than in the Potsdam cohort with respect to the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day as well as the pack-years of smoking. In conclusion, smoking habits in the Potsdam and the Heidelberg cohorts did not strongly differ by smoking prevalence. However, they did differ according to the quantity and quality of smoking. These differences, as well as the changes over the last 40 years may contribute to a changing pattern of diseases in different groups of the German population.

  4. Is there an impact of public smoking bans on self-reported smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke?

    OpenAIRE

    Naiman, Alisa B; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Implementation of smoke free policies has potentially substantial effects on health by reducing secondhand smoke exposure. However little is known about whether the introduction of anti-smoking legislation translates into decreased secondhand smoke exposure. We examined whether smoking bans impact rates of secondhand smoke exposure in public places and rates of complete workplace smoking restriction. Methods Canadian Community Health Survey was used to obtain secondhand sm...

  5. Smoking and periodontal disease in pregnancy: Another chance for permanent smoking abstinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igić Rajko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of publications confirm the association between periodontitis and general health. It is widely accepted that maternal periodontitis is a risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and preterm low birth weight (<2500 g. These risks increase further in women who smoke. The aim of this study is to clarify the correlations between periodontitis, smoking and adverse pregnancy outcomes and to emphasize the need for an interdisciplinary approach among health professionals (e.g. gynecologists/obstetricians, family physicians, dentists, periodontists and nurses in order to reduce such risks. Pregnancy is an ideal time for permanent smoking cessation. This condition provides an important 'teachable moment' to motivate smokers to change behavior that increases health risks for both fetus/infant and mother.

  6. Chromaticity based smoke removal in endoscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchaka, Kevin; Pawar, Vijay M.; Stoyanov, Danail

    2017-02-01

    In minimally invasive surgery, image quality is a critical pre-requisite to ensure a surgeons ability to perform a procedure. In endoscopic procedures, image quality can deteriorate for a number of reasons such as fogging due to the temperature gradient after intra-corporeal insertion, lack of focus and due to smoke generated when using electro-cautery to dissect tissues without bleeding. In this paper we investigate the use of vision processing techniques to remove surgical smoke and improve the clarity of the image. We model the image formation process by introducing a haze medium to account for the degradation of visibility. For simplicity and computational efficiency we use an adapted dark-channel prior method combined with histogram equalization to remove smoke artifacts to recover the radiance image and enhance the contrast and brightness of the final result. Our initial results on images from robotic assisted procedures are promising and show that the proposed approach may be used to enhance image quality during surgery without additional suction devices. In addition, the processing pipeline may be used as an important part of a robust surgical vision pipeline that can continue working in the presence of smoke.

  7. Common misconceptions and future intention to smoke among secondary school students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caszo, Brinnell; Khair, Muhammad; Mustafa, Mohd Habbib; Zafran, Siti Nor; Syazmin, Nur; Safinaz, Raja Nor Intan; Gnanou, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking among secondary school children continues to remain unchanged over the last 3 decades even though awareness regarding the health effects of smoking is increasing. Common misconceptions about smoking and parental influence could be factors influencing future intentions to smoke among these students. Hence, we looked at the common misconceptions as well as student perceptions about their future intention to smoke among Form 4 students in Shah Alam, Malaysia. This study was conducted by distribution of a questionnaire developed as part of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to Form 4 student in 3 schools at Shah Alam. Prevalence of smoking (current smokers) was 7.5%. Almost half of the children came from families where one or both parents smoked and a third of the parents had no discussion regarding consequences of smoking with them. A large number of students were classified as "triers" as they had tried smoking and were unsure of whether they would not be smoking in the future. Contrary to our expectations, students generally felt smoking did make one feel more uncomfortable and helped one to reduce body weight. Most students seemed to be aware of the ill-effects of smoking on health. They felt they had received adequate information from school regarding the effects on smoking on health. Our study showed that even though Form 4 students in Shah Alam were knowledgeable about ill-effects of smoking and were taught so as part of their school curriculum, the prevalence of smoking was still high. Students in the "trier group" represent a potential group of future smokers and strategies targeting tobacco control may be aimed at tackling these vulnerable individuals. Efforts are also needed to help educate secondary school children about common misconceptions and dispel myths associated with cigarette smoking.

  8. Trends in smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians in 1982-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärna, Kersti; Põld, Mariliis; Ringmets, Inge

    2017-07-25

    Smoking surveys among physicians have proved useful in highlighting the importance of physicians as healthy life style exemplars and role models in tobacco control and smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to give an overview of smoking behaviour among Estonian physicians from 1982 to 2014. Three cross-sectional postal surveys using a self-administered questionnaire were carried out among all practising physicians in Estonia. The number of physicians participating in this study was 3786 in 1982, 2735 in 2002, and 2902 in 2014. Data analysis involved calculating the age-standardized prevalences of smoking, prevalences of smoking by age group and mean age of smoking initiation. A non-parametric test for trend was used to assess significant changes in smoking over time. Age-standardized prevalence of current smoking among men was 39.7% in 1982, 20.9% in 2002, and 14.3% in 2014 and among women 12.2%, 8.0%, and 5.2%, respectively (p smoking among men and women was in age groups under 35 (from 55.2% to 16.7% and from 16.7% to 2.8%, respectively) and 35-44 (from 47.1% to 8.3% and from 19.5% to 5.1%, respectively) (p smoking initiation decreased from 20.4 to 19.3 among men and from 24.5 to 20.4 among women over the study period. In 1982-2014, smoking prevalence among Estonian physicians declined substantially. This may influence the willingness of society to recognize the health consequences of smoking which could give a support to the decline of the smoking epidemic in the country. Differences between smoking among male and female physicians persisted over the study period, but mean age of smoking initiation decreased. A further decline in smoking among Estonian physicians should be encouraged by special efforts targeted at physicians.

  9. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  10. Association of secondary sex ratio with smoking and parity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratis, Nicholas G; Asimacopoulou, Aspasia; Varvarigou, Anastasia

    2008-03-01

    To assess the sex ratio in offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers in relationship to parity. Prospective study. University hospital. The authors studied 2,108 term singleton neonates born between 1993 and 2002, 665 from smoking mothers and 1,443 from nonsmoking mothers. A prospective recording of maternal age, parity and smoking status, and gender of neonates delivered over a 10-year period. Secondary sex ratio in regard to maternal smoking and parity. The offspring sex ratio in the total sample studied was 1.09; in the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers, it was 1.26 and 1.03, respectively, a statistically significant difference. In the offspring of smoking women who had parity 1, 2, and >or=3, it was 1.47, 1.35, and 0.92, whereas in those of nonsmoking women, it was 1.04, 1.00, and 1.03, respectively (the differences of the parity 1 and 2 groups between the offspring of smoking and nonsmoking mothers were statistically significant). Logistic regression analysis showed that the possibility of a boy being delivered by a mother who smoked was significantly greater in primiparous women than in women who had parity >or=3, independent of the maternal age. Conversely, parity did not affect significantly the sex ratio in the offspring of nonsmoking women. The findings suggest that among women who smoked, significantly more male than female offspring are born from primiparous women, whereas women who had parity >or=3 gave birth to more female offspring; biparous women give birth to significantly more male offspring, but the offspring sex ratio declined with the number of cigarettes when the mothers smoked >or=10 cigarettes per day.

  11. Smoking practices and nicotine dependence among adolescents in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out the smoking prevalence and associated factors among in-school and out-of-school adolescents and their nicotine dependence. Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2008 comprising 1014 adolescents aged 12-18 years residing in two rural districts of Sindh and Punjab. Trained interviewers collected information from the adolescents regarding age, ethnicity, religion, occupation and education of parents, smoking behaviour, smoking history of family/friend, type of family system, number of siblings and place of residence. Statistical package Epi-Info version 6 was used to enter the data and analysis was performed by using SPSS version 12. Results: Overall smoking prevalence among the 1014 adolescents was 15.2%, with significant gender stratification (7.9% among girls versus 20.2% among boys). Of these, 50% were moderately nicotine dependent. However, the prevalence among in-school adolescents (14.6%) was not significantly different from out-of-school adolescents (16.1%). The factors associated with adolescents smoking were father's illiteracy (adjusted odds ratio [OR]= 8.2), friend's smoking (adjusted OR=6.8), father's smoking (adjusted OR=5.4) and nuclear family setup (adjusted OR=3.6). When explored for the first place of smoking, friend's home was mentioned by majority of adolescents boys and girls. Conclusion: Although there was a significant difference found between the prevalence of smoking among adolescent males and females, but any difference among in-school and out-of-school adolescents smoking prevalence could not be established. (author)

  12. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  13. Agriculture and smoke pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H T

    1940-01-01

    The effects of smoke fumes on the growth of crops and on the reaction of soils in Yorkshire during the last 15 years are reported. Attention is focused on the scorching effect on vegetation caused by acid rain, and the indirect effect of these acids on plants by reducing the lime status of the soil. In cities and towns the worst offenders are domestic chimneys which contribute 150 tons of sulfur to the atmosphere every week. In less densely populated industrial districts, the bulk of the fumes are contributed by industrial chimneys and by the smouldering pit heaps of collieries. The symptoms of smoke damage on wheat are the scorching of the tip of the leaf, followed by a yellowing of the remainder of the leaf. Adequate liming greatly increases the resistance of crops to attacks by fumes. The effect of acid fumes on the soil is also discussed.

  14. [Smoking and young people; effectiveness of smoking prevention and cessation programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monshouwer, K; Onrust, S; Rikkers-Mutsaerts, E; Lammers, J

    2017-01-01

    - In this article, we discuss the scientific knowledge on the effects of interventions that help young people to quit smoking and interventions that should prevent young people from starting to smoke.- We also describe the interventions in the Netherlands that, after a quality assessment, have been included in the database of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) Centre for Healthy Living.- Interventions have varying degrees of success in helping young people to quit smoking. There are only indications of a modest effect of behavioural interventions.- Preventive interventions mostly occur in a school setting and are making a modest contribution to the reduction of the number of young people that start smoking.- There are preliminary indications of the effectiveness of interventions in a medical setting. However, research into this is rare and there is no insight in long-term effects.- The database of the RIVM Centre for Healthy Living includes mainly preventive interventions in a school setting and only one smoking cessation intervention.

  15. Cessation and reduction in smoking behavior: impact of creating a smoke-free home on smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardörfer, R; Kreuter, M; Berg, C J; Escoffery, C; Bundy, L T; Hovell, M; Mullen, P D; Williams, R; Kegler, M C

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a creating a smoke-free home (SFH) on cessation and reduction of cigarette smoking on low-income smokers. This secondary data analysis uses data from study participants who were originally recruited through 2-1-1 information and referral call centers in Atlanta (Georgia, 2013), North Carolina (2014) and the Texas Gulf Coast (2015) across three randomized controlled trials testing an intervention aimed at creating SFHs, pooling data from 941 smokers. Participants who reported adopting a SFH were more likely to report quitting smoking than those who did not adopt a SFH. This was true at 3-month follow-up and even more pronounced at 6-month follow-up and persisted when considering only those who consistently reported no smoking at 3 and 6 months. Among those who did not stop smoking, the number of cigarettes per day declined significantly more and quit attempts were more frequent for those who created a SFH compared with those who did not. Findings suggest that creating a SFH facilitates cessation, reduces cigarette consumption and increases quit attempts. Future studies should assess the long-term impact of SFHs on sustaining cessation.

  16. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Because cigarette smokers constitute a large fraction of the population, a synergistic effect of plutonium and cigarette smoke might influence estimates of the health risk for plutonium and other transuranics released to the environment

  17. Secondhand smoke emission levels in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mulla, Ahmad; Fanous, Nadia; Seidenberg, Andrew B; Rees, Vaughan W

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to the emissions of a tobacco waterpipe is associated with increased health risks among its users as well as those exposed to its secondhand smoke. Waterpipe use is an emerging concern to the tobacco control community, particularly among countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. In 2002, Qatar adopted legislation that prohibited cigarette smoking inside public venues, but exempted tobacco waterpipe smoking. To inform the development and enforcement of effective policy, the impact of cigarette and waterpipe use on indoor air quality was monitored in waterpipe cafes in Doha, Qatar. Particulate matter (PM2.5) levels were measured inside and outside of a sample of 40 waterpipe cafes and 16 smoke-free venues in Doha, Qatar between July and October 2012. In addition, the number of waterpipes being smoked and the number of cigarette smokers were counted within each venue. Non-paired and paired sample t tests were used to assess differences in mean PM2.5 measurements between venue type (waterpipe vs smoke-free) and environment (indoor vs outdoor). The mean PM2.5 level inside waterpipe venues (476 μg/m(3)) was significantly higher than the mean PM2.5 level inside smoke-free venues (17 μg/m(3); pQatar, potentially endangering the health of employees and patrons. To protect the public from the dangers of secondhand tobacco smoke, and to change social norms around tobacco use, smoke-free policies that apply to all forms of combusted tobacco products, including the waterpipe, are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Pulmonary emphysema and smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Katashi; Murota, Makiko [Kagawa Medical Univ., Miki (Japan); Mitani, Masahiro (and others)

    2001-12-01

    We assessed the relation between PE and smoking in 1,563 cases (1,068 men and 495 women) who underwent CT scaring for suspicion of respiratory disease on chest radiograph or some respiratory complaints. PE was diagnosed by the existence of low attenuation areas in CT scan and not by pulmonary function tests. CT was performed with 10 mm collimation in a standard algorithm. There were 2 subtypes of pulmonary emphysema: centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema. PE, regardless of the grade, was seen: in 189 out of 348 (54.3%) cases in males smokers and in only 2 out of 63 (3.2%) cases in male non-smokers; and in 5 out of 25 (20.0%) in female smokers and in 4 out of 203 (2.0%) in female non-smokers. PE was observed in more than half of male smokers. High incidence of PE was also observed in even younger generation, and severity would progress with advancing age and smoking. Both types of emphysema progress with age and amount of cigarette smoking. (author)

  19. Smoke simulating test apparatus for smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector of the ionization type is described comprising: a measuring chamber having an interior substantially freely accessible to airborne products of combustion, first and second spaced-apart electrodes within the measuring chamber, a source of alpha radiation for ionizing air between the first and second electrodes such that current flows between the electrodes when an appropriate voltage is applied across the electrodes, alarm means coupled to the measuring chamber for producing an alarm signal when the electrical resistance of the measuring chamber increases to a value consistent with the presence within the measuring chamber of a predetermined level of airborne products of combustion, and intercepting means for intercepting alpha particles from the source of alpha radiation, the intercepting means being movable between a normal position providing a first electrical resistance between the first and second electrodes and a test position providing a second, higher electrical resistance between the electrodes, the second higher resistance being substantially equal to the said alarm value. (author)

  20. Smoking bans and the secondhand smoking problem: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Annette; Nell, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Smoking bans are gaining widespread support in the European Union and other countries. The vast majority of these bans are partial bans given that smoking is still permitted in certain places. This article investigates the role of partial smoking bans in coping with externalities caused by the secondhand smoking problem. Although it is widely known that Pigouvian taxation is superior to a perfect ban, this result does not necessarily carry over to a partial ban because taxes cannot (easily) be differentiated according to location. We show that under an easy and intuitive condition, (1) enacting a partial smoking ban alone always improves social welfare (a) in an unregulated society and (b) even in a regulated society if externalities can be eliminated, and (2) it is ensured that a combination of Pigouvian tax and a partial smoking ban leads to a higher social optimum than implementing corrective Pigouvian taxation alone.

  1. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  2. School, family and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yañez, Aina; Leiva, Alfonso; Gorreto, Lucia; Estela, Andreu; Tejera, Elena; Torrent, Maties

    2013-01-01

    The socio-cultural environment is an important factor involved with the onset of smoking during adolescence. Initiation of cigarette smoking occurs almost exclusively during this stage. In this context we aimed to analyze the association of school and family factors with adolescent smoking by a cross-sectional study of 16 secondary schools randomly selected from the Balearic Islands involved 3673 students and 530 teachers. The prevalence of regular smoking (at least one cigarette per week) was 4.8% among first year students, 11.6% among second year students, 14.1% among third year students, 20.9% among fourth year students and 22% among teachers. Among first and second year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, belonging to a single parent family, poor relationship with parents, poor academic performance, lack of interest in studies and teachers' perception of smoking in the presence of pupils. Among third and fourth year students, there were independent associations between regular smoking and poor relationship with parents, adolescents' perception of being allowed to smoke at home, poor academic performance, lack of control over student misbehavior and the school attended. The school policies and practices affect student related health behavior regarding smoking, independent of individual and family factors.

  3. Impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban in hospitality venues: indoor secondhand smoke exposure and influence of outdoor smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, María J; Fernández, Esteve; Pérez-Rios, Mónica; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Schiaffino, Anna; Galán, Iñaki; Moncada, Albert; Fu, Marcela; Montes, Agustín; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2013-05-01

    The Spanish tobacco control law of 2006 was modified in January 2011, banning smoking in all hospitality venues. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of the 2011 Spanish smoking ban on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, and to analyze the potential impact of outdoor smokers close to entrances on indoor SHS levels after the law came into force. Before-and-after evaluation study with repeated measures. The study was carried out in three regions of Spain (Catalonia, Galicia, and Madrid) and included a random sample of 178 hospitality venues. We measured vapor-phase nicotine and particulate matter 2.5 micrometers or less in diameter (PM2.5) as SHS markers at baseline (November-December 2010) and at follow-up (April-June 2011). We also recorded tobacco consumption variables such as the presence of butts, ashtrays, and smokers. In the posttest assessment, we also recorded the number of outdoor smokers close to the entrance. A total of 351 nicotine and 160 PM2.5 measurements were taken. Both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations decreased by more than 90% (nicotine from 5.73 to 0.57 µg/m(3), PM2.5 from 233.38 to 18.82 µg/m(3)). After the law came into force, both nicotine and PM2.5 concentrations were significantly higher in venues with outdoor smokers close to the entrance than in those without outdoor smokers. All the observational tobacco consumption variables significantly decreased (p hospitality venues dramatically decreased after the 2011 Spanish smoking ban. SHS from outdoor smokers close to entrances seems to drift inside venues. Smoking control legislation should consider outdoor restrictions to ensure complete protection against SHS.

  4. Students' attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students' compliance and attitudes following the ban. Cross-sectional study. A private university in Lebanon. 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in the spring semester of the 2008/2009 academic year was selected. Students completed a self-administered paper and pencil survey during class time. The main outcomes were compliance with and attitudes towards the ban. Other secondary outcomes were the perception of barriers to implementation of the ban and attitudes towards tobacco control in general. 535 students participated in the study. Smokers were generally compliant with the ban (72.7%) and for some (20%) it led to a decrease in their smoking. Students' attitude towards the ban and the enforcement of a non-smoking policy in public places across Lebanon varied according to their smoking status whereby non-smokers possessed a more favourable attitude and strongly supported such policies compared with smokers; overall, the largest proportions of students were satisfied to a large extent with the ban and considered it justified (58.6% and 57.2%, respectively). While much smaller percentages reported that the ban would help in reducing smoking to a large extent (16.7%) or it would help smokers quit (7.4%). Perceived barriers to implementation of the non-smoking policy in AUB included the lack of compliance with and strict enforcement of the policy as well as the small number and crowdedness of the smoking areas. An education campaign, smoking cessation services and strict enforcement of the policy might be necessary to boost its effect in further reducing students' cigarette use.

  5. Students’ attitude and smoking behaviour following the implementation of a university smoke-free policy: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Alameddine, Maysam; Nakkash, Rima; Afifi, Rima A; Khalil, Joanna; Nahhas, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Objective In view of the high-smoking rate among university students in Lebanon and the known adverse effects of second-hand smoking, the American University of Beirut (AUB) decided to implement a non-smoking policy on campus. This study sought to examine the students’ compliance and attitudes following the ban. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A private university in Lebanon. Participants 545 randomly selected students were approached. A stratified cluster sample of classes offered in the spring semester of the 2008/2009 academic year was selected. Students completed a self-administered paper and pencil survey during class time. Primary and secondary outcome measures The main outcomes were compliance with and attitudes towards the ban. Other secondary outcomes were the perception of barriers to implementation of the ban and attitudes towards tobacco control in general. Results 535 students participated in the study. Smokers were generally compliant with the ban (72.7%) and for some (20%) it led to a decrease in their smoking. Students' attitude towards the ban and the enforcement of a non-smoking policy in public places across Lebanon varied according to their smoking status whereby non-smokers possessed a more favourable attitude and strongly supported such policies compared with smokers; overall, the largest proportions of students were satisfied to a large extent with the ban and considered it justified (58.6% and 57.2%, respectively). While much smaller percentages reported that the ban would help in reducing smoking to a large extent (16.7%) or it would help smokers quit (7.4%). Perceived barriers to implementation of the non-smoking policy in AUB included the lack of compliance with and strict enforcement of the policy as well as the small number and crowdedness of the smoking areas. Conclusions An education campaign, smoking cessation services and strict enforcement of the policy might be necessary to boost its effect in further reducing students

  6. Gender differences in first and secondhand smoke exposure, spirometric lung function and cardiometabolic health in the old order Amish: A novel population without female smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert M; Dransfield, Mark T; Eberlein, Michael; Miller, Michael; Netzer, Giora; Pavlovich, Mary; Pollin, Toni I; Scharf, Steven M; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sin, Don; Mitchell, Braxton D

    2017-01-01

    Due to their relatively homogeneous lifestyle and living environment, the Amish offer a novel opportunity to study the health associations of tobacco smoke exposure, particularly secondhand smoke. We hypothesized that secondhand smoke exposure is associated with worse pulmonary and cardiometabolic health. We examined cross-sectional data on 3568 Amish study participants, including tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure from family members included in the study. Thirty-four percent of Amish men reported ever smoking. Of this proportion, 64% used cigars, 46% cigarettes, and 21% pipes. Less than 1% of women reported ever smoking. Smoking was associated with lower spirometric lung function, higher body mass index, lower HDL cholesterol, higher heart rate, lower ankle-brachial index, and larger aortic diameter in men. A greater number of sources of secondhand smoke exposure (defined from the total of spouses, parents, and siblings who smoke) was associated with higher body mass index (p = 0.03) and with higher fasting glucose in men (p = 0.01), but not in women (p = 0.007 for sex*secondhand smoke interaction). Secondhand smoke exposure was also associated with reduced HDL cholesterol only in women (p = 0.002) and a lower heart rate only in men (p = 0.006). Smoking habits among the Old Order Amish are notable for the absence of female participation and a high proportion of cigar and pipe use. Smoking is associated with decreased spirometric indices of lung function and increased cardiovascular risk in this population and secondhand smoke exposure is associated with a greater burden of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Sex differences in correlations could reflect differences in exposure patterns, mechanisms, or susceptibilities.

  7. Association between being employed in a smoke-free workplace and living in a smoke-free home: evidence from 15 low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Gaurang P; Lee, John Tayu; Glantz, Stanton A; Arora, Monika; Pearce, Neil; Millett, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether being employed in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home in 15 low and middle income countries (LMICs). Country-specific individual level analyses of cross-sectional Global Adult Tobacco Survey data (2008-2011) from 15 LMICs was conducted using multiple logistic regression. The dependent variable was living in a smoke-free home; the independent variable was being employed in a smoke-free workplace. Analyses were adjusted for age, gender, residence, region, education, occupation, current smoking, current smokeless tobacco use and number of household members. Individual country results were combined in a random effects meta-analysis. In each country, the percentage of participants employed in a smoke-free workplace who reported living in a smoke-free home was higher than those employed in a workplace not smoke-free. The adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of living in a smoke-free home among participants employed in a smoke-free workplace (vs. those employed where smoking occurred) were statistically significant in 13 of the 15 countries, ranging from 1.12 [95% CI 0.79-1.58] in Uruguay to 2.29 [1.37-3.83] in China. The pooled AOR was 1.61 [1.46-1.79]. In LMICs, employment in a smoke-free workplace is associated with living in a smoke-free home. Accelerated implementation of comprehensive smoke-free policies is likely to result in substantial population health benefits in these settings. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Does Watching Smoking in Movies Promote Teenage Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Heatherton, Todd F.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Compared to adolescents with low exposure to smoking in movies, those with high exposure are about three times as likely to try smoking or become smokers. We have observed this effect in nationally representative samples using cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. This effect remains statistically significant after controlling for numerous other traditional risk factors, such as personality, parenting style, and sociodemographics. Indeed, the movie-smoking exposure effect on adolescent sm...

  9. University of São Paulo Reasons for Smoking Scale: a new tool for the evaluation of smoking motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Elisa Sebba Tosta de; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Martinez, José Antônio Baddini

    2010-01-01

    To develop a new scale aimed at evaluating smoking motivation by incorporating questions and domains from the 68-item Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM-68) into the Modified Reasons for Smoking Scale (MRSS). Nine WISDM-68 questions regarding affiliative attachment, cue exposure/associative processes, and weight control were added to the 21 questions of the MRSS. The new scale, together with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), was administered to 311 smokers (214 males; mean age = 37.6 ± 10.8 years; mean number of cigarettes smoked per day = 15.0 ± 9.2), who also provided additional information. We used exploratory factor analysis in order to determine the factor structure of the scale. The influence that certain clinical features had on the scores of the final factor solution was also analyzed. The factor analysis revealed a 21-question solution grouped into nine factors: addiction, pleasure from smoking, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, handling, social smoking, weight control, and affiliative attachment. For the overall scale, the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.83. Females scored significantly higher for addiction, tension reduction, handling, weight control, and affiliative attachment than did males. The FTND score correlated positively with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, social smoking, and affiliative attachment. The number of cigarettes smoked per day was associated with addiction, tension reduction, stimulation, automatism, affiliative attachment, and handling. The level of exhaled CO correlated positively with addiction, automatism, and affiliative attachment. The new scale provides an acceptable framework of motivational factors for smoking, with satisfactory psychometric properties and reliability.

  10. Characterizing Internet searchers of smoking cessation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K; Graham, Amanda L

    2006-09-19

    The Internet is a viable channel to deliver evidence-based smoking cessation treatment that has the potential to make a large population impact on reducing smoking prevalence. There is high demand for smoking cessation information and support on the Internet. Approximately 7% (10.2 million) of adult American Internet users have searched for information on quitting smoking. Little is known about these individuals, their smoking status, what type of cessation services they are seeking on the Internet, or how frequently these searches for cessation information are conducted. The primary goal of this study was to characterize individuals who search for smoking cessation information on the Internet to determine appropriate triage and treatment strategies. The secondary goal was to estimate the incidence of searches for cessation information using publicly available search engine data. We recruited individuals who clicked on a link to a leading smoking cessation website (QuitNet) from within the results of a search engine query. Individuals were "intercepted" before seeing the QuitNet home page and were invited to participate in the study. Those accepting the invitation were routed to an online survey about demographics, smoking characteristics, preferences for specific cessation services, and Internet search patterns. To determine the generalizability of our sample, national datasets on search engine usage patterns, market share, and keyword rankings were examined. These datasets were then used to estimate the number of queries for smoking cessation information each year. During the 10-day study period, 2265 individuals were recruited and 29% (N = 655) responded. Of these, 59% were female and overall tended to be younger than the previously characterized general Internet population. Most (76%) respondents were current smokers; 17% had quit within the last 7 days, and 7% had quit more than 7 days ago. Slightly more than half of active smokers (53%) indicated that they

  11. EMB2/374: Evidence and not Evidence-based Products Offered for Smoking Cessation on the World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Eckldorna, J; Groman, E

    1999-01-01

    Introduction If people want to stop smoking, they look for advice how to do so. In recent years the internet has come up as a convenient and comprehensive means of information. However, a number of products to quit smoking is offered. We have examined smoking cessation products distributed via the internet and evaluated them from a scientific point of view. This short abstract can only provide a short insight into smoking cessation products. Methods The study was conducted by using the search...

  12. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 midsized Californian cities were obtained through telephone interviews. Community characteristics were obtained from 2010 GeoLytics data. Community adult daily smoking prevalence was ascertained from telephone interviews with 8,918 adults conducted in the same 50 cities. Multilevel analyses, controlling for individual and city characteristics, were used to predict adolescents’ past 12-month smoking from perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and from community adult daily smoking prevalence. Results showed that perceived friends’ smoking approval and behavior were associated positively with adolescents’ smoking, as was the community-level prevalence of adult daily smoking. Furthermore, the association between perceived friends’ smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking was moderated by the prevalence of adult daily smokers in the community. Specifically, the association was stronger in cities with higher prevalence of adult smokers. These results suggest that adult community norms that are more supportive of smoking may enhance the influence of friends’ smoking behavior. Therefore, interventions designed to prevent or reduce youths’ smoking should also focus on reducing smoking by adults. PMID:24241785

  13. Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased availability of tobacco products other than conventional cigarettes, the use of puffing topography devices for smoking behaviour studies and the use of biomarkers to study smoke constituents exposure have generated the need for a more comprehensive set of definitions concerning smoking behaviour and exposure to smoke. The definitions offered in this paper are based on many years of practical experience and on consensus within a broad group of scientists working in these areas. It is intended that, with wider and more consistent usage, these definitions should reduce any misunderstandings and facilitate interpretation of future studies.

  14. Prevalence of invehicle smoking and secondhand smoke exposure in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llambi, Laura; Barros, Mary; Parodi, Carolina; Pippo, Antonella; Nunez, Virginia; Colomar, Mercedes; Ciganda, Alvaro; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Goyeneche, Juan J; Aleman, Alicia

    2018-01-19

    Protection from secondhand smoke (SHS) is one of the fundamental principles of the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control. Objective data on SHS exposure in vehicles in South America is scarce. This study aimed to estimate prevalence of smoking inside vehicles. The point prevalence of smoking in vehicles was observed, and a method for estimating smoking prevalence was piloted. We observed 10 011 vehicles. In 219 (2.2%; 95% CI 1.91 to 2.49) of them, smoking was observed, and in 29.2% of these, another person was exposed to SHS. According to the 'expansion factor' we constructed, direct observation detected one of six to one to nine vehicles in which smoking occurred. The observed prevalence of smoking in vehicles (2.2%) could reflect a real prevalence between 12% and 19%. In 29.2% (95% CI 23.6 to 35.5) and 4.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 8.3) of vehicles in which smoking was observed, another adult or a child, respectively, was exposed to SHS. Smoking was estimated to occur in 12%-19% of vehicles, with involuntary exposure in one of three of vehicles observed. These data underscore a need for new public policies to eliminate SHS in vehicles to protect public health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Impact of the Spanish smoking law in smoker hospitality workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; López, María J; Ariza, Carles; Pascual, José A; Schiaffino, Anna; Pérez-Ortuño, Raúl; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-09-01

    A smoke-free law went into effect in Spain on 1 January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, where only partial bans were implemented. The objective was to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers who smoke. The study design is a before-and-after evaluation. We formed a cohort at baseline, during the 3 months before the law went into effect, with 431 hospitality workers (222 smokers). From them, 288 were successfully followed-up 12 months after the ban (118 were smokers at baseline). We analyzed the quit rate, the reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked per day, changes in the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores, and changes in salivary cotinine concentrations in smokers from baseline to 1 year after the ban. Among 118 smokers, six (5.1%) quit smoking. Among the 112 remaining smokers, the mean number of cigarettes smoked decreased by 8.9% after the ban (from 17.9 to 16.3 cigarettes/day, p 6) was reduced by half after the ban (19.5% vs. 9.7%, p = .03). Salivary cotinine decreased by 4.4% after the ban (geometric mean 104.3 vs. 99.7 ng/ml, p = .02). No meaningful differences were found in quit rates and the FTND scores according to type of regulation. The Spanish smoking law has had beneficial effects (reduction in number of cigarettes smoked, cotinine levels, and FTND score) among hospitality workers who smoke.

  16. Impact of institutional smoking bans on reducing harms and secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Kate; McHugh, Jack; Callinan, Joanne E; Kelleher, Cecily

    2016-05-27

    Smoking bans or restrictions can assist in eliminating nonsmokers' exposure to the dangers of secondhand smoke and can reduce tobacco consumption amongst smokers themselves. Evidence exists identifying the impact of tobacco control regulations and interventions implemented in general workplaces and at an individual level. However, it is important that we also review the evidence for smoking bans at a meso- or organisational level, to identify their impact on reducing the burden of exposure to tobacco smoke. Our review assesses evidence for meso- or organisational-level tobacco control bans or policies in a number of specialist settings, including public healthcare facilities, higher education and correctional facilities. To assess the extent to which institutional smoking bans may reduce passive smoke exposure and active smoking, and affect other health-related outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. We contacted authors to identify completed or ongoing studies eligible for inclusion in this review. We also checked websites of state agencies and organisations, such as trial registries. Date of latest searches was 22nd June 2015. We considered studies that reported the effects of tobacco bans or policies, whether complete or partial, on reducing secondhand smoke exposure, tobacco consumption, smoking prevalence and other health outcomes, in public healthcare, higher educational and correctional facilities, from 2005 onwards.The minimum standard for inclusion was having a settings-level policy or ban implemented in the study, and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included quasi-experimental studies (i.e. controlled before-and-after studies), interrupted time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. Two or more review authors independently

  17. [Factors associated with smoking continuation or cessation in men upon learning of their partner's pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouketsu, Tomomi; Gokan, Yoko; Ishihara, Takako; Tamaoki, Mariko; Gotoh, Tadao; Kobayashi, Suzuka

    2013-04-01

    Factors associated with smoking continuation or cessation were analyzed among parents of 4-month-old infants, in order to prepare the basic materials for a smoking cessation support program for pregnant women and their partners. The study focused on the changes in partners' smoking activities upon learning of their partner's pregnancy. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was given to parents of 1,198 infants during a 4-month medical checkup in City A of Hyogo prefecture (776 couples) and City B of Gifu prefecture (422 couples). The questionnaire items collected information on age, education, smoking history, current smoking status, and awareness about smoking. The additional items for fathers were occupation, workplace smoking environment, and attitude toward smoking; and the additional items for women were number of children, family composition, and partners' attitudes and behaviors regarding smoking upon learning of their pregnancy. The number of valid answers (for pairs) was 558 (71.9%) in City A and 395 (93.6%) in City B. The data on men who had been smokers before learning of their partner's pregnancy were analyzed. For each area, a comparative item-by-item analysis was performed on data from men who ceased smoking upon learning of the pregnancy (smoking cessation group) and those who continued smoking (smoking continuation group). For logistic regression analysis, the objective variables were the 2 groups, and the explanatory variables were the items showing statistical differences between the groups and the items related to the survey areas. Of the men whose data were included in the analysis, 210 (37.6%) in City A and 204 (51.6%) in City B had been smokers before learning of their partner's pregnancy. Among these, 16 (7.6%) in City A and 26 (12.7%) in City B ceased smoking after learning of the pregnancy. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio for continuing smoking was 2.77 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-6.57] for

  18. Smoking cessation research via the internet: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jacqueline; Delucchi, Kevin; Muñoz, Ricardo; Collins, Noah; Stable, Eliseo Pérez; Augustson, Erik; Lenert, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    To reverse the present stagnation in progress toward reduced smoking rates, new widely accessible treatment methods for smoking cessation must be developed and evaluated with large groups of smokers. We tested the feasibility of conducting a smoking cessation study over the Internet using a brief, self-help educational intervention. Through a direct e-mail sent from a large health information web site (WebMD), and with our presence on the Internet, we recruited 538 adult smokers to the study. Most participants (90.5%) completed all baseline questionnaires. Questionnaires showed acceptable to good reliability and were comparable with studies using paper-and-pencil methods. Participants appeared to be highly dependent on nicotine. Forty-two percent indicated being ready to quit smoking at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, 42.8% of baseline participants returned a complete follow-up questionnaire, 40% of whom indicated having made a serious quit attempt, and 8.3% of whom indicated 7-day abstinence. Most follow-up participants rated the site as at least somewhat helpful to quitting (74.9%) and reported at least a slight increased intention to quit smoking over baseline (67.3%). While Internet-enabled self-help interventions for smoking cessation are able to reach large numbers of smokers interested in quitting smoking, additional procedures are needed to retain these users for treatment and follow-up assessments.

  19. Marijuana smoking: effects of varying puff volume and breathhold duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorlosa, J L; Greenwald, M K; Stitzer, M L

    1995-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to quantify biological and behavioral effects resulting from exposure to controlled doses of marijuana smoke. In one study, puff volume (30, 60 and 90 ml) and in a second study, breathhold duration (0, 10 and 20 sec) were systematically varied while holding constant other smoking topography parameters (number of puffs = 10, interpuff interval = 60 sec and inhalation volume = 25% of vital capacity). Each study also varied levels of delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol marijuana cigarette content (1.75% and 3.55%). Regular marijuana users served as subjects (n = 7 in each experiment). Subjects smoked 10 puffs in each of six sessions; a seventh, nonsmoking session (all measures recorded at the same times as in active smoking sessions) served as a control. Variations in puff volume produced significant dose-related changes in postsmoking plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels, carbon monoxide boost and subjective effects (e.g., "high"). In contrast, breathholding for 10 or 20 sec versus 0 sec increased plasma delta 9-tetrahydro-cannabinol levels but not CO boost or subjective effects. Task performance measures were not reliably influenced by marijuana smoke exposure within the dosing ranges examined. These findings confirm the utility of the controlled smoking technology, support the notion that cumulative puff volume systematically influences biological exposure and subjective effects, but cast doubt on the common belief that prolonged breathholding of marijuana smoke enhances classical subjective effects associated with its reinforcing value in humans.

  20. Maternal fish consumption during pregnancy and smoking behavioural patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, Rachel V; Heron, Jon; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Davis, John M; SanGiovanni, John Paul

    2018-06-01

    n-3 Highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA), are essential components of neuronal membranes and mediate a range of complex bioactive properties including gene expression, myelination, cell-signalling and dopaminergic function. Deficits in n-3 HUFA have been linked to increased risks for addictive disorders, thus we posited that lower fish consumption would be associated with greater risks for perinatal smoking among 9640 mothers enroled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used univariable and multivariable regression models to examine relationships between self-reported prenatal dietary intakes of n-3 HUFA-rich foods (fish and shellfish) and maternal smoking; outcomes included cessation and the number of cigarettes smoked per d. Both before and during pregnancy, there was consistent evidence (Psmoking associations; relative to mothers reporting no fish consumption, those who reported some fish consumption (smoking (adjusted P values smoking diminished, from a high of 31·6% (pre-pregnancy) to a low of 18·7% (second trimester), the magnitude of fish intake-smoking associations remained stable following adjustment for confounders. These observations suggest that greater fish or n-3 HUFA consumption should be evaluated as an intervention to reduce or prevent smoking in randomised clinical trials.

  1. Smoking behaviour and attitudes among German nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Karin; Koch, Franziska; Groneberg, David A; Kusma, Bianca; Mache, Stefanie; Marx, Peter; Hartmann, Thomas; Pankow, Wulf

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco consumption is a major public health threat. Healthcare workers can contribute to the reduction of tobacco use. The principles of intervention need to be provided already during vocational school. This research examines the smoking habits, the personal attitudes towards smoking and the professional beliefs of healthcare trainees. The aim of this study is to ascertain the necessity and the general conditions for multilevel interventions of prevention and health promotion. In 2010, a questionnaire survey was conducted in a Berlin vocational school for healthcare workers. Of 148 students (RR = 49.3%) 41.9% of the students are daily or occasional smokers. The nicotine dependency and the number of cigarettes per day are comparatively low. The majority of smoking students is willing to quit and has already undertaken several attempts. Non-smoking protection is evaluated to be very important and intervention rates in patient care range between 49% and 72%. In both questions, non-smokers and smokers differ significantly. The self-reported smoking prevalence in our population is considerably lower than in previous studies. However, the smoking rate among healthcare trainees is still higher than in the general population. The students' own smoking behaviours and its influences on the treatment of patients should be reflected during school. It is necessary to develop adequate recruitment strategies and attractive interventions for this target group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The control of environmental tobacco smoke: a policy review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNabola, Aonghus

    2009-02-01

    According to World Health Organisation figures, 30% of all cancer deaths, 20% of all coronary heart diseases and strokes and 80% of all chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are caused by cigarette smoking. Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure has also been shown to be associated with disease and premature death in non-smokers. In response to this environmental health issue, several countries have brought about a smoking ban policy in public places and in the workplace. Countries such as the U.S., France, Italy, Ireland, Malta, the Netherlands, Sweden, Scotland, Spain, and England have all introduced policies aimed at reducing the population exposure to ETS. Several investigations have monitored the effectiveness of these smoking ban policies in terms of ETS concentrations, human health and smoking prevalence, while others have also investigated a number of alternatives to smoking ban policy measures. This paper reviews the state of the art in research, carried out in the field of ETS, smoking bans and Tobacco Control to date and highlights the need for future research in the area.

  3. Evidence for Peroxynitrite and Cognates in Whole Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perini FR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-, a major product of the gas-phase interaction between the superoxide radical and nitric oxide, has been detected by ion chromatography (IC for the first time. IC analyses of cigarette whole mainstream smoke collected in deionized water (DiW, using a Dionex 4500i IC, a Dionex AS11 column, an aqueous sodium hydroxide linear gradient with conductivity suppression from 1-20 mMNaOH, and conductivity coupled with diode array detection, revealed an unknown singly charged anion I incompletely resolved from nitrite. Gradient modification produced baseline resolution of I from nitrite and from a number of additional, previously undetected anions associated with smoke samples. Possible candidates for the unexpected smoke sample anion, including bromide, cyanide, and hydrogen hyponitrite were rejected for possible correspondence with the new smoke species on the basis of concentration range and chemical behavior. Chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic evidence supported the assignment of this smoke component as ONOO-. Mineral acid immediately destroyed I in the collected aqueous smoke medium. Both the retention time and the ultraviolet spectrum (UV maximum at 302 nm for I were identical to those for synthetic peroxynitrite. The smoke from full flavor [28.5-30.4 mg total particulate matter (TPM] filter cigarettes contained 2.4-3.3 µg/cig of this species. Levels were 4 to 5 times higher, up to 13 µg/cig, in cigarettes with the filters removed.

  4. Effects of passive smoking on health of children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.B. Jr.; Ware, J.H.; Berkey, C.S.; Dockery, D.W.; Spiro, A. III; Speizer, F.E.

    1985-10-01

    Analysis of data on the effects of passive smoking obtained in preadolescent children from the Harvard Six-Cities Study demonstrates an exposure-response relationship between the number of smokers in the household and the reporting rates for doctor-diagnosed respiratory illness before age 2, history of bronchitis, wheeze most days and nights apart from colds, and a composite of symptoms defined as the lower respiratory index. Similarly, when only the amount currently smoked by the mother was used, the data indicated a relatively uniform increase in each of the reported diseases and symptoms. FEV/sub 1/ was lower in children with smoking mothers compared to children of nonsmoking mothers. Rate of increases in FEV/sub 1/ after adjusting for normal growth was significantly smaller in children of smoking mothers and was related also to amount smoked. Although children of smoking mothers were shorter on the average than children of nonsmoking mothers, no on-going passive smoking effect on height growth can be ascertained. All these differences are small and their medical significance remains to be defined.

  5. Surviving With Smog and Smoke: Precision Interventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Wang, Chen

    2017-11-01

    Despite continuous efforts of regional governmental agencies, air pollution remains a major threat to public health worldwide. In January 2017, a severe episode of smog similar to the Great Smog of 1952 occurred in London. The longest episode of Chinese haze also developed in Beijing, during which levels of particulate matter smog and Chinese haze are associated with large numbers of premature deaths each year, at 400,000 and 1.2 million, respectively, primarily from respiratory diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and ischemic heart diseases. In addition to air pollution, some are exposed to other harmful environmental factors, such as secondhand smoke. For countries with large populations of smokers, such as China, India, the United States, and Russia, surviving both smog and smoke is a serious problem. With novel genomic and epigenomic studies revealing air pollution- and smoking-induced mutational signatures and epigenetic editing in diseases such as lung cancer, it has become feasible to develop precision strategies for early intervention in the disease-causing pathways driven by the specific mutations or epigenetic regulations, or both. New therapies guided by gene-drug interactions and genomic biomarkers may also be developed. We discuss both perspectives regarding the urgent need to manage the toxic effects of smog and smoke for the benefit of global health and the novel concept of precision intervention to protect the exposed individuals when exposure to smog and secondhand smoke cannot be voluntarily avoided or easily modified. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bidi smoking and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singhal, Sanjay; Garg, Rajiv

    2009-04-01

    This article discusses the role of bidi smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer. A review of the documented evidence is presented. The literature from Pubmed has been searched using the key words 'beedi smoking', 'bidi smoking' and 'lung cancer'. The bibliographies of all papers found were further searched for additional relevant articles. After this thorough search, eight studies were found. The evidence suggests that bidi smoking poses a higher risk for lung cancer than cigarette smoking and risk further increases with both the length of time and amount of bidi smoking. The focus of tobacco control programs should be expanded to all types of tobacco use, including bidis, to reduce the increasing problem of lung cancer.

  7. Counseling parents to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Sharon L; Free, Teresa A

    2005-01-01

    It is estimated that 20%-50% of adult smokers reside with children, and the majority of these smokers (70%) continue to smoke inside their homes despite the adverse health effects of second hand smoke (SHS) for their children (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1997). Smoking is more prevalent among parents with lower incomes and less education (U.S. Surgeon General's Report, 2002a). Young persons, ages 20-40 in the family child-rearing stage, are more likely to be smokers. However, they usually have less time and financial resources for quitting smoking. To prevent the adverse health effects of SHS for children, pediatric nurses must provide parents with accurate information on affordable smoking cessation education resources. Evidenced-based smoking cessation guidelines, the cost and efficacy of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) pharmacological aids, and essential counseling tips for parents are reviewed.

  8. Does smoking tighten the gut?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prytz, H.; Benoni, C.; Tagesson, C.

    1989-01-01

    There is a low prevalence of smoking in ulcerative colitis. The disease often starts or relapses after stopp of smoking. Increased intestinal permeability for harmful substances has been proposed as one causal factor in ulcerative colitis. The authors therefore wanted to study the relationship between smoking and intestinal permeability in healthy subjects. In 25 smoking and 25 non-smoking healthy persons, urine recoveries of two different oral probes, 51 Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid ( 51 Cr-EDTA) and low-molecular-weight polymers of polyethylene glycol, were measured. The smokers had significantly lower 24-h urine recoveries of 51 Cr-EDTA than the non-smokers. In contrast, 6-h urine recoveries of PEG 400 were not significantly different in smokers and non-smokers. Thus, smoking appears to tighten the gut either by effects on the paracelluar junctions in the intestinal epithelium, or by decreasing the permeability in the distal small bowel and the colon. 21 refs

  9. Smoking and risk for psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønnberg, Ann Sophie; Skov, Lone; Skytthe, Axel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a potential risk factor for psoriasis. Both psoriasis and smoking habits are partly explained by genetic factors. However, twin studies investigating the association between these traits are limited. METHODS: Questionnaire-based data on smoking habits and psoriasis were...... collected for 34,781 twins, aged 20-71 years, from the Danish Twin Registry. A co-twin control analysis was performed on 1700 twin pairs discordant for lifetime history of smoking. Genetic and environmental correlations between smoking and psoriasis were estimated using classical twin modeling. RESULTS......: After multivariable adjustment, age group (50-71 vs. 20-49 years) and childhood exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) were significantly associated with psoriasis in the whole population (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.29 [P = 0.021] and OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49 [P...

  10. Smoke composition and predicting relationships for international commercial cigarettes smoked with three machine-smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, M E; Morton, M J; Laffoon, S W; Cox, R H; Lipowicz, P J

    2005-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine the effects of smoking machine puffing parameters on mainstream smoke composition and to express those effects as predicting relationships. Forty-eight commercial Philip Morris USA and Philip Morris International cigarettes from international markets and the 1R4F reference cigarette were machine-smoked using smoking conditions defined by the International Organization of Standardization (ISO), the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH), and Health Canada (HC). Cigarette tobacco fillers were analyzed for nitrate, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), and ammonia. Mainstream yields for tar and 44 individual smoke constituents and "smoke pH" were determined. Cigarette constituent yields typically increased in the order ISOrelationships were developed between ISO tar and ISO, MDPH, and HC constituent yields and between MDPH tar and HC tar and respective smoking condition yields. MDPH and HC constituent yields could be predicted with similar reliability using ISO tar or the corresponding smoking-condition tar. The reliability of the relationships varied from strong to weak, depending on particular constituents. Weak predicting relationships for nitrogen oxides and TSNA's, for example, were improved with inclusion of tobacco filler composition factors. "Smoke pH" was similar for all cigarettes at any one smoking condition, and overall marginally lower at HC conditions than at ISO or MDPH conditions.

  11. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  12. An Evaluation of a Therapist-Administered Bibliotherapy and Spouse Smoking Habits on Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Barbara L.

    1979-01-01

    Attempted to evaluate a readily available comprehensive bibliothearpy smoking cessation program and the impact of smoking and nonsmoking behavior of a spouse on the individual to stop smoking. Results suggest that motivation is an important variable in smoking cessation. (Author)

  13. Smoking rates for men from infertile couples and men with reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Andreeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of lifestyle factors (such as smoking, alcohol abuse, etc. are known to impact negatively overall health and wellbeing. Tobacco use is a risk factor for serious disease development. Still in the view of many scientists smoking is the easy preventable risk factor for some diseases. It is necessary to study the prevalence and influence of tobacco smoking on people who are planning to conceive a child in order to prevent the effects of damaging factors on future generations. In 2012–2013 years we questioned 255 men from infertile couples and men with proven reproductive disorders about their smoking experience, number of cigarettes smoked per day, type of cigarettes, etc. The majority of respondents were Moscow dwellers. Our survey found out that 35 % of the respondents have never smoked, 27 % quitted smoking; 38 % of the respondents smoked and 70 % of them do it regularly. The 58 % of regular smokers reported more than 10 years of smoking experience. A half of non-regular smokers have 6 or more years of smoking experience. Most of daily smokers consume more than half a pack cigarettes per day. Both regular and non-regular smokers preferred “light” and “medium” cigarettes. Among former smokers 63 % reported six or more years experience of smoking. It is typical that 54 % of quitters gave up smoking less than a year ago. The prevalence of smoking among men surveyed is more than 20 % lower than indicated for the whole country male population by most authors. We assume that it may be due to the care of men who plan to become fathers of their health and health of future children. Also long waiting time to pregnancy is likely to give rise to lifestyle habits reevaluation. On the other hand, a lot of respondents don,t give up the habit and continue to smoke more than ten cigarettes a day despite pregnancy planning. 

  14. Smoke plumes: Emissions and effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan O' Neill; Shawn Urbanski; Scott Goodrick; Sim Larkin

    2017-01-01

    Smoke can manifest itself as a towering plume rising against the clear blue sky-or as a vast swath of thick haze, with fingers that settle into valleys overnight. It comes in many forms and colors, from fluffy and white to thick and black. Smoke plumes can rise high into the atmosphere and travel great distances across oceans and continents. Or smoke can remain close...

  15. Smoking Cessation in COPD patients

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos A. Jimenez-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is the main cause of COPD. Smoking cessation is the only therapeutic measure that can cure COPD and prevent this disorder from its chronic progression. Smoking cessation in COPD patients is difficult because most of these patients have specific characteristics that prevent them to quit. Recently, an ERS Task Force has developed a Consensus Document that contains recommendations for helping COPD smokers to quit.

  16. Chemical composition of cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, M. R.

    1979-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is a concentrated aerosol of liquid particles suspended in an atmosphere consisting mainly of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. While the precise chemical composition of the particulate and gaseous phases is dependent on the characteristics of the cigarette and the manner in which it is smoked, both phases contain tens of hundreds of individual constitutents. Notable among potentially hazardous constituents of smoke are tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, benzo(a)pyrene, and N-nitrosamines.

  17. Smoke management for modern infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Hilditch, Ryan Robert

    2017-01-01

    Concerning management of smoke following an accidental fire within a building it is desirable to be able to estimate, within some understood, acceptable magnitude of error, the volume of smoke resulting from the combustion process of a predefined design fire scenario. Traditionally a range of first principle-based and empirically derived correlations are used to estimate the mass flow of smoke at a height of interest within the fire plume and are based upon the understanding th...

  18. School-based programmes for preventing smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael

    2013-04-30

    Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some

  19. 3 Very Real Dangers of Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke breathed out by the smoker. When you stand near a smoker or go to a restaurant or home where smoking is allowed, you breathe secondhand smoke.

  20. Secondhand smoke in cars: assessing children's potential exposure during typical journey conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Apsley, Andrew; Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Friel, Brenda; Snelgrove, Vicki

    2012-11-01

    To measure levels of fine particulate matter in the rear passenger area of cars where smoking does and does not take place during typical real-life car journeys. Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) was used as a marker of secondhand smoke and was measured and logged every minute of each car journey undertaken by smoking and non-smoking study participants. The monitoring instrument was located at breathing zone height in the rear seating area of each car. Participants were asked to carry out their normal driving and smoking behaviours over a 3-day period. 17 subjects (14 smokers) completed a total of 104 journeys (63 smoking journeys). Journeys averaged 27 min (range 5-70 min). PM(2.5) levels averaged 85 and 7.4 μg/m(3) during smoking and non-smoking car journeys, respectively. During smoking journeys, peak PM(2.5) concentrations averaged 385 μg/m(3), with one journey measuring over 880 μg/m(3). PM(2.5) concentrations were strongly linked to rate of smoking (cigarettes per minute). Use of forced ventilation and opening of car windows were very common during smoking journeys, but PM(2.5) concentrations were still found to exceed WHO indoor air quality guidance (25 μg/m(3)) at some point in the measurement period during all smoking journeys. PM(2.5) concentrations in cars where smoking takes place are high and greatly exceed international indoor air quality guidance values. Children exposed to these levels of fine particulate are likely to suffer ill-health effects. There are increasing numbers of countries legislating against smoking in cars and such measures may be appropriate to prevent the exposure of children to these high levels of secondhand smoke.

  1. Smoking in European adolescents: relation between media influences, family affluence, and migration background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Engels, Rutger C M E; Florek, Ewa; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2013-10-01

    Seeing smoking depictions in movies has been identified as a determinant of smoking in adolescents. Little is known about how such media influences interact with other social risk factors. Differences in smoking rates in different socio-economic status groups might be explainable by differences in media exposure. There might also be differences in the average response to movie smoking exposure. We tested this hypothesis within a cross-national study conducted in six European countries. A total of 16,551 pupils from Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland with a mean age of 13.4years (SD=1.18) were recruited from 114 state funded schools. Using previously validated methods, exposure to smoking depictions in movies was estimated for each student and related to ever smoking. The analysis was stratified by level of family affluence (low, medium, high) and migration history of parents (yes vs. no), controlling for a number of covariates like age, gender, school performance, television screen time, sensation seeking and rebelliousness and smoking within the social environment (peers, parents, siblings). We found a significant association for each category of family affluence and ethnicity between ever smoking and movie smoking exposure, also significant adjusted odds ratios for age, school performance, sensation seeking, peer smoking, mother smoking, and sibling smoking. This relationship between movie smoking and adolescent smoking was not moderated by family affluence or ethnicity. Although we used a very broad measure of economic status and migration history, the results suggest that the effects of exposure to movie smoking can be generalized to the population of youths across European countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Airborne Nicotine, Secondhand Smoke, and Precursors to Adolescent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Jennifer J; Racicot, Simon; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Hammond, S Katharine; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) directly increases exposure to airborne nicotine, tobacco's main psychoactive substance. When exposed to SHS, nonsmokers inhale 60% to 80% of airborne nicotine, absorb concentrations similar to those absorbed by smokers, and display high levels of nicotine biomarkers. Social modeling, or observing other smokers, is a well-established predictor of smoking during adolescence. Observing smokers also leads to increased pharmacological exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS. The objective of this study is to investigate whether greater exposure to airborne nicotine via SHS increases the risk for smoking initiation precursors among never-smoking adolescents. Secondary students ( N = 406; never-smokers: n = 338, 53% girls, mean age = 12.9, SD = 0.4) participated in the AdoQuest II longitudinal cohort. They answered questionnaires about social exposure to smoking (parents, siblings, peers) and known smoking precursors (eg, expected benefits and/or costs, SHS aversion, smoking susceptibility, and nicotine dependence symptoms). Saliva and hair samples were collected to derive biomarkers of cotinine and nicotine. Adolescents wore a passive monitor for 1 week to measure airborne nicotine. Higher airborne nicotine was significantly associated with greater expected benefits ( R 2 = 0.024) and lower expected costs ( R 2 = 0.014). Higher social exposure was significantly associated with more temptation to try smoking ( R 2 = 0.025), lower aversion to SHS ( R 2 = 0.038), and greater smoking susceptibility ( R 2 = 0.071). Greater social exposure was significantly associated with more nicotine dependence symptoms; this relation worsened with higher nicotine exposure (cotinine R 2 = 0.096; airborne nicotine R 2 = 0.088). Airborne nicotine exposure via SHS is a plausible risk factor for smoking initiation during adolescence. Public health implications include limiting airborne nicotine through smoking bans in homes and cars, in addition to stringent restrictions

  3. Utilization of smoked salmon trim in extruded smoked salmon jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J; Dougherty, M P; Perkins, L B; Camire, M E

    2012-06-01

    During smoked salmon processing, the dark meat along the lateral line is removed before packaging; this by-product currently has little economic value. In this study, the dark meat trim was incorporated into an extruded jerky. Three formulations were processed: 100% smoked trim, 75% : 25% smoked trim : fresh salmon fillet, and 50% : 50% smoked trim : fresh salmon blends (w/w basis). The base formulation contained salmon (approximately 83.5%), tapioca starch (8%), pregelatinized potato starch (3%), sucrose (4%), salt (1.5%), sodium nitrate (0.02%), and ascorbyl palmitate (0.02% of the lipid content). Blends were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder and then hot-smoked for 5 h. There were no significant differences among formulations in moisture, water activity, and pH. Protein was highest in the 50 : 50 blend jerky. Ash content was highest in the jerky made with 100% trim. Total lipids and salt were higher in the 100% trim jerky than in the 50 : 50 blend. Hot smoking did not adversely affect docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in lipids from 100% smoked trim jerky. Servings of salmon jerky made with 75% and 100% smoked trim provided at least 500 mg of EPA and DHA. The 50 : 50 formulation had the highest Intl. Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, and b* color values. Seventy consumers rated all sensory attributes as between "like slightly" and "like moderately." With some formulation and processing refinements, lateral line trim from smoked salmon processors has potential to be incorporated into acceptable, healthful snack products. Dark meat along the lateral line is typically discarded by smoked salmon processors. This omega-3 fatty acid rich by-product can be used to make a smoked salmon jerky that provides a convenient source of these healthful lipids for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. The effect of a short anti-smoking awareness programme on the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking among secondary school students in Lagos state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odukoya, O O; Odeyemi, K A; Oyeyemi, A S; Upadhyay, R P

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of a short school-based anti-smoking program on the knowledge, attitude and practice of cigarette smoking among students in secondary schools in Lagos State. A non-randomized, controlled intervention study was done among respondents selected using multi-stage sampling. Baseline data was collected using self-administered questionnaires. An anti-smoking awareness programme was carried out among students in the intervention group using health talks, information leaflets and posters. Post-intervention data collection took place three months later. There were significant increments in the mean knowledge and attitude scores after the intervention. There was however no statistically significant change in the current smoking habits of respondents (4% vs. 3%; p=0.41)in the intervention group. Nevertheless, in the intervention group, the number of never- smokers who reported that they were likely to initiate cigarette smoking within the next year significantly reduced. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of current smokers who desired to quit smoking. Even brief anti-smoking programs of this nature are effective at improving the knowledge and modifying the attitude of the respondents but do not improve smoking habits. It however motivated the desire to quit among current smokers. Health education sessions and periodic anti-smoking programmes should be introduced into the secondary school curriculum. More intensive approaches may be needed to influence the smoking behaviour of adolescent smokers.

  5. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  6. Radiological hazards of narghile smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A.E.M.; Abd El-Aziz, N.S.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.; Chaouachi, K.

    2008-07-01

    Narghile smoking pastes, known as jurak and moassel, are not standardized manufacture. This study aims at drawing the first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in relation to moassel-narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range of variations in the natural radioactivity. The distribution pattern of these natural radio-nuclides, during smoking, between smoke, ash and water filter is unknown, except for 210Po. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of 210Po was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radio-nuclides is discussed. Further research in this direction is needed. (author)(tk)

  7. The influence of smoking on clinical periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Hendiani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease has very complex and multi factor etiology. Plaque bacteria is the main cause of periodontal disease and another risk factor that also plays a role is a smoking habit. Cigarette product such as nicotine can influence the development of periodontal disease that can directly and systemically damage the function of PMN cell. The research was conducted by taking a clinical examination on the smoking influence that covers the number of cigarettes and the period of smoking, and kind of cigarette to the worse of periodontal disease, and by measuring the epithelial attachment loss and the bleeding index. The research was conducted to 152 male aged 20-45 years old, comprised 80 smokers and 72 nonsmokers at the Clinic of Faculty of Dentistry Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta. The result of the research showed that smoking gave influence on the worse of the periodontal disease. There was a profound relationship between the smoking period and the number of cigarettes consumed everyday indicated by the epithelial attachment loss. Smoking did not enhance gingival bleeding. The relationship between kinds of cigarette and the gingival bleeding score and the epithelial attachment loss did not show a significant bleeding.

  8. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    or in a separate, but unenclosed, area had PM2.5 levels that were 10 to 60 μg/m3 and 6 to 23 μg/m3 higher than outdoor levels, respectively, indicating contamination from smoking. Conclusions Although fewer than roughly 10% of casino patrons are actively smoking on average, these individuals substantially increase PM2.5 exposure for all patrons in smoking and unenclosed nonsmoking areas. Nonsmoking areas may be too inconvenient, small, or undesirable to serve a substantial number of nonsmoking patrons. Imposing indoor smoking bans, or contained smoking areas with a maximum capacity of up to 10% of the total patronage, would offer protection from PM2.5 exposures for nonsmoking patrons and reduce employee exposures. PMID:22998850

  9. Small proportions of actively-smoking patrons and high PM2.5 levels in southern California tribal casinos: support for smoking bans or designated smoking areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepeis Neil E

    2012-09-01

    encapsulated inside smoking areas or in a separate, but unenclosed, area had PM2.5 levels that were 10 to 60 μg/m3 and 6 to 23 μg/m3 higher than outdoor levels, respectively, indicating contamination from smoking. Conclusions Although fewer than roughly 10% of casino patrons are actively smoking on average, these individuals substantially increase PM2.5 exposure for all patrons in smoking and unenclosed nonsmoking areas. Nonsmoking areas may be too inconvenient, small, or undesirable to serve a substantial number of nonsmoking patrons. Imposing indoor smoking bans, or contained smoking areas with a maximum capacity of up to 10% of the total patronage, would offer protection from PM2.5 exposures for nonsmoking patrons and reduce employee exposures.

  10. Cigarette smoke and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipy, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to obtain experimental data that are directly applicable to resolving the question of whether cigarette smokers are at greater risk than nonsmokers to potential health effects of inhaled plutonium. Progress was made on two fronts during the past year. The autoradiographic technique developed from detection of plutonium on the interior surface of pulmonary airways (Annual Report, 1978) has been adapted to routine use in examining tracheas and bronchi of rats. Also, dogs exposed to cigarette smoke for over a year after inhalation of plutonium were killed and necropsied

  11. When You Smoke, They Smoke: Children's Rights and Opinions about Vehicular Smoking Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymko, Morgan Anne

    International law guarantees every person the highest attainable standard of health, and this should include protection from the health risks of environmental tobacco smoke. As knowledge of these risks has increased, there has been an incremental expansion of smoking bans in public space. Since 2007, they have extended to the private space of the motor vehicle in an attempt to protect child passengers. This thesis aimed to understand the views and interests of children and youth on vehicular smoking bans, and the extent to which these have been sought after and considered in previous discussions of this policy initiative in Canada. A print media analysis found a lack of concern for children's perspectives. Rights, when considered, were generally those of adults. In focus groups, children discussed the unfairness of exposure to smoke in any space, but especially within the motor vehicle, and articulated a desire for increased participation in decision-making. Keywords: Smoking, smoking bans, rights, children's opinions, vehicles, Canada.

  12. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals

  13. Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Hippe, M; Schnohr, P

    1998-01-01

    cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, diabetes, body mass index, height, alcohol intake, physical activity, and level of education. CONCLUSION: Women may be more sensitive than men to some of the harmful effects of smoking. Interactions between components of smoke and hormonal factors......OBJECTIVE: To compare risk of myocardial infarction associated with smoking in men and women, taking into consideration differences in smoking behaviour and a number of potential confounding variables. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with follow up of myocardial infarction. SETTING: Pooled data...... from three population studies conducted in Copenhagen. SUBJECTS: 11,472 women and 13,191 men followed for a mean of 12.3 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: First admission to hospital or death caused by myocardial infarction. RESULTS: 1251 men and 512 women had a myocardial infarction during follow up...

  14. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1 per day (98.7%. All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5% and post-intervention phases (47.7% wanted to quit smoking ”very much”. For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = −6.915, p < 0.001. Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  15. Demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Erin; McGuire, Rhydwyn; Correll, Patricia; Bentley, Jason

    2015-04-18

    Smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the child. Rates of smoking during pregnancy, and rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy, vary between demographic groups. This study describes demographic factors associated with smoking cessation during pregnancy in New South Wales, Australia, and describes trends in smoking cessation in demographic subgroups over the period 2000 - 2011. Data were obtained from the New South Wales Perinatal Data Collection, a population-based surveillance system covering all births in New South Wales. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between smoking cessation during pregnancy and demographic factors. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation in pregnancy increased from 4.0% to 25.2%. Demographic characteristics associated with lower rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy included being a teenage mother, being an Aboriginal person, and having a higher number of previous pregnancies. Between 2000 and 2011, rates of smoking cessation during pregnancy increased dramatically across all demographic groups. However, specific demographic groups remain significantly less likely to quit smoking, suggesting a need for targeted efforts to promote smoking cessation in these groups.

  16. [Smoking in the presence of infants; a survey among parents attending well-baby clinics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasing, R A; Gena, S A; Simon, J G; Kossen-Boot, H; Meulmeester, J F; van den Oudenrijn, C

    1994-07-09

    To determine the exposure to cigarette smoke of infants aged 0-14 months. Cross-sectional. The area of Westfriesland, the Netherlands. All parents of infants 8 days, 3, 5, 9, and 14 months old who visited the infant welfare centre in 1992 were asked to fill in a questionnaire. The questionnaire was filled in by 75% of the parents. Smoking before pregnancy was reported by 38% of the mothers, 25% smoked for more than 12 weeks during pregnancy. Almost 50% of all infants were exposed to cigarette smoke at home: 31% of the fathers, 27% of the mothers and 21% others smoked at home. The number of parents who smoked > or = 16 cigarettes a day at home was significantly higher in the weekend than on working days. Nobody smoked in the bedroom of the infant, 42% smoked in the living room, 21% smoked during nursing the infant and 11% smoked in the car in the presence of the infant. Infants are often exposed to cigarette smoke at home, during nursing and in the car.

  17. Smoke-free cafe in an unregulated European city: highly welcomed and economically successful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzli, N; Mazzoletti, P; Adam, M; Götschi, T; Mathys, P; Monn, C; Brändli, O

    2003-09-01

    In a unique setting with two identical cafes, which only differed in their smoking ordinances, this study assessed the influence of smoking policies on the choice of the cafe, investigated regulatory preferences among customers, and evaluated the claim that smoking cafes have better sales performance in a city without smoking bans. In a parallel assessment, customers of both cafes answered a questionnaire. Sales were compared and air pollutants were measured to confirm air quality differences. The two customer groups (n = 177) differed only with regard to smoking status (p cafes for this reason. Two thirds stated that all cafe/restaurants should offer the opportunity of a smoke-free environment. However, almost half stated that mandatory regulations are not needed and that customers should make individual arrangements based on tolerance and courtesy. Those who were informed about the health effects of secondhand smoke were more likely to call for clear policies. Whereas sales showed no differences, tips were 22% (p cafe. In a generation raised in smoking friendly environments, customers paradoxically ask for a landmark shift towards smoke-free opportunities, while substantially adhering to the tobacco industry paradigm of promoting "tolerance" rather than smoke-free policies. Given the clear preference of a large number of customers, hospitality businesses could, however, greatly profit from offering smoke-free environments even in the absence of regulatory policies.

  18. Smoked marijuana as a cause of lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkin, D P

    2005-06-01

    In many societies, marijuana is the second most commonly smoked substance after tobacco. While delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is unique to marijuana and nicotine to tobacco, the smoke of marijuana, like that of tobacco, consists of a toxic mixture of gases and particulates, many of which are known to be harmful to the lung. Although far fewer marijuana than tobacco cigarettes are generally smoked on a daily basis, the pulmonary consequences of marijuana smoking may be magnified by the greater deposition of smoke particulates in the lung due to the differing manner in which marijuana is smoked. Whereas THC causes modest short-term bronchodilation, regular marijuana smoking produces a number of long-term pulmonary consequences, including chronic cough and sputum, histopathologic evidence of widespread airway inflammation and injury and immunohistochemical evidence of dysregulated growth of respiratory epithelial cells, that may be precursors to lung cancer. The THC in marijuana could contribute to some of these injurious changes through its ability to augment oxidative stress, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and inhibit apoptosis. On the other hand, physiologic, clinical or epidemiologic evidence that marijuana smoking may lead to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or respiratory cancer is limited and inconsistent. Habitual use of marijuana is also associated with abnormalities in the structure and function of alveolar macrophages, including impairment in microbial phagocytosis and killing that is associated with defective production of immunostimulatory cytokines and nitric oxide, thereby potentially predisposing to pulmonary infection. In view of the growing interest in medicinal marijuana, further epidemiologic studies are needed to clarify the true risks of regular marijuana smoking on respiratory health.

  19. Genetically contextual effects of smoking on genome wide DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Meeshanthini V; Beach, Steven R H; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of death in the United States. It exerts its effects by increasing susceptibility to a variety of complex disorders among those who smoke, and if pregnant, to their unborn children. In prior efforts to understand the epigenetic mechanisms through which this increased vulnerability is conveyed, a number of investigators have conducted genome wide methylation analyses. Unfortunately, secondary to methodological limitations, these studies were unable to examine methylation in gene regions with significant amounts of genetic variation. Using genome wide genetic and epigenetic data from the Framingham Heart Study, we re-examined the relationship of smoking status to genome wide methylation status. When only methylation status is considered, smoking was significantly associated with differential methylation in 310 genes that map to a variety of biological process and cellular differentiation pathways. However, when SNP effects on the magnitude of smoking associated methylation changes are also considered, cis and trans-interaction effects were noted at a total of 266 and 4353 genes with no marked enrichment for any biological pathways. Furthermore, the SNP variation participating in the significant interaction effects is enriched for loci previously associated with complex medical illnesses. The enlarged scope of the methylome shown to be affected by smoking may better explicate the mediational pathways linking smoking with a myriad of smoking related complex syndromes. Additionally, these results strongly suggest that combined epigenetic and genetic data analyses may be critical for a more complete understanding of the relationship between environmental variables, such as smoking, and pathophysiological outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  1. Shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan A; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University from December 2011 until March 2012. The questionnaire consisted of five sections including socio-demographic, social environment, knowledge about shisha, psychosocial factors, and personal shisha smoking behavior. Obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13). T-test was used to determine the relationships between shisha smoking and socio-demographic characteristic. A total number of 300 medical students participated in this study. Mean age was 22.5±2.5 years. The majority were female, Malay, single, from urban areas (67%, 54%, 97%, 73%; respectively). The prevalence of shisha smoking among medical students was found to be 20%. The study revealed that many students believed that shisha does not contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, does not lead to lung cancer, dental problems and does not lead to cardiovascular diseases (25%, 20.7%, 22.3%, 29%, 26.7%; respectively). Age and sex were found to be significantly associated with smoking shisha status among medical students (p=0.029, pparents, siblings and friends smokers of shisha were found to be significantly associated with shisha smoking status (pproblems, problems with friends, financial problems and university life were found to significantly associated with shisha smoking status among medical students (pstudents. More attention is needed to focus on medical education in this regard. The policies that are currently employed in order to reduce the cigarettes smoking should be applied to shisha smoking and shisha products.

  2. Adolescents' Smoking Behavior and Attitudes: The Influence of Mothers' Smoking Communication, Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Diane F.; Schiaffino, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated adolescents' and parents' perceptions regarding smoking behavior, attitudes toward smoking, and smoking communication. Instruments were developed to measure multidimensional smoking communication messages and smoking attitudes in 140 mother-adolescent dyads. The prediction of relevant adolescent smoking variables is…

  3. Smoking habits are an independent prognostic factor in patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Nilufer; Hayar, Murat; Altmisdortoglu, Ozgur; Tanriverdi, Ozgur; Deligonul, Adem; Ordu, Cetin; Evrensel, Turkkan

    2017-09-01

    The role of tobacco in the pathogenesis of lung cancer (LC) has been clearly established. Based on the epidemiological evidence that smoking may influence LC progression, we investigated the idea that smoking behavior could be associated with overall survival (OS) in this group of patients. A total of 351 patients with LC (311 men and 40 women) were reviewed. Smoking status was assessed as tobacco users or non-users. To calculate pack-years of smoking, the average of number of cigarettes smoked per day was divided by 20 to give packs per day, and then multiplied by the total number of years of smoking. OS was the main outcome measure. The mean follow-up was 3.3 ± 1.2 years. Kaplan-Meier plots of OS by use of tobacco revealed significant differences by smoking status (log-rank = 5.44, P smoking was also evident when we subdivided the former and current smokers into ≤7 (mean value) pack-years and >7 pack-years groups (log-rank = 4.27, P smoking retained its independent prognostic significance for OS (hazard ratio = 1.53, 95% confidence interval = 1.19-2.17, P = 0.02). Our data indicate that cigarette smoking is significantly associated with a poor prognosis among patients diagnosed with LC in a dose-dependent manner. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Secondhand smoke exposure among non smoking adults in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tobacco control policy can only succeed if the burdens of smoking are known. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoking adults in two Nigerian cities. Materials and Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study from ...

  5. The prevalence of smoking and the knowledge of smoking hazards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. While the detrimental effects of smoking among HIV-positive patients have been well documented, there is a paucity of data regarding cigarette smoking prevalence among these patients in South Africa (SA). Objectives. To establish the frequency, demographics, knowledge of harmful effects, and knowledge of ...

  6. The public health impact of smoking and smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence that smoking cessation reduces the risk for several chronic diseases, information on the magnitude of these public health benefits is scarce. It has furthermore been suggested that smoking cessation also improves health-related quality of life, but this has not been

  7. Community-level Adult Daily Smoking Prevalence Moderates the Association between Adolescents’ Cigarette Smoking and Perceived Smoking by Friends

    OpenAIRE

    Thrul, Johannes; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the complex interactions among the individual- and community-level social risk factors that underlie adolescents’ smoking behaviors. This study investigated whether community-level adult daily smoking prevalence is associated with adolescents’ smoking and whether it moderates the associations between perceived friends’ smoking approval and smoking behavior and adolescents’ own smoking. Self-reported data from 1,190 youths (50.3% female; 13–18 years old) in 50 mid...

  8. Thirdhand smoke and exposure in California hotels: non-smoking rooms fail to protect non-smoking hotel guests from tobacco smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Georg E; Quintana, Penelope J E; Fortmann, Addie L; Zakarian, Joy M; Galaviz, Vanessa E; Chatfield, Dale A; Hoh, Eunha; Hovell, Melbourne F; Winston, Carl

    2014-05-01

    This study examined tobacco smoke pollution (also known as thirdhand smoke, THS) in hotels with and without complete smoking bans and investigated whether non-smoking guests staying overnight in these hotels were exposed to tobacco smoke pollutants. A stratified random sample of hotels with (n=10) and without (n=30) complete smoking bans was examined. Surfaces and air were analysed for tobacco smoke pollutants (ie, nicotine and 3-ethynylpyridine, 3EP). Non-smoking confederates who stayed overnight in guestrooms provided urine and finger wipe samples to determine exposure to nicotine and the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by their metabolites cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), respectively. Compared with hotels with complete smoking bans, surface nicotine and air 3EP were elevated in non-smoking and smoking rooms of hotels that allowed smoking. Air nicotine levels in smoking rooms were significantly higher than those in non-smoking rooms of hotels with and without complete smoking bans. Hallway surfaces outside of smoking rooms also showed higher levels of nicotine than those outside of non-smoking rooms. Non-smoking confederates staying in hotels without complete smoking bans showed higher levels of finger nicotine and urine cotinine than those staying in hotels with complete smoking bans. Confederates showed significant elevations in urinary NNAL after staying in the 10 most polluted rooms. Partial smoking bans in hotels do not protect non-smoking guests from exposure to tobacco smoke and tobacco-specific carcinogens. Non-smokers are advised to stay in hotels with complete smoking bans. Existing policies exempting hotels from complete smoking bans are ineffective.

  9. Intentions to smoke cigarettes among never-smoking US middle and high school electronic cigarette users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, Rebecca E; Agaku, Israel T; Arrazola, René A; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Caraballo, Ralph S; Corey, Catherine G; Coleman, Blair N; Dube, Shanta R; King, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6-12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24-2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Intentions to Smoke Cigarettes Among Never-Smoking US Middle and High School Electronic Cigarette Users: National Youth Tobacco Survey, 2011–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaku, Israel T.; Arrazola, René A.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Corey, Catherine G.; Coleman, Blair N.; Dube, Shanta R.; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing rapidly, and the impact on youth is unknown. We assessed associations between e-cigarette use and smoking intentions among US youth who had never smoked conventional cigarettes. Methods: We analyzed data from the nationally representative 2011, 2012, and 2013 National Youth Tobacco Surveys of students in grades 6–12. Youth reporting they would definitely not smoke in the next year or if offered a cigarette by a friend were defined as not having an intention to smoke; all others were classified as having positive intention to smoke conventional cigarettes. Demographics, pro-tobacco advertisement exposure, ever use of e-cigarettes, and ever use of other combustibles (cigars, hookah, bidis, kreteks, and pipes) and noncombustibles (chewing tobacco, snuff, dip, snus, and dissolvables) were included in multivariate analyses that assessed associations with smoking intentions among never-cigarette-smoking youth. Results: Between 2011 and 2013, the number of never-smoking youth who used e-cigarettes increased 3-fold, from 79,000 to more than 263,000. Intention to smoke conventional cigarettes was 43.9% among ever e-cigarette users and 21.5% among never users. Ever e-cigarette users had higher adjusted odds for having smoking intentions than never users (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% confidence interval = 1.24–2.32). Those who ever used other combustibles, ever used noncombustibles, or reported pro-tobacco advertisement exposure also had increased odds for smoking intentions. Conclusion: In 2013, more than a quarter million never-smoking youth used e-cigarettes. E-cigarette use is associated with increased intentions to smoke cigarettes, and enhanced prevention efforts for youth are important for all forms of tobacco, including e-cigarettes. PMID:25143298

  11. [Smoking impact on mortality in Spain in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Abejón, Eduardo; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Criado-Espegel, Paloma; Campo-Ortega, Eva P; Breñas-Villalón, María T; Martín-Sobrino, Nieves

    2015-12-21

    Smoking is an important public health problem, and is one of the main avoidable causes of morbidity and early mortality. The aim was to estimate the mortality attributable to smoking and its impact on premature mortality in Spain in the year 2012. Descriptive, cross-sectional study, carried out on the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years in 2012. The prevalence of smoking by age and sex was obtained from the National Health Survey 2011-2012, and the number of deaths by age, sex and cause was obtained from the vital statistics of the National Institute of Statistics. The proportion of deaths attributable to smoking was calculated according to sex and age group, from the etiological fraction of the population. Likewise, loss of potential years of life lost (PYLL) and the mean potential years of life lost (MPYLL) were also calculated. In 2012, smoking caused 60,456 deaths which accounted for 15.23% of all deaths. Trachea-bronchial-lung cancer in men and other cardiopathies in women mostly contributed to this mortality. The PYLL were 184,426, and the MPYLL were 3.25 years in men and 2.42 years in women. In 2012, every day, 125 men and 40 women die from smoking-related conditions. The smoking prevalence has diminished in comparison with previous years and the number and percentage of deaths attributable to the smoking have increased in the last 20 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of self-reported versus biomarker based smoking prevalence: methodology to compute corrected smoking prevalence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ram B

    2017-07-01

    Prevalence of smoking is needed to estimate the need for future public health resources. To compute and compare smoking prevalence rates by using self-reported smoking statuses, two serum cotinine (SCOT) based biomarker methods, and one urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) based biomarker method. These estimates were then used to develop correction factors to be applicable to self-reported prevalences to arrive at corrected smoking prevalence rates. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for 2007-2012 for those aged ≥20 years (N = 16826) were used. Self-reported prevalence rate for the total population computed as the weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by weighted number of all participants was 21.6% and 24% when computed by weighted number of self-reported smokers divided by the weighted number of self-reported smokers and nonsmokers. The corrected prevalence rate was found to be 25.8%. A 1% underestimate in smoking prevalence is equivalent to not being able to identify 2.2 million smokers in US in a given year. This underestimation, if not corrected, could lead to serious gap in the public health services available and needed to provide adequate preventive and corrective treatment to smokers.

  13. Cannabis Smoking in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation. PMID:25996274

  14. Neuroendocrine tumors and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Miličević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroendocrine cells are dispersed around the body and can be found within the gastrointestinal system, lungs, larynx, thymus, thyroid, adrenal, gonads, skin and other tissues. These cells form the so-called ''diffuse neuroendocrine system'' and tumors arising from them are defined as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs. The traditional classification of NETs based on their embryonic origin includes foregut tumors (lung, thymus, stomach, pancreas and duodenum, midgut tumors (beyond the ligament of Treitz of the duodenum to the proximal transverse colon and hindgut tumors (distal colon and rectum. NETs at each site are biologically and clinically distinct from their counterparts at other sites. Symptoms in patients with early disease are often insidious in onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis. The majority of these tumors are thus diagnosed at a stage at which the only curative treatment, radical surgical intervention, is no longer an option. Due to the increasing incidence and mortality, many studies have been conducted in order to identify risk factors for the development of NETs. Still, little is known especially when it comes to preventable risk factors such as smoking. This review will focus on smoking and its contribution to the development of different subtypes of NETs.

  15. Prevalence and Psychological Characterization of Smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smoking and smoking withdrawal among university students of Abbottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa,. Pakistan. Methods: ... and type of qualification (e.g. medical or non- medical). .... smoking in university students--perspective from. Islamabad.

  16. Talking to your child about smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... big influence on whether their kids smoke. Your attitudes and opinions about smoking set an example. Talk ... at soccer practice." Get your child involved in non-smoking activities. Playing sports, taking dance, or being involved ...

  17. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  18. The smoke sensor and its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changgeng

    1998-01-01

    The authors have introduced the working principle of a new smoke sensor. Good prospects of the photoelectricity smoke detector are described. It has been pointed out that the photoelectrical smoke detector will become the major products of the fire detecting

  19. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  20. Social Network Characteristics and Daily Smoking among Young Adults in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies have shown that friends’ smoking behavior is strongly associated with an individual’s own risk for smoking. However, few studies have examined whether other features of social networks, independently or conjointly with friends’ smoking behavior, may influence the risk for smoking. Because it is characterized by the growing importance of friendship networks, the transition from adolescence to young adulthood may constitute a particularly relevant period on which to focus our investigation of network influences on smoking behavior. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the consequences of peer smoking as well as other network characteristics (friends’ other health behaviors, relationship content, and structural aspects of the network on the risk for smoking among young adults. The data was based on a cross-sectional survey of Swedish 19-year-olds carried out in 2009 (n = 5,695 with a response rate of 51.6%. Logistic regression was the primary method of analysis. The results show that having a large percentage of smokers in one’s network was by far the most important risk factor for daily smoking. The risk of daily smoking was 21.20 (CI 14.24. 31.54 if 76%–100% of the network members smoked. Having a high percentage of physically active friends was inversely associated with daily smoking. The risk of smoking was 0.65 (CI 0.42. 1.00 if 76%–100% of the network members were physically active. No main associations between the other network characteristics (relationship content and structural aspects of the network and smoking were found. However, there was an interaction between the percentage of smokers in the network and relationship content (i.e., trust, relationship quality and propensity to discuss problems: positive relationship content in combination with peer smoking may increase the risk of smoking. Women with a high percentage of smokers in their networks were also at higher risk of daily

  1. [Smoking fewer cigarettes per day may determine a significant risk reduction in developing smoking attributable diseases? Is there a risk reduction for e-cigarette users?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Luca; Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Among Italian smokers--about 10 millions in 2013--about 600,000 began using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) in last years. About 10% of e-cig users quitted smoking tobacco, whereas the 90% was dual users. Among them, about three out of four decreased the number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day), but did not quit. How many fewer cigarettes a smoker has to smoke to obtain significant health benefits? Is there a threshold? In order to observe a significant 27% reduction in the risk of developing lung cancer, a smoker must reduce the number of cig/day by at least 50%, while for the other smoking-related diseases (acute myocardial infarction - AMI, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases), halving the number of cig/day did not drive to a significant risk reduction. Even smoking 5 cig/day increases the risk of AMI, whereas it significantly lowers the risk of lung cancer. Obviously, quitting smoking is the best choice to highly reduce risks for all smoking-related diseases. Therefore, in order to achieve significant risk reductions, e-cig users should quit smoking as first choice, or, if they feel it is impossible to them, reduce the consumption of traditional cigarettes to less than 5 cig/day.

  2. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Message Print en español Fumar y el asma Smoking is an unhealthy habit for anyone, but it's especially bad for people ... Message No one wants their child to start smoking , but it's especially important to discourage this bad habit in kids who have asthma. If your child ...

  3. Skills Methods to Prevent Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…

  4. How Can I Quit Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How Can I Quit Smoking? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Quit Smoking? What's in this article? Where ... addictive drug. But with the right approach , you can overcome the cravings. Where to Start Smokers often ...

  5. Surgical smoke and infection control.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alp, E.; Bijl, D.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Hansson, B.M.; Voss, A.

    2006-01-01

    Gaseous byproducts produced during electrocautery, laser surgery or the use of ultrasonic scalpels are usually referred to as 'surgical smoke'. This smoke, produced with or without a heating process, contains bio-aerosols with viable and non-viable cellular material that subsequently poses a risk of

  6. Determinants of Smoking Habit among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Virendra Vikram; Singh, Zile; Banerjee, A; Basannar, DR

    2003-01-01

    A cross sectional study of smoking habits among medical students was carried out to find out the prevalence of smoking and its association with certain factors such as parental smoking, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Prevalence of smoking was 46%. There was significant association of smoking with parental smoking habit, peer pressure, use of alcohol and other drugs. Strategies to counter these social determinants have been discussed.

  7. When smoke comes to town - effects of biomass burning smoke on air quality down under

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keywood, Melita; Cope, Martin; (C. P) Meyer, Mick; Iinuma, Yoshi; Emmerson, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    show that the smoke plumes that reached Melbourne during the summer of 2006/2007 resulted in elevated concentrations of particles and gases relative to non-fire impacted periods. The age of the plume was greater when smoke reached Melbourne (note that in our calculation of the plume age we do not distinguish between smoke and anthropogenic plumes). In addition, the older smoke plumes (30 hours) displayed higher concentrations of a number of gaseous and aerosol species relative to the younger smoke plumes (3 hours), particularly secondary reaction products, while the younger smoke plumes had higher concentrations of biomass burning marker compounds. This suggests that the enhanced photochemical activity in the smoke plumes significantly changes the aerosol composition of the smoke, potentially affecting the optical and thus radiative properties of the aerosol. This has implications for the modelling of aged smoke in chemical transport and climate models.

  8. Determination of Carbonyl Compounds in Exhaled Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings on a quantitative evaluation of carbonyl levels in exhaled cigarette smoke from human subjects. The cigarettes evaluated include products with 5.0 mg ‘tar’, 10.6 mg ‘tar’ and 16.2 mg ‘tar’, where ‘tar’ is defined as the weight of total wet particulate matter (TPM minus the weight of nicotine and water, and the cigarettes are smoked following U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC recommendations. The measured levels of carbonyls in the exhaled smoke were compared with calculated yields of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke and a retention efficiency was obtained. The number of human subjects included a total of ten smokers for the 10.6 mg ‘tar’, five for the 16.2 mg ‘tar’, and five for the 5.0 mg ‘tar’ product, each subject smoking three cigarettes. The analyzed carbonyl compounds included several aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, propionaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and n-butyraldehyde, and two ketones (acetone and 2-butanone. The smoke collection from the human subjects was vacuum assisted. Exhaled smoke was collected on Cambridge pads pretreated with a solution of dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis of the dinitrophenylhydrazones of the carbonyl compounds. The cigarette butts from the smokers were collected and analyzed for nicotine. The nicotine levels for the cigarette butts from the smokers were used to calculate the level of carbonyls in the inhaled smoke, based on calibration curves. These were generated separately by analyzing the carbonyls in smoke and the nicotine in the cigarette butts obtained by machine smoking under different puffing regimes. The comparison of the level of carbonyl compounds in exhaled smoke with that from the inhaled smoke showed high retention of all the carbonyls. The retention of aldehydes was above 95% for all three different ‘tar’ levels cigarettes. The ketones were retained with a

  9. Cigarette smoking and quit attempts among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sanghyuk S; Moreno, Patricia Gonzalez; Rao, Smriti; Garfein, Richard S; Novotny, Thomas E; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-12-01

    Injection drug use and cigarette smoking are major global health concerns. Limited data exist regarding cigarette smoking behavior and quit attempts among injection drug users (IDUs) in low- and middle-income countries to inform the development of cigarette smoking interventions. We conducted a cross-sectional study to describe cigarette smoking behavior and quit attempts among IDUs in Tijuana, Mexico. IDUs were recruited through community outreach and administered in-person interviews. Multivariable Poisson regression models were constructed to determine prevalence ratios (PRs) for quit attempts. Of the 670 participants interviewed, 601 (89.7%) were current smokers. Of these, median number of cigarettes smoked daily was 10; 190 (31.6%) contemplated quitting smoking in the next 6 months; 132 (22.0%) had previously quit for ≥1 year; and 124 (20.6%) had made a recent quit attempt (lasting ≥1 day during the previous 6 months). In multivariable analysis, recent quit attempts were positively associated with average monthly income (≥3,500 pesos [US$280] vs. <1,500 pesos [US$120]; PR = 2.30; 95% CI = 1.57-3.36), smoking marijuana (PR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.01-2.90), and smoking heroin (PR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.23-2.78), and they were negatively associated with number of cigarettes smoked daily (PR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.94-0.98). One out of 5 IDUs attempted to quit cigarette smoking during the previous 6 months. Additional research is needed to improve the understanding of the association between drug use patterns and cigarette smoking quit attempts, including the higher rate of quit attempts observed among IDUs who smoke marijuana or heroin compared with IDUs who do not smoke these substances.

  10. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  11. Lay theories of smoking and young adult nonsmokers' and smokers' smoking expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz, Caroline C; Kaufman, Annette; Moore, Philip J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between lay theories of cigarette smoking and expectations to smoke. An incremental lay theory of smoking entails the belief that smoking behavior can change; an entity theory entails the belief that smoking behavior cannot change. Undergraduate nonsmokers and smokers completed a survey that assessed lay theories of smoking and smoking expectations. Results demonstrated that lay theories of smoking were differentially associated with smoking expectations for nonsmokers and smokers: stronger incremental beliefs were associated with greater expectations of trying smoking for nonsmokers but lower expectations of becoming a regular smoker for smokers. Implications for interventions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Compliance with smoke-free legislation within public buildings: a cross-sectional study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Çarkoğlu, Asli; Ergör, Gül; Hayran, Mutlu; Ergüder, Toker; Kaplan, Bekir; Susan, Jolie; Magid, Hoda; Pollak, Jonathan; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-02-01

    To investigate public compliance with legislation to prohibit smoking within public buildings and the extent of tobacco smoking in outdoor areas in Turkey. Using a standardized observation protocol, we determined whether smoking occurred and whether ashtrays, cigarette butts and/or no-smoking signs were present in a random selection of 884 public venues in 12 cities in Turkey. We visited indoor and outdoor locations in bars/nightclubs, cafes, government buildings, hospitals, restaurants, schools, shopping malls, traditional coffee houses and universities. We used logistic regression models to determine the association between the presence of ashtrays or the absence of no-smoking signs and the presence of individuals smoking or cigarette butts. Most venues had no-smoking signs (629/884). We observed at least one person smoking in 145 venues, most frequently observed in bars/nightclubs (63/79), hospital dining areas (18/79), traditional coffee houses (27/120) and government-building dining areas (5/23). For 538 venues, we observed outdoor smoking close to public buildings. The presence of ashtrays was positively associated with indoor smoking and cigarette butts, adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 315.9; 95% confidence interval, CI: 174.9-570.8 and aOR: 165.4; 95% CI: 98.0-279.1, respectively. No-smoking signs were negatively associated with the presence of cigarette butts, aOR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.3-0.8. Additional efforts are needed to improve the implementation of legislation prohibiting smoking in indoor public areas in Turkey, especially in areas in which we frequently observed people smoking. Possible interventions include removing all ashtrays from public places and increasing the number of no-smoking signs.

  13. [An investigation on the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Chen, Feng-lei; Shi, Xiang-yu; Chen, Hao; Lin, Dan; Tan, Hong-zhuan

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the trend and related determinants of cigarette smoking on experimental smokers among undergraduate students in Changsha. Stratified sampling method was adopted and 3600 undergraduate students from grade 1 to 3 in Changsha city were investigated through a self-administered questionnaire. All the experimental smokers during the last month were selected and divided into two groups based on the present smoking status. χ(2) test and logistic regression analysis were used to compare the differences of cigarette smoking among subpopulations and to explore the determinants. Among the 1550 experimental smokers of undergraduate students, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was 30.8% (95%CI: 28.5 - 33.1). Students from the second-class (OR = 2.367) or the third-class universities (OR = 2.562) were more likely to adopt smoking behavior than those from top universities. Students majored in sports or arts (OR = 2.456) were significantly more inclined to smoke than the liberal arts students. Students whose father were cadres (OR = 1.602) were more likely to become smokers than those whose fathers were workers. Students being males (OR = 7.386), having high monthly expenses (OR = 1.139), with positive attitude to smoking benefits (OR = 1.140) were risk factors for smoking. Number of smoking members in the family (OR = 1.801) was significantly associated with the prevalence of cigarette smoking. Knowledge on diseases caused by smoking (OR = 0.806) was protecting factor to smoking among the experimental smokers. Those experimental smokers among undergraduate students might become smokers and the determinants of cigarette smoking behavior would include: ranking of universities, students' major, gender, father's occupation, amount of pocket money, number of smoking members in the family, knowledge about smoking, the attitude to the benefit of smoking.

  14. Nabokov's "Torpid Smoke"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leona Toker

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Nabokov's short stories are polished self-contained works of art. However, like his novels and poems, they can be profitably read in the light of their place in his general canon. This place is determined by the time when each story was written and by the way in which other works enrich and elucidate the significance of its images. The short fiction of Nabokov's Berlin period has been regarded largely as akin to studies that a painter makes in preparation for a big picture. In some cases, however, the stories seem to serve as safety valves for the urgent material that had to be kept out of the novels in order not to interfere with their design. A case in point is the 1935 story "Torpid Smoke," written at the juncture of Invitation to a Beheading and The Gift . The plight of the protagonist of "Torpid Smoke" is a hybrid of the tendencies manifest in Cincinnatus of Invitation and Fyodor Godunov Cherdyntsev of The Gift : however, unlike Fyodor, this young poet gets no encouragement in his wish to devote himself to literature; unlike Cincinnatus, he cannot reject his environment with a clear conscience. His father, the major obstacle to his literary pursuits, is essentially decent, well-meaning, and pathetically human—a far cry from the obnoxious "parodies" that surround Cincinnatus. The young poet is trapped between the exquisite happiness that accompanies poetic experience and the price that he cannot achieve artistic self-isolation. In a sense, the story dramatizes the conflict between morality and "aesthetic bliss." The imagery of the story ostensibly serves to increase the density of a plausible setting. Actually, the imagery is also functional; it forms a network of parallels and nuances that point both to the genuineness of the young man's talent and to the possible reason for the "puerile" quality of his "perishable" production, viz., to the presences of unprocessed issues whose pressure prevents him from successfully capturing his poetic

  15. Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn

    2013-10-01

    A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

  16. Prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy and changes in this habit during pregnancy in Northwest Russia: a Murmansk county birth registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharkova, Olga A; Krettek, Alexandra; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2016-03-08

    Smoking during pregnancy leads to adverse maternal and birth outcomes. However, the prevalence of smoking among women in Russia has increased from  20% in the 2000s. We conducted a registry-based study in Murmansk County, Northwest Russia. Our aims were twofold: (i) assess the prevalence of smoking before and during pregnancy; and (ii) examine the socio-demographic factors associated with giving up smoking or reducing the number of cigarettes smoked once pregnancy was established. This study employs data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR) collected during 2006-2011. We used logistic regression to investigate associations between women's socio-demographic characteristics and changes in smoking habit during pregnancy. To avoid departure from uniform risk within specific delivery departments, we employed clustered robust standard errors. Of all births registered in the MCBR, 25.2% of the mothers were smokers before pregnancy and 18.9% continued smoking during pregnancy. Cessation of smoking during pregnancy was associated with education, marital status and parity but not with maternal age, place of residence, and ethnicity. Women aged ≤ 20-24 years had higher odds of reducing the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy than those aged ≥ 30-34 years. Moreover, smoking nulliparae and pregnant women who had one child were more likely to reduce the absolute numbers of cigarettes smoked per day compared to women having ≥ 2 children. About 25.0% of smoking women in the Murmansk County in Northwest Russia quit smoking after awareness of the pregnancy, and one-third of them reduced the number cigarettes smoked during pregnancy. Our study demonstrates that women who have a higher education, husband, and are primiparous are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Maternal age and number of children are indicators that influence reduction in smoking during pregnancy. Our findings are useful in

  17. Smoking or health: the Brazilian option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokschin, F; Barros, F C

    1984-01-01

    Tobacco plays a key role in both disease and the economy in Brazil. In 1981 about 135 billion cigarettes were smoked, and cigarette-related diseases far outnumber infections as the leading cause of death. Brazil is the 4th largest world producer and the 2nd largest exporter of tobacco. 2.1% of the total population -- 2.5 million people -- are maintained by tobacco-related activities. Cigarette sales taxes provide 11.6% of the country's total taxes. Involved in a deep economic crisis, Brazil depends on this revenue and has not introduced any measures to control or counteract the high pressure marketing of cigarette manufacturers. Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death in Brazil, taking 90,000 lives in 1979. Based on World Health Organization estimates, at least 25% of these deaths could be ascribed to smoking. Cancer is the 2nd largest cause of death. In 1979, 10% of 60,000 cancer deaths were from lung cancer. Based on estimate that 30% of cancer deaths are provoked by smoking, more than 20,000 of those deaths were caused by tobacco. In Brazil, lung cancer is the 2nd highest cause of death from cancer in men and 3rd among women. Smoking in Brazil is definitely associated with low birth weight, the single most important predictive factor of perinatal and infant mortality. Rural workers giving up subsistence crops to grow tobacco may also affect their children's health. Also in such low-income populations, expenditures for cigarettes leave less money for essential goods. As a result of the high tax rate and the enormous number of cigarettes sold, 11.6% of all the country's revenue comes from the tobacco industry. The Brazilian Association of Tobacco Industries has been trying to link cigarette sales to Brazilian social development but does not mention the cost of disease, disability, and early death provoked by smoking. In Brazil tobacco companies have a huge market free of constraints, and the country lacks consistent smoking control policies. Recently

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking intentions among non-smoking and smoking adolescents in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Lim Kuang; Ghazali, Sumarni Mohamad; Cheong, Kee Chee; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Li, Lim Hui; Huey, Teh Chien; Ying, Chan Ying; Yen, Yeo Lay; Ching, Fiona Goh Swee; Yi, Khoo Yi; Lin, Chong Zhuo; Ibrahim, Normala; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Intention to smoke is a valid and reliable factor for predicting future smoking habits among adolescents. This factor, however, has received inadequate attention in Malaysia. The present paper elaborates the prevalence and factors associated with intent to initiate or to cease smoking, among adolescent nonsmokers and smokers in Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. A total of 2,300 secondary school students aged 13-16 years were selected through a two-stage stratified sampling method. A set of standardized questionnaires was used to assess the smoking behavior among adolescents and the inter-personal and intra-personal factors associated with smoking intention (intention to initiate smoking or to cease smoking). Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors related to smoking intention. The prevalence of intention to smoke in the future or to cease smoking among non- smoking adolescents and current smokers were 10.7% and 61.7% respectively. Having friends who smoke, social influence, and poor knowledge about the ill effects on health due to smoking showed significant relationships with intention to smoke in the future among non-smokers. Conversely, perceived lower prevalence of smoking among peers, weak contributory social influence, and greater awareness of the ill effects of smoking are factors associated with the intention to cease smoking sometime in the future. The study found that prevalence of intention to initiate smoking is low among non-smokers while the majority of current smokers intended to cease smoking in the future. Existing anti-smoking programmes that integrate the factors that have been identified in the current study should be put in motion to reduce the prevalence of intention to initiate smoking and increase the intention to cease smoking among adolescents.

  19. Enhancement of lung cancer by cigarette smoking in uranium and other miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    There are substantial animal and epidemiological data related to cigarette smoking and lung cancer among miners exposed to elevated levels of radon daughters that appears to be in disagreement. An hypothesis is advanced that explains most of this disagreement as being derived from temporal differences of cancer expression. The hypothesis is that a given radiation exposure induced a finite number of lung cancers, which have shorter latent periods due to the cancer promotion activity of smoke among cigarette smokers. According to this hypothesis, the life-shortening effect is greater among smoking miners than nonsmoking miners, and the ultimate number of lung cancers among smoking miners will be only a little larger than among nonsmokers. The greater number will derive from the additive effect of radiation and smoking, plus the greater force of competing causes of death among elderly nonsmokers

  20. Smoking and Breast Cancer Recurrence after Breast Conservation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Bishop

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prior studies have shown earlier recurrence and decreased survival in patients with head and neck cancer who smoked while undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether smoking status at the time of partial mastectomy and radiation therapy for breast cancer affected recurrence or survival. Method. A single institution retrospective chart review was performed to correlate smoking status with patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and outcomes for patients undergoing partial mastectomy and radiation therapy. Results. There were 624 patients who underwent breast conservation surgery between 2002 and 2010 for whom smoking history and follow-up data were available. Smoking status was associated with race, patient age, and tumor stage, but not with grade, histology, or receptor status. African American women were more likely to be current smokers (22% versus 7%, P<0.001. With a mean follow-up of 45 months, recurrence was significantly higher in current smokers compared to former or never smokers (P=0.039. In a multivariate model adjusted for race and tumor stage, recurrence among current smokers was 6.7 times that of never smokers (CI 2.0–22.4. Conclusions. Although the numbers are small, this study suggests that smoking may negatively influence recurrence rates after partial mastectomy and radiation therapy. A larger study is needed to confirm these observations.

  1. Environmental tobacco smoke and canine urinary cotinine level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Gollenberg, Audra L.; Ryan, Michele B.; Barber, Lisa G.

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of companion animals such as dogs have been established as models for the relationship between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and cancer risk in humans. While results from these studies are provocative, pet owner report of a dog's ETS exposure has not yet been validated. We have evaluated the relationship between dog owner's report of household smoking by questionnaire and dog's urinary cotinine level. Between January and October 2005, dog owners presenting their pet for non-emergency veterinary care at the Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, were asked to complete a 10-page questionnaire measuring exposure to household ETS in the previous 24 h and other factors. A free-catch urine sample was also collected from dogs. Urinary cotinine level was assayed for 63 dogs, including 30 whose owners reported household smoking and 33 unexposed dogs matched on age and month of enrollment. Urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in dogs exposed to household smoking in the 24 h before urine collection compared to unexposed dogs (14.6 ng/ml vs. 7.4 ng/ml; P=0.02). After adjustment for other factors, cotinine level increased linearly with number of cigarettes smoked by all household members (P=0.004). Other canine characteristics including age, body composition and nose length were also associated with cotinine level. Findings from our study suggest that household smoking levels as assessed by questionnaire are significantly associated with canine cotinine levels

  2. Deposition of radionuclide-labeled cigarette smoke in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, A.P.; Bair, W.J.; Haller, W.A.; Case, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    Cigarettes labeled with 82 Br, 24 Na, and 42 K by exposure to 8 X 10 16 neutrons/cm 2 were smoked by dogs in an exposure system facilitating oral inhalation of the cigarette smoke. Deposition of the labeled cigarette smoke in the dogs was measured by whole-body counting and analysis of blood and excreta. Bromine 82 was the best suited tracer. It could be detected by whole-body counting for up to 9 days as compared to 3 and 4 days for 42 K and 24 Na, respectively. Blood levels of 82 Br could be monitored for 4 days. Excreta also showed detectable levels of 82 Br for 4 days. Between 30 and 70 percent of the 82 Br body burden occurred in the blood where it was retained for an appreciable period of time. The 82 Br blood level was a linear function of the number of cigarettes smoked whereas whole-body counts showed a decrease in Br, K, and Na deposited per cigarette as more cigarettes were smoked. The maximum total body radiation dose received by a dog smoking one neutron-activated cigarette was less than 5 X 10 -4 rads which makes this technique applicable to studies with human subjects. (U.S.)

  3. [Hearing loss associated with smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Yasumitsu

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the effect of smoking habit on hearing loss at 1000 and 4000 Hz in the workplace. Among 1,875 male workers, including 287 subjects with occupational noise exposure, the ratio of the number with hearing loss at 1000 or 4000 Hz increased with smoking habits and that relation at 4000 Hz was statistically significant. These hearing losses showed a significant relation with age but not with working- duration under occupational noise exposure by multiple regression analysis. The amount of smoking showed a weak but significant association with hearing loss at 4000 Hz. However, among the 287 male subjects with occupational noise exposure, there was no significant relation between smoking habits and hearing loss. Therefore, both hearing loss induced by occupational noise exposure and that related with smoking habit were well controlled in this workplace. These results indicate that hearing check-ups and education to prevent noise-induced hearing impairment in the workplace might be useful to prevent the hearing loss associated with smoking habit among male workers.

  4. The effects of smoking on steroid metabolism and fetal programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušková, M; Hruškovičová, H; Šimůnková, K; Stárka, L; Pařízek, A

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a serious psychosocial and health problem. A pregnant woman who smokes not only influences the maternal organism, but also passes health risks on to the unborn child. A fetus exposed to maternal smoking is not only directly influenced, but is also endangered by a wide range of diseases up to his or her adult years. The components of tobacco smoke play a significant role in the development of a number of diseases for a large proportion of the smoking population, as well as among those pregnant. This article summarizes findings regarding the impacts on the production of steroid hormones - first describing the smoking-related changes in steroidogenesis in women, and then focusing on the influence of maternal smoking on the fetus's developing steroidogenesis. We assume that if during prenatal development the fetus has already been exposed to the effect of endocrine disruptors at the time fetal steroidogenesis begins fetal programming, this exposure can have serious pathophysiological effects both in the pregnancy as well as later in life. An example of such effects might be a delay in the creation of kidney adrenal androgens, which could also be evident on the level of steroid neuroactive metabolites that may influence the individual's psychological state and lead to later addictions. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The effects of smoking on the nutritional qualities and shelf-life of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-04

    Jan 4, 2010 ... Page 1 ... distances of landing ports to points of utilization and poor as well as inadequate infrastructure for post-harvest processing and landing. A number of processing techniques are in operation in. Nigeria. These include chilling, freezing, salting, canning, drying and smoking. However, smoking is the ...

  6. Does vitamin E prevent tubal damage caused by smoking? A light microscopy and animal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Muzeyyen; Ustunyurt, Emin; Kosus, Aydin; Kosus, Nermin; Turhan, Nilgun; Hızlı, Deniz; Sarac, Gulce Naz; Erdogan, Deniz

    2014-04-01

    To assess the histomorphological effects of smoking on the cilia of fallopian tubes in mice and the effect of vitamin E on the negative effects of smoke. Eighteen 12-14 week-old Swiss albino type female mice were randomly divided into three groups, each consisting of six mice: Group A: control group; Group B: mice exposed to cigarette smoke; Group C: mice exposed to cigarette smoke together with vitamin E. Groups B and C were exposed to cigarette smoke for 10 weeks. After 10 weeks, tubal excision was performed in all animals. Histopathologic examination of excised tubal tissue was conducted under light microscopy. The number of cilia was significantly lower in Group B. Although not statistically significant, the median number of cilia in Group C was measured to be higher than in Group B but lower than in Group A. Based on the results, it can be concluded that smoking decreases tubal cilia numbers. Supplementation by vitamin E may treat or at least help to slow down the decrease in number of cilia caused by smoking; therefore it could be used therapeutically in the treatment of smoking-related tubal damage. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Smoking during pregnancy and babbling abilities of the 8-month-old infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hedegaard, Morten

    1998-01-01

    number of cigarettes smoked per day during pregnancy and babbling abilities was found after controlling for potential confounders. Smoking 10 or more cigarettes per day during pregnancy almost doubled the risk (odds ratio [OR] = 2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-3.6) of the infant being a non...

  8. Effects of smoking on activation markers, Fas expression and apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl, Marc; Limburg, Piet; Kallenberg, Cees; Horst, G.

    Background Smoking influences numbers and function of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by a process that is badly understood. We conducted this study to evaluate whether the immune impairment of smoking might be related to changes in the expression or functionality of Fas, a cell surface molecule

  9. Influence of dental education in motivational interviewing on the efficacy of interventions for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonheim-Klein, M.; Gresnigt, C.; van der Velden, U.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To test whether education of dental students in motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation counselling will increase the number of patients and students who quit smoking and will improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards tobacco cessation counselling. Methods Over 2

  10. Factors associated with secondhand smoke exposure prevalence and secondhand smoke level of children living with parental smokers: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Sabina; Unger, Friederike; Groß, Stefan; Nauck, Matthias; Meyer, Christian; John, Ulrich

    2015-06-01

    Factors that might account for the probability of children being exposed to secondhand smoke compared to those who are unexposed and characteristics associated with the urinary cotinine level (UCL) of those who are exposed were investigated. All households in a German region with a child aged 3 years or younger (n = 3,570) were invited to participate in a study that tested the efficacy of an intervention for reducing secondhand smoke exposure. In 1,282 households, at least one parent reported daily smoking. Among these, 915 (71.3%) participated in the study. For data analyses, we used a two-part model. Characteristics of the households associated with SHSE of the youngest child were analyzed, as well as characteristics associated with UCL among those exposed. Exposure to secondhand smoke was defined using a UCL ≥ 10 ng/ml. Secondhand smoke exposure was detected in 57.1% of the samples. Nursery attendance was associated with secondhand smoke exposure, in addition to the number of smokers living in the household, extent of home smoking ban and parental education. Among children exposed, nursery attendance, season of urine collection and age of the child were associated with UCL. Consideration of seasonal smoking behavior and a child's age at the time of intervention may increase attention to the adverse health effects of secondhand smoke exposure.

  11. A Comparison of Autonomous Regulation and Negative Self-Evaluative Emotions as Predictors of Smoking Behavior Change among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung S.; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo

    2011-01-01

    This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N=303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions. PMID:21911436

  12. A comparison of autonomous regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung S; Catley, Delwyn; Harris, Kari Jo

    2012-05-01

    This study compared autonomous self-regulation and negative self-evaluative emotions as predictors of smoking behavior change in college student smokers (N = 303) in a smoking cessation intervention study. Although the two constructs were moderately correlated, latent growth curve modeling revealed that only autonomous regulation, but not negative self-evaluative emotions, was negatively related to the number of days smoked. Results suggest that the two variables tap different aspects of motivation to change smoking behaviors, and that autonomous regulation predicts smoking behavior change better than negative self-evaluative emotions.

  13. Smoking cessation reverses DNA double-strand breaks in human mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Ishida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, which is responsible for a significant proportion of smoking-related deaths. However, the precise mechanism whereby smoking induces this pathology has not been fully delineated. Based on observation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the most harmful type of DNA damage, in atherosclerotic lesions, we hypothesized that there is a direct association between smoking and DSBs. The goal of this study was to investigate whether smoking induces DSBs and smoking cessation reverses DSBs in vivo through examination of peripheral mononuclear cells (MNCs. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Immunoreactivity of oxidative modification of DNA and DSBs were increased in human atherosclerotic lesions but not in the adjacent normal area. DSBs in human MNCs isolated from the blood of volunteers can be detected as cytologically visible "foci" using an antibody against the phosphorylated form of the histone H2AX (γ-H2AX. Young healthy active smokers (n = 15 showed increased γ-H2AX foci number when compared with non-smokers (n = 12 (foci number/cell: median, 0.37/cell; interquartile range [IQR], 0.31-0.58 vs. 4.36/cell; IQR, 3.09-7.39, p<0.0001. Smoking cessation for 1 month reduced the γ-H2AX foci number (median, 4.44/cell; IQR, 4.36-5.24 to 0.28/cell; IQR, 0.12-0.53, p<0.05. A positive correlation was noted between γ-H2AX foci number and exhaled carbon monoxide levels (r = 0.75, p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking induces DSBs in human MNCs in vivo, and importantly, smoking cessation for 1 month resulted in a decrease in DSBs to a level comparable to that seen in non-smokers. These data reinforce the notion that the cigarette smoking induces DSBs and highlight the importance of smoking cessation.

  14. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. The most frequent inquiries concerned the ingredients, safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. Clients used e-cigarettes to quit smoking, cut down the number of conventional cigarettes smoked, have a safe alternative to smoking, and protect their health while continuing to smoke. More than 60 % of service providers reported favourable beliefs about the safety and effectiveness of e-cigarettes, and believed that e-cigarettes are as effective as other smoking cessation aids, including pharmacotherapy. Despite limited empirical evidence, service providers in Italy viewed e-cigarettes, as safe and effective smoking cessation aids. More concerted efforts are needed to improve knowledge about e-cigarettes among service providers, to guide their clinical practice and decision-making with respect to e-cigarettes.

  15. Attitudes and behaviours in smoking cessation among general practitioners in Finland 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barengo, Noël C; Sandström, H Patrick; Jormanainen, Vesa J; Myllykangas, Markku T

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether smoking by general practitioners (GPs) and gender influence smoking cessation advice. A self-administered questionnaire, originally developed by the WHO and modified according to the Finnish health care system was sent by mail to physicians who were members of the Finnish Medical Association (FMA). Participants were restricted to those who were living in Finland and were younger than 65 years. Numbers of participants was 3,057 and the response rate 69%. Smoking male GPs gave less smoking cessation advice only to patients with a stomach ulcer or patients using oral contraceptive pills compared with their non-smoking colleagues. Male GPs gave less smoking cessation advice to pregnant patients or patients using contraceptive pills than female GPs. Female smoking GPs less likely advised patients who were pregnant or who were using oral contraceptive pills to stop smoking than non-smoking female GPs (p non-smoking general practitioners were found. The little involvement of GPs in health promotion activities regarding tobacco control is of concern.

  16. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and self-reported delinquency by offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lee; Widmayer, Alan; Das, Shyamal

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have reported significant positive correlations between smoking during pregnancy by mothers and the involvement of their offspring in criminal/delinquent behaviour later in life, but these findings have been described as modest and the criminality based on official conviction statistics. We sought to verify this relationship and probe for more details on the basis of self-reported offending among college students. Independently completed questionnaires were collected from 6332 students and their mothers. The students provided information about their delinquent acts, if any, according to eight categories. Their mothers provided retrospective reports of their smoking habits, if any, during pregnancy. Mothers who recalled having smoked during pregnancy were significantly more likely than non-smoking mothers to have offspring who self-reported engaging in some types of delinquency. This relationship was more evident for female offspring than for male offspring and was most pronounced for illegal drug use by the offspring. There was, however, no relationship between offspring offending and estimated number of cigarettes smoked by mothers, month of pregnancy when smoked or consistency of smoking throughout pregnancy. Overall, our study confirms that maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with offspring involvement in delinquency, but the lack of critical timing or dose-response relationships between maternal smoking and later offspring delinquency cast doubt on the possibility that the associations are due to teratogenic effects of tobacco smoke. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Adolescents' Attitudes on Smoking Are Related to Experimentation with Smoking, Daily Smoking and Best Friends' Smoking in Two Karelias in Finland and in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Annamari; Laatikainen, Tiina; Isoaho, Hannu; Lazutkina, Galina; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-12-01

    Becoming a smoker usually starts during adolescence and is a dynamic process involving experimentation before the establishment of daily smoking. It has been suggested that adolescents who smoke differ from those who do not in their attitudes to smoking. The purpose of this study was to find out whether attitudes related to smoking legislation and restrictions, social pressures in smoking and image of smokers are associated with smoking experimentation, daily smoking and best friends' smoking. The data were gathered with a self-administered questionnaire in North Karelia, Eastern Finland and in the Pitkyaranta district, Republic of Karelia, Russia. The respondents were 15-year-old 9th grade pupils in local schools. In Pitkyaranta, the data analyses covered pupils in all eight schools in the area (n = 179). In North Karelia, the data analyses comprised of selected eight schools (n = 601). Data were analysed with exploratory factor analysis. The models revealed that attitudes related to restrictions and social pressure were significantly associated with experimenting with smoking [OR (95 % CI) 7.923 (5.787-10.847)], daily smoking [OR (95 % CI) 9.575 (6.727-13.628)] and the likelihood of best friends' smoking [OR (95 % CI) 3.154 (2.579-3.858)]. The stronger the young peoples' attitudes and opinions, for example, towards restrictions and with more difficulties in refusing smoking, the higher the likelihood for smoking experimentations, daily smoking as well as the likelihood for their best friends' smoking. The country and factor interactions were not associated with smoking experimentations, daily smoking or best friends' smoking. Regardless of cultural background, adolescents who smoke have more positive attitudes to smoking, and perceive more social support for smoking, than do adolescents who do not smoke. The study stresses the similarity of the results in both Karelia's despite the enormous differences in culture, economy and public policy.

  18. Smoking prevalence and seizure control in Chinese males with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Sander, Josemir W; Du, Xudong; Chen, Jiani; Zhu, Cairong; Zhou, Dong

    2017-08-01

    Smoking has a negative effect on most diseases, yet it is under-investigated in people with epilepsy; thus its role is not clear in the general population with epilepsy. We performed a retrospective pilot study on males with epilepsy to determine the smoking rate and its relationship with seizure control using univariate analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and also used a multi-variate logistic regression model. The smoking rate in our sample of 278 individuals was 25.5%, which is lower than the general Chinese population smoking rate among males of 52.1%. We used two classifications: the first classified epilepsy as generalized, or by presumed topographic origin (temporal, frontal, parietal and occipital). The second classified the dominant seizure type of an individual as generalized tonic clonic seizure (GTCS), myoclonic seizure (MS), complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondary GTCS (sGTCS). The univariable analysis of satisfactory seizure control profile and smoking rate in both classifications showed a trend towards a beneficial effect of smoking although most were not statistically significant. Considering medication is an important confounding factor that would largely influence seizure control, we also conducted multi-variable analysis for both classifications with drug numbers and dosage. The result of our model also suggested that smoking is a protective factor. Our findings seem to suggest that smoking could have a potential role in seizure control although confounders need exploration particularly in view of the potential long term health effects. Replication in a much larger sample is needed as well as case control studies to elucidate this issue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of hypothalamic NPY by diet and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Hansen, Michelle J; Jones, Jessica E; Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steve; Anderson, Gary P; Morris, Margaret J

    2007-02-01

    Appetite is regulated by a number of hypothalamic neuropeptides including neuropeptide Y (NPY), a powerful feeding stimulator that responds to feeding status, and drugs such as nicotine and cannabis. There is debate regarding the extent of the influence of obesity on hypothalamic NPY. We measured hypothalamic NPY in male Sprague-Dawley rats after short or long term exposure to cafeteria-style high fat diet (32% energy as fat) or laboratory chow (12% fat). Caloric intake and body weight were increased in the high fat diet group, and brown fat and white fat masses were significantly increased after 2 weeks. Hypothalamic NPY concentration was only significantly decreased after long term consumption of the high fat diet. Nicotine decreases food intake and body weight, with conflicting effects on hypothalamic NPY reported. Body weight, plasma hormones and brain NPY were investigated in male Balb/c mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 4 days, 4 and 12 weeks. Food intake was significantly decreased by smoke exposure (2.32+/-0.03g/24h versus 2.71+/-0.04g/24h in control mice (non-smoke exposed) at 12 weeks). Relative to control mice, smoke exposure led to greater weight loss, while pair-feeding the equivalent amount of chow caused an intermediate weight loss. Chronic smoke exposure, but not pair-feeding, was associated with decreased hypothalamic NPY concentration, suggesting an inhibitory effect of cigarette smoking on brain NPY levels. Thus, consumption of a high fat diet and smoke exposure reprogram hypothalamic NPY. Reduced NPY may contribute to the anorexic effect of smoke exposure.

  20. Peer pressure, psychological distress and the urge to smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Wen, Yu-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Tsai, Tzu-I

    2009-06-01

    Psychology and addiction research have found that cigarette smokers react with subjective and automatic responses to stimuli associated with smoking. This study examines the association between the number of cigarettes smokers consume per month and their response to cues derived from peer and psychological distress. We studied 1,220 adult past and current smokers drawn from a national face-to-face interview survey administered in 2004. We defined two types of cues possibly triggering a smoker to have a cigarette: peer cues and psychological cues. We used ordinary least square linear regressions to analyze smoking amount and response to peer and psychological distress cues. We found a positive association between amount smoked and cue response: peer cues (1.06, 95%CI: 0.74-1.38) and psychological cues (0.44, 95%CI = 0.17-0.70). Response to psychological cues was lower among male smokers (-1.62, 95%CI = -2.26-(-)0.98), but response to psychological cues were higher among those who had senior high school level education (0.96, 95%CI = 0.40-1.53) and who began smoking as a response to their moods (1.25, 95%CI = 0.68-1.82). These results suggest that both peer cues and psychological cues increase the possibility of contingent smoking, and should, therefore, be addressed by anti-smoking policies and anti-smoking programs. More specifically, special attention can be paid to help smokers avoid or counter social pressure to smoke and to help smokers resist the use of cigarettes to relieve distress.

  1. The importance of resilience and stress to maintaining smoking abstinence and cessation: a qualitative study in Australia with people diagnosed with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourtos, George; Ward, Paul R; Muller, Robert; Lawn, Sharon; Winefield, Anthony H; Hersh, Deborah; Coveney, John

    2011-05-01

    This study explored stress in relation to smoking and how non-smokers (never-smoked and ex-smokers) are 'resilient' to smoking in a population where there is a high prevalence of smoking (people diagnosed with depression). In-depth oral history interviews were conducted with 34 adult participants from metropolitan Adelaide, and who were medically diagnosed with depression. Participants were recruited according to their smoking status (currently smoking, ex-smoker, and never-smoked). Smoking was taken-up and maintained for a number of reasons that included perceived high levels of stress. Resilience to stress in relation to smoking was also a major theme. Non-smoking participants tended to be more resilient to stress. Ex-smokers were able to quit for a number of varied reasons during critical transition points in their lives. The never-smoked participants reported successful strategies to cope with stress but not all of them were necessarily healthy. There was often interplay between external factors and the individual's internal properties that led to a building or an erosion of resilience. Smokers and ex-smokers have indicated a strong relationship between stress and tobacco use. Ex-smokers and the never-smoked participants have demonstrated how being 'resilient' to stress can be important to smoking abstinence. The finding that external factors can interact with internal properties to build resilience in relation to stress and smoking is important for policy and practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effects of tobacco-smoke on radiation-induced pneumonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Henriksson, R.; Cai, Y.-Q.; Hellstroem, S.; Bjermer, L.; Hoernqvist Bylunds, S.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the effect of exposure to tobacco smoke (TS) on the development of irradiation-induced pneumonitis in rats, five groups of animals were investigated including controls (C), tobacco smoke exposed (S), irradiated (RNS) and irradiated and tobacco smoke exposed (RS). An additional group (RS/NS) was exposed to tobacco before irradiation but not afterwards. Results indicate that smoking suppresses the radiation-induced inflammation but to a lesser degree affects the radiation-induced increase in membrane permeability as reflected by increased protein levels in BAL. Moreover, the marked effects on the numbers of mast cells and neutrophils in the RS group may indicate that these cells play an important role in the mechanism by which tobacco smoke modulates the effects of irradiation. When exposure to tobacco smoke was terminated immediately after irradiation (RS/NS), the inflammatory response was unaffected. (author)

  3. The effect of γ-radiation on smoked fish using short-term mutagenicity assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dela Rosa, A.M.; Banzon, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on the mutagenicity potential of wood-smoked fish was investigated. Smoked fish were irradiated with radiation doses of 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy. The DMSO extracts of non-radiated and irradiated smoked fish were tested for mutagenicity using the Ames plate incorporation assay, host-mediated assay, and the micronucleus test. It was observed that γ-irradiation did not induce any significant increase in the number of revertants of TA98, TA100 and TA104 as compared with the non-radiated smoked fish. Results of the host-mediated assay and the micronucleus test showed no difference in the mutagenic response of non-radiated in irradiated smoked fish. The results indicate thet γ-radiation does not introduce mutagens in smoked fish. (author). 17 refs.; 6 tabs

  4. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge; Grønbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  5. Effect of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj Mouhamed, D; Ezzaher, A; Neffati, F; Douki, W; Gaha, L; Najjar, M F

    2016-02-01

    Smoking is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The mechanism(s) of the effects of smoking on CVD are not clearly understood; however, a number of atherogenic characteristics, such as insulin resistance have been reported. We aim to investigate the effects of cigarette smoking on insulin resistance and to determine the correlation between this parameter with smoking status characteristics. This study was conducted on 138 non-smokers and 162 smokers aged respectively 35.6±16.0 and 38.5±21.9 years. All subjects are not diabetic. Fasting glucose was determined by enzymatic methods and insulin by chemiluminescence method. Insulin resistance (IR) was estimated using the Homeostasis Model of Assessment equation: HOMA-IR=[fasting insulin (mU/L)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)]/22.5. IR was defined as the upper quartile of HOMA-IR. Values above 2.5 were taken as abnormal and reflect insulin resistance. Compared to non-smokers, smokers had significantly higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR index. These associations remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI and alcohol consumption). A statistically significant association was noted between the smoking status parameters, including both the number of cigarettes smoked/day and the duration of smoking, and fasting insulin levels as well for HOMA-IR index. Among smokers, we noted a positive correlation between HOMA-IR index and both plasma thiocyanates and urinary cotinine. Our results show that smokers have a high risk to developing an insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, compared with a matched group of non-smokers, and may help to explain the high risk of cardiovascular diseases in smokers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  6. An experimental investigation of tobacco smoke pollution in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendzik, Taryn; Fong, Geoffrey T; Travers, Mark J; Hyland, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    Tobacco smoke pollution (TSP) has been identified as a serious public health threat. Although the number of jurisdictions that prohibit smoking in public places has increased rapidly, just a few successful attempts have been made to pass similar laws prohibiting smoking in cars, where the cabin space may contribute to concentrated exposure. In particular, TSP constitutes a potentially serious health hazard to children because of prolonged exposure and their small size. The present study investigated the levels of TSP in 18 cars via the measurement of fine respirable particles (Car owners smoked a single cigarette in their cars in each of five controlled air-sampling conditions. Each condition varied on movement of the car, presence of air conditioning, open windows, and combinations of these airflow influences. Smoking just a single cigarette in a car generated extremely high average levels of PM(2.5): more than 3,800 microg/m3 in the condition with the least airflow (motionless car, windows closed). In moderate ventilation conditions (air conditioning or having the smoking driver hold the cigarette next to a half-open window), the average levels of PM(2.5) were reduced but still at significantly high levels (air conditioning = 844 microg/m3; holding cigarette next to a half-open window = 223 microg/m3). This study demonstrates that TSP in cars reaches unhealthy levels, even under realistic ventilation conditions, lending support to efforts occurring across a growing number of jurisdictions to educate people and prohibit smoking in cars in the presence of children.

  7. Smoking in contemporary American cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Karan; Lessnau, Klaus; Kim, Jeannie; Mercante, Donald; Weinacker, Ann; Mason, Carol

    2005-08-01

    The true prevalence of smoking among characters portrayed in the movies is unknown. This study examines this prevalence objectively. The top 10 movies on the weekly box office charts were reviewed. Whether or not the top five characters in these movies smoked, was documented. It was determined prior to the start of the study that 300 male characters and 300 female characters were needed to detect any significant difference. A total of 447 movies, composed of 193 movies rated restricted (R) [children < 17 years of age must be accompanied by an adult], 131 movies rated PG13 for parental guidance suggested for children < 13 years of age (PG) and 123 movies rated PG for parental guidance suggested, were examined until the sample size was reached. Smoking prevalence is the same in contemporary American movies and in the general US population (23.3% vs 24.8%, respectively). However, there was more smoking in these movies among men than among women (25.5% vs 20.5%, respectively; p < 0.006), among antagonists than among protagonists (35.7% vs 20.6%, respectively; p < 0.001), lower vs middle vs upper socioeconomic class (SEC) [48.2%, 22.9%, and 10.5%, respectively; p < 0.001], among independent vs studio movies (46.2% vs 18.2%, respectively; p < 0.001); and among R-rated vs PG13-rated vs PG-rated movies (37.3%, 16.2%, and 8.1%, respectively; p < 0.001). In R-rated movies, and in both subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies, smoking prevalence is higher than in the US population (37.3%, 30.5%, and 50.6% vs 24.8%, respectively; p < 0.001 for all). Additionally, compared to the US population, men, women and lower SEC members smoke more in R-rated movies, R-rated studio movies, and R-rated independent movies. In R-rated movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (43.9% vs 35.8%, respectively; p < 0.001), and whites smoke more than nonwhites (38.3% vs 26.4%, respectively; p < 0.001). In R-rated studio movies, antagonists smoke more than

  8. Smoke-Free Rules and Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Homes and Vehicles Among US Adults, 2009–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R.; Homa, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An increasing number of US states and localities have implemented comprehensive policies prohibiting tobacco smoking in all indoor areas of public places and worksites. However, private settings such as homes and vehicles remain a major source of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) for many people. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of voluntary smoke-free rules and SHS exposure in homes and vehicles among US adults. Methods We obtained data from the 2009–2010 National Adult Tobacco Survey, a landline and cellular-telephone survey of adults aged 18 years or older residing in the 50 US states or the District of Columbia. We calculated national and state estimates of smoke-free rules and past-7-day SHS exposure in homes and vehicles and examined national estimates by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and education. Results The national prevalence of voluntary smoke-free home rules was 81.1% (state range, 67.9%–92.9%), and the prevalence of household smoke-free vehicle rules was 73.6% (state range, 58.6%–85.8%). Among nonsmokers, the prevalence of SHS exposure was 6.0% in homes (state range, 2.4%–13.0%) and 9.2% in vehicles (state range, 4.8%–13.7%). SHS exposure among nonsmokers was greatest among men, younger adults, non-Hispanic blacks, and those with a lower level of education. Conclusion Most US adults report having voluntary smoke-free home and vehicle rules; however, millions of people remain exposed to SHS in these environments. Disparities in exposure also exist among certain states and subpopulations. Efforts are needed to warn about the dangers of SHS and to promote voluntary smoke-free home and vehicle rules. PMID:23680508

  9. Cigarette smoking and health care professionals at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.K.; Chaudhry, A.; Karamat, A.; Arif, N.; Cheema, M.A.; Rauf, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To observe the frequency of cigarette smoking in doctors and paramedics and study various variables associated with it. Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was given to randomly selected 250 Doctors and 250 Paramedics at Mayo Hospital in 2009. Information about demographic characteristics, smoking status in family, number of cigarettes smoked per day, influence for starting smoking, reason for continuation of smoking and use of nicotine replacement therapy was obtained. Results: A total of 234 questionnaires from doctors and 207 from paramedics were received back (88.2% response rate). There were 280 males (163 Doctors; 117 Paramedics) and 161 females (71 Doctors; 90 Paramedics). Eighty seven (37.18%) Doctors and 74 (35.74%) Paramedics were smokers with 82 (50.31%) male doctors and 5 (7.04%) females. Similar results were obtained in Paramedics 72 (61.53%) males and 2 (2.22%) females. Of the smokers, majority started smoking between 11-20 years age with 39 (44.83%) Doctors and 48 (64.86%) Paramedics. Twenty three (26.44%) Doctors and 31 (41.89%) Paramedics smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day. Smoking was initiated due to the influence of friends by 48 (55.17%) Doctors and 56 (75.68%) Paramedics. Most smokers, 29 (33.33%) Doctors and 33 (44.59%) Paramedics found use of cigarette smoking as 'Relaxing'. Addiction was the main reason for difficulty in quitting cigarette smoking as reported by 33 (37.93%) Doctors and 31 (41.89%) Paramedics. Of the smokers, 61(70.11%) doctors and 50 (32.43%) paramedics had no intention to quit smoking in the next 6 months. Conclusion: A significant number of doctors and paramedics, especially males, in Pakistan smoke cigarettes, which requires proper attention. (author)

  10. Antioxidant responses following active and passive smoking of tobacco and electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulianiti, Konstantina; Karatzaferi, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-07-01

    It has been indicated that acute active and passive tobacco cigarette smoking may cause changes on redox status balance that may result in significant pathologies. However, no study has evaluated the effects of active and passive e-cigarette smoking on redox status of consumers. To examine the acute effects of active and passive e-cigarette and tobacco cigarette smoking on selected redox status markers. Using a randomized single-blind crossover design, 30 participants (15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers) were exposed to three different experimental conditions. Smokers underwent a control session, an active tobacco cigarette smoking session (smoked 2 cigarettes within 30-min) and an active e-cigarette smoking session (smoked a pre-determined number of puffs within 30-min using a liquid with 11 ng/ml nicotine). Similarly, nonsmokers underwent a control session, a passive tobacco cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to 23 ± 1 ppm of CO in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber) and a passive e-cigarette smoking session (exposure of 1 h to air enriched with pre- determined number of puffs in a 60 m(3) environmental chamber). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assessed in participants' blood prior to, immediately after, and 1-h post-exposure. TAC, CAT and GSH remained similar to baseline levels immediately after and 1-h-post exposure (p > 0.05) in all trials. Tobacco and e-cigarette smoking exposure do not acutely alter the response of the antioxidant system, neither under active nor passive smoking conditions. Overall, there is not distinction between tobacco and e-cigarette active and passive smoking effects on specific redox status indices.

  11. Smoking and attitudes toward smoking policy at a University in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forden, Carie L; Carrillo, Amy M

    2016-01-01

    To assess smoking behavior, knowledge of smoking harm, and attitudes toward campus smoking policy at an Egyptian university, an online survey of students, staff, and faculty was conducted (N = 992). The smoking prevalence of 38% among men was in line with Egypt's national average, but the smoking prevalence among women of 20% was much higher than the national average. Smoking status influenced beliefs about smoking harm and attitudes toward smoking policy, with nonsmokers having stronger beliefs about the harm of smoking and showing stronger support for smoking regulations than smokers. Smokers were more knowledgeable about smoking policy than were nonsmokers and differed slightly in their preferences for smoking policy enforcement strategies. These findings contribute to our understanding of how to tailor college smoking policy and programs to an Egyptian context.

  12. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour: analysis of cross sectional data from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lis Hentze; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking. DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis of cross sectional data...... from students in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1515 grade 9 students (mean age 15.8) from 90 classes in 48 Danish schools. Outcome measure: Self reported smoking behaviour; daily smoking and heavy smoking, defined as those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per week. RESULTS: Of the students in this study, 62...... that they had seen other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. Adolescents' perceived exposure to teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises was significantly associated with daily smoking, having adjusted for sex, exposure to teachers smoking indoors at school and pupils smoking outdoors...

  13. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  14. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; Lanting, C.I.; Crone, M.R.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  15. Exposure to tobacco smoke and infant crying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, SA; Lanting, Caren; Crone, MR; Van Wouwe, JP

    Aim: To examine the association of excessive infant crying with maternal smoking during and after pregnancy, paternal smoking, and smoking by other people in the living environment of the infant. Methods: We collected data on infant crying and smoking in a Dutch national sample of 5845 infants aged

  16. Parent Voices Guide Smoking Intervention Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Hearn, Lydia; Cross, Donna; Thomas, Laura T.; Bell, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While parents' influence on their children's smoking behaviour is widely recognised, little is known about parents of four to eight year olds' attitudes and beliefs around smoking cessation and how they communicate with their children about smoking. The purpose of this paper is to explore parents' perceptions of quitting smoking and their…

  17. Smoking, Stress, and Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Perkins, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on the interrelation between stressors and smoking, and on its potential impact on coronary heart disease risk beyond that due to stressors or to smoking alone. Reviews evidence supporting the stress-smoking interrelationship, its relevance to the risk of heart disease, and mechanisms explaining why smokers smoke more during stress and why…

  18. Antecedents of Smoking among Pre-Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Joan

    1982-01-01

    Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N=600) were assessed regarding smoking activity, parents' smoking, four dimensions of self-esteem, and attitudes toward school. Multivariate analyses showed students were more likely to begin smoking if they had parents who smoked, had low self-esteem, and disliked school and feared failure. (Author)

  19. Smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Hofstetter, C Richard; González-Pérez, Guillermo J; Adams, Marc A; Sánchez, José de Jesús; Guzmán-Cerda, Gabriela

    2005-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of tobacco use, exposure to secondhand smoke, and smoking restrictions in the home and workplace among residents of Tijuana, one of Mexico's largest cities. This cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico, during 2003 and 2004. A population-based sample of 400 Tijuana adult residents responded to a tobacco survey, and 397 of the surveys were analyzed. About 22.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.7%-27.1%) of Tijuana adults reported current smoking, and 53.9% (95% CI: 48.8%-58.9%) reported chronic exposure to secondhand smoke. Approximately 44.4% (95% CI: 37.9%-50.9%) of Tijuana adults had a nonsmoking policy in their workplace, while 65.8% (95% CI: 61.0%-70.6%) of Tijuana households were smoke-free. The results underline the need for increased tobacco control efforts, particularly stricter enforcement of existing passive smoking regulations, in order to expand protection from secondhand smoke from private settings to public ones and to curb the tobacco epidemic in Tijuana and elsewhere in Mexico.

  20. Smoking in Hollywood movies: impact on teen smoking with special reference to German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies that have linked exposure to movie smoking and smoking initiation among adolescents. Much of the research linking exposure to smoking to movies with adolescent smoking comes from studies of U.S. children and their exposure to smoking in Hollywood movies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have assessed such exposure and have found a strong, independent association with smoking onset. A first study conduced in Germany reveals that smoking in internationally distributed movies is a risk factor for ever and current smoking among European adolescents, too. It is concluded that limiting exposure of young adolescents to movie smoking could have important world-wide public health implications.

  1. The indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in terms of negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Adrienne L; McLeish, Alison C

    2016-02-01

    Although negative affect is associated with a number of smoking-related cognitive processes, the mechanisms underlying these associations have yet to be examined. The current study sought to examine the indirect effect of emotion regulation difficulties in terms of the association between negative affect and smoking-related cognitive processes (internal barriers to cessation, negative affect reduction smoking motives, negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies). Participants were 126 daily cigarette smokers (70.4% male, Mage=36.5years, SD=13.0; 69.8% Caucasian) who smoked an average of 18.5 (SD=8.7) cigarettes per day and reported moderate nicotine dependence. Formal mediation analyses were conducted using PROCESS to examine the indirect effect of negative affect on internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives and outcome expectancies through emotion regulation difficulties. After accounting for the effects of gender, daily smoking rate, and anxiety sensitivity, negative affect was indirectly related to internal barriers to cessation and negative affect reduction smoking motives through emotion regulation difficulties. There was no significant indirect effect for negative affect reduction smoking outcome expectancies. These findings suggest that greater negative affect is associated with a desire to smoke to reduce this negative affect and perceptions that quitting smoking will be difficult due to negative emotions because of greater difficulties managing these negative emotions. Thus, emotion regulation difficulties may be an important target for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of smoking on levels of endothelial progenitor cells and microparticles in the blood of healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Mobarrez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking, both active and passive, is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease. To assess the impact of brief smoking on the vasculature, we determined levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs and circulating microparticles (MPs following the smoking of one cigarette by young, healthy intermittent smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 12 healthy volunteers were randomized to either smoking or not smoking in a crossover fashion. Blood sampling was performed at baseline, 1, 4 and 24 hours following smoking/not smoking. The numbers of EPCs and MPs were determined by flow cytometry. MPs were measured from platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells. Moreover, MPs were also labelled with anti-HMGB1 and SYTO 13 to assess the content of nuclear molecules. RESULTS: Active smoking of one cigarette caused an immediate and significant increase in the numbers of circulating EPCs and MPs of platelet-, endothelial- and leukocyte origin. Levels of MPs containing nuclear molecules were increased, of which the majority were positive for CD41 and CD45 (platelet- and leukocyte origin. CD144 (VE-cadherin or HMGB1 release did not significantly change during active smoking. CONCLUSION: Brief active smoking of one cigarette generated an acute release of EPC and MPs, of which the latter contained nuclear matter. Together, these results demonstrate acute effects of cigarette smoke on endothelial, platelet and leukocyte function as well as injury to the vascular wall.

  3. Simulation supported field study of environmental tobacco smoke leakage from smoking rooms in 19 Dutch pubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Opperhuizen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is produced during smoking and smoldering of tobacco products. This field study has measured how much ETS is leaking from smoking rooms into smoke free areas in 19 Dutch cafes. Nicotine, 3-EP and PM2,5 have been used as tracer compounds for ETS. The use of smoking

  4. Mexico SimSmoke: how changes in tobacco control policies would impact smoking prevalence and smoking attributable deaths in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Cummings, K Michael; Meza, Rafael; Zhang, Yian; Levy, David T

    2017-07-01

    We examined the effect of tobacco control policies in Mexico on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths using the Mexico SimSmoke model. The model is based on the previously developed SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy, and uses population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy data for Mexico. It assesses, individually, and in combination, the effect of six tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and smoking-related deaths. Policies included: cigarette excise taxes, smoke-free laws, anti-smoking public education campaigns, marketing restrictions, access to tobacco cessation treatments and enforcement against tobacco sales youth. The model estimates that, if Mexico were to adopt strong tobacco control policies compared to current policy levels, smoking prevalence could be reduced by 30% in the next decade and by 50% by 2053; an additional 470,000 smoking-related premature deaths could be averted over the next 40 years. The greatest impact on smoking and smoking-related deaths would be achieved by raising excise taxes on cigarettes from 55% to at least 70% of the retail price, followed by strong youth access enforcement and access to cessation treatments. Implementing tobacco control policies in Mexico could reduce smoking prevalence by 50%, and prevent 470,000 smoking-related deaths by 2053.

  5. Prospective prediction of children's smoking transitions: role of parents' and older siblings' smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Leroux, Brian G; Andersen, M Robyn; Rajan, K Bharat; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-01-01

    To use a novel social epidemic probability model to investigate longitudinally the extent to which parents' and older siblings' smoking predict children's smoking transitions. Parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade (baseline). Three smoking transitions were assessed over the period of child/adolescent smoking acquisition (up to 12th grade): (1) transition from never smoking to trying smoking, (2) transition from trying to monthly smoking and (3) transition from monthly to daily smoking. Forty Washington State school districts participating in the long term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project (HSPP). Participants were the 5520 families for whom data on both parents' and older siblings' baseline smoking status, as well as on children's smoking transitions, were available. The probability that a smoking parent influenced their child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 32% (95% CI: 27%, 36%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 15% (95% CI: 10%, 19%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 28% (95% CI: 21%, 34%). The probability that an older sibling influenced a child to make the first transition to trying smoking was 29% (95% CI: 17%, 39%); to make the second transition from trying to monthly smoking, 0% (95% CI: 0%, 8%); and to make the third transition from monthly to daily smoking, 20% (95% CI: 4%, 33%). In contrast to previous research, the results provide new evidence suggesting that family smoking influences both initiation and escalation of children's smoking. Results also quantify, in terms of probabilities, the importance of parents' and older siblings' smoking on children's three major smoking transitions. Parents' smoking, as well as older siblings' smoking, are important behaviors to target in preventing adolescents from making smoking transitions.

  6. CDC Vital Signs: Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF file Microsoft PowerPoint file Microsoft Word file Microsoft Excel ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Office on Smoking and Health Page maintained by: Office ...

  7. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B; Mason, P A; Moffat, A C; King, L J; Marks, V

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  8. Pregnant? Don't Smoke!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injury, Violence & Safety Life Stages & Populations Travelers’ Health Workplace Safety & Health Features Media Sign up for Features Get ... Smoking during pregnancy can cause babies to be born too small ...

  9. Smoking needs assessment: final report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile and distribute a Needs Surveys to gather smoking statistics among youth and provide community health agencies with up to date information so the communities...

  10. Alpha radioactivity in cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.S.; Eisenbud, M.; Harley, N.H.

    1980-01-01

    The α activity of cigarette smoke tar deposited onto membrane filters was found to be associated with the relatively insoluble fraction. Perfusion of the tar with physiological saline resulted in no change in the mean measured activity, but there was more variability in the measured values for the perfused tar than for the initial tar samples. Analysis of cigarette smoke condensate shows that radium and thorium are present, but over 99% of the α activity results from 210 Po. Repeat measurements after a time lapse of 2 1/2 years indicate that the initial 210 Pb content of the tar is roughly 30 to 40% of the original 210 Po content for both unprocessed and perfused samples. An increase in the α activity concentration of smoke deposited in lung tissue may result from the lack of solubility of the radioactive material compared with other smoke constituents

  11. The Danish Smoking Cessation Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve their qu......‐free. The database is increasingly used in register-based research.......Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve...... their quality. The database was also designed to function as a basis for register-based research projects. Study population The population includes smokers in Denmark who have been receiving a face-to-face SC intervention offered by an SC clinic affiliated with the SCDB. SC clinics can be any organisation...

  12. MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARIJUANA SMOKING AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA: FACTORS RESPONSIBLE AND ... Its medico-social effects could ruin the life and future of our youths. ... A comprehensive school health education

  13. Parental education and family status--association with children's cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaloudíková, Iva; Hrubá, Drahoslava; Samara, Ibrahim

    2012-03-01

    single attempt, and 15.4% smoked repeatedly. The level of parents' education had no influence on children's concurrent smoking experimentation or on their concurrent decision about smoking in the future. There was also no difference in number of children who obtained cigarettes from their parents and parents' level of education (about 6%). When the level of maternal education was combined with the family status, significant differences were found. Compared to children living with two biological parents (highly educated mother), children from other groups more often reported current experimentating with smoking and lower number of those decided not to smoke in the future. No significant differences were found in other markers of knowledge and attitudes between children from analysed social family groups. In our study, the parental education has significantly influenced exposure of children to passive smoking at homes and in cars, but had no effect on children's opinions and attitudes about smoking. Higher education of mothers and family status significantly lowered the frequency of current experimentation and decision about future smoking among children living in families with two biological parents of whom mother attained higher education. It is necessary to seek ways for improving parental concern about smoking prevention.

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and smoking trajectories: race and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Ti; Clark, Trenette T; Kollins, Scott H; McClernon, F Joseph; Fuemmeler, Bernard F

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the influence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms severity and directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) on trajectories of the probability of current (past month) smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked from age 13 to 32. Racial and gender differences in the relationship of ADHD symptoms and smoking trajectories were also assessed. A subsample of 9719 youth (54.5% female) was drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Cohort sequential design and zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) latent growth modeling were used to estimate the relationship between ADHD directionality and severity on smoking development. ADHD severity's effect on the likelihood of ever smoking cigarettes at the intercept (age 13) had a greater impact on White males than other groups. ADHD severity also had a stronger influence on the initial number of cigarettes smoked at age 13 among Hispanic participants. The relationships between ADHD directionality (hyperactive-impulsive symptoms relative to inattentive symptoms) and a higher number of cigarettes smoked at the intercept were stronger among Hispanic males than others. Gender differences manifested only among Whites. ADHD severity and directionality had unique effects on smoking trajectories. Our results also highlight that the risk of ADHD symptoms may differ by race and gender. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Economic effects of smoke-free laws on rural and urban counties in Kentucky and Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyles, Mark K; Hahn, Ellen J

    2012-01-01

    Numerous empirical studies have examined the influence of smoke-free legislation on economic activity, with most finding a null effect. The influence could possibly differ in rural areas relative to urban areas due to differing rates of smoking prevalence and access to prevention and treatment programs. Furthermore, the discussion of the effectiveness of smoke-free laws has been extended to consider local ordinances relative to statewide laws. This study examines these issues using 21 local laws in Kentucky and the Ohio statewide smoke-free law. The number of employees, total wages paid, and number of reporting establishments in all hospitality and accommodation services in Kentucky and Ohio counties were documented, beginning the first quarter 2001 and ending the last quarter of 2009. A generalized estimating equation time-series design is used to estimate the impact of local and state smoke-free laws in Kentucky and Ohio rural and urban counties. There is no evidence that the economies in Kentucky counties were affected in any way from the implementation of local smoke-free laws. There was also no evidence that total employment or the number of establishments was influenced by the statewide law in Ohio, but wages increased following the implementation of the law. Furthermore, there is no evidence that either rural or urban counties experienced a loss of economic activity following smoke-free legislation. The study finds no evidence that local or state smoke-free legislation negatively influences local economies in either rural or urban communities.

  16. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  17. Impact of maternal smoking on birth size: effect of parity and sex dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvarigou, Anastasia A; Asimakopoulou, Aspasia; Beratis, Nicholas G

    2009-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay of intrauterine growth. To examine the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on fetal growth in relationship to maternal parity, age and number of cigarettes smoked/day, and offspring's gender. We studied 2,108 term newborns (1,102 male, 1,006 female) delivered at the General University Hospital of Patras from 1994 to 2004. The 1,443 were born to mothers who did not smoke and 665 to mothers who smoked during pregnancy. Birth weight, length and head circumference were measured prospectively in all newborns. Also, maternal smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked per day, age, and parity were recorded. For the analysis, t test, one-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman rank correlation, and factorial MANOVA with covariates were used. With increasing parity, in the neonates of nonsmoking mothers there was a gradual increase of growth, whereas in neonates of smoking mothers there was a gradual decrease of growth. This effect was more pronounced in males. A significant negative main effect on growth resulted from the interaction of smoking with parity (p = 0.013), and with gender and parity (p = 0.001). There was a significant negative correlation between number of cigarettes smoked per day and growth, the strength of which increased with parity, mainly in males. Maternal smoking during pregnancy causes a delay in fetal growth, which is greater in male offspring, an effect that is enhanced with parity but is independent of maternal age. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Cigarette Smoke-Induced Cell Death Causes Persistent Olfactory Dysfunction in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumi Ueha

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure to cigarette smoke is a cause of olfactory dysfunction. We previously reported that in young mice, cigarette smoke damaged olfactory progenitors and decreased mature olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, then, mature ORNs gradually recovered after smoking cessation. However, in aged populations, the target cells in ORNs by cigarette smoke, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which cigarette smoke impairs the regenerative ORNs, and the degree of ORN regeneration after smoking cessation remain unclear.Objectives: To explore the effects of cigarette smoke on the ORN cell system using an aged mouse model of smoking, and to investigate the extent to which smoke-induced damage to ORNs recovers following cessation of exposure to cigarette smoke in aged mice.Methods: We intranasally administered a cigarette smoke solution (CSS to 16-month-old male mice over 24 days, then examined ORN existence, cell survival, changes of inflammatory cytokines in the olfactory epithelium (OE, and olfaction using histological analyses, gene analyses and olfactory habituation/dishabituation tests.Results: CSS administration reduced the number of mature ORNs in the OE and induced olfactory dysfunction. These changes coincided with an increase in the number of apoptotic cells and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF expression and a decrease in Il6 expression. Notably, the reduction in mature ORNs did not recover even on day 28 after cessation of treatment with CSS, resulting in persistent olfactory dysfunction.Conclusion: In aged mice, by increasing ORN death, CSS exposure could eventually overwhelm the regenerative capacity of the OE, resulting in continued reduction in the number of mature ORNs and olfactory dysfunction.

  19. Can anti-smoking television advertising affect smoking behaviour? Controlled trial of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking TV campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, D.; Stapleton, J.

    2000-01-01

    TV media campaign, including no effect of varying the intensity of the advertising during this initial phase. Applying these results to a typical population where 28% smoke and 28% are ex-smokers, and where there would be an equal number of quitters and relapsers over an 18 month period without the campaign, suggests that the campaign would reduce smoking prevalence by about 1.2%.
CONCLUSIONS—The Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking TV campaign was effective in reducing smoking prevalence through encouraging smokers to stop and helping prevent relapse in those who had already stopped. The lack of an effect after the first phase of the campaign indicates that if advertising at this intensity is to have an impact, a prolonged campaign is necessary. These results support the UK governments' recent decision to fund similar campaigns, and suggests that anti-smoking TV advertising should be undertaken routinely as an essential component of any population smoking reduction strategy. Reducing smoking prevalence would make a substantial contribution to achieving the UK government's target of preventing 300 000 cancer and heart disease deaths over the next 10 years.


Keywords: anti-smoking TV campaign; England; smoking cessation PMID:10982571

  20. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…