WorldWideScience

Sample records for bach flower remedies

  1. [Bach flower remedies: a critic of the pseudoscientific, pseudomedicinal concepts and philosophical postures inducted by Dr Bach theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monvoisin, R

    2005-11-01

    Bach Flower Remedies (EFB) are the implements of a so-called alternative pseudo-therapy, which is increasingly widespread in France. In view of the social impact of those alleged complementary health approaches and blurred lines between parapharmaceutical trends and those that promote well-being, critical investigation seems to be required to promote a piece of objective information on this subject. The zetetic methodology appears to be the most effective for dealing with the question, we therefore applied a critical study to both EFB and alternative therapy of Dr Bach. We show that EFB effectiveness is not formally established, that the basic principles of Bach's theory are settled on ungrounded, deeply intuitive hypotheses, belong to magical thinking, and do promote philosophical approaches that weaken patients-consumers, particularly with regard to sectarian trends. We insist on the need for training in effective tools for criticism.

  2. Bach Flower Remedies for psychological problems and pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langley Tessa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bach Flower Remedies are thought to help balance emotional state and are commonly recommended by practitioners for psychological problems and pain. We assessed whether Bach Flower Remedies (BFRs are safe and efficacious for these indications by performing a systematic review of the literature. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, AMED, and the Cochrane Library from inception until June 2008 and performed a hand-search of references from relevant key articles. For efficacy, we included all prospective studies with a control group. For safety, we also included retrospective, observational studies with more than 30 subjects. Two authors abstracted data and determined risk of bias using a recognised rating system of trial quality. Results Four randomised controlled trials (RCTs and two additional retrospective, observational studies were identified and included in the review. Three RCTs of BFRs for students with examination anxiety, and one RCT of BFRs for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD showed no overall benefit in comparison to placebo. Due to the number and quality of the studies the strength of the evidence is low or very low. We did not find any controlled prospective studies regarding the efficacy of BFRs for pain. Only four of the six studies included for safety explicitly reported adverse events. Conclusion Most of the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of BFRs has a high risk of bias. We conclude that, based on the reported adverse events in these six trials, BFRs are probably safe. Few controlled prospective trials of BFRs for psychological problems and pain exist. Our analysis of the four controlled trials of BFRs for examination anxiety and ADHD indicates that there is no evidence of benefit compared with a placebo intervention.

  3. Avaliação dos efeitos centrais dos florais de Bach em camundongos através de modelos farmacológicos específicos Evaluation of central effects of Bach Flowers Remedies in mice using specific pharmacological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. De-Souza

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os Remédios Florais de Bach (RFB, constituem um método alternativo de tratamento usado largamente na terapêutica de várias patologias em muitos países do mundo. Os RFB são reconhecidos como tratamento natural pela OMS desde 1956. Embora o mecanismo de ação dos RFB ainda não tenha sido elucidado, eles vêm sendo indicados para o tratamento de várias doenças neuropsiquiátricas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar possíveis efeitos centrais dos RFB em modelos farmacológicos utilizados na pesquisa de substâncias com efeitos ansiolíticos, hipnóticos, antidepressivos e neurolépticos. Para tanto, camundongos receberam um tratamento agudo via oral (0,45 mL 1 hora antes dos testes. Os resultados mostraram que os florais Gorse e, em conjunto, White chestnut, Agrymony e Vervain exibiram perfis antidepressivo e hipnótico, respectivamente. No modelo de ansiedade foi detectado efeito ansiolítico do floral Agrymony. Entretanto, não foram observados efeitos neurolépticos do floral Clematis. Os resultados nos levam a sugerir que os efeitos centrais dos florais avaliados podem ser parcialmente detectados através de modelos farmacológicos utilizados na pesquisa de agentes psicotrópicos.The Bach Flowers Remedies (BFR's are worldwide used as an alternative therapeutical approach for several pathologies, being considered by WHO as natural therapy since 1956. Despite the unknown mechanism of action, the BFR's have been widely used on treatment of several neuropsychiatry diseases. Based on pharmacological models used to detect ansiolitic, antidepressant, hypnotic and neuroleptyc effects of different substances, the aim of this work was to evaluate possible central effects of the BFR's. For this purpose, albino mice received BFR's treatment (0.45 mL by oral route 1 hour prior to each test. The results revealed that the Gorse flower alone and a mix of White chestnut, Agrymony and Vervain showed antidepressant and hypnotic effects

  4. Bach and His.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Wyn

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the career of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and the role played by Wilhelm His I (who was, with Albert von Haller, a noted pioneer of physiology) in the exhumation of Bach's remains in 1894. His's examination of these remains allowed the sculptor Carl Seffner to produce the celebrated statue of Bach which stands outside the church of St Thomas in Leipzig, where the composer was employed from 1723 until his death. Modern forensic techniques have recently enabled Bach's image to be reconstructed in even more spectacular detail.

  5. Poeetilise utoopia meister Aino Bach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    28. III-11. V Adamson-Ericu muuseumis graafik Aino Bachi loomingu ülevaatenäitus. Võrdluseks on eksponeeritud Eduard Wiiralti ja Kaarel Liimandi tööd. Näha võib Mark Soosaare filmi A. Bachist "Liblikapüüdja" (1978). Kuraator Anne Lõugas, kujundaja Virge Jõekalda. Kai Tuviku juhendamisel muuseumitunnid "Kuidas joonistada inimest?". 1. IV seminaril "Naiskunstnik ja tema aeg. Aino Bach" esinejad, ettekanded

  6. Remedying Pb-Contaminated Soil by Ornamental Flowers%花卉对铅污染土壤的修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爽; 刘艺芸; 孙秀菊; 李萍; 张启凯

    2014-01-01

    To enrich data of Pb toxicity, purify and beautify Pb-contaminated environment, three ornamental flowers were used to determine the absorbing characteristics of Pb and endurable characteristics with pot-culture experiment. The results showed Tagetes patula had a stronger capability of accumulating Pb in shoot than that Dahlia pinnata and Ipomoea quamoclit, but had the weakest accumulating ability. Dahlia Pinnata Cav and Tagetes patula exhibited stronger endurance to Pb, which could be used for stable remediation of soil.%为寻找铅污染土壤净化和景观化的材料,采用盆栽方法,研究了3种花卉对铅污染土壤的修复性能。结果表明,3种花卉中孔雀草(Tagetes patula)地上部吸收富集铅的量最大,积累铅能力最强,其次为大丽花(Dahlia pinnata),羽叶茑萝(Ipomoea quamoclit)吸收积累铅能力最弱。在Pb浓度为1000 mg/kg时,大丽花和孔雀草耐性较强,可用作铅污染土壤的稳定修复植物。

  7. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested.

  8. Popowia bachmaensis (Annonaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Van; Tagane, Shuichiro; Binh, Hoang Thi; Toyama, Hironori; Okabe, Norikazu; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Popowia bachmaensis Ngoc, Tagane & Yahara, sp. nov. is described from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species is morphologically similar to Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. ex Walp., but can be readily distinguished from it by its lower stems, smaller leaves, shorter flowering pedicels, shorter carpels, longer sepals and inner petals. A detailed description, comprising illustrations, and supplemented with DNA barcodes of the two regions of rbcL and matK, are provided.

  9. Positive Feed-Bach: A Motivation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William G.

    1984-01-01

    Classroom scrip emblazoned with a picture of Johann Sebastian Bach is used to motivate junior high school students. Students are paid for cooperation and performance. Two auctions are held during the school year, at which students can spend the scrip on musical items. (CS)

  10. Analysis list: Bach2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Bach2 Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bach2.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bach2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bac...h2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Bach2.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...

  11. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated wastewater using denitrification biofilters with straws of ornamental flowers added as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Zhou, Yuanyang; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Weilu

    Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed. Phosphate removal was also improved, although this very limited. High nitrate removal rates were achieved during the initial 12 h in the two batches each lasting for 3 days, along with the depletion of influent dissolved oxygen due to aerobic degradation of the organic compounds. NO2(-)-N of 0.01-2.83 mg/L and NH4(+)-N of 0.02-1.69 mg/L were formed and both positively correlated to the nitrate reduced. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations increased during the batches and varied conversely with the nitrate contents, and could be indicative of nitrate removal due to the highly significant positive correlation between NO3(-)-N removed and IC concentration (r(2) = 0.881, p nitrate-contaminated wastewater, although further optimization of carbon source addition is still required.

  12. Cohort profile: the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B

    2014-02-01

    The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).

  13. Microfilming of the Bach Manuscripts in the Staatsbibliothek Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzold, Leonhard

    1998-01-01

    Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)

  14. Instructional Practices: Teaching Speech Composition with J. S. Bach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the structural similarities inherent in musical and linguistic compositions and how they reflect basic human impulses and principles of effective composition. Uses Bach's "Passacaglia" to illustrate the characteristics of good composition. (JMF)

  15. Anneli Remme soovitab : Ajaloo ilu - Johann Sebastian Bach / Anneli Remme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remme, Anneli, 1968-

    2005-01-01

    Agentuuri Corelli Music ja Eesti Klavessiinisõprade Tsunfti korraldatavast klavessiinikontsertide sarjast "Ajaloo ilu - Johann Sebastian Bach" (avakontserdid 17. sept. Kadrioru lossis, 18. sept. Pärnu Eliisabeti kirikus)

  16. 《"BACH"解密》节选(二)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓生

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2."H-C-A-B",或"H-C-(A)-B". 这是"BACH"的逆行(R)或倒影(I)形态,"BACH"是一个高度内对称的音高结构,它的"倒影"即"逆行","原型"即"倒影逆行",正因为如此,每种形态只有两种变化形式.

  17. The Analysis of Symbolismin The Children's Bach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪岩

    2011-01-01

    Helen Garner's Children's Bach was a novel organized as music of the main line. The essay was aimed to analyze the symbolism in The Children's Bach. Symbolism in the novel implied that women in the patriarchal society were bounded and didn't have their right of discourse and that traditional value and modem value of American had conflicts between each other.

  18. Rigidity of complete noncompact bach-flat n-manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua

    2012-11-01

    Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.

  19. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  20. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  1. Flower Development

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the ke...

  2. Extremal Kähler metrics and Bach-Merkulov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Caner

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we study a coupled system of equations on oriented compact 4-manifolds which we call the Bach-Merkulov equations. These equations can be thought of as the conformally invariant version of the classical Einstein-Maxwell equations. Inspired by the work of C. LeBrun on Einstein-Maxwell equations on compact Kähler surfaces, we give a variational characterization of solutions to Bach-Merkulov equations as critical points of the Weyl functional. We also show that extremal Kähler metrics are solutions to these equations, although, contrary to the Einstein-Maxwell analogue, they are not necessarily minimizers of the Weyl functional. We illustrate this phenomenon by studying the Calabi action on Hirzebruch surfaces.

  3. Extremal Kaehler Metrics and Bach-Merkulov Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Koca, Caner

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study a coupled system of equations on oriented compact 4-manifolds which we call the Bach-Merkulov equations. These equations can be thought of as the conformally invariant version of the classical Einstein-Maxwell equations in general relativity. Inspired by the work of C. LeBrun on Einstein-Maxwell equations on compact Kaehler surfaces, we give a variational characterization of solutions to Bach-Merkulov equations as critical points of the Weyl functional. We also show that extremal Kaehler metrics are solutions to these equations, although, contrary to the Einstein-Maxwell analogue, they are not necessarily minimizers of the Weyl functional. We illustrate this phenomenon by studying the Calabi action on Hirzebruch surfaces.

  4. A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei

    2011-02-01

    Let (M4,g) be a four-dimensional complete noncompact Bach-flat Riemannian manifold with positive Yamabe constant. In this paper, we show that (M4,g) has a constant curvature if it has a nonnegative constant scalar curvature and sufficiently small L2-norm of trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (M4,g) with positive scalar curvature.

  5. Bach1-dependent and -independent Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Keratinocytes*

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Bach1 is a member of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor family, and the Bach1/small Maf heterodimer specifically represses transcriptional activity directed by the Maf recognition element (MARE). Because Bach1 is a repressor of the oxidative stress response, we examined the function(s) of Bach1 in keratinocytes subjected to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by H2O2 led to an increase in MARE activity and expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an inducible antioxidant defen...

  6. [Johann Sebastian Bach: life, oeuvre and his significance for the cardiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, H-J

    2014-12-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach was born on 1685 in Eisenach. By the time he turned 10, Bach found himself an orphan after the death of both of his parents. After working in Weimar, Arnstadt, Mühlhausen, and Köthen Bach signed a contract to become the new organist and teacher at St. Thomas Church Leipzig in 1723 and stayed there until his death. In 1749, Bach tried to fix his failing sight by having surgery the following year, but the operation ended up leaving him completely blind. Few months later, Bach suffered a stroke. He died in Leipzig on July 28, 1750. In recent years, there were some questions whether music of different styles can directly alter cardiovascular parameters, particularly by using Bach's music. In some studies it has been shown that cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate) are influenced by music. Listening to classic music (Bach) leads to positive erffects, also music by Italian composters. In contrast, "modern" music, vocal music or songs had no positive effects on cardiovascular parameters. In addition, positive effects on cardiovascular parameters and behavioural patters have been shown in an animal study recently, by Bach's music. Recent studies showed clearly that music influences cardiovascular parameters. It is obvious that classical music (Bach) has benefitial effects, both in humans and in animals. Therefore, the music of the "Thomaskantor" will improve both, quality of life and cardiovascular health.

  7. Jesu, meine Freude BWV 227 van Johann Sebastian Bach : een praedicatio sonora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelboom, Arie

    2007-01-01

    In the oeuvre of Johann Sebastian Bach the motets take only a modest position. According to Bach's early biographers he must have written many motets, but only few have been preserved. Among these motets Jesu, meine Freude BWV 227 occupies a special position. It is the only one which combines a comp

  8. 《"BACH 解密"》节选(一)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓生

    2008-01-01

    @@ 前 言 "BACH"是巴赫的姓氏;也是作曲家本人难以忘怀的-个核心音乐细胞情结.在中,笔者列举了巴赫应用"B-A-C-H"(bB-A-C-hB)四音列及其21种变形(连续上行与下行半音阶形态除外)共270余处,其中有相当部分属作者明显具有在音乐中隐藏自己姓氏的意图;

  9. Lotus Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The lotus flower is a traditional subject for Chinese painters. Men of letters and painters depict it because although it grows from mud its blossoms are clean and charming, hence it has always been used to euphemize a man who keeps his noble mind even in unfavorable situations Young painter Xing Xiaolin features the lotus flowers again and

  10. Flowers & Weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

  11. BACH:最大的音乐家族

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱仁平

    1995-01-01

    我们都知道,现在常常提及的巴赫(BACH),是指历史上最重要的音乐家之一约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫(24),而两三百年之前,人们熟知的巴赫却是指他的几个儿子——“伦敦巴赫”约翰·克里斯蒂安·巴赫(50)、“柏林巴赫”卡尔·菲利普·埃马努埃尔(46)以及“比克堡巴赫”约翰·克里斯托夫·弗里德里希(49)等,那时,这几个才华横溢的儿子要比他们的老子出名

  12. Pärt, Arvo: "Summa". Collage sur BACH. Fratres / Patric Wiklacz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wiklacz, Patric

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Summa". Collage sur BACH. Fratres. Cantus in Memoriam Benjamin Britten. Summa. Festina Lente. Tabula rasa. Tapiola Sinfonietta / Jean-Jacques Kantorow". BIS-CD-834. 62:30 DDD

  13. The Performance of Bach: Study of Rhythmic Timing by Skilled Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes 15 performances of "Bach's Suite Number 3 for Violoncello solo, Bourree Number 1" and determines what patterns of rhythmic variation (rubato) were used by soloists. Indicates that the soloists demonstrated four identifiable and similar trends in the performances. (CMK)

  14. BACH1 Promotes Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma through Antagonizing the Function of p53

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Er; Jin, Xin; Wu, Weining; Yu, Tianfu; Zhou, Xu; Zhi, Tongle; Shi, Zhumei; Zhang, Junxia; Liu, Ning; You, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of drug resistance is a persistent clinical problem limiting the successful treatment of glioblastoma (GBM). However, the molecular mechanisms by which initially chemoresponsive tumors develop therapeutic resistance remain poorly understood. In this study, we report that BACH1, a heme-binding protein that participates in transcriptional repression or activation, was significantly upregulated in glioblastoma tissues. Overexpression of BACH1 in GBM cells conferred resistance to temozolomide, whereas its inhibition markedly sensitized resistant cells to temozolomide in vitro and in vivo. Further investigation revealed that BACH1 activation significantly enhanced the expression of MGMT, and depletion of p53 disrupted the effects of BACH1 on MGMT and temozolomide resistance. P53 sequesters SP1 to prevent its binding to the MGMT promoter region and thus inhibits MGMT expression. Moreover, BACH1 overexpression impaired the association between p53 and SP1 via competitive binding p53, and antagonized the impact of p53 on MGMT expression. Finally, we found that BACH1 low expression correlated with better prognosis in GBM patients undergoing temozolomide therapy, especially in patients with wild-type TP53. Collectively, our findings identify a potential mechanism by which wild-type TP53 GBM cells develop resistance to temozolomide and suggest that targeting this pathway may be beneficial for overcoming resistance. PMID:28000777

  15. Bach2 represses plasma cell gene regulatory network in B cells to promote antibody class switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Akihiko; Ochiai, Kyoko; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Calame, Kathryn L; Ikebe, Dai; Tashiro, Satoshi; Igarashi, Kazuhiko

    2010-12-01

    Two transcription factors, Pax5 and Blimp-1, form a gene regulatory network (GRN) with a double-negative loop, which defines either B-cell (Pax5 high) or plasma cell (Blimp-1 high) status as a binary switch. However, it is unclear how this B-cell GRN registers class switch DNA recombination (CSR), an event that takes place before the terminal differentiation to plasma cells. In the absence of Bach2 encoding a transcription factor required for CSR, mouse splenic B cells more frequently and rapidly expressed Blimp-1 and differentiated to IgM plasma cells as compared with wild-type cells. Genetic loss of Blimp-1 in Bach2(-/-) B cells was sufficient to restore CSR. These data with mathematical modelling of the GRN indicate that Bach2 achieves a time delay in Blimp-1 induction, which inhibits plasma cell differentiation and promotes CSR (Delay-Driven Diversity model for CSR). Reduction in mature B-cell numbers in Bach2(-/-) mice was not rescued by Blimp-1 ablation, indicating that Bach2 regulates B-cell differentiation and function through Blimp-1-dependent and -independent GRNs.

  16. BACH1, the master regulator gene: A novel candidate target for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davudian, Sadaf; Mansoori, Behzad; Shajari, Neda; Mohammadi, Ali; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-08-15

    BACH1 (BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 1) is a transcriptional factor and a member of cap 'n' collar (CNC) and basic region leucine zipper factor family. In contrast to other bZIP family members, BACH1 appeared as a comparatively specific transcription factor. It acts as transcription regulator and is recognized as a recently hypoxia regulator and functions as an inducible repressor for the HO-1 gene in many human cell types in response to stress oxidative. In regard to studies lately, although, BACH1 has been related to the regulation of oxidative stress and heme oxidation, it has never been linked to invasion and metastasis. Recent studies have showed that BACH1 is involved in bone metastasis of breast cancer by up-regulating vital metastatic genes like CXCR4 and MMP1. This newly discovered aspect of BACH1 gene provides new insight into cancer progression study and stands on its master regulator role in metastasis process, raising the possibility of considering it as a potential target for cancer therapy.

  17. Effects of listening to Mozart and Bach on the performance of a mathematical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgett, D J; Cuevas, J

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the effect of listening to Mozart and Bach on the immediate performance of a 10-min. mathematical test. The study consisted of 61 undergraduate participants. Participants were randomly assigned to a control group, a Mozart group, or a Bach group. Participants were then administered a mathematics pretest, listened to a selection of music for 10 min., and were then administered a mathematics posttest. The test was constructed to be similar to items taken from the University Mathematics Placement Examination. Analysis indicated no significant effect on the immediate mathematics test when participants listened to 10 min. of either Mozart or Bach. These findings suggest caution in measuring differences in various cognitive tasks as indicating increases in intelligence scores.

  18. Two-dimensional modeling of the back amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction (BACH) photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R.; Chutinan, Alongkarn; Gougam, Adel B.; Kherani, Nazir P.; Zukotynski, Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Back Amorphous-Crystalline Silicon Heterojunction (BACH)1 solar cell can be fabricated using low temperature processes while integrating high efficiency features of heterojunction silicon solar cells and back-contact homojunction solar cells. This article presents a two-dimensional modeling study of the BACH cell concept. A parametric study of the BACH cell has been carried out using Sentaurus after benchmarking the software. A detailed model describing the optical generation is defined. Solar cell efficiency of 24.4% is obtained for AM 1.5 global spectrum with VOC of greater than 720 mV and JSC exceeding 40 mA/cm2, considering realistic surface passivation quality and other dominant recombination processes.

  19. Bach1 siRNA attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis by modulating oxidative stress in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zheng, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an essential role in inflammation and fibrosis. Bach1 is an important transcriptional repressor that acts by modulating oxidative stress and represents a potential target in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis (PF). In this study, we knocked down Bach1 using adenovirus-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNA) to determine whether the use of Bach1 siRNA is an effective therapeutic strategy in mice with bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF. Mouse lung fibroblasts (MLFs) were incubated with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 (5 ng/ml) and subsequently infected with recombined adenovirus-like Bach1 siRNA1 and Bach1 siRNA2, while an empty adenovirus vector was used as the negative control. The selected Bach1 siRNA with higher interference efficiency was used for the animal experiments. A mouse model of BLM-induced PF was established, and Bach1 siRNA (1×109 PFU) was administered to the mice via the tail vein. The results revealed that the Bach1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly downregulated by Bach1 siRNA. Furthermore, the MLFs infected with Bach1 siRNA exhibited increased mRNA and protein expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 and glutathione peroxidase 1, but decreased levels of TGF-β1 and interleukin-6 in the cell supernatants compared with the cells exposed to TGF-β1 alone. Bach1 knockdown by siRNA also enhanced the expression of antioxidant factors, but suppressed that of fibrosis-related cytokines in mice compared with the BLM group. Finally, the inflammatory infiltration of alveolar and interstitial cells and the destruction of lung structure were significantly attenuated in the mide administered Bach1 siRNA compared with those in the BLM group. On the whole, our findings demonstrate that Bach1 siRNA exerts protective effects against BLM-induced PF in mice. Our data may provide the basis for the development of novel targeted therapeutic strategies for PF. PMID:27959382

  20. Effect of Instruction in Appropriate Rubato Usage on Performances of Mozart and Bach: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how instruction in the use of rhythmic nuances influences subsequent timings of a musical performance. Volunteer participants were asked to listen to and alter a performance of an excerpt from Mozart's "Concerto for Horn and Orchestra No. 2" and Bach's "Suite Number 3 for Violoncello solo, Bourree…

  1. Fra Bach til Beatles på tre måneder!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Anders

    2006-01-01

    Fra Bach til Beatles på tre måneder! Didaktiske overvejelser og erfaringer på baggrund af nyt et-semesters oversigtskursus Anders Bonde Fra og med september 2005 har man på musikuddannelsen ved Aalborg Universitet, som led i implementeringen af en ny tofaglig bachelorstruktur, udviklet et nyt...

  2. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... and technological competences, which helps to anchor the owner within the genealogical community....

  3. Litanei und Ostinato in Bachs Passacaglia c-moll BWV 582

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnorr, Klemens

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of Bachs Passacaglia c-minor is based on the bass of Trio en Passacaille, a Christe-eleison-verset in the Messe du Deuziesme ton by André Raison. Bach transposes to c-minor and doubles the length of the theme, but is using the original form in four measures again for the following fugue. According to the contemporary alternatim praxis Raison's verset is the middle, central section of the nine-part Kyrie-cycle, the first part of the roman Ordinarium Missae, which is based on old litany-like acclamations and can be defined as a Litany too. May be that Bach's choosing an ostinato-form reflects the repetitive elements of a Litany and that the 33 entrances of the Passacaglia theme are related to the age of Christ.

    [de] Das Thema von Bachs Passacaglia c-moll beruht auf dem Bass eines Trio en Passacaille, der Christe-eleison- Versette aus der Messe du Deuziesme ton von André Raison. Bach transponiert ihn nach c-moll und verdoppelt die Länge des Themas für die Passacaglia auf acht Takte, legt aber der anschließenden Fuge wieder die urspriingliche viertaktige Version zugrunde. Entsprechend der zeitgenössischen Alternatimpraxis bildet Raisons Versette den mittleren, zentralen Teil des neunteiligen Kyriezyklus, der als erster Teil des Messordinariums auf frühe litaneiartige Akklamationen zurückgeht und seinerseits als Litanei gelten kann. Es scheint, als widerspiegle die Komposition eines Ostinato das repetitive Element von Litaneien und als beziehe sich das 33fache Erscheinen des Themas in der Passacaglia auf das Lebensalter Christi.

  4. Problemstillingar rundt framføring av transkribert musikk - Ei analyse av Bach/Busoni: Chaconne i d-moll

    OpenAIRE

    Flem, Kato Nogva

    2014-01-01

    Ei samanlikning og analyse av Busoni sin transkripsjon av Bach sin Chaconne frå partita nr. 2 for solofiolin. Partita for Violin No. 2 was written by Johann Sebastian Bach during 1717-1723 and consists of five movements; Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue and Chaconne. The chaconne is longer than the rest of the piece combined, and is frequently played separately. Yehudi Menuhin calls the Chaconne "the greatest structure for solo violin that exists." (Menuhin, 1997, p. 236) Violinist...

  5. Pärt: Collage sur B-A-C-H für Kammerorschester / Hans-Christian Dadelsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dadelsen, Hans-Christian

    1993-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Collage sur B-A-C-H für Kammerorschester, Summa (1991) für Streichorchester, Fratres, Sinfonie Nr. 2, Festina lente, Wenn Bach Bienen gezüchtet hätte, Credo für Klavier, Chor und Orchester. Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus, Neeme Järvi". Chandos/Koch CD 9134 (WD: 63'02")

  6. The BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) target genes are involved in the oxidative stress response and in control of the cell cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Schmidt, Dominic; Manke, Thomas; Piccini, Ilaria; Sultan, Marc; Borodina, Tatiana; Balzereit, Daniela; Wruck, Wasco; Soldatov, Alexey; Vingron, Martin; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure

    2011-07-01

    The regulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals and metabolic imbalances is a key step in maintaining cellular homeostasis. BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is a heme-binding transcription factor repressing the transcription from a subset of MAF recognition elements at low intracellular heme levels. Upon heme binding, BACH1 is released from the MAF recognition elements, resulting in increased expression of antioxidant response genes. To systematically address the gene regulatory networks involving BACH1, we combined chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis of BACH1 target genes in HEK 293 cells with knockdown of BACH1 using three independent types of small interfering RNAs followed by transcriptome profiling using microarrays. The 59 BACH1 target genes identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing were found highly enriched in genes showing expression changes after BACH1 knockdown, demonstrating the impact of BACH1 repression on transcription. In addition to known and new BACH1 targets involved in heme degradation (HMOX1, FTL, FTH1, ME1, and SLC48A1) and redox regulation (GCLC, GCLM, and SLC7A11), we also discovered BACH1 target genes affecting cell cycle and apoptosis pathways (ITPR2, CALM1, SQSTM1, TFE3, EWSR1, CDK6, BCL2L11, and MAFG) as well as subcellular transport processes (CLSTN1, PSAP, MAPT, and vault RNA). The newly identified impact of BACH1 on genes involved in neurodegenerative processes and proliferation provides an interesting basis for future dissection of BACH1-mediated gene repression in neurodegeneration and virus-induced cancerogenesis.

  7. Official Zhang Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Tucked away at the highest elevation of any city in the world, Lhasa is filled with flowers bathed in warm sunlight. Whether in Barkor Street or in snaking alleys, one finds flowers in full bloom. They include the famous Gal-sang flower, azaleas, to be found in the mountains, Rho-diola which is used as a medicinal herb, and a kind of flower known as High Commissioner Zhang.

  8. "BACH"与十二音序列技术的发端%"BACH" and the Twelve-Note Series Technique ("BACH" yu 12 yin xulie jishu de faduan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓生

    2008-01-01

    一书是的提炼、总结与衍生.是其中第四章,以大量事实证明"BACH"在巴赫音乐中作为通向十二音序列技术的一个有效突破口,从巴赫音乐中总结提炼出"平面呈现型"、"纵向切割型"、"分段对应型"、"连续减七型"与"音数递增型"等5种在十分狭窄的有限时值区域内集中出现全部十二个音的处理方法;有力证明了巴赫音乐对十二音序列技术所起的无可辩驳的发端作用.

  9. Corpos em tensão: feminino, masculino e barroco no espetáculo Bach

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Tereza Virginia de

    2003-01-01

    Em 1996, a Companhia de Dança Corpo de Belo Horizonte apresentou o espetáculo Bach. A música, a coreografia e os elementos visuais como cenário e figurino se combinam de forma a revisitar a estética barroca. Neste contexto, os corpos dos bailarinos exercem função central ao inscrever estados de tensão comuns ao barroco, principalmente na forma como performatizam a relação entre os gêneros.

  10. Corpos em tensão: feminino, masculino e barroco no espetáculo Bach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Tereza Virginia de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Em 1996, a Companhia de Dança Corpo de Belo Horizonte apresentou o espetáculo Bach. A música, a coreografia e os elementos visuais como cenário e figurino se combinam de forma a revisitar a estética barroca. Neste contexto, os corpos dos bailarinos exercem função central ao inscrever estados de tensão comuns ao barroco, principalmente na forma como performatizam a relação entre os gêneros.

  11. J. S. Bach: Técnica de composición como explicatio textus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Valle, José V.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available During the XVII to XVIII centuries, musical theorists, especially in Protestant circles compiled, classified and published diverse constructive procedures (figures used by renaissance composers and their immediate precursors in order to express sub specie musicae the meaning of texts. In this way, composition techniques became "idiomatical". J. S. Bach's contribution in this field has been investigated and acknowledged by musicologists throughout history. For some time now, evangelical theology has been taking an interest in that particular aspect of Bach's music, as it is obvious that in order to find an explanation for texts both devout and biblical it is often useful to analyse artistic expressions of the said texts, given that, going down that path theology will learn to understand and listen to them in a new light. That is where music, more so than other art forms, acquires special importance.Durante los siglos XVII-XVIII, los teóricos de música, especialmente en ambientes protestantes, recogen, sistematizan y dan a conocer diversos procedimientos constructivos (figuras usados por los compositores renacentistas e inmediatamente posteriores para expresar sub specie musicae el contenido del texto. De este modo, la técnica de composición musical se va "idiomatizando". La aportación de J. S. Bach, en este sentido, ha sido estudiada y reconocida por la musicología histórica. Hace un tiempo, también la teología evangélica ha comenzado a interesarse en este aspecto de la música de Bach, pues parece claro, que la explicación de los textos bíblicos o devocionales puede tener éxito por medio del trabajo artístico sobre dichos textos, ya que, por este camino, la teología aprende a oírlos y entenderlos de un modo nuevo. Es aquí donde la música, mucho más que el resto de las artes, adquiere una especial importancia.

  12. Bach: Máxima expresión de genes musicales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    El padre de la música moderna, Juan Sebastián Bach, inauguró el milenio con explosiones armoniosas en todo el planeta, al conmemorarse 250 años de la finalización de su ciclo vital.

    Como ya lo hemos indicado, la presidencia de la Academia ha querido intercalar las sesiones ordinarias con otras de tipo cultural y aprovechó este importante aniversario para hacer su contribución, al igual que lo hicieron otras importantes instituciones del país.

    Por esta razón, el académico Roso Alfredo Cala Hederich nos obsequió con una agradable velada de antología, en la cual combinó la audición de trozos musicales que en su sentir representan lo mejor de la música del genio alemán (en ocasiones sirviendo de “melopea” o música de fondo para su presentación oral, con extraordinarios videos de paisajes y edificios por donde transcurrió la vida de uno de los tres más grandes compositores mundiales, junto con Beethoven y Mozart posteriormente.

    Bach fue la máxima expresión musical de una familia de muchos miembros cuyo oficio artesanal fue tocar, enseñar, crear y perfeccionar la música, que fue exitosa “in crescendo” a partir del primer Bach, llegó a su clímax con J.Sebastián y fue paulatinamente decayendo hasta llegar a la buena calidad, mas no extraordinaria. Bach, consciente de la importancia de su familia en ese arte (el que además representaba el “modus vivendi” de todos ellos, escribió una crónica de 53 familiares, todos de sexo masculino, con información sobre su actividad musical, acompañada de un árbol genealógico que infortunadamente se extravió...

  13. BACHES - a compact \\'echelle spectrograph for radial velocity surveys with small telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kozłowski, S K; Ratajczak, M; Sybilski, P; Pawłaszek, R K; Hełminiak, K G

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a pre-production BACHES \\'{e}chelle spectrograph in terms of its usefulness for radial velocity surveys of binary stars with small telescopes in a remote and autonomous. We use the Solaris-4 observatory located in Casleo, Argentina, that is part of a global network of autonomous observatories as the test-bed for the instrument. The setup is designed in such a way that spectroscopy and photometry can be carried out using the same telescope without the need to mechanically modify the imaging train. We observe single spectroscopic standard stars as well as binary stars up to 9.75 mag. We present results of mechanical tests of the instruments and spectroscopic observations carried out between Nov 26th and Dec 8th 2013. We conclude that BACHES is a very compact and capable spectrograph well suited for remote and autonomous operation. Coupled to a 0.5-m telescope it is capable of obtaining spectra of 10 mag targets with a SNR of 20 for 30-minute exposures. This is a very good result considering the pric...

  14. A 1235711 Petalled Flower

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-01

    This article contains very simple mathematics and a lot ofcreativity. Here, we will sketch a 3-dimensional flower-likestructure, not using complicated equations but geometric ideasinstead. The speciality of 1235711 will be mentioned. At firstwe will study a general situation in 3-dimensional space $\\mathbb{R}^{3}$ and then we will take up the flower as an example of the generalcase.

  15. 论巴赫音乐的多重风格特征%Research on Multiple Styles of Bach's Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴巧云; 姬红兵

    2014-01-01

    文章以西方音乐史上承前启后的复调音乐大师约·塞·巴赫及其音乐创作风格为研究内容,论述巴赫在继承巴洛克时期复调音乐、开启主调和声风格乃至近现代音乐思维的音乐创作中所形成的多重风格特征。从历史的视角提供了认识巴赫及其音乐风格较为广泛的文献背景与史料知识,为研究巴赫的音乐文献,把握其创作风格,提供理论依据。%This paper,based on the creating style of the polyphony master Johann Sebastian Bach in western music history, discussed in detail the multiple styles of Bach when he secceeded polyphony of Baroque time and started homophony harmony and modern musical thoughts. This paper provided background information and knowledge for Bach and his musical style and theoretical basis for studying Bach's works and mastering his creating style.

  16. "Leaders," "Followers" and Collective Group Support in Learning "Art Music" in an Amateur Composer-Oriented Bach Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how amateur choral singers experience collective group support as a method of learning "art music" choral work. Findings are derived from a grounded-theory based, socio-musical case study of an amateur "art music" Bach Choir, in the process of rehearsing and performing the Mass in B…

  17. Effect of Instruction in Appropriate Rubato Usage on the Onset Timings of Musicians in Performances of Bach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effect of instruction in the use of specific rhythmic nuances on the timings of a musical performance. Forty volunteer upper-division and graduate students performed Johann Sebastian Bach's Suite no. 3 for Violoncello solo, Bouree no. 1, using a computer software program. Discusses the results. (CMK)

  18. Muusikamaailm : Bachi orel Leipzigis valmis. XX sajandi ooperid laval. Huddersfieldi festivalil. "Liszt ja Bach" Weimaris / Priit Kuusk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuusk, Priit, 1938-

    2000-01-01

    Lepzigi Thomaskirches taastati Bachi-aegne barokkorel. Flandria Ooperis, Hamburgi Riigiooperis ja Brüsseli Thétre de la Monnaie's lavastuvatest XX saj. heliloojate ooperitest. 16.-26. nov. toimuvast Huddersfieldi kaasaegse muusika festivalist Inglismaal. Festivalist "Liszt ja Bach" Weimaris

  19. Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane (Lamiaceae), a new species from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejima, Akiko; Tagane, Shuichiro; Van, Ngoc Nguyen; Duy, Chinh Nguyen; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2016-01-01

    A new species, Callicarpa bachmaensis Soejima & Tagane, sp. nov., is described and illustrated from Bach Ma National Park in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. This species has a characteristic liana habit, white corolla, and narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, entire, occasionally subequal leaves, by which it is clearly distinguished from the other previously known species of this genus.

  20. Numerical analysis of the flow around the Bach-type Savonius wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, K.; Sobczak, K.

    2014-08-01

    The performance of the Bach-type Savonius wind turbine with a constant cross-section is examined by means of quasi 2D and 3D flow predictions obtained from ANSYS CFX. Simulations were performed in a way allowing for a comparison with the wind tunnel data presented by Kamoji et al. The comparison with the experiment has revealed that 2D solutions give much higher deviation from the reference data than the 3D ones, which guarantees a good solution quality. It can be stated that even simplified (lack of laminar-turbulence transition modelling and a coarser mesh) 3D simulations can yield more accurate results than complex 2D solutions for turbines with a low aspect ratio. The paper also presents a systematic analysis of the most characteristic flow structures which are identified in the rotor.

  1. On geometry of deformed black holes: II. Schwarzschild hole surrounded by a Bach-Weyl ring

    CERN Document Server

    Basovník, M

    2016-01-01

    We continue to study the response of black-hole space-times on the presence of additional strong sources of gravity. Restricting ourselves to static and axially symmetric (electro-)vacuum exact solutions of Einstein's equations, we first considered the Majumdar--Papapetrou solution for a binary of extreme black holes in a previous paper, while here we deal with a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a concentric thin ring described by the Bach--Weyl solution. The geometry is again revealed on the simplest invariants determined by the metric (lapse function) and its gradient (gravitational acceleration), and by curvature (Kretschmann scalar). Extending the metric inside the black hole along null geodesics tangent to the horizon, we mainly focus on the black-hole interior (specifically, on its sections at constant Killing time) where the quantities behave in a way indicating a surprisingly strong influence of the external source. Being already distinct on the level of potential and acceleration, this is still...

  2. Preparatory investigations for a public dialogue on flash flood risk in the Mehlemer Bach catchment, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Elena; Turley, Michael; Becht, Michael; Heckmann, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    On July 3rd, 2010, an extreme precipitation event occurred in the municipality of Wachtberg at the southern urban fringe of the Federal City of Bonn. The 30-min intensity of the torrential rain was estimated to represent a 1000 year event according to the KOSTRA dataset (German Meteorological Service, DWD). Rapid overland flow and the exceedance of the design values of the sewerage system caused a flash flood in the Mehlemer Bach catchment. Roughly 400 buildings were affected in its lower, urbanized part, and it took over two weeks to clear the damage. Similar flash flood events have been recorded in the same catchment regularly since the year 1693, three times in the last 80 years alone. The fact that, in case of the 2010 event, the official weather warning was released almost simultaneously to the beginning of the downpour highlights the urgent need for preparative action in the longer term. Flash flood risk mitigation relies, among others, on risk awareness and preparedness of residents. One aim of this study is to analyse the current risk communication in the drainage area of Mehlemer Bach through questionnaires and expert interviews, which will provide a good basis for an open dialogue between residents and the authorities. There is an urgent need for practical and accessible advice, and it must be ensured that the resources and capabilities of the individuals involved are taken into consideration. In addition, we compare a hazard map of the area to mental maps drawn by the local population in order to assess their risk perception.

  3. Hibiscus and Wild Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Woodcut artist Zheng Shuang convinces the audience through her display of poetic emotion Benefiting from training in watercoior paintings early in life, strict literary sketch training as well, as 10 years study at the Central Academy of Fine Aris, Zheng has mare than 30 years teaching experience at the Ouangzhou Academy of Fine Aris "I"m a roadside grass, a wild flower," Zheng Shuang describes herself She said she often talks to nature-the mountains, the trees, the flowers and the

  4. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  5. The Myths behind Flower Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杰

    2014-01-01

    The Greek term for flower is Chloris. It is derived from the name of the Chloris, the goddess of vegetation, in Greek mythology, reasonably so, if we consider the great number of mythological tales linked to flowers of the Greek flowers. The use of flowers was widespread in Greece from time immemorial, since flowers are so important to us from the moment we are born. Flowers play an important role in mythology. As they morph from bud to bloom to faded and wilted petals, they assume various meanings linked to youth, life and death. They are associated with goddesses and legends, and are often attributed with certain powers and symbolism.

  6. Activation of the Nrf2 Pathway by Inorganic Arsenic in Human Hepatocytes and the Role of Transcriptional Repressor Bach1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have proved that the environmental toxicant, inorganic arsenic, activates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 pathway in many different cell types. This study tried to explore the hepatic Nrf2 pathway upon arsenic treatment comprehensively, since liver is one of the major target organs of arsenical toxicity. Our results showed that inorganic arsenic significantly induced Nrf2 protein and mRNA expression in Chang human hepatocytes. We also observed a dose-dependent increase of antioxidant response element- (ARE- luciferase activity. Both the mRNA and protein levels of NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 were all upregulated dramatically. On the other hand, entry and accumulation of Nrf2 protein in the nucleus, while exportting the transcriptional repressor BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1 from nucleus to cytoplasm, were also confirmed by western blot and immunofluorescence assay. Our results therefore confirmed the arsenic-induced Nrf2 pathway activation in hepatocytes and also suggested that the translocation of Bach1 was associated with the regulation of Nrf2 pathway by arsenic. Hepatic Nrf2 pathway plays indispensable roles for cellular defenses against arsenic hepatotoxicity, and the interplay of Bach1 and Nrf2 may be helpful to understand the self-defensive responses and the diverse biological effects of arsenicals.

  7. Daffodil flower delay senescence in cut Iris flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Sinz, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Visible symptoms of tepal senescence in cut Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers were delayed by placing one cut daffodil flower (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, cv. Carlton) in the same vase. Addition of mucilage, exuded by daffodil stems, to the vase water had the same effect as the flowering daf

  8. Orchid flowers: evolution and molecular development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe Elisabeth

    2002-01-01

    MADS-box genes, ABS model, Orchid flower evolution, Gene expression in orchid flowers, in situ PCR......MADS-box genes, ABS model, Orchid flower evolution, Gene expression in orchid flowers, in situ PCR...

  9. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  10. Selecting Landscape Plants: Flowering Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012

    2009-01-01

    This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.

  11. Disney explains Bach: a pedagogic unit on the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Pagannone

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article illustrates a pedagogic unit on music listening that is centered on the first movement of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto by Bach and is aimed at primary school pupils. The selected concert is of historical importance for the prominent role assumed by the harpsichord in comparison to the other two soloists (flute and violin. The didactic “bridge” that is useful to deal with this piece and carve out the cognitive contents ad hoc has been identified by Giorgio Pagannone in Walt Disney’s animated cartoon, Three Little Pigs (1933, based on a fairy tale of the same name.First, we present and analyse  the music piece and animated cartoon. Next, we provide a detailed and articulated description of the pedagogic unit, that was adopted by Silvia Cancedda in a primary school in Bologna (Italy and produced very good results such as the intuitive reading of selected score fragments. The appendix includes some of the works done by the pupils.

  12. El olimpismo como filosofía de vida. Thomas Bach, paradigma de la carrera dual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Pato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo pretende ensalzar la figura de Thomas Bach, Presidente del Comité Olímpico Inter- nacional, por sus méritos académicos, deportivos y profesionales para hacerle merecedor del Doctorado Honoris Causa por la Universidad Católica de Murcia. Comienza haciendo un recorrido por su vida académi- ca y deportiva desde su juventud hasta la actualidad. Resalta significativamente su figura como ejemplo de carrera dual, al haber combinado perfectamente su for- mación académica con un alto desempeño deportivo. Al mismo tiempo, descubre las características y vivencias personales que le han hecho llegar a su éxito personal y profesional, tanto en la empresa privada como en los organismos deportivos. Indagando en los principales documentos públicos de su candidatura a la presidencia del COI y en su programa de gobierno al frente de este organismo, descubrimos las claves del éxito profesional de este insigne personaje.

  13. Bach Is the Father of Harmony: Revealed by a 1/f Fluctuation Analysis across Musical Genres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Wu

    Full Text Available Harmony is a fundamental attribute of music. Close connections exist between music and mathematics since both pursue harmony and unity. In music, the consonance of notes played simultaneously partly determines our perception of harmony; associates with aesthetic responses; and influences the emotion expression. The consonance could be considered as a window to understand and analyze harmony. Here for the first time we used a 1/f fluctuation analysis to investigate whether the consonance fluctuation structure in music with a wide range of composers and genres followed the scale free pattern that has been found for pitch, melody, rhythm, human body movements, brain activity, natural images and geographical features. We then used a network graph approach to investigate which composers were the most influential both within and across genres. Our results showed that patterns of consonance in music did follow scale-free characteristics, suggesting that this feature is a universally evolved one in both music and the living world. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed that Bach's harmony patterns were having the most influence on those used by other composers, followed closely by Mozart.

  14. Aggregation dynamics along a salinity gradient in the Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Xavier; Torréton, Jean-Pascal; Bich-Thuy Trinh, Claire; Bouvier, Thierry; Van Thuoc, Chu; Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Ouillon, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Variations of the sticking properties of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) were investigated by studying the interactions between latex beads and TEP precursors collected along a salinity gradient in the Bach Dang estuary, North Vietnam. For each sampling station, a suspension of TEP and beads was prepared and the formation of mixed aggregates was monitored in the laboratory under controlled turbulence intensity. The number of beads attached to TEP per volume of TEP increased from 0.22 × 10 -3 ± 0.15 × 10 -3 μm -3 to 5.33 × 10 -3 ± 1.61 × 10 -3 μm -3, from low (28) salinities, respectively. The sudden increase in TEP sticking properties from salinity 10 to 15 suggests the occurrence of an "aggregation web" resulting from the stimulation of aggregation processes. For a given turbulence level, the formation of large aggregates should be enhanced seaward. The presence of a higher fraction of large aggregates seaward is supported by the increase of the slope of the particle size spectra measured in situ. The observed increase in TEP sticking properties toward high salinities may affect the vertical export pump in estuaries. This study suggests that the transition from a low to a high physico-chemical reactivity of TEP along estuaries may result in a succession from recycling for salinity 10.

  15. Bach Is the Father of Harmony: Revealed by a 1/f Fluctuation Analysis across Musical Genres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Kendrick, Keith M; Levitin, Daniel J; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong

    2015-01-01

    Harmony is a fundamental attribute of music. Close connections exist between music and mathematics since both pursue harmony and unity. In music, the consonance of notes played simultaneously partly determines our perception of harmony; associates with aesthetic responses; and influences the emotion expression. The consonance could be considered as a window to understand and analyze harmony. Here for the first time we used a 1/f fluctuation analysis to investigate whether the consonance fluctuation structure in music with a wide range of composers and genres followed the scale free pattern that has been found for pitch, melody, rhythm, human body movements, brain activity, natural images and geographical features. We then used a network graph approach to investigate which composers were the most influential both within and across genres. Our results showed that patterns of consonance in music did follow scale-free characteristics, suggesting that this feature is a universally evolved one in both music and the living world. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed that Bach's harmony patterns were having the most influence on those used by other composers, followed closely by Mozart.

  16. Geometry of deformed black holes. II. Schwarzschild hole surrounded by a Bach-Weyl ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basovník, M.; Semerák, O.

    2016-08-01

    We continue to study the response of black-hole space-times on the presence of additional strong sources of gravity. Restricting ourselves to static and axially symmetric (electro)vacuum exact solutions of Einstein's equations, we first considered the Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for a binary of extreme black holes in a previous paper, while here we deal with a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a concentric thin ring described by the Bach-Weyl solution. The geometry is again revealed on the simplest invariants determined by the metric (lapse function) and its gradient (gravitational acceleration), and by curvature (Kretschmann scalar). Extending the metric inside the black hole along null geodesics tangent to the horizon, we mainly focus on the black-hole interior (specifically, on its sections at constant Killing time) where the quantities behave in a way indicating a surprisingly strong influence of the external source. Being already distinct on the level of potential and acceleration, this is still more pronounced on the level of curvature: for a sufficiently massive and/or nearby (small) ring, the Kretschmann scalar even becomes negative in certain toroidal regions mostly touching the horizon from inside. Such regions have been interpreted as those where magnetic-type curvature dominates, but here we deal with space-times which do not involve rotation and the negative value is achieved due to the electric-type components of the Riemann/Weyl tensor. The Kretschmann scalar also shapes rather nontrivial landscapes outside the horizon.

  17. Optical band gap energy and ur bach tail of CdS:Pb2+ thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, M.; Juarez, H.; Pacio, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Instituto de Ciencias, Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Av. 14 Sur, Col. Jardines de San Manuel, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Gutierrez, R.; Chaltel, L.; Zamora, M.; Portillo, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales, Apdo. Postal 1067, 72001 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Mathew, X., E-mail: osporti@yahoo.mx [UNAM, Instituto de Energias Renovables, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2016-11-01

    Pb S-doped CdS nano materials were successfully synthesized using chemical bath. Transmittance measurements were used to estimate the optical band gap energy. Tailing in the band gap was observed and found to obey Ur bach rule. The diffraction X-ray show that the size of crystallites is in the ∼33 nm to 12 nm range. The peaks belonging to primary phase are identified at 2θ = 26.5 degrees Celsius and 2θ = 26.00 degrees Celsius corresponding to CdS and Pb S respectively. Thus, a shift in maximum intensity peak from 2θ = 26.4 to 28.2 degrees Celsius is clear indication of possible transformation of cubic to hexagonal phase. Also peaks at 2θ = 13.57, 15.9 degrees Celsius correspond to lead perchlorate thiourea. The effects on films thickness and substrate doping on the band gap energy and the width on tail were investigated. Increasing doping give rise to a shift in optical absorption edge ∼0.4 eV. (Author)

  18. Chemical control of flowering time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    the transition to flowering as well as flower opening. Increased emphasis on research within this area has the potential to counteract the negative effects of global warming on flowering time, especially in perennial crop plants. Perennial crops have a requirement for winter chill, but winters become...... increasingly warm in temperate regions. This has dramatic effects on crop yield. Different strategies are therefore being developed to engineer flowering time to match local growing conditions. The majority of these efforts are within plant breeding, which benefits from a substantial amount of knowledge...... on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit...

  19. How flowers catch raindrops

    CERN Document Server

    Amador, Guillermo; Hu, David

    2011-01-01

    Several species of plants have raindrop-sized flowers that catch raindrops opportunistically in order to spread their 0.3-mm seeds distances of over 1 m. In the following fluid dynamics video, we show examples of these plants and some of the high speed videography used to visualize the splash dynamics responsible for raindrop-driven seed dispersal. Experiments were conducted on shape mimics of the plants' fruit bodies, fabricated using a 3D printer. Particular attention was paid to optimizing flower geometries and drop impact parameters to propel seeds the farthest distance. We find off-center impacts are the most effective for dispersing seeds. Such impacts amplify the raindrop's speed, encapsulate seeds within drops, and direct the seed trajectory at angles optimal for long-distance dispersal.

  20. Let the flowers grow…

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how…   A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...

  1. Flower consumption lures investment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiSesheng

    2003-01-01

    In the Netherlands the annual fresh flower consumption is 150 items per person, in France it is 80, in the US it is 30, in Japan the money involved amounts to US$11 billion, but in urban China, this is less than I0. Globally when per capita GDP in a country or region goes up to US$6,000, flower consumption will go up too. As per capita GDP in Shanghai isgoing from US$5,000 to US$7,500, the municipal government should include the construction of floral markets as part of its infrastructural development, just as the construction of urban forests, urban parks, urban greenery, and urban environmental investment. The fostering of local floral markets also require joint efforts from the society at large in terms of finance.

  2. Butterfly Longing for Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    "BUTTERFLY Longs for Flowers" (Die Lian Hua)was the name of a melody famous in the TangDynasty (618-907). It was later used as the nameof tunes to which poems were composed. As thename suggests, butteffies and flowers attract anddepend on each other; a natural occurrence andyet full of worldly beauty. The Yu couple havebeen researching customs and dance for a longtime, over the course of which they have collectedcountless materials that have allowed theaficionados to appreciate and conclude on theiruse. Based on their findings they create folkdances and perform them on stage. Their love,pursuit and understanding of the art displays timeand again the beauty of a butterfly longing forflowers.

  3. Seasonal variability of cohesive sediment aggregation in the Bach Dang-Cam Estuary, Haiphong (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Ouillon, Sylvain; Vinh, Vu Duy; Arfi, Robert; Panché, Jean-Yves; Mari, Xavier; Van Thuoc, Chu; Torréton, Jean-Pascal

    2012-04-01

    In the Bach Dang-Cam Estuary, northern Vietnam, mechanisms governing cohesive sediment aggregation were investigated in situ in 2008-2009. As part of the Red River delta, this estuary exhibits a marked contrast in hydrological conditions between the monsoon and dry seasons. The impact on flocculation processes was assessed by means of surveys of water discharge, suspended particulate matter concentration and floc size distributions (FSDs) conducted during a tidal cycle at three selected sites along the estuary. A method was developed for calculating the relative volume concentration for the modes of various size classes from FSDs provided by the LISST 100X (Sequoia Scientific Inc.). It was found that all FSDs comprised four modes identified as particles/flocculi, fine and coarse microflocs, and macroflocs. Under the influence of the instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy, their proportions varied but without significant modification of their median diameters. In particular, when the turbulence level corresponded to a Kolmogorov microscale of less than ˜235 μm, a major breakup of flocs resulted in the formation of particles/flocculi and fine microflocs. Fluctuations in turbulence level were governed by seasonal variations in freshwater discharge and by the tidal cycle. During the wet season, strong freshwater input induced a high turbulent energy level that tended to generate sediment transfer from the coarser size classes (macroflocs, coarse microflocs) to finer ones (particles/flocculi and fine microflocs), and to promote a transport of sediment seawards. During the dry season, the influence of tides predominated. The turbulent energy level was then only episodically sufficiently high to generate transfer of sediment between floc size classes. At low turbulent energy, modifications in the proportions of floc size classes were due to differential settling. Tidal pumping produced a net upstream transport of sediment. Associated with the settling of sediment

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of CD4+ T Cells in Coeliac Disease Reveals Imprint of BACH2 and IFNγ Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma M Quinn

    Full Text Available Genetic studies have to date identified 43 genome wide significant coeliac disease susceptibility (CD loci comprising over 70 candidate genes. However, how altered regulation of such disease associated genes contributes to CD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Recently there has been considerable emphasis on characterising cell type specific and stimulus dependent genetic variants. Therefore in this study we used RNA sequencing to profile over 70 transcriptomes of CD4+ T cells, a cell type crucial for CD pathogenesis, in both stimulated and resting samples from individuals with CD and unaffected controls. We identified extensive transcriptional changes across all conditions, with the previously established CD gene IFNy the most strongly up-regulated gene (log2 fold change 4.6; P(adjusted = 2.40x10(-11 in CD4+ T cells from CD patients compared to controls. We show a significant correlation of differentially expressed genes with genetic studies of the disease to date (P(adjusted = 0.002, and 21 CD candidate susceptibility genes are differentially expressed under one or more of the conditions used in this study. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of immune related processes. Co-expression network analysis identified several modules of coordinately expressed CD genes. Two modules were particularly highly enriched for differentially expressed genes (P<2.2x10(-16 and highlighted IFNy and the genetically associated transcription factor BACH2 which showed significantly reduced expression in coeliac samples (log2FC -1.75; P(adjusted = 3.6x10(-3 as key regulatory genes in CD. Genes regulated by BACH2 were very significantly over-represented among our differentially expressed genes (P<2.2x10(-16 indicating that reduced expression of this master regulator of T cell differentiation promotes a pro-inflammatory response and strongly corroborates genetic evidence that BACH2 plays an important role in CD pathogenesis.

  5. Ein Fließgewässer im urbanen Umfeld. Analyse des ökologischen Zustandes des unteren Belmer Baches (Osnabrück, Niedersachsen) anhand des Makrozoobenthos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Peter; Trapp, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The organic pollution of the lower Belmer Bach can be attributed to its agriculturally intensively used drainage area. Already before entering the urbanized region, the macrozoobenthos is poor in species due to saprobic pollution and the structural poverty of the waterbed and the banks.When compa......The organic pollution of the lower Belmer Bach can be attributed to its agriculturally intensively used drainage area. Already before entering the urbanized region, the macrozoobenthos is poor in species due to saprobic pollution and the structural poverty of the waterbed and the banks...

  6. Apontamentos retórico-musicais no Largo do Concerto n.5, BWV 1056, de Johann Sebastian Bach Musical-rethorical notes on J. S. Bach's Largo from Concerto n.5, BWV 1056

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Alberto Lanzoni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a análise retórica do Largo do Concerto n.5 em Fá menor, BWV 1056 de Johann Sebastian Bach. No primeiro momento, é apresentada uma revisão dos princípios retóricos e de como eles se transportam à música. A seguir, é proposta uma análise do movimento mencionado, partindo da discussão já exposta. O exercício analítico exemplifica como os princípios retóricos estão intimamente relacionados à música do período barroco.The present article is based upon the rhetorical analysis from Johann Sebastian Bach's Largo of Concert n. 5 F minor, BWV 1056. First, a review of the rhetorical principles and how they convey themselves to the music is introduced. Next, it is presented an analysis of the mentioned movement from the discussion already exposed. The analytical exercise exemplifies how the rhetorical principles are related to the Baroque period music.

  7. Occupational allergy caused by flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; Gerth van Wijk, R; de Groot, H

    1998-02-01

    We describe 14 consecutive patients with complaints due to the handling of flowers. The symptoms varied from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma to urticaria. Most patients had professions in the flower industry. Skin prick tests (SPT) were performed with home-made pollen extracts from 17 different flowers known to be the most commonly grown and sold in The Netherlands RAST against mugwort, chrysanthemum, and solidago was performed. The diagnosis of atopy against flowers was based on work-related symptoms due to the handling of flowers, positive SPT with flower extracts, and positive RAST. The concordance between SPT and case history was 74%, and that between SPT and RAST was 77% Extensive cross-sensitization was seen to pollen of several members of the Compositae family (e.g., Matricaria, chrysanthemum, solidago) and to pollen of the Amaryllidaceae family (Alstroemeria and Narcissus). Homemade flower extracts can be used to confirm IgE-mediated flower allergy. Mugwort can be used as a screening test for possible flower allergy. For most patients, the allergy led to a change of profession.

  8. The Staunch Beauty of Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    MANY women like to collect dried flowers. Unable to bear the sight of beautiful blossoms withering, they press them between the leaves of books. As time passes, the original fresh flowers turn into thin pale-colored specimens, but a careful viewer will notice that they have taken on a new grace—just like Ren Jie herself; though no longer young, she has managed to create beauty out of her later life. Ren Jie’s love of flowers dates back to her childhood, when she started to collect flower specimens. As she grew up, she learned how to paint; later, she

  9. Flower Development and Photoperiodic Control of Flowering in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Chao; QU Li-jun; GAO Yong-ming; SHI Ying-yao

    2013-01-01

    Floral transition,which is referred to as a plant's transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage,is considered to be a critical developmental switch in higher plants,for a timely flowering is a major factor of reproductive success.Endogenous and environmental cues,such as photoperiod,light quality,plant hormones concentrations and temperature,provide information to the plants whether the environment is favorable for flowering.These cues promote,or prevent,flowering through a complex genetic network,mediated by a careful orchestration of temporal and spatial gene expression.One of such cues is photoperiod.Rice (Oryza sativa L.) serves as a powerful model species for the understanding of flowering in higher plants,including flower development and photoperiodic control of flowering.In this review,we overviewed and discussed the flower development and its model.We also overviewed the photoperiodic pathways in rice flowering control,and summarized the pathways at molecular level.

  10. A statistical physics view of pitch fluctuations in the classical music from Bach to Chopin: evidence for scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Wei, Jianrong; Zhang, Huishu; Xin, Jianhong; Huang, Jiping

    2013-01-01

    Because classical music has greatly affected our life and culture in its long history, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers to understand laws behind it. Based on statistical physics, here we use a different method to investigate classical music, namely, by analyzing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and autocorrelation functions of pitch fluctuations in compositions. We analyze 1,876 compositions of five representative classical music composers across 164 years from Bach, to Mozart, to Beethoven, to Mendelsohn, and to Chopin. We report that the biggest pitch fluctuations of a composer gradually increase as time evolves from Bach time to Mendelsohn/Chopin time. In particular, for the compositions of a composer, the positive and negative tails of a CDF of pitch fluctuations are distributed not only in power laws (with the scale-free property), but also in symmetry (namely, the probability of a treble following a bass and that of a bass following a treble are basically the same for each composer). The power-law exponent decreases as time elapses. Further, we also calculate the autocorrelation function of the pitch fluctuation. The autocorrelation function shows a power-law distribution for each composer. Especially, the power-law exponents vary with the composers, indicating their different levels of long-range correlation of notes. This work not only suggests a way to understand and develop music from a viewpoint of statistical physics, but also enriches the realm of traditional statistical physics by analyzing music.

  11. A statistical physics view of pitch fluctuations in the classical music from Bach to Chopin: evidence for scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liu

    Full Text Available Because classical music has greatly affected our life and culture in its long history, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers to understand laws behind it. Based on statistical physics, here we use a different method to investigate classical music, namely, by analyzing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and autocorrelation functions of pitch fluctuations in compositions. We analyze 1,876 compositions of five representative classical music composers across 164 years from Bach, to Mozart, to Beethoven, to Mendelsohn, and to Chopin. We report that the biggest pitch fluctuations of a composer gradually increase as time evolves from Bach time to Mendelsohn/Chopin time. In particular, for the compositions of a composer, the positive and negative tails of a CDF of pitch fluctuations are distributed not only in power laws (with the scale-free property, but also in symmetry (namely, the probability of a treble following a bass and that of a bass following a treble are basically the same for each composer. The power-law exponent decreases as time elapses. Further, we also calculate the autocorrelation function of the pitch fluctuation. The autocorrelation function shows a power-law distribution for each composer. Especially, the power-law exponents vary with the composers, indicating their different levels of long-range correlation of notes. This work not only suggests a way to understand and develop music from a viewpoint of statistical physics, but also enriches the realm of traditional statistical physics by analyzing music.

  12. Phytoplankton diversity and productivity in a highly turbid, tropical coastal system (Bach Dang Estuary, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle-Newall, E. J.; Chu, V. T.; Pringault, O.; Amouroux, D.; Arfi, R.; Bettarel, Y.; Bouvier, T.; Bouvier, C.; Got, P.; Nguyen, T. M. H.; Mari, X.; Navarro, P.; Duong, T. N.; Cao, T. T. T.; Pham, T. T.; Ouillon, S.; Torréton, J.-P.

    2011-01-01

    The factors controlling estuarine phytoplankton diversity and production are relatively well known in temperate systems. Less however is known about the factors affecting phytoplankton community distribution in tropical estuaries. This is surprising given the economic and ecological importance of these large, deltaic ecosystems, such as are found in South East Asia. Here we present the results from an investigation into the factors controlling phytoplankton distribution and phytoplankton-bacterial coupling in the Bach Dang Estuary, a sub-estuary of the Red River system, in Northern Vietnam. Phytoplankton diversity and primary and bacterial production, nutrients and metallic contaminants (mercury and organotin) were measured during two seasons: wet (July 2008) and dry (March 2009). Phytoplankton community composition differed between the two seasons with only a 2% similarity between July and March. The large spatial extent and complexity of defining the freshwater sources meant that simple mixing diagrams could not be used in this system. We therefore employed multivariate analyses to determine the factors influencing phytoplankton community structure. Salinity and suspended particulate matter were important factors in determining phytoplankton distribution, particularly during the wet season. We also show that phytoplankton community structure is probably influenced by the concentrations of mercury species (inorganic mercury and methyl mercury in both the particulate and dissolved phases) and of tri-, di, and mono-butyl tin species found in this system. Freshwater phytoplankton community composition was associated with dissolved methyl mercury and particulate inorganic mercury concentrations during the wet season, whereas, during the dry season, dissolved methyl mercury and particulate butyl tin species were important factors for the discrimination of the phytoplankton community structure. Phytoplankton-bacterioplankton coupling was also investigated during both

  13. Phytoplankton diversity and productivity in a highly turbid, tropical coastal system (Bach Dang Estuary, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Rochelle-Newall

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors controlling estuarine phytoplankton diversity and production are relatively well known in temperate systems. Less however is known about the factors affecting phytoplankton community distribution in tropical estuaries. This is surprising given the economic and ecological importance of these large, deltaic ecosystems, such as are found in South East Asia. Here we present the results from an investigation into the factors controlling phytoplankton distribution and phytoplankton-bacterial coupling in the Bach Dang Estuary, a sub-estuary of the Red River system, in Northern Vietnam. Phytoplankton diversity and primary and bacterial production, nutrients and metallic contaminants (mercury and organotin were measured during two seasons: wet (July 2008 and dry (March 2009. Phytoplankton community composition differed between the two seasons with only a 2% similarity between July and March. The large spatial extent and complexity of defining the freshwater sources meant that simple mixing diagrams could not be used in this system. We therefore employed multivariate analyses to determine the factors influencing phytoplankton community structure. Salinity and suspended particulate matter were important factors in determining phytoplankton distribution, particularly during the wet season. We also show that phytoplankton community structure is probably influenced by the concentrations of mercury species (inorganic mercury and methyl mercury in both the particulate and dissolved phases and of tri-, di, and mono-butyl tin species found in this system. Freshwater phytoplankton community composition was associated with dissolved methyl mercury and particulate inorganic mercury concentrations during the wet season, whereas, during the dry season, dissolved methyl mercury and particulate butyl tin species were important factors for the discrimination of the phytoplankton community structure. Phytoplankton-bacterioplankton coupling was also

  14. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  15. microRNA-142 is upregulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha and triggers apoptosis in human gingival epithelial cells by repressing BACH2 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Song, Zhongchen; Dong, Jiachen; Shu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) has been shown to cause apoptosis of gingival epithelial cells (GECs) in periodontitis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we showed that miR-142 expression was significantly elevated in human GECs after exposure to TNF-α. Such induction was in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Serum miR-142 levels were positively correlated with serum TNF-α levels in patients with chronic periodontitis (r = 0.314, P = 0.0152). Depletion of miR-142 was found to attenuate TNF-α-induced apoptosis, as determined by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activity assays. In contrast, overexpression of miR-142 significantly reduced viability and induced apoptosis in GECs. Basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 (BACH2) was identified to be a functional target of miR-142. Overexpression of miR-142 caused a 3-fold reduction of BACH2 protein in primary GECs. Overexpression of BACH2 significantly reversed miR-142- or TNF-α-induced apoptosis of GECs. Similar to the findings with miR-142 mimic, depletion of BACH2 significantly promoted apoptosis in GECs, which was accompanied by decreased expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and increased expression of Bax and Bim. Overall, miR-142 mediates TNF-α-induced apoptosis in gingival epithelial cells by targeting BACH2 and may represent a potential therapeutic target for periodontitis. PMID:28123644

  16. BACH: A Toolset for Bounded Reachability Analysis of Linear Hybrid Systems%BACH:线性混成系统有界可达性模型检验工具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜磊; 李游; 王林章; 李宣东

    2011-01-01

    混成自动机的模型检验问题非常困难,即使是其中相对简单的一个子类--线性混成自动机,它的可达性问题仍然是不可判定的.现有的相关工具大都使用多面体计算来判定线性混成自动机状态空间的可达集,复杂度高、效率低,无法解决实际应用规模的问题.描述了一个面向线性混成系统有界可达性模型检验工具--BACH(bounded reachability checker),该工具能够沿指定路径(组)对单个线性混成自动机、多个线性混成自动机的组合进行可达性检验,并且在此基础上结合路径遍历技术完成对所有路径的有界可达性检验.实验数据显示,BACH不仅在面向路径可达性检验方面性能优异,可以适用于足够长度的路径,而且在针对所有路径的有界可达性检验时,BACH可以解决的问题规模也远远超过同类工具,已接近工业界应用的要求.%The model-checking problem for hybrid systems is very difficult to resolve.Even for a relatively simple class of hybrid systems, the class of linear hybrid automata, the most common problem of reachability is unsolvable.Existing techniques for the reachability analysis of linear hybrid automata do not scale well to problem sizes of practical interest.Instead of developing a tool to perform a reachability checking of the complete state space of linear hybrid automata, a prototype toolset BACH (bounded reachability checker) is presented to perform path-oriented reachability checking and bounded reachability checking of the linear hybrid automata and the compositional linear hybrid systems, where the length of the path being checked can be made very large, and the size of the system can be made large enough to handle problems of practical interest.The experiment data shows that BACH has good performance and scalability and supports the fact that BACH can become a powerful assistant for design engineers in the reachability analysis of linear hybrid automata.

  17. Contemporary suspended sediment yield of a partly glaciated catchment, Riffler Bach (Tyrol, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Martin; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    Due to glacier retreat since the LIA (Little Ice Age) proglacial areas in high mountain landscapes are growing. These systems are characterized by a high geomorphological activity, especially in the fluvial subsystem. Despite the long tradition of geomorphological research in the European Alps there is a still a lack of understanding in the interactions between hydrology, sediment sources, sediments sinks and suspended sediment transport. As emphasized by ORWIN ET AL. (2010) those problems can be solved by gathering data in a higher frequency and/or in a higher spatial resolution or density - both leading to a big amount of data. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the outlet of the partly glaciated catchment of the Riffler Bach (Kaunertal valley, Tyrol). During the ablation seasons in 2012 and 2013 water stage was logged automatically every 15 minutes. In both seasons discharge was measured at different water levels to calculate a stage-discharge relation. Additionally, water samples were taken by an automatic water sampler. Within 16 sampling cycles with sampling frequencies ranging from 1 to 24 hours 389 water samples have been collected. The samples were filtered to calculate the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of each sample. Furthermore, the climate station Weißsee provided meteorological data at a 15 minute interval. Due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport in proglacial rivers it is impossible to compute a robust annual Q-SSC-relation. Hence, two other approaches were used to calculate the suspended sediment load (SSL) and the suspended sediment yield (SSY): A) Q-SSC-relations for every single sampling cycle (e.g. GEILHAUSEN ET AL. 2013) B) Q-SSC-relations based on classification of dominant runoff-generating processes (e.g. ORWIN AND SMART 2004). The first approach uses commonly operated analysis methods that are well understood. While the hydro-climatic approach is more feasible to explain discharge generation and to

  18. Florais de bach como terapia complementar no tratamento dos sintomas de DDAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Karla Oliveira Marques

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O artigo aborda os Florais de Bach como Terapia complementar no tratamento dos sintomas dodistúrbio de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (DDAH ou transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade(TDAH, um problema de saúde mental comum em crianças, caracterizado por distração, inquietação,impulsividade e transtornos de aprendizagem. Se o quadro persiste até a fase adulta, o portador tem sua vidaprofissional e pessoal afetada. A realidade do transtorno em crianças no Estado de São Paulo é preocupante, asecretaria Municipal da saúde (SMS do estado comprou nos primeiros meses de 2011 uma quantidade igual aquase o total adquirido no em 2010 de comprimidos de Ritalina (Cloridrato de Metilfenidato, estimulante dosistema nervoso central usado no tratamento do transtorno. Reportagens relatam que DDAH está entre asdoenças que mais renderá lucros para a indústria farmacêutica em 2012. Método: O trabalho realizado porpesquisas em internet e buscadores como LILAC´S, Scielo, Medline, e Pubmed sobre estudos quantitativos daeficácia da Terapia Floral no tratamento dos sintomas das crianças portadoras de DDAH. Incentivar a produçãocientíficacom aplicação de Terapia Floral no tratamento das crianças em escolas e Unidades básicas de saúde.Resultados: Verificou?se que a maioria das abordagens são descritas em sites de Terapeutas Holísticosepsicopedagogia e são enumerados os tipos de florais com suas funções no equilíbrio emocional. A terapia floralconfigura entre outras terapias tais como massagem, yoga, meditação e tai?chi?chuan. Foram encontradosraríssimos artigos e antigos do ano de 2007 a 2009 sobre padrão de cuidado nas escolas. Conclusões: Osestudos quantitativos sobre o temasão escassos principalmente no Brasil, porém deram um passoimportantecom resultados significativos no comportamento de emoções das crianças. A combinação detratamentos pedagógicos e terapia floral demonstraram efic

  19. Stratification Studies with Sub Grade Iron Ore from Deposit No. 10 and 11A, Bacheli Complex, Bailadila, Chhattisgarh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, Gottumukkala; Markandeya, Ravvala; Sharma, Satish Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Experiments were carried out with two different sizes of (-30 + 6 and -6 + 1 mm) sub grade iron ore sample from Deposit No. 10 and 11A, Bacheli Complex, Bailadila, India to study the stratification behaviour at optimised parameters in a under bed air pulsed jig at 1, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes residence time. This paper deals with the rate at which stratification takes place and determines the optimum stratification time (residence time) for above two size fractions. Average apparent density along with Jig Stratification Index (JSI) of both the size fractions was calculated. It was observed that the stratification rate is high for fines (-6 + 1 mm) and stratification index was higher for lump (-30 + 6 mm) when compared with the other size fraction. The maximum JSI observed was 0.35 for lump (-30 + 6 mm) and 0.30 for fines (-6 + 1 mm).

  20. Counterpoint as a principle of creativity: Extracting divergent modifiers from 'The Art of Fugue' by Johann Sebastian Bach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Emanuele Corazza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main message carried by this article is that counterpoint can be taken as a model approach for the introduction of contrasting elements, not only in musical composition but also in the generation of ideas in any domain of knowledge. We start by an interdisciplinary review about the power of opposite concepts as constituting elements in nature. This is followed by the description of the DIMAI model for creative thinking, which is founded upon the dual forces of convergent and divergent thinking modalities. The main body of our work is an extraction of divergent modifiers from the Contrapunctus composed by Bach and collected in the Art of Fugue, with simple examples of application to the diversified fields of education and computer science.

  1. Flowering schedule in a perennial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrlén, Johan; Raabova, Jana; Dahlgren, Johan

    2015-01-01

    influences selection on flowering schedule in an herb with a bimodal flowering pattern, Actaea spicata. Within individuals, seeds from flowers on early terminal inflorescences had a higher germination rate and produced larger seedlings than seeds from flowers on late basal inflorescences. Reproductive value......, estimated using demographic integral projection models and accounting for size-dependent differences in future performance, was two times higher for intact seeds from early flowers than for seeds from late flowers. Fruits from late flowers were, however, much more likely to escape seed predation than fruits...... from early flowers. Reproductive values of early and late flowers balanced at a predation intensity of 63%. Across 15 natural populations, the strength of selection for allocation to late flowers was positively correlated with mean seed predation intensity. Our results suggest that the optimal shape...

  2. Flowering Friendship Between Two Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Zhengxu

    2015-01-01

    Xi’an of China and Chinju(Jinju)of the Republic of Korea are famous ancient capitals of their respective countries with a long history and culture heritage.It happens that both take the pomegranate flower as their symbol.In 2007,the"Spring of the Pomegranate Flower"—a friendly exchange program with folk cultural and art performances as the main focus

  3. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  4. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  5. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  6. Erythropoietin Rescues Primary Rat Cortical Neurons by Altering the Nrf2:Bach1 Ratio: Roles of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Min; Zhang, Dong-Xue; Zhao, Xiao-Chun; Sun, Wenbo

    2017-01-12

    While inhalation anesthetics are indispensable, and generally considered safe and effective, there is growing concern about the selective neurotoxicity of these agents, especially sevoflurane. Erythropoetin (EPO)-induced protection against sevoflurane-induced neuronal death is an effective intervention, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Extracellular signal-related kinases (Erk) 1/2 plays a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. Alteration of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/BTB-to-CNC homology 1 (Bach1) ratio by Erk1/2 ameliorates the oxidative stress which occurs in human macrophages. Primary cortical neuron cultures exposed to sevoflurane were assessed for Nrf2, Bach1, total Erk1/2, and phosphorylated Erk1/2 with the following: 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; propidium iodide uptake; lactate dehydrogenase; malondialdehyde (MDA); superoxide dismutase (SOD); and Western blot. Sevoflurane exposure increased cell death, injury, and MDA (n = 9, P < 0.05), but decreased cell viability and the Nrf2:Bach1 ratio (n = 9, P < 0.05) and down-regulated SOD (n = 9, P < 0.05), while EPO partially rescued the neurotoxicity induced by sevoflurane (n = 9, P < 0.05). Inhibition of Erk1/2 phosphorylation via PD98059 reversed the protective effect of EPO (n = 9, P < 0.05). Thus, protection of EPO markedly attenuated death of neurons exposed to sevoflurane by altering the Nrf2:Bach1 ratio mediated by phosphorylation and activation of Erk1/2.

  7. Tolerance of edible flowers to gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: ackoike@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)

  8. La labor de Enric Granados en el proceso de la recepción de la música de Bach en Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonastre, Francesc

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The musical personality of Enric Granados (1867-1916 includes many aspects, especially piano interpretation and symphonic, scenic, "liederistic" and piano composition, as well as pedagogy, together with the foundation of the Granados Academy (1900. He got to know Bach's music through Ch. W. Bériot in Paris and F. Pedrell in Barcelona. He spread Bach's music as a soloist, director and pedagogue, together with other important disciples of Pedrell: J. Albéniz, L. Millet and H. Angles. The article includes 14 concerts in Barcelona related to Granados (1895-1912.

    La personalidad musical de Enric Granados (1867-1916 comprende numerosas facetas, especialmente la interpretación pianística, la composición sinfónica, escénica, liederística y pianística, y la pedagogía, con la fundación de la Academia Granados (1900. Conoce la música de Bach a través de Ch. W. Bériot en París, y de F. Pedrell en Barcelona; se convierte en uno de los difusores de la música bachiana como concertista, director y pedagogo, al lado de otros destacados discípulos de Pedrell: I. Albéniz, L. Millet e H. Angles. El artículo recoge 14 conciertos barceloneses relacionados con Granados (1895-1912.

  9. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  10. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...

  11. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  12. Gold nanoparticles induce heme oxygenase-1 expression through Nrf2 activation and Bach1 export in human vascular endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai TH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tsung-Hsuan Lai,1–3 Jiunn-Min Shieh,4,5 Chih-Jen Tsou,1 Wen-Bin Wu11School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Institute of Systems Biology and Bioinformatics, National Central University, Jhongli City, Taiwan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan; 5Department of Recreation and Healthcare Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: It has been reported that increased levels and activity of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 protein ameliorate tissue injuries. In the present study, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of action of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs on HO-1 protein expression in human vascular endothelial cells (ECs. The AuNPs induced HO-1 protein and mRNA expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The induction was reduced by the thiol-containing antioxidants, including N-acetylcysteine and glutathione, but not by the non-thiol-containing antioxidants and inhibitors that block the enzymes for intracellular reactive oxygen species generation. The AuNPs enhanced Nrf2 protein levels but did not affect Nrf2 mRNA expression. In response to the AuNP treatment, the cytosolic Nrf2 translocated to the nucleus, and, concomitantly, Bach1 exited the nucleus and its tyrosine phosphorylation increased. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that the translocated Nrf2 bound to the antioxidant-response element located in the E2 enhancer region of the HO-1 gene promoter and acted as a transcription factor. Although N-acetylcysteine inhibited the AuNP-induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, the AuNPs did not promote intracellular reactive oxygen species production or endoplasmic reticulum stress in the ECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression by RNA interference significantly inhibited AuNP-induced HO-1 expression at the protein and mRNA levels. In summary

  13. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years. PMID:27664957

  14. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-10-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years.

  15. Notes on collecting flower-visiting insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemstein, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it offer

  16. Flowering time: from photoperiodism to florigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H

    1998-09-24

    An Arabidopsis blue-light receptor, Cry2, has been found to play a critical role in the photoperiodic control of flowering time; and genes have been identified that may control the production of a transmissible flower-inducing signal, which may turn out to be the long-elusive putative flowering hormone 'florigen'.

  17. Beijing’s Flower Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Whether you want to keep your green thumb in shape, bring Mother Nature into your apartment, or buy flowers for a special occasion, you will find everything you want and even more in Beijing’s specialized markets. here are some of the most popular and what they offer.

  18. Flowers and Landscape by Serendipity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, Sandi

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)

  19. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-30

    Developing nations, such as India and South Africa , had begun using trade remedy actions more frequently, whereas they were tools used almost exclusively...CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...group of products are minerals and metals (such as brass sheet and strip; gray portland cement and clinker ; magnesium). The fourth largest group

  20. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  1. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  2. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  3. Recent Advances of Flowering Locus T Gene in Higher Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Shuiyuan Cheng; Feng Xu; Xiaofeng Rong; Xiaohua Huang

    2012-01-01

    Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of t...

  4. Efikasi Chitosan untuk Memperpanjang Flower Longevity Bunga Anggrek Dendrobium Hibrida dalam Pot (Potted Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I MADE SUKEWIJAYA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effication of Chitosan on Lengthening The Flower Longevity of Potted Orchid ofDendrobium Hybrid. The aim of the current research is to investigate general effects of Chitosantreatment on the flowering of Dendrobium orchid and to find out the optimum concentration of Chitosanin lengthening flower longevity of potted orchid of Dendrobium hybrid. Results of the research showedthat Chitosan application significantly affected variables of the number of flower per-plant, the length ofindividual flower, period of time to get full blooming, and the flower longevity. The best results for thoseof variables was achieved with Chitosan concentration of 0.15%.

  5. Cueing musical emotions: An empirical analysis of 24-piece sets by Bach and Chopin documents parallels with emotional speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Matthew; Schutz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Acoustic cues such as pitch height and timing are effective at communicating emotion in both music and speech. Numerous experiments altering musical passages have shown that higher and faster melodies generally sound "happier" than lower and slower melodies, findings consistent with corpus analyses of emotional speech. However, equivalent corpus analyses of complex time-varying cues in music are less common, due in part to the challenges of assembling an appropriate corpus. Here, we describe a novel, score-based exploration of the use of pitch height and timing in a set of "balanced" major and minor key compositions. Our analysis included all 24 Preludes and 24 Fugues from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier (book 1), as well as all 24 of Chopin's Preludes for piano. These three sets are balanced with respect to both modality (major/minor) and key chroma ("A," "B," "C," etc.). Consistent with predictions derived from speech, we found major-key (nominally "happy") pieces to be two semitones higher in pitch height and 29% faster than minor-key (nominally "sad") pieces. This demonstrates that our balanced corpus of major and minor key pieces uses low-level acoustic cues for emotion in a manner consistent with speech. A series of post hoc analyses illustrate interesting trade-offs, with sets featuring greater emphasis on timing distinctions between modalities exhibiting the least pitch distinction, and vice-versa. We discuss these findings in the broader context of speech-music research, as well as recent scholarship exploring the historical evolution of cue use in Western music.

  6. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  7. Bach a través del violonchelo. Interpretación comparativa de la Suite nº 2 para violonchelo BWV 1008

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor-Bueno, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Este Trabajo Fin de Máster pretende realizar un análisis comparativo de la Suite nº 2 de J. S. Bach para violonchelo solo, BWV 1008, a través de la interpretación que de la misma nos han dejado cuatro grandes violonchelistas. En los instrumentos de cuerda frotada, la manera de utilizar las proporciones y el sentido del arco, junto a la digitación asignada a cada nota, influye en la sonoridad y en la expresividad de las interpretaciones, quizá de una manera más evidente que en cualquier otr...

  8. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae from northeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Adrian Martínez-Adriano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants.

  9. Managing soil remediation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  10. Fermentative processes for environmental remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Grilli, Selene

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in environmental protection has led to the development of emerging biotechnologies for environmental remediation also introducing the biorefinery concept. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the applicability of innovative biotechnologies for environmental remediation and bioenergy production, throught fermentative processes. The investigated biotechnologies for waste and wastewater treatment and for the valorisation of specific feedstocks and energy recovery, were m...

  11. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  12. Effects of flowering phenology and synchrony on the reproductive success of a long-flowering shrub

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied...

  13. A Role for Auxin in Flower Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youfa Cheng; Yunde Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Auxin has long been implicated in many aspects of plant growth and development including flower development. However, the exact roles of auxin in flower development have not been well defined until the recent identification of auxin biosynthesis mutants. Auxin is necessary for the initiation of floral primordia,and the disruption of auxin biosynthesis, polar auxin transport or auxin signaling leads to the failure of flower formation. Auxin also plays an essential role in specifying the number and identity of floral organs.Further analysis of the relationship between the auxin pathways and the known flower development genes will provide critical information regarding mechanisms of organogenesis and pattern formation in plants.

  14. [Pathways of flowering regulation in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongping; Yang, Jing; Yang, Mingfeng

    2015-11-01

    Flowering, the floral transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, is induced by diverse endogenous and exogenous cues, such as photoperiod, temperature, hormones and age. Precise flowering time is critical to plant growth and evolution of species. The numerous renewal molecular and genetic results have revealed five flowering time pathways, including classical photoperiod pathway, vernalization pathway, autonomous pathway, gibberellins (GA) pathway and newly identified age pathway. These pathways take on relatively independent role, and involve extensive crosstalks and feedback loops. This review describes the complicated regulatory network of this floral transition to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering and provide references for further research in more plants.

  15. New evidence: Why flowers self-fertilize?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Studies on some Himalayan Sginger flowers have contributed novel empirical evidence to Charles Darwin's self-pollination theory, according to CAS researchers from the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden.

  16. Exploitation of Wild Flowers and the Sustainable Development of Flowers Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Li; PANG Songling; ZHUO Lihuan

    2008-01-01

    This article introduced the new methods on the research of the wild flowers and plants idioplasmic resources, elaborated the introduction and domestication and exploitation of wild flowers and plants idioplasmatic resources and the sustainable development of flowers and plants industry in China, and put forward some proposals on the existing question and the prospects for the development.

  17. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. DDE remediation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the

  19. 巴赫钢琴作品中装饰音的演奏技巧%The Playing Skill of Grace Note in Bach's Piano Works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆; 赵汉娇

    2015-01-01

    纵观西方音乐发展史,巴洛克中期装饰音已在钢琴作品中得到了系统的应用.在形成既定的模式后,巴洛克中期之后的作曲家们开始广泛推行这种装饰音符号的应用方法.而在装饰音形成的这一过程当中,以巴赫钢琴作品的艺术价值最为突出.研究巴赫钢琴作品当中装饰音的演奏方法与技巧,对钢琴学习者有很大的帮助.%In the history of western music,Bach had applied grace note in middle Baroque. Before forming a mode,later composers began to expand the application of the grace note. In this process,the value of Bach's work was the highest. To study the playing method and skill of the grace note is helpful to piano learners.

  20. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE FLOWER OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS NEES IN ALBINO MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Sharmistha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants contains a variety of chemical substances with important therapeutic properties that can be utilised in the treatment of human diseases. Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees of family Acanthaceae is used in folklore remedies for treatment of Cough, Bronchitis, Fever, Asthama, Cancer and many other ailments. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Phenol. For Acute Oral Toxicity study aqueous extract of the flower was used. The Acute Oral Toxicity test showed no mortality upto 1000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of these phytochemicals reveals its medicinal properties and non toxic nature of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. This result suggests that the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus can be used to cure various ailments.

  1. Comparative genomic analysis of soybean flowering genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chol-Hee Jung

    Full Text Available Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant

  2. Sexual dimorphism in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Spencer C H; Hough, Josh

    2013-01-01

    Among dioecious flowering plants, females and males often differ in a range of morphological, physiological, and life-history traits. This is referred to as sexual dimorphism, and understanding why it occurs is a central question in evolutionary biology. Our review documents a range of sexually dimorphic traits in angiosperm species, discusses their ecological consequences, and details the genetic and evolutionary processes that drive divergence between female and male phenotypes. We consider why sexual dimorphism in plants is generally less well developed than in many animal groups, and also the importance of sexual and natural selection in contributing to differences between the sexes. Many sexually dimorphic characters, including both vegetative and flowering traits, are associated with differences in the costs of reproduction, which are usually greater in females, particularly in longer-lived species. These differences can influence the frequency and distribution of females and males across resource gradients and within heterogeneous environments, causing niche differences and the spatial segregation of the sexes. The interplay between sex-specific adaptation and the breakdown of between-sex genetic correlations allows for the independent evolution of female and male traits, and this is influenced in some species by the presence of sex chromosomes. We conclude by providing suggestions for future work on sexual dimorphism in plants, including investigations of the ecological and genetic basis of intraspecific variation, and genetic mapping and expression studies aimed at understanding the genetic architecture of sexually dimorphic trait variation.

  3. Fertilization Mechanisms in Flowering Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M

    2016-02-08

    Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals.

  4. Scent glands in legume flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P

    2014-01-01

    Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied.

  5. Flower development of Begonia franconis Liebm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghoef, J.

    1979-01-01

    Chapter 1The effects of growth-regulating substances and environmental conditions on the composition of Begonia franconis Liebm. inflorescences were analysed. The inflorescences are generally composed of two male flowers and one terminal female flower.Auxins, gibberellins, and cytokinins, added to t

  6. An Environmental Approach to Positive Emotion: Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Haviland-Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study 3, flowers presented to elderly participants (55+ age elicited positive mood reports and improved episodic memory. Flowers have immediate and long-term effects on emotional reactions, mood, social behaviors and even memory for both males and females. There is little existing theory in any discipline that explains these findings. We suggest that cultivated flowers are rewarding because they have evolved to rapidly induce positive emotion in humans, just as other plants have evolved to induce varying behavioral responses in a wide variety of species leading to the dispersal or propagation of the plants.

  7. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  8. Meta-analysis of phenotypic selection on flowering phenology suggests that early flowering plants are favoured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A; Ollerton, Jeff; Parra-Tabla, Victor; De-Nova, J Arturo

    2011-05-01

    Flowering times of plants are important life-history components and it has previously been hypothesized that flowering phenologies may be currently subject to natural selection or be selectively neutral. In this study we reviewed the evidence for phenotypic selection acting on flowering phenology using ordinary and phylogenetic meta-analysis. Phenotypic selection exists when a phenotypic trait co-varies with fitness; therefore, we looked for studies reporting an association between two components of flowering phenology (flowering time or flowering synchrony) with fitness. Data sets comprising 87 and 18 plant species were then used to assess the incidence and strength of phenotypic selection on flowering time and flowering synchrony, respectively. The influence of dependence on pollinators, the duration of the reproductive event, latitude and plant longevity as moderators of selection were also explored. Our results suggest that selection favours early flowering plants, but the strength of selection is influenced by latitude, with selection being stronger in temperate environments. However, there is no consistent pattern of selection on flowering synchrony. Our study demonstrates that phenotypic selection on flowering time is consistent and relatively strong, in contrast to previous hypotheses of selective neutrality, and has implications for the evolution of temperate floras under global climate change.

  9. Presence of two types of flowers with respect to nectar sugar in two gregariously flowering species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chaitali Anand; Chaitrali Umranikar; Pooja Shintre; Anuja Damle; Janhavi Kale; Jahnavi Joshi; Milind Watve

    2007-06-01

    Many species of animal-pollinated flowers are known to vary widely in the nectar content of flowers. Some proportion of flowers in many species is apparently nectarless, and such flowers are believed to be ‘cheaters’. Cheating may explain a part of the variability in nectar content. If cheating exists as a qualitatively different strategy then we expect bimodality in the distribution of nectar content of flowers. It has been shown in a multispecies study that gregarious species have a higher proportion of cheater flowers. We studied the frequency distribution of total nectar sugar in two gregariously flowering species Lantana camara and Utricularia purpurascens, which differed in other floral and ecological characters. At the population level, both the species showed significant bimodality in the total sugar content of flowers. The obvious sources of heterogeneity in the data did not explain bimodality. In Lantana camara, bimodality was observed within flowers of some of the individual plants sampled. In Utricularia purpurascens the proportion of nectarless flowers was more in high-density patches, suggesting that the gregariousness hypothesis may work within a species as well. The results support the hypothesis of cheating as a distinct strategy since two distinct types of flowers were observed in both the species. The effect of density in Utricularia purpurascens also supports the gregariousness hypothesis.

  10. In vitro flowering of Dendrobium candidum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光远; 许智宏; 蔡德发; 蔡南海

    1997-01-01

    Dendrobium candidum, a wild orchid species from China, normally requires three to four years of cultivation before it can produce flowers. The effects of plant hormones and polyamines on flower initiation of this species in tissue culture were investigated. The addition of spermidine, or BA, or the combination of NAA and BA to the culture medium can induce protocorms or shoots to flower within three to six months with a frequency of 31.6% -45.8%. The flowering frequency can be further increased to 82.8 % on the average by pre-treatment of protocorms in an ABA-containing medium followed by transfer onto MS medium with BA. The induction of precocious flowering de-pends on the developmental stage of the experimental materials (protocorms, shoots and plantlets) used , and usually occurs only when root formation is inhibited.

  11. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan

    2011-01-01

    genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...... E.S., Trevaskis, B. (2009). The molecular biology of seasonal flowering-responses in Arabidopsis and the cereals. Annals of Botany 103: 1165–1172 Distelfeld, A.,Li, C., Dubcovsky J. (2009). Regulation of flowering in temperate cereals. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12:178–184 Jung, C., Müller, A.......E. (2009). Flowering time control and applications in plant breeding. Trends in Plant Science 14 /10: 563-573 Andersen, J.L., Jensen, L.B., Asp, T., Lübberstedt, T. (2006). Vernalization response in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) involves orthologues of diploid wheat (Triticum monococcum) VRN1...

  12. Flower development: initiation, differentiation, and diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zik, Moriyah; Irish, Vivian F

    2003-01-01

    Flowering is one of the most intensively studied processes in plant development. Despite the wide diversity in floral forms, flowers have a simple stereotypical architecture. Flowers develop from florally determined meristems. These small populations of cells proliferate to form the floral organs, including the sterile outer organs, the sepals and petals, and the inner reproductive organs, the stamens and carpels. In the past decade, analyses of key flowering genes have been carried out primarily in Arabidopsis and have provided a foundation for understanding the underlying molecular genetic mechanisms controlling different aspects of floral development. Such studies have illuminated the transcriptional cascades responsible for the regulation of these key genes, as well as how these genes effect their functions. In turn, these studies have resulted in the refinement of the original ideas of how flowers develop and have indicated the gaps in our knowledge that need to be addressed.

  13. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    In the UK, approximately 3600 householders are believed to have taken action to reduce high radon concentrations in their homes. In 1993 a number of those householders who had taken successful remedial actions were invited to participate in a study of durability of radon remedial actions. This involved the radon concentration being remeasured annually. Results for 26 such homes where a complete set of data are available and a further 32 with incomplete data are discussed here. All remedial actions were shown to remain durable during a period of 5 years. The largest variation in effectiveness was found in houses with natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate for all remedial measures was found to be 4.0% per annum, but in most cases the problems were noticed by the householder and corrected. The frequency of failures which were not noticed until a remeasurement was carried out was 0.4% per annum. (Author).

  14. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 3600 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce radon concentrations found to be above the government Action Level. A study has been carried out on the durability of these remedial actions. It involved annual reassessment of the radon levels in a number of homes. The results for 26 of these homes where data over five years are available show that in general the remedial actions remained effective. The remedy with the largest variation in efficacy was natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate was found to be 4.0% per annum for all measures, but in the majority of cases the failure was discovered by the householder and rectified. The rate of failures not noticed by the householders was 0.4% per annum. (UK).

  15. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  16. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  17. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  18. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  19. Flowering phenology in subalpine meadows: does climate variation influence community co-flowering patterns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Jessica; Inouye, David W; Thomson, James D

    2010-02-01

    Climate change is expected to alter patterns of species co-occurrence, in both space and time. Species-specific shifts in reproductive phenology may alter the assemblages of plant species in flower at any given time during the growing season. Temporal overlap in the flowering periods (co-flowering) of animal-pollinated species may influence reproductive success if competitive or facilitative interactions between plant species affect pollinator services. We used a 33-year data set on flowering phenology in subalpine meadows in Colorado, USA, to determine whether interannual variation in snowmelt date, which marks the start of the growing season, affected co-flowering patterns. For two of four species considered, we found a significant relationship between snowmelt timing and composition of the assemblage of co-flowering plants. In years of early snowmelt, Lathyrus lanszwertii var. leucanthus (Fabaceae), the species we investigated in most detail, tended to overlap with earlier-flowering species and with fewer species overall. In particular, overlap with the flowering period of Lupinus polyphyllus var. prunophilus, with which Lathyrus leucanthus shares pollinators, was significantly reduced in early-snowmelt years. The observed association between timing of snowmelt and patterns of flowering overlap could not have been predicted simply by examining temporal trends in the dates of peak flowering of the dominant species in the community, as peak flowering dates have largely shifted in parallel with respect to snowmelt date. However, subtle interspecific differences in responsiveness of flowering time, duration, and intensity to interannual climate variation have likely contributed to the observed relationship. Although much of the year-to-year variation in flowering overlap remains unexplained by snowmelt date, our finding of a measurable signal of climate variation suggests that future climate change may lead to altered competitive environments for these wildflower

  20. Repression of the transcription factor Bach2 contributes to predisposition of IgG1 memory B cells toward plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometani, Kohei; Nakagawa, Rinako; Shinnakasu, Ryo; Kaji, Tomohiro; Rybouchkin, Andrei; Moriyama, Saya; Furukawa, Koji; Koseki, Haruhiko; Takemori, Toshitada; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2013-07-25

    Memory B cells are essential for generating rapid and robust secondary antibody responses. It has been thought that the unique cytoplasmic domain of IgG causes the prompt activation of antigen-experienced IgG memory B cells. To assess this model, we have generated a mouse containing IgG1 B cells that have never encountered antigen. We found that, upon challenge, antigen-experienced IgG1 memory B cells rapidly differentiated into plasma cells, whereas nonexperienced IgG1 B cells did not, suggesting the importance of the stimulation history. In addition, our results suggest that repression of the Bach2 transcription factor, which results from antigen experience, contributes to predisposition of IgG1 memory B cells to differentiate into plasma cells.

  1. On the hydrology and fluvial sediment transport of the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weißseeferner, Ötztal Alps, Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morche, David; Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    The hydrology of proglacial rivers is strongly affected by glacier melting. With ongoing glacier retreat the proportion of glacier meltwater in proglacial rivers is declining over longer time periods. Snow melt or rain fall events will play a more important role as water source. Due to glacial erosion the glacier system is also an important player in the orchestra of sediment sources/processes contributing to proglacial sediment budgets. The consequence of increasing deglaciation is a growing importance of other sediment sources/processes, mainly known as paraglacial, for sediment budgets in glacier forefields. The sediment export out of proglacial areas is mainly done by solid river load. Knowledge on the quantity of the exported sediments is important for reservoir management and torrent control. In order to measure fluvial sediment transport in the catchment area of the Gepatsch reservoir in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol/Austria) we have installed a gauging station at the proglacial river Riffler Bach in June 2012. The catchment area of this station is about 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m. The higher altitudes in the southern part of the area are covered by the glacier Weißseeferner. Our station is equipped with an automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and probes for water level, turbidity and electrical conductivity. All parameters are recorded in 5-15 minute intervals during the ablation period. Discharge is measured with current meters during wadable stages and salt dilution during higher floods. Bed load is measured concurrent to discharge measurements using a Helley-Smith sampler. In 2012, 189 water samples were taken and will be analyzed for suspended sediment concentration and ion content. Additionally, the grain size distribution will be determined using a Malvern laser diffractometer. Rating-curves will be used to calculate discharge from stage recordings. Solid load of the Riffler Bach will be quantified using the discharge data and

  2. Flower Power at the Dutch Flower Auctions? Application of an Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System

    OpenAIRE

    Steen, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Information on price-quantity relationships will enable flower producers to reduce risk and raise profits through better timing of rotations as well as better utilization of limited greenhouse space. The present paper presents econometric evidence on such price-quantity relationships for major species of cut flowers at the Dutch flower auctions. Specifically, an inverse linear approximate almost ideal demand model with seasonal adjustments is applied. This paper is introducing trigonometric f...

  3. Recent advances of flowering locus T gene in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Rong, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2012-01-01

    Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes.

  4. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results.

  5. Endothermy by flowers of Rhizanthes lowii (Rafflesiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño, S; Grace, J; Bänziger, H

    2000-08-01

    Rhizanthes lowii (Beccari) Harms (Rafflesia- ceae) is a parasitic plant that grows in the understory of the rainforest in South-East Asia. This plant does not have leaves, stems, or photosynthetic tissue and is characterised by the emission of a strong odour that attracts the natural pollinators, carrion flies. Flowers that volatilise odorous compounds and attract carrion flies, beetles and other insects are often thermogenic. Here we present evidence of both thermogenesis and thermoregulation in R. lowii from microclimate and tissue temperatures measured during different stages of flower development in R. lowii, in natural conditions in Brunei, Borneo. Endothermy was detected in young and mature buds as well as in blooming flowers and even in decaying tissues 3 or more days after blooming. Tissue temperatures were maintained at 7-9 K above air temperature, in both female and male flowers, at all stages of floral development.

  6. The evolutionary root of flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .].

  7. Flower solid modeling based on sketches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhan DING; Shu-chang XU; Xiu-zi YE; Yin ZHANG; San-yuan ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method to model flowers of solid shape. Based on (Ijiri et al., 2005)'s method, we separate individual flower modeling and inflorescence modeling procedures into structure and geometry modeling. We incorporate interactive editing gestures to allow the user to edit structure parameters freely onto structure diagram. Furthermore, we use free-hand sketching techniques to allow users to create and edit 3D geometrical elements freely and easily. The final step is to automatically merge all independent 3D geometrical elements into a single waterproof mesh. Our experiments show that this solid modeling approach is promising. Using our approach, novice users can create vivid flower models easily and freely. The generated flower model is waterproof. It can have applications in visualization, animation, gaming, and toys and decorations if printed out on 3D rapid prototyping devices.

  8. Ecological adaptations of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychajło Czernećkyj

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the blooming ecology and the flower morphology of Hypocyrta glabra Hook. (Gesneriaceae cultivated in laboratories and outdoors have been carried out. The life span of flowers and morphological changes in successive phases of the blooming period have been observed. The H. glabra flowers are protandrous and the stamens translocate during the flowering process. The macro- and microstructure of calyx, corolla, androecium, gynoecium and nectaries have been analyzed. The size, shape and viability of pollen grains have been designated and their number per stamen head has been calculated. The location of nectaries in H. glabra flowers has suggested that they stem from the 5th stamen during phylogenesis. It has been proved that the nectaries are provided by numerous vascular bundles and that the nectar is secreted by stomata. The stomatal field comprises 2/5 of nectary height and is situated on the abaxial side of the apix part. The average number of stomata is 63.2 per 1 mm2. The average amount of nectar produced by 10 flowers in their fourth day of life reached 223.7 mg. The sugar concentration was 32.7%. Numerous glandular and non-glandular trichomes have been noticed on the surface of calyx, corolla and gynoecium, which indicate the xeromorphic adaptation of the flower. It has been observed that the numbers of glandular and non-glandular trichomes per unit of the external surface of corolla are similar. Outdoors the secretion produced by calyx and corolla glands was willingly collected by wasps. It seems that such features of H. glabra flowers as position, shape and colour of corolla, the abundance of the nectar and pollen produced are connected with their adaptation to pollination by humming-birds in the species natural environment.

  9. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  10. Aspectos retóricos da ária Quia respexit humilitatem, do Magnificat em Ré maior de J. S. Bach BWV 243 Rhetorical aspects of the aria Quia respexit humilitatem, from Magnificat in D major by J. S. Bach BWV 243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela de Figueiredo Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A Retórica teve um papel essencial na produção artística do século XVI ao século XVIII ao ditar sistematicamente a estruturação formal e a utilização de elementos figurativos em um discurso para fortalecer sua eloqüência. No caso da música se dá através da estruturação e divisão da música e da utilização de figuras retórico-musicais como, por exemplo, as catabasis (movimento melódico descendente e anaphoras (repetição geral, entre outras. Este artigo pretende analisar alguns elementos da retórica contidos na ária Quia respexit humilitatem, composta por J. S. Bach.Rhetoric had an essential role in artistic production from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century by systematically dictating the formal structure and utilizing figurative elements in discourse to strengthen its eloquence. In the case of music, it occurs through structure and division of the music and the use of rhetorical-musical figures such as catabasis (descending melodic movement or anaphora (general repetition among others. This article aims to analyze some of the rhetorical elements contained in the aria Quia respexit humilitatem, composed by J. S. Bach.

  11. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  12. Trees as huge flowers and flowers as oversized floral guides: the role of floral color change and retention of old flowers in Tibouchina pulchra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Lourenço Garcia Brito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Floral color changes and retention of old flowers are frequently combined phenomena restricted to the floral guide or single flowers in few-flowered inflorescences. They are thought to increase the attractiveness over long distances and to direct nearby pollinators towards the rewarding flowers. In Tibouchina pulchra, a massively flowering tree, the whole flower changes its color during anthesis. On the first day, the flowers are white and on the next three days, they change to pink. This creates a new large-scale color pattern in which the white pre-changed flowers contrast against the pink post-changed ones over the entire tree. We describe the spectral characteristics of floral colors of T. pulchra and test bumblebees´ response to this color pattern when viewed at different angles (simulating long and short distances. The results indicated the role of different color components in bumblebee attraction and the possible scenario in which this flower color pattern has evolved. We tested bumblebees´ preference for simulated trees with 75% pink and 25% white flowers resembling the color patterns of T. pulchra, and trees with green leaves and pink flowers (control in long-distance approach. We also compared an artificial setting with three pink flowers and one white flower (T. pulchra model against four pink flowers with white floral guides (control in short-distance approach. Bumblebees spontaneously preferred the simulated T. pulchra patterns in both approaches despite similar rewards. Moreover, in short distances, pollinator visits to peripheral, non-rewarding flowers occurred only half as frequently in the simulated T. pulchra when compared to the control. Thefore, this exceptional floral color change and the retention of old flowers in T. pulchra favors the attraction of pollinators over long distances in a deception process while it honestly directs them towards the rewarding flowers at short distances possibly exploring their innate color

  13. Phytochrome, plant growth and flowering

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.

  14. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  15. Strawberry homologue of terminal flower1 integrates photoperiod and temperature signals to inhibit flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Marja; Kurokura, Takeshi; Jiang, Panpan; Mouhu, Katriina; Hytönen, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Photoperiod and temperature are major environmental signals affecting flowering in plants. Although molecular pathways mediating these signals have been well characterized in the annual model plant Arabidopsis, much less information is known in perennials. Many perennials including the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) are induced to flower in response to decreasing photoperiod and temperature in autumn and they flower following spring. We showed earlier that, in contrast with Arabidopsis, the photoperiodic induction of flowering in strawberry occurs in short days (SD) when the decrease in FvFT1 (flowering locus T) and FvSOC1 (suppressor of the overexpression of constans1) expression leads to lower mRNA levels of the floral repressor, FvTFL1 (terminal flower1). By using transgenic lines and gene expression analyses, we show evidence that the temperature-mediated changes in the FvTFL1 mRNA expression set critical temperature limits for the photoperiodic flowering in strawberry. At temperatures below 13 °C, low expression level of FvTFL1 in both SD and long days (LD) allows flower induction to occur independently of the photoperiod. Rising temperature gradually increases FvTFL1 mRNA levels under LD, and at temperatures above 13 °C, SD is required for the flower induction that depends on the deactivation of FvSOC1 and FvTFL1. However, an unknown transcriptional activator, which functions independently of FvSOC1, enhances the expression of FvTFL1 at 23 °C preventing photoperiodic flowering. We suggest that the observed effect of the photoperiod × temperature interaction on FvTFL1 mRNA expression may allow strawberry to induce flowers in correct time in different climates.

  16. To flower or not to flower, a temperature-sensitive decision. Characterization of flowering responses at high ambient temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, N.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize fitness, plants use environmental cues to optimize growth processes. One of the processes under strong environmental regulation is flowering. Multiple environmental factors influence flowering, including temperature. Both a continuously increased ambient temperature as well as temporary

  17. To flower or not to flower, a temperature-sensitive decision : Characterization of flowering responses at high ambient temperature in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    To maximize fitness, plants use environmental cues to optimize growth processes. One of the processes under strong environmental regulation is flowering. Multiple environmental factors influence flowering, including temperature. Both a continuously increased ambient temperature as well as temporary

  18. Soluble proteins and polyphenoloxidase activity in bud flowers, flowers and leaves of cold stored lisianthus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavasini, R.; Nunes, K.N.M.; Favero, B.T.;

    This study evaluated the activity of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the content of soluble protein present in lisianthus bud flowers, flowers and leaves in room temperature (24±2°C) and pre-exposure cold chamber at 9±2°C for 24 h, in order to examine a possible correlation between these ...

  19. First flowering dates and flowering periods of prairie plants at Woodworth, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, J.M.; Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.

  20. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties.

  1. The biology of flowering and structure of selected elements of Cornus alba L. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biology of flowering and the micromorphology of Cornus alba flowers were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The flowering of white dogwood in 2008 lasted 35 days, and the lifespan of a single flower was 3 days. The number of flowers per inflorescence was variable (on the average, it was 89. The largest group of insects visiting the flowers of C. alba comprised Hymenoptera (mainly bees and andrenids, then ants, dipterans and beetles. They foraged the dogwood flowers most intensively between 11.00 and 15.00. The inconspicuous four-petalled flowers of C. alba were characterised by the occurrence of T-shaped, two-armed non-glandular trichomes covering the receptacle as well as observed on the petals of the corolla, the style of the pistil and the anthers in a smaller number. The trichomes were covered by a thick cuticle with characteristic outgrowths. They contained a living protoplast, and plastids were observed in the cytoplasm of the trichome cells. In addition, anomocytic stomata were found in the epidermis of the receptacle and in the epidermis of the corolla petals. The stigma of the pistil and the adaxial epidermis of the petals were composed of very numerous conical papillae.

  2. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  3. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  4. Divergence of flowering genes in soybean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moon Young Kim; Jin Hee Shin; Yang Jae Kang; Sang Rea Shim; Suk-Ha Lee

    2012-11-01

    Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod-dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to survey functional DNA variations in the flowering-related homologs. Forty genes exhibiting nonsynonymous substitutions between G. max and G. soja were catalogued. In addition, 22 genes were found to co-localize with QTLs for six traits including flowering time, first flower, pod maturity, beginning of pod, reproductive period, and seed filling period. Among the genes overlapping the QTL regions, two LHY/CCA1 genes, GI and SFR6 contained amino acid changes. The recently duplicated sequence regions of the soybean genome were used as additional criteria for the speculation of the putative function of the homologs. Two duplicated regions showed redundancy of both flowering-related genes and QTLs. ID 12398025, which contains the homeologous regions between chr 7 and chr 16, was redundant for the LHY/CCA1 and SPA1 homologs and the QTLs. Retaining of the CRY1 gene and the pod maturity QTLs were observed in the duplicated region of ID 23546507 on chr 4 and chr 6. Functional DNA variation of the LHY/CCA1 gene (Glyma07g05410) was present in a counterpart of the duplicated region on chr 7, while the gene (Glyma16g01980) present in the other portion of the duplicated region on chr 16 did not show a functional sequence change. The gene list catalogued in this study provides primary insight for understanding the regulation of flowering time and maturity in soybean.

  5. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  6. Efficacy of radon remedial measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    About 2000 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce high radon levels in their homes. Some 800 of these householders have sought measurements to confirm the effectiveness of the action. Results for 528 such homes are discussed. (author).

  7. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  8. Remediation Technology for Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation is the most commonly selected technology for remediation of ground water at Superfund sites in the USA. The next most common technology is Chemical treatment, followed by Air Sparging, and followed by Permeable Reactive Barriers. This presentation reviews the the...

  9. O concerto RV 199 de Antonio Vivaldi: uma transcrição para violão segundo os procedimentos utilizados por J. S. Bach no concerto BWV 973

    OpenAIRE

    Brombilla, Marcelo Cazarotto

    2013-01-01

    A presente pesquisa trata da realização de uma transcrição para violão solo do concerto RV 199 de Antonio Vivaldi, segundo os procedimentos utilizados por J. S. Bach na transcrição do concerto RV 299, que resultou no concerto para cravo BWV 973. Procedeu-se uma análise comparativa do original de Vivaldi RV 299 com a transcrição de Bach BWV 973; estes procedimentos foram aplicados na transcrição para violão solo do concerto RV 199 que foi apresentada em duas maneiras, a saber, uma versão em du...

  10. Republication of: New solutions to Einstein's equations of gravitation. B. Explicit determination of static, axially symmetric fields. By Rudolf Bach. With a supplement on the static two-body problem. By H. Weyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Rudolf; Weyl, Hermann

    2012-03-01

    This is the English translation of the third of a series of 3 papers by Hermann Weyl (the third one jointly with Rudolf Bach), first published in 1917-1922, in which the authors derived and discussed the now-famous Weyl two-body static axially symmetric vacuum solution of Einstein's equations. The English translations of the other two papers are published alongside this one. The papers have been selected by the Editors of General Relativity and Gravitation for re-publication in the Golden Oldies series of the journal. This republication is accompanied by an editorial note written by Gernot Neugebauer, David Petroff and Bahram Mashhoon, and by a brief biography of R. Bach, written by H. Goenner.

  11. Flower power: Tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, L.J.; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  12. Kaempferol glycosides in the flowers of carnation and their contribution to the creamy white flower color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika

    2010-12-01

    Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.

  13. Flower Men: The Australian Canon and Flower Painting 1910-1935

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Elias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended to define and differentiate femininity from masculinity in an era of the ‘New Woman’. Sex and gender are central to the subject of flower painting and are important for discussions about the work produced by all four men, although sex is often camouflaged behind the innocence of naturalistically painted flowers.

  14. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process was developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. P-2 Soil Remediation, Inc. formed a partnership with Weiss Associates and ElectroPetroleum, Inc. to apply the technology to contaminated sites. The ECRTs process was evaluated ...

  15. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Plan. 85.1803 Section 85.1803... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... manufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The plan shall contain...

  16. 40 CFR 92.705 - Remedial plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial plan. 92.705 Section 92.705... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.705 Remedial plan. (a) When any... manufacturer or remanufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The...

  17. 48 CFR 2009.570-10 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-10 Remedies. In addition to other remedies permitted by law or contract for a breach of the restrictions in this subpart or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Remedies....

  18. Stalin Coctail: Schostakowitsch Kammersinfonie Nr. 2 (aus Streichquartett Nr. 3 op. 73). Pärt, Arvo: Collage über das Thema B-A-C-H / Susanne Benda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Benda, Susanne

    1995-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stalin Coctail: Schostakowitsch Kammersinfonie Nr. 2 (aus Streichquartett Nr. 3 op. 73). Pärt, Arvo: Collage über das Thema B-A-C-H. Cantus in memoriam B. Britten. Denisov Variationen über Haydns Kanon Tod ist ein langer Schlaf. Schtschedrin Stalin Coctail. Moskauer Virtuosen, Vladimir Spivakov. RCA/BMG-Ariola CD 09026 68061 2 (WD: 67'33")

  19. Mediation of flowering by a calmodulin-dependent proteinkinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (MCK1) appeared important in regulating flowering in tobacco. The expression of modified MCK1 that lacks the C-terminal including calmodulin-binding domain upsets the flowering developmental program, leading to the abortion of flower primordia initiated on the main axis of the plant and, as well, caused the prolongation of the vegetative phase in axillary buds. The abortion process of flowers began first in the developing anthers and subsequently the entire flower senesces. In axillary buds the prolonged vegetative phase was characterized by atypical elongated, narrow, twisted leaves. These results suggested a role for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase homologs in mediating flowering.

  20. Tiger cubs and little flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Short vignettes are related to show the conditions for girls and women in Morocco. Descriptions are given for child labor, literacy, the government's education campaign, youth group efforts to enhance family planning (FP) knowledge, the impact of FP outreach in rural areas, and unmarried mothers. In Morocco's cities, young boys can be seen hawking cigarettes and working in market stalls; in the countryside, boys herd goats or do other farm work. In rural areas girls are hidden by having them perform work around the house or on the farm primarily indoors. Women are supervised by women. 54% work as maids and 39% are apprentices in carpet factories. Parents prefer to have their daughters working and consider it protection from mischief as well as needed income. Only 60% of girls are enrolled in primary school vs. 80% of the boys. In rural areas, only 44% of girls are enrolled, and 20% stay to complete their primary education, while 76% of boys enroll and 63% complete primary school. Literacy of women has an effect on the ability to accurately take birth control pills. All ages of women gather at schools in the evening for lessons in reading and writing in a program supported by the King. Women are pleased with their success in just learning how to write their own names. Television advertisements promote sending children to school, as another part of the Ministry of Education's campaign to increase girl's educational status. There are still not enough schools; many schools are double shift, and communities are building their own schools. Youth clubs, which refer to boys as "tiger cubs" and girls as "little flowers," try to familiarize young people with some basic information about contraception. A traditional midwife relates some problems with girl's education: costs for clothing and supplies, worry about male teachers, and poor role models. In some remote areas, farm families do not send their children to school, because of the distance to schools and the need for

  1. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  2. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko E-mail: okikuchi@net.ipen.br

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)

  3. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  4. Brief Report: Identification of BACH2 and RAD51B as Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility Loci in a Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Kate; Yarwood, Annie; Bowes, John; Orozco, Gisela; Viatte, Sebastian; Diogo, Dorothée; Hocking, Lynne J; Steer, Sophia; Wordsworth, Paul; Wilson, A G; Morgan, Ann W; Kremer, Joel M; Pappas, Dimitrios; Gregersen, Peter; Klareskog, Lars; Plenge, Robert; Barton, Anne; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective A recent high-density fine-mapping (ImmunoChip) study of genetic associations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) identified 14 risk loci with validated genome-wide significance, as well as a number of loci showing associations suggestive of significance (P = 5 × 10−5 < 5 × 10−8), but these have yet to be replicated. The aim of this study was to determine whether these potentially significant loci are involved in the pathogenesis of RA, and to explore whether any of the loci are associated with a specific RA serotype. Methods A total of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for genotyping and association analyses in 2 independent validation cohorts, comprising 6,106 RA cases and 4,290 controls. A meta-analysis of the data from the original ImmunoChip discovery cohort and from both validation cohorts was carried out, for a combined total of 17,581 RA cases and 20,160 controls. In addition, stratified analysis of patient subsets, defined according to their anti–cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody status, was performed. Results A significant association with RA risk (P < 0.05) was replicated for 6 of the SNPs assessed in the validation cohorts. All SNPs in the validation study had odds ratios (ORs) for RA susceptibility in the same direction as those in the ImmunoChip discovery study. One SNP, rs72928038, mapping to an intron of BACH2, achieved genome-wide significance in the meta-analysis (P = 1.2 × 10−8, OR 1.12), and a second SNP, rs911263, mapping to an intron of RAD51B, was significantly associated in the anti-CCP–positive RA subgroup (P = 4 × 10−8, OR 0.89), confirming that both are RA susceptibility loci. Conclusion This study provides robust evidence for an association of RA susceptibility with genes involved in B cell differentiation (BACH2) and DNA repair (RAD51B). The finding that the RAD51B gene exhibited different associations based on serologic subtype adds to the expanding knowledge base in defining

  5. Volatile constituents in the flowers of Elsholtzia argyi and their variation: a possible utilization of plant resources after phytoremediation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Hong-yun; YANG Xiao-e

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation effectiveness and remediation costs are driving factors of this project. Full utilization of plant resources after their being used for phytoremediation is an unsolved problem. GC/MS technique was used to investigate the volatiles of the flowers from Elsholtzia argyi (PFE1: Purple Flower Elsholtzia) and their variation (WFE: White Flower Elsholtzia),naturally growing in Pb/Zn mined area, and Elsholtzia argyi (PFE2: Purple Flower Elsholtzia), naturally growing in Jiuxi uncontaminated agriculture soil. Seventeen compounds constituting 86.88% of total essential oils were identified in PFE1, with 2,6-octadienoic acid,3,7-dimethyl-methyl ester being the main constituent (63.30%). Sixteen compounds accounting for 95.32% of total essential oils were identified in WFE, with caryophyllene being the main component (55.02%). Compared to PFE1, PFE2 contained lower level of 2,6-octadienoic acid,3,7-dimethyl-methyl ester (31.76%), which was the main constituent in the total essential oils of PFE2. Caryophyllene is the main ingredient of flavor. Elsholtzia ketone was identified in all the three Elsholtzia plants. It can be concluded that the selected Elsholtzia argyi plants can be exploited on their versatile uses as fragrances and antiseptics due to the perfume ingredient and antibacterial components existing in their essential oils.

  6. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  7. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  8. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  9. My favourite flowering image: the role of cytokinin as a flowering signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Georges

    2013-12-01

    My favourite flowering image shows a section in a shoot apical meristem of Sinapis alba undertaking the very first step of its transition to flowering. This step is the activation of the SaSOC1 gene, the Sinapis orthologue of Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1 (SOC1), in a few central cells of the meristem. Hidden behind this picture is my long quest of physiological signals controlling flowering. Milestones of this story are briefly recounted here and this gives me an opportunity to raise a number of questions about the nature and function of florigen.

  10. Interpretation of the "Deciphering":An Offbeat Preface to Zhao Xiaoshengs Deciphering BACH ("jiemi" de "jiedu":lingyizhong xu-wei Zhao Xiaosheng《BACH jiemi 》erzuo)%"解密"的"解读":另一种序——为赵晓生《BACH解密》而作

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洛秦

    2008-01-01

    @@ 题解 "解密"无疑是赵晓生先生的大作①的略写.但是,为何"解密"需要引号?进而"解读"也加上引号? "BACH"解密有两层意思,一是对巴赫音乐的解密,另一是对"B A C H"结构的解密.然而,历史文献显示,巴赫本人没有对其音乐做过诠释,不像勋伯格那样有自己十二音体系的理论,以及赵晓生先生创建"太极作曲"的思想.

  11. DNA tests for strawberry: perpetual flowering - Bx215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...

  12. Glyphosate and Dicamba Inhibit Flowering of Native Willamette Valley Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful flowering is essential for reproduction of native plants and production of food for herbivores. It is also an important alternative endpoint for assessment of ecological risks from chemical stressors such as herbicides. We evaluated flowering phenology after herbicide...

  13. Experimental Studies Cast Doubt on Deceit Syndrome of Bat Flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Bat Flower (Tacca chantrieri) is a southwest China's species of a tropical plant genus called Tacca,which features near black flowers,conspicuous involucral bracts and whisker-like filiform bracteoles.

  14. Mutation in TERMINAL FLOWER1 reverses the photoperiodic requirement for flowering in the wild strawberry Fragaria vesca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2012-07-01

    Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.

  15. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning

  16. The Symbolic Meanings of “Flowering Judas”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the short story “Flowering Judas”, Katherine Anne Porter employed the writing technique - symbolism. Among others, “Flowering Judas” is the most important symbolic image. This paper tries to analyze the symbolic meanings of “Flowering Judas”, so that the readers can understand the theme of the this story much better.

  17. The Symbolic Meanings of “Flowering Judas”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian; Yan

    2014-01-01

    In the short story"Flowering Judas",Katherine Anne Porter employed the writing technique—symbolism.Among others,"Flowering Judas"is the most important symbolic image.This paper tries to analyze the symbolic meanings of"Flowering Judas",so that the readers can understand the theme of the this story much better.

  18. Flowering and sex expression in Acer L. : a biosystemic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.C.

    1976-01-01

    A review and an analysis is given of flowering and sex expression in Acer. The process of sex differentiation was studied in physiological experiments and could be influenced by accelerated flowering and by removal of female.gif flower buds just after bud break. The paper further includes notes on t

  19. Interspecific hybridization of flower bulbs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyl, van J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars fro

  20. Gravitropism in cut flower stalks of snapdragon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philosoph-Hadas, S.; Friedman, H.; Meir, S.; Berkovitz-SimanTov, R.; Rosenberger, I.; Halevy, A.H.; Kaufman, P.B.; Balk, P.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The negative gravitropic response of cut flower stalks is a complex multistep process that requires the participation of various cellular components acting in succession or in parallel. The process was particularly characterized in snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes with regard to (1) gravity

  1. Teaching Art with Art: Flowers in Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    1998-01-01

    Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…

  2. Internet log service for flower supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thors, M.

    2004-01-01

    Onderzoekers van Agrotechnology & Food Innovations van Wageningen UR hebben data ontwikkelt en getest om de kwaliteit en houdbaarheid van snijbloemen tijdens langdurig transport te behoudenThis summer has seen the completion of a project to develop quality tracking and tracing for cut flowers. S

  3. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  4. DELAYED FLOWERING, an Arabidopsis Gene That Acts in the Autonomous Flowering Promotion Pathway and Is Required for Normal Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Jie Chen; Zheng Yuan; Hai Huang

    2006-01-01

    The control of flowering time in higher plants is one of the most important physiological processes and is critical for their reproductive success. To investigate the mechanisms controlling flowering time, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants with late-flowering phenotypes. One mutant, designated delayed flowering (dfr) in the Landsberg erecta (Ler) ecotype, was identified with delayed flowering time. Genetic analysis revealed that dfr is a single gene recessive nuclear mutant and the mutation was mapped to a locus tightly linked to UFO on chromosome 1. To our knowledge, no gene regulating flowering time has been reported yet in this region. The dfr mutant plant showed a delayed flowering time under the different growth conditions examined,including long- and short-day photoperiods and gibberellic acid GA3 treatments, suggesting that DFR is a gene involved in the autonomous flowering promotion pathway. The Arabidopsis gene FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) plays a central role in repressing flowering and its transcripts are undetectable in wild-type Ler.However, FLCexpression was upregulated in the dfrmutant, suggesting that DFR is a negative regulator of FLC. In addition, the dfr mutant plant displayed altered valve shapes of the silique and the number of trichomes and branches of each trichome were both reduced, indicating that the DRFgene is also required for normal plant development. Moreover, dfr leafy-5 (Ify-5) double mutant plants showed a much later flowering time than either dfr or Ify-5 single mutants, indicating that DFR and LFYact synergistically to promote flowering in Arabidopsis.

  5. Analysis on Structure of Flower Market in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi; SUN; Yingying; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    with the socio-economic development and people’s living condition improvement,the requirement for environment is higher and higher and the mental demand is also more and more.For this,Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry listed survey programs of consumption demands of flower market in Beijing in 2014,and provided several recommendations in line with current situations,problems and environment of the flower industry,for future reference of flower decision making of Beijing.In March 2014,the authors carried out survey in flower market of Beijing and participated in survey of management of flower industry.In May of the same year,combining this study,they visited ten districts(counties),including Dongcheng,Xicheng,Chaoyang,Fengtai,Shijingshan,and Daxing,together with relevant flower researchers,and carried out in-depth survey in several districts(counties)with better foundation of flower industry.Besides,with reference to China Flower&Gardening; News and China Flowers&Horticulture;,and relevant literature,it summarized and sorted out many years of various materials and statistical data of flower industry in Beijing.On the basis of surveying different flower markets and production areas and analyzing relevant data,the authors visited famous flower enterprises and large flower production and sales households in Beijing,elaborated current situations of Beijing flower industry in industrial foundation,development environment,industrial distribution,product type,and circulation field,and pointed out major problems in product type,market structure,production cost,service system,and logistics channels.Finally,it came up with practical and feasible solutions,hoping to provide certain reference for excellent development of flower industry in Beijing.

  6. Color versus bioactivity in the flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis (Nyctaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Ibrahim, Syed Amir; Ahmed, Farman; Pervez, Muhammad Kashif

    2005-01-01

    The methanolic extracts of Bougainvillea spectabilis (Nyctaginaceae) flowers (five different colors) were screened biologically by performing four bioassays: antibacterial, antifungal, brine shrimp lethality and phytotoxicity. It was observed that the methanolic extract of white flowers was the most biologically active among all tested extracts. The extracts of white, orange and shocking pink flowers inhibit, while the extracts of red and violet flowers promote, the growth of Lemna plants. The extract of white flowers also exhibits toxicity against shrimp larvae with a LD50 value of 33.5627 microg/mL. However, none of the tested samples gave positive responses against any tested fungi.

  7. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) - IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaulation Report summarizes the results of the evaluation of the Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process, developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. (in partnership with Weiss Associates and Electro-Petroleum, Inc.). This evaluation was co...

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  9. Electrokinetic remediation of oil-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Vladimir A; Romanyukha, Olga V; Abyzova, Anna M

    2008-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the factors influencing electrokinetic remediation of soils from petroleum pollutants. The remediation method was applied in two versions: (i) static and (ii) flowing, when a sample was washed with leaching solution. It was found that all the soils studied can be purified using this technique. It was also observed that the mineral and grain-size composition of soils, their properties, and other parameters affect the remediation efficiency. The static and flowing versions of the remediation method removed 25-75% and 90-95% of the petroleum pollutants, respectively from the soils under study.

  10. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions.

  11. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  12. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  13. Mobile Application to Identify Indonesian Flowers on Android Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tita Karlita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many people love flowers, they do not know their name. Especially, many people do not recognize local flowers. To find the flower image, we can use search engine such as Google, but it does not give much help to find the name of local flower. Sometimes, Google cannotshow the correct name of local flowers. This study proposes an application to identify Indonesian flowers that runs on the Android platform for easy use anywhere. Flower recognition is based on the color features using the Hue-Index, shape feature using Centroid Contour Distance (CCD, and the similarity measurement using Entropy calculations. The outputs of this application are information about inputted flower image including Latinname, local name, description, distribution and ecology. Based on tests performed on 44 types of flowers with 181 images in the database, the best similarity percentage is 97.72%. With this application, people will be expected to know more about Indonesia flowers. Keywords: Indonesian flowers, android, hue-index, CCD, entropy

  14. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  15. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪安祥; 陈刚; 李均利; 池哲儒; 张亶

    2004-01-01

    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition. In this paper, we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images. For flower retrieval, we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets, Centroid-Contour Distance (CCD) and Angle Code Histogram (ACH), to characterize the shape features of a flower contour. Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions. Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest (ROI) based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard (1991) and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  16. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪安祥; 陈刚; 李均利; 池哲儒; 张亶

    2004-01-01

    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition.In this paper,we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images.For flower retrieval,we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets,Centroid-Contour Distance(CCD)and Angle Code Histogram(ACH),to characterize the shape features of a flower contour.Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions.Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest(ROD based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard(1991)and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  17. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  18. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

  19. Developmental morphology of branching flowers in Nymphaea prolifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf

    2006-11-01

    Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Flowering does not decrease vegetative competitiveness of Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo

    2009-01-01

    as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... treatments were successful in producing clones with largely differing degrees of flowering. However, we found no negative correlation between flowering and vegetative propagation and competitiveness. Early and strongly flowering southern provenances showed less clonal growth and higher mortality, but within...... provenances the response of clone diameter to flowering was positive or neutral. We conclude that investment of resources into flowering has no measurable costs on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of L. perenne. The apparent lack of costs of sexual reproduction could be explained by bet...

  1. Natural variation of the RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 contributes to flowering time divergence in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Ogiso-Tanaka

    Full Text Available In rice (Oryza sativa L., there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time-associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions.

  2. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hůla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006 rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  3. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hůla, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  4. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  5. Changes of flowering phenology and flower size in rosaceous plants from a biodiversity hotspot in the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Jia, Dong-Rui; Tian, Bin; Yang, Yong-Ping; Duan, Yuan-Wen

    2016-06-17

    Responses of plant traits to climate changes are complex, which could be mirrored by the investigations of herbarium specimens. By examining specimens of Rosa and Cotoneaster species collected since 1920s in Hengduan Mountains, we analyzed the changes of flowering phenology and flower size in the past century when climate changes were considered to be intensified. We found that flowering phenology of Rosa showed no significant change, but flowering phenology of Cotoneaster was delayed in recent years. Flower size of Rosa species showed a marginally significant decrease over the past century. The results suggested that responses of flowering time to global changes and pollinator mediated selection on floral traits might be more complex than what were expected. Our results indicated that future researches based on investigations of herbarium specimens should be carried out on multiple plant species with different flower structures and life histories to better understand the effects of climate changes on plant traits.

  6. The Early Flowers and Angiosperm Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard

    of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results......The recent discovery of diverse fossil flowers and floral organs in Cretaceous strata has revealed astonishing details about the structural and systematic diversity of early angiosperms. Exploring the rich fossil record that has accumulated over the last three decades, this is a unique study...... based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores...

  7. Functional mapping of ontogeny in flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiyang; Tong, Chunfa; Pang, Xiaoming; Wang, Zhong; Guo, Yunqian; Du, Fang; Wu, Rongling

    2012-05-01

    All organisms face the problem of how to perform a sequence of developmental changes and transitions during ontogeny. We revise functional mapping, a statistical model originally derived to map genes that determine developmental dynamics, to take into account the entire process of ontogenetic growth from embryo to adult and from the vegetative to reproductive phase. The revised model provides a framework that reconciles the genetic architecture of development at different stages and elucidates a comprehensive picture of the genetic control mechanisms of growth that change gradually from a simple to a more complex level. We use an annual flowering plant, as an example, to demonstrate our model by which to map genes and their interactions involved in embryo and postembryonic growth. The model provides a useful tool to study the genetic control of ontogenetic growth in flowering plants and any other organisms through proper modifications based on their biological characteristics.

  8. F-box proteins in flowering plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway has been shown to control several key biological processes such as cell division, development, metabolism and immune response. F-box proteins, as a part of SCF (Skp1-Cullin (or Cdc53)-F-box) complex, functioned by interacting with substrate proteins, leading to their subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. To date, several F-box proteins identified in Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum have been shown to play important roles in auxin signal transduction, floral organ formation, flowering and leaf senescence. Arabidopsis genome sequence analysis revealed that it encodes over 1000 predicted F-box proteins accounting for about 5% of total predicted proteins. These results indicate that the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation involving the F-box proteins is an important mechanism controlling plant gene expression. Here, we review the known F-box proteins and their functionsin flowering plants.

  9. Sugars, the clock and transition to flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.

  10. Photoperiodic flowering: time measurement mechanisms in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hun; Shim, Jae Sung; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Many plants use information about changing day length (photoperiod) to align their flowering time with seasonal changes to increase reproductive success. A mechanism for photoperiodic time measurement is present in leaves, and the day-length-specific induction of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which encodes florigen, is a major final output of the pathway. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which photoperiodic information is perceived in order to trigger FT expression in Arabidopsis as well as in the primary cereals wheat, barley, and rice. In these plants, the differences in photoperiod are measured by interactions between circadian-clock-regulated components, such as CONSTANS (CO), and light signaling. The interactions happen under certain day-length conditions, as previously predicted by the external coincidence model. In these plants, the coincidence mechanisms are governed by multilayered regulation with numerous conserved as well as unique regulatory components, highlighting the breadth of photoperiodic regulation across plant species.

  11. Use of procalcitonin for the diagnosis of pneumonia in patients presenting with a chief complaint of dyspnoea: results from the BACH (Biomarkers in Acute Heart Failure) trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, Alan; Neath, Sean-Xavier; Landsberg, Judd; Mueller, Christian; Nowak, Richard M.; Peacock, W. Frank; Ponikowski, Piotr; Möckel, Martin; Hogan, Christopher; Wu, Alan H.B.; Richards, Mark; Clopton, Paul; Filippatos, Gerasimos S.; Di Somma, Salvatore; Anand, Inder; Ng, Leong L.; Daniels, Lori B.; Christenson, Robert H.; Potocki, Mihael; McCord, James; Terracciano, Garret; Hartmann, Oliver; Bergmann, Andreas; Morgenthaler, Nils G.; Anker, Stefan D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Biomarkers have proven their ability in the evaluation of cardiopulmonary diseases. We investigated the utility of concentrations of the biomarker procalcitonin (PCT) alone and with clinical variables for the diagnosis of pneumonia in patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with a chief complaint of shortness of breath. Methods and results The BACH trial was a prospective, international, study of 1641 patients presenting to EDs with dyspnoea. Blood samples were analysed for PCT and other biomarkers. Relevant clinical data were also captured. Patient outcomes were assessed at 90 days. The diagnosis of pneumonia was made using strictly validated guidelines. A model using PCT was more accurate [area under the curve (AUC) 72.3%] than any other individual clinical variable for the diagnosis of pneumonia in all patients, in those with obstructive lung disease, and in those with acute heart failure (AHF). Combining physician estimates of the probability of pneumonia with PCT values increased the accuracy to >86% for the diagnosis of pneumonia in all patients. Patients with a diagnosis of AHF and an elevated PCT concentration (>0.21 ng/mL) had a worse outcome if not treated with antibiotics (P = 0.046), while patients with low PCT values (<0.05 ng/mL) had a better outcome if they did not receive antibiotic therapy (P = 0.049). Conclusion Procalcitonin may aid in the diagnosis of pneumonia, particularly in cases with high diagnostic uncertainty. Importantly, PCT may aid in the decision to administer antibiotic therapy to patients presenting with AHF in which clinical uncertainty exists regarding a superimposed bacterial infection. Trial registration: NCT00537628 PMID:22302662

  12. Plants and colour: Flowers and pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Renee; Owens, Simon J.; Rørslett, Bjørn

    2011-03-01

    While there is a range of colours found in plants the predominant colour is green. Pigments in plants have several roles e.g. photosynthesis and signalling. If colour is to be used as a signal then it must stand out from green. However, one should be aware that there are also coloured compounds where we have not yet fully investigated the role of colour in their functions—they may have roles in, for example, defence or heat exchange. In this paper, we will describe the basic chemistry of the major pigments found in plants and especially floral pigments. We will then discuss their locations in parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, pollen and nectar), the cells in which they are found and their sub-cellular locations. Floral pigments have a large role to play in pollination of flowers by animals. They can and are modified in many ways during the development of flowers in nature, for example, at emergence and post-pollination. There are a range of biochemical mechanisms of colour change both within flowers and in isolated pigments. Some of the factors influencing colour are temperature, co-pigments, pH, metals, sugars, anthocyanin stacking and cell shape. There is a renewed interest in analysing floral pigments and how they are modified partly because of advances in recombinant DNA technologies, but also because of pollinators and their significance to biodiversity and for evolutionary studies. There is continued strong interest from the horticultural industry for the introduction of new colours e.g. the blue rose and for the exploitation of natural dyes. Funding in this area may impact future research in a potentially beneficial way but it must not deflect us from science-based conservation.

  13. Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John

    2012-12-01

    The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants.

  14. The Exquisite Brushwork of Lotus Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Jin Na’s graduation work entitled Lotus Flowers is housed in the collection at the Central Academy of Fine Arts. Jin succeeded in creating a harmonious integral whole which yielded splendid. ambiguous and pleasing visual effects. In recent years. Jin Na has stressed tine relationship of the consciousness of mankind with society and nature. Jin, an exquisite female artist. attempts to express romantic sentiment as obscure dreams.

  15. Listening to the sound of flower blooming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN; Wei-fang

    2015-01-01

    The most beautiful thing in our life is the first glance,and the most beautiful point of fireworks is its evanescent bloom.Thing’s beautiful is usually due to its evanescent exist.It might exist shortly but in our mind for a long time.As for me,the most beautiful thing is to listen to the sound of flower blooming.

  16. Fibonacci, quasicrystals and the beauty of flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, John

    2012-01-01

    The appearance of Fibonacci sequences and the golden ratio in plant structures is one of the great outstanding puzzles of biology. Here I suggest that quasicrystals, which naturally pack in the golden ratio, may be ubiquitous in biological systems and introduce the golden ratio into plant phyllotaxy. The appearance of golden ratio-based structures as beautiful indicates that the golden ratio may play a role in the development of consciousness and lead to the aesthetic natural selection of flowering plants. PMID:23072998

  17. Biology of flowering and nectar production in the flowers of the beauty bush (Kolkwitzia amabilis Graebn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Dmitruk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nectar production and the morphology of the nectary and pollen grains of Kolwitzia amabilis Graebn. were studied during the period 2008–2009 and in 2011. The blooming of beauty bush flowers started in the third decade of May and ended in the middle of June; flowering lasted 22–23 days. The flower life span was 4–5 days. Nectar production began at the bud break stage. The tube of the corolla in beauty bush flowers forms a spur inside which the nectary is located. The secretory surface of the nectary consists of two layers of glandular epidermal outgrowths: unicellular trichomes, with their length ranging 54.6 μm – 70.2 μm, and papillae with a length of 13.0 μm – 20.6 μm. The mean weight of nectar per 10 flowers, determined for the three years of the study, was 8.6 mg, with a sugar concentration of 50.8%. The weight of nectar sugar was on average 4.4 mg. In terms of the size, beauty bush pollen grains are classified as medium-sized. These are tricolporate grains.

  18. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised, wh

  19. Is the flower fluorescence relevant in biocommunication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2010-10-01

    Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.

  20. Molecular aspects of flower development in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaffi, Mario; Paolacci, Anna Rita; Tanzarella, Oronzo Antonio; Porceddu, Enrico

    2011-12-01

    The grass family (Poaceae) of the monocotyledons includes about 10,000 species and represents one of the most important taxa among angiosperms. Their flower morphology is remarkably different from those of other monocotyledons and higher eudicots. The peculiar floral structure of grasses is the floret, which contains carpels and stamens, like eudicots, but lacks petals and sepals. The reproductive organs are surrounded by two lodicules, which correspond to eudicot petals, and by a palea and lemma, whose correspondence to eudicot organs remains controversial. The molecular and genetic analysis of floral morphogenesis and organ specification, primarily performed in eudicot model species, led to the ABCDE model of flower development. Several genes required for floral development in grasses correspond to class A, B, C, D, and E genes of eudicots, but others appear to have unique and diversified functions. In this paper, we outline the present knowledge on the evolution and diversification of grass genes encoding MIKC-type MADS-box transcription factors, based on information derived from studies in rice, maize, and wheat. Moreover, we review recent advances in studying the genes involved in the control of flower development and the extent of structural and functional conservation of these genes between grasses and eudicots.

  1. Flower Bud Differentiation in Quercus suber L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Varela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Cork oak (Quercus suber L. is one of the most important forest species growing in the Western Mediterranean region. This investigation intends to assess the timing of flowering differentiation of cork oak and contribute to the deepening of the knowledge about the process of the sexual reproduction of the species. Materials and Methods: In 2010 four trees were selected (9, 14, 24, 25 from a plot of 25 trees located at Quinta da Serra, Portugal. A total of 240 buds were collected from these four trees, on three days (8, 14 and 23 March, from 4 branches per tree and 5 positions per branch for the assessment of meristem differentiation. Results: Meristem differentiation analysed on the sampling days revealed there were only vegetative structures by 8 March; a few male and female primordia on 14 March; and fully differentiated reproductive structures on 23 March. Conclusions: Flowering sex determination of cork oak occurs about one month before the flowering onset.

  2. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...

  3. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities, and presents the key steps for implementing a remediation plan. A checklist is provided for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary,…

  4. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  5. Development and countermeasures of flower industry in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Yunan has attracted great attention from the world for its ideal location, advantaged climatic condition, rich biological resources and cheap labor forces. All these advantaged conditions make Yunnan become one of the most potential places in the world for flower production and trade. In recent wars, more and more foreign companies from different countries have forestalled their facilities in Yunnan, joining in the development process of Yunnan floriculture industry. The flower industry in Yunnan Province started to develop towards the end of the 1980s. Flower was only planted one hectare output totaled 35,000 yuan, and the planting area of the flower had 17,000ha and the sales volume of the flowers had 6 billion yuan in 2006. Yunnan Province accounts for 50% of the nation's total cut flower production. Yunnan's. flower industry, has become Asia's largest fresh, cut flower production and export base and sprout breeding and production base. And it has stepped into one of the major flesh-cut flower production areas in the world and a modern flower trading center that is leading in China.

  6. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1-120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research.

  7. Lichens promote flowering Opuntia fragilis in west-central Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.

  8. Developing a method for customized induction of flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macknight Richard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to induce flowering on demand is of significant biotechnological interest. FT protein has been recently identified as an important component of the mobile flowering hormone, florigen, whose function is conserved across the plant kingdom. We therefore focused on manipulation of both endogenous and heterologous FT genes to develop a floral induction system where flowering would be inhibited until it was induced on demand. The concept was tested in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis. Results Our starting point was plants with strongly delayed flowering due to silencing of FT with an artificial microRNA directed at FT (amiR-FT 1. First, we showed that constitutive expression of a heterologous FT gene (FTa1, from the model legume Medicago truncatula, (Medicago was able to rescue the amiR-FT late-flowering phenotype. In order to induce flowering in a controlled way, the FTa1 gene was then expressed under the control of an alcohol-inducible promoter in the late flowering amiR-FT plants. Upon exposure to ethanol, FTa1 was rapidly up regulated and this resulted in the synchronous induction of flowering. Conclusions We have thus demonstrated a controlled-inducible flowering system using a novel combination of endogenous and heterologous FT genes. The universal florigenic nature of FT suggests that this type of system should be applicable to crops of economic value where flowering control is desirable.

  9. Immunohistochemical study of the Nrf2 pathway in colorectal cancer: Nrf2 expression is closely correlated to Keap1 in the tumor and Bach1 in the normal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Che; Fan, Chung-Wei; Tseng, Wen-Ko; Chen, Jim-Ray; Chein, Hui-Ping; Hwang, Cheng-Cheng; Hua, Chung-Ching

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress is a contributing factor in the carcinogenesis of colorectal cancer. The Nrf2 [nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2; NFE2L2] pathway is one of the major cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. This study investigated the expression of the Nrf2 pathway in colorectal cancer. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue arrays consisting of the tumor, adjacent normal, and distant normal tissues from the resected specimens of 83 colorectal cancer patients were subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC) staining with antibodies against Nrf2, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), p21, P62, Parkinson protein 7 (Park7), prohibitin, BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1), CD34 and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). The mean IHC density of each IHC staining was digitally analyzed. The results showed that molecules of the Nrf2 pathway were actively expressed, with different expression profiles among the tumor and normal tissues. The oxidative stress, represented by the mean IHC staining density of 8-OHdG, did not differ but was correlated with the expressions of different Nrf2 pathway molecules to a varied extent in tumor and normal tissues of colorectal cancer. Keap1 [estimate, 0.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.19-0.79] and Bach1 (estimate, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.11-0.38) were significant predictors for the expression of 8-OHdG and had the closest proximity to Nrf2 in the cluster dendrogram of the tumor and distant normal tissues, respectively. Advanced stage (estimate, 14.9; 95% CI, 2.99-26.8) and current smoker (estimate, 15.6; 95% CI, 1.92-29.3) were significant predictors with high estimates for Bach1 in the adjacent and distant normal tissues, respectively. In colorectal cancer, the molecules of the Nrf2 pathway have different expression profiles and a difference in their importance, especially Keap1 and Bach1, related to Nrf2 and oxidative stress among tumor and normal tissues.

  10. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi [BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  11. ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 negatively regulates flowering through directly promoting Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS C transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Kai; Chen, Qian; Wu, Yaorong; Liu, Ruijun; Zhang, Huawei; Wang, Shengfu; Tang, Sanyuan; Yang, Wenyu; Xie, Qi

    2016-01-01

    During the life cycle of a plant, one of the major biological processes is the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. In Arabidopsis, flowering time is precisely controlled by extensive environmental and internal cues. Gibberellins (GAs) promote flowering, while abscisic acid (ABA) is considered as a flowering suppressor. However, the detailed mechanism through which ABA inhibits the floral transition is poorly understood. Here, we report that ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE 4 (ABI4), a key component in the ABA signalling pathway, negatively regulates floral transition by directly promoting FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) transcription. The abi4 mutant showed the early flowering phenotype whereas ABI4-overexpressing (OE-ABI4) plants had delayed floral transition. Consistently, quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) assay revealed that the FLC transcription level was down-regulated in abi4, but up-regulated in OE-ABI4. The change in FT level was consistent with the pattern of FLC expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR (ChIP-qPCR), electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and tobacco transient expression analysis showed that ABI4 promotes FLC expression by directly binding to its promoter. Genetic analysis demonstrated that OE-ABI4::flc-3 could not alter the flc-3 phenotype. OE-FLC::abi4 showed a markedly delayed flowering phenotype, which mimicked OE-FLC::WT, and suggested that ABI4 acts upstream of FLC in the same genetic pathway. Taken together, these findings suggest that ABA inhibits the floral transition by activating FLC transcription through ABI4. PMID:26507894

  12. Introduction: Mediating and Remediating Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...

  13. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  14. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  15. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  16. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  17. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  18. 几种花卉对铅积累能力的比较研究%Comparative Study on Pb Accumulation Capabilities of Several Flowers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔爽; 孙秀菊; 刘艺芸; 张丹

    2014-01-01

    In order to search flower plants which could purify and beautify Pb -contaminated environ-ment,3 kinds of flowers were screened to determine their soil remediation abilities by pot method.The results showed that Godetia amoena had the strongest capability of accumulating Pb in aerial part,followed by Limoni-um sinuatum,and Malope trifida had the weakest.When the Pb concentration was 1 000 mg/kg,3 kinds of flowers all exhibited strong endurance,which could be used for soil stabilization remediation.%为寻找铅污染土壤净化和景观化的花卉植物,采用盆栽方法,研究了3种花卉对铅污染土壤的修复能力。结果表明,3种花卉中送春花(Godetia amoena)地上部吸收富集铅的量最大,积累铅能力最强,其次为勿忘我(Limonium sinuatum),马络葵(Malope trifida)吸收积累铅能力最弱。在Pb浓度为1000 mg/kg 时,3种花卉耐性均较强,可用作铅污染土壤的稳定修复植物。

  19. Control of the first flowering in forest trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalupka, W. [Inst. od Dendrology, Kornik (Poland); Cecich, R.A. [U.S.D.A.-Forest Service, Columbia, MO (United States). North Central Forest Experiment Station

    1997-04-01

    Precocious flowering provides opportunities to shorten a breeding cycle. A tree may flower for the first time when sufficient crown development has occurred and there are enough meristems to support both vegetative and reproductive buds. Precocious flowering can be promoted through the use of cultural techniques, such as photoperiod, accelerated growth, gibberellins and water stress. The length of the juvenile phase is dependent on genetic and environmental variables that affect achievement of a minimum size, and is positively correlated with the height of the plants within a family. Selection pressure can be applied successfully to the precocious flowering character, and crossed or inbred lines of precocious flowering progeny can be developed. Various levels and amounts of genetic control have been implicated in the control of precocious flowering. 90 refs, 1 tab

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daofeng Liu

    Full Text Available Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in

  1. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  2. Pharmacognostical Studies on Flower of Tribulus terrestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamdouh N. Samy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tribulus terrestris L. (family Zygophyllaceae is a prostrate branched herb. The stems have monopodial branching and carry opposite compound paripinnate leaves and yellow simple flowers. The fruit is schizocarpic. The present paper deals with comprehensive pharmacognostical studies on flower part of this plant, including macroscopical and microscopical studies of flower. This will help in the identification of powder drug prior using in any herbal formulations.

  3. THE USE OF A FLOWERING STABILITY INDEX FOR BIOCUMATIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. BASSI

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Finlay and Wilkinson analysis was used to study the stability, over 21 years. of the beginning of flowering of 53 species. This approach allows to study the behaviour of a siegle species in respect to the average behaviour of all species. Twenty-one out of 25 docile species are sensitive, while the remaining 4 are docile (their beginning of flowering time was relatively constant. The 28 recalcitrant species are characterized by unpredictability in Lbe beginning of flowering time.

  4. Endogenous auxin regulates the sensitivity of Dendrobium (cv. Miss Teen) flower pedicel abscission to ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rungruchkanont, K.; Ketsa, S.; Chatchawankanphanich, O.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Dendrobium flower buds and flowers have an abscission zone at the base of the pedicel (flower stalk). Ethylene treatment of cv. Miss Teen inflorescences induced high rates of abscission in flower buds but did not affect abscission once the flowers had opened. It is not known if auxin is a regulator

  5. 'Who's who' in two different flower types of Calluna vulgaris (Ericaceae: morphological and molecular analyses of flower organ identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Katja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ornamental crop Calluna vulgaris is of increasing importance to the horticultural industry in the northern hemisphere due to a flower organ mutation: the flowers of the 'bud-flowering' phenotype remain closed i.e. as buds throughout the total flowering period and thereby maintain more colorful flowers for a longer period of time than the wild-type. This feature is accompanied and presumably caused by the complete lack of stamens. Descriptions of this botanical particularity are inconsistent and partially conflicting. In order to clarify basic questions of flower organ identity in general and stamen loss in detail, a study of the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' flower type of C. vulgaris was initiated. Results Flowers were examined by macro- and microscopic techniques. Organ development was investigated comparatively in both the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' type by histological analyses. Analysis of epidermal cell surface structure of vegetative tissues and perianth organs using scanning electron microscopy revealed that in wild-type flowers the outer whorls of colored organs may be identified as sepals, while the inner ones may be identified as petals. In the 'bud-flowering' type, two whorls of sepals are directly followed by the gynoecium. Both, petals and stamens, are completely missing in this flower type. The uppermost whorl of green leaves represents bracts in both flower types. In addition, two MADS-box genes (homologs of AP3/DEF and SEP1/2 were identified in C. vulgaris using RACE-PCR. Expression analysis by qRT-PCR was conducted for both genes in leaves, bracts, sepals and petals. These experiments revealed an expression pattern supporting the organ classification based on morphological characteristics. Conclusions Organ identity in both wild-type and 'bud-flowering' C. vulgaris was clarified using a combination of microscopic and molecular methods. Our results for bract, sepal and petal organ identity are

  6. Respiration rate of gamma irradiation carnation cut flowers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Todoriki, Setsuko; Nakahara, Kazuhiko; Haysahi, Toru [National Food Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    The present paper presents the CO{sub 2} production of the carnation cut flowers gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 750 Gy. The cut flowers were soaked in preservative solutions, containing germicides or germicides plus 2% sucrose. The irradiation did not change the CO{sub 2} production and did not cause any visible flower damage. The sucrose exogenous supply extended the vase-life of both irradiated and non-irradiated carnations. These results indicated that Nora carnation cut flower can be irradiated with 750 Gy without commercial viability loss and that it is possible to use the radiation to disinfect this fresh product. (author)

  7. Ozone and infection of geranium flowers by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-01-01

    Flowering plants of geranium cultivars were exposed to 0.2, 0.35, and 0.55 ppm ozone for 4-hr periods at 20/sup 0/C in a greenhouse fumigation chamber. Three fully-opened flower heads were sprayed with a spore suspension of Botrytis cinerea at 2000, 1000, or 500 spores/ml immediately before exposure to ozone began. Sterile distilled water was sprayed on noninoculated flower heads. All flowers were examined for evidence of infection 24 hr after the end of the ozone-exposure periods. All flower heads were then removed and placed in wet, loosely tied plastic bags and incubated at 20/sup 0/C for 72 hr, with examination at 24-hr intervals for evidence of infection. Ozone at 0.2 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent or inhibit flower infection by B. cinerea at all inoculum levels. Natural infection also occurred on some noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.35 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent infection, but did inhibit pathogenesis at the 500-spore/ml inoculum level and on noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.55 ppm caused moderate injury on all plants. Ozone at this level did not prevent infection, but did restrict pathogenesis on all inoculated and noninoculated flowers.

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ROSA CANINA FLOWERS AGAINST SELECTED MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Rovná

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rosa canina flowers were screened against various plant pathogenic microbial strains to study the antimicrobial properties of the plant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of flowers were screened applying agar well diffusion method against two Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960 and three microscopic filamentous fungi strains Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata, respectively. The best antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the best antimicrobial effect of methanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Escherichia coli.

  9. Flowering of Areca catechu in Bogor Botanic Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Yudaputra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Areca catechu is a species of palms that widely distributed in Indonesia. This palm has unique characteristics and important roles of a tropical forest ecosystem. Indonesian local tribes used seed of this palm for traditionaly medicinal purposes. Information regarding of flowering of A.catechu is valuabe to support a genetic improvement program. Currently, the flowering information about this palm is still lack, thereby study that related with flowering of A. catechu is important to be conducted. This study aimed to provide information about the flowering of A.catechu species. The observation was started with randomly selection of three individuals A. catechu from the Moluccas island. There were 3 main observations which done in this study, included the observation of flowering phases period, morphological changes of each phases, and the micro-climate factors. Flowering A. catechu was categorized into 4 phases, including initiation, bud towards anthesis, anthesis and young fruit to maturity. Each of flowering phases have a different time. The flowering phases were not directly influenced by micro-climate factors. Trigona laeviceps was the most dominant insect visitor and wind was an abiotic factors that influenced the flowering of A. catechu.

  10. Natural soil microbes alter flowering phenology and the intensity of selection on flowering time in a wild Arabidopsis relative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Maggie R; Lundberg, Derek S; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Tringe, Susannah G; Dangl, Jeffery L; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Plant phenology is known to depend on many different environmental variables, but soil microbial communities have rarely been acknowledged as possible drivers of flowering time. Here, we tested separately the effects of four naturally occurring soil microbiomes and their constituent soil chemistries on flowering phenology and reproductive fitness of Boechera stricta, a wild relative of Arabidopsis. Flowering time was sensitive to both microbes and the abiotic properties of different soils; varying soil microbiota also altered patterns of selection on flowering time. Thus, soil microbes potentially contribute to phenotypic plasticity of flowering time and to differential selection observed between habitats. We also describe a method to dissect the microbiome into single axes of variation that can help identify candidate organisms whose abundance in soil correlates with flowering time. This approach is broadly applicable to search for microbial community members that alter biological characteristics of interest.

  11. Analysis of "Father of Music " Bach "s Art Feature%“音乐之父”巴赫艺术特征浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭静

    2012-01-01

    德国最伟大的作曲家之一约翰.赛巴斯蒂安.巴赫,他的音乐作品对欧洲近代音乐的发展产生了极其深远的影响,为全人类音乐的进步和发展做出了巨大贡献,为世界古典音乐树立了一座丰碑,因此,把巴赫称为"西方音乐之父",是后人对巴赫的最好评价。%Germany, one of the greatest composers John Sebastian Bach, his music had a profound effect on the development of modern European music.He made a great contribution to the progress and development of all mankind music, and established a monument to the world of classical music. Therefore, Bach is the best evaluation of the descendants, referred to as "the father of Western music" .

  12. The strength of assortative mating for flowering date and its basis in individual variation in flowering schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, A E; Nardone, E; Fox, G A

    2014-10-01

    Although it has been widely asserted that plants mate assortatively by flowering time, there is virtually no published information on the strength or causes of phenological assortment in natural populations. When strong, assortative mating can accelerate the evolution of plant reproductive phenology through its inflationary effect on genetic variance. We estimated potential assortative mating for flowering date in 31 old-field species in Ontario, Canada. For each species, we constructed a matrix of pairwise mating probabilities from the individual flowering schedules, that is the number of flower deployed on successive dates. The matrix was used to estimate the phenotypic correlation between mates, ρ, for flowering date. We also developed a measure of flowering synchrony within species, S, based upon the eigenstructure of the mating matrix. The mean correlation between pollen recipients and potential donors for flowering date was ρ=0.31 (range: 0.05-0.63). A strong potential for assortative mating was found among species with high variance in flowering date, flowering schedules of short duration and skew towards early flower deployment. Flowering synchrony, S, was negatively correlated with potential assortment (r= -0.49), but we go on to show that although low synchrony is a necessary condition for phenological assortative mating, it may not be sufficient to induce assortment for a given phenological trait. The potential correlation between mates showed no seasonal trend; thus, as climate change imposes selection on phenology through longer growing seasons, spring-flowering species are no more likely to experience an accelerated evolutionary response than summer species.

  13. Flower power? Potential benefits and pitfalls of using (flowering) vegetation for conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, F.L.; Rijn, van P.C.J.; Winkler, K.; Olson, D.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas nectar and pollen provision to predators and parasitoids is often a main objective in pursuing agricultural biodiversity, we generally know little about whether the flowering plant species involved are actually suitable as insect food sources or what their ultimate impact is on biological pe

  14. Flower power? Potential benefits and pitfalls of using (flowering) vegetation for conservation biological control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wackers, F.L.; Rijn, van P.C.J.; Winkler, K.; Olson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas nectar and pollen provision to predators and parasitoids is a main objective in pursuing agricultural biodiversity, we often know little about whether the flowering plant species involved are actually suitable as insect food sources or about their ultimate impact on biological pest control.

  15. Medicinal flowers. XXX. Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F-M, from the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2009-08-01

    Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F (1), G (2), H (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), L (7), and M (8), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  16. STREPTOCARPUS - FLOWERING POT PLANT - PROPAGATION AND CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CANTOR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last years in Romania and throughout the world we assist at diversification of floral plants assortment by introducing new species and cultivars. For this goal, at the University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, Floriculture Department we diversified and enriched the collection for indoor plants with a pot species, which decorates by flowers, Streptocarpus x hybridus. In this work are presented the main morphological and biological characteristics, propagation by seeds and vegetative propagation, growth requirements, the main diseases and pests of this species, in order to recommend it for indoor culture.

  17. 派诺特的Flower Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Cass

    2013-01-01

    想不通为什么办公室植物一直养不活?想种出完美的玫瑰?将价格为60美元的Flower Power(也来自派诺特公司)插入土中.就可能得到答案。两个叉脚测量电容以及当前水量:叉脚上面的金属凸点测量电阻:

  18. Stylish lengths: Mate choice in flowers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B T Ramesha; M D Yetish; G Ravikanth; K N Ganeshaiah; Jaboury Ghazoul; R Uma Shaanker

    2011-06-01

    The styles of flowers may represent an arena for pollen competition in the race to fertilize ovules. Accordingly, selection should favour a longer ‘race’ to better discriminate among variable pollen by increasing style length. Sampling across a taxonomically diverse range of wild and outcrossed species, we found that the distribution of style lengths within plants were skewed towards longer styles, as predicted. In self-pollinated domesticated species, where discrimination among pollen is less important, we found no such pattern. We conclude that style length is under directional selection towards longer styles as a mechanism for mate choice among pollen of variable quality.

  19. Inter- and intra-annual variability of fluvial sediment transport in the proglacial river Riffler Bach (Weißseeferner, Ötztal Alps, Tyrol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    The hydrology of a proglacial river is strongly affected by glacier melting. Due to glacier retreat the effects of snow melt and rain storms will become more important in future decades. Additionally, the development of periglacial landscapes will play a more important role in the hydrology of proglacial rivers. The importance of paraglacial sediment sources in sediment budgets of glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. In two consecutive ablation seasons the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach in the Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) was quantified. The catchment area of this station is 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m above msl. The "Weißseeferner" glacier (2.34 km² in 2012) is the greatest of the remaining glaciers. An automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and a probe for water level were installed were installed at the outlet of the catchment. In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load (BL) samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In 2012, 154 water samples were sampled during 7 periods and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). A Q-SSC-relation was calculated for every period due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport. In addition, the grain size distribution of the filtered material was determined by laser diffraction analysis. In 2013, the same procedure was performed for 232 water samples which were collected during 9 periods. Meteorological data were logged at the climate station "Weißsee", which is located in the centre of the study area. First results show a high variability of discharge and solid sediment transport both at the inter-annual as well as at the intra

  20. Identification of flowering genes in strawberry, a perennial SD plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantanen Marja

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We are studying the regulation of flowering in perennial plants by using diploid wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L. as a model. Wild strawberry is a facultative short-day plant with an obligatory short-day requirement at temperatures above 15°C. At lower temperatures, however, flowering induction occurs irrespective of photoperiod. In addition to short-day genotypes, everbearing forms of wild strawberry are known. In 'Baron Solemacher' recessive alleles of an unknown repressor, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS (SFL, are responsible for continuous flowering habit. Although flower induction has a central effect on the cropping potential, the molecular control of flowering in strawberries has not been studied and the genetic flowering pathways are still poorly understood. The comparison of everbearing and short-day genotypes of wild strawberry could facilitate our understanding of fundamental molecular mechanisms regulating perennial growth cycle in plants. Results We have searched homologs for 118 Arabidopsis flowering time genes from Fragaria by EST sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and identified 66 gene homologs that by sequence similarity, putatively correspond to genes of all known genetic flowering pathways. The expression analysis of 25 selected genes representing various flowering pathways did not reveal large differences between the everbearing and the short-day genotypes. However, putative floral identity and floral integrator genes AP1 and LFY were co-regulated during early floral development. AP1 mRNA was specifically accumulating in the shoot apices of the everbearing genotype, indicating its usability as a marker for floral initiation. Moreover, we showed that flowering induction in everbearing 'Baron Solemacher' and 'Hawaii-4' was inhibited by short-day and low temperature, in contrast to short-day genotypes. Conclusion We have shown that many central genetic components of the flowering pathways in Arabidopsis can

  1. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  2. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  3. Porous graphene materials for water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-09-10

    Water remediation has been a critical issue over the past decades due to the expansion of wastewater discharge to the environment. Currently, a variety of functional materials have been successfully prepared for water remediation applications. Among them, graphene is an attractive candidate due to its high specific surface area, tunable surface behavior, and high strength. This Concept paper summarizes the design strategy of porous graphene materials and their applications in water remediation, such as the cleanup of oil, removal of heavy metal ions, and elimination of water soluble organic contaminants. The progress made so far will guide further development in structure design strategy of porous materials based on graphene and exploration of such materials in environmental remediation.

  4. List of Contractors to Support Anthrax Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document responds to a need identified by private sector businesses for information on contractors that may be qualified to support building remediation efforts following a wide-area anthrax release.

  5. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...

  6. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  7. Electrokinetic remediation of unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Mattson, E.D. (SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Large spills and leaks can contaminate both the soil above the water table as well as the aquifer itself. Electrodes are implanted in the soil, and a direct current is imposed between the electrodes. The application of direct current leads to a number of effects: ionic species and charged particles in the soil water will migrate to the oppositely charged electrode (electromigration and electrophoresis), and concomitant with this migration, a bulk flow of water is induced, usually toward the cathode (electroosmosis). The combination of these phenomena leads to a movement of contaminants toward the electrodes. The direction of contaminant movement will be determined by a number of factors, among which are type and concentration of contaminant, soil type and structure, interfacial chemistry of the soil-water system, and the current density in the soil pore water. Contaminants arriving at the electrodes may potentially be removed from the soil by one of several methods, such as electroplating or adsorption onto the electrode, precipitation or co-precipitation at the electrode, pumping of water near the electrode, or complexing with ion-exchange resins. Experimental results are described on the removal of sodium dichromate and food dye from soil.

  8. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  9. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  10. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  11. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2003-03-06

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  12. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  13. On the Importance of Default Breach Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Sloof, Randolph; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Sonnemans, Joep

    2006-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment designed to address the importance of default breach remedies for actual contract outcomes. We find that default rules do have an influence. The reason for this is not that contract proposals and/or r...

  14. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  15. ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEPIDAGATHIS CRISTATA WILLD FLOWER EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purma Aravinda Reddy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to screen the Lepidagathis cristata Willd, flower extracts for analgesic activity. In the present study the analgesic activity of flower extracts was performed. The methanolic, ethyl acetate, chloroform extracts were prepared and were used for analgesic activity in two dose level of 200 and 400mg/kg body weight in two screening methods, Hot Plate (n=5 and Tail Immersion method (n=5. The flower extracts showed significant analgesic activity. The plant extracts did not exhibit any mortality up to the dose level 4000mg/kg. The methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of flower was evaluated for analgesic activity. The flower ethyl acetate extract of Lepidagathis cristata showed 47% and 57.1% activity at 200 and 400mg/kg.b.wt, after 30 min by Eddy’s Hot plate Method respectively. The flower chloroform extract showed 43.7% and 44.7% protection at 200, 400mg/kg respectively. The flower methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed dose dependent analgesic activity in thermal models. The flower ethylacetate extract has maximum analgesic activity with 57.1% (p < 0.001c.

  16. Opening of Iris flowers is regulated by endogenous auxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Dole, I.; Celikel, F.G.; Harkema, H.

    2013-01-01

    Flower opening in Iris (Iris x hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of horm

  17. Delay of Iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van W.G.; Celikel, F.G.; Pak, C.; Harkema, H.

    2013-01-01

    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or aux

  18. Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W

    2014-04-01

    Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.

  19. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  20. Organic Flower Bulbs From Holland - Outlook for the French Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Elise

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial f

  1. In vitro flowering and pollen viability of cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers were produced on sterile cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants grown in vitro from seed or from micropropagated shoots from stem fragments. Highest numbers of flowers on plants from both sources were produced on hormone-free MS medium as well as with 6 µM of kinetin (MSK). Plants cultured on ...

  2. Flowering phenology, pollen flow and fruit production in the andean shrub Befaria resinosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melampy, M N

    1987-09-01

    In the eastern Andes of Colombia, the shrub Befaria resinosa (Ericaceae) has peaks of flowering that are separated by extended periods of low flower production. The effect that these fluctuations in flower production have on pollen flow was investigated by using fluorescent dye as a pollen analog. Dye applied to open flowers was dispersed over long distances more often during low flower production than during high flower production. Whether enhanced pollen dispersal during flowering lows is of benefit to individual plants is not clear. The proportion of flowers that set fruit is positively correlated with flower abundance, negating the possibility that increased pollen dispersal results in a higher rate of fruit production due to outbreeding effects. It is also difficult to attribute the pattern of fruit production to changes in pollinator visitation rates, which are negatively correlated with flower abundance in the case of hummingbirds and not correlated at all with flower abundance in the case of insects. An opportunistic, large-bodied hummingbird (Colibri coruscans) visits B. resinosa during high flowering and may be a particularly effective pollinator, accounting for some of the increase in the proportion of flowers setting fruit. Rainfall is positively correlated with flower production and may be an important factor in shaping flowering phenology, but it is not significantly correlated with the proportion of flowers setting fruits. The possibility that low-level flowering may counteract inbreeding that results from peak flowering is discussed.

  3. Mechanism of supercooling in flower bud of Camellia oleifea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏维埃; 潘良文

    1995-01-01

    It is the first time for MRI to be used in the research of flower buds supercooling. Directobservation on freezing course of living flower buds of Camellia yuhsienensis by MRI and tissue browning test showed that freezing order of the flower organs is bud axis, scale, petal, pistil and stamen. It is coincident with the direction of ice development from bud axes to flower organs upwards. The corresponding results from MRI and freezing-fixation showed that the water translocation from flower organs to axes and scales is carried on in the course of bud freezing. ’H spectral measurement of NMR was used to follow the decrease of unfrozen water in the buds during the cooling.

  4. The regulation of seasonal flowering in the Rosaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo

    2013-11-01

    Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.

  5. Pistil Development in 2 Types of Flowers of Xanthoceras sorbifolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Qing; Gao Shumin; Li Fenglan

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate flower development and female abortion during sex differentiation of Xanthoceras sorbifolia, anatomical observations and comparative study on differential proteins were carried out in different developmental stages of two types of flowers of this species. It was found that the selective abortion happened in male flower before the formation of megasporocyte. Special proteins related to the female abortion were found through 2-dimensional electrophoretic analysis. Protein A1 (14.2 kD) only existed in florescence of male flower, while B1 (13.7 kD) and B2 (18.2 kD) disappeared in that stage of male flower. They were all considered to be relative to pistil abortion of Xanthoceras sorbifolia.

  6. "Bach" Uncoded%《BACH 解密》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓生

    2008-01-01

    @@ 前言 一书是专著--巴赫的总结与衍生.篇幅浩瀚逾150万字之巨的上述对巴赫的专论对这部历来被奉为"音乐圣经--旧约"的原作中每一首前奏及赋格从每个细节到结构整体都做到精密十分详尽的分析.在研究的过程中,作者同时深入地感受并发现了隐藏在巴赫音乐内部的潜在秘密.这些"秘密"有些是前人已有所发现而被作者进一步研究所延伸;有些则是作者所独立新发现的.

  7. The flavonoid pathway regulates the petal colors of cotton flower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Tan

    Full Text Available Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development.

  8. [Pharmaceutical food science: search for anti-obese constituents from medicinal foods-anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from the flowers of Bellis perennis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Muraoka, Osamu; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2010-05-01

    Among a variety of food materials, some are being used as resources of traditional, alternative, and/or complementary medicines all over the world. These medicinal foods are known to have not only nutritive and taste values but also medicinal effects, and they are prescribed in various traditional preparations. Regarding this point, we focused on exploring bioactive constituents in these medicinal foods, which would be applicable to remedy so-called metabolic syndrome. In this review, our recent studies on anti-hyperlipidemic saponin constituents from flowers of Bellis perennis are described.

  9. Promoting flowering, lateral shoot outgrowth, leaf development, and flower abscission in tobacco plants overexpressing cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-like gene GhFT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong

    2015-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  10. Promoting Flowering, Lateral Shoot Outgrowth, Leaf Development, and Flower Abscission in Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Cotton FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT-Like Gene GhFT1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggested that sufficient level of foreign FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.

  11. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tolt, T.L. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-11-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO{sub 2}, U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS.

  12. A model describing the flowering of single plants, and the heritability of flowering traits of Dimorphotheca pluvialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, L.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Elberse, I.A.M.; Dolstra, O.

    1999-01-01

    In the development of new crops such as Dimorphoteca pluvialis (L.) Moench, improvement of flowering synchronisation is an important breeding objective. The flowering of single plants of Dimorphotheca pluvialis could be described by a logistic curve obtained by the regression of cumulative number of

  13. WRKY71 accelerates flowering via the direct activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T and LEAFY in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanchong; Liu, Zhenhua; Wang, Long; Kim, Sang-Gyu; Seo, Pil J; Qiao, Meng; Wang, Nan; Li, Shuo; Cao, Xiaofeng; Park, Chung-Mo; Xiang, Fengning

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is crucial for achieving reproductive success. A large number of well-delineated factors affecting flowering are involved in complex genetic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, the underlying part played by the WRKY transcription factors in this process is not yet clear. Here, we report that WRKY71 is able to accelerate flowering in Arabidopsis. An activation-tagged mutant WRKY71-1D and a constitutive over-expresser of WRKY71 both flowered earlier than the wild type (WT). In contrast, both the RNA interference-based multiple WRKY knock-out mutant (w71w8 + 28RNAi) and the dominant repression line (W71-SRDX) flowered later. Gene expression analysis showed that the transcript abundance of the flowering time integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and the floral meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1) and FRUITFULL (FUL) were greater in WRKY71-1D than in the WT, but lower in w71w8 + 28RNAi and W71-SRDX. Further, WRKY71 was shown to bind to the W-boxes in the FT and LFY promoters in vitro and in vivo. The suggestion is that WRKY71 activity hastens flowering via the direct activation of FT and LFY.

  14. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi T Makino

    Full Text Available When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies, and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  15. The flowering pattern of Arnica montana L. and A. chamissonis Less. under field cultivation conditions with successive flower head collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Sugier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research on the flowering of Arnica montana L. and A. chamissonis Less. was carried out in the years 2005-2006 on two- and three-year plantations on grey-brown podsolic soil with the granulometric composition of heavy clay sand. The aim of the work was to determine the pattern and length of flowering of two- and three-year-old plants under field cultivation conditions with successive flower head collection. The flowering of Arnica montana in both years of study lasted 26 days (from the 28th of May to the 22nd of June. In this period, eight collections of flower heads were made. When analyzing the number of inflorescences gathered during particular collections, it was concluded that at the initial stage of flowering it was not great, but it successively increased with the passage of time up to the seventh collection. The pattern of flowering of the two- and three-year-old Arnica montana plants was similar. The inflorescences of Arnica chamissonis were collected six times, and the most abundant flowering was found in the middle period of this stage, which lasted 20 days.

  16. 巴赫型音乐对波普尔“客观知识”学说的影响%The Influence of Bach-Type Music on Popper's Thought of Objective Knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何超

    2012-01-01

    摘耍:波普尔的“客客观知识”在其客观性属性上,类似于超脱贝多芬的自我性、体现客观美感的巴赫型音乐。巴赫音乐音符与音符之间具有严谨又不失美感的客观秩序、不能被理性所摒弃的严密的数的逻辑构架,其客观性诉求与波普尔寻求超脱于主观、从而能够在客观形式中达到统一的知识类型——“客观知识”学说建构之间,存在发生学关联,直接导致波普尔对世界2与世界3的医分。巴赫型音乐对于波普尔科学哲学的深刻影响,为音乐与科学、哲学之间的彼此通约,提供了典型的个案。关键词:波普尔;巴赫型音乐;贝多芬;客观知识;世界3%The objective style of Bach type music enlightens in depth the thought of "objective knowledge" proposed by Karl Popper. Beethoven's music gives expression to "subjective" appeal, while Bach-type music, "subjective" soberness and reason in style. Karl Popper's "objective knowledge" is based on the partition of three worlds. As "world 3", it is characterized by objectivity, autonomy, shareability, etc. The isostructuralism and coherence in style between "objective knowledge" and Bach- type music provide an illustrative case for the commensuration of art and philosophy in certain sense through the reflective han- dling by Karl Popper.

  17. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  18. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuying Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%–83% followed by (E,E-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  19. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuying; Ma, Hong; Wan, Youming; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiuxian; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Zhenghong

    2016-04-22

    Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%-83%) followed by (E,E)-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  20. GmFT2a, a soybean homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T, is involved in flowering transition and maintenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flowering reversion can be induced in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr., a typical short-day (SD dicot, by switching from SD to long-day (LD photoperiods. This process may involve florigen, putatively encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, little is known about the potential function of soybean FT homologs in flowering reversion. METHODS: A photoperiod-responsive FT homologue GmFT (renamed as GmFT2a hereafter was cloned from the photoperiod-sensitive cultivar Zigongdongdou. GmFT2a gene expression under different photoperiods was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. In situ hybridization showed direct evidence for its expression during flowering-related processes. GmFT2a was shown to promote flowering using transgenic studies in Arabidopsis and soybean. The effects of photoperiod and temperature on GmFT2a expression were also analyzed in two cultivars with different photoperiod-sensitivities. RESULTS: GmFT2a expression is regulated by photoperiod. Analyses of GmFT2a transcripts revealed a strong correlation between GmFT2a expression and flowering maintenance. GmFT2a transcripts were observed continuously within the vascular tissue up to the shoot apex during flowering. By contrast, transcripts decreased to undetectable levels during flowering reversion. In grafting experiments, the early-flowering, photoperiod-insensitive stock Heihe27 promotes the appearance of GmFT2a transcripts in the shoot apex of scion Zigongdongdou under noninductive LD conditions. The photothermal effects of GmFT2a expression diversity in cultivars with different photoperiod-sensitivities and a hypothesis is proposed. CONCLUSION: GmFT2a expression is associated with flowering induction and maintenance. Therefore, GmFT2a is a potential target gene for soybean breeding, with the aim of increasing geographic adaptation of this crop.

  1. Biological activities of Juglans regia flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Fazel Nabavi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antihypoxic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Juglans regia L., Juglandaceae, flower were investigated. Antidepressant activity was examined by forced swimming test and tail suspension test in mice. Antihypoxic activity was investigated in haemic and circulatory models. The effects were pronounced in both models. It produced statistically significant anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema at nearly all doses, compared to control groups. IC50 for DPPH radical-scavenging activity was 674±27.6 µg mL-1. Extract showed good Fe2+ chelating ability (IC50 43±1.5 µg mL-1. It exhibited low antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation test. Its pharmacological effects may be attributed, in part, to the presence of phenols and ISSN 0102-695X flavonoids in the extract.

  2. Om guldbiller, Bach og basepar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    I sin stærkt encyklopædiske roman The Gold Bug Variations søger den amerikanske forfatter Richard Powers gennem utallige detaljer, synekdoker og intrikate forbindelser at inddrage al verden og radikalt udvide romanens rum. Men romanen er også, eller især, en fortælling om kærlighed....

  3. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other.

  4. Delayed Flowering in Bamboo: Evidence from Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eWang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gregarious flowering of bamboo species impacts ecosystem properties and conservation, but documentation of these periodic events is difficult. Here, we compare the characteristics of flowering sites and un-flowered patches of an arrow bamboo (Fargesia qinlingensis in the Qinling Mountains, China, over a five-year period (2003-2007 after a mast flowering event (2003. We examined flowering culm and seedling characteristics in relation to questions regarding the evolution of delayed flowering. Density of live culms decreased over the five years in both flowering sites and un-flowered patches. New shoots regenerated only in un-flowered patches. Chemical constituent allocation varied among culm parts (stems, branches, and leaves. Crude protein and extract ether in branches and leaves were less in flowering culms than in un-flowered culms. Seedling density was lower than expected based on floret counts, suggesting predation of seeds. Seedling density was significantly greater in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches and decreased over time. Seedlings performed better in flowering sites than in un-flowered patches based on their height, leaf number per seedling, and average leaf length, while fertilization on flowering sites had no significant effect on seedling growth, suggesting a saturation of resources. This study suggested that the characteristics of bamboos and bamboo stands were dramatically altered during this flowering event, enhancing seedling establishment and growth, and supporting mostly the habitat modification hypothesis of delayed reproduction.

  5. The effects of crude oil and remediation burning on three clones of smooth cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora Loisel.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.L.; Proffitt, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    Burning has been employed as an oil spill remediation technique in coastal marshes, even though the combined and interactive effects of soil and burning on vegetation are poorly understood. Variation among clones of perennial marsh grasses in response to these perturbations is not known. We performed a greenhouse experiment designed to assess the effects of Venezuelan crude oil alone and of oil followed by burning on three clonal genets of Spartina alterniflora. The fully-crossed 6-mo experiment involved five dosages of oil (0 l m-2, 4 l m-2, 8 l m-2, 16 l m-2, and 24 l m-2) and two burn treatments (burned or unburned) applied to ramets from three clones. All oil-only dosages reduced survival, but burning after oiling (oil + burn treatments) increased survival relative to oil-only groups in all except the highest two oil dosages. Higher oil-only treatments also reduced ramet densities and inhibited density increases over 6 mo. Burning after treatment with the 16 l m-2 oil concentration allowed increased production of new ramets, but burning exacerbated the negative impacts on ramet density at the oil concentration of 24 l m-2. At some intermediate oil dosages, burning remediated the negative effects of oil on aboveground biomass production and growth in height. There was a significant effect of oil-only treatments on numbers of flowering ramets produced, in which two clones responded with decreased flower production and one exhibited increased flowering. There was no main effect of oil + burn on flowering. There were significant among-clones differences in all response variables to one or both treatments. Our experiment demonstrates that burning of oiled S. alterniflora marshes may have little measurable effect at low levels of Venezuelan crude oil, can remediate the effects of oil at intermediate oil concentrations, but can increase the negative impacts at high concentrations of oil. These results indicate that oil spills have the potential to adversely affect

  6. Beyond flowering time: pleiotropic function of the maize flowering hormone florigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilevskaya, Olga N; Meng, Xin; McGonigle, Brian; Muszynski, Michael G

    2011-09-01

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive development is a critical turning point in a plant’s life cycle. It is now widely accepted that a leaf-borne signal, florigen, moves via the phloem from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to trigger its reprogramming to produce flowers. In part, the florigenic signal comprises a protein that belongs to the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) family that is present in all living organisms but displays diverse functions. The founding floral-promoting PEBP gene in Arabidopsis is FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) whose functional homologs have been indentified in many flowering plants. We recently accumulated sufficient evidence to demonstrate the maize FT homolog ZCN8 has florigenic function. This task was particularly challenging due to the large number of FT-homologous genes in the maize genome. Here we show that ZCN8 function is more complex than simply regulating the floral transition. ZCN8 appears to play a pleiotropic role in the regulation of generalized growth of vegetative and reproductive tissues.

  7. Graft-transmissible action of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T protein to promote flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaguchi, Michitaka; Daimon, Yasufumi; Abe, Mitsutomo; Araki, Takashi

    2009-02-01

    Day length perceived by a leaf is a major environmental factor that controls the timing of flowering. It has been believed that a mobile, long-distance signal called florigen is produced in the leaf, and is transported to the shoot apex where it triggers floral morphogenesis. Grafting experiments have shown that florigen is transmissible from a donor plant that has been subjected to inductive day length to an un-induced recipient plant. However, the nature of florigen has long remained elusive. Recent studies have provided evidence that the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein in Arabidopsis and corresponding proteins in other species are an important part of florigen. Our work showed that the FT activity, either from overexpressing or inducible transgenes or from the endogenous gene, to promote flowering is transmissible through a graft junction, and that an FT protein with a T7 tag (FT-T7) is transported from a donor scion to the apical region of recipient stock plants and becomes detectable within a short period of 24-48 h. That the FT-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein (FT:GFP) retains limited ability for graft-transmissible action was confirmed.

  8. Genetic regulation of flowering time in annual and perennial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Ai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Flowering time plays a significant role in the reproductive success of plants. So far, five major pathways to flowering have been characterized in Arabidopsis, including environmental induction through photoperiod, vernalization, and gibberellins and autonomous floral iation, and aging by sequentially operating miRNAs (typically miR156 and miR172) responding to endogenous cues. The balance of signals from these pathways is integrated by a common set of genes (FLOWERING LOCUS C, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1) that determine the flowering time. Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic modification, alternative splicing, antisense RNA and chromatin silencing regulatory mechanisms play an important role in this process by regulating related flowering gene expression. In this review, we discuss the current understanding in genetic regulation of the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth by using Arabidopsis as a model. We also describe how this knowledge has been successfully applied for identifying homologous genes from perennial crops. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the similarities and differences between annual and perennial plants flowering will help elucidate the mechanisms of perennial plant maturation and regulation of floral initiation.

  9. Flowering phenology shifts in response to biodiversity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Amelia A.; Zavaleta, Erika S; Selmants, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies and experimental evidence agree that rising global temperatures have altered plant phenology—the timing of life events, such as flowering, germination, and leaf-out. Other large-scale global environmental changes, such as nitrogen deposition and altered precipitation regimes, have also been linked to changes in flowering times. Despite our increased understanding of how abiotic factors influence plant phenology, we know very little about how biotic interactions can affect flowering times, a significant knowledge gap given ongoing human-caused alteration of biodiversity and plant community structure at the global scale. We experimentally manipulated plant diversity in a California serpentine grassland and found that many plant species flowered earlier in response to reductions in diversity, with peak flowering date advancing an average of 0.6 days per species lost. These changes in phenology were mediated by the effects of plant diversity on soil surface temperature, available soil N, and soil moisture. Peak flowering dates were also more dispersed among species in high-diversity plots than expected based on monocultures. Our findings illustrate that shifts in plant species composition and diversity can alter the timing and distribution of flowering events, and that these changes to phenology are similar in magnitude to effects induced by climate change. Declining diversity could thus contribute to or exacerbate phenological changes attributed to rising global temperatures.

  10. Nitric oxide participates in plant flowering repression by ascorbate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin-Hui; Wu, Pei-Yin; Suresh Kumar, Subbiah; Hua, Moda Sang; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-01-01

    In Oncidium, redox homeostasis involved in flowering is mainly due to ascorbic acid (AsA). Here, we discovered that Oncidium floral repression is caused by an increase in AsA-mediated NO levels, which is directed by the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reducatase (NiR). Through Solexa transcriptomic analysis of two libraries, ‘pseudobulb with inflorescent bud’ (PIB) and ‘pseudobulb with axillary bud’ (PAB), we identified differentially expressed genes related to NO metabolism. Subsequently, we showed a significant reduction of NaR enzymatic activities and NO levels during bolting and blooming stage, suggesting that NO controlled the phase transition and flowering process. Applying AsA to Oncidium PLB (protocorm-like bodies) significantly elevated the NO content and enzyme activities. Application of sodium nitroprusside (-NO donor) on Arabidopsis vtc1 mutant caused late flowering and expression level of flowering-associated genes (CO, FT and LFY) were reduced, suggesting NO signaling is vital for flowering repression. Conversely, the flowering time of noa1, an Arabidopsis NO-deficient mutant, was not altered after treatment with L-galacturonate, a precursor of AsA, suggesting AsA is required for NO-biosynthesis involved in the NO-mediated flowering-repression pathway. Altogether, Oncidium bolting is tightly regulated by AsA-mediated NO level and downregulation of transcriptional levels of NO metabolism genes. PMID:27731387

  11. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelas Marcelo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  12. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  13. EDTA retention and emissions from remediated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Erika; Lestan, Domen

    2016-05-01

    EDTA-based remediation is reaching maturity but little information is available on the state of chelant in remediated soil. EDTA soil retention was examined after extracting 20 soil samples from Pb contaminated areas in Slovenia, Austria, Czech Republic and USA with 120 mM kg(-1) Na2H2EDTA, CaNa2EDTA and H4EDTA for 2 and 24 h. On average, 73% of Pb was removed from acidic and 71% from calcareous soils (24 h extractions). On average, 15% and up to 64% of applied EDTA was after remediation retained in acidic soils. Much less; in average 1% and up to the 22% of EDTA was retained in calcareous soils. The secondary emissions of EDTA retained in selected remediated soil increased with the acidity of the media: the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) solution (average pH end point 3.6) released up to 36% of EDTA applied in the soil (28.1 mmol kg(-1)). Extraction with deionised water (pH > 6.0) did not produce measurable EDTA emissions. Exposing soil to model abiotic (thawing/freezing cycles) and biotic (ingestion by earthworms Lumbricus rubellus) ageing factors did not induce additional secondary emissions of EDTA retained in remediated soil.

  14. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies.

  15. Down-Regulation of miR-129-5p and the let-7 Family in Neuroendocrine Tumors and Metastases Leads to Up-Regulation of Their Targets Egr1, G3bp1, Hmga2 and Bach1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dossing, Kristina B. V.; Binderup, Tina; Kaczkowski, Bogumil

    2014-01-01

    by miR-129-5p. let-7 overexpression inhibited growth of carcinoid cell lines, and let-7 inhibition increased protein content of the transcription factor BACH1 and its targets MMP1 and HMGA2, all known to promote bone metastases. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that let-7 targets are highly......Expression of miRNAs in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (NEN) is poorly characterized. We therefore wanted to examine the miRNA expression in Neuroendocrine Tumors (NETs), and identify their targets and importance in NET carcinogenesis. miRNA expression in six NEN primary tumors, six NEN metastases...... expressed in NETs and metastases. We found down-regulation of miR-129-5p and the let-7 family, and identified new neuroendocrine specific targets for these miRNAs, which contributes to the growth and metastatic potential of these tumors....

  16. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Meeteren, van, U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great problem during vase-life of cut Gerbera flowers is ',stem break", a sudden bending of the stem. As described in part 1, this phenomenon was caused by a water shortage in the flower. The water-stress ...

  17. Gene control of flowering time in higher plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Flowering involves a transition process from vegetative growth to reproductive development, in which a series of routine changes take place in the shoot apical meristems from metabolic pathway to external phenotype. Expression of the genes related to flowering is the foundation for achieving the transition. Environmental factors (such as vernalization and photoperiod) and the growth status of cell itself induce the expression of the specific genes. A lot of achievements have been made recently in gene control for the determination of flowering time. The article reviews some new advances of such researches related to our work and the interesting field.

  18. Flowering and tuberization: a tale of two nightshades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelenda, José A; Navarro, Cristina; Prat, Salomé

    2014-02-01

    The concept of florigen, postulated in the early 1930s, has taken form after the identification of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein as the flowering-inducing signal. Besides their role in flowering, FT genes were subsequently reported to play additional functions in other biological processes. This is particularly relevant in the nightshades, where the FT genes appear to have undergone considerable expansion at the functional level and gained a new role in the control of storage organ formation in potato (Solanum tuberosum). Neofunctionalization of FT homologs in the nightshades identifies these proteins as a new class of primary signaling components that modulate development and organogenesis in these agronomic relevant species.

  19. Phytosynthesis of Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles from Achillea wilhelmsii Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Karimi Andeani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study here deals with the plant synthesis of cadmium oxide nanoparticles using flowers extract of Achillea wilhelmsii as the reducing agent. The photosynthesis is carried out at room temperature in the laboratory ambience. The aqueous cadmium ions when exposed to flower extract were reduced and resulted in their nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using techniques such as scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Stable cadmium oxide nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of cadmium chloride (CdCl2 with the plant flower extracts as reducing agent.

  20. FE, a phloem-specific Myb-related protein, promotes flowering through transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T and FLOWERING LOCUS T INTERACTING PROTEIN 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Mitsutomo; Kaya, Hidetaka; Watanabe-Taneda, Ayako; Shibuta, Mio; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Kurata, Tetsuya; Ausín, Israel; Araki, Takashi; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    In many flowering plants, the transition to flowering is primarily affected by seasonal changes in day length (photoperiod). An inductive photoperiod promotes flowering via synthesis of a floral stimulus, called florigen. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is an essential component of florigen, which is synthesized in leaf phloem companion cells and is transported through phloem tissue to the shoot apical meristem where floral morphogenesis is initiated. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the long-distance transport of FT protein remains elusive. In this study, we characterized the classic Arabidopsis mutant fe, which is involved in the photoperiodic induction of flowering, and showed that FE encodes a phloem-specific Myb-related protein that was previously reported as ALTERED PHLOEM DEVELOPMENT. Phenotypic analyses of the fe mutant showed that FT expression is reduced in leaf phloem companion cells. In addition, the transport of FT protein from leaves to the shoot apex is impaired in the fe mutant. Expression analyses further demonstrated that FE is also required for transcriptional activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1), an essential regulator for selective trafficking of the FT protein from companion cells to sieve elements. These findings indicate that FE plays a dual role in the photoperiodic induction of flowering: as a transcriptional activator of FT on the one hand, and its transport machinery component, FTIP1, on the other hand. Thus, FE is likely to play a role in regulating FT by coordinating FT synthesis and FT transport in phloem companion cells.

  1. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  2. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...... and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes...... is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting...

  3. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  4. Characterization of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in human cancer cells: the importance of enhanced BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N; Wolf, Roman F; Zhou, Jundong; Avery, Jori E; Wu, Jinchang; Lind, Stuart E; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2014-05-01

    The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cancer cells has never been characterized. This study examines DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human cancer cell model systems. DHA enhanced HO-1 gene expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximal induction at 21 h of treatment. This induction of HO-1 expression was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft nude mouse model fed a fish-oil-enriched diet. The increase in HO-1 gene transcription induced by DHA was significantly attenuated by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. This was supported by direct measurement of lipid peroxide levels after DHA treatment. Using a human HO-1 gene promoter reporter construct, we identified two antioxidant response elements (AREs) that mediate the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription. Knockdown of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression compromised the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription, indicating the importance of the Nrf2 pathway in this event. However, the nuclear protein levels of Nrf2 remained unchanged upon DHA treatment. Further studies demonstrated that DHA reduces nuclear Bach1 protein expression by promoting its degradation and attenuates Bach1 binding to the AREs in the HO-1 gene promoter. In contrast, DHA enhanced Nrf2 binding to the AREs without affecting nuclear Nrf2 expression levels, indicating a new cellular mechanism that mediates DHA's induction of HO-1 gene transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human malignant cells.

  5. Reproducing under a warming climate: long winter flowering and extended flower longevity in the only Mediterranean and maritime Primula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronne, G; Buonanno, M; De Micco, V

    2015-03-01

    Under the pressure of global warming, general expectations of species migration and evolution of adaptive traits should always be confirmed with species-specific studies. Within this framework, some species can be used as study systems to predict possible consequences of global warming also on other relatives. Unlike its mountain congeneric, Primula palinuri Petagn. has endured all the climatic fluctuations since the Pleistocene, while surviving on Mediterranean coastal cliffs. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible evolution of reproductive biological and ecological traits in P. palinuri adaptation to a warmer environment. Data showed that flowering starts in mid-winter; single flowers remain open for over a month, changing from pendulous to erect. The number of insects visiting flowers of P. palinuri increases during the flowering season, and pollination reduces flower longevity. Overall, the best pollen performances, in terms of viability and germinability, occur at winter temperatures, while pollinator activity prolongs flowering until spring. Moreover, extended longevity of single flowers optimises reproductive success. Both phenotypic plasticity and selective processes might have occurred in P. palinuri. However, we found that reproductive traits of the only Mediterranean Primula remain more associated with cold mountain habitats than warm coastal cliffs. Given the rapid trend of climate warming, migration and new adaptive processes in P. palinuri are unlikely. Response to past climate warming of P. palinuri provides useful indications for future scenarios in other Primula species.

  6. Mapping Contaminant Remediation with Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Power, C.; Tsourlos, P.; Karaoulis, M.; Giannopoulos, A.; Soupios, P. M.; Simyrdanis, K.

    2014-12-01

    The remediation of sites contaminated with industrial chemicals - specifically dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like coal tar and chlorinated solvents - represents a major geoenvironmental challenge. Remediation activities would benefit from a non-destructive technique to map the evolution of DNAPL mass in space and time. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has long-standing potential in this context but has not yet become a common tool at DNAPL sites. This work evaluated the potential of time-lapse ERT for mapping DNAPL mass reduction in real time during remediation. Initially, a coupled DNAPL-ERT numerical model was developed for exploring this potential at the field scale, generating realistic DNAPL scenarios and predicting the response of an ERT survey. Also, new four-dimensional (4D) inversion algorithms were integrated for tracking DNAPL removal over time. 4D ERT applied at the surface for mapping an evolving DNAPL distribution was first demonstrated in a laboratory experiment. Independent simulation of the experiment demonstrated the reliability of the DNAPL-ERT model for simulating real systems. The model was then used to explore the 4D ERT approach at the field scale for a range of realistic DNAPL remediation scenarios. The approach showed excellent potential for mapping shallow DNAPL changes. However, remediation at depth was not as well resolved. To overcome this limitation, a new surface-to-horizontal borehole (S2HB) ERT configuration is proposed. A second laboratory experiment was conducted that demonstrated that S2HB ERT does better resolve changes in DNAPL distribution relative to surface ERT, particularly at depth. The DNAPL-ERT model was also used to demonstrate the improved mapping of S2HB ERT for field scale DNAPL scenarios. Overall, this work demonstrates that, with these innovations, ERT exhibits significant potential as a real time, non-destructive geoenvironmental remediation site monitoring tool.

  7. Natural variation in flowering time among populations of the annual crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammad, I.; Van Tienderen, P.H.

    1997-01-01

    Genetic variation in flowering time was studied in four natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, using greenhouse experiments. Two populations from ruderal sites flowered early, two others from river dykes late. However, the late flowering plants flowered almost as early as the others after cold

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse;

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  9. A study of extraction of petal region on flower picture using HSV color information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Yoshio; Nakayama, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    It is one of useful and interesting applications to discriminate the kind of the flower or recognize the name of the flower, as example of retrieving flower database. As its contour line of the petal region of flower is useful for such problems, it is important to extract the precise region of the petal of a flower picture. In this paper, the method which extracts petal regions on a flower picture using HSV color information is proposed, such to discriminate the kind of the flower. The experiments show that the proposed method can extract petal regions at the success rate of about 90%, which is thought to be satisfied. In detail, the success rates of one-colored flower, plural-colored flower, and white flower are about 98%, 85%, and 83%, respectively.

  10. Reliable Global Navigation System using Flower Constellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mortari

    2013-03-01

    interest. Optimization of such constellations is a complex problem and the general-purpose constellation design methodology used today is largely limited to Walker-like constellations. As opposed to Walker Constellations [1], [2], which were looking for symmetries in inertial reference frame, Flower Constellations [11] were devised to obtain symmetric distributions of satellites on rotating reference frames (e.g., Earth, Jupiter, satellite orbit. Since the theory of Flower Constellations has evolved with time the next section is dedicated to the summary of the theory up to the current status. The FCs solution space has been recently expanded with the Lattice theory [13], [14], encompassing all possible symmetric solutions.

  11. Let's Stop Teaching About Sex (of the Flowering Plants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John F.; Thelen, Leverne J

    1969-01-01

    Points out common misconceptions, especially the idea that pollination in flowering plants corresponds to fertilization in animals. Gives history of understanding of plant sexuality, then summarizes modern view. Suggests we teach accurately or not at all. (EB)

  12. Timing of Photoperiodic Flowering:Light Perception and Circadian Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhou; Xiao-Dong Sun; Min Ni

    2007-01-01

    Flowering symbolizes the transition of a plant from vegetative phase to reproductive phase and is controlled by fairly complex and highly coordinated regulatory pathways. Over the last decade, genetic studies in Arabidopsis have aided the discovery of many signaling components involved in these pathways. In this review, we discuss how the timing of flowering is regulated by photoperiod and the involvement of light perception and the circadian clock in this process. The specific regulatory mechanisms on CONSTANS expression and CONSTANS stability by the circadian clock and photoreceptors are described in detail. In addition, the roles of CONSTANS, FLOWERING LOCUS T, and several other light signaling and circadiandependent components in photoperiodic flowering are also highlighted.

  13. Studies on In Vitro Flowering and Fruiting of Perilla frutescens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tao

    2007-01-01

    Influences of PGR, sucrose, and ammonium nitrate on in vitro flowering and fruiting from cotyledon explants of P. frutescens were studied. The regenerated shoots at 2-4 cm from cotyledon explants on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 BA and 1.0 mg L-1 IAA were excised and transferred to MS medium containing 30 g L-1 sucrose, 8.25 g L-1 ammonium nitrate, and 1.0 mg L-1 BA. Following 40 d of culture, 86.2% of them flowered and set seeds. These seeds were germinable and developed into flowering plants in the fields. This study provides a simple system for rapid breeding of P. frutescens and studying the physiological mechanism of flowering of plants.

  14. Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge Flowering Plant List

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following flowering plant list includes 79 plant species found on the refuge. Botanists have identified more than 750 species of plants on the refuge since it...

  15. Plant-herbivore synchrony and selection on plant flowering phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelström, Elsa; Olofsson, Martin; Posledovich, Diana; Wiklund, Christer; Dahlgren, Johan P; Ehrlén, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Temporal variation in natural selection has profound effects on the evolutionary trajectories of populations. One potential source of variation in selection is that differences in thermal reaction norms and temperature influence the relative phenology of interacting species. We manipulated the phenology of the butterfly herbivore Anthocharis cardamines relative to genetically identical populations of its host plant, Cardamine pratensis, and examined the effects on butterfly preferences and selection acting on the host plant. We found that butterflies preferred plants at an intermediate flowering stage, regardless of the timing of butterfly flight relative to flowering onset of the population. Consequently, the probability that plant genotypes differing in timing of flowering should experience a butterfly attack depended strongly on relative phenology. These results suggest that differences in spring temperature influence the direction of herbivore-mediated selection on flowering phenology, and that climatic conditions can influence natural selection also when phenotypic preferences remain constant.

  16. Time after time: flowering phenology and biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, J.A.; Atlan, A.; Biere, A.; Gigord, L.; Weis, A.E.; Bernasconi, G.

    2007-01-01

    The role of biotic interactions in shaping plant flowering phenology has long been controversial; plastic responses to the abiotic environment, limited precision of biological clocks and inconsistency of selection pressures have generally been emphasized to explain phenological variation. However, p

  17. Baseline assessment of fish communities of the Flower Garden Banks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...

  18. Analgesic activity of various extracts of Punica granatum (Linn flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborthy Guno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of flowers of Punica granatum (Linn. (N.O. Family Punicaceae were investigated for analgesic activity in mice using hot plate method. The flowers of Punica granatum (Linn were collected from the local market of Mumbai, Maharashtra and were in a dried condition. The dried powdered flowers (500 gm were extracted in a soxhlet apparatus by using different solvents. Mice weighing 15-25 gm were taken for the experiment. The reaction time of animals in all the groups was noted at 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration. All data were analyzed with Student-t test. The various extract of the flowers of Punica granatum (Linn showed significant analgesic activity at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. A maximum analgesic activity was found at 60 min, after drug administration, which was equivalent to the standard drug used as morphine sulphate.

  19. Pollination in the Antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis forms chasmogamic and cleistogamic flowers. Their structure signals the possibility of both cross-pollination and self-pollination. In favorable conditions (natural or laboratory, flowers open creating a possibility for cross-pollination. The occurrence of cleistogamy in the investigated species may be conditioned by abiotic factors: low temperature, high air humidity, and strong wind. In closed flowers, a part of pollen grains reaches the stigma surface, and the rest remains inside the microsporangium. Pollen grains germinate on the stigma surface or inside the microsporangium. Often, two or more pollen tubes grow from a single pollen grain. Closed flowers and the direct contact between the style stigma and anther prove the preference for autogamy. Autogamy ensures the reproductive success of the investigated plant in the exceptionally harsh Antarctic environment.

  20. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  1. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Acanthus ilicifolius flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhamad Firdaus; Asep Awaludin Prihanto; Rahmi Nurdiani

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the flower of Acanthus ilicifolius (A. ilicifolius). Methods: Antioxidant activity was determined as antiradical efficiency with diphenyl picrylhydrazil (DPPH) method and cytotoxic assay was undertaken using brine shrimp lethal toxicity test. Results: A. ilicifolius flower contained terpenoid, phenolic compounds, and alkaloid. The methanol extract of A. ilicifolius flower showed the highest antiradical efficiency (AE=1.41í10-3) against DPPH radicals and the highest cytotoxicity (LC50=22 μg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii. Conclusions: It is suggested that active compounds of A. ilicifolius flower solved in methanol play a role to inhibit free radical activity and kill Artemia salina nauplii. The substances can be considered as potential antioxidant and cytotoxic agents as well as imminent candidate for cancer therapy.

  2. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of Acanthus ilicifolius flower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhamad; Firdaus; Asep; Awaludin; Prihanto; Rahmi; Nurdiani

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of the flower of Acanthus ilicifolius(A.ilicifolius).Methods:Antioxidant activity was determined as antiradical efficiency with diphenyl picrylhydrazil(DPPH)method and cytotoxic assay was undertaken using brine shrimp lethal toxicity test.Results:A.ilicifolius flower contained terpenoid,phenolic compounds,and alkaloid.The methanol extract of A.ilicifolius flower showed the highest antiradical efficiency(AE=1.41×10-3)against DPPH radicals and the highest cytotoxicity(LC50=22μg/mL)against brine shrimp nauplii.Conclusions:It is suggested that active compounds of A.ilicifolius flower solved in methanol play a role to inhibit free radical activity and kill Artemia salina nauplii.The substances can be considered as potential antioxidant and cytotoxic agents as well as imminent candidate for cancer therapy.

  3. 32 CFR 516.64 - Comprehensive remedies plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.64 Comprehensive... investigation involving fraud or corruption that relates to Army procurement activities. When possible, these.... (4) Consideration of each criminal, civil, contractual, and administrative remedy available,...

  4. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M. ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful ...

  5. A major gene for time of flowering in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J; van Rheenen, H A

    2000-01-01

    A major gene for the number of days from sowing to appearance of the first flower (time of flowering) was identified in a cross between an extrashort duration chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) variety, ICCV 2, and a medium duration variety, JG 62. The F2 population was advanced through the single-seed-descent method to develop random recombinant inbred lines (RILs). Time of flowering was recorded for the parents and 66 F(6) RILs from this cross that were grown in a Vertisol field in the post-rainy season of 1996-1997. Similarly the parents, F(1) and F(10) RILs were evaluated in 1997-1998. The F(1) flowered along with JG 62. The time of flowering for the two sets of RILs showed bimodal distributions with nearly equal peaks. One peak corresponded with ICCV 2 and the other with JG 62. This suggests that a single gene controls the difference for the time of flowering between ICCV 2 and JG 62 and the allele carried by the latter parent is dominant. To our knowledge no gene has been identified for the time of flowering in chickpea. Therefore the allele carried by JG 62 is designated as Efl-1 and that by ICCV 2 as efl-1. The proposed genotype for ICCV 2 is efl-1 efl-1 and for JG 62 is Efl-1 Efl-1. The genotype efl-1 efl-1 reduces the time of flowering at ICRISAT by nearly 3 weeks. The significance of this gene for breeding for early maturity and genome mapping has been discussed.

  6. The Quest for Molecular Regulation Underlying Unisexual Flower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Rómulo; Silva, Helena G.; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious, and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled “Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber” published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 |Article 599) and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs. PMID:26925078

  7. The quest for molecular regulation underlying unisexual flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rómulo eSobral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 | Article 599 and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs.

  8. Influence of gibberellins on flower formation in Hyoscyamus niger L.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Gibberellins (GA4+7) and gibberellin-like substances isolated from generatively induced black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger L.) bring about the growth of shoots and a partial differentiation of axillary meristem in black henbane plants grown under non-inductive light conditions. Long-lasting application of gibberellins, however, did not result in full development of flowers in the majority of the plants investigated. Thus, it seems, that gibberellins are not specific flowering hormones in black h...

  9. Hummingbirds at artificial flowers made to resemble ornithophiles versus melittophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyndee A. Guzman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1 Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference for red. (2 When colour was associated with nectar offerings, and birds generally learned to visit flowers that provided much more nectar but did not associatively learn differences as little as 2 µL. (3 Birds were offered 8 µL of 12% sucrose versus 2 µL of 48% hexose, and they did not prefer the dilute nectar; they showed no evidence of discerning sucrose from hexose; however, they preferred 48% over 12% sucrose when both were offered in the same quantity. (4 Birds preferred flowers that lacked landing platforms over those with landing platforms. (5 Birds were offered flowers with nectar guides, associated with differing nectar volumes, and they did not associate the higher nectar reward with either flower type. In summary, the feedback from hummingbirds reflects some of the differences between bird- and bee-adapted flowers, but nectar seemed less predictive than expected. Factors other than the behavioural proclivities of hummingbirds, such as adaptation to discourage bees, are discussed as additional causes for the differences between the syndromes. We also discuss significance testing for field experiments involving one unreplicated array.

  10. Arabidopsis MSI1 functions in photoperiodic flowering time control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Yvonne; Hennig, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for crop yield and the reproductive success of plants. Flowering can be induced by a number of molecular pathways that respond to internal and external signals such as photoperiod, vernalization or light quality, ambient temperature and biotic as well as abiotic stresses. The key florigenic signal FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is regulated by several flowering activators, such as CONSTANS (CO), and repressors, such as FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). Chromatin modifications are essential for regulated gene expression, which often involves the well conserved MULTICOPY SUPRESSOR OF IRA 1 (MSI1)-like protein family. MSI1-like proteins are ubiquitous partners of various complexes, such as POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX2 or CHROMATIN ASSEMBLY FACTOR 1. In Arabidopsis, one of the functions of MSI1 is to control the switch to flowering. Arabidopsis MSI1 is needed for the correct expression of the floral integrator gene SUPPRESSOR OF CO 1 (SOC1). Here, we show that the histone-binding protein MSI1 acts in the photoperiod pathway to regulate normal expression of CO in long day (LD) photoperiods. Reduced expression of CO in msi1-mutants leads to failure of FT and SOC1 activation and to delayed flowering. MSI1 is needed for normal sensitivity of Arabidopsis to photoperiod, because msi1-mutants responded less than wild type to an intermittent LD treatment of plants grown in short days. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrated that MSI1 acts upstream of the CO-FT pathway to enable an efficient photoperiodic response and to induce flowering.

  11. Functional remediation components: A conceptual method of evaluating the effects of remediation on risks to ecological receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Bunn, Amoret; Downs, Janelle; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Salisbury, Jennifer

    2016-08-30

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, tribal leaders, and the public are faced with understanding and evaluating the effects of cleanup activities on species, populations, and ecosystems. While engineers and managers understand the processes involved in different remediation types such as capping, pump and treat, and natural attenuation, there is often a disconnect between (1) how ecologists view the influence of different types of remediation, (2) how the public perceives them, and (3) how engineers understand them. The overall goal of the present investigation was to define the components of remediation types (= functional remediation). Objectives were to (1) define and describe functional components of remediation, regardless of the remediation type, (2) provide examples of each functional remediation component, and (3) explore potential effects of functional remediation components in the post-cleanup phase that may involve continued monitoring and assessment. Functional remediation components include types, numbers, and intensity of people, trucks, heavy equipment, pipes, and drill holes, among others. Several components may be involved in each remediation type, and each results in ecological effects, ranging from trampling of plants, to spreading invasive species, to disturbing rare species, and to creating fragmented habitats. In some cases remediation may exert a greater effect on ecological receptors than leaving the limited contamination in place. A goal of this conceptualization is to break down functional components of remediation such that managers, regulators, and the public might assess the effects of timing, extent, and duration of different remediation options on ecological systems.

  12. Florigen and anti-florigen - a systemic mechanism for coordinating growth and termination in flowering plants

    OpenAIRE

    Eliezer eLifschitz; Brian G. Ayre; Yuval eEshed

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies in Arabidopsis established FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) as a key flower-promoting gene in photoperiodic systems. Grafting experiments established unequivocal one-to-one relations between SFT (SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS), a tomato homolog of FT, and the hypothetical florigen, in all flowering plants. Additional studies of SFT and SP (SELF PRUNING, homolog of TFL1), two antagonistic genes regulating the architecture of the sympodial shoot system, have suggested that transition to flowering i...

  13. Long-distance, graft-transmissible action of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T protein to promote flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaguchi, Michitaka; Abe, Mitsutomo; Kimura, Takahiro; Daimon, Yasufumi; Kobayashi, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Tomita, Yuki; Dohi, Koji; Mori, Masashi; Araki, Takashi

    2008-11-01

    Day length perceived by a leaf is a major environmental factor that controls the timing of flowering. It has been believed that a mobile, long-distance signal called florigen is produced in the leaf under inductive day length conditions, and is transported to the shoot apex where it triggers floral morphogenesis. Grafting experiments have shown that florigen is transmissible from a donor plant that has been subjected to inductive day length to an uninduced recipient plant. However, the nature of florigen has long remained elusive. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is expressed in cotyledons and leaves in response to inductive long days (LDs). FT protein, with a basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor FD, acts in the shoot apex to induce target meristem identity genes such as APETALA1 (AP1) and initiates floral morphogenesis. Recent studies have provided evidence that the FT protein in Arabidopsis and corresponding proteins in other species are an important part of florigen. Our work shows that the FT activity, either from overexpressing or inducible transgenes or from the endogenous gene, to promote flowering is transmissible through a graft junction, and that an FT protein with a T7 tag is transported from a donor scion to the apical region of recipient stock plants and becomes detectable within a day or two. The sequence and structure of mRNA are not of critical importance for the long-distance action of the FT gene. These observations led to the conclusion that the FT protein, but not mRNA, is the essential component of florigen.

  14. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  15. DELLA proteins interact with FLC to repress flowering transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Guo

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a highly orchestrated and extremely critical process in a plant’s life cycle. Previous study has demonstrated that SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) integrate the gibberellic acid (GA) signaling pathway and vernalization pathway in regulating flowering time, but detailed molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. In GA signaling pathway, DELLA proteins are a group of master transcriptional regulators, while in vernalization pathway FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a core transcriptional repressor that down-regulates the expression of SOC1 and FT. Here, we report that DELLA proteins interact with FLC in vitro and in vivo, and the LHRI domains of DELLAs and the C-terminus of MADS domain of FLC are required for these interactions. Phenotypic and gene expression analysis showed that mutation of FLC reduces while over-expression of FLC enhances the GA response in the flowering process. Further, DELLA-FLC interactions promote the repression ability of FLC on its target genes. In summary, these findings report that the interaction between MADS box transcription factor FLC and GRAS domain regulator DELLAs may integrate various signaling inputs in flowering time control, and shed new light on the regulatory mechanism both for FLC and DELLAs in regulating gene expression.

  16. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chayut

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants’ developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2–4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.

  17. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayut, Noam; Sobol, Shiri; Nave, Nahum; Samach, Alon

    2014-07-11

    Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants' developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2-4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.

  18. Flower bouquet variation in four species of Crocus ser. Verni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Angelino; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Pistelli, Luisa; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Flowering plants employ a wide variety of signals, including scent, to attract pollinators. The aim of this work was to examine whether flower volatiles in four closely related Crocus species are linked to species divergence and to the current knowledge on their pollination syndromes. Fragrances of freshly opened flowers in Crocus etruscus, C. ilvensis, C. neglectus, and C. vernus, all belonging to ser. Verni, were analyzed using GC/MS. Results coincide with present knowledge about systematic relationships among taxa. The four species fall into two main fragrance types, based on similarities of their volatile compounds. In C. etruscus, C. ilvensis, and C. neglectus, oxygenated monoterpenes (lilac aldehyde B and A) are most abundant, while C. vernus has a fragrance rich in monoterpene hydrocarbons (α-pinene and limonene). Our results point towards outcrossing mating strategies for C. etruscus, C. ilvensis, and C. neglectus, whose volatile compounds are known as pollinator attractants. This is in line with their flower architecture, showing a style of variable height, often overtopping stamens. On the other hand, a self-pollination strategy was repeatedly suggested in the literature for C. vernus, marked by flowers with the style deeply inserted in the stamens and also by a completely different flower bouquet.

  19. Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Cu-Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action......Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action...

  20. Phenolic antioxidants from Rosa soulieana flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Li, Fu; Zhang, Xiaolong; Wang, Lun; Zhou, Zhiqiong; Wang, Mingkui

    2013-01-01

    Rosa soulieana has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat cardiovascular disorders. In this study, antioxidant activity-guided fractionation and purification of the methanol extract from the flowers of R. soulieana has led to the isolation of nine phenolic antioxidants, which were identified as catechin (1), tiliroside (2), astragalin (3), isoquercitrin (4), nicotiflorin (5), eugenol 4-O-β-d-(6'-O-galloyl) glucoside (6), michehedyosides D (7), citrusin C (8) and strictinin (9), respectively. Among them, compounds 5-9 were reported from the genus Rosa for the first time. All the compounds were also assayed by in vitro ABTS [2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt] radical cation scavenging activity. Among these bioactive isolates (1-9), compounds 1, 6, 7 and 9 exhibited strong scavenging activity in ABTS (SC50 = 10.17, 7.38, 8.60, 4.72 μmol/L, respectively) compared with the positive control l-ascorbic acid (SC50 = 15.97 μmol/L).

  1. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  2. Proceedings: Conference on Compensatory/Remedial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Henry R., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the papers and discussions from the Conference on Compensatory/Remedial Education. The contents include: "Institutional Programs for the Low Achievers" by Joan G. Roloff; "Communication in Compensatory Education" by Henry R. Fea; "Seminar: Special Programs for Minorities" by Constance Acholonu; "Seminar: Special Programs for…

  3. Detection and Remediation of Groundwater Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the water cycle and is also widely used as sources of drinking water. With the increasing de?velopment of groundwater exploitation, the pollution is becoming more and more serious. This paper talks about the main research direc?tions of groundwater pollution, the detection, the remediation and some conclusions.

  4. 24 CFR 81.46 - Remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., probation, reprimand or settlement, against lenders found to have engaged in discriminatory lending... future fair lending violations; (viii) The extent that a finding of liability against a lender is based...) Following the Secretary's decision concerning the appropriate remedial action(s) that the GSE is to...

  5. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  6. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains...

  7. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-06

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  8. Evaluation of Remedial Programs at UC Davis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Celeste M.

    Efforts at the University of California, Davis, (UC Davis) to develop standard evaluation models for remedial programs are described, and three UC Davis evaluation studies are considered. A standard evaluation model entails a formal orientation, a singular values perspective, and a primary audience of program funders and oversight agencies. The…

  9. Communicative and remedial effects of social blushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 90; N = 78; N = 52) examined the communicative and remedial properties of blushing. in Experiments 1 and 2, participants read scripts describing incidents that took place in shops. Following the mishap the actor left while displaying a blush (target condition), left the shop w

  10. 34 CFR 682.413 - Remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial actions. 682.413 Section 682.413 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal...

  11. Usability Studies of a Remedial Multimedia System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, K. S. R.; Singer, R. A.; Harding, R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the formative evaluation of a multimedia computer system that provides remedial support for university students learning concepts concerning the structure and function of the human brain and describes usability studies of the system using the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). Analysis of SUMI items and the student…

  12. On the importance of default breach remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment des

  13. Chemical composition of essential oil and anti trichomonas activity of leaf, stem, and flower of Rheum ribes L. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough Naemi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes. Materials and Methods: The essential oil from Rheum ribes L.flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay.   Results: In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction. Conclusion: Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety.  

  14. The determination of hyperoside in the flower and leaf of hawthorn (Crataegus oxycantha and Crataegus monogyna by the spectrophotometric method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Dušanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The flower and leaf of hawthorn contains many active components, used in the production of pharmaceutical preparations for cardiotonic, anti-hypertonic anti-hypotonic, artherosclerotic, anti-arithmic and anti-anemic groups. According to the ROTTE list (1996, 159 of 1800 pharmaceutical preparations contain components from hawthorn. Due to the remedial action of hyperoside and other flavonoids from hawthorn, their determination is important for the standardization of extract and preparation quality. The extraction of the flavonoids from a mixture of hawthorn (C. oxycantha and C. monogyna flower and leaf was carried out by percolation with 40% and 70% (v/v ethanol. In order to determine the content of total flavonoids calculated as hyperoside spectrophotometric method with aluminium(lll chloride as a colour reagent at 425 nm was applied. The total flavonoid content in the herbal material mixture was 0.483%, in 40% and 70% (v/v ethanolic liquid extract it was 138 mg/100 cm3 and 157 mg/100 cm, respectively. The extraction degree of total flavonoids with 40% and 70% (v/v ethanolic solutions was 57.14% and 65.01% respectively. The yield of total flavonoids in the dry extract was 63% in regard to the herbal mixure content.

  15. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  16. LC-MSdetermination of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean (Vicia fabaL. lines with common and rare flowercolors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinguo Hu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of muscle control, which causes trembling of the limbs and head as well as impaired balance. L-DOPA (L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine is the major ingredient of several prescription drugs used to treat PD. Faba bean (Vicia faba L. is one of the few plant species that is known to produce L-DOPA and has the potential to be developed as a functional food crop for people suffering with PD. Objective: Aimed to provide needed information for people who want to use faba bean as a natural remedy or functional food to relieve PD symptoms, this study analyzed the variation of L-DOPA concentration in the leaf and flower tissues of six faba bean lines with common and rare flower colors. Methods: Leaf and flower samples were taken from field grown plants with different flower colors, namely, pink with purple lines and black dots, pure white, brown, and crimson. Samples were freeze-dried and L-DOPA was quantified by a LC-MS system consisting of an ACQUITY UPLC in line with a Synapt G2 HDMS quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This experiment was carried out in two consecutive years (2012 and 2013 and the plants used in the second year were grown from the seeds harvested from the plants used in the first year. Results and Discussion: Our two-year study revealed a high level of variation in L-DOPA concentration for leaf and flower tissues among the six faba bean lines studied. The average L-DOPA concentration based on dry weight (DW in flowers ranged from 27.8 to 63.5 mg/g and 18.2 to 48.7 mg/g for leaf tissues. There was no significant correlation between L-DOPA concentrations in flowers and leaves. The L-DOPA concentration in flowers and in leaves of the same line varied but were not statistically significant between the two years. Ideally, the genotype with the highest average L-DOPA concentration in both flowers and leaves would be grown

  17. 40 CFR 270.68 - Remedial Action Plans (RAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). 270.68 Section 270.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 270.68 Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) are special forms of permits...

  18. 24 CFR 8.52 - Remedial and affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action. 8... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Enforcement § 8.52 Remedial and affirmative action. (a) Remedial action. (1) If the responsible civil rights official finds that a recipient has...

  19. 45 CFR 83.3 - Remedial and affirmative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative actions. 83.3 Section 83...; Coverage § 83.3 Remedial and affirmative actions. (a) Remedial action. If the Director finds that an entity... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...

  20. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  1. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single...

  2. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS profiling of phenolics from Securigera securidaca flowers and its anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana M. Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Döefl., Fabaceae, has been widely used in the Iranian, Indian and Egyptian folk medicine as antidiabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic remedy. Phenolic profiling of the ethanolic extract (90% of the flowers of S. securidaca was performed via HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis in the positive and negative ion modes. The total polyphenols and flavonoids in the flowers were determined colorimetrically, and the quantification of their components was carried out using HPLC-UV. Total phenolics and flavonoids estimated as gallic acid and rutin equivalents were 82.39 ± 2.79 mg/g and 48.82 ± 1.95 mg/g of the dried powdered flowers, respectively. HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of the extract allowed the identification of 39 flavonoids and eight phenolic acids. Quantitative analysis of some flavonoids and phenolics (mg/100 g powdered flowers revealed the presence of isoquercetrin (3340 ± 2.1, hesperidin (32.09 ± 2.28, naringin (197.3 ± 30.16, luteolin (10.247 ± 0.594, chlorogenic acid (84.22 ± 2.08, catechin (3.94 ± 0.57 and protocatechuic acid (34.4 ± 0.15, in the extract. Moreover, the acute toxicity, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the extract were investigated using alloxan induced diabetes in rats in a dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bwt. The ethanolic extract was safe up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. All tested doses of the flower extract showed marked decrease in blood glucose level by 31.78%, 66.41% and 63.8% at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bwt, respectively, at p < 0.05. Regarding the anti-hyperlipidemic effect, a dose of 400 mg/kg of the flower extract showed the highest reduction in serum triacylglycerides and total cholesterol levels (68.46% and 51.50%, respectively at p < 0.05. The current study proved the folk use of the flowers of S. securidaca as anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic agent which could be attributed to its high phenolic content.

  3. Flowering and pollen value of selected species of umbelliferous family - Umbelliferae Juss. (Apiaceae Lindl.) in Lublin region. Part 1. Biology and abundance of flowering

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Wróblewska

    2013-01-01

    Investigations of the biology of flowering and pollen value of seven species of Umbelliferae family were carried out in natural seats of Lublin region in 1978-1980. Aegopodium podagraria L.,Angelica silvestris L., Anthriscus silvestris L. (Hoffm.), Chaerophyllum aromaticum L., Eryngium planum L., Herac1eum sibiricum L., Pastinaca sativa L. were examined. This paper shows results of studies of the biology of flowering and abundance of flowering. The examined species started their flowering in ...

  4. Standards-Based Automated Remediation: A Remediation Manager Reference Implementation, 2011 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Status 1 2 4 7 5, 6 Derived PM TB RG X X X External Output Transmit Remediation Tasking (to Remediation RT) RTL Transmit...Format XML Specification, version 0.41. http://metadata.dod.mil/ mdr /ns/netops/shared_data/arf_index_page/0.41 (sponsored access required) 2010. 12...Relevant Websites Abbreviation Title URL ARF Assessment Results Format (DoD version 0.41) http://metadata.dod.mil/ mdr /ns/netop s/shared_data

  5. Estimation of Moisture Content & Metal Ions in White Flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis and Purple Flowers of Bougainvillea glabra in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    *S. A. Rashid; F. S. Rehmani; Arman, M; Ibrahim, M; Shafique, S.

    2011-01-01

    Bougainvillea consists of 18 shrubby species, growing in different parts of Pakistan and is being used as Anti-ulcer, Anti-diarrheal, Anti-microbial, Anti- diabetic, Amylase Inhibition and as for low blood pressure but none of the studies on Bougainvillea focused on the estimation of metal ion concentration. The focus of the present study was to estimation of moisture content and comparative analysis of trace metal ions in white flowers of Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd and Purple flowers of...

  6. [Cognitive remediation and work outcome in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, N

    2014-06-01

    Recovery is partly defined by the patients' capacity to work, since doing well in a job favors hope and responsibilities' taking. Diminished job placement or tenure is linked with cognitive disorders, which impact directly and indirectly (through negative symptoms) functional outcomes. Attention, executive functions and working memory disorders can result in an alteration of the ability to manage the tasks required in the workplace. Executive function, working memory and social cognition disorders may also have an impact on behavior in relationships. Cognitive disorders do not automatically directly contribute to vocational outcome, yet their effects may be mediated by other variables such as symptoms, metacognition, social skills and intrinsic motivation. Then, since all these dimensions have to be taken into account, reducing the impact of cognitive troubles becomes a major challenge for the care of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation is the more effective therapeutic tool to reduce cognitive dysfunctions. It rests in particular on the development of new strategies that allow taking concrete situations into account more efficiently. Cognitive remediation reduces the detrimental consequences of cognitive disorders and permits their compensation. It has emerged as an effective treatment, that improves not only cognitive abilities but also functioning, as it has been shown by numerous randomized controlled studies and several meta-analyses. The present article considers the effects on cognitive remediation on work function in schizophrenia. Several randomized controlled trials that compared supported employment alone versus supported employment associated with cognitive remediation showed significant improvement of employment rates in the latter condition. These results favor the use of cognitive remediation before job placement. The specific needs of the occupation that will be provided and the cognitive profile of the user should be taken into account.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis overexpressing flowering locus T driven by a meristem-specific promoter that induces early flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplat-Bermúdez, L; Ruiz-Medrano, R; Landsman, D; Mariño-Ramírez, L; Xoconostle-Cázares, B

    2016-08-10

    Here we analyzed in leaves the effect of FT overexpression driven by meristem-specific KNAT1 gene homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana (Lincoln et al., 1994; Long et al., 1996) on the transcriptomic response during plant development. Our results demonstrated that meristematic FT overexpression generates a phenotype with an early flowering independent of photoperiod when compared with wild type (WT) plants. Arabidopsis FT-overexpressor lines (AtFTOE) did not show significant differences compared with WT lines neither in leaf number nor in rosette diameter up to day 21, when AtFTOE flowered. After this period AtFTOE plants started flower production and no new rosette leaves were produced. Additionally, WT plants continued on vegetative stage up to day 40, producing 12-14 rosette leaves before flowering. Transcriptomic analysis of rosette leaves studied by sequencing Illumina RNA-seq allowed us to determine the differential expression in mature leaf rosette of 3652 genes, being 626 of them up-regulated and 3026 down-regulated. Overexpressed genes related with flowering showed up-regulated transcription factors such as MADS-box that are known as flowering markers in meristem and which overexpression has been related with meristem identity preservation and the transition from vegetative to floral stage. Genes related with sugar transport have shown a higher demand of monosaccharides derived from the hydrolysis of sucrose to glucose and probably fructose, which can also be influenced by reproductive stage of AtFTOE plants.

  8. Flowering biology of three taxa of the genus Scilla L. (Hyacinthaceae and flower visitation by pollinating insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Żuraw

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Squill of the family Hyacinthaceae is a small bulb perennial. The present study on flowering and pollination of Scilla sibirica Andr., S. sibirica 'Alba', and S. bifolia L. was conducted in the years 1995, 1997, and 1999 in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. The plants flowered from the end of March until the middle of May. The duration of flowering of individual taxa was similar and it averaged 20 days (Scilla sibirica, 21 days (S. sibirica 'Alba', and 23 days (S. bifolia. The opening of flower buds always started around 9.00 am and lasted, depending on the taxon, until 3.00 pm (Scilla sibirica 'Alba', 4.00 pm (S. bifolia, and 5.00 pm (S. sibirica. The flowers were visited by bees (Apoidea, primarily the honey bee (Apis mellifera L., bumblebee (Bombus L., and solitary bees. Numerous honey bee foragers were observed; they bit through the anther walls and even attempted to open still closed flower buds in order to reach the pollen.

  9. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of season of burn on flowering phenology of groundlayer species, in the year following burns, in a mesic-sand Midwestern oak savanna. Burn treatments were fall, early-season, growing-season, late-season, and 1 or 5 years after a prior early-season wildfire. For these treatments, we compared the number of flowering stems and of flowers for species overall, for the 20 most prolifically flowering species, as well as for species grouped by flowering phenoperiods, and by growth form. Growing-season burn had a significant negative effect on number of flowering stems and total number of flowers. This effect occurred when either the burn occurred during the flowering season or during the season prior to the flowering phenoperiod. Tradescantia ohiensis showed expedited flowering and Phlox pilosa showed delayed flowering in response to early-season burning. Flowering of early shrubs was reduced by the previous fall and early-spring fires, while flowering of mid-season blooming shrubs was reduced by the early- and growing-season burns. Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, early-flowering shrubs, produced fewer flowers 1 year after than 5 years after an early-season burn. Arabis lyrata showed reduced flowering from the early-season burn. We also found four instances where the early-spring burn effect on flowering was more severe than the fall burn effect, suggesting that many frequent early-season burns may be deleterious to flowering and reproduction of some species. Burns occurring too frequently in the same season could negatively affect future flowering and reproduction of these plant species.

  10. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Dorado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site, and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the

  11. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  12. Antioxidative and antigenotoxic activity of extracts from cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, In-Cheol; Park, Jae-Hee; Park, Eunju; Park, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seung-Cheol

    2008-12-01

    The Cosmos bipinnatus has been used in a traditional herbal remedy for various diseases such as jaundice, intermittent fever, and splenomegaly. The present study describes the preliminary evaluation of antioxidant activities and antigenotoxic effect of Cosmos bipinnatus flowers according to four different colors (white, pink, orange, and violet). The antioxidants properties were evaluated by determining TPC, DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and RP. The highest TPC of methanolic CFE (at concentration of 1 mg/ml) showed in violet colored CF (1,013 microM), and IC(50) of DPPH RSA, ABTS RSA, and RP were also the lowest in violet colored CFE with values of 0.61, 1.48, and 0.82 mg/ml, respectively. The antigenotoxic effect of the CFE on DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) in human leukocytes was evaluated by Comet assay. Pretreatments with CFE produced significant reductions in oxidative DNA damage at the concentration of 500 microg/ml, except for violet colored CFE. The ED(50) value of white colored CFE has shown the highest inhibition (0.40 mg/ml) on H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage, followed by orange > pink > violet color. These results suggested that Cosmos bipinnatus has significant antioxidant activity and protective effect against oxidative DNA damage.

  13. Study on Flowering Biology of Taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MADE SRI PRANA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An observation on flowering behaviour of 20 selected taro (Colocasia esculenta (L. Schott. cultivars was conducted at the Germ Plasm Conservation Garden belonging to the Reserch Centre for Biotechnology of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong, Bogor Regency. The observation included the emergence of inflorescences, the number of inflorescences in a cluster, the opening of the inflorescence, maturity of pistilate and staminate flowers, and pollinating agents that might play role in the pollination process. The study was aimed at elucidating some baseline information that might be used as a base to carry out breeding programme for future cultivar improvement. The study indicated that the 20 cultivar studied may be divided into 3 cultivar groups, namely a Cultivars which fully did not appear to flower during the periode of obeservation, which includes Lampung, Enau, Siriwa, Ketan and Bentul biru, b Cultivars that produced only a few (not more than 3 inflorescences per cluster or per individul plant. This includes cultivars : Bogor, Bentul, Kaliurang and Ketan hitam and c Cultivars that were profusedly flowering (produced a lot of inflorescences, usually 4-5 inflorescences per cluster and several clusters in an individual plant. This includes cultivars : Sutera, Semir, Lampung hitam, Boring, Burkok, Berod, Lampung hitam, Lompong, Ketune dan Kudo. The cultivar Sutera produced flower quite readily, followed by Burkok. Apart from the few inflorescences it produced, the cultivar Kaliurang also produced rather abnormal shape of inflorescence with only a few pollen grains. Taro flowers proved to be protogenic since the atipulate flowers have become receptive 1-2 days prior to anther dehiscence. Pollination was due to the role of (Dacus dorsalis.

  14. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  15. Silver Nano Scaffold Formation by Flowers of Hibiscus Rosa Sinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Shabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscusrosa sinensis grows for their showy flowers and are used as landscape shrubs. Hibiscusrosa sinensis also has too many medicinal properties. Flowers are rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Inourstudy the flower extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis has been used for the synthesis of silver nano scaffold formation and its reduction by the flowers. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles occurred under the exposure of the flower extract to 1mM (AgNO3, Silver nitrate aqueous solution. During this process the complete reduction of nanoparticles was observed nearly 48hours of reaction at 30°C under vigorous shaking conditions. The colour change is noted in the reaction mixture and observed during the process of incubation period, it may be due to the formation of the silver nanoparticles which are able to produce the colour in the reaction mixture may be due to their specific properties of surface Plasmon resonance. The colour change was made confirmed by visualization and the characterization by FT-IR, UV-Visible Spectroscopy. Thus we conclude that the reduction process and capping may be having occurred due to the presence of many flavonoids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, some aminoacids and proteins. In conclusion, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract appears capable of forming silver nanoparticles. It can be concluded that, Hibiscus rosa sinensis flower extract was able to form the silver nano scaffold and may be probably due to its antioxidants potential, some flavonoids, terpenes etc. This study is a preliminary effort and requires further investigation at different levels.

  16. Genetic engineering of novel flower colors in floricultural plants: recent advances via transgenic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Since the first successful genetic engineering of flower color in petunia, several new techniques have been developed and applied to modify flower color not only in model plants but also in floricultural plants. A typical example is the commercial violet-flowered carnation "Moondust series" developed by Suntry Ltd. and Florigene Ltd. More recently, blue-flowered roses have been successfully produced and are expected to be commercially available in the near future. In recent years, successful modification of flower color by sophisticated regulation of flower-pigment metabolic pathways has become possible. In this chapter, we review recent advances in flower color modification by genetic engineering, especially focusing on the methodology. We have included our own recent results on successful production of flower-color-modified transgenic plants in a model plant, tobacco and an ornamental plant, gentian. Based on these results, genetic engineering of flower color for improvement of floricultural plants is discussed.

  17. Control of the Transition to Flowering by Chromatin Modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuehui He

    2009-01-01

    The timing of floral transition is critical to reproductive success in angiosperms and is genetically controlled by a network of flowering genes.In Arabidopsis,expression of certain flowering genes is regulated by various chromatin modifications,among which are two central regulators of flowering,namely FLOWERING LOCUS C(FLC) and FLOWERING LOCUS T(FT).Recent studies have revealed that a number of chromatin-modifying components are involved in activation or repression of FLC expression.Activation of FLC expression is associated with various 'active' chromatin modifications including acetylation of core histone tails,histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4) methylation,H2B monoubiquitination,H3 lysine-36 (H3K36) di- and tri-methylation and deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z,whereas various 'repressive' histone modifications are associated with FLC repression,including histone deacetylation,H3K4 demethylation,histone H3 lysine-9(H3Kg) and H3 lysine-27 (H3K27) methylation,and histone arginine methylation.In addition,recent studies have revealed that Polycomb group gene-mediated transcriptional-silencing mechanism not only represses FLC expression,but also directly represses FT expression.Regulation of FLC expression provides a paradigm for control of the expression of other developmental genes in plants through chromatin mechanisms.

  18. Flowering dynamics and pollinator visitation of oilseed echium (Echium plantagineum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie A Eberle

    Full Text Available Echium (Echium plantagineum L. is an alternative oilseed crop in summer-wet temperate regions that provides floral resources to pollinators. Its seed oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, such as stearidonic acid, which is desired highly by the cosmetic industry. Seeds were sown in field plots over three years in western Minnesota in spring (early-sown or early summer (late-sown, and flower abundance, pollinator visitation, and seed yields were studied. Initial flowering commenced 41 to 55 d after sowing, and anthesis duration (first flowering to harvest was 34 to 70 d. Late sowing dates delayed anthesis, but increased the intensity of visitation by pollinators. Cumulative flower densities ranged from 1 to 4.5 billion ha-1. Flowers attracted numerous honey bees (Apis mellifera L., as many as 35 per minute of observation, which represented about 50% of all insect visitors. Early-sown echium produced seed yields up to 750 kg ha-1, which were 2-29 times higher than those of late-sown echium. Early sowing of echium in Minnesota provides abundant floral resources for pollinators for up to two months and simultaneously produces seed yields whose profits rival those of corn (Zea mays L..

  19. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of flower development in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoczynska, Aleksandra; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Flower structure in grasses is very unique. There are no petals or sepals like in eudicots but instead flowers develop bract-like structures - palea and lemma. Reproductive organs are enclosed by round lodicule that not only protects reproductive organs but also plays an important role during flower opening. The first genetic model for floral organ development was proposed 25 years ago and it was based on the research on model eudicots. Since then, studies have been carried out to answer the question whether this model could be applicable in the case of monocots. Genes from all classes found in eudicots have been also identified in genomes of such monocots like rice, maize or barley. What's more, it seems that miRNA-mediated regulation of floral organ genes that was observed in the case of Arabidopsis thaliana also takes place in monocots. MiRNA172, miRNA159, miRNA171 and miRNA396 regulate expression of floral organ identity genes in barley, rice and maize, affecting various features of the flower structure, ranging from formation of lemma and palea to the development of reproductive organs. A model of floral development in grasses and its genetic regulation is not yet fully characterized. Further studies on both, the model eudicots and grasses, are needed to unravel this topic. This review provides general overview of genetic model of flower organ identity specification in monocots and it's miRNA-mediated regulation.

  20. A Strategy for Screening Monoclonal Antibodies for Arabidopsis Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qian; Zhou, Lian; Wang, Yingxiang; Ma, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The flower is one of the most complex structures of angiosperms and is essential for sexual reproduction. Current studies using molecular genetic tools have made great advances in understanding flower development. Due to the lack of available antibodies, studies investigating the localization of proteins required for flower development have been restricted to use commercial antibodies against known antigens such as GFP, YFP, and FLAG. Thus, knowledge about cellular structures in the floral organs is limited due to the scarcity of antibodies that can label cellular components. To generate monoclonal antibodies that can facilitate molecular studies of the flower, we constructed a library of monoclonal antibodies against antigenic proteins from Arabidopsis inflorescences and identified 61 monoclonal antibodies. Twenty-four of these monoclonal antibodies displayed a unique band in a western blot assay in at least one of the examined tissues. Distinct cellular distribution patterns of epitopes were detected by these 24 antibodies by immunofluorescence microscopy in a flower section. Subsequently, a combination of immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis identified potential targets for three of these antibodies. These results provide evidence for the generation of an antibody library using the total plant proteins as antigens. Using this method, the present study identified 61 monoclonal antibodies and 24 of them were efficiently detecting epitopes in both western blot experiments and immunofluorescence microscopy. These antibodies can be applied as informative cellular markers to study the biological mechanisms underlying floral development in plants. PMID:28293248

  1. Innate preferences for flower features in the hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelber

    1997-01-01

    The diurnal hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum is known to feed from a variety of flower species of almost all colours, forms and sizes. A newly eclosed imago, however, has to find its first flower by means of an innate flower template. This study investigates which visual flower features are represented in this template and their relative importance. Newly eclosed imagines were tested for their innate preferences, using artificial flowers made out of coloured paper or projected onto a screen through interference filters. The moths were found to have a strong preference for 440 nm and a weaker preference for 540 nm. The attractiveness of a colour increases with light intensity. The background colour, as well as the spectral composition of the ambient illumination, influences the choice behaviour. Blue paper disks against a yellowish background are chosen much more often than the same disks against a bluish background. Similarly, under ultraviolet-rich illumination, the preference for 540 nm is much more pronounced than under yellowish illumination. Disks of approximately 32 mm in diameter are preferred to smaller and larger ones, and a sectored pattern is more attractive than a ring pattern. Pattern preferences are less pronounced with coloured than with black-and-white patterns. Tests using combinations of two parameters reveal that size is more important than colour and that colour is more important than pattern.

  2. Transcription factor PIF4 controls the thermosensory activation of flowering

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. Vinod

    2012-03-21

    Plant growth and development are strongly affected by small differences in temperature. Current climate change has already altered global plant phenology and distribution, and projected increases in temperature pose a significant challenge to agriculture. Despite the important role of temperature on plant development, the underlying pathways are unknown. It has previously been shown that thermal acceleration of flowering is dependent on the florigen, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). How this occurs is, however, not understood, because the major pathway known to upregulate FT, the photoperiod pathway, is not required for thermal acceleration of flowering. Here we demonstrate a direct mechanism by which increasing temperature causes the bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) to activate FT. Our findings provide a new understanding of how plants control their timing of reproduction in response to temperature. Flowering time is an important trait in crops as well as affecting the life cycles of pollinator species. A molecular understanding of how temperature affects flowering will be important for mitigating the effects of climate change. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. The multifaceted roles of FLOWERING LOCUS T in plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pin, P A; Nilsson, O

    2012-10-01

    One of the key developmental processes in flowering plants is the differentiation of the shoot apical meristem into a floral meristem. This transition is regulated through the integration of environmental and endogenous stimuli, involving a complex, hierarchical signalling network. In arabidopsis, the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein, a mobile signal recognized as a major component of florigen, has a central position in mediating the onset of flowering. FT-like genes seem to be involved in regulating the floral transition in all angiosperms examined to date. Evidence from molecular evolution studies suggests that the emergence of FT-like genes coincided with the evolution of the flowering plants. Hence, the role of FT in floral promotion is conserved, but appears to be restricted to the angiosperms. Besides flowering, FT-like proteins have also been identified as major regulatory factors in a wide range of developmental processes including fruit set, vegetative growth, stomatal control and tuberization. These multifaceted roles of FT-like proteins have resulted from extensive gene duplication events, which occurred independently in nearly all modern angiosperm lineages, followed by sub- or neo-functionalization. This review assesses the plethora of roles that FT-like genes have acquired during evolution and their implications in plant diversity, adaptation and domestication.

  4. Direct sampling technique of bees on Vriesea philippocoburgii (Bromeliaceae, Tillandsioideae flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Inácio Orth

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In our study on Vriesea philippocoburgii Wawra pollination, due to the small proportion of flowers in anthesis on a single day and the damage caused to inflorescences when netting directly on flowers, we used the direct sampling technique (DST of bees on flowers. This technique was applied to 40 flowering plants and resulted in the capture of 160 specimens, belonging to nine genera of Apoidea and separated into 19 morph species. As DST maintains the integrity of flowers for later Bees’ visits, it can enhance the survey’s performance, constituting an alternative methodology for the collection of bees visiting flowering plants.

  5. Enhanced Remediation of a Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Wokoma and C.C.Wokocha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use NPKs, saw dust and poultry manure as enhanced remediation techniques of a crude oil polluted soil, using a 42-day study period, time length. Polluted soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth from different polluted sites of the same area. Physicochemical parametres such as pottasium concentration and total hydrocarbon recorded a decrease at the 6th week, after application and lab testing. Total organic carbon recorded an increase on the 6th week, for treatments containing; PS+SD, PS+NPK and PS+PM. pH ranged between 5.21-10.1. The results suggest that a combination of ammendments in the right proportion w ould be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted soil.

  6. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  7. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  8. Briefing paper -- Remedial Action Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    Congress has mandated a more comprehensive management of hazardous wastes with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund'') and the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This mandate includes restoration of disposal sites contaminated through past disposal practices. This mandate applies to facilities operated for and by the Department of Energy (DOE), just as it does to industrial and other institutions. To help implement the CERCLA/SARA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process in a consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, a methodology needs to be developed that will allow definition, sorting, and screening of remediation technologies for each operable unit (waste site). This need is stated specifically in Section 2.2.2.1 of the October 1989 Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) Plan of the DOE. This Briefing Paper is prepared to respond to this need. 1 fig.

  9. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhia, Brian D.

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  10. Remediation and Recycling of Linde FUSRAP Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J. P.; Rehmann, M. R.

    2002-02-27

    During World War II, the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) utilized facilities in the Buffalo, New York area to extract natural uranium from uranium-bearing ores. The Linde property is one of several properties within the Tonawanda, New York Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site, which includes Linde, Ashland 1, Ashland 2, and Seaway. Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division was placed under contract with the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) from 1942 to 1946 to extract uranium from seven different ore sources: four African pitchblende ores and three domestic ores. Over the years, erosion and weathering have spread contamination from the residuals handled and disposed of at Linde to adjacent soils. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) negotiated a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) governing remediation of the Linde property. In Fiscal Year (FY) 1998, Congress transferred cleanup management responsibility for the sites in the FUSRAP program, including the Linde Site, from the DOE to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), with the charge to commence cleanup promptly. All actions by the USACE at the Linde Site are being conducted subject to the administrative, procedural, and regulatory provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the existing FFA. USACE issued a Proposed Plan for the Linde Property in 1999 and a Final Record of Decision (ROD) in 2000. USACE worked with the local community near the Tonawanda site, and after considering public comment, selected the remedy calling for removing soils that exceed the site-specific cleanup standard, and transporting the contaminated material to off-site locations. The selected remedy is protective of human health and the environment, complies with Federal and State requirements, and meets commitments to the community.

  11. Remedial approaches to students with discalculia

    OpenAIRE

    MATĚJKOVÁ, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Thesis: "Remedial approaches to students with discalculia" defines the term of specific learning disability, individual specific learning disabilities with an emphasis on discalculia (mathematics disorder). It gives a brief overview of the methods, forms, aids (tools), individual re-education practices and affects the possibilities to integrate these students into current elementary school. The practical part deals with the integration of dyscalculia students into the teaching process and to ...

  12. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.

    2015-10-27

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  13. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  14. Cultural services remediated in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Danish Public Libraries conducted an experiment in establishing a library in the virtual world Second Life. The Info Island DK provided the framework for a number of online library services and cultural events. This study, based on interviews with most of the active participants...... in the project, discusses the experiences in remediating conventional library services into the new medium and in understanding and redefining the role of the librarian in an online virtual world....

  15. An unmanned ground vehicle for landmine remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Steven R.; Guilberto, Jose; Ogg, Wade; Wedeward, Kevin; Bruder, Stephen; El-Osery, Aly

    2004-09-01

    Anti-tank (AT) landmines slow down and endanger military advances and present sizeable humanitarian problems. The remediation of these mines by direct human intervention is both dangerous and costly. The Intelligent Systems & Robotics Group (ISRG) at New Mexico Tech has provided a partial solution to this problem by developing an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) to remediate these mines without endangering human lives. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of this UGV. Current results and future work are also described herein. To initiate the remediation process the UGV is given the GPS coordinates of previously detected landmines. Once the UGV autonomously navigates to an acceptable proximity of the landmine, a remote operator acquires control over a wireless network link using a joystick on a base station. Utilizing two cameras mounted on the UGV, the operator is able to accurately position the UGV directly over the landmine. The UGV houses a self-contained drill system equipped with its own processing resources, sensors, and actuators. The drill system deploys a neutralizing device over the landmine to neutralize it. One such device, developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), employs incendiary materials to melt through the container of the landmine and slowly burn the explosive material, thereby safely and remotely disabling the landmine.

  16. Bioactive steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Calle, Juan M; Simonet, Ana M; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2013-11-01

    Bioguided studies of flowers of Agave offoyana allowed the isolation of five steroidal saponins never described previously, Magueyosides A-E (1-5), along with six known steroidal saponins (6-11). The structures of compounds were determined as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β,12β-triol 3-O-{β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4), and (25R)-5α-spirostan-2α,3β-diol-9(11)-en-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5), by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The bioactivities of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa were evaluated. A dose-dependent phytotoxicity and low dose stimulation were observed.

  17. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) response to three music stimuli (Mozart--"Eine Kleine Nachtmusik," Anonymous--"Romanza," Bach--"Violin Concerto No. 1") and white noise under recirculating water conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsoglou, Sofronios E; Karakatsouli, Nafsika; Psarrou, Anna; Apostolidou, Sofia; Papoutsoglou, Eustratios S; Batzina, Alkisti; Leondaritis, Georgios; Sakellaridis, N

    2015-02-01

    This study presents the results of the response of Sparus aurata to three different musical stimuli, derived from the transmission (4 h per day, 5 days per week) of particular music pieces by Mozart, Romanza and Bach (140 dB(rms) re 1 μPa), compared to the same transmission level of white noise, while the underwater ambient noise in all the experimental tanks was 121 dB(rms) re 1 μPa. Using recirculating sea water facilities, 10 groups, 2 for each treatment, of 20 specimens of 11.2 ± 0.02 g (S.E.), were reared for 94 days, under 150 ± 10 l× 12L-12D, and were fed an artificial diet three times per day. Fish body weight showed significant differences after 55 days, while its maximum level was observed after the 69th day until the end of the experiment, the highest value demonstrated in Mozart (M) groups, followed by those of Romanza (R), Bach (B), control (C) and white noise (WN). SGR (M = B), %WG (M = B) and FCR (all groups fed same % b.w.) were also improved for M group. Brain neurotransmitters results exhibited significant differences in DA-dopamine, (M > B), 5HIAA (C > B), 5HIAA:5HT (WN > R), DOPAC (M > B), DOPAC:DA and (DOPAC + HVA):DA, (C > M), while no significant differences were observed in 5HT, NA, HVA and HVA:DA. No differences were observed in biometric measurements, protease activity, % fatty acids of fillet, visceral fat and liver, while differences were observed regarding carbohydrase activity and the amount (mg/g w.w.) of some fatty acids in liver, fillet and visceral fat. In conclusion, present results confirm those reported for S. aurata, concerning the observed relaxing influence--due to its brain neurotransmitters action--of the transmission of Mozart music (compared to R and B), which resulted in the achievement of maximum growth rate, body weight and improved FCR. This conclusion definitely supports the musical "understanding" and sensitivity of S. aurata to music stimuli as well as suggesting a specific effect of white noise.

  18. Overlapped flowers yield detection using computer-based interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sharma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture has always dealt with the accuracy and timely information about agricultural products. With the help of computer hardware and software technology designing a decision support system that could generate flower yield information and serve as base for management and planning of flower marketing is made so easy. Despite such technologies, some problem still arise, for example, a colour homogeneity of a specimen which cannot be obtained similar to actual colour of image and overlapping of image. In this paper implementing a new ‘counting algorithm’ for overlapped flower is being discussed. For implementing this algorithm, some techniques and operations such as colour image segmentation technique, image segmentation, using HSV colour space and morphological operations have been used. In this paper used two most popular colour space; those are RGB and HSV. HSV colour space decouples brightness from a chromatic component in the image, by which it provides better result in case for occlusion and overlapping.

  19. FT and florigen long-distance flowering control in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putterill, Joanna; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika

    2016-10-01

    The great hunt for florigen, the universal, long distance flowering regulator proposed by Chailakhan in the 1930s, resulted in the discovery a decade ago that FT-like proteins fulfilled the predictions for florigen. They are small (∼175 amino acids), globular, phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) proteins, phloem-expressed, graft-transmissible and able to move to the shoot apex to act as potent stimulators of flowering in many plants. Genes that regulate Arabidopsis FT protein movement and some features of Arabidopsis FT protein that make it an effective florigen have recently been identified. Although floral promotion via graft transmission of FT has not been demonstrated in trees, FT-like genes have been successfully applied to reducing the long juvenile (pre-flowering) phase of many trees enabling fast track breeding.

  20. Impact of climate extremes on wildlife plant flowering over Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, J. F.; Wiedermann, M.; Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.

    2015-11-01

    Ongoing climate change is known to cause an increase in the frequency and amplitude of local temperature and precipitation extremes in many regions of the Earth. While gradual changes in the climatological conditions are known to strongly influence plant flowering dates, the question arises if and how extremes specifically impact the timing of this important phenological phase. In this study, we systematically quantify simultaneities between meteorological extremes and the timing of flowering of four shrub species across Germany by means of event coincidence analysis, a novel statistical tool that allows assessing whether or not two types of events exhibit similar sequences of occurrences. Our systematic investigation supports previous findings of experimental studies by highlighting the impact of early spring temperatures on the flowering of wildlife plants. In addition, we find statistically significant indications for some long-term relations reaching back to the previous year.

  1. Molecular basis of development in petaloid monocot flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe; Skipper, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The molecular background of flower development has been intensively studied within core eudicots, and several studies have confirmed the extended ABC model as the molecular background of flower development in this plant group. The core eudicots are characterized as having one copy of each of the B-class...... genes and at least two copies of A-class genes: one is expressed in floral meristems, the other in inflorescence meristems. In monocots and non-core eudicots the validity of the ABC model is under discussion. Generally, more than one functional copy is found of at least one of the B-class genes. The A-class...... genes apparently are expressed in meristems of both flower and inflorescence. Morphologically petaloid stamens and styles are well known within the petaloid monocots, whereas the phenomenon is rare in core eudicots. A simple model based on the extra copies of B-class genes can explain the molecular...

  2. Sex Determination and Sexual Organ Differentiation in Flowering Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yanan; Li Fenglan; Gao Shumin

    2004-01-01

    The research in the genetics of sex determination and the differentiation of reproductive organs in flowering plants has long been a topic in recent years. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that control sex determination in flowering plants relies on detailed studies of the differentiation of sexual organs. Current theories about sex chromosomes have illuminated the mechanisms of plant sex determination. In addition, recent progress in cloning floral homeotic genes which regulate the identity of the floral organs has generated molecular markers to compare the developmental programs of male, female and hermaphrodite flowers in several species. In this review, the authors focus attention on these recent findings and provide a brief overview of the genetics of plant sex determination and the mechanism of sex determination gene expression and gene programs.

  3. Effects of electron beam irradiation on cut flowers and mites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohino, Toshiyuki; Tanabe, Kazuo [Yokohama Plant Protection Station (Japan)

    1994-08-01

    Two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae KOCH were irradiated with electron beams (2.5MeV) to develop an alternative quarantine treatment for imported cut flowers. The tolerance of eggs increased with age (1-5-day-old). Immature stages (larva-teleiochrysalis) irradiated at 0.4-0.8kGy increased tolerance with their development. Mated mature females irradiated at 0.4kGy or higher did not produce viable eggs, although temporary recovery was observed at 0.2kGy. Adult males were sterilized at 0.4kGy because non-irradiated virgin females mated with yielded female progeny malformed and sterilized. Various effects of electron beam irradiation were observed when nine species of cut flowers were irradiated in 5MeV Dynamitron accelerator. Chrysanthemum and rose were most sensitive among cut flowers. (author).

  4. Lutein production from biomass: marigold flowers versus microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Hao; Lee, Duu-Jong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have faster growth rates and more free lutein than marigold flowers, the current source of lutein. However, no commercial lutein production uses microalgae. This review compares lutein content, cultivation, harvesting, cell disruption, and extraction stages of lutein production using marigold flowers and those using microalgae as feedstock. The lutein production rate of microalgae is 3-6 times higher than that of marigold flowers. To produce 1 kg of pure lutein, marigolds need more land and water, but require less nutrients (N, P, K) and less energy than microalgae. Since lutein is tightly bound in microalgae and microalgae are small, cell disruption and subsequent extraction stages consume a considerable amount of energy. Research and development of affordable lutein production from microalgae are discussed.

  5. Phloem-mobile signals affecting flowers: applications for crop breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Roisin C; Kragler, Friedrich

    2013-04-01

    Transport of endogenous macromolecules within and between tissues serves as a signaling pathway to regulate numerous aspects of plant growth. The florigenic FT gene product moves via the phloem from leaves to apical tissues and induces the flowering program in meristems. Similarly, short interfering RNA (siRNA) signals produced in source or sink tissues move cell-to-cell and long distance via the phloem to apical tissues. Recent advances in identifying these mobile signals regulating flowering or the epigenetic status of targeted tissues can be applicable to crop-breeding programs. In this review, we address the identity of florigen, the mechanism of allocation, and how virus-induced flowering and grafting of transgenes producing siRNA signals affecting meiosis can produce transgene-free progenies useful for agriculture.

  6. Environmental stress and flowering time: the photoperiodic connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboni, Matteo; Robustelli Test, Alice; Galbiati, Massimo; Tonelli, Chiara; Conti, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    Plants maximize their chances to survive adversities by reprogramming their development according to environmental conditions. Adaptive variations in the timing to flowering reflect the need for plants to set seeds under the most favorable conditions. A complex network of genetic pathways allows plants to detect and integrate external (e.g., photoperiod and temperature) and/or internal (e.g., age) information to initiate the floral transition. Furthermore different types of environmental stresses play an important role in the floral transition. The emerging picture is that stress conditions often affect flowering through modulation of the photoperiodic pathway. In this review we will discuss different modes of cross talk between stress signaling and photoperiodic flowering, highlighting the central role of the florigen genes in this process.

  7. Flowering time regulation: photoperiod- and temperature-sensing in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Imaizumi, Takato

    2013-10-01

    Plants monitor changes in photoperiod and temperature to synchronize their flowering with seasonal changes to maximize fitness. In the Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway, the circadian clock-regulated components, such as FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 and CONSTANS, both of which have light-controlled functions, are crucial to induce the day-length specific expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene in leaves. Recent advances indicate that FT transcriptional regulation is central for integrating the information derived from other important internal and external factors, such as developmental age, amount of gibberellic acid, and the ambient temperature. In this review, we describe how these factors interactively regulate the expression of FT, the main component of florigen, in leaves.

  8. Ecological factors affecting the fruiting success of a Tibouchina trichopoda (DC. Baill. (Melastomataceae flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Rodrigo da Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and distribution of resources for pollinators modulate the reproduction of plants. This study attempted to determine whether and how the fruiting success of Tibouchina trichopoda flowers varies due to plant size, number of flowers produced, distance between individuals and cardinal orientation of the flowers. From July 2009 to February 2010, we conducted monthly evaluations of 21 plants in an area of regenerating forest within the Atlantic Forest biome, located near the municipality of Antonina, in southern Brazil. Floral density was monitored weekly. During the study period, the species bloomed twice: once during the cool, dry season, showing an extended flowering period with scattered flowering individuals; and once during the hot, rainy season, showing a brief flowering period with a high density of flowering individuals. Plant size was not found to influence fruiting success. There was greater production of flowers and fruits during the brief flowering period. The extent of the floral display positively affected the fruiting success of the flowers, the effect being greater when the density of flowers was low and tending to stabilize at higher densities. The northern-facing portions of tree crowns produced more flowers and therefore had greater fruiting success than did the southern-facing portions. However, the proportion of fruits produced per flower was the same.

  9. Effects of fire season on flowering of forbs and shrubs in longleaf pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, William J; Evans, Gregory W; Davis, Mary M

    1988-08-01

    Effects of variation in fire season on flowering of forbs and shrubs were studied experimentally in two longleaf pine forest habitats in northern Florida, USA. Large, replicated plots were burned at different times of the year, and flowering on each plot was measured over the twelve months following fire. While fire season had little effect on the number of species flowering during the year following fire, fires during the growing season decreased average flowering duration per species and increased synchronization of peak flowering times within species relative to fires between growing seasons. Fires during the growing season also increased the dominance of fall flowering forbs and delayed peak fall flowering. Differences in flowering resulting from variation in fire season were related to seasonal changes in the morphology of clonal forbs, especially fall-flowering composites. Community level differences in flowering phenologies indicated that timing of fire relative to environmental cues that induced flowering was important in determining flowering synchrony among species within the ground cover of longleaf pine forests. Differences in fire season produced qualitatively similar effects on flowering phenologies in both habitats, indicating plant responses to variation in the timing of fires were not habitat specific.

  10. Structure and Stability of Cocoa Flowers and Their Response to Pollination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Frimpong-Anin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the position of staminodes around the style of cocoa flowers and the stability of cocoa flowers relative to pollination and seasonality. Cocoa flowers were categorized into converging, ≤1.20 mm; parallel, 1.21–2.40 mm, and splay ≥2.41 mm, depending on the distance between the staminode and style. Some flowers were hand pollinated while others were not and were excluded from insect visitors. Proportions of flowers of converging (56.0%, parallel (37.5%, and splay (6.5% remained similar along the vertical plane of cocoa trees. Although pollination rates of flowers with splay staminodes were the lowest, the overall pollination success of cocoa trees was not significantly affected because of the small proportion of splay flowers.The stability of the cocoa flowers depended on both the season and pollination. During the dry season, unpollinated flowers of cocoa trees showed a flower-stability ratio of 72% on the second day, while the flower-stability ratio was 94% in the wet season. Pollinated (senescent flowers had a stability ratio of 95% after 5 days during the wet season, but all pollinated flowers dropped after 5 days in the dry season, indicating that seasonal factors, such as water stress, can have dramatic effects on cocoa yields.

  11. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  12. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  13. Observational Approach to Chromium Site Remediation - 13266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Myers, R. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, required massive quantities of water for reactor cooling and material processing. To reduce corrosion and the build-up of scale in pipelines and cooling systems, sodium dichromate was added to the water feedstock. Spills and other releases at the makeup facilities, as well as leaks from miles of pipelines, have led to numerous areas with chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater, threatening fish populations in the nearby Columbia River. Pump-and-treat systems have been installed to remove chromium from the groundwater, but significant contamination remain in the soil column and poses a continuing threat to groundwater and the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford, DOE, and regulators are working on a team approach that implements the observational approach, a strategy for effectively dealing with the uncertainties inherent in subsurface conditions. Remediation of large, complex waste sites at a federal facility is a daunting effort. It is particularly difficult to perform the work in an environment of rapid response to changing field and contamination conditions. The observational approach, developed by geotechnical engineers to accommodate the inherent uncertainties in subsurface conditions, is a powerful and appropriate method for site remediation. It offers a structured means of quickly moving into full remediation and responding to the variations and changing conditions inherent in waste site cleanups. A number of significant factors, however, complicate the application of the observational approach for chromium site remediation. Conceptual models of contamination and site conditions are difficult to establish and get consensus on. Mid-stream revisions to the design of large excavations are time-consuming and costly. And regulatory constraints and contract performance incentives can be impediments to the flexible responses required under the

  14. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  15. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  16. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  17. Pollination triggers female gametophyte development in immature Nicotiana tabacum flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Michael S.; Bertolino, Lígia T.; Cossalter, Viviane; Quiapim, Andréa C.; DePaoli, Henrique C.; Goldman, Gustavo H.; Teixeira, Simone P.; Goldman, Maria H. S.

    2015-01-01

    In Nicotiana tabacum, female gametophytes are not fully developed at anthesis, but flower buds pollinated 12 h before anthesis produce mature embryo sacs. We investigated several pollination-associated parameters in N. tabacum flower buds to determine the developmental timing of important events in preparation for successful fertilization. First, we performed hand pollinations in flowers from stages 4 to 11 to study at which developmental stage pollination would produce fruits. A Peroxtesmo test was performed to correlate peroxidase activity on the stigma surface, indicative of stigma receptivity, with fruit set. Pollen tube growth and female gametophyte development were microscopically analyzed in pistils of different developmental stages. Fruits were obtained only after pollinations of flower buds at late stage 7 and older; fruit weight and seed germination capacity increased as the developmental stage of the pollinated flower approached anthesis. Despite positive peroxidase activity and pollen tube growth, pistils at stages 5 and 6 were unable to produce fruits. At late stage 7, female gametophytes were undergoing first mitotic division. After 24 h, female gametophytes of unpollinated pistils were still in the end of the first division, whereas those of pollinated pistils showed egg cells. RT-qPCR assay showed that the expression of the NtEC1 gene, a marker of egg cell development, is considerably higher in pollinated late stage 7 ovaries compared with unpollinated ovaries. To test whether ethylene is the signal eliciting female gametophyte maturation, the expression of ACC synthase was examined in unpollinated and pollinated stage 6 and late stage 7 stigmas/styles. Pollination induced NtACS expression in stage 6 pistils, which are unable to produce fruits. Our results show that pollination is a stimulus capable of triggering female gametophyte development in immature tobacco flowers and suggests the existence of a yet undefined signal sensed by the pistil. PMID

  18. Dynamic Pulse-Driven Flowering Phenology in a Semiarid Shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, N.; Papuga, S. A.; Kipnis, E. L.; Nelson, K.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated springtime temperature has been convincingly linked to an increasingly earlier onset of phenological activity. Studies highlighting this phenomenon have generally been conducted in ecosystems where energy is the primary limiting factor. Importantly, phenological studies in semiarid ecosystems where water is the major limiting factor are rare. In semiarid ecosystems, the timing of phenological activity is also highly sensitive to discrete moisture pulses from infrequent precipitation events. The objective of this study is to identify the triggers of flowering phenology in a semiarid creosotebush-dominated ecosystem. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) is a repeat-flowering evergreen shrub that is the dominant species in three of the North American deserts. We present results from six years of daily meteorological and phenological data collected within the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. Our site is equipped with an eddy covariance tower providing estimates of water and carbon fluxes and associated meteorological variables including precipitation and soil moisture at multiple depths. Additionally, three digital cameras distributed within the footprint of the eddy provide daily images of phenological activity. Our results highlight substantial interannual variability in flowering phenology, both in spring and summer flowering. We show that spring flowering activity tends to be associated with energy triggers (e.g. temperature, growing degree days), whereas summer flowering activity tends to be associated with moisture triggers (e.g. large precipitation events, deep soil moisture). Our study suggests that changes in frequency and duration of precipitation events will impact timing of phenological activity resulting in important consequences for vegetation dynamics and pollinator behavior.

  19. DESCRIPTION OF MODELING ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF THE 200-ZP-1 REMEDIAL DESIGN/REMEDIAL ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VONGARGEN BH

    2009-11-03

    The Feasibility Study/or the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-28) and the Proposed Plan/or Remediation of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-33) describe the use of groundwater pump-and-treat technology for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) as part of an expanded groundwater remedy. During fiscal year 2008 (FY08), a groundwater flow and contaminant transport (flow and transport) model was developed to support remedy design decisions at the 200-ZP-1 OU. This model was developed because the size and influence of the proposed 200-ZP-1 groundwater pump-and-treat remedy will have a larger areal extent than the current interim remedy, and modeling is required to provide estimates of influent concentrations and contaminant mass removal rates to support the design of the aboveground treatment train. The 200 West Area Pre-Conceptual Design/or Final Extraction/Injection Well Network: Modeling Analyses (DOE/RL-2008-56) documents the development of the first version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS model of the Hanford Site's Central Plateau, as well as the initial application of that model to simulate a potential well field for the 200-ZP-1 remedy (considering only the contaminants carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99). This document focuses on the use of the flow and transport model to identify suitable extraction and injection well locations as part of the 200 West Area 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOEIRL-2008-78). Currently, the model has been developed to the extent necessary to provide approximate results and to lay a foundation for the design basis concentrations that are required in support of the remedial design/remediation action (RD/RA) work plan. The discussion in this document includes the following: (1) Assignment of flow and transport parameters for the model; (2) Definition of initial conditions for the transport model for each simulated contaminant of concern (COC) (i.e., carbon

  20. Lessons from flower colour evolution on targets of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessinger, Carolyn A; Rausher, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    The genetic basis of flower colour evolution provides a useful system to address the debate over the relative contribution of regulatory vs. functional mutations in evolution. The relative importance of these two categories depends on the type of flower colour transition and the genes involved in those transitions. These differences reflect differences in the degree of deleterious pleiotropy associated with functional inactivation of various anthocyanin pathway genes. Our findings illustrate how generalized statements regarding the contributions of regulatory and functional mutations to broad categories of traits, such as morphological vs. physiological, ignore differences among traits within categories and in doing so overlook important factors determining the relative importance of regulatory and functional mutations.

  1. Applied aspects of pineapple flowering Fisiologia do florescimento do abacaxizeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getúlio Augusto Pinto da Cunha

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Flowering is an amazing, integrated and complex process of multifatorial control, which due to its great importance for agriculture has been extensively studied worldwide. Pineapple is one of the main crops on which many research works about this subject have been carried out, and it was the first one to have artificially induced flowering. However, even with all those studies, pineapple flowering is not yet characterized in many aspects. The main point for the comprehension of the physiologic aspects of flowering initiation is the identification of the factors involved in the differentiation of the apical meristem into floral primordium, as well as how these factors exert their action. This work aimed to describe the flowering process of pineapple plants, including notions about general flowering physiology, pineapple inflorescence, natural and artificial flowering. Flowering relation to several chemical substances which are involved with the vegetative growth of the plant are also discussed, in order to bring out more light on its underlying mechanisms, and also to help in crop management.A floração é um processo integrado, de natureza complexa. Em decorrência de sua grande importância para as plantas, muitos trabalhos têm sido desenvolvidos em todo o mundo sobre o assunto. O abacaxi é uma das principais culturas sobre cuja floração têm sido feitas diversas pesquisas, tendo sido a primeira planta a ter o florescimento induzido artificialmente. Porém, mesmo com todos esses estudos, a floração do abacaxizeiro ainda não está bem caracterizada em muitos aspectos. O principal ponto da fisiologia do florescimento consiste em se entender os fatores que atuam na transformação do meristema vegetativo em primórdio floral, e de que forma exercem suas ações. Esta revisão procura descrever o processo do florescimento do abacaxizeiro, incluindo possíveis tecnologias alternativas de indução e inibição. São abordadas, também, no

  2. Meiosis in flowering plants and other green organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C Jill; Alvey, Elizabeth; Henderson, Ian R

    2010-06-01

    Sexual eukaryotes generate gametes using a specialized cell division called meiosis that serves both to halve the number of chromosomes and to reshuffle genetic variation present in the parent. The nature and mechanism of the meiotic cell division in plants and its effect on genetic variation are reviewed here. As flowers are the site of meiosis and fertilization in angiosperms, meiotic control will be considered within this developmental context. Finally, we review what is known about the control of meiosis in green algae and non-flowering land plants and discuss evolutionary transitions relating to meiosis that have occurred in the lineages giving rise to the angiosperms.

  3. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Ranunculaceae consists of numerous widespread species occuring from lowlands to subalpine or alpine zones. In Poland, the species grow in different types of habitats, including xerothermic swards (Adonido-Brachypodietum, Brachypodio- Teucrietum, Thalictro-Salvietum, Seslerio- Scorzoneretum and decidous forests (Tilio- Carpinetum. Many species are popular ornamentals cultivated fro their esthetic value. Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and those that start to bloom in autumn, e.g. Aconitum carmichaelli. The overall flowering duration may differ significantly between years – for example, in Anemone sylvestris the disparities reached more than three weeks. The occurrence and the length of each blooming phase may vary considerably between sites, e.g. in Adonis vernalis 10-15-day dissimilarities in the occurrence of blooming stages were recorded. Additionally, the duration of the full blooming stage varied from 10 to 30 days. The diurnal pattern of blooming among Ranunculaceae members was proved to be highly species-specific. Flowers of Aquilegia vulgaris started opening at approx. 5.00 (GMT+2, which was 2-3 hours earlier than those of Adonis vernalis. Significant differences in the diurnal flowering dynamics can be found even in the same genus: flowers of Aconitum lycoctonum began opening at 5.00 (with the peak between 6.00-9.00, while flowers of Aconitum carmichaelii started opening at 8.00 and peaked between 11.00-13.00. The flowering abundance may differ among populations of the same species. The management type was found to have an impact on the individuals’ density of Adonis vernalis occurring in xerothermic grasslands. The control of shrub encashment has already been designated as the factor determining the flowering abundance of Adonis vernalis in

  4. Deconstructing Remediation in Community Colleges: Exploring Associations between Course-Taking Patterns, Course Outcomes, and Attrition from the Remedial Math and Remedial Writing Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2012-01-01

    Each year, a sizeable percentage of community college students enroll in remedial coursework to address skill deficiencies in math, writing, and/or reading. Unfortunately, the majority of these students do not attain college-level competency in the subjects in which they require remedial assistance. Moreover, students whose point of entry into the…

  5. Photoperiod and cold night temperature in control of flowering in Kalanchoë

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk

    2015-01-01

    Kalanchoë species and cultivars are produced as ornamental plants in many places in the world. The genus contains around 140 species comprising significant morphological variation, however, the number of species used for breeding is limited due to lack of knowledge of e.g., flower inducing factors....... Having both parental plants flowering at the same time is vital for croßpollination; therefore, it is of significant importance to be able to control flowering time of the species of interest. The objective of this study was to control flower induction in K. marmorata and K. longiflora. K. prittwitzii...... was used as control species to validate treatments that consisted of combining short day photoperiod (8 h) and different night temperature (18, 12 and 6C). While K. prittwitzii had 100% flowering for all treatments, K. marmorata only flowered at 12C (33% plants flowering) and 6C (25% plants flowering...

  6. Arabidopsis florigen FT binds to diurnally oscillating phospholipids that accelerate flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Andrés, Fernando; Kanehara, Kazue; Liu, Yu-chi; Dörmann, Peter; Coupland, George

    2014-04-04

    Arabidopsis FT protein is a component of florigen, which transmits photoperiodic flowering signals from leaf companion cells to the shoot apex. Here, we show that FT specifically binds phosphatidylcholine (PC) in vitro. A transgenic approach to increase PC levels in vivo in the shoot meristem accelerates flowering whereas reduced PC levels delay flowering, demonstrating that PC levels are correlated with flowering time. The early flowering is related to FT activity, because expression of FT-effector genes is increased in these plants. Simultaneous increase of FT and PC in the shoot apical meristem further stimulates flowering, whereas a loss of FT function leads to an attenuation of the effect of increased PC. Specific molecular species of PC oscillate diurnally, and night-dominant species are not the preferred ligands of FT. Elevating night-dominant species during the day delays flowering. We suggest that FT binds to diurnally changing molecular species of PC to promote flowering.

  7. Dnapl Site Remediation: Status and Research Needs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroo, H. F.; Kueper, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    Remediation of sites impacted by dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as chlorinated solvents remains technically challenging despite significant advances over the past 30 years. Contaminants are difficult to locate in the subsurface, and it is difficult to deliver remedial agents to the contamination effectively. If lower permeability media are present, these can act as diffusive sinks for aqueous and sorbed phase constituents, further complicating characterization and cleanup. DNAPL source zones are particularly difficult to remediate, and even after treatment these sources can persist for many decades, if not centuries, and it is difficult to transition sites to a passive management strategy. A recent expert panel on source zone remediation identified three overriding objectives for future remediation - to be more surgical, more sustainable, and more certain. Surgical remediation refers to precise delineation of contaminants and hydrogeology, with more targeted remediation efforts. Sustainable remediation refers to the growing need to consider all environmental impacts when developing remediation strategies, including energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, lifecycle impacts, and the increasing demand for clean water. Although considerable uncertainty is inherent in subsurface remediation, there is potential to reduce this uncertainty through improved monitoring and modeling. Specific characterization and remediation needs will be summarized separately. Improved technologies for source characterization are critical because inadequate characterization is common given the costs and limitations of current techniques. As a result, the performance of field-scale remediation technologies is frequently disappointing. Specific research needs to improve source zone characterization include: (i) better delineation and mass estimation, (ii) source zone architecture characterization methods, and (iii) increased resolution and fine-scale mapping of geologic

  8. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  9. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  10. Increased seed set in down slope-facing flowers of Lilium duchartrei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Guo SUN; Chi-Yuan YAO

    2013-01-01

    Flower orientation has been considered one aspect of floral attraction.Plants growing on slopes should orientate their flowers facing down slope towards greater open space to enhance reproduction by attracting more pollinators.Flower angle and floral symmetry may affect this pattern; for example,this trend would be overshadowed in vertical/pendent flowers with radial symmetry because the flowers can attract pollinators and provide landing platforms from many directions.We investigated this hypothesis in Lilium duchartrei,a herb with pendent and actinomorphic flowers,in the Hengduan Mountains region of China by measuring flower direction for individuals growing on fiat ground and on slopes.We also changed flower direction from facing down to up slope to test the effects on pollinator visitation frequency and subsequent plant reproduction.Plants growing on flat ground orientate their flowers equally towards the four geomagnetic directions,whereas the flowers on individuals growing on slopes preferentially face down slope.This pattern was more pronounced for individuals growing on steeper slopes.There was a positive correlation between slope angle and the seed set of flowers facing down slope (control),but a negative correlation between seed set and flowers facing up slope.The visitation frequency also tended to be higher for control flowers on steeper slopes and lower for those flowers changed to face up slope.Unexpectedly,floral direction was not affected by flower angle or floral symmetry.The results suggest that a down slope orientation of flowers could function to improve pollination in heterogeneous pollination environments.

  11. Analysis of the function of the CONSTANS protein and transcriptional regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T

    OpenAIRE

    Wenkel, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    The transition to flowering is one of the most important development switches in the life of a plant. For some species this switch appears only once in life and is therefore tightly regulated. Flowering is directly coupled to reproductive success and therefore has to occur under optimal conditions. Several genetic pathways regulate the transition to flowering. CO is a central component of the photoperiod pathway and mediates flowering in response to day length by regulating the expression of ...

  12. Spatial variation in the community of insects associated with the flowers of Pachycereus weberi (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Vite, Fernando; Carrillo-Ruiz, Hortensia

    2014-08-01

    The positive relationship between productivity and species diversity is well-known. Insect communities associated with the flowers of Cactaceae species represent an interesting system to explore the productivity-diversity relationship because branches facing the equator receive more photosynthetically active radiation and have higher productivity. Thus, flowers with contrasting orientations within an individual, and even within a single branch, might differ in productivity. Therefore, higher abundance, species richness, and diversity are expected for the insect communities associated with south-facing flowers. This hypothesis was tested in Pachycereus weberi (J.M. Coulter) Backeberg (Cactaceae). Insects within flowers with contrasting orientations were collected and its abundance, richness, and diversity were estimated. We also asked if insects prefer big flowers. Thus, flower volume was estimated and regression analyses were conducted to test if there is a positive relationship between flower size and insect abundance. Flower orientation did not affect species richness. However, species abundance and diversity were different in flowers with contrasting orientations. In general, species abundance was higher in flowers facing southwards than in north-facing flowers. On the contrary, species diversity was higher in north-facing flowers. Abundance of Coleoptera was explained by flower volume in south-facing flowers. Contrary to our hypothesis, total diversity was greater in the less productive oriented flowers. Three possible explanations are discussed to explain the low diversity found in the highly productive, south-facing flowers. Our study provides evidence for the effects of productivity on the structure of insect communities at a very small-scale.

  13. Study on the Export Competitiveness of China’s Flower Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie; ZHOU

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the " National Diamond Model" and reviews the literature concerning the export of flower seedlings.Then it analyzes the production and export of Chinese flower seedlings,as well as the factors( factor endowments,foreign demand,related industries and industrial organization) influencing the production of Chinese flower seedlings based on Diamond Model.Finally,this paper puts forth the recommendations for the enhancement of the export competitiveness of Chinese flower seedlings.

  14. Construction of a micro-hydro power plant upon Reinstadt Creek at Kahla/Thuringen - Pilot project. Final report; Bau einer Kleinstwasserkraftanlage am Reinstaedter Bach bei Kahla/Thueringen - Demonstrationsvorhaben. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilling, A.

    2003-12-01

    Historically, Reinstadt has been the site of 8 watermills, which is a sure sign of a useable hydropower potential. The project comprises the following tasks: Construction of a hydropower plant to demonstrate the economic efficiency of hydropower development even on a micro scale; Use of the plant as a demonstration plant, especially in the German state of Thuringia; Investment of the reimbursement for grid power supply for sustainable regional projects. The project has been in planning for several years and is to enhance the use of renewable energy sources. (orig.) [German] Historisch sind im Reinstaedter Grund 8 Wassermuehlenstandorte nachweisbar aber nicht mehr funktionstuechtig. Diese Aussage ist ein Hinweis darauf, dass lokal ein gewisses nutzbares Wasserkraftpotenzial zur Verfuegung steht. Ziel des Projektes 'Bau und Betrieb einer Kleinstwasserkraftanlage am Reinstaedter Bach bei Bibra' ist es: a) fuer die dezentrale Erschliessung auch von kleinsten Wasserkraftpotenzialen vor allem im Bundesland Thueringen am Beispiel zu werben; b) die Kleinstwasserkraftanlage fuer Bildungsprojekte zu nutzen; c) die erzielten Gewinne aus dem Stromverkauf fuer die Umwelt schonende, nachhaltige und eigenstaendige Entwicklung der Region zu verwenden. Das Vorhaben wurde seit mehreren Jahren geplant und entstand mit dem Hintergrund, einen Beitrag fuer das satzungsgemaesse Ziel des Vereins - Foerderung von erneuerbaren Energien - zu leisten. (orig.)

  15. Electrodialytic remediation of soil polluted with heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of some parameters for the efficiency of electrodialytic soil remediation are evaluated. The parameters investigated are pH, the limiting current density and the addition of desorbing agents to the soil. These three parameters are found to be of the greatest importance....... results show that electrodialytic soil remediation can be optimized by understanding and adjusting these parameters. For scaling up the remediation method, these parameters are of crucial importance....

  16. Deicing/Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology Environment, Energy Security, & Sustainability (E2S2) Symposium & Exhibition Ernest N...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology 5a. CONTRACT...Issues C. PG Remediation Project D. Summary E. Questions 2 3 Background • Aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) work planes fly in the winter o Military

  17. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation.

  18. Genetic and physiological aspects of postharvest flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies (Lilium L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen-Muisers, van der J.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    In The Netherlands Lilium is economically the fourth overall flower crop for cut flower production. Longevity is a main quality characteristic for cut flowers. During postharvest handling of Asiatic hybrid lilies pretreatment with chemical solutions containing silver is carried out to ensure a satis

  19. Molecular markers as a tool for breeding for flower longevity in Asiatic hybrid lilies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.J.M.; Oeveren, van J.C.; Sandbrink, J.M.; Tuyl, van J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Segregation of flower longevity in two lily populations was studied and the genetic linkage of morphological markers and RAPD markers with loci involved in flower longevity was investigated. A large variation in flower longevity was found within the two populations tested at individual plant level.

  20. Pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes in the annual crucifer Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tienderen, P.H.; Hammad, I.; Zwaal, F.C.

    1996-01-01

    Variation in flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana was studied in an experiment with mutant lines. The pleiotropic effects of flowering time genes on morphology and reproductive yield were assessed under three levels of nutrient supply. At all nutrient levels flowering time and number of rosette le