Full Text Available Abstract Background Bach Flower Remedies are thought to help balance emotional state and are commonly recommended by practitioners for psychological problems and pain. We assessed whether Bach Flower Remedies (BFRs are safe and efficacious for these indications by performing a systematic review of the literature. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, AMED, and the Cochrane Library from inception until June 2008 and performed a hand-search of references from relevant key articles. For efficacy, we included all prospective studies with a control group. For safety, we also included retrospective, observational studies with more than 30 subjects. Two authors abstracted data and determined risk of bias using a recognised rating system of trial quality. Results Four randomised controlled trials (RCTs and two additional retrospective, observational studies were identified and included in the review. Three RCTs of BFRs for students with examination anxiety, and one RCT of BFRs for children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD showed no overall benefit in comparison to placebo. Due to the number and quality of the studies the strength of the evidence is low or very low. We did not find any controlled prospective studies regarding the efficacy of BFRs for pain. Only four of the six studies included for safety explicitly reported adverse events. Conclusion Most of the available evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of BFRs has a high risk of bias. We conclude that, based on the reported adverse events in these six trials, BFRs are probably safe. Few controlled prospective trials of BFRs for psychological problems and pain exist. Our analysis of the four controlled trials of BFRs for examination anxiety and ADHD indicates that there is no evidence of benefit compared with a placebo intervention.
Resende, Margarida Maria de Carvalho; Costa, Francisco Eduardo de Carvalho; Gardona, Rodrigo Galvão Bueno; Araújo, Rochilan Godinho; Mundim, Fiorita Gonzales Lopes; Costa, Maria José de Carvalho
To evaluate the effect of Bach flower Rescue Remedy on the control of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rats. A randomized longitudinal experimental study. Eighteen Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of six animals each and orogastrically dosed with either 200 μl of water (group A, control), or 100 μl of water and 100 μl of Bach flower remedy (group B), or 200 μl of Bach flower remedy (group C) every 2 days, for 20 days. All animals were fed standard rat chow and water ad libitum. Urine volume, body weight, feces weight, and food intake were measured every 2 days. On day 20, tests of glycemia, hyperuricemia, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and total cholesterol were performed, and the anatomy and histopathology of the heart, liver and kidneys were evaluated. Data were analyzed using Tukey's test at a significance level of 5%. No significant differences were found in food intake, feces weight, urine volume and uric acid levels between groups. Group C had a significantly lower body weight gain than group A and lower glycemia compared with groups A and B. Groups B and C had significantly higher HDL-cholesterol and lower triglycerides than controls. Animals had mild hepatic steatosis, but no cardiac or renal damage was observed in the three groups. Bach flower Rescue Remedy was effective in controlling glycemia, triglycerides, and HDL-cholesterol and may serve as a strategy for reducing risk factors for cardiovascular disease in rats. This study provides some preliminary "proof of concept" data that Bach Rescue Remedy may exert some biological effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vagner Ferreira do Nascimento
Full Text Available This is a narrative review from scientific literature that aimed to describe concepts and approaches for indications of the therapeutic use of Bach flower remedies in holistic psychotherapy. The review was developed in February 2016 from books, official documents and articles indexed in Lilacs and Scielo databases. Bach flower remedies is a therapeutic method that aims to restore the balance of human being, restoring its vital energy through holistic care. Because the flower essences act on psychic and emotional dimension of individual, when employed in holistic psychotherapy can provide greater autonomy, self-care and effectiveness compared to other alternative methods. The literature indicated that flower essence therapy is a safe practice and can be used in a complementary to health care, but should be performed by qualified professionals. It has also shown to be a promising and important area for nursing professional, but it still requires greater investment in research in the area to support the practice.
Marylena García Milanés
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, transversal en niños de 6 a 7 años de edad, de ambos sexos, procedentes del Centro Escolar “26 de Julio”, que asistieron a la Clínica Estomatológica Provincial Docente con manifestaciones de temor y “miedo al dentista”, en un período comprendido de octubre del 2005 a junio del 2006. El universo de estudio estuvo constituido por 50 pacientes que presentaron este desequilibrio emocional. Se realizaron encuestas a niños y padres para la identificación del tipo de miedo y el hábito, indicándose el remedio floral combinado con otras esencias florales, de acuerdo con el tipo de miedo diagnosticado. Los resultados del comportamiento en clínica del miedo se evaluaron a los 7, 14, 21 y 30 días de tratamiento. Los resultados se reflejaron en tablas. Se observó la mejoría en 38 niños del total de los casos, para el 82 % a los 30 días de tratamiento. Se recomendó profundizar en los resultados de este estudio y realizar un ensayo clínico terapéutico.A descriptive cross-sectional study of children of both sexes aged 6 to 7 years, from “26 de Julio” school, who went to the Provincial Dental Clinic with signs of “fear to the dentist” in the period from October 2005 to June 2006, was conducted. The universe of study was made up of 50 patients who presented with emotional impairment. Children and parents were surveyed to identify the type of fear and habit; then flower remedies combined with other flower scents were indicated to treat the diagnosed type of fear. The behavioral results in the clinic were evaluated at the 7th, 14th, 21st and 30th days of treatment. The final outcomes were shown in tables. Thirty eight children improved their behavior towards the dentist, accounting for 82% of the total number after 30 days of treatment. It was recommended to thoroughbly analyze the results of this study and to make a further therapeutical clinical assay.
This paper examines the career of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and the role played by Wilhelm His I (who was, with Albert von Haller, a noted pioneer of physiology) in the exhumation of Bach's remains in 1894. His's examination of these remains allowed the sculptor Carl Seffner to produce the celebrated statue of Bach which stands outside the church of St Thomas in Leipzig, where the composer was employed from 1723 until his death. Modern forensic techniques have recently enabled Bach's image to be reconstructed in even more spectacular detail. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
J S Bach (1685-1750) was in his own time more famous as an organist than as a composer. The trend in the baroque age, of which Bach was among the last major figures, was to move away from polyphony and towards a simpler harmonic style; Vivaldi's concertos, over 500 in number, are delightfully easy listening.
Odilon Nogueira de Matos
Full Text Available NETTL (Paul. De Lutero a Bach. Tradução de Adam F. Sosa. Buenos Aires, Editorial La Aurora, s. d. 160 pp. (Primeiro Parágrafo do Artigo De Lutero a Bach...eis um excelente roteiro para quem quizer estudar a história da música religiosa ou, mais particularmente, a contribuição da reforma religiosa do século XVI para a história da música.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 3. Music, Mathematics and Bach - Layers of Melody. Rahul Siddharthan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 3 March 1999 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/03/0008-0015 ...
María Elena Francia Reyes
Full Text Available Se realizó un trabajo investigativo, prospectivo, transversal, con 100 alumnos de la Escuela Especial de Retardo del Desarrollo Psíquico "Turcios Lima", situada en el consejo popular de Cayo Hueso en el municipio Centro Habana, con el objetivo de evaluar los resultados de la aplicación de la terapia floral de Bach en el aprendizaje de estos niños diagnosticados como retardados. A principios del siglo xx el doctor Edward Bach (1886-1936, médico de origen galés, desarrollo un original y eficaz sistema de curación. Él sostuvo que la enfermedad es producto del desequilibrio entre la mente y el cuerpo, que altera el campo energético del ser vivo. El organismo se enferma ante el padecer psicológico y el desorden emocional, y expresó: "La enfermedad no es un mal a suprimir sino un beneficio a comprender." Se seleccionaron de forma aleatoria a 100 niños de dicha escuela, constituyéndose un grupo estudio y otro control. Se revisaron sus expedientes y se realizó historia clínica floral. Se realizaron entrevistas a padres y maestros para confrontar resultados. Se aplicaron remedios florales y se arribaron a conclusiones como que la aplicación de estos remedios facilita el tránsito de escuela especial a enseñanza general.At the beginning of the 20th century, a Welsh doctor named Edward Bach(1886-1936, developed an original and efficient healing system. He affirmed that the disease was the result of imbalance of the mind and the body that distorted the energy field of the live being. The body got sick due to psychological and emotional disorders, so he said "Disease is not an evil to be eliminated but a benefit to be understood." A prospective cross-sectional study of 100 students was conducted in "Turcios Lima" Special School for Psychical Development Retardation located in Cayo Hueso neighborhood, Centro Habana municipality. The objective was to evaluate the results of the application of Bach´s flower therapy in the learning process of
28. III-11. V Adamson-Ericu muuseumis graafik Aino Bachi loomingu ülevaatenäitus. Võrdluseks on eksponeeritud Eduard Wiiralti ja Kaarel Liimandi tööd. Näha võib Mark Soosaare filmi A. Bachist "Liblikapüüdja" (1978). Kuraator Anne Lõugas, kujundaja Virge Jõekalda. Kai Tuviku juhendamisel muuseumitunnid "Kuidas joonistada inimest?". 1. IV seminaril "Naiskunstnik ja tema aeg. Aino Bach" esinejad, ettekanded
Zegers, R. H. C.
Limited vision seems to have been Johann Sebastian Bach's (1685-1750) only physical problem. Myopia seems the most likely cause and he probably developed cataracts later in life. In addition to the cataracts, his worsening vision may have been due in part to some other eye problem. In 1750 Bach's
Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Hikota, Reina; Muto, Akihiko; Kometani, Kohei; Watanabe-Matsui, Miki; Sato, Yuki; Kobayashi, Masahiro; Nakamura, Atsushi; Miura, Yuichi; Yano, Yoko; Tashiro, Satoshi; Sun, Jiying; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ochiai, Kyoko; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Igarashi, Kazuhiko
Mature lymphoid cells express the transcription repressor Bach2, which imposes regulation on humoral and cellular immunity. Here we found critical roles for Bach2 in the development of cells of the B lineage, commencing from the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) stage, with Bach1 as an auxiliary. Overexpression of Bach2 in pre-pro-B cells deficient in the transcription factor EBF1 and single-cell analysis of CLPs revealed that Bach2 and Bach1 repressed the expression of genes important for myeloid cells ('myeloid genes'). Bach2 and Bach1 bound to presumptive regulatory regions of the myeloid genes. Bach2(hi) CLPs showed resistance to myeloid differentiation even when cultured under myeloid conditions. Our results suggest that Bach2 functions with Bach1 and EBF1 to promote B cell development by repressing myeloid genes in CLPs.
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested. © 2012 The Author. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Full Text Available Bach2 Blood + mm9 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bach2.1.tsv... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bach2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/target/Bach...2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Bach2.Blood.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/colo/Blood.gml ...
Kennedy, William G.
Classroom scrip emblazoned with a picture of Johann Sebastian Bach is used to motivate junior high school students. Students are paid for cooperation and performance. Two auctions are held during the school year, at which students can spend the scrip on musical items. (CS)
Yun, Gabjin; Hwang, Seungsu
In this paper, we study the structure of generalized Bach-flat vacuum static spaces. Generalized Bach-flat metrics are considered as extensions of both Einstein and Bach-flat metrics. First, we prove that a compact Riemannian n-manifold with n ≥ 4 which is a generalized Bach-flat vacuum static space is Einstein. A generalized Bach-flat vacuum static space with the potential function f having compact level sets is either Ricci-flat or a warped product with zero scalar curvature when n ≥ 5, and when n = 4, it is Einstein if f has its minimum. Secondly, we consider critical metrics for another quadratic curvature functional involving the Ricci tensor, and prove similar results. Lastly, by applying the technique developed above, we prove Besse conjecture when the manifold is generalized Bach-flat.
Ghosh, Amalendu; Sharma, Ramesh
We show that a (2n + 1)-dimensional Sasakian manifold (M, g) with a purely transversal Bach tensor has constant scalar curvature ≥2 n (2 n +1 ) , equality holding if and only if (M, g) is Einstein. For dimension 3, M is locally isometric to the unit sphere S3. For dimension 5, if in addition (M, g) is complete, then it has positive Ricci curvature and is compact with finite fundamental group π1(M).
This Master's thesis is a document that accompanies my Master's viola recital which took place on November 6, 2009 at the University of California, San Diego. This recital consists of Mind is Moving (V) by Michael Pisaro, Sonata in g-minor by J. S. Bach, Vent Nocturne by Kaija Saariaho, and Gyorgy Ligeti's work Sonate for Viola Solo. The first chapter is an introduction and each subsequent chapter deals with the individual pieces on the program.
School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005
In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…
Piccolo, Rebecca S; Araujo, Andre B; Pearce, Neil; McKinlay, John B
The Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey is a community-based, random sample, epidemiologic cohort of n = 5502 Boston (MA) residents. The baseline BACH Survey (2002-05) was designed to explore the mechanisms conferring increased health risks on minority populations with a particular focus on urologic signs/symptoms and type 2 diabetes. To this end, the cohort was designed to include adequate numbers of US racial/ethnic minorities (Black, Hispanic, White), both men and women, across a broad age of distribution. Follow-up surveys were conducted ∼5 (BACH II, 2008) and 7 (BACH III, 2010) years later, which allows for both within- and between-person comparisons over time. The BACH Survey's measures were designed to cover the following seven broad categories: socio-demographics, health care access/utilization, lifestyles, psychosocial factors, health status, physical measures and biochemical parameters. The breadth of measures has allowed BACH researchers to identify disparities and quantify contributions to social disparities in a number of health conditions including urologic conditions (e.g. nocturia, lower urinary tract symptoms, prostatitis), type 2 diabetes, obesity, bone mineral content and density, and physical function. BACH I data are available through the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) Central Repositories (www.niddkrepository.org). Further inquiries can be made through the New England Research Institutes Inc. website (www.neriscience.com/epidemiology).
Merriam, Allen H.
Describes the structural similarities inherent in musical and linguistic compositions and how they reflect basic human impulses and principles of effective composition. Uses Bach's "Passacaglia" to illustrate the characteristics of good composition. (JMF)
Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Roychoudhuri, Rahul
BTB and CNC homology (BACH) proteins are transcriptional repressors of the basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family. Recent studies indicate widespread roles of BACH proteins in controlling the development and function of the innate and adaptive immune systems, including the differentiation of effector and memory cells of the B and T cell lineages, CD4 + regulatory T cells and macrophages. Here, we emphasize similarities at a molecular level in the cell-type-specific activities of BACH factors, proposing that competitive interactions of BACH proteins with transcriptional activators of the bZIP family form a common mechanistic theme underlying their diverse actions. The findings contribute to a general understanding of how transcriptional repressors shape lineage commitment and cell-type-specific functions through repression of alternative lineage programmes.
Describes a microfilming project to preserve music manuscripts of Johann Sebastian Bach at the Staatsbibliothek Berlin (Germany), highlighting project goals, problems and peculiarities encountered filming the collection, color micrography, and black-and-white filming. (PEN)
Vahteristo, Pia; Yliannala, Kristiina; Tamminen, Anitta; Eerola, Hannaleena; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli
BACH1 (BRCA1-associated C-terminal helicase 1; also known as BRCA1-interacting protein 1, BRIP1) is a helicase protein that interacts in vivo with BRCA1, the protein product of one of the major genes for hereditary predisposition to breast cancer. Previously, two BACH1 germ line missense mutations have been identified in early-onset breast cancer patients with and without family history of breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether there are BACH1 genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk in Finland. The BACH1 gene was screened for germ line alterations among probands from 43 Finnish BRCA1/2 negative breast cancer families. Recently, one of the observed common variants, Ser-allele of the Ser919Pro polymorphism, was suggested to associate with an increased breast cancer risk, and was here evaluated in an independent, large series of 888 unselected breast cancer patients and in 736 healthy controls. Six BACH1 germ line alterations were observed in the mutation analysis, but none of these were found to associate with the cancer phenotype. The Val193Ile variant that was seen in only one family was further screened in an independent series of 346 familial breast cancer cases and 183 healthy controls, but no additional carriers were observed. Individuals with the BACH1 Ser919-allele were not found to have an increased breast cancer risk when the Pro/Ser heterozygotes (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.70–1.16; p = 0.427) or Ser/Ser homozygotes (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.76–1.35; p = 0.91) were compared to Pro/Pro homozygotes, and there was no association of the variant with any breast tumor characteristics, age at cancer diagnosis, family history of cancer, or survival. Our results suggest that the BACH1 Ser919 is not a breast cancer predisposition allele in the Finnish study population. Together with previous studies, our results also indicate that although some rare germ line variants in BACH1 may contribute to breast cancer development, the
Full Text Available Abstract Background BACH1 (BRCA1-associated C-terminal helicase 1; also known as BRCA1-interacting protein 1, BRIP1 is a helicase protein that interacts in vivo with BRCA1, the protein product of one of the major genes for hereditary predisposition to breast cancer. Previously, two BACH1 germ line missense mutations have been identified in early-onset breast cancer patients with and without family history of breast and ovarian cancer. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether there are BACH1 genetic variants that contribute to breast cancer risk in Finland. Methods The BACH1 gene was screened for germ line alterations among probands from 43 Finnish BRCA1/2 negative breast cancer families. Recently, one of the observed common variants, Ser-allele of the Ser919Pro polymorphism, was suggested to associate with an increased breast cancer risk, and was here evaluated in an independent, large series of 888 unselected breast cancer patients and in 736 healthy controls. Results Six BACH1 germ line alterations were observed in the mutation analysis, but none of these were found to associate with the cancer phenotype. The Val193Ile variant that was seen in only one family was further screened in an independent series of 346 familial breast cancer cases and 183 healthy controls, but no additional carriers were observed. Individuals with the BACH1 Ser919-allele were not found to have an increased breast cancer risk when the Pro/Ser heterozygotes (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.70–1.16; p = 0.427 or Ser/Ser homozygotes (OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.76–1.35; p = 0.91 were compared to Pro/Pro homozygotes, and there was no association of the variant with any breast tumor characteristics, age at cancer diagnosis, family history of cancer, or survival. Conclusion Our results suggest that the BACH1 Ser919 is not a breast cancer predisposition allele in the Finnish study population. Together with previous studies, our results also indicate that although some rare germ line variants
Full Text Available Passions are exceptionally important in the works of Johann Sebastian Bach. His passion compositions are based particularly on Luther’s reformation, chiefly on developmental tendency which is based on the works of Johann Walter, Hans Leo Hassler and Michael Praetorius. The most significant forerunner of J. S. Bach was Heinrich Schütz. J. S. Bach’s textual aspect is aimed at the model of passion oratorio the main representative of which was a librettist Heinrich Brockes who worked in Hamburg. The interesting fact is that before the arrival of J. S. Bach, in 1723, there was no long tradition of passions in Leipzig. They were performed there in 1721 for the first time. J. S. Bach is demonstrably the author of the two passions: St Matthew Passion BWV 244 and St John Passion BWV 245. The authorship of Johann Sebastian Bach in St. Lukas Passion BWV 246 is strongly called into question and from St Mark Passion BWV 24 only the text was preserved.
Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua
Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.
Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R
A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.
Korzynski, Mikolaj; Lewandowski, Jerzy
The goal of this paper is to express the Bach tensor of a four-dimensional conformal geometry of an arbitrary signature by the Cartan normal conformal (CNC) connection. We show that the Bach tensor can be identified with the Yang-Mills current of the connection. It follows from that result that a conformal geometry whose CNC connection is reducible in an appropriate way has a degenerate Bach tensor. As an example we study the case of a CNC connection which admits a twisting covariantly constant twistor field. This class of conformal geometries of this property is known as given by the Fefferman metric tensors. We use our result to calculate the Bach tensor of an arbitrary Fefferman metric and show that it is proportional to the tensorial square of the four-fold eigenvector of the Weyl tensor. Finally, we solve the Yang-Mills equations imposed on the CNC connection for all the homogeneous Fefferman metrics. The only solution is the Nurowski-Plebanski metric
The author examines the generalisation of the Bach-Lanczos Lagrangian in matrix relativity where it is no longer a topological invariant, and find that for certain structures of the matrix affine connection a Yang-Mills type Lagrangian is obtained. Thus the possibility is considered of interpreting non-Abelian gauge fields as arising from an otherwise topological invariant. (author)
IV Bach conference on radiation chemistry was conducted in the framework of the conference Physico-chemical foundations of new technologies of XXI century. Problems of radiolysis of modern polymeric materials, post-irradiation examination of different organic and inorganic compounds treated with ionizing radiation, equipment used for these examinations, application of data obtained in these researches were represented in reports [ru
Baccaurea courtallensis Muell.-Arg. of Euphorbiaceae is an evergreen tree that is very attractive when in flower. Leaves are alternate. Male and female flowers are borne on separate trees. Inflorescences bearing several flowers arise in tufts on tubercles on the stem. Fruits are crimson red in colour. Seeds are covered.
Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)
In this paper, we study a coupled system of equations on oriented compact 4-manifolds which we call the Bach-Merkulov equations. These equations can be thought of as the conformally invariant version of the classical Einstein-Maxwell equations. Inspired by the work of C. LeBrun on Einstein-Maxwell equations on compact Kähler surfaces, we give a variational characterization of solutions to Bach-Merkulov equations as critical points of the Weyl functional. We also show that extremal Kähler metrics are solutions to these equations, although, contrary to the Einstein-Maxwell analogue, they are not necessarily minimizers of the Weyl functional. We illustrate this phenomenon by studying the Calabi action on Hirzebruch surfaces.
Shim, Ki Shuk; Rosner, Margit; Freilinger, Angelika; Lubec, Gert; Hengstschlaeger, Markus
Bach1 and Bach2 are evolutionarily related members of the BTB-basic region leucine zipper transcription factor family. We found that Bach2 downregulates cell proliferation of N1E-115 cells and negatively affects their potential to differentiate. Nuclear localization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is known to arrest cell cycle progression, and cytoplasmic p21 has been shown to promote neuronal differentiation of N1E-115 cells. We found that ectopic Bach2 causes upregulation of p21 expression in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm in undifferentiated N1E-115 cells. In differentiated cells, Bach2 specifically triggers upregulation of cytoplasmic p21. Our data suggest that Bach2 expression could represent a switch during the process of neuronal differentiation. Bach2 is not expressed in neuronal precursor cells. It would have negative effects on proliferation and differentiation of these cells. In differentiated neuronal cells Bach2 expression is upregulated, which could allow Bach2 to function as a gatekeeper of the differentiated status
Johann Sebastian Bach was born on 1685 in Eisenach. By the time he turned 10, Bach found himself an orphan after the death of both of his parents. After working in Weimar, Arnstadt, Mühlhausen, and Köthen Bach signed a contract to become the new organist and teacher at St. Thomas Church Leipzig in 1723 and stayed there until his death. In 1749, Bach tried to fix his failing sight by having surgery the following year, but the operation ended up leaving him completely blind. Few months later, Bach suffered a stroke. He died in Leipzig on July 28, 1750. In recent years, there were some questions whether music of different styles can directly alter cardiovascular parameters, particularly by using Bach's music. In some studies it has been shown that cardiovascular parameters (blood pressure, heart rate) are influenced by music. Listening to classic music (Bach) leads to positive erffects, also music by Italian composters. In contrast, "modern" music, vocal music or songs had no positive effects on cardiovascular parameters. In addition, positive effects on cardiovascular parameters and behavioural patters have been shown in an animal study recently, by Bach's music. Recent studies showed clearly that music influences cardiovascular parameters. It is obvious that classical music (Bach) has benefitial effects, both in humans and in animals. Therefore, the music of the "Thomaskantor" will improve both, quality of life and cardiovascular health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Fiedler, B.; Schimming, R.
Conformally invariant gravitational field equations on the hand and fourth order field equations on the other were discussed in the early history of general relativity (Weyl Einstein, Bach et al.) and have recently gained some new interest (Deser, P. Günther, Treder, et al.). The equations Bαβ=0 or Bαβ= ϰTαβ, where Bαβ denotes the Bach tensor and Tαβ a suitable energy-momentum tensor, possess both the mentioned properties. We construct exact solutions ds2= gαβdxαdxβ of the Bach equations: (2, 2)-decomposable, centrally symmetric and pp-wave solutions. The gravitational field gαβ is coupled by Bαβ= ϰTαβ to an electromagnetic field Fαβ=- Fαβ obeying the Maxwell equations or to a neutrino field ϕ A obeying the Weyl equations respectively. Among interesting new metrics ds2 there appear some physically well-known ones, such as the De Sitter universe, the Weyl-Trefftz metric. and the plane-fronted gravitational waves with parallel rays (pp-waves) known from Einstein's theory. The solutions are built up by means of special techniques: A separation method for (2, 2)-decomposable solutions, simplification of centrally symmetric metrics by a suitable conformal transformation, and complex function methods for pp-wave solutions.
narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.
Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.
quick-growing deciduous tree with a small crown. Branches are covered with dark conical prickles, which fall off after some time. The leaves are compound with three leaflets. Bright red or scarlet flowers which appear following leaf fall are in clusters at branch ends. Birds and bees visit flowers for nectar. Fruit is a cylindrical ...
conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid, 115cm and is edible when ripe. C. parviflorum is one of the commonest species of the scrub jungle ...
Brachichiton acerifolius F. Muell., commonly called as the Illawara flame tree is a member of Malvaceae family and is native to sub-tropical parts of Australia. Due to its spectacular flowers and tolerance to wide range of climates, it's now cultivated all over the world for its beauty. The tree produces flowers during the.
Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...
Full Text Available Free heme, a pro-oxidant released from myoglobin, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of rhabdomyolysis-associated acute kidney injury (RM-AKI, because renal overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, confers protection against RM-AKI. BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1 is a heme-responsive transcription factor that represses HO-1. Here, we examined the changes with time in the gene expression of Bach1, HO-1, and δ-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS1, a heme biosynthetic enzyme in the rat kidney using an RM-AKI model induced by the injection of 50% glycerol (10 mL/kg body weight into bilateral limbs. We also examined the protein expression of Bach1 in the nucleus and cytosol, and HO-1 in the rat kidney. Glycerol treatment induced significant elevation of serum creatinine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels followed by the marked elevation of serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels, which caused serious damage to renal tubules. Following glycerol treatment, HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly up-regulated, while ALAS1 mRNA expression was down-regulated, suggesting an increase in the free renal heme concentration. The Bach1 mRNA level was drastically increased 3 h after glycerol treatment, and the increased level was maintained for 12 h. Nuclear Bach1 protein levels were significantly decreased 3 h after treatment. Conversely, cytosolic Bach1 protein levels abruptly increased after 6 h. In conclusion, we demonstrate the dynamic changes in Bach1 expression in a rat model of RM-AKI. Our findings suggest that the increase in Bach1 mRNA and cytosolic Bach1 protein expression may reflect de novo Bach1 protein synthesis to compensate for the depletion of nuclear Bach1 protein caused by the induction of HO-1 by free heme.
Despite obvious differences in terms of historical and theological aspects between Calvin and Bach, both share a respect for the priority of the Biblical text in worship.The anomaly between Calvin's engagement in the versification of the Psalter and Bach's preference for the literal (rather than a versified) use of the Biblical ...
In the oeuvre of Johann Sebastian Bach the motets take only a modest position. According to Bach's early biographers he must have written many motets, but only few have been preserved. Among these motets Jesu, meine Freude BWV 227 occupies a special position. It is the only one which combines a
The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety. Seeds are flattened, smooth and reddish-brown. The unripe fruit is astringent and its extract is used in medicine. It is also used as a tan for fishing-nets. The viscid pulp is used as glue for bookbinding and also as a tar for ...
Full Text Available This paper discusses de Clercq’s (2015 contribution to our understanding of the relationship between scale degree and cadence type within Bach chorales from the perspective of style and probability. De Clercq is applauded for the diligence of this research and for attempting to synthesize findings into a practical, working model of benefit to music-theory students and educators. A literal interpretation of a premise underpinning his model—that more common musical events are more indicative of a style—is, however, found to be inconsistent. A test is described in which university students enrolled in a second-level harmony class were presented with pairs of cadences. Cadences were manipulated in various ways, primarily to investigate whether the inclusion of certain figurations would result in a perfect-authentic cadence, the most ubiquitous cadence within Bach chorales, being considered less stylistic than a never-occurring cadence. This proved to be the case, demonstrating the importance of figuration over scale degree and cadence for the accomplishment of style. De Clercq’s model is further discussed with respect to probabilistic models of music and in relation to proscriptive approaches to teaching harmony.
branched evergreen shrub or small tree (6–7 m) with soft whitish-yellow wood. Branches are numerous and drooping. The leaves are elliptic-lanceolate and somewhat fleshy. Flowers are in loose axillary and terminal much-branched inflorescence, ...
branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose with the seed enclosed in a stone. The jurisdiction for all disputes concerning published material, ...
Tender shoots and the under surface of leaves are covered with dense brown velvety hairs. Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible.
deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.
Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...
. (6-10m high) evergreen tree with a straight trunk and broad open crown. Leaves are clustered at the end of twigs. They are dark green, broadest near the rounded apex and tapering towards the base with a short stalk. Flowers are greenish or ...
Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.
Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd. (THE AMERICAN SUMACH, DIVI-DIVI) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a small unarmed tree reaching up to 10 m in height with a spreading crown. Leaves are alternate and twice compound. The flowers are small, about 0.6 cm (enlarged 5 times here), greenish-yellow, fragrant and appear in dense ...
Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February.
Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.
Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.
... shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly lobed, dark green above and pale grey underneath. They are 3-nerved from the base and often crowded at the branch ends. Inflorescence is large, branched with small greenish-yellow flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two ...
Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading wings. Seeds bear short stiff hairs that cause skin irritation.
stems and handsome foliage. Leaves are 8–10 cm long, dull green, the two thin leathery halves of the lamina fusing or the cleft between them extending beyond the middle. Flowers are gorgeous, axillary with dark purple stamens. The pod is more or less flat. B. alba is often named as B. variegate var. alba by botanists.
Sterculia foetida L. (INDIAN ALMOND,. JAVA OLIVE) of Sterculiaceae is a tall deciduous tree reaching a height of 20 m with faintly ridged grey bark. The bole reaches up to 2m in girth. Branches are reddish, usually horizontal. Leaves are large, palmately compound (5–7 leaflets) and clustered at the branch ends. Flowers ...
Johnson, Christopher M.
Analyzes 15 performances of "Bach's Suite Number 3 for Violoncello solo, Bourree Number 1" and determines what patterns of rhythmic variation (rubato) were used by soloists. Indicates that the soloists demonstrated four identifiable and similar trends in the performances. (CMK)
Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt, Arvo: "Summa". Collage sur BACH. Fratres. Cantus in Memoriam Benjamin Britten. Summa. Festina Lente. Tabula rasa. Tapiola Sinfonietta / Jean-Jacques Kantorow". BIS-CD-834. 62:30 DDD
Flannery, Maura C.
Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)
The regularizing techniques known as Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) transformation have investigated. It has proved that it is very useful in n-body simulations, where it helps to handle close encounters. This paper shows how the basic transformation is a starting point for a family of polynomial coupled function. This interpretation becomes simply on writing KS transformations in quaternion form, which also helps to derive concise expressions for regularized equations of motion. Even if the KS regularization method is more easy to use, it is interesting to encapsulate the KS transformation in a family of methods, which all conserve the KS transformations' properties. Further, an interesting point of view is considering, the orbital shapes of the restricted three-body problem (also regularized restricted three-body problem) for different initial conditions has compared with flower pattern.
Ohta, Ryo; Tanaka, Nobuhiro; Nakanishi, Kazuyoshi; Kamei, Naosuke; Nakamae, Toshio; Izumi, Bunichiro; Fujioka, Yuki; Ochi, Mitsuo
Intervertebral disc degeneration is considered to be a major feature of low back pain. Furthermore, oxidative stress has been shown to be an important factor in degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis and is considered a cause of intervertebral disc degeneration. The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between oxidative stress and intervertebral disc degeneration using Broad complex-Tramtrack-Bric-a-brac and cap'n'collar homology 1 deficient (Bach 1-/-) mice which highly express heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 protects cells from oxidative stress. Caudal discs of 12-week-old and 1-year-old mice were evaluated as age-related models. Each group and period, 5 mice (a total of 20 mice, a total of 20 discs) were evaluated as age-related model. C9-C10 caudal discs in 12-week-old Bach 1-/- and wild-type mice were punctured using a 29-gauge needle as annulus puncture model. Each group and period, 5 mice (a total of 60 mice, a total of 60 discs) were evaluated. The progress of disc degeneration was evaluated at pre-puncture, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post-puncture. Radiographic, histologic and immunohistologic analysis were performed to compare between Bach 1-/- and wild-type mice. In the age-related model, there were no significant differences between Bach 1-/- and wild-type mice radiologically and histologically. However, in the annulus puncture model, histological scoring revealed significant difference at 8 and 12 weeks post-puncture. The number of HO-1 positive cells was significantly greater in Bach 1-/- mice at every period. The apoptosis rate was significantly lower at 1 and 2 weeks post-puncture in Bach 1-/- mice. Oxidative stress prevention may avoid the degenerative process of the intervertebral disc after puncture, reducing the number of apoptosis cells. High HO-1 expression may also inhibit oxidative stress and delay the process of intervertebral disc degeneration.
Zhu, Zhengwei; Yang, Chao; Wen, Leilei; Liu, Lu; Zuo, Xianbo; Zhou, Fusheng; Gao, Jinping; Zheng, Xiaodong; Shi, Yinjuan; Zhu, Caihong; Liang, Bo; Yin, Xianyong; Wang, Wenjun; Cheng, Hui; Shen, Songke; Tang, Xianfa; Tang, Huayang; Sun, Liangdan; Zhang, Anping; Yang, Sen; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun; Sheng, Yujun
This study was aimed to explore the effect of Bach2 on B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as the underlying mechanisms. Expression of Bach2, phosphorylated-Bach2 (p-Bach2), Akt, p-Akt and BCR-ABL (p210) in B cells isolated from SLE patients and the healthy persons were assessed by Western blot. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to assess the localization of Bach2 in B cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed to detect IgG produced by B cells. Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and Annexin-V FITC/PI double staining assay were adopted to evaluate cell proliferation and apoptosis in B cells, respectively. Compared to the healthy controls, Bach2, p-Akt and p210 were significantly decreased, while nuclear translocation of Bach2, IgG, CD40 and CD86 obviously up-regulated in B cells from SLE patients. Bach2 significantly inhibited the proliferation, promoted apoptosis of B cells from SLE patients, whereas BCR-ABL dramatically reversed cell changes induced by Bach2. Besides, BCR-ABL also inhibited nuclear translocation of Bach2 in B cells from SLE patients. Further, LY294002 treatment had no effect on decreased expression of Bach2 induced by BCR-ABL, but significantly eliminated BCR-ABL-induced phosphorylation of Bach2 and restored reduced nuclear translocation of Bach2 induced by BCR-ABL in B cells from SLE. Bach2 may play a suppressive role in B cells from SLE, and BCR-ABL may inhibit the nuclear translocation of Bach2 via serine phosphorylation through the PI3K pathway. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We briefly present a relationship between General Relativity coupled to certain spin-0 and spin-2 field theories and higher derivatives metric theories of gravity. In a special case, described by the Einstein-Bach equations, the spin-0 field drops out from the theory and we obtain a consistent spin-two field theory interacting gravitationally, which overcomes a well known inconsistency of the theory for a linear spin-two field coupled to the Einstein's gravity. Then we discuss basic properties of static spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein-Bach equations. (author)
Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...
Fra Bach til Beatles på tre måneder! Didaktiske overvejelser og erfaringer på baggrund af nyt et-semesters oversigtskursus Anders Bonde Fra og med september 2005 har man på musikuddannelsen ved Aalborg Universitet, som led i implementeringen af en ny tofaglig bachelorstruktur, udviklet et nyt...
The 'Little Organ Book' (O=B) is the first major cyclical work of Johann Sebastian Bach, and was probably written between 1703 and 1720. Hitherto it has been assumed that the O=B was unfinished. Of the 164 chorale titles listed in the autograph, only 46 chorales were composed. As a preliminary
Keidar, H Rosenfeld; Mandel, D; Mimouni, F B; Lubetzky, R
To study whether Johan Sebastian Bach music has a lowering effect on resting energy expenditure (REE) similar to that of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart music. Prospective, randomized clinical trial with cross-over in 12 healthy, appropriate weights for gestational age (GA), gavage fed, metabolically stable, preterm infants. Infants were randomized to a 30-min period of either Mozart or Bach music or no music over 3 consecutive days. REE was measured every minute by indirect calorimetry. Three REE measurements were performed in each of 12 infants at age 20±15.8 days. Mean GA was 30.17±2.44 weeks and mean birthweight was 1246±239 g. REE was similar during the first 10-min of all three randomization periods. During the next 10-min period, infants exposed to music by Mozart had a trend toward lower REE than when not exposed to music. This trend became significant during the third 10-min period. In contrast, music by Bach or no music did not affect significantly REE during the whole study. On average, the effect size of Mozart music upon REE was a reduction of 7.7% from baseline. Mozart music significantly lowers REE in preterm infants, whereas Bach music has no similar effect. We speculate that 'Mozart effect' must be taken into account when incorporating music in the therapy of preterm infants, as not all types of music may have similar effects upon REE and growth.
Johnson, Christopher M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.
The purpose of this study was to investigate how instruction in the use of rhythmic nuances influences subsequent timings of a musical performance. Volunteer participants were asked to listen to and alter a performance of an excerpt from Mozart's "Concerto for Horn and Orchestra No. 2" and Bach's "Suite Number 3 for Violoncello solo, Bourree…
The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, vol. 14. London: Macmillan. 2001. The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians, vol. 20. 2nd ed. New York: Grove's Dictionaries. SCHMITZ, A. 1976. Die Bildlichkeit der wortgebundenen Musik Johann Sebastian Bachs? Laaber. Verlag (Oorspronklik London: Schott, ...
be explained by the ABC model of flower development and the polar coordinate model for zygomorphy which explains the phenotypic expression of flower symmetry in wild type and semipeloric flowers of Antirrhinum by the CYCLOIDEA, CYC gene. Similarly, the presence of such a similar gene in orchids CYCLOIDEA like, ...
Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)
Uuest heliplaadist "Pärt: Collage sur B-A-C-H für Kammerorschester, Summa (1991) für Streichorchester, Fratres, Sinfonie Nr. 2, Festina lente, Wenn Bach Bienen gezüchtet hätte, Credo für Klavier, Chor und Orchester. Philharmonia Orchestra and Chorus, Neeme Järvi". Chandos/Koch CD 9134 (WD: 63'02")
Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Watanabe-Matsui, Miki
The connection between gene regulation and metabolism is an old issue that warrants revisiting in order to understand both normal as well as pathogenic processes in higher eukaryotes. Metabolites affect the gene expression by either binding to transcription factors or serving as donors for post-translational modification, such as that involving acetylation and methylation. The focus of this review is heme, a prosthetic group of proteins that includes hemoglobin and cytochromes. Heme has been shown to bind to several transcription factors, including Bach1 and Bach2, in higher eukaryotes. Heme inhibits the transcriptional repressor activity of Bach1, resulting in the derepression of its target genes, such as globin in erythroid cells and heme oxygenase-1 in diverse cell types. Since Bach2 is important for class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes as well as regulatory and effector T cell differentiation and the macrophage function, the heme-Bach2 axis may regulate the immune response as a signaling cascade. We discuss future issues regarding the topic of the iron/heme-gene regulation network based on current understanding of the heme-Bach axis, including the concept of "iron immunology" as the synthesis of the iron metabolism and the immune response.
Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Schmidt, Dominic; Manke, Thomas; Piccini, Ilaria; Sultan, Marc; Borodina, Tatiana; Balzereit, Daniela; Wruck, Wasco; Soldatov, Alexey; Vingron, Martin; Lehrach, Hans; Yaspo, Marie-Laure
The regulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals and metabolic imbalances is a key step in maintaining cellular homeostasis. BTB and CNC homology 1 (BACH1) is a heme-binding transcription factor repressing the transcription from a subset of MAF recognition elements at low intracellular heme levels. Upon heme binding, BACH1 is released from the MAF recognition elements, resulting in increased expression of antioxidant response genes. To systematically address the gene regulatory networks involving BACH1, we combined chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis of BACH1 target genes in HEK 293 cells with knockdown of BACH1 using three independent types of small interfering RNAs followed by transcriptome profiling using microarrays. The 59 BACH1 target genes identified by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing were found highly enriched in genes showing expression changes after BACH1 knockdown, demonstrating the impact of BACH1 repression on transcription. In addition to known and new BACH1 targets involved in heme degradation (HMOX1, FTL, FTH1, ME1, and SLC48A1) and redox regulation (GCLC, GCLM, and SLC7A11), we also discovered BACH1 target genes affecting cell cycle and apoptosis pathways (ITPR2, CALM1, SQSTM1, TFE3, EWSR1, CDK6, BCL2L11, and MAFG) as well as subcellular transport processes (CLSTN1, PSAP, MAPT, and vault RNA). The newly identified impact of BACH1 on genes involved in neurodegenerative processes and proliferation provides an interesting basis for future dissection of BACH1-mediated gene repression in neurodegeneration and virus-induced cancerogenesis.
Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the activity of 50 % hydroalcohol flower extract of. Nerium oleander Linn. on the central nervous system (CNS) of mice. Methods: The effect of the 50 % hydroalcohol extract of N. oleander flowers at dosage levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. on the locomotor activity of mice ...
Willis, I.; Haggard, E.; Benedek, C. L.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Banwell, A. F.
There is growing concern about the stability and fate of Antarctic ice shelves, as four major ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula have completely disintegrated since the 1950s. Their collapse has been linked to the southward movement of the -9 oC mean annual temperature isotherm. The proximal causes of ice shelf instability are not fully known, but an increase in surface melting leading to water ponding and ice flexure, fracture and calving has been implicated. Close to the recently collapsed Wilkins Ice Shelf, the Bach Ice Shelf (72°S 72°W) may be at risk from break up in the near future. Here, we document the changing surface hydrology of the Bach Ice Shelf between 2001 and 2017 using Landsat 7 & 8 imagery. Extensive surface water is identified across the Bach Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers. Two types of drainage system are observed, drainage into firn via simple stream networks and drainage into the ocean via more complex networks. There are differences between the surface hydrology on the ice shelf and the tributary glaciers, as well as variations within and between summer seasons linked to surface air temperature fluctuations. We also document the changing subsurface hydrology of the ice shelf between 2014 and 2017 using Sentinel 1 A/B SAR imagery. Forty-five subsurface features are identified and analysed for their patterns and temporal evolution. Fourteen of the features show similar characteristics to previously-identified buried lakes and some occur in areas associated with surface lakes in previous years. The buried lakes show seasonal variability in area and surface backscatter, which varies with surface air temperature, and are consistent with the presence, enlargement and contraction of liquid water bodies. Buried lakes are an overlooked source of water loading on ice shelves, which may contribute to ice shelf flexure and potential fracture.
Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard
FLOWer is a case handling tool made by Pallas-Athena for process management in the service industry. BPEL on the other hand is a language for web service orchestration, and has become a de facto standard, because of its popularity, for specifying workflow processes even though that was not its...... original purpose. This paper describe an approach translating BPLE to FLOWer, or more precisely form BPEL to CHIP. where CHIP is the interchange language that FLOWer import from and export to. The aim of the translation scheme that I give is to derive a CHIP specification that is behaviorally equivalent...
Harusato, Akihito; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Hirai, Yasuko; Higashimura, Yasuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Handa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Muto, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu
BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which plays an important role in the protection of cells and tissues against acute and chronic inflammation. However, the role of Bach1 in the gastrointestinal mucosal defense system remains little understood. HO-1 supports the suppression of experimental colitis and localizes mainly in macrophages in colonic mucosa. This study was undertaken to elucidate the Bach1/HO-1 system's effects on the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. This study used C57BL/6 (wild-type) and homozygous Bach1-deficient C57BL/6 mice in which colonic damage was induced by the administration of an enema of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Subsequently, they were evaluated macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically. Peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice were isolated and analyzed. Then, wild-type mice were injected with peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice. Acute colitis was induced similarly. TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited in Bach1-deficient mice. TNBS administration increased the expression of HO-1 messenger RNA and protein in colonic mucosa in Bach1-deficient mice. The expression of HO-1 mainly localized in F4/80-immunopositive and CD11b-immunopositive macrophages. Isolated peritoneal macrophages from Bach1-deficient mice highly expressed HO-1 and also manifested M2 macrophage markers, such as Arginase-1, Fizz-1, Ym1, and MRC1. Furthermore, TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited by the transfer of Bach1-deficient macrophages into wild-type mice. Deficiency of Bach1 ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. Bach1-deficient macrophages played a key role in protection against colitis. Targeting of this mechanism is applicable to cell therapy for human inflammatory bowel disease.
González Valle, José V.
Full Text Available During the XVII to XVIII centuries, musical theorists, especially in Protestant circles compiled, classified and published diverse constructive procedures (figures used by renaissance composers and their immediate precursors in order to express sub specie musicae the meaning of texts. In this way, composition techniques became "idiomatical". J. S. Bach's contribution in this field has been investigated and acknowledged by musicologists throughout history. For some time now, evangelical theology has been taking an interest in that particular aspect of Bach's music, as it is obvious that in order to find an explanation for texts both devout and biblical it is often useful to analyse artistic expressions of the said texts, given that, going down that path theology will learn to understand and listen to them in a new light. That is where music, more so than other art forms, acquires special importance.Durante los siglos XVII-XVIII, los teóricos de música, especialmente en ambientes protestantes, recogen, sistematizan y dan a conocer diversos procedimientos constructivos (figuras usados por los compositores renacentistas e inmediatamente posteriores para expresar sub specie musicae el contenido del texto. De este modo, la técnica de composición musical se va "idiomatizando". La aportación de J. S. Bach, en este sentido, ha sido estudiada y reconocida por la musicología histórica. Hace un tiempo, también la teología evangélica ha comenzado a interesarse en este aspecto de la música de Bach, pues parece claro, que la explicación de los textos bíblicos o devocionales puede tener éxito por medio del trabajo artístico sobre dichos textos, ya que, por este camino, la teología aprende a oírlos y entenderlos de un modo nuevo. Es aquí donde la música, mucho más que el resto de las artes, adquiere una especial importancia.
Liu, Yuan; Lu, Fuai; Kang, Lirong; Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Yongfu
Oxidative stress is one of the important factors involved in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The equilibrium of Nuclear factor-erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/[BTB (broad-complex, tramtrack and bric-a-brac) and CNC (cap'n'collar protein) homology 1, Bach1] determines the expression level of antioxidant factors, further regulating the function of oxidation/antioxidation capacity. Pirfenidone (PFD) is one of two currently for IPF therapy approved drugs. PFD regulates intracellular antioxidants, inhibits secretion of inflammatory cytokines and collagen synthesis. However the mechanisms of its antioxidant effects remain elusive. Effects of PFD treatment were studied in mouse lung fibroblasts (MLF) following induction by transforming-growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and in mice following bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. The mRNA and protein levels of oxidative stress-related factors Nrf2/Bach1 and their downstream antioxidant factors heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (Gpx1) were determined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Fibrosis-related cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and myofibroblast markers type 1 collagen α1 (COL1A1) levels in supernate of MLF, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and BALF were detected by ELISA, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by 2',7'- dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay and lung pathological/morphological alterations in mice were observed by HE and Masson to assess the antioxidant mechanism and therapeutic effects on pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. PFD inhibited Bach1 mRNA and protein expressions in mouse lung fibroblasts induced by TGF-β1 and lung tissues with pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin. Furthermore, it improved Nrf2, Ho-1 and Gpx1 mRNA and protein expressions. After PFD treatment, COL1A1and IL-6 levels in supernate of MLF, serum, and BALF as well as ROS in lung tissues and MDA in serum and BALF from
Laffin, Michael R; Fedorak, Richard N; Wine, Eytan; Dicken, Bryan; Madsen, Karen L
Crohn's disease often requires intestinal resection, which is not considered curative. Repeat surgical intervention is necessary in more than half of patients after their initial operation. Although many genetic loci are implicated in Crohn's disease, few have been associated with post-resection recurrence. A cohort of patients with Crohn's disease who underwent intestinal resection was analyzed to determine genetic and clinical factors associated with post-resection recurrence. Genotype was assessed at 8 loci associated with adaptive immunity (SMAD3, IL10RB, IL15RA, BACH2, IL12B, IL18RAP, IFNGR2, and JAK2). Univariate and multivariable survival analyses were performed using a log-rank test and Cox-proportional hazard model, respectively. One hundred and ninety-one patients with Crohn's disease and 11.2 years mean postoperative follow-up were included. Forty-six percent experienced a surgical recurrence. Factors associated with increased incidence of recurrence included male sex (p = 0.05) and shortened time to first intestinal operation (5.0 vs 7.3 years; p = 0.03); inflammatory disease behavior was associated with a lower chance of repeat operation (p < 0.01). Of the loci assessed on multivariable analysis, homozygosity for a risk allele at BACH2 (rs1847472) was significantly associated with disease recurrence (hazard ratio 1.54; 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36; p < 0.05). We identify BACH2 as a susceptibility locus for postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease in our cohort. BACH2 is critical in the differentiation and function of T cells, as a regulator of B-cell activity, and is associated with several dysregulated immunologic phenomena. Its identification as a risk locus in postoperative Crohn's disease recurrence suggests a potential role for regulatory T cells, effector T cells, humoral immunity, and immunologic memory in the development of this disease process. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.
Johnson, Christopher M.
Examines the effect of instruction in the use of specific rhythmic nuances on the timings of a musical performance. Forty volunteer upper-division and graduate students performed Johann Sebastian Bach's Suite no. 3 for Violoncello solo, Bouree no. 1, using a computer software program. Discusses the results. (CMK)
Einarsdottir, Sigrun Lilja
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how amateur choral singers experience collective group support as a method of learning "art music" choral work. Findings are derived from a grounded-theory based, socio-musical case study of an amateur "art music" Bach Choir, in the process of rehearsing and performing the Mass in B…
Kuusk, Priit, 1938-
Lepzigi Thomaskirches taastati Bachi-aegne barokkorel. Flandria Ooperis, Hamburgi Riigiooperis ja Brüsseli Thétre de la Monnaie's lavastuvatest XX saj. heliloojate ooperitest. 16.-26. nov. toimuvast Huddersfieldi kaasaegse muusika festivalist Inglismaal. Festivalist "Liszt ja Bach" Weimaris
This PhD dissertation explores poverty and abundance in Bach’s life and sacred cantatas and inquires how he himself might have handled the tension between the material and spiritual aspects. Although his career was increasingly lucrative, Bach did not amass significant wealth. In 1730, he complained
Wang, Hsin-Mei; Tong, Chii-Gong; Jang, Seonghoe
Genetic pathways relevant to flowering of Arabidopsis are under the control of environmental cues such as day length and temperatures, and endogenous signals including phytohormones and developmental aging. However, genes and even regulatory pathways for flowering identified in crops show divergence from those of Arabidopsis and often do not have functional equivalents to Arabidopsis and/or existing species- or genus-specific regulators and show modified or novel pathways. Orchids are the largest, most highly evolved flowering plants, and form an extremely peculiar group of plants. Here, we briefly summarize the flowering pathways of Arabidopsis, rice and wheat and present them alongside recent discoveries/progress in orchid flowering and flower developmental processes including our transgenic Phalaenopsis orchids for LEAFY overexpression. Potential biotechnological applications in flowering/flower development of orchids with potential target genes are also discussed from an interactional and/or comparative viewpoint.
Doorn, van W.G.; Sinz, A.; Tomassen, M.M.M.
Visible symptoms of tepal senescence in cut Iris x hollandica (cv. Blue Magic) flowers were delayed by placing one cut daffodil flower (Narcissus pseudonarcissus, cv. Carlton) in the same vase. Addition of mucilage, exuded by daffodil stems, to the vase water had the same effect as the flowering
Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe Elisabeth
MADS-box genes, ABS model, Orchid flower evolution, Gene expression in orchid flowers, in situ PCR......MADS-box genes, ABS model, Orchid flower evolution, Gene expression in orchid flowers, in situ PCR...
The Bach-Einstein equation linearized around Minkowski space-time is completely solved. The set of solutions depends on three parameters; a two-parameter subset of it becomes asymptotically flat. In that region the gravitational potential is of the type phi = -m/r + epsilon exp (-r/l). Because of the different asymptotic behaviour of both terms, it became necessary to linearize also around the Schwarzschild solution phi = -m/r. The linearized equation resulting in this case is discussed using qualitative methods. The result is that for m = 2l phi = -m/r + epsilon r -2 exp (-r/l) u, where u is some bounded function; m is arbitrary and epsilon again small. Further, the relation between the solution of the linearized and the full equation is discussed. (author)
Kacprzak, K; Sobczak, K
The performance of the Bach-type Savonius wind turbine with a constant cross-section is examined by means of quasi 2D and 3D flow predictions obtained from ANSYS CFX. Simulations were performed in a way allowing for a comparison with the wind tunnel data presented by Kamoji et al. The comparison with the experiment has revealed that 2D solutions give much higher deviation from the reference data than the 3D ones, which guarantees a good solution quality. It can be stated that even simplified (lack of laminar-turbulence transition modelling and a coarser mesh) 3D simulations can yield more accurate results than complex 2D solutions for turbines with a low aspect ratio. The paper also presents a systematic analysis of the most characteristic flow structures which are identified in the rotor.
Kacprzak, K.; Sobczak, K.
The performance of the Bach-type Savonius wind turbine with a constant cross-section is examined by means of quasi 2D and 3D flow predictions obtained from ANSYS CFX. Simulations were performed in a way allowing for a comparison with the wind tunnel data presented by Kamoji et al. The comparison with the experiment has revealed that 2D solutions give much higher deviation from the reference data than the 3D ones, which guarantees a good solution quality. It can be stated that even simplified (lack of laminar-turbulence transition modelling and a coarser mesh) 3D simulations can yield more accurate results than complex 2D solutions for turbines with a low aspect ratio. The paper also presents a systematic analysis of the most characteristic flow structures which are identified in the rotor.
The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in...
Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A; Kerbauy, Gilberto B; Zeng, Songjun; Chen, Zhilin; Duan, Jun
Flowering is the most elusive and fascinating of all plant developmental processes. The ability to induce flowering in vitro in orchids would reduce the relatively long juvenile phase and provide deeper insight into the physiological, genetic and molecular aspects of flowering. This review synthesizes all available studies that have been conducted on in vitro flowering of orchids with the objective of providing valuable clues as to the mechanism(s) that is possibly taking place.
Seydel, Elena; Turley, Michael; Becht, Michael; Heckmann, Tobias
On July 3rd, 2010, an extreme precipitation event occurred in the municipality of Wachtberg at the southern urban fringe of the Federal City of Bonn. The 30-min intensity of the torrential rain was estimated to represent a 1000 year event according to the KOSTRA dataset (German Meteorological Service, DWD). Rapid overland flow and the exceedance of the design values of the sewerage system caused a flash flood in the Mehlemer Bach catchment. Roughly 400 buildings were affected in its lower, urbanized part, and it took over two weeks to clear the damage. Similar flash flood events have been recorded in the same catchment regularly since the year 1693, three times in the last 80 years alone. The fact that, in case of the 2010 event, the official weather warning was released almost simultaneously to the beginning of the downpour highlights the urgent need for preparative action in the longer term. Flash flood risk mitigation relies, among others, on risk awareness and preparedness of residents. One aim of this study is to analyse the current risk communication in the drainage area of Mehlemer Bach through questionnaires and expert interviews, which will provide a good basis for an open dialogue between residents and the authorities. There is an urgent need for practical and accessible advice, and it must be ensured that the resources and capabilities of the individuals involved are taken into consideration. In addition, we compare a hazard map of the area to mental maps drawn by the local population in order to assess their risk perception.
After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourcedagents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to selectthe right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in humanbeings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screeningprocess to select the right pollen grains and to reject thewrong ones. Even after ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 11. A Feast of Flowers. Dipanjan Ghosh. General Article Volume 18 Issue 11 November 2013 pp 1004-1014. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/018/11/1004-1014. Keywords.
prerogative of the mother (pistil); the boy (pollen grain) and the girl (ovule) has no say ... other flowers of a different plant but of the same species (cross- pollen). ... and style. (b). Trans- verse section of solid style to show cells of a part of the transmitting tissue (yel- low) with large intercellu- lar spaces filled with ex- tracellular ...
Even after initial screening for the right pollen,the pistil imposes a tough competition amongst them, comparableto a swayamvara of Indian mythology, to select the bestavailable pollen. Flowering plants have evolved into a matriarchalsociety. The selection of the male partner is totally theprerogative of the mother (pistil); the ...
After the pollen grain reaches the stigma through outsourced agents (pollinators), the next step before fertilization is to se- lect the right type of pollen. Similar to a marriage in human beings, flowering plants also have evolved elaborate screen- ing process to select the right pollen grains and to reject the wrong ones.
Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012
This publication helps the reader to select wisely among the many species and varieties of flowering trees available. The following are considerations that should be taken into account when choosing flowering trees for the home landscape: selections factors, environmental responses, availability and adaptability, and flowering tree descriptions.
Studies have revealed genetic control of flowering patterns for seasonal flowering (SF) and perpetual flowering (PF) genotypes in the common garden strawberry, with associated links to gene homeologs in diploid alpine strawberry, F. vesca L. Within the genus Fragaria, 22 species and multiple subspec...
Hinnawy, El E.I.
In mustard N deficiency accelerated flower initiation and particularly flower bud development. Excess N delayed flowering but increased number of flowers. Of other elements Ca influenced flowering most.Dill developed its flowers most rapidly with normal or high rates of N. N deficiency retarded
Ionescu, Irina Alexandra; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Sánchez Pérez, Raquel
Flowering at the right time is of great importance; it secures seed production and therefore species survival and crop yield. In addition to the genetic network controlling flowering time, there are a number of much less studied metabolites and exogenously applied chemicals that may influence...... on the genetic aspects of flowering time regulation in annuals, but less so in perennials. An alternative to plant breeding approaches is to engineer flowering time chemically via the external application of flower-inducing compounds. This review discusses a variety of exogenously applied compounds used in fruit...
Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.
The Environmental part of CERN Safety policy is represented by a flower whose petals are the various domains of its application. The Environment Services section within the Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Protection Unit is in charge of monitoring the impact of the Laboratory on the environment. You are called on to make every effort to reduce this impact as much as reasonably achievable. Read why and how… A physics Laboratory occupying a territory of the size of a small village, with sites scattered across an even larger area, has a considerable potential impact on the environment. Energy and water consumption, waste management... these are all aspects of the same problem or, in the representation, petals of the same flower. Each one should be carefully studied and dealt with. The nine members of the Environment Services section deal with matters that concern these and other aspects of the CERN's policy for the protection of the environment. “...
Vandenhove, H. [ed.
Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.
Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions
Morche, David; Weber, Martin; Faust, Matthias; Schuchardt, Anne; Baewert, Henning
High-alpine environments are strongly affected by glacier retreat since the Little Ice Age (LIA). Due to ongoing climate change the hydrology of proglacial rivers is also influenced. It is expected that the growing proportions of snow melt and rainfall events will change runoff characteristics of proglacial rivers. Additionally, the importance of paraglacial sediment sources in recently deglaciating glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. Thus complex environmental conditions leading to a complex pattern of fluvial sediment transport in partly glaciated catchments of the European Alps. Under the umbrella of the joint PROSA-project the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach (Kaunertal, Tyrol, Austria) was studied in 3 consecutive ablation seasons in order to quantify sediment yields. In June 2012 a probe for water level and an automatic water sampler (AWS) were installed at the outlet of the catchment (20km2). In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations by the rating-curve approach, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters and by salt dilution. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In total 564 (2012: 154, 2013: 209, 2014: 201) water samples were collected and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). Q-SSC-relations were calculated for single flood events due to the high variability of suspended sediment transport. The results show a high inter- and intra-annual variability of solid fluvial sediment transport, which can be explained by the characteristics of suspended sediment transport. Only 13 of 22 event-based Q-SSC-relations show causal dependency. In 2012, during a period with multiple pluvial-induced peak discharges most sediment was transported. On the
Fang, Shona C; Rosen, Raymond C; Vita, Joseph A; Ganz, Peter; Kupelian, Varant
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, the association between change in ED status over time and future underlying CVD risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between change in ED status and Framingham CVD risk, as well change in Framingham risk. We studied 965 men free of CVD in the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a longitudinal cohort study with three assessments. ED was assessed with the five-item International Index of Erectile Function at BACH I (2002-2005) and BACH II (2007-2010) and classified as no ED/transient ED/persistent ED. CVD risk was assessed with 10-year Framingham CVD risk algorithm at BACH I and BACH III (2010-2012). Linear regression models controlled for baseline age, socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, as well as baseline Framingham risk. Models were also stratified by age (≥/< 50 years). Framingham CVD risk and change in Framingham CVD risk were the main outcome measures. Transient and persistent ED was significantly associated with increased Framingham risk and change in risk over time in univariate and age-adjusted models. In younger men, persistent ED was associated with a Framingham risk that was 1.58 percentage points higher (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.11, 3.06) and in older men, a Framingham risk that was 2.54 percentage points higher (95% CI: -1.5, 6.59), compared with those without ED. Change in Framingham risk over time was also associated with transient and persistent ED in men <50 years, but not in older men. Data suggest that even after taking into account other CVD risk factors, transient and persistent ED is associated with Framingham CVD risk and a greater increase in Framingham risk over time, particularly in younger men. Findings further support clinical assessment of CVD risk in men presenting with ED, especially those under 50 years. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Water shortages have resulted from agricultural development in a rural area outside Bogota, Colombia. These shortages have increased women's work load and caused problems in managing households because the water must be boiled before ingestion. In the community of Funza, women must obtain clean water in buckets at night from the main valve, which has insufficient water pressure and a slow stream. Some barrios collect water on a weekly basis. The local restaurant in town obtains water once a week from a tanker; the town is lucky to receive water three times a week. Men assume that women will take care of the problem. The mayor says that the piped water from Bogota will soon be connected and that each barrio will have its own valve. Women are concerned that the supply, even with new valves, will be limited and mixed with dirty lagoon water. Experts are saying that the water shortage and quality problems that began seven years ago will lead to rationing within three to six years. The flower companies, that came to the area 22 years age, are blamed for the water problems. People say that the flower companies have piped clean water from the area's supply in the San Patricia and that underground sources of water have been used up as well. The industry provides jobs and income, which have improved the standard of living, but there is little consideration given to the water supply. The community shifted water sources to the lagoon at a time when the water was being contaminated by sewage and pesticides and chemicals from the flower companies.
Antonio Sánchez Pato
Full Text Available El presente ensayo pretende ensalzar la figura de Thomas Bach, Presidente del Comité Olímpico Inter- nacional, por sus méritos académicos, deportivos y profesionales para hacerle merecedor del Doctorado Honoris Causa por la Universidad Católica de Murcia. Comienza haciendo un recorrido por su vida académi- ca y deportiva desde su juventud hasta la actualidad. Resalta significativamente su figura como ejemplo de carrera dual, al haber combinado perfectamente su for- mación académica con un alto desempeño deportivo. Al mismo tiempo, descubre las características y vivencias personales que le han hecho llegar a su éxito personal y profesional, tanto en la empresa privada como en los organismos deportivos. Indagando en los principales documentos públicos de su candidatura a la presidencia del COI y en su programa de gobierno al frente de este organismo, descubrimos las claves del éxito profesional de este insigne personaje.
Full Text Available Harmony is a fundamental attribute of music. Close connections exist between music and mathematics since both pursue harmony and unity. In music, the consonance of notes played simultaneously partly determines our perception of harmony; associates with aesthetic responses; and influences the emotion expression. The consonance could be considered as a window to understand and analyze harmony. Here for the first time we used a 1/f fluctuation analysis to investigate whether the consonance fluctuation structure in music with a wide range of composers and genres followed the scale free pattern that has been found for pitch, melody, rhythm, human body movements, brain activity, natural images and geographical features. We then used a network graph approach to investigate which composers were the most influential both within and across genres. Our results showed that patterns of consonance in music did follow scale-free characteristics, suggesting that this feature is a universally evolved one in both music and the living world. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed that Bach's harmony patterns were having the most influence on those used by other composers, followed closely by Mozart.
Chavez, M.; Juarez, H.; Pacio, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Instituto de Ciencias, Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Av. 14 Sur, Col. Jardines de San Manuel, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Gutierrez, R.; Chaltel, L.; Zamora, M.; Portillo, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Laboratorio de Materiales, Apdo. Postal 1067, 72001 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Mathew, X., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [UNAM, Instituto de Energias Renovables, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)
Pb S-doped CdS nano materials were successfully synthesized using chemical bath. Transmittance measurements were used to estimate the optical band gap energy. Tailing in the band gap was observed and found to obey Ur bach rule. The diffraction X-ray show that the size of crystallites is in the ∼33 nm to 12 nm range. The peaks belonging to primary phase are identified at 2θ = 26.5 degrees Celsius and 2θ = 26.00 degrees Celsius corresponding to CdS and Pb S respectively. Thus, a shift in maximum intensity peak from 2θ = 26.4 to 28.2 degrees Celsius is clear indication of possible transformation of cubic to hexagonal phase. Also peaks at 2θ = 13.57, 15.9 degrees Celsius correspond to lead perchlorate thiourea. The effects on films thickness and substrate doping on the band gap energy and the width on tail were investigated. Increasing doping give rise to a shift in optical absorption edge ∼0.4 eV. (Author)
Wu, Dan; Kendrick, Keith M; Levitin, Daniel J; Li, Chaoyi; Yao, Dezhong
Harmony is a fundamental attribute of music. Close connections exist between music and mathematics since both pursue harmony and unity. In music, the consonance of notes played simultaneously partly determines our perception of harmony; associates with aesthetic responses; and influences the emotion expression. The consonance could be considered as a window to understand and analyze harmony. Here for the first time we used a 1/f fluctuation analysis to investigate whether the consonance fluctuation structure in music with a wide range of composers and genres followed the scale free pattern that has been found for pitch, melody, rhythm, human body movements, brain activity, natural images and geographical features. We then used a network graph approach to investigate which composers were the most influential both within and across genres. Our results showed that patterns of consonance in music did follow scale-free characteristics, suggesting that this feature is a universally evolved one in both music and the living world. Furthermore, our network analysis revealed that Bach's harmony patterns were having the most influence on those used by other composers, followed closely by Mozart.
Basovník, M.; Semerák, O.
We continue to study the response of black-hole space-times on the presence of additional strong sources of gravity. Restricting ourselves to static and axially symmetric (electro)vacuum exact solutions of Einstein's equations, we first considered the Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for a binary of extreme black holes in a previous paper, while here we deal with a Schwarzschild black hole surrounded by a concentric thin ring described by the Bach-Weyl solution. The geometry is again revealed on the simplest invariants determined by the metric (lapse function) and its gradient (gravitational acceleration), and by curvature (Kretschmann scalar). Extending the metric inside the black hole along null geodesics tangent to the horizon, we mainly focus on the black-hole interior (specifically, on its sections at constant Killing time) where the quantities behave in a way indicating a surprisingly strong influence of the external source. Being already distinct on the level of potential and acceleration, this is still more pronounced on the level of curvature: for a sufficiently massive and/or nearby (small) ring, the Kretschmann scalar even becomes negative in certain toroidal regions mostly touching the horizon from inside. Such regions have been interpreted as those where magnetic-type curvature dominates, but here we deal with space-times which do not involve rotation and the negative value is achieved due to the electric-type components of the Riemann/Weyl tensor. The Kretschmann scalar also shapes rather nontrivial landscapes outside the horizon.
Full Text Available This article illustrates a pedagogic unit on music listening that is centered on the first movement of the Fifth Brandenburg Concerto by Bach and is aimed at primary school pupils. The selected concert is of historical importance for the prominent role assumed by the harpsichord in comparison to the other two soloists (flute and violin. The didactic “bridge” that is useful to deal with this piece and carve out the cognitive contents ad hoc has been identified by Giorgio Pagannone in Walt Disney’s animated cartoon, Three Little Pigs (1933, based on a fairy tale of the same name.First, we present and analyse the music piece and animated cartoon. Next, we provide a detailed and articulated description of the pedagogic unit, that was adopted by Silvia Cancedda in a primary school in Bologna (Italy and produced very good results such as the intuitive reading of selected score fragments. The appendix includes some of the works done by the pupils.
Full Text Available BRCA1 promotes DNA repair through interactions with multiple proteins, including CtIP and FANCJ (also known as BRIP1/BACH1. While CtIP facilitates DNA end resection when de-acetylated, the function of FANCJ in repair processing is less well defined. Here, we report that FANCJ is also acetylated. Preventing FANCJ acetylation at lysine 1249 does not interfere with the ability of cells to survive DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs. However, resistance is achieved with reduced reliance on recombination. Mechanistically, FANCJ acetylation facilitates DNA end processing required for repair and checkpoint signaling. This conclusion was based on the finding that FANCJ and its acetylation were required for robust RPA foci formation, RPA phosphorylation, and Rad51 foci formation in response to camptothecin (CPT. Furthermore, both preventing and mimicking FANCJ acetylation at lysine 1249 disrupts FANCJ function in checkpoint maintenance. Thus, we propose that the dynamic regulation of FANCJ acetylation is critical for robust DNA damage response, recombination-based processing, and ultimately checkpoint maintenance.
Water usage is a vital issue for all agricultural crops as well as for ornamental crops. To obtain high quality flowers, it is essential to supply water when it is required. A problem which is common with cut flower growers are determining when to irrigate and the amount of water to apply. The effect of two irrigation intervals (I1: ...
Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva; Mortari, Daniele
A new approach in satellite constellation design is presented in this paper, taking as a base the 3D Lattice Flower Constellation Theory and introducing the necklace problem in its formulation. This creates a further generalization of the Flower Constellation Theory, increasing the possibilities of constellation distribution while maintaining the characteristic symmetries of the original theory in the design.
"Teaching Flowers" reflects on humanity's deep connections to horticulture by gathering varied thoughts from seminal writers in the field. In addition, this visual article draws attention to labor issues within the U.S. floral industry by documenting the author's exploration of flowers as social sculpture in New York City.
Pijl, van der L.
At the jubilee of Professor Lam it seems suitable to contribute a paper on the flower as a functional unit, though it is in the form of a kind of book-review. Lam himself wrote on the more fundamental connections between flowering and lower plants and on the basal morphological elements of the
Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)
Molloy, Ben; Dominguez Castro, Patricia; Cormican, Paul; Trimble, Valerie; Mahmud, Nasir; McManus, Ross
Genetic studies have to date identified 43 genome wide significant coeliac disease susceptibility (CD) loci comprising over 70 candidate genes. However, how altered regulation of such disease associated genes contributes to CD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Recently there has been considerable emphasis on characterising cell type specific and stimulus dependent genetic variants. Therefore in this study we used RNA sequencing to profile over 70 transcriptomes of CD4+ T cells, a cell type crucial for CD pathogenesis, in both stimulated and resting samples from individuals with CD and unaffected controls. We identified extensive transcriptional changes across all conditions, with the previously established CD gene IFNy the most strongly up-regulated gene (log2 fold change 4.6; Padjusted = 2.40x10-11) in CD4+ T cells from CD patients compared to controls. We show a significant correlation of differentially expressed genes with genetic studies of the disease to date (Padjusted = 0.002), and 21 CD candidate susceptibility genes are differentially expressed under one or more of the conditions used in this study. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of immune related processes. Co-expression network analysis identified several modules of coordinately expressed CD genes. Two modules were particularly highly enriched for differentially expressed genes (P<2.2x10-16) and highlighted IFNy and the genetically associated transcription factor BACH2 which showed significantly reduced expression in coeliac samples (log2FC -1.75; Padjusted = 3.6x10-3) as key regulatory genes in CD. Genes regulated by BACH2 were very significantly over-represented among our differentially expressed genes (P<2.2x10-16) indicating that reduced expression of this master regulator of T cell differentiation promotes a pro-inflammatory response and strongly corroborates genetic evidence that BACH2 plays an important role in CD pathogenesis. PMID:26444573
Emma M Quinn
Full Text Available Genetic studies have to date identified 43 genome wide significant coeliac disease susceptibility (CD loci comprising over 70 candidate genes. However, how altered regulation of such disease associated genes contributes to CD pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Recently there has been considerable emphasis on characterising cell type specific and stimulus dependent genetic variants. Therefore in this study we used RNA sequencing to profile over 70 transcriptomes of CD4+ T cells, a cell type crucial for CD pathogenesis, in both stimulated and resting samples from individuals with CD and unaffected controls. We identified extensive transcriptional changes across all conditions, with the previously established CD gene IFNy the most strongly up-regulated gene (log2 fold change 4.6; P(adjusted = 2.40x10(-11 in CD4+ T cells from CD patients compared to controls. We show a significant correlation of differentially expressed genes with genetic studies of the disease to date (P(adjusted = 0.002, and 21 CD candidate susceptibility genes are differentially expressed under one or more of the conditions used in this study. Pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment of immune related processes. Co-expression network analysis identified several modules of coordinately expressed CD genes. Two modules were particularly highly enriched for differentially expressed genes (P<2.2x10(-16 and highlighted IFNy and the genetically associated transcription factor BACH2 which showed significantly reduced expression in coeliac samples (log2FC -1.75; P(adjusted = 3.6x10(-3 as key regulatory genes in CD. Genes regulated by BACH2 were very significantly over-represented among our differentially expressed genes (P<2.2x10(-16 indicating that reduced expression of this master regulator of T cell differentiation promotes a pro-inflammatory response and strongly corroborates genetic evidence that BACH2 plays an important role in CD pathogenesis.
Lefebvre, Jean-Pierre; Ouillon, Sylvain; Vinh, Vu Duy; Arfi, Robert; Panché, Jean-Yves; Mari, Xavier; Van Thuoc, Chu; Torréton, Jean-Pascal
In the Bach Dang-Cam Estuary, northern Vietnam, mechanisms governing cohesive sediment aggregation were investigated in situ in 2008-2009. As part of the Red River delta, this estuary exhibits a marked contrast in hydrological conditions between the monsoon and dry seasons. The impact on flocculation processes was assessed by means of surveys of water discharge, suspended particulate matter concentration and floc size distributions (FSDs) conducted during a tidal cycle at three selected sites along the estuary. A method was developed for calculating the relative volume concentration for the modes of various size classes from FSDs provided by the LISST 100X (Sequoia Scientific Inc.). It was found that all FSDs comprised four modes identified as particles/flocculi, fine and coarse microflocs, and macroflocs. Under the influence of the instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy, their proportions varied but without significant modification of their median diameters. In particular, when the turbulence level corresponded to a Kolmogorov microscale of less than ˜235 μm, a major breakup of flocs resulted in the formation of particles/flocculi and fine microflocs. Fluctuations in turbulence level were governed by seasonal variations in freshwater discharge and by the tidal cycle. During the wet season, strong freshwater input induced a high turbulent energy level that tended to generate sediment transfer from the coarser size classes (macroflocs, coarse microflocs) to finer ones (particles/flocculi and fine microflocs), and to promote a transport of sediment seawards. During the dry season, the influence of tides predominated. The turbulent energy level was then only episodically sufficiently high to generate transfer of sediment between floc size classes. At low turbulent energy, modifications in the proportions of floc size classes were due to differential settling. Tidal pumping produced a net upstream transport of sediment. Associated with the settling of sediment
Zangrando, M.; Zacchigna, M.; Bondino, F.; Finazzi, M.; Pardini, T.; Plate, M.; Rochow, R.; Cocco, D.; Parmigiani, F.
BACH, the new soft x-ray beamline for polarization dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, has been commissioned, characterized and opened to external users. Based on two APPLE II undulators, it covers an energy range between 35 eV and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator works either in high resolution or high flux mode. Resolving powers of 16000 at 50 eV, 12000 at 90 eV, more than 12000 at 400 eV, 15000 at 534 eV and 6600 at 867 eV have been achieved with the three high resolution gratings. The resolving powers of the high flux grating, which covers the 290 - 1600 eV range, have been measured reaching 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV. The fluxes, in the high resolution mode, range between 4·1011 photons/s at 125 eV and 2·1010 photons/s at about 1100 eV. Using the high flux grating with the best resolution achievable 1.7·1011 photons/s impinge on the sample at 900 eV. Two branches are installed after the monochromator allowing the set-up of two different experimental stations. One of them, besides several facilities for surface preparation and analysis, hosts a compact inelastic soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) dedicated to x-ray emission experiments exploiting the small spot (10 μm in the vertical direction) on the sample. The other branch hosts a liquid helium cryostat equipped with a superconducting coil to perform absorption and transmission experiments with temperatures down to 2 K and magnetic field up to ±7 T
Wang, Yadong; Yang, Haiyan; Wang, Haiyu
With great interest, we read the recent article entitled "Association between BRIP1 (BACH1) polymorphisms and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis" published online in Pabalan et al. (Breast Cancer Res Treat 137:553-558, 2013). This article suggests that overall summary estimates imply no associations but suggest susceptibility among carriers of the C47G polymorphism and Pro-Ser genotype in premenopausal women. The result is encouraging. Nevertheless, several key issues in this meta-analysis are worth noticing.
Rasch, Peter; Trapp, Stefan
The organic pollution of the lower Belmer Bach can be attributed to its agriculturally intensively used drainage area. Already before entering the urbanized region, the macrozoobenthos is poor in species due to saprobic pollution and the structural poverty of the waterbed and the banks.When compa......The organic pollution of the lower Belmer Bach can be attributed to its agriculturally intensively used drainage area. Already before entering the urbanized region, the macrozoobenthos is poor in species due to saprobic pollution and the structural poverty of the waterbed and the banks...
Interaction patterns between plants and flower visitors in a Mediterranean flower visitation web can be explained surprisingly well by the combination of two simple mechanisms. Firstly, the size threshold that the nectar tube depth of flowers puts on the tongue length of potential flower visitors;
Pablo Alberto Lanzoni
Full Text Available O presente artigo discute a análise retórica do Largo do Concerto n.5 em Fá menor, BWV 1056 de Johann Sebastian Bach. No primeiro momento, é apresentada uma revisão dos princípios retóricos e de como eles se transportam à música. A seguir, é proposta uma análise do movimento mencionado, partindo da discussão já exposta. O exercício analítico exemplifica como os princípios retóricos estão intimamente relacionados à música do período barroco.The present article is based upon the rhetorical analysis from Johann Sebastian Bach's Largo of Concert n. 5 F minor, BWV 1056. First, a review of the rhetorical principles and how they convey themselves to the music is introduced. Next, it is presented an analysis of the mentioned movement from the discussion already exposed. The analytical exercise exemplifies how the rhetorical principles are related to the Baroque period music.
Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene
The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra water...
Liu, Lu; Wei, Jianrong; Zhang, Huishu; Xin, Jianhong; Huang, Jiping
Because classical music has greatly affected our life and culture in its long history, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers to understand laws behind it. Based on statistical physics, here we use a different method to investigate classical music, namely, by analyzing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and autocorrelation functions of pitch fluctuations in compositions. We analyze 1,876 compositions of five representative classical music composers across 164 years from Bach, to Mozart, to Beethoven, to Mendelsohn, and to Chopin. We report that the biggest pitch fluctuations of a composer gradually increase as time evolves from Bach time to Mendelsohn/Chopin time. In particular, for the compositions of a composer, the positive and negative tails of a CDF of pitch fluctuations are distributed not only in power laws (with the scale-free property), but also in symmetry (namely, the probability of a treble following a bass and that of a bass following a treble are basically the same for each composer). The power-law exponent decreases as time elapses. Further, we also calculate the autocorrelation function of the pitch fluctuation. The autocorrelation function shows a power-law distribution for each composer. Especially, the power-law exponents vary with the composers, indicating their different levels of long-range correlation of notes. This work not only suggests a way to understand and develop music from a viewpoint of statistical physics, but also enriches the realm of traditional statistical physics by analyzing music. PMID:23544047
Liu, Lu; Wei, Jianrong; Zhang, Huishu; Xin, Jianhong; Huang, Jiping
Because classical music has greatly affected our life and culture in its long history, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers to understand laws behind it. Based on statistical physics, here we use a different method to investigate classical music, namely, by analyzing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) and autocorrelation functions of pitch fluctuations in compositions. We analyze 1,876 compositions of five representative classical music composers across 164 years from Bach, to Mozart, to Beethoven, to Mendelsohn, and to Chopin. We report that the biggest pitch fluctuations of a composer gradually increase as time evolves from Bach time to Mendelsohn/Chopin time. In particular, for the compositions of a composer, the positive and negative tails of a CDF of pitch fluctuations are distributed not only in power laws (with the scale-free property), but also in symmetry (namely, the probability of a treble following a bass and that of a bass following a treble are basically the same for each composer). The power-law exponent decreases as time elapses. Further, we also calculate the autocorrelation function of the pitch fluctuation. The autocorrelation function shows a power-law distribution for each composer. Especially, the power-law exponents vary with the composers, indicating their different levels of long-range correlation of notes. This work not only suggests a way to understand and develop music from a viewpoint of statistical physics, but also enriches the realm of traditional statistical physics by analyzing music.
Full Text Available Because classical music has greatly affected our life and culture in its long history, it has attracted extensive attention from researchers to understand laws behind it. Based on statistical physics, here we use a different method to investigate classical music, namely, by analyzing cumulative distribution functions (CDFs and autocorrelation functions of pitch fluctuations in compositions. We analyze 1,876 compositions of five representative classical music composers across 164 years from Bach, to Mozart, to Beethoven, to Mendelsohn, and to Chopin. We report that the biggest pitch fluctuations of a composer gradually increase as time evolves from Bach time to Mendelsohn/Chopin time. In particular, for the compositions of a composer, the positive and negative tails of a CDF of pitch fluctuations are distributed not only in power laws (with the scale-free property, but also in symmetry (namely, the probability of a treble following a bass and that of a bass following a treble are basically the same for each composer. The power-law exponent decreases as time elapses. Further, we also calculate the autocorrelation function of the pitch fluctuation. The autocorrelation function shows a power-law distribution for each composer. Especially, the power-law exponents vary with the composers, indicating their different levels of long-range correlation of notes. This work not only suggests a way to understand and develop music from a viewpoint of statistical physics, but also enriches the realm of traditional statistical physics by analyzing music.
Ehrlén, Johan; Raabova, Jana; Dahlgren, Johan
influences selection on flowering schedule in an herb with a bimodal flowering pattern, Actaea spicata. Within individuals, seeds from flowers on early terminal inflorescences had a higher germination rate and produced larger seedlings than seeds from flowers on late basal inflorescences. Reproductive value......, estimated using demographic integral projection models and accounting for size-dependent differences in future performance, was two times higher for intact seeds from early flowers than for seeds from late flowers. Fruits from late flowers were, however, much more likely to escape seed predation than fruits...... from early flowers. Reproductive values of early and late flowers balanced at a predation intensity of 63%. Across 15 natural populations, the strength of selection for allocation to late flowers was positively correlated with mean seed predation intensity. Our results suggest that the optimal shape...
Mai Trong Khoa; Tran Dinh Ha; Le Chinh Dai; Nguyen Quang Hung; Vu Huu Khiem
Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is one of the modern techniques in cancer treatment, in which dose is delivered optimally into the shape of the tumor and minimally in surround benign tissues. In developed countries, this technique has been performed routinely by Linacs with MLC for tumors at the critical areas. In Vietnam, because of the wet climate, the use of Linacs with MLC is difficult to operate and maintain. However, IMRT can be implemented by Linacs without MLC via independent jaws, Jaws-only IMRT (JO-IMRT), in which beams are separated into many segments with different weights to optimize highest dose in the tumor and lowest dose in the surrounding health organs. Methods: We describe the new treatment technic application and compare it with normal radiotherapy method (3D-CRT). Results: From 7/2008, the Dep of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology at Bach Mai Hospital has been conducting JO-IMRT to treat cancer patients. Up to now, we have 81 cases treated by IMRT including head and neck cancers (NPC, larynx cancer, maxillary sinus cancer, brain tumor), cancers in the thorax (esophagus cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer), cancers in the pelvis (prostate cancer, cervical cancer, rectal cancer). On the average, beam number is from 5 to 9 and 5-9 segments per beam. Treatment time for a fraction is from 6 to 12 minutes with 2.25 Gy for CTV1 per day. Discrepancies of doses were below 3% (0.15 to 2.84%) between planning and practice. In plan, the preeminences with IMRT are clearly superior to 3D radiation therapy. In clinical, almost patients had good respond, whereas side effects were quite less than conventional radiotherapy. Conclusions: JO-IMRT is a modern technic with more advantage than normal 3D-CRT. It help radiation dose to concentrate maximally in treatment target while influence minimally for sensitive surrounding tissues. Another, it is a high technic to appropriate with the climatic condition in Vietnam. (author)
Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.
A summary of two decades of developments of In Situ remediation is presented in this chapter. The basic principles of In Situ technology application are addressed, such as equilibrium relations between contaminant phases, factors controlling biological and geochemical processes, contaminant
Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Wójcik, Kamila; Szymańska, Bożena; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Cwiklińska, Hanna; Piekarska, Anna
To analyze the expression of HMOX1 and miR-122 in liver biopsy samples obtained from HCV mono-and HIV/HCV co-infected patients in relation to selected clinical parameters, histological examination and IL-28B polymorphism as well as to determine whether HMOX1 expression is dependent on Bach-1. The study group consisted of 90 patients with CHC: 69 with HCV mono and 21 with HIV/HCV co-infection. RT-PCR was used in the analysis of HMOX1, Bach-1 and miR-122 expression in liver biopsy samples and in the assessment of IL-28B single-nucleotide polymorphism C/T (rs12979860) in the blood. Moreover in liver biopsy samples an analysis of HO-1 and Bach-1 protein level by Western Blot was performed. HCV mono-infected patients, with lower grading score (G600000 IU/mL) demonstrated higher expression of HMOX1. In patients with HIV/HCV co-infection, the expression of HMOX1 was lower in patients with lower lymphocyte CD4 count and higher HIV viral load. IL28B polymorphism did not affect the expression of either HMOX1 or miR-122. Higher HMOX1 expression correlated with higher expression of Bach-1 (Spearman's ρ = 0.586, p = 0.000001) and miR-122 (Spearman's ρ = 0.270, p = 0.014059). HMOX1 and miR-122 play an important role in the pathogenesis of CHC in HCV mono-and HIV/HCV co-infected patients. Reduced expression of HMOX1 in patients with HIV/HCV co-infection may indicate a worse prognosis in this group. Our results do not support the importance of Bach-1 in repression of HMOX1 in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H., E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP) Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)
Koike, Amanda C.R.; Araujo, Michel M.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Almeida, Mariana C.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.
People have been eating flowers and using them in culinary creations for hundreds of years. Edible flowers are increasingly being used in meals as an ingredient in salads or garnish, entrees, drinks and desserts. The irradiation process is an alternative method that can be used in disinfestation of food and flowers, using doses that do not damage the product. The sensitivity of flowers to irradiation varies from species to species. In the present research was irradiated with doses up to 1 kGy some edible flowers to examine their physical tolerance to gamma-rays. Furthermore, high doses gamma irradiation causes petal withering, browning process and injury in edible flowers. (author)
Weber, Martin; Baewert, Henning; Morche, David
Due to glacier retreat since the LIA (Little Ice Age) proglacial areas in high mountain landscapes are growing. These systems are characterized by a high geomorphological activity, especially in the fluvial subsystem. Despite the long tradition of geomorphological research in the European Alps there is a still a lack of understanding in the interactions between hydrology, sediment sources, sediments sinks and suspended sediment transport. As emphasized by ORWIN ET AL. (2010) those problems can be solved by gathering data in a higher frequency and/or in a higher spatial resolution or density - both leading to a big amount of data. In 2012 a gauging station was installed at the outlet of the partly glaciated catchment of the Riffler Bach (Kaunertal valley, Tyrol). During the ablation seasons in 2012 and 2013 water stage was logged automatically every 15 minutes. In both seasons discharge was measured at different water levels to calculate a stage-discharge relation. Additionally, water samples were taken by an automatic water sampler. Within 16 sampling cycles with sampling frequencies ranging from 1 to 24 hours 389 water samples have been collected. The samples were filtered to calculate the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) of each sample. Furthermore, the climate station Weißsee provided meteorological data at a 15 minute interval. Due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport in proglacial rivers it is impossible to compute a robust annual Q-SSC-relation. Hence, two other approaches were used to calculate the suspended sediment load (SSL) and the suspended sediment yield (SSY): A) Q-SSC-relations for every single sampling cycle (e.g. GEILHAUSEN ET AL. 2013) B) Q-SSC-relations based on classification of dominant runoff-generating processes (e.g. ORWIN AND SMART 2004). The first approach uses commonly operated analysis methods that are well understood. While the hydro-climatic approach is more feasible to explain discharge generation and to
Giovanni Emanuele Corazza
Full Text Available The main message carried by this article is that counterpoint can be taken as a model approach for the introduction of contrasting elements, not only in musical composition but also in the generation of ideas in any domain of knowledge. We start by an interdisciplinary review about the power of opposite concepts as constituting elements in nature. This is followed by the description of the DIMAI model for creative thinking, which is founded upon the dual forces of convergent and divergent thinking modalities. The main body of our work is an extraction of divergent modifiers from the Contrapunctus composed by Bach and collected in the Art of Fugue, with simple examples of application to the diversified fields of education and computer science.
Oct 26, 2011 ... “Judith”) plant grown in a plastic greenhouse and irrigated by a drip irrigation system under Mediterranean ... shorter internodes sections and reductions in flower number, size and quality (Cameron et al., 1999; .... Water use of carnation under plastic greenhouse conditions is computed using water balance ...
Ferrario, S.I.T.; Immink, R.G.H.; Angenent, G.C.
During the past decade, enormous progress has been made in understanding the molecular regulation of flower development. In particular, homeotic genes that determine the identity of the floral organs have been characterised from different flowering plants, revealing considerable conservation among
Casida, J E
The natural pyrethrins from the daisy-like flower, Tanacetum or Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium, are nonpersistent insecticides of low toxicity to mammals. Synthetic analogs or pyrethroids, evolved from the natural compounds by successive isosteric modifications, are more potent and stable and are the newest important class of crop protection chemicals. They retain many of the favorable properties of the pyrethrins.
A survey of thrips (Thysanoptera) associated with coffee flowers was conducted in coffee plantations in Chiapas, Mexico. The main objectives were to identify them and to determine whether they were carrying coffee pollen grains. A total of 40 thrips species in 22 genera were identified. The most com...
Describes an art lesson in which students sketch drawings of flowers and use watercolor paper and other materials to paint a landscape. Explains that the students also learn about impressionism in this lesson. Discusses how the students prepare the paper and create their artwork. (CMK)
Bunya-atichart, K.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.
Flowering stems of Curcuma alismatifolia (Zingiberaceae) cv. Chiang Mai Pink contain small flower buds and open flowers, surrounded by large pink bracts. Vase life is limited by browning at the bract tips. This browning may relate to ethylene production as it was hastened by treatment with exogenous
Flower-visiting insects may play a role in the pollination of the flowers they visit. An important indication for this is the pollen they carry on their body. The transport of pollen does not prove pollination without observations of the behaviour of the insects on the flowers, but at least it
Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.
It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...
During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.
Full Text Available In 1998-2000 studies on length and abundance of flowering and on nectar productivity of zucchini and marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. were carried out in Lublin area. Flowers visitors were also monitored. Flowering of plants lasted from the end of June till the end of September. The mean number of flowers per plant of zucchini reached: 31 (male flowers and 26 (female flowers, and for marrow 226 and 22, respectively. Flowers lived, on average, for 5 hours. Female flowers of marrow secreted the highest amount of nectar - 1.354 g per 10 flowers, on average. Sugar content in nectar was 21.84%-27.31%. The mean total amount of sugars secreted by 10 flowers of Cucurbita pepo L. was 21.5-304.3 mg. Pollinators were mainly bumblebees and honey bees.
Nikkeshi, Aoi; Kurimoto, Daiki; Ushimaru, Atushi
The evolutionary shift from radial to bilateral symmetry in flowers is generally associated with the evolution of low flower-size variation. This phenomenon supports the hypothesis that the lower size variation in bilateral flowers can be attributed to low pollinator diversity. In this study, we propose two other hypotheses to explain low flower-size variation in bilateral symmetrical flowers. To test the three hypotheses, we examined the relative importance of pollinator diversity, composition, and bilateral symmetry itself as selective forces on low flower-size variation. We examined pollinator diversity and composition and flower-size variation for 36 species in a seminatural ecosystem with high bee richness and frequent lepidopteran visitation. Bilateral flowers were more frequently visited than radial flowers by larger bees, but functional-group diversity of the pollinators did not differ between symmetry types. Although bilateral flowers had significantly lower flower-size variation than radial flowers, flower-size variation did not vary with pollinator diversity and composition but was instead related to bilateral symmetry. Our results suggest that the lower size variation in bilateral flowers might have evolved under selection favoring the control of pollinator behavior on flowers to enhance the accurate placement of pollen on the body of the pollinator, independent of pollinator type. Because of the limited research on this issue, future work should be conducted in various types of plant-pollinator communities worldwide to further clarify the issue. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.
Jeannette Haviland-Jones; Holly Hale Rosario; Patricia Wilson; Terry R. McGuire
For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study ...
Kivekaes, L. [Lohja Envirotec, Helsinki (Finland)
A versatile remediation centre for contaminated soils has operated at Virkkala close to Helsinki since 1998. It is the first regional soil remediation centre in Finland and serves a large area in south- western Finland. Contaminated soils are collected from tens of small and large sites each year and transported to Virkkala for a very high class and environmentally safe treatment under controlled conditions. The centre consists of a 2 ha large hall for storage and treatment of the soils, a 1 ha outside bio-remediation field and a service and truck washing hall. Three treatment technologies are available at the centre: Stabilization/solidification, washing and bio-remediation. With these methods all the most common types of contamination can be treated: Heavy metals, oils, PAHs, creosotes and chlorophenols. Special care has been taken with prevention of environmental emissions, because the centre is located close to a housing area and on a lake-front. All the storage and treatment areas are covered with a double or triple bottom liner system and all environmental emissions are being monitored constantly. EU's Life Environment -fund has supported the project. (orig.)
Jones, Vivian C
The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...
Sakinah Ariffin; Azhar Mohamad; Affrida Abu Hassan; Zaiton Ahmad; Mohd Nazir Basiran
Dendrobium Sonia is a commercial hybrid which is popular as cut flower and potted plant in Malaysia. Variability in flower is important for new variety to generate more demands and choices in selection. Mutation induction is a tool in creating variability for new flower color and shape. In vitro cultures of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) were exposed to gamma ray at dose 35 Gy. Phenotypic characteristics of the flower were observed at fully bloomed flower with emphasis on shape and color. Approximately 2000 regenerated irradiated plants were observed and after subsequent flowering, 100 plants were finally selected for further evaluation. Most of the color and shape changes are expressed in different combinations of petal, sepal and lip of the flower. In this work, 11 stable mutants were found different at flower phenotype as compared to control. Amongst these, four mutant varieties with commercial potential has been named as Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaOval', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaRadiant', Dendrobium 'SoniaKeenaHiengDing' and Dendrobium 'Sonia KeenaAhmadSobri'. In this paper, variations in flower morphology and flower color were discussed, giving emphasis on variations in flower petal shape. (author)
Aayadi, Hoda; Mittal, Smriti P K; Deshpande, Anjali; Gore, Makarand; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S
Geraniin, a hydrolysable tannin, used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, is known to exhibit various biological activities. As an antioxidant it is known to up-regulate phase II enzyme Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However its mechanism is not clearly understood. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) is transcriptionally up-regulated by Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and retained in nucleus due to inactivated Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β). Geraniin additionally down-regulates expression of microRNA 217 and 377 (miR-217 and miR-377) which target HO-1 mRNA. Expression of BTB and CNC homolog 1 (BACH-1), another regulator of HO-1, is also down-regulated by up-regulating microRNA 98 (miR-98), a negative regulator of BACH-1. Thus, geraniin up-regulates HO-1 expression both through activating its positive regulator Nrf-2 and by down-regulating its negative regulator BACH-1. Up-regulation of HO-1 also confers protection to HepG2 cells from tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) induced cytotoxicity. [BMB Reports 2017; 50(11): 560-565].
Arnas, David; Casanova, Daniel; Tresaco, Eva
The 2D Necklace Flower Constellation theory is a new design framework based on the 2D Lattice Flower Constellations that allows to expand the possibilities of design while maintaining the number of satellites in the configuration. The methodology presented is a generalization of the 2D Lattice design, where the concept of necklace is introduced in the formulation. This allows to assess the problem of building a constellation in orbit, or the study of the reconfiguration possibilities in a constellation. Moreover, this work includes three counting theorems that allow to know beforehand the number of possible configurations that the theory can provide. This new formulation is especially suited for design and optimization techniques.
Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna
Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and
Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier; Traveset, Anna
Flowering phenology and synchrony with biotic and abiotic resources are crucial traits determining the reproductive success in insect-pollinated plants. In seasonal climates, plants flowering for long periods should assure reproductive success when resources are more predictable. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between flowering phenology and synchrony and reproductive success in Hypericum balearicum, a shrub flowering all year round but mainly during spring and summer. We studied two contrasting localities (differing mostly in rainfall) during 3 years, and at different biological scales spanning from localities to individual flowers and fruits. We first monitored (monthly) flowering phenology and reproductive success (fruit and seed set) of plants, and assessed whether in the locality with higher rainfall plants had longer flowering phenology and synchrony and relatively higher reproductive success within or outside the flowering peak. Secondly, we censused pollinators on H. balearicum individuals and measured reproductive success along the flowering peak of each locality to test for an association between (i) richness and abundance of pollinators and (ii) fruit and seed set, and seed weight. We found that most flowers (∼90 %) and the highest fruit set (∼70 %) were produced during the flowering peak of each locality. Contrary to expectations, plants in the locality with lower rainfall showed more relaxed flowering phenology and synchrony and set more fruits outside the flowering peak. During the flowering peak of each locality, the reproductive success of early-flowering individuals depended on a combination of both pollinator richness and abundance and rainfall; by contrast, reproductive success of late-flowering individuals was most dependent on rainfall. Plant species flowering for long periods in seasonal climates, thus, appear to be ideal organisms to understand how flowering phenology and synchrony match with biotic and abiotic resources, and
Zangrando, M.; Zacchigna, M.; Finazzi, M.; Cocco, D.; Rochow, R.; Parmigiani, F.
BACH, a soft x-ray beamline for polarization-dependent experiments at the Italian synchrotron radiation facility ELETTRA, was recently completed and characterized. Its performance, in terms of energy resolution, flux and polarization, is presented. Based on two APPLE II undulators, BACH covers the energy range between 35 and 1600 eV with the control of the light polarization. The monochromator is equipped with four gratings and allows one to work either in a high resolution or in a high flux mode. After the monochromator, the beamline is split into two branches with different refocusing properties. One is optimized to exploit the performance of the soft x-ray spectrometer (ComIXS) available at the beamline. Resolving powers between 12000 at 90 eV photon energy and 6600 near 867 eV were achieved using the high-resolution gratings and the smallest available slit width (10 μm). For the high-brilliance grating, which works between 290 and 1600 eV, resolving powers between 7000 at 400 eV and 2200 at 867 eV were obtained. The flux in the experimental chamber, measured with the high-resolution gratings for linearly polarized light at the best achievable resolution, ranges between 4x10 11 photons/s at 125 eV and 2x10 10 photons/s between 900 and 1250 eV. In circularly polarized mode the flux is two times larger for energies up to 380 eV. A gain of nearly one order of magnitude is obtained for the high-brilliance grating, in accordance with theoretical predictions. Flux beyond 1.3x10 11 photons/s was measured up to 1300 eV, and thus over nearly the complete energy range covered by this high-brilliance grating, with a maximum of 1.6x10 11 photons/s between 800 and 1100 eV. First results from polarization measurements confirm a polarization above 99.7% for both linearly and circularly polarized modes at low energies. Circular dichroism experiments indicate a circular polarization beyond 90% at the Fe L 2 /L 3 edge near 720 eV
McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G
Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.
Full Text Available About the Zingiber zerumbet little is known about its cut flower postharvest and market, despite its high ornamental potential. The inflorescences, which resemble a compact cone, emerge from the base of the plants and start with green color changing to red with the age. This study objective was to characterize floral stem of ornamental ginger in two cultivate conditions and to evaluate the longevity of those submitted to post-harvest treatments. Flower stems were harvest from clumps cultivated under full sun and partial shade area, and were submitted to the postharvest treatments: complete flower immersion in tap water (CFI or only the base stem immersion (BSI. The flower stems harvested from clumps at partial shade presented higher fresh weight, length and diameter of the inflorescences compared to flower stems harvested from clumps at full sun area. The flower stem bracts cultivated in full sun area changed the color from green to red 10.69 and 11.94 days after BSI and CFI postharvest treatments, and the vase life were 22.94 and 28.19 days, respectively. Flower stem harvest in partial shade area change the color only after 18.94 and 18.43 days and the vase life durability was 27.56 and 31.81, respectively. The complete immersion of the flower stem increase the vase life durability in 5.25 and 4.25 days compared to flowers kept with the stem base immersed only, in flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and partial shade area, respectively. Flower stems harvested from clumps cultivated in partial shade area and completely immerse in tap water during 3 hours increase the vase life durability in 8.87 days compared to flowers harvested from clumps cultivated in full sun area and base immersed only.
Liu, Yongping; Yang, Jing; Yang, Mingfeng
Flowering, the floral transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, is induced by diverse endogenous and exogenous cues, such as photoperiod, temperature, hormones and age. Precise flowering time is critical to plant growth and evolution of species. The numerous renewal molecular and genetic results have revealed five flowering time pathways, including classical photoperiod pathway, vernalization pathway, autonomous pathway, gibberellins (GA) pathway and newly identified age pathway. These pathways take on relatively independent role, and involve extensive crosstalks and feedback loops. This review describes the complicated regulatory network of this floral transition to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering and provide references for further research in more plants.
Akter, Asma; Biella, Paolo; Klecka, Jan
Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insects visiting single plants and clusters of plants with different numbers of flowers. Detailed data on foraging behaviour within clusters of different sizes were gathered for honeybees, Apis mellifera, the most abundant visitor of Dracocephalum in the experiments. We found that the total number of flower visitors increased with the increasing number of flowers on individual plants and in larger clusters, but less then proportionally. Although individual honeybees visited more flowers in larger clusters, they visited a smaller proportion of flowers, as has been previously observed. Consequently, visitation rate per flower and unit time peaked in clusters with an intermediate number of flowers. These patterns do not conform to expectations based on optimal foraging theory and the ideal free distribution model. We attribute this discrepancy to incomplete information about the distribution of resources. Detailed observations and video recordings of individual honeybees also showed that the number of flowers had no effect on handling time of flowers by honeybees. We evaluated the implications of these patterns for insect foraging biology and plant reproduction.
Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.; Denham, D.H.
The formulation and initial implementation of DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action are described. It was initiated in FY 84 and is expected to be further implemented in FY 85 as the activities of DOE's Remedial Action programs continue to expand. Further APRA implementation will include additional document reviews, site inspections, and program office appraisals with emphasis on Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program and Surplus Facilities Management Program
BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.
THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.
Jun 8, 2011 ... Infrastructure Construction Project of Jiangsu Province. (BM2010590). REFERENCES. Ammar AH, Zagrouba F, Romdhane M (2010). Optimization of operating conditions of Tunisian myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) essential oil extraction by a hydrodistillation process using a 2(4) complete factorial design.
Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc
In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...... intertwine traditional storytelling and scriptwriting skills with interaction design methods. For the game setting, we create hybrid spaces merging the fictional universe and the physical environment into one pervasive experience, centering around a variety of augmented reality activities played out...
Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard
on titania (V2O5-WO3/TiO2) as the example catalyst. The main photocatalysts examined for mineralization of organic compounds were TiO2 and MoS2. It is important to obtain insight into the catalyst structure-to-activity relationship in order to understand and locate the active site(s). In this chapter......The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...
The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Facility (SNEF) consists of a 23-MW(thermal) pressurized light water thermal reactor located in south central Pennsylvania. The Saxton Nuclear Experimental Corporation (SNEC), a wholly owned subsidiary of the General Public Utilities (GPU) Corporation, is the licensee for the SNEF. Maintenance and decommissioning activities at the site are conducted by GPU Nuclear, also a GPU subsidiary and operator of the Three Mile Island and Oyster Creek nuclear facilities. The remediation and radioactive waste management of contaminated soils is described
Jung, Chol-Hee; Wong, Chui E.; Singh, Mohan B.; Bhalla, Prem L.
Flowering is an important agronomic trait that determines crop yield. Soybean is a major oilseed legume crop used for human and animal feed. Legumes have unique vegetative and floral complexities. Our understanding of the molecular basis of flower initiation and development in legumes is limited. Here, we address this by using a computational approach to examine flowering regulatory genes in the soybean genome in comparison to the most studied model plant, Arabidopsis. For this comparison, a genome-wide analysis of orthologue groups was performed, followed by an in silico gene expression analysis of the identified soybean flowering genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the gene families highlighted the evolutionary relationships among these candidates. Our study identified key flowering genes in soybean and indicates that the vernalisation and the ambient-temperature pathways seem to be the most variant in soybean. A comparison of the orthologue groups containing flowering genes indicated that, on average, each Arabidopsis flowering gene has 2-3 orthologous copies in soybean. Our analysis highlighted that the CDF3, VRN1, SVP, AP3 and PIF3 genes are paralogue-rich genes in soybean. Furthermore, the genome mapping of the soybean flowering genes showed that these genes are scattered randomly across the genome. A paralogue comparison indicated that the soybean genes comprising the largest orthologue group are clustered in a 1.4 Mb region on chromosome 16 of soybean. Furthermore, a comparison with the undomesticated soybean (Glycine soja) revealed that there are hundreds of SNPs that are associated with putative soybean flowering genes and that there are structural variants that may affect the genes of the light-signalling and ambient-temperature pathways in soybean. Our study provides a framework for the soybean flowering pathway and insights into the relationship and evolution of flowering genes between a short-day soybean and the long-day plant, Arabidopsis. PMID:22679494
Barrett, Spencer C H; Hough, Josh
Among dioecious flowering plants, females and males often differ in a range of morphological, physiological, and life-history traits. This is referred to as sexual dimorphism, and understanding why it occurs is a central question in evolutionary biology. Our review documents a range of sexually dimorphic traits in angiosperm species, discusses their ecological consequences, and details the genetic and evolutionary processes that drive divergence between female and male phenotypes. We consider why sexual dimorphism in plants is generally less well developed than in many animal groups, and also the importance of sexual and natural selection in contributing to differences between the sexes. Many sexually dimorphic characters, including both vegetative and flowering traits, are associated with differences in the costs of reproduction, which are usually greater in females, particularly in longer-lived species. These differences can influence the frequency and distribution of females and males across resource gradients and within heterogeneous environments, causing niche differences and the spatial segregation of the sexes. The interplay between sex-specific adaptation and the breakdown of between-sex genetic correlations allows for the independent evolution of female and male traits, and this is influenced in some species by the presence of sex chromosomes. We conclude by providing suggestions for future work on sexual dimorphism in plants, including investigations of the ecological and genetic basis of intraspecific variation, and genetic mapping and expression studies aimed at understanding the genetic architecture of sexually dimorphic trait variation.
Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M
Compared with the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells, they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (the egg and the central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here, we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion, as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca(2+) is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes, including mammals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dresselhaus, Thomas; Sprunck, Stefanie; Wessel, Gary M.
Compared to the animal kingdom, fertilization is particularly complex in flowering plants (angiosperms). Sperm cells of angiosperms have lost their motility and require transportation as a passive cargo by the pollen tube cell to the egg apparatus (egg cell and accessory synergid cells). Sperm cell release from the pollen tube occurs after intensive communication between the pollen tube cell and the receptive synergid, culminating in the lysis of both interaction partners. Following release of the two sperm cells they interact and fuse with two dimorphic female gametes (egg and central cell) forming the major seed components embryo and endosperm, respectively. This process is known as double fertilization. Here we review the current understanding of the processes of sperm cell reception, gamete interaction, their pre-fertilization activation and fusion as well as the mechanisms plants use to prevent the fusion of egg cells with multiple sperm cells. The role of Ca2+ is highlighted in these various processes and comparisons are drawn between fertilization mechanisms in flowering plants and other eukaryotes including mammals. PMID:26859271
Sturm und Drang na música para teclado de Wilhelm Friedemann Bach: evidências reveladas na Polonaise No.4 em Ré menor Sturm und Drang in the keyboard music of Wilhelm Friedemann Bach: detected evidences in Polonaise N.4, in D minor
Stella Almeida Rosa
Full Text Available Este trabalho propõese a revelar elementos contextuais e musicais, especialmente aqueles ligados à expressividade, que aproximem a obra para teclado de Wilhelm Friedemann Bach ao movimento Sturm und Drang, ocorrido na Alemanha no início da segunda metade do século XVIII, através do reconhecimento dos procedimentos literários e musicais envolvidos e da análise da Polonaise nº 4, em Ré menor, como obra representativa do que se pretende demonstrar.This paper intends to point out contextual and musical elements, especially those relative to expressiveness, that brings Wilhelm Friedemann Bach's keyboard works close to German Sturm und Drang, that happened during the beginning of the second half of the eighteenth century, through the identification of the literary and musical procedures and the analysis of the Polonaise number 4, in D minor, as a representative work of this style.
This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…
Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH
Hakonson, T.E.; DePoorter, G.L.; Nyhan, J.W.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.
A summary is presented of the low-level waste remedial action program at Los Alamos. The experimental design and progress is described for the experiments on second generation intrusion barriers, subsidence effects on SLB components, moisture cycling effects on chemical transport, and erosion control methodologies. The soil moisture data from the bio-intrusion and moisture cycling experiments both demonstrate the overwhelming importance of vegetation in minimizing infiltration of water through trench covers and backfill. Evaporation, as a water loss component in trench covers, is only effective in reducing soil moisture within 40 cm of the trench cover surface. Moisture infiltrating past the zone of evaporation in unvegetated or poorly vegetated trench covers is in storage and accumulates until drainage out of the soil profile occurs. Judicious selection of vegetation species for revegetating a low-level waste site may prevent infiltration of moisture into the trench and, when coupled with other design features (i.e. trench cover slope, tilling and seeding practice), may greatly reduce problems with erosion. Standard US Department of Agriculture erosion plots, when coupled with a state-of-the-art water balance and erosion model (CREAMS) promises to be highly useful in screening proposed remedial action cover designs for low-level waste sites. The erosion plot configuration allows for complete accounting of the water balance in a soil profile. This feature enables the user to optimize cover designs to minimize erosion and infiltration of water into the trench
Oct 15, 2012 ... Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod- dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans ...
Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...
In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...
Aug 8, 2011 ... FT is thought to be the florigen in plants. In this research, a new method for promoting lily flowering was introduced. The function of FT gene cloned from Arabidopsis on promoting lily flowering was analyzed. pET-30a-FT vector was constructed to indicate the expression of FT:eGFP fuse protein in.
Banerji, B.K.; Datta, S.K.
Rooted cuttings of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cultivar 'Lalima' were irradiated with 0, 15, 20, and 25 Gray of gamma rays. Gamma irradiation reduced survival, growth, plant height, number of branches and leaves per plant and leaf and flower size and increased morphological, floral and chromosomal abnormalities. Gamma ray induced different types of flower head shape mutants in chrysanthemum have been reported
Oct 15, 2012 ... domestication and adaptation to new environments (Fuller. 2007). Domestication is reported to cause physiological changes including changes in photoperiod sensitivity and synchronized flowering (Doebley et al. 2006). To date, several flowering genes and their causative changes related to crop ...
The objective of this study is to analyse the colour pigment, anthocyanin, that can be detected in flower and their stability in extracted form. All the analysed results will be used in the next study for the production of new food colouring material. From the observation, it shows that S3 flower developmental stage contains the ...
Nijsse, J.; Meeteren, van U.; Keijzer, C.J.
Until now all studies on the role of air emboli in the water uptake of cut flowers describe indirect methods to demonstrate the presencFe of air in the plant tissues. Using cut chrysanthemum flowers, this report is the first one that directly visualises both air and water in xylem ducts of cut
Soybean genome sequences were blasted with Arabidopsis thaliana regulatory genes involved in photoperiod-dependent flowering. This approach enabled the identification of 118 genes involved in the flowering pathway. Two genome sequences of cultivated (Williams 82) and wild (IT182932) soybeans were employed to ...
Full Text Available For more than 5000 years, people have cultivated flowers although there is no known reward for this costly behavior. In three different studies we show that flowers are a powerful positive emotion “inducer”. In Study 1, flowers, upon presentation to women, always elicited the Duchenne or true smile. Women who received flowers reported more positive moods 3 days later. In Study 2, a flower given to men or women in an elevator elicited more positive social behavior than other stimuli. In Study 3, flowers presented to elderly participants (55+ age elicited positive mood reports and improved episodic memory. Flowers have immediate and long-term effects on emotional reactions, mood, social behaviors and even memory for both males and females. There is little existing theory in any discipline that explains these findings. We suggest that cultivated flowers are rewarding because they have evolved to rapidly induce positive emotion in humans, just as other plants have evolved to induce varying behavioral responses in a wide variety of species leading to the dispersal or propagation of the plants.
Poon, Matthew; Schutz, Michael
Acoustic cues such as pitch height and timing are effective at communicating emotion in both music and speech. Numerous experiments altering musical passages have shown that higher and faster melodies generally sound "happier" than lower and slower melodies, findings consistent with corpus analyses of emotional speech. However, equivalent corpus analyses of complex time-varying cues in music are less common, due in part to the challenges of assembling an appropriate corpus. Here, we describe a novel, score-based exploration of the use of pitch height and timing in a set of "balanced" major and minor key compositions. Our analysis included all 24 Preludes and 24 Fugues from Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier (book 1), as well as all 24 of Chopin's Preludes for piano. These three sets are balanced with respect to both modality (major/minor) and key chroma ("A," "B," "C," etc.). Consistent with predictions derived from speech, we found major-key (nominally "happy") pieces to be two semitones higher in pitch height and 29% faster than minor-key (nominally "sad") pieces. This demonstrates that our balanced corpus of major and minor key pieces uses low-level acoustic cues for emotion in a manner consistent with speech. A series of post hoc analyses illustrate interesting trade-offs, with sets featuring greater emphasis on timing distinctions between modalities exhibiting the least pitch distinction, and vice-versa. We discuss these findings in the broader context of speech-music research, as well as recent scholarship exploring the historical evolution of cue use in Western music.
Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...
Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil
Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...
Marinho, C R; Souza, C D; Barros, T C; Teixeira, S P
Scent glands, or osmophores, are predominantly floral secretory structures that secrete volatile substances during anthesis, and therefore act in interactions with pollinators. The Leguminosae family, despite being the third largest angiosperm family, with a wide geographical distribution and diversity of habits, morphology and pollinators, has been ignored with respect to these glands. Thus, we localised and characterised the sites of fragrance production and release in flowers of legumes, in which scent plays an important role in pollination, and also tested whether there are relationships between the structure of the scent gland and the pollinator habit: diurnal or nocturnal. Flowers in pre-anthesis and anthesis of 12 legume species were collected and analysed using immersion in neutral red, olfactory tests and anatomical studies (light and scanning electron microscopy). The main production site of floral scent is the perianth, especially the petals. The scent glands are distributed in a restricted way in Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Anadenanthera peregrina, Inga edulis and Parkia pendula, constituting mesophilic osmophores, and in a diffuse way in Bauhinia rufa, Hymenaea courbaril, Erythrostemon gilliesii, Poincianella pluviosa, Pterodon pubescens, Platycyamus regnellii, Mucuna urens and Tipuana tipu. The glands are comprised of cells of the epidermis and mesophyll that secrete mainly terpenes, nitrogen compounds and phenols. Relationships between the presence of osmophores and type of anthesis (diurnal and nocturnal) and the pollinator were not found. Our data on scent glands in Leguminosae are original and detail the type of diffuse release, which has been very poorly studied. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.
Full Text Available Grape hyacinth (Muscari spp. is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.
Lou, Qian; Wang, Lin; Liu, Hongli; Liu, Yali
Grape hyacinth ( Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.
Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)
Full Text Available The study was conducted on experimental plots in the conditions of Lublin. In the years 1998-2000 flowering, nectar secretion and insect visitation of male and female flowers of two winter squash (Cucurbita maxima Duch. cultivars: 'Ambar' and 'Amazonka', were studied. The plants flowered from July to October. The flower life span was within the range of 7-10 hours. Female flowers of cv. Ambar were marked by the most abundant nectar secretion (129 mg. The nectar sugar content can be estimated as average (25%-35%. Winter squash nectar contained 84% of sucrose as well as 8-9% of fructose and 7%-8% of glucose. Flowers of the studied taxa were frequently foraged by the honey bee (66%-98% of total insects and bumblebees (1%-30%.
Current research into the nature of chaos indicates that even for systems that are well known and easily modeled, slight changes in the scale used to measure the input have unpredictable results in the model output. The conduct of a remedial investigation (RI) is dictated by well-established rules of investigation and management, yet small changes in project orientation, regulatory environment, or site conditions have unpredictable consequences to the project. The consequences can lead to either brilliant success or utter failure. The chaotic effect of a change in scale is most often illustrated by an exercise in measuring the length of the coast of Great Britain. If a straight ruler 10-kilometers long is used, the sum of the 10-kilometer increments gives the length of the coast. If the ruler is changed to five kilometers long and the exercise is repeated, the sum of the five-kilometer increments will not be the same as the sum of the 10-kilometer increments. Nor is there a way to predict what the length of the coast will be using any other scale. Several examples from the Fernald Project RI are used to illustrate open-quotes changes in scaleclose quotes in both technical and management situations. Given that there is no way to predict the outcome of scale changes in a RI, technical and project management must be alert to the fact that a scale has changed and the investigation is no longer on the path it was thought to be on. The key to success, therefore, is to develop specific units of measure for a number of activities, in addition to cost and schedule, and track them regularly. An example for tracking a portion of the field investigation is presented. The determination of effective units of measure is perhaps the most difficult aspect of any project. Changes in scale sometimes go unnoticed until suddenly the budget is expended and only a portion of the work is completed. Remedial investigations on large facilities provide new and complex challenges
David R. Larsen; Robert A. Cecich
A stochastic model of oak flower dynamics is presented that integrates a number of factors which appear to affect the oak pistillate flower development process. The factors are modeled such that the distribution of the predicted flower populations could have come from the same distribution as the observed flower populations. Factors included in the model are; the range...
Orhan, Nilüfer; Onaran, Metin; Şen, İlker; Işık Gönül, İpek; Aslan, Mustafa
A number of medicinal plants are used for their diuretic, urolithiatic and anti-inflammatory effects on urinary system problems in Turkey and the most common traditional remedy for kidney stones is the tea of immortal flowers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the preventive effect of infusions prepared from capitulums of Helichrysum graveolens (M.Bieb.) Sweet (HG) and Helichrysum stoechas ssp. barellieri (Ten.) Nyman (HS) on formation of kidney stones. Sodium oxalate (Ox-70mg/kg intraperitoneally) was used to induce kidney stones on Wistar albino rats. At the same time, two different doses of the plant extracts (HG: 62.5 and 125mg/kg; HS: 78 and 156mg/kg) were dissolved in the drinking water and administered to animals for 5 days. Potassium citrate was used as positive control in the experiments. During the experiment, water intake, urine volume and body weights of the animals were recorded. At the end of the experiments, liver, kidney and body weights of the animals were determined; biochemical analysis were conducted on urine, blood and plasma samples. Histopathological changes in kidney tissues were examined and statistical analysis were evaluated. HS extract showed the highest preventive effect at 156mg/kg dose (stone formation score: 1.16), whereas a number of kidney stones were maximum in sodium oxalate group (stone formation score: 2.66). Helichrysum extracts decreased urine oxalate and uric acid levels and increased citrate levels significantly. In addition, Helichrysum extracts regulated the negative changes in biochemical and hematological parameters occurred after Ox injection. We conclude that Helichrysum extracts could reduce the formation and growth of kidney stones in Ox-induced urolithiasis and can be beneficial for patients with recurrent stones. In addition, this is the first study on the preventive effect of immortal flowers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pujol, F.; Berner, Z.; Neumann, T.; Stüben, D.
Trace element contents in authigenic pyrite were investigated in relationship to the geochemistry of host rocks in a 160 m deep drilling at Büdesheimer Bach (Prümer Mulde, Germany), in order to put constrains on possible changes in depositional conditions and seawater composition related to the Kellwasser events (Frasnian/Fammenian transition). The approach is based on the observation that the trace element pattern of authigenic pyrite is controlled by genetic conditions (Stüben et al., 2002) and that the content of elements with generally high degree of pyritization (DTMP, degree of trace metal pyritization, like As, Mo, Co, Ni, etc.) depends on their availability at the site of pyrite formation (e.g. Huerta-Diaz and Morse, 1992). The distribution of trace elements in the bulk rock essentially reflects mineralogical composition and redox conditions which are mainly controlled by the flux of organic matter entering the sediment. The lower and upper Kellwasser horizons are marked by an increase in carbonate and organic carbon content (up to 2%), coupled with an increase in the degree of pyritization of Fe (DOP: 0.4-0.8), indicating a change from normal marine to suboxic/anoxic conditions. A simultaneous drop in the Ba content of the host lithology, which usually is used as a proxy for paleoproductivity, can be explained by the removal of Ba dissolved in pore water under anoxic conditions (McManus et al., 1998). While low in the host rock, the Ba content of authigenic pyrite is high in these horizons, suggesting that pyrite may preserve the initial composition of pore water even for some elements with generally low DTMP, like Ba. Consequently, Ba content in pyrite may serve as indicator for productivity even when the Ba content of sediment can not be used due to its poor preservation. During these anoxic episodes also a significant increase in the content of As, U, V was registered in pyrite. Opposite to these, others like Ni, Co, Ag show a decrease in their
Xu, Feng; Rong, Xiaofeng; Huang, Xiaohua; Cheng, Shuiyuan
Flowering Locus T (FT) can promote flowering in the plant photoperiod pathway and also facilitates vernalization flowering pathways and other ways to promote flowering. The expression of products of the FT gene is recognized as important parts of the flowering hormone and can induce flowering by long-distance transportation. In the present study, many FT-like genes were isolated, and the transgenic results show that FT gene can promote flowering in plants. This paper reviews the progress of the FT gene and its expression products to provide meaningful information for further studies of the functions of FT genes.
Goremykin, Vadim V; Nikiforova, Svetlana V; Biggs, Patrick J; Zhong, Bojian; Delange, Peter; Martin, William; Woetzel, Stefan; Atherton, Robin A; McLenachan, Patricia A; Lockhart, Peter J
Correct rooting of the angiosperm radiation is both challenging and necessary for understanding the origins and evolution of physiological and phenotypic traits in flowering plants. The problem is known to be difficult due to the large genetic distance separating flowering plants from other seed plants and the sparse taxon sampling among basal angiosperms. Here, we provide further evidence for concern over substitution model misspecification in analyses of chloroplast DNA sequences. We show that support for Amborella as the sole representative of the most basal angiosperm lineage is founded on sequence site patterns poorly described by time-reversible substitution models. Improving the fit between sequence data and substitution model identifies Trithuria, Nymphaeaceae, and Amborella as surviving relatives of the most basal lineage of flowering plants. This finding indicates that aquatic and herbaceous species dominate the earliest extant lineage of flowering plants. [; ; ; ; ; .].
Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya
To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.
For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results.
Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.
This paper deals with an approach to cleaning up the residue of 150 years of intense urban and industrial development in the United States. The discussion focuses on several choices and strategies that business can adopt given the existing environmental laws and the socio-economic trends of the 1990's. The thesis of this paper is that the best business strategy for dealing with environmental liabilities is to act affirmatively and aggressively. An aggressive, pro-active approach to environmental remediation liabilities makes good business sense. It allows a company to learn the true size of the problem early. Early assessment and prioritization allows one to control the course and conduct of the cleanup. Early voluntary action is always viewed favorably by agencies. It gives one control over spending patterns which has value in and of itself. Voluntary cleanups are certainly faster and invariably more efficient. And they attain clearly acceptable standards. The volunteering company that takes the lead in a multi-party site finds that the courts are supportive in helping the volunteer collect from recalcitrant polluters. All of these pluses have a direct and positive impact on the bottom line and that means that the aggressive approach is the right thing to do for both stockholders and the communities where a business exists
W. M. Heileson
This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.
... cough remedy? Is it true that honey calms coughs better than cough medicine does? Answers from James M. Steckelberg, M. ... throat. But honey alone may be an effective cough suppressant, too. In one study, children age 2 ...
Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division
A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.
1. Abstract Purpose of this thesis was to prove and determine antioxidant activity of flower extracts from black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) and compile summary of their content substances and effects. Sambuci flos is often used in natural therapy and food industry. The main content substances are flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenoids, further are contained in flowers sterols, mucilage, essential oils, tannins. Flavonoids are the most significant, specifically rutin and kvercetin, because t...
Johann Sebastian Bach en zijn musici in de beide hoofdkerken te Leipzig : Een onderzoek naar hun rol, inzet en opstelling in het algemeen en naar de continuogroep en de daarin participerende instrumenten in het bijzonder
The study is devoted to Johann Sebastian Bach and his musicians in Leipzig’s two main churches, and to the question to which extent current opinions in musicology regarding historically-informed practice are actually correct. The core of Bach’s first Sunday choir in Leipzig consisted of the eight
Dossing, Kristina B. V.; Binderup, Tina; Kaczkowski, Bogumil
by miR-129-5p. let-7 overexpression inhibited growth of carcinoid cell lines, and let-7 inhibition increased protein content of the transcription factor BACH1 and its targets MMP1 and HMGA2, all known to promote bone metastases. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that let-7 targets are highly...
King, R. W.; Bagnall, D. J.
Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. With FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. Here we examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.
King, R.W.; Bagnall, D.J. [CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)
Attempts to use artificially lit cabinets to grow plants identical to those growing in sunlight have provided compelling evidence of the importance of light quality for plant growth. Changing the balance of red (R) to far-red (FR) radiation, but with a fixed photosynthetic input can shift the phytochrome photoequilibrium in a plant and generate large differences in plant growth. With FR enrichment the plants elongate, and may produce more leaf area and dry matter. Similar morphogenic responses are also obtained when light quality is altered only briefly (15-30 min) at the end-of-the-day. Conversely, for plants grown in natural conditions the response of plant form to selective spectral filtering has again shown that red and far-red wavebands are important as found by Kasperbauer and coworkers. Also, where photosynthetic photon flux densities (PPFD) of sunlight have been held constant, the removal of far-red alone alters plant growth. As shown for chrysanthemum, with FR depletion plants grown in sunlight are small, more branched and darker green. We examine the implications for plant growth and flowering when the far-red composition of incident radiation in plant growth chambers is manipulated.
Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald
The ability to infect host flowers offers important ecological benefits to plant-parasitic fungi; not surprisingly, therefore, numerous fungal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups have adopted a life style that involves flower infection. Although flower-infecting fungi are very diverse, they can be classified readily into three major groups: opportunistic, unspecialized pathogens causing necrotic symptoms such as blossom blights (group 1), and specialist flower pathogens which infect inflorescences either through the gynoecium (group 2) or systemically through the apical meristem (group 3). This three-tier system is supported by life history attributes such as host range, mode of spore transmission, degree of host sterilization as a result of infection, and whether or not the fungus undergoes an obligate sexual cycle, produces resting spores in affected inflorescences, and is r- or K-selected. Across the three groups, the flower as an infection court poses important challenges for disease management. Ecologically and evolutionarily, terms and concepts borrowed from the study of venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases of animals do not adequately capture the range of strategies employed by fungi that infect flowers.
Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul
Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439
Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr
We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.
To maximize fitness, plants use environmental cues to optimize growth processes. One of the processes under strong environmental regulation is flowering. Multiple environmental factors influence flowering, including temperature. Both a continuously increased ambient temperature as well as temporary
To maximize fitness, plants use environmental cues to optimize growth processes. One of the processes under strong environmental regulation is flowering. Multiple environmental factors influence flowering, including temperature. Both a continuously increased ambient temperature as well as temporary
Callow, J.M.; Kantrud, H.A.; Higgins, K.F.
We recorded flowering events for 97 species of prairie plants for 2-6 years near Woodworth, ND. Earliest and latest flower initiation dates varied by year. Temperature seemed much more important than precipitation in influencing phenology of species that bloom from late March through May, but no strong climatic effect was evident for plants that bloom later in the growing season.
Rimal, Arbindra; Ward, Ronald W.
AIDs demand models are used to test if the generic promotion of fresh-cut flowers influenced the market shares for florists, supermarkets, and other retail outlets. Were the generic efforts outlet neutral? Generic promotions of fresh-cut flowers is shown to be outlet neutral while the brand advertising increased florists' market share.
Mapping of genes for flower-related traits and QTLs for flowering time in an interspecific population of Gossypium hirsutum × G. darwinii. Shuwen Zhang, Qianqian Lan, Xiang Gao, Biao Yang, Caiping Cai, Tianzhen Zhang and Baoliang Zhou. J. Genet. 95, 197–201. Table 1. Loci composition and recombination distances of ...
Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna
This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Björn K Klatt
Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.
Iwashina, Tsukasa; Yamaguchi, Masa-atsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Onozaki, Takashi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kawanobu, Shuji; Onoe, Hiroshi; Okamura, Masachika
Three flavonol glycosides were isolated from the flowers of carnation cultivars 'White Wink' and 'Honey Moon'. They were identified from their UV, MS, 1H and 13C NMR spectra as kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside, kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and kaempferol 3-O-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)-[rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)-glucoside]. Referring to previous reports, flavonols occurring in carnation flowers are characterized as kaempferol 3-O-glucosides with additional sugars binding at the 2 and/or 6-positions of the glucose. The kaempferol glycoside contents of a nearly pure white flower and some creamy white flower lines were compared. Although the major glycoside was different in each line, the total kaempferol contents of the creamy white lines were from 5.9 to 20.9 times higher than the pure white line. Thus, in carnations, kaempferol glycosides surely contribute to the creamy tone of white flowers.
McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J
1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.
McGrath, L.J.; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, J.J.
1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration. ?? 2008 The Authors.
Full Text Available Historical studies of Hans Heysen, George Lambert, Tom Roberts and Arthur Streeton concentrate on paintings of landscape and people. Less well known are their paintings of flowers, which take the form of still-life painting or adjuncts to figure painting, such as portraits. While these artists are famous for the masculine way they approached masculine themes, and flower painting represents a stereotypically feminine subject, I argue that by making flowers their object of study, they intended to define and differentiate femininity from masculinity in an era of the ‘New Woman’. Sex and gender are central to the subject of flower painting and are important for discussions about the work produced by all four men, although sex is often camouflaged behind the innocence of naturalistically painted flowers.
CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.
geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.
Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on
Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui
Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Environmental remediation projects inevitably take place against a backdrop of overall social goals and values. These goals can include, for example, full employment, preservation of the cultural, economic and archaeological resources, traditional patterns of land use, spiritual values, quality of life factors, biological diversity, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, protection of public health. Different countries will have different priorities, linked to the overall set of societal goals and the availability of resources, including funding, man-power and skills. These issues are embedded within both a national and local socio-cultural context, and will shape the way in which the remediation process is structured in any one country. The context will shape both the overall objectives of a remediation activity within the framework of competing societal goals, as well as generate constraints on the decision making process. Hence, the overall benefit of a remediation project is determined by its overall efficiency and effectiveness within the given legal, institutional, and governance framework, under the prevailing socio-economic boundary conditions, and balancing technology performance and risk reduction with fixed or limited budgetary resources, and is not simply the result of the technical remediation operation itself. (author)
Music is the most abstract of the arts; it is not descriptive, it does not portray pictures or stories, and even interpretations of such things as 'moods' vary greatly across cultures. Nonetheless there are apparently things about this art which appeal strongly to the sort of people who are attracted to science. To take some well.
physical justifications for the things in music which appeal aesthetically to ... different cultures around the world - indeed, it is the earliest known scale in common use. GENERAL I ARTICLE speed, the pauses between notes, have to be right. Melody .... sound good when played together and this should influence the structure ...
... as the basis of a melody (for instance, the popular song 'Scarborough Fair'). The key of A minor is known as the relative minor to C major, since it uses the same notes, and. C minor (=C, D, Eb, F, G, Ab, Bb, C) is known as the parallel minor to C major. Tunes in minor keys tend to sound a little. Layout of a musical keyboard.
Ó'Maoiléidigh, Diarmuid Seosamh; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Wellmer, Frank
The formation of flowers is one of the main models for studying the regulatory mechanisms that underlie plant development and evolution. Over the past three decades, extensive genetic and molecular analyses have led to the identification of a large number of key floral regulators and to detailed insights into how they control flower morphogenesis. In recent years, genome-wide approaches have been applied to obtaining a global view of the gene regulatory networks underlying flower formation. Furthermore, mathematical models have been developed that can simulate certain aspects of this process and drive further experimentation. Here, we review some of the main findings made in the field of Arabidopsis thaliana flower development, with an emphasis on recent advances. In particular, we discuss the activities of the floral organ identity factors, which are pivotal for the specification of the different types of floral organs, and explore the experimental avenues that may elucidate the molecular mechanisms and gene expression programs through which these master regulators of flower development act. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Zhang, Min; Zhu, Jiaxu; Wang, Lei; Xu, Miaoyun
Plants tend to flower earlier if placed under stress conditions. Those stress factors include drought, high salinity, low temperature, high- or low-intensity light, and ultraviolet light. This phenomenon has been called stress-induced flowering. Stress-induced plant flowering might be helpful for species preservation. Thus, stress-induced flowering might have biological significance and should be considered as important as other plant flowering control strategy. Here, history of stress-induced flowering, metabolic regulation and molecular regulation mechanisms in plants were reviewed. Potential perspective was discussed.
Morche, David; Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz
The hydrology of proglacial rivers is strongly affected by glacier melting. With ongoing glacier retreat the proportion of glacier meltwater in proglacial rivers is declining over longer time periods. Snow melt or rain fall events will play a more important role as water source. Due to glacial erosion the glacier system is also an important player in the orchestra of sediment sources/processes contributing to proglacial sediment budgets. The consequence of increasing deglaciation is a growing importance of other sediment sources/processes, mainly known as paraglacial, for sediment budgets in glacier forefields. The sediment export out of proglacial areas is mainly done by solid river load. Knowledge on the quantity of the exported sediments is important for reservoir management and torrent control. In order to measure fluvial sediment transport in the catchment area of the Gepatsch reservoir in the Ötztal Alps (Tyrol/Austria) we have installed a gauging station at the proglacial river Riffler Bach in June 2012. The catchment area of this station is about 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m. The higher altitudes in the southern part of the area are covered by the glacier Weißseeferner. Our station is equipped with an automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and probes for water level, turbidity and electrical conductivity. All parameters are recorded in 5-15 minute intervals during the ablation period. Discharge is measured with current meters during wadable stages and salt dilution during higher floods. Bed load is measured concurrent to discharge measurements using a Helley-Smith sampler. In 2012, 189 water samples were taken and will be analyzed for suspended sediment concentration and ion content. Additionally, the grain size distribution will be determined using a Malvern laser diffractometer. Rating-curves will be used to calculate discharge from stage recordings. Solid load of the Riffler Bach will be quantified using the discharge data and
Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis
Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.
Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.(author)
Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko
Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.
Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.
Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. 'Casablanca' flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.
Pawełkowicz, Magdalena Ewa; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Kowalczuk, Cezary; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew
Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) is a sample preparation microscopic method that enables isolation of an interesting cell or cells population from human, animal or plant tissue. This technique allows for obtaining pure sample from heterogeneous mixture. From isolated cells, it is possible to obtain the appropriate quality material used for genomic research in transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We used LCM method to study flower morphogenesis and specific bud's organ organization and development. The genes expression level in developing flower buds of male (B10) and female (2gg) lines were analyzed with qPCR. The expression was checked for stamen and carpel primordia obtained with LCM and for whole flower buds at successive stages of growth.
groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."
Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.
This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites
Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.
Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.
Reverté, Sara; Retana, Javier; Gómez, José M; Bosch, Jordi
Colour is one of the main floral traits used by pollinators to locate flowers. Although pollinators show innate colour preferences, the view that the colour of a flower may be considered an important predictor of its main pollinators is highly controversial because flower choice is highly context-dependent, and initial innate preferences may be overridden by subsequent associative learning. Our objective is to establish whether there is a relationship between flower colour and pollinator composition in natural communities. We measured the flower reflectance spectrum and pollinator composition in four plant communities (85 plant species represented by 109 populations, and 32 305 plant-pollinator interactions in total). Pollinators were divided into six taxonomic groups: bees, ants, wasps, coleopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. We found consistent associations between pollinator groups and certain colours. These associations matched innate preferences experimentally established for several pollinators and predictions of the pollination syndrome theory. However, flowers with similar colours did not attract similar pollinator assemblages. The explanation for this paradoxical result is that most flower species are pollination generalists. We conclude that although pollinator colour preferences seem to condition plant-pollinator interactions, the selective force behind these preferences has not been strong enough to mediate the appearance and maintenance of tight colour-based plant-pollinator associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Full Text Available Flowering and subsequent seed set are not only normal activities in the life of most plants, but constitute the very reason for their existence. Woody bamboos can take a long time to flower, even over 100 years. This makes it difficult to breed bamboo, since flowering time cannot be predicted and passing through each generation takes too long. Another unique characteristic of woody bamboo is that a bamboo stand will often flower synchronously, both disrupting the supply chain within the bamboo industry and affecting local ecology. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism that initiates bamboo flowering is important not only for biology research, but also for the bamboo industry. Induction of flowering in vitro is an effective way to both shorten the flowering period and control the flowering time, and has been shown for several species of bamboo. The use of controlled tissue culture systems allows investigation into the mechanism of bamboo flowering and facilitates selective breeding. Here, after a brief introduction of flowering in bamboo, we review the research on in vitro flowering of bamboo, including our current understanding of the effects of plant growth regulators and medium components on flower induction and how in vitro bamboo flowers can be used in research.
Malerbo-Souza, Darclet Teresinha; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Toledo, Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de; UEM; Silva, Simone Rodrigues da; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda; Sousa, Francisco Fábio; Faculdade de Agronomia Dr. Francisco Maeda
The experiment aimed to study the frequency, nectar and/or pollen and hoarding time of bees in avocado flowers and verify the effect of their visits on fruit production. Six inflorescences (three covered and three uncovered) with two replications were marked to evaluate the effect of cross pollination on fruition percentage. The honey bees showed two peaks of hoarding (by 11 to 12 a.m. and 5 p.m.) following the flowers opening of different avocado groups (groups A and B), as much for nectar a...
Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.
in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days......Important process parameters to optimize in electrokinetic soil remediation are those influencing remediation time and power consumption since these directly affect the cost of a remediation action. This work shows how the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) process could be improved by implementing...... bipolar electrodes in the porous material. The bipolar electrodes in EKR meant two improvements: (1) a shorter migration pathway for the contaminant, and (2) an increased electrical conductivity in the remediation system. All together the remediation proceeded faster with lower electrical resistance than...
Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.
Successful flowering is essential for reproduction of native plants and production of food for herbivores. It is also an important alternative endpoint for assessment of ecological risks from chemical stressors such as herbicides. We evaluated flowering phenology after herbicide...
Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...
A bioassay for the inhibition of flowering involving the in vitro culture of excised, partially-induced, apices of Viscaria candida is described. This bioassay has been used to detect flowering inhibition in extracts from Kalanchoe blossfeldiana.
Koskela, Elli A; Mouhu, Katriina; Albani, Maria C; Kurokura, Takeshi; Rantanen, Marja; Sargent, Daniel J; Battey, Nicholas H; Coupland, George; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo
Photoperiodic flowering has been extensively studied in the annual short-day and long-day plants rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), whereas less is known about the control of flowering in perennials. In the perennial wild strawberry, Fragaria vesca (Rosaceae), short-day and perpetual flowering long-day accessions occur. Genetic analyses showed that differences in their flowering responses are caused by a single gene, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS, which may encode the F. vesca homolog of TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1). We show through high-resolution mapping and transgenic approaches that FvTFL1 is the basis of this change in flowering behavior and demonstrate that FvTFL1 acts as a photoperiodically regulated repressor. In short-day F. vesca, long photoperiods activate FvTFL1 mRNA expression and short days suppress it, promoting flower induction. These seasonal cycles in FvTFL1 mRNA level confer seasonal cycling of vegetative and reproductive development. Mutations in FvTFL1 prevent long-day suppression of flowering, and the early flowering that then occurs under long days is dependent on the F. vesca homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T. This photoperiodic response mechanism differs from those described in model annual plants. We suggest that this mechanism controls flowering within the perennial growth cycle in F. vesca and demonstrate that a change in a single gene reverses the photoperiodic requirements for flowering.
Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...
Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.
This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....
decisions and practices Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy implementation and incorporating... reforestation irrigation – More than 30,000 tons of soil remediated and 270 tons of lead bullet fragments were reclaimed for recycling Footprint Reduction
... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.705 Remedial plan. (a) When any... repair under the remedial plan to affix a label to each locomotive or locomotive engine repaired or, when... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial plan. 92.705 Section 92.705...
New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016
In March, 2016, the state of New Mexico established a Remediation Task Force to examine remediation reform efforts across the state's higher education institutions. On March 11, the Task Force met for the "New Mexico Corequisite Remediation at Scale Policy Institute" in order to learn about the results of the latest national reform…
Rosier, J.C.; Snel, R.; Goedvolk, E.J.
The harvesting of flowers and cuttings can be considered as a skilled task. It takes weeks of training for the pickers to harvest quality cutting at the required production rate of one per second. The skill of the pickers is the ability to execute a number of functions within a short time. The
This summer has seen the completion of a project to develop quality tracking and tracing for cut flowers. Sponsored by the Dutch product board for horticulture, available technology was tested and integrated by researchers at the Agrotechnology and Food Innovations, WUR, into a system to
The concepts of photoperiodic induction, hormonal regu- lation and florigens used to form the basis of our knowledge ... Early Concept of Flowering. Day length is well-known to be involved as a stimulus in the .... also through his scholarly personality he was a spokesman for Indian science. One hears that. KSK was in many ...
Purpose: To investigate the anti-dyslipidemic, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activities of the aqueous extract and solvent fractions of A. violacea flowers. Methods: The aqueous extract was fractionated into petroleum ether, ether, chloroform, chloroformmethanol (4:1) and chloroform-methanol (3:2) fractions. Lipid lowering ...
GENERAL. I ARTICLE tion of florigen (flowering hormone) in the leaves, and the florigen is thus translocated to the apical meristem and helps in its conversion into a floral ... 3) Mammalian serum response factor is found to induce the transcription of proto-oncogenes. .... also through his scholarly personality he was a.
van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G
Buttercup (Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and
Justifies examining still-life pictures of flowers to provide students with an opportunity to learn how one distinguishes between deeply artistic pictures full of emotion and pictures lacking this quality. Claims that students will develop their own artistic expression. Offers pictures by Diego Rivera, Watanabe Shiko, Consuelo Kanaga, and Rachel…
Tuyl, van J.M.
In order to introduce new characters such as resistances, flower shape and colour, from wild species into the cultivar assortment of lily it is necessary to overcome interspecific crossing barriers.. Several techniques have been used for wide interspecific lily crosses with species and cultivars
Doorn, van W.G.; Meeteren, van U.
Flower opening and closure are traits of a reproductive syndrome, as it allows pollen removal and/or pollination. Various types of opening can be distinguished such as nocturnal and diurnal and single or repetitive. Opening is generally due to cell expansion. Osmotic solute levels increase by the
Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Postharvest Quality and. Vase Life of Alstereomeria Cut Flowers. Emongor*, V.E., T.M. Mutui and M.l .. Hutchinson. Department of Crop Science. University of Nairobi, P.O.BOX 29053, Nairobi, Kenya. Abstract. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the response of ...
Malves, K.; Coelho, F.D.F.
The aim of this study was to determine if there is a negative influence on the flower production in Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae), due to the attack of gall inductor herbivores. 120 individuals were analyzed and compared as to the relation between presence and absence of galls and flower production. All flowers were collected from these individuals, so that the following characteristics could be compared: number of flowers, flower size (cm) and biomass (g) in plants with and without galls. Although these flowers are produced during the whole year, we found a greater number of flowers in plants without galls, being that plants without galls showed approximately four times more flowers than plants with galls. The flowers length in plants without galls was greater than flowers in plants with galls. The flower biomass of the individuals without galls was also higher than in individuals with galls. The results are pursuant to the hypothesis that producing galls demands a high energetic effort from these plants, resulting in nutrient allocation and decrease in flowers formation. (author)
Jong, de P.C.
1976-01-01A review and an analysis is given of flowering and sex expression in Acer. The process of sex differentiation was studied in physiological experiments and could be influenced by accelerated flowering and by removal of female.gif flower buds just after bud break. The
Doorn, van W.G.
The quality of cut rose flowers, a major horticultural crop in the Netherlands, is often unsatisfactory. During vase-life premature signs of water stress occur, such as slow growth of the bud which often results in poor flower opening, wilting of both the flowers and the leaves, and bending
These acids in turn develop micro electrochemical cell with flower of Tuhar pulse which destroy flowering of arhar pulse. Other factors are acid rain, global warming and depletion of ozone layer affecting the production of arhar pulse. Key words: Tuhar (Arhar) pulse flowers, pollutants, particulates, micro electrochemical cell, ...
Hybridization between white flowered Brassica carinata and yellow flowered B. rapa were made, and the flower chimeras were observed in a few hybrids. The simple single sequence molecular markers verified the hybridity of those hybrids. Chimeras were justified and totally classified based on the morphological ...
Bull, Simon E; Alder, Adrian; Barsan, Cristina; Kohler, Mathias; Hennig, Lars; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé
Accelerated breeding of plant species has the potential to help challenge environmental and biochemical cues to support global crop security. We demonstrate the over-expression of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T in Agrobacterium -mediated transformed cassava ( Manihot esculenta Crantz; cultivar 60444) to trigger early flowering in glasshouse-grown plants. An event seldom seen in a glasshouse environment, precocious flowering and mature inflorescence were obtained within 4-5 months from planting of stem cuttings. Manual pollination using pistillate and staminate flowers from clonal propagants gave rise to viable seeds that germinated into morphologically typical progeny. This strategy comes at a time when accelerated crop breeding is of increasing importance to complement progressive genome editing techniques.
Pinto, C E; Oliveira, R; Schlindwein, C
Hancornia speciosa is a self-incompatible, mass-flowering, sphingophilous fruit crop (mangaba) of northeast and central Brazil. The flowers have a precise pollination apparatus, which optimizes pollen transfer between flower and pollinator. While the pollination mechanism avoids self-pollination, mass-flowering promotes geitonogamy. During a flower visit, almost half of the exogenous pollen grains adhering to the proboscis are deposited on the stigma surface. A pollination experiment with a nylon thread simulating six consecutive flower visits within a crown revealed that only the first two flowers visited (positions 1 and 2) are highly likely to set fruit. Super-production of flowers, and consequently obligate low fruit set, seem to be part of the reproductive strategy of the obligate outcrossing plant, Hancornia speciosa.
Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G M; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian
Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of premature bolting-resistant B. rapa crops. Using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, we twice detected two major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in two different growing seasons that were located on chromosomes A02 and A07, respectively. We hypothesized that an orthologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, named as BrFT2, was the candidate gene underlying the QTL localized to A07. A transposon insertion in the second intron of BrFT2 was detected in one of the parental lines, which was predicted to generate a loss-of-function allele. Transcription analysis revealed that the BrFT2 transcript was not present in the parental line that harbored the mutated allele. RILs carrying only the mutated BrFT2 allele showed delayed flowering regardless of growing seasons when compared to RILs carrying the wild-type BrFT2 allele. These data suggest that BrFT2 is involved in flowering time regulation in controlling flowering time in B. rapa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study was aimed to determine flower initiation, floral morphology and to observe the stages of flowering and fruit development of mindi (Melia azedarch L within a population for one period of time 2008–2009. The methods used were observing directly over the trees and some vegetatives and generatives buds were sampled for dissecting. The observation revealed that the inflorescence type of mindi was panicle, located at the end of a branch. The number of flower varied among inflorescences, ranged between 30–80 that bloomed simultaneously. The flower was hermaphroditic with position of anther was closed to stigma that selfing might be happened. Usually, the ovary contained 5 ovules that developed into seeds. Reproductive cycle was proceeded for 6–7 months within the year, first observation commenced from flower initiation that occur in August, generative buds to flower burst in September–October. Early fruits were formed in October–November and fruits reached physiological-maturity in January–February. Reproductive success was 34%, indicated that the rate of fertilized ovules proportion to be potencially viable seeds were relatively low.Keywords: indian lily, phenology, reproductive biology, reproductive cycle, seed production
Uuest heliplaadist "Stalin Coctail: Schostakowitsch Kammersinfonie Nr. 2 (aus Streichquartett Nr. 3 op. 73). Pärt, Arvo: Collage über das Thema B-A-C-H. Cantus in memoriam B. Britten. Denisov Variationen über Haydns Kanon Tod ist ein langer Schlaf. Schtschedrin Stalin Coctail. Moskauer Virtuosen, Vladimir Spivakov. RCA/BMG-Ariola CD 09026 68061 2 (WD: 67'33")
Carvalho, S.M.P.; Heuvelink, E.; Kooten, van O.
Flower size and number of flowers per plant are important external quality aspects in cut chrysanthemum. The present work is conducted in a glasshouse and aims at investigating how these quality aspects can be predicted. To evaluate individual flower size, different levels of supplementary lighting
Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox
A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.
Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different
Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E
Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation.
Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi
As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Grob, Valentin; Moline, Philip; Pfeifer, Evelin; Novelo, Alejandro R; Rutishauser, Rolf
Nymphaea and Nuphar (Nymphaeaceae) share an extra-axillary mode of floral inception in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Some leaf sites along the ontogenetic spiral are occupied by floral primordia lacking a subtending bract. This pattern of flower initiation in leaf sites is repeated inside branching flowers of Nymphaea prolifera (Central and South America). Instead of fertile flowers this species usually produces sterile tuberiferous flowers that act as vegetative propagules. N. prolifera changes the meristem identity from reproductive to vegetative or vice versa repeatedly. Each branching flower first produces some perianth-like leaves, then it switches back to the vegetative meristem identity of the SAM with the formation of foliage leaves and another set of branching flowers. This process is repeated up to three times giving rise to more than 100 vegetative propagules. The developmental morphology of the branching flowers of N. prolifera is described using both microtome sections and scanning electron microscopy.
Yang, Jun; Kang, Xiangyang
We compared microsporogenesis and flower development in Eucalyptus urophylla × E. tereticornis. In this study, although microsporogenesis and cytokinesis occurred simultaneously during meiosis of pollen mother cells, we observed a strong asynchronism in different anthers from a flower bud. The developmental period of microsporogenesis in anthers originated from the long thrum before the short thrum. Flower development was also asynchronous at different locations on a branch. The flower buds grew on the lower side of the branch and showed greater increases in diameter. In addition, we observed a relationship between microsporogenesis development and flower bud diameter growth. Generally, when the pachytene stage was first observed in a small single flower bud growing on top of a flowering branch, the remaining microsporogenesis stages (from diplotene to tetrad) in the whole branch occurred over the next 5-9 days. Thus, the start of microsporogenesis in E. urophylla × E. tereticornis could be determined, which may be applicable to future breeding studies.
Craig, J.R. Jr.; Saric, J.A.; Schneider, T.; Yates, M.K.
The Fernald site is rapidly transitioning from a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) site to one where design and construction of the remedies dominates. Fernald is one of the first sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to accomplish this task and real physical progress is being made in moving the five operable units through the CERCLA process. Two of the required Records of Decision (ROD) are in hand and all five operable units will have received their RODs (IROD for OU3) by the end of 1995. Pre-design investigations, design work or construction are now in progress on the operable units. The lessons learned from the work done to date include implementing innovations in the RI and FS process as well as effective use of Removal Actions to begin the actual site remediation. Also, forging close working relationships with the Federal and State Regulators, citizens action groups and the Fernald Citizens Task Force has helped move the program forward. The Fernald successes have been achieved by close coordination and cooperation among all groups working on the projects and by application of innovative technologies within the decision making process
Remediation projects may range from a single leaking storage tank to an entire plant complex or producing oil and gas field. Strategic planning comes into play when the contamination of soil and groundwater is extensive. If adjacent landowners have been impacted or the community at large is concerned about the quality of drinking water, then strategic planning is even more important. (1) To manage highly complex interrelated issues--for example, the efforts expended on community relations can alter public opinion, which can impact regulatory agency decisions that affect cleanup standards, which can...and so on. (2) To ensure that all potential liabilities are managed--for example, preparation for the defense of future lawsuits is essential during site investigation and remediation. (3) To communicate with senior management--when the remediation team provides a strategic plan that includes both technical and business issues, senior management has the opportunity to become more involved and make sound policy decisions. The following discusses the elements of a strategic plan, who should participate in it, and the issues that should be considered
Full Text Available In rice (Oryza sativa L., there is a diversity in flowering time that is strictly genetically regulated. Some indica cultivars show extremely late flowering under long-day conditions, but little is known about the gene(s involved. Here, we demonstrate that functional defects in the florigen gene RFT1 are the main cause of late flowering in an indica cultivar, Nona Bokra. Mapping and complementation studies revealed that sequence polymorphisms in the RFT1 regulatory and coding regions are likely to cause late flowering under long-day conditions. We detected polymorphisms in the promoter region that lead to reduced expression levels of RFT1. We also identified an amino acid substitution (E105K that leads to a functional defect in Nona Bokra RFT1. Sequencing of the RFT1 region in rice accessions from a global collection showed that the E105K mutation is found only in indica, and indicated a strong association between the RFT1 haplotype and extremely late flowering in a functional Hd1 background. Furthermore, SNPs in the regulatory region of RFT1 and the E105K substitution in 1,397 accessions show strong linkage disequilibrium with a flowering time-associated SNP. Although the defective E105K allele of RFT1 (but not of another florigen gene, Hd3a is found in many cultivars, relative rate tests revealed no evidence for differential rate of evolution of these genes. The ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions suggest that the E105K mutation resulting in the defect in RFT1 occurred relatively recently. These findings indicate that natural mutations in RFT1 provide flowering time divergence under long-day conditions.
Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele
In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863
Full Text Available There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006 rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.
This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the
Wang, Guifeng; Köhler, Claudia
Seeds provide up to 70% of the energy intake of the human population, emphasizing the relevance of understanding the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms controlling seed formation. In flowering plants, seeds are the product of a double fertilization event, leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm surrounded by maternal tissues. Analogous to mammals, plants undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming during both gamete formation and early seed development, a process that is supposed to be required to enforce silencing of transposable elements and thus to maintain genome stability. Global changes of DNA methylation, histone modifications, and small RNAs are closely associated with epigenome programming during plant reproduction. Here, we review current knowledge on chromatin changes occurring during sporogenesis and gametogenesis, as well as early seed development in major flowering plant models. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Vlieks, A.E.
It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circulator waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum open-quote flower-petal close-quote transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described
Friis, Else Marie; Crane, P.R.; Pedersen, Kaj Raunsgaard
based on research into Early and Late Cretaceous fossil floras from Europe and North America, the authors draw on direct palaeontological evidence of the pattern of angiosperm evolution through time. Synthesising palaeobotanical data with information from living plants, this unique book explores......The recent discovery of diverse fossil flowers and floral organs in Cretaceous strata has revealed astonishing details about the structural and systematic diversity of early angiosperms. Exploring the rich fossil record that has accumulated over the last three decades, this is a unique study...... of the evolutionary history of flowering plants from their earliest phases in obscurity to their dominance in modern vegetation. The discussion provides comprehensive biological and geological background information, before moving on to summarise the fossil record in detail. Including previously unpublished results...
Hoag, H.A.; Tantawi, S.G.; Callin, R.
It is important to minimize power loss in the waveguide system connecting klystron, pulse-compressor, and accelerator in an X-Band NLC. However, existing designs of klystron output cavity circuits and accelerator input couplers utilize rectangular waveguide which has relatively high transmission loss. It is therefore necessary to convert to and from the low-loss mode in circular waveguide at each end of the system. A description is given of development work on high-power, high-vacuum 'flower-petal' transducers, which convert the TE 10 mode in rectangular guide to the TE 01 mode in circular guide. A three-port modification of the flower petal device, which can be used as either a power combiner at the klystron or a power divider at the accelerator is also described
Mohammad Reza eBolouri Moghaddam
Full Text Available Sugars do not only act as source of energy, but they also act as signals in plants. This mini review summarizes the emerging links between sucrose-mediated signaling and the cellular networks involved in flowering time control and defense. Cross-talks with gibberellin (GA and jasmonate (JA signaling pathways are highlighted. The circadian clock fulfills a crucial role at the heart of cellular networks and the bilateral relation between sugar signaling and the clock is discussed. It is proposed that important factors controlling plant growth (DELLAs, PIFs, invertases and trehalose- 6-phosphate or T6P might fulfill central roles in the transition to flowering as well. The emerging concept of ‘sweet immunity’, modulated by the clock, might at least partly rely on a sucrose-specific signaling pathway that needs further exploration.
My research will focus on the practical dimension of new service development in flower retail in Kazakhstan. Our group project, the business plan, investigated the issue from an entrepreneur perspective without going into detail in theoretical part. I will try to come up with a set of recommendations to entrepreneurs who want to develop a customer oriented service, based on theories drawn from service development literature. The product and service mix development is a difficult task, and I h...
Ibrahim, Mohammed Farhad; Hussain, Faiq Hama Saeed; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Vidari, Giovanni
People living on the mountains of the Kurdistan Region, Iraq make a large use of herbs in the local traditional medicine. Among them, Tulipa systola, which grows under and between rocks, is very popular as an anti-inflammatory remedy and pain-relief. The phytochemical study of an ethanolic extract obtained from flowers and roots of Tulip (T systola Stapf.) afforded three compounds, identified as (+)-1-O-E-feruloyl-3-O-E-p-coumaroylglycerol (1), (+)-6-tuliposide A (2), and (-)-kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (3). The significant radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the isolated compounds were evaluated on three tests, by determining the DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the total antioxidant activity and the hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. Tuliposide A shows potent allergenic activity.
Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.
The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100
van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G
Buttercup ( Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs. © 2017 The Author(s).
Daniel A. Beller
Full Text Available Focal conic domains (FCDs in smectic-A liquid crystals have drawn much attention, both for their exquisitely structured internal form and for their ability to direct the assembly of micromaterials and nanomaterials in a variety of patterns. A key to directing FCD assembly is control over the eccentricity of the domain. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm for creating spatially varying FCD eccentricity by confining a hybrid-aligned smectic with curved interfaces. In particular, we manipulate interface behavior with colloidal particles in order to experimentally produce two examples of what has recently been dubbed the flower texture [C. Meyer et al., Focal Conic Stacking in Smectic A Liquid Crystals: Smectic Flower and Apollonius Tiling, Materials 2, 499, 2009MATEG91996-194410.3390/ma2020499], where the focal hyperbolæ diverge radially outward from the center of the texture, rather than inward as in the canonical éventail or fan texture. We explain how this unconventional assembly can arise from appropriately curved interfaces. Finally, we present a model for this system that applies the law of corresponding cones, showing how FCDs may be embedded smoothly within a “background texture” of large FCDs and concentric spherical layers, in a manner consistent with the qualitative features of the smectic flower. Such understanding could potentially lead to disruptive liquid-crystal technologies beyond displays, including patterning, smart surfaces, microlens arrays, sensors, and nanomanufacturing.
Iriel, Analía; Lagorio, María Gabriela
Flower fluorescence has been previously proposed as a potential visual signal to attract pollinators. In this work, this point was addressed by quantitatively measuring the fluorescence quantum yield ( Φ f) for flowers of Bellis perennis (white, yellow, pink, and purple), Ornithogalum thyrsoides (petals and ovaries), Limonium sinuatum (white and yellow), Lampranthus productus (yellow), Petunia nyctaginiflora (white), Bougainvillea spectabilis (white and yellow), Antirrhinum majus (white and yellow), Eustoma grandiflorum (white and blue), Citrus aurantium (petals and stigma), and Portulaca grandiflora (yellow). The highest values were obtained for the ovaries of O. thyrsoides ( Φ f = 0.030) and for Citrus aurantium petals ( Φ f = 0.014) and stigma ( Φ f = 0.013). Emitted photons as fluorescence were compared with reflected photons. It was concluded that the fluorescence emission is negligible compared to the reflected light, even for the most fluorescent samples, and it may not be considered as an optical signal in biocommunication. The work was complemented with the calculation of quantum catches for each studied flower species to describe the visual sensitization of eye photoreceptors.
Full Text Available Coruh valley has an important biological diversity in term of plants, flora-fauna, wildlife and ecosystems. These regions contain the landraces, wild and weedy relatives, other wild, herbaceous and flowering trees, herbaceous flowering plants, medicinal and aromatic and flowering and ornamental shrubs plants species which are especially economically important plant for floriculture, eco-tourism, botanical tourism and nature tourism. Many important medicinal and aromatic and ornamental plants species are found in this region and naturally grow. It is considered that Acantholimon, Achillea, Alkanna, Allium, Amygdalus, Angelica, Anemone, Anthemis, Arabis, Arctium, Artemisia, Asparagus, Asperula, Astragalus, Calamintha, Calendula, Calutea, Campanula, Capparis, Cardamine, Centaurea, Cephalanthera, Cephalaria, Chelidonium, Chenopodium, Chysanthemum, Colchicum, Consolida, Coriandrum, Cornus, Coronilla, Cerasus, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Crocus, Cyclamen, Dactylorhiza, Digitalis, Dianthus, Draba, Echinops, Equisetum, Ferula, Filipendula, Fritillaria, Fumaria, Gagea, Galanthus, Galium, Genista, Gentiana, Geranium, Geum, Gladiolus, Glychirrza, Helichrysum, Hesperis, Hypericum, İnula, İris, Isatis, Juniperus, Lilium, Linaria, Linum, lysimachia, Malus, Malva, Marrubium, Melissa, Mentha, Micromeria, Morina, Muscari, Mysotis, Narcissus, Neotchichatchewia, Nepeta, Onobrychis, Orchis, Ornithogalum, Origanum, Paeonia, Papaver, Pedicularis, Peganum, Phelypaea, Platanthera, Plantago, Pilosella, Pelargonium, Potentilla, Polygonum, Polygala, Primula, Punica, Prunus, Pyrus, Ranunculus, Rhamnus, Rhododendron, Rhus, Rosa, Rubia, Rubus, Rumex, Salvia, Sambucus, Satureja, Scilla, Scorzonera, Scutellaria, Sedum, Sempervivum, Sideritis, Sophora, Sorbus, Stachys, Tanecetum, Teucrium, Thymus, Trigonella, Tulipa, Tussilago, Uechtriitzia, Vaccinium, Verbascum, Verbena, Veronica, Viburnum and Ziziphora species commonly found in the region may be may be evaluated economically.
Background The ability to induce flowering on demand is of significant biotechnological interest. FT protein has been recently identified as an important component of the mobile flowering hormone, florigen, whose function is conserved across the plant kingdom. We therefore focused on manipulation of both endogenous and heterologous FT genes to develop a floral induction system where flowering would be inhibited until it was induced on demand. The concept was tested in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). Results Our starting point was plants with strongly delayed flowering due to silencing of FT with an artificial microRNA directed at FT (amiR-FT) . First, we showed that constitutive expression of a heterologous FT gene (FTa1), from the model legume Medicago truncatula, (Medicago) was able to rescue the amiR-FT late-flowering phenotype. In order to induce flowering in a controlled way, the FTa1 gene was then expressed under the control of an alcohol-inducible promoter in the late flowering amiR-FT plants. Upon exposure to ethanol, FTa1 was rapidly up regulated and this resulted in the synchronous induction of flowering. Conclusions We have thus demonstrated a controlled-inducible flowering system using a novel combination of endogenous and heterologous FT genes. The universal florigenic nature of FT suggests that this type of system should be applicable to crops of economic value where flowering control is desirable. PMID:21481273
Bennett, J.P.; Bornar, C.R.; Harrington, C.A.
Clumps of the cactus Opuntia fragilis growing in association with mats of the lichens Cladina mitis, Cladina rangiferina and a spikemoss, Selaginella rupestris, were discovered in an agricultural field in Pepin County, Wisconsin, that had been abandoned for over 50 y. The association appeared to be beneficial to the cactus, which flowered almost exclusively in the presence of lichens. Of 294 cactus clumps examined in 2001, 127 grew in the presence of lichen mats and, of these, 24 flowered, producing 91 flowers, while none of the cacti growing in the absence of lichens flowered. In 2002, 19 out of 265 cactus clumps flowered, all but one in the presence of lichens. All sizes of cacti in the presence of lichens flowered and the probability of flowering increased with cactus size. In addition, the cacti that flowered had cladodes that were on average 19% heavier than those of cacti that did not flower. The presence of lichens lowered summer soil temperatures 2a??4 C compared to soil temperatures in the absence of lichens. Cooler soil temperatures conserve soil moisture better, which may enhance flowering in these cacti.
Márcia M. De-Souza
Full Text Available Os Remédios Florais de Bach (RFB, constituem um método alternativo de tratamento usado largamente na terapêutica de várias patologias em muitos países do mundo. Os RFB são reconhecidos como tratamento natural pela OMS desde 1956. Embora o mecanismo de ação dos RFB ainda não tenha sido elucidado, eles vêm sendo indicados para o tratamento de várias doenças neuropsiquiátricas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi detectar possíveis efeitos centrais dos RFB em modelos farmacológicos utilizados na pesquisa de substâncias com efeitos ansiolíticos, hipnóticos, antidepressivos e neurolépticos. Para tanto, camundongos receberam um tratamento agudo via oral (0,45 mL 1 hora antes dos testes. Os resultados mostraram que os florais Gorse e, em conjunto, White chestnut, Agrymony e Vervain exibiram perfis antidepressivo e hipnótico, respectivamente. No modelo de ansiedade foi detectado efeito ansiolítico do floral Agrymony. Entretanto, não foram observados efeitos neurolépticos do floral Clematis. Os resultados nos levam a sugerir que os efeitos centrais dos florais avaliados podem ser parcialmente detectados através de modelos farmacológicos utilizados na pesquisa de agentes psicotrópicos.
Piccolo, Rebecca S.; Pearce, Neil; Araujo, Andre B.; McKinlay, John B.
Purpose Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are well documented and many researchers have proposed that biogeographical ancestry (BGA) may play a role in these disparities. However, studies examining the role of BGA on T2DM have produced mixed results to date. Therefore, the objective of this research is to quantify the contribution of BGA to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence controlling for the mediating influences of socioeconomic factors. Methods We analyzed data from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey, a prospective cohort with approximately equal numbers of Black, Hispanic, and White participants. We used Ancestry Informative Markers to calculate the percentages of West African and Native American ancestry of participants. We used logistic regression with g-computation to analyze the contribution of BGA and socioeconomic factors to racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. Results We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 44.7% of the total effect of T2DM attributed to Black race and 54.9% of the effect attributed to Hispanic ethnicity. We found that BGA had almost no direct association with T2DM and was almost entirely mediated by self-identified race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors. Conclusions It is likely that non-genetic factors, specifically socioeconomic factors, account for much of the reported racial/ethnic disparities in T2DM incidence. PMID:25088753
Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.
The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties
Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.
This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection
Kemp, W. M.; Testa, J. M.; Conley, D. J.; Gilbert, D.; Hagy, J. D.
The incidence and intensity of hypoxic waters in coastal aquatic ecosystems has been expanding in recent decades coincident with eutrophication of the coastal zone. Because of the negative effects hypoxia has on many organisms, extensive efforts have been made to reduce the size and duration of hypoxia in many coastal waters. Although it has been broadly assumed that reductions in nutrient loading rates would reverse eutrophication and consequently, hypoxia, recent analyses of historical data from European and North American coastal systems suggest little evidence for simple linear response trajectories. We review existing data, analyses, and models that relate variations in the extent and intensity of hypoxia to changes in loading rates for inorganic nutrients and labile organic matter. We also assess existing knowledge of physical and ecological factors regulating oxygen in coastal marine waters and examine a broad range of examples where hypoxia responses to reductions in nutrient (or organic matter) inputs have been documented. Of the 22 systems identified where concurrent time series of loading and O2 were available, half displayed relatively clear and direct recoveries following remediation. We explored in detail 5 well-studied systems that have exhibited complex, non-linear responses to loading, including apparent "regime shifts." A summary of these analyses suggests that O2 conditions improved rapidly and linearly in systems where remediation focused on organic inputs from sewage plants, which were the primary drivers of hypoxia. In larger more open systems where diffuse nutrient loads are more important in fueling O2 depletion and where climatic influences are pronounced, responses to remediation tend to follow non-linear trends that may include hysteresis and time-lags. Improved understanding of hypoxia remediation requires that future studies use comparative approaches and consider multiple regulating factors including: (1) the dominant temporal scales
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ongoing problem facing the global environmental community including NASA centers is the removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs were...
Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.
The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.
Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.
The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies
Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F
The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gettys, Lyn A; Wofford, David S
Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata L.) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 16), erect, emergent, herbaceous aquatic perennial. The showy inflorescences of pickerelweed make this species a prime candidate for inclusion in water gardens and aquascapes. The objective of this experiment was to determine the number of loci, number of alleles, and gene action controlling flower color (blue vs. white) in pickerelweed. Two blue-flowered and one white-flowered parental lines were used in this experiment to create S(1) and F(1) populations. F(2) populations were produced through self-pollination of F(1) plants. Evaluation of S(1), F(1), and F(2) generations revealed that flower color in these populations was controlled by 2 alleles at one locus with blue flower color completely dominant to white. We propose that this locus be named white flower with alleles W and w.
House, Elizabeth B.; House, William J.
The essays composed by 84 remedial and 77 nonremedial college freshmen were analyzed for some features proposed by Mina Shaughnessy as being characteristic of basic writers. The students were enrolled in either a beginning remedial class (098), a class at the next level of remediation (099), or a regular English class (101). The essays were…
mid- May and early August onto about 70 potted flowering rush plants covered with gauze bags. An additional 66 adults were kept for oviposition on 17... flowering rush plants . Ten replicates were established per density. Only egg laying females were used. Prior to set up plant size was measured and it...maintained flowering rush and test plants . Finally, we are very grateful to Jennifer Andreas (Integrated Weed Control Project, Washington State
SUN, Xi; ZHANG, Yingying
With the socio-economic development and peopleâ€™s living condition improvement, the requirement for environment is higher and higher and the mental demand is also more and more. For this, Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry listed survey programs of consumption demands of flower market in Beijing in 2014, and provided several recommendations in line with current situations, problems and environment of the flower industry, for future reference of flower decision making of Beiji...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The ornamental crop Calluna vulgaris is of increasing importance to the horticultural industry in the northern hemisphere due to a flower organ mutation: the flowers of the 'bud-flowering' phenotype remain closed i.e. as buds throughout the total flowering period and thereby maintain more colorful flowers for a longer period of time than the wild-type. This feature is accompanied and presumably caused by the complete lack of stamens. Descriptions of this botanical particularity are inconsistent and partially conflicting. In order to clarify basic questions of flower organ identity in general and stamen loss in detail, a study of the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' flower type of C. vulgaris was initiated. Results Flowers were examined by macro- and microscopic techniques. Organ development was investigated comparatively in both the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' type by histological analyses. Analysis of epidermal cell surface structure of vegetative tissues and perianth organs using scanning electron microscopy revealed that in wild-type flowers the outer whorls of colored organs may be identified as sepals, while the inner ones may be identified as petals. In the 'bud-flowering' type, two whorls of sepals are directly followed by the gynoecium. Both, petals and stamens, are completely missing in this flower type. The uppermost whorl of green leaves represents bracts in both flower types. In addition, two MADS-box genes (homologs of AP3/DEF and SEP1/2 were identified in C. vulgaris using RACE-PCR. Expression analysis by qRT-PCR was conducted for both genes in leaves, bracts, sepals and petals. These experiments revealed an expression pattern supporting the organ classification based on morphological characteristics. Conclusions Organ identity in both wild-type and 'bud-flowering' C. vulgaris was clarified using a combination of microscopic and molecular methods. Our results for bract, sepal and petal organ identity are
Solar One was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electrical energy from solar power using a central receiver concept. An array of heliostats focused sunlight onto a central receiver, which superheated water to produce steam. Although Solar One was successful, the oil-based Thermal Storage System (TSS), used to store heat energy for power generation at night, was not efficient. When the TSS was demolished for the installation of a more efficient molten salt system, a major effort was made to salvage or recycle all of its equipment and materials. During TSS demolition, approximately 7 tons of aluminum shielding and 205 tons of steel were salvaged as scrap metal; 200 tons of concrete was used for erosion protection along the Mohave River banks; 150,000 gallons of oil was recycled and 100 tons of equipment was salvaged for use at other facilities. During remediation, approximately 9,000 tons of oil contaminated sand, gravel and soil was recycled into approximately 10,000 tons of asphalt concrete and used to pave a nearby 5-acre parking lot at Barstow College. This not only reduced project remediation costs, but also met environmental requirements and provided a much needed community service. Of the estimated 11,864 tons of equipment and material from the TSS, less than 1% was disposed of at a landfill
Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.
Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs
Improved site characterization technologies are being developed at Martin Marietta Energy Systems for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) in support of environmental restoration activities throughout the DOE complex. Since site characterization is an expensive and time consuming process that must be performed prior to, during, and following remediation efforts, an obvious way to reduce the overall cost of remediation is to develop improved characterization methods. For example, the Derivative Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrometer (DUVAS), which is being field tested as part of the OTD program, is a fiberoptic device for in situ, real time measurement of aromatic organic compounds in groundwater. A transportable, direct sampling Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer (ITMS) is being developed for continuous monitoring of hazardous organic compounds in air. In areas where the environment is hazardous to human health, it is desirous to perform site characterization remotely; if robotics are to be employed, the Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) can be used to provide telemetry information on robot location as well as sensor measurements. Once fully developed, these technologies can be transferred to the private sector. 19 refs., 2 tabs.
Full Text Available Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways.
Mishra, Shikha; Aeri, Vidhu
Saraca asoca Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae) is an important traditional remedy for gynaecological disorders and it contains lyoniside, an aryl tetralin lignan glycoside. The aglycone of lyoniside, lyoniresinol possesses structural similarity to enterolignan precursors which are established phytoestrogens. This work illustrates biotransformation of lyoniside to lyoniresinol using Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz. (Lythraceae) flowers and simultaneous quantification of lyoniside and lyoniresinol using a validated HPTLC method. The aqueous extract prepared from S. asoca bark was fermented using W. fruticosa flowers. The substrate and fermented product both were simultaneously analyzed using solvent system:toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (4:3:0.4) at 254 nm. The method was validated for specificity, accuracy, precision, linearity, sensitivity and robustness as per ICH guidelines. The substrate showed the presence of lyoniside, however, it decreased as the fermentation proceeded. On 3rd day, lyoniresinol starts appearing in the medium. In 8 days duration most of the lyoniside converted to lyoniresinol. The developed method was specific for lyoniside and lyoniresinol. Lyoniside and lyoniresinol showed linearity in the range of 250-3000 and 500-2500 ng. The method was accurate as resulted in 99.84% and 99.83% recovery, respectively, for lyoniside and lyoniresinol. Aryl tetralin lignan glycoside, lyoniside was successfully transformed into lyoniresinol using W. fruticosa flowers and their contents were simultaneously analyzed using developed validated HPTLC method.
Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan
The chemical constituents of Scutellaria baicalensis flower are flavonoids, volatile oils and melanin, It has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti angiogenic and antithrombotic pharmacological effects, and it has the effect of clearing away heat and relieving lung fire. Scutellaria baicalensis flower is rich in resources, cheap, easy to obtain, accurate effect, With the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. In this paper, the ancient application, chemical constituents, pharmacological actions and comprehensive utilization of Scutellaria baicalensis flower were reviewed, The purpose of this study was to explore the value of its development and utilization, so as to provide reference for the comprehensive utilization of Scutellaria baicalensis flower.
Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.
Flowering plants of geranium cultivars were exposed to 0.2, 0.35, and 0.55 ppm ozone for 4-hr periods at 20/sup 0/C in a greenhouse fumigation chamber. Three fully-opened flower heads were sprayed with a spore suspension of Botrytis cinerea at 2000, 1000, or 500 spores/ml immediately before exposure to ozone began. Sterile distilled water was sprayed on noninoculated flower heads. All flowers were examined for evidence of infection 24 hr after the end of the ozone-exposure periods. All flower heads were then removed and placed in wet, loosely tied plastic bags and incubated at 20/sup 0/C for 72 hr, with examination at 24-hr intervals for evidence of infection. Ozone at 0.2 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent or inhibit flower infection by B. cinerea at all inoculum levels. Natural infection also occurred on some noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.35 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent infection, but did inhibit pathogenesis at the 500-spore/ml inoculum level and on noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.55 ppm caused moderate injury on all plants. Ozone at this level did not prevent infection, but did restrict pathogenesis on all inoculated and noninoculated flowers.
Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Temple, Stanley A; Primack, Richard B; Bradley, Nina L; Davis, Charles C
Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change.
Elizabeth R Ellwood
Full Text Available Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change.
Full Text Available Rosa canina flowers were screened against various plant pathogenic microbial strains to study the antimicrobial properties of the plant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of flowers were screened applying agar well diffusion method against two Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960 and three microscopic filamentous fungi strains Aspergillus niger, Fusarium culmorum and Alternaria alternata, respectively. The best antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the best antimicrobial effect of methanolic extract of Rosa canina flowers was found against Escherichia coli.
Full Text Available Reliance on carbohydrates during flower forcing was investigated in one early and one late flowering cultivar of azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids. Carbohydrate accumulation, invertase activity, and expression of a purported sucrose synthase gene (RsSUS was monitored during flower forcing under suboptimal (natural and optimal (supplemental light light conditions, after a cold treatment (7°C + dark to break flower bud dormancy. Post-production sucrose metabolism and flowering quality was also assessed. Glucose and fructose concentrations and invertase activity increased in petals during flowering, while sucrose decreased. In suboptimal light conditions RsSUS expression in leaves increased as compared to optimal light conditions, indicating that plants in suboptimal light conditions have a strong demand for carbohydrates. However, carbohydrates in leaves were markedly lower in suboptimal light conditions compared to optimal light conditions. This resulted in poor flowering of plants in suboptimal light conditions. Post-production flowering relied on the stored leaf carbon, which could be accumulated under optimal light conditions in the greenhouse. These results show that flower opening in azalea relies on carbohydrates imported from leaves and is source-limiting under suboptimal light conditions.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The growth of per capita consumption of flowers in Brazil is still low when compared with other countries. Among several factors that may be linked to this growth gap, the establishment of few or ineffective marketing strategies was cited. In this context, we present the results of the profile and behavior of flower consumer, aiming to subsidize marketing actions for the retail segment of flower supply chain. The study was conducted through interviews with 300 people of both genders at the moment they were buying flowers at 22 flower shops in the Paraná coast. This region was selected due to its potential for flower production and commercialization, which is similar to other Brazilian regions and other countries where the flower market has economic relevance. The female gender was identified as the major consumer (n = 62.7%, with tendency of increase in consumption as education level advanced (Spearman correlation coefficient, p < 0.05 = for own use r = 0.122; p = 0.039; for gift r = 0.174; p = 0.003. The acquisition average of 4.4 ± 1.9 times per year was registered, with preferential consumption of orchids (n = 36.3% for own use and roses (n = 86.7%, for gift. The flower retail trade did not meet the expectations of consumers, especially in relation to price, promotions, and production quality. The male gender and the elderly consumer class may represent important alternatives to increase the current consumption of flowers.
Zhang, Xueming; Meng, Lin; Liu, Bo; Hu, Yunyan; Cheng, Feng; Liang, Jianli; Aarts, Mark G.M.; Wang, Xiaowu; Wu, Jian
Long days and vernalization accelerate the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth in Brassica rapa. Bolting before plants reach the harvesting stage is a serious problem in B. rapa vegetable crop cultivation. The genetic dissection of flowering time is important for breeding of
Wackers, F.L.; Rijn, van P.C.J.; Winkler, K.; Olson, D.
Whereas nectar and pollen provision to predators and parasitoids is a main objective in pursuing agricultural biodiversity, we often know little about whether the flowering plant species involved are actually suitable as insect food sources or about their ultimate impact on biological pest control.
Morikawa, Toshio; Wang, Li-Bo; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Nakamura, Seikou; Matsuda, Hisashi; Muraoka, Osamu; Wu, Li-Jun; Yoshikawa, Masayuki
Eight new glycosides, everlastosides F (1), G (2), H (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), L (7), and M (8), were isolated from the methanolic extract of the flowers of Helichrysum arenarium. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.
Jansma, J.E.; Snoek, A.J.; Wondergem, M.J.
Flower bulb production in The Netherlands is economically successful. However, production methods rely heavily on external inputs, causing contamination of surface and ground water. The use of pesticides has been estimated 100 kg active ingredient (a.i.) per ha in 1994. In the same year the annual
Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; Cayuela, Luis; Méndez, Marcos
Two, nonmutually exclusive, mechanisms-competition for resources and architectural constraints-have been proposed to explain the proximal to distal decline in flower size, mass, and/or femaleness in indeterminate, elongate inflorescences. Whether these mechanisms also explain unusual positional effects such as distal to proximal declines of floral performance in determinate inflorescences, is understudied. We tested the relative influence of these mechanisms in the andromonoecious wild olive tree, where hermaphroditic flowers occur mainly on apical and the most proximal positions in determinate inflorescences. We experimentally increased the availability of resources for the inflorescences by removing half of the inflorescences per twig or reduced resource availability by removing leaves. We also removed the apical flower to test its inhibitory effect on subapical flowers. The apical flower had the highest probability of being hermaphroditic. Further down, however, the probability of finding a hermaphroditic flower decreased from the base to the tip of the inflorescences. An experimental increase of resources increased the probability of finding hermaphroditic flowers at each position, and vice versa. Removal of the apical flower increased the probability of producing hermaphroditic flowers in proximal positions but not in subapical positions. These results indicate an interaction between resource competition and architectural constraints in influencing the arrangement of the hermaphroditic and male flowers within the inflorescences of the wild olive tree. Subapical flowers did not seem to be hormonally suppressed by apical flowers. The study of these unusual positional effects is needed for a general understanding about the functional implications of inflorescence architecture. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.
Why is it important to pay attention to democracy and polyphony when working with remediation in a multimodal drama project in introductory schooling? This question is elucidated and investigated in this article on the basis of a drama project case study conducted at Hundborg Friskole. The study......-based process of remediation, and how this impacts children’s democratic education....
This article evaluates the meaningful engagement doctrine in the education rights jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the light of a set of normative principles developed by Susan Sturm for evaluating participatory public law remedies. It commences by identifying four principles for evaluating participatory remedies ...
This report describes issues associated with remedial action of Maxey Flats, a low-level radioactive waste disposal site from 1963-1977, located in Fleming County, Kentucky. Present remedial action alternatives being considered are discussed along with emergency plans, ground water monitoring plans, and budgets
Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.
Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…
This conference provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies in 13 sessions entitled: hydrocarbon contamination; salt management; liability management; chemical oxidation; light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL); Montreal Center of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; Alberta government updates; phytoremediation; natural attenuation; Lake Wabamun; ex-situ remediation; in-situ remediation; and, miscellaneous issues. Technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification were highlighted. The conference featured 52 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.
Villaseñor, I M; Lemon, P; Palileo, A; Bremner, J B
The antigenotoxic constituent of squash flowers was isolated by solvent partitioning and repeated vacuum liquid chromatography. The micronucleus test, an in vivo method, was used to monitor the antigenotoxicity of the various fractions during the isolation process. Isolate SQFwB2D from the chloroform extract of squash flowers is the most antigenotoxic isolate. It decreased the mutagenicity of tetracycline by 64.7% at a dosage of 100 mg/kg mouse. Statistical analysis using Kruskall Wallis one-way analysis of variance by Ranks showed that SQFw2D is different from the control group (tetracycline + corn oil) at alpha = 0.001. GC-MSD of isolate SQFwB2D shows 2 peaks at Rt = 19.860 (SQFwB2D-1) and 20.242 min (SQFwB2D-2) with relative peak heights of 16:1, respectively. Spectral analyses show that SQFwB2D-1 is 24 alpha-ethyl-5 alpha-cholesta-7,trans-22-dien-3 beta-ol or spinasterol.
Roger P Hellens
Full Text Available The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea.We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates.We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.
Hellens, Roger P; Moreau, Carol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Schwinn, Kathy E; Thomson, Susan J; Fiers, Mark W E J; Frew, Tonya J; Murray, Sarah R; Hofer, Julie M I; Jacobs, Jeanne M E; Davies, Kevin M; Allan, Andrew C; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Coyne, Clarice J; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M; Ellis, T H Noel
The genetic regulation of flower color has been widely studied, notably as a character used by Mendel and his predecessors in the study of inheritance in pea. We used the genome sequence of model legumes, together with their known synteny to the pea genome to identify candidate genes for the A and A2 loci in pea. We then used a combination of genetic mapping, fast neutron mutant analysis, allelic diversity, transcript quantification and transient expression complementation studies to confirm the identity of the candidates. We have identified the pea genes A and A2. A is the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice donor site that leads to a mis-spliced mRNA with a premature stop codon, and we have identified a second rare mutant allele. The A2 gene encodes a WD40 protein that is part of an evolutionarily conserved regulatory complex.
Wongwattanasathien, O; Kangsadalampai, K; Tongyonk, L
The mutagenicity of dichloromethane, methanol and water extracts of Antigonon leptopus Hook. & Arn., Curcuma sessilis Gage, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn., Ixora coccinea Linn., Millingtonia hortensis Linn., Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Plumeria obtusa Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Rhinacanthus nasutus ((Linn.) Kurz.) and Syzygium malaccense ((Linn.) Merr.& Perry) before and after nitrite treatment was firstly investigated in the Ames test. Their antimutagenicity against the product of the reaction mixture of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model in the absence of metabolic activation on Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100 was evaluated. The results showed that none of the samples was mutagenic. Most nitrite-treated samples but dichloromethane extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Plumeria obtusa, Syzygium malaccense, methanol extract of Syzygium malaccense and water extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis were mutagenic. The nitrite treated methanol extract of Nelumbo nucifera exhibited the highest mutagenicity on both strains. All dichloromethane extracts of flowers decreased the mutagenicity induced by the product of 1-aminopyrene nitrite model on both tester strains. Methanol extract of Curcuma sessilis and Punica granatum (15 mg/plate) showed the highest antimutagenic activity in TA 98 and TA 100, respectively. The protective effects of these flower extracts might be due to the presence of antimutagenic components that were supposed to be flavonoids. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.
Mai Trong Khoa; Nguyen Quang Hung; Tran Dinh Ha
The paper is evaluating results of treating brain tumor and some intracranial diseases by rotating gamma knife (RGK) at The Nuclear Medicine and Oncology Center, Bach Mai Hospital, from July 2007 to August 2010, for 1200 patients treated with RGK. In 1200 patients - average age: 42.6 years old, Male/Female ratio:1/1.08 - pituitary tumors accounted for 19.8%, meningioma 18.3%, arteriovenous malformations (AVM) (16.7%), acoustic neuroma (8.7%), brain metastases (7.5%), craniopharyngeal tumor (5.0%), pineal tumor (3.5%), cavernoma (6%), astrocytoma (5.2%), meduloblastoma (2.9%), ependymoma (2.6%), others (3.8%). Average target volume: minimum 0.6cm 3 , maximum 27.6cm 3 , median 6.2 ± 4.6 cm 3 . Average radiosurgery dose changed depend on nature of the tumor: pituitary tumor (12.4 Gy), meningioma (18.8 Gy), AVM (18 Gy), acoustic neuroma (14.6 Gy), brain metastases (18.2 Gy), craniopharyngeal tumor (12.8 Gy), pineal tumor (16.3 Gy), cavernoma (17.5 Gy), astrocytoma (14.6 Gy), medulloblastoma (16.1 Gy), ependymoma (16.3 Gy), others (15 Gy). Conclusions: Almost case have improved clinical symptoms significantly: 80.2% after 1 month (complete response 20.2%), 100% at 36th month (complete response: 94%). Size of the tumor were reduced remarkably. Treatment were safe, no death or severe complications were observed within and after radiosurgery. (author)
Rizzi, Malgorzata; Hemmingsen Schovsbo, Niels; Korte, Christoph; Bryld Wessel Fyhn, Michael
To improve the understanding and interpretation of the depositional environment of a late Oligocene lacustrine organic rich oil-prone source rock succession, 2464 hand held (HH)-XRF measurements were made systematically on the 500 m long, continuous core from the fully cored Enreca-3 well. This core, drilled on the remote Bach Long Vi Island, northern Gulf of Tonkin, offshore Vietnam, represents a deep lake succession alternating between lacustrine pelagic dominated sediments interrupted by hyperpycnal turbidites, high density turbidites and debris flows [1, 2]. From a combined HH-XRF-XRD data set, multivariate data analysis and regression models are used to type the rock and to predict the XRD mineral composition based on HH-XRF composition. The rock types and the modelled mineral composition highlight the geochemical variations of the sediment and allows for direct comparison with sedimentological processes and facies changes. The modeling also depicts the cyclic alteration of rock types that are present on many different scales ranging from centimeters to hundreds of meters [1, 2]. The sedimentological and geochemical variations observed throughout the cored section reflects fluctuating paleoclimate, tectonism and hinterland condition controlling the depositional setting, which may provide a deeper understanding of the deposition of this and similar Paleogene syn-rift succession in the South China Sea region. It allows furthermore the development of a more generalized depositional model relevant for other deep-lacustrine syn-rift basins.  Petersen et al. (2014) Journal of Petroleum Geology, 37: 373-389.  Hovikoski et al. (2016) Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(8): 982-1007.
Rizzi, M.; Schovsbo, N. H.; Fyhn, M. B. W.; Korte, C.
We present a high-resolution stable isotope record based on bulk organic matter (δ13Corg) and fossil wood (δ13Cwood) originating from Oligocene deep lacustrine sediments cored on the Bach Long Vi Island, northern Gulf of Tonkin, offshore Vietnam. The sediments are exceptionally well preserved. They are thus excellently suited for a detailed stratigraphical analysis of the stable isotope record and as proxy for environmental and climatic changes within this period. The sediments were deposited in rapid subsiding, narrow and elongated fault-bound graben (Fyhn and Phach, 2015) and are represented by deep pelagic lacustrine organic-rich mud interrupted by numerous density-flow deposits (Hovikoski et al., 2016). The density-flow deposits contain abundant fragments of fossil wood. Therefore it was possible to obtain 262 coalified wood fragments together with 1063 bulk organic samples throughout the span of the core. This allowed to establish a high resolution stable C isotope record (δ13Corg and δ13Cwood). In addition 2464 handheld XRF determinations were carried out to further characterize the depositional environment (Rizzi et al., 2017). The organic carbon isotope trend from the 500 m core succession provides insight into the palaeoenvironmental changes of the lake during the Oligocene. Both, global and local factors control the δ13C variations. The aim of the study is to obtain pure global δ13Corg and δ13Cwood signals that would allow comparison of the studied sediments with coeval syn-rift successions in the South China Sea region and other parts of the world.  Fyhn and Phach (2015) Tectonics, 34(2): 290-312.  Hovikoski et al. (2016) Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(8): 982-1007.  Rizzi et al. (2017) EGU General Assembly Abstract EGU 2017-17584.
Full Text Available The new method developed in this paper is aiming at transmission congestion management (CM. The new, Optimal Transactions Management method (OTM, is based on linear programming (LP, DC load flow (DCLF and linear security constraints. The OTM method is embedded in Available Transfer Capabilities (ATCs and Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs definitions' environment. Well-suited for both preventive and corrective modes of operation, the OTM method aids transmission system operator in running a congested power system network, where congestions are due to transactions. Potential congestion threat is solved by finding the 'culprit' transaction and its optimal reduction. Besides the proposed downsizing of scheduled and/or committed transactions, controls of the OTM method also include redispatching of generation and load levels. The task is to establish a system state without constraint violations. To ensure the feasible network solution, both DC and AC power flows are used. The common 5 nodes/7 lines Ward&Hale sample power system is used to clarify the OTM method. Besides, six other power system networks including the real-life power system network of Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro (part of the South East Europe - SEE grid are used to test remedial potentials and CPU-time performances of the method. The 24-hour daily demand diagram is used with all test networks to study the effects of transactions as they are being superimposed to the regional grid. The remedial, transactions-curtailing OTM method is found well suited for market-related analyses precluding the hour-ahead, the day-ahead dispatch, as well as the real-time generation dispatch. It could also suit for the novel, Day Ahead Congestion Forecast (DACF procedure used in power markets. .
Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.
The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB's as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology
Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)
This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)
Campbell, Alistair John; Wilby, Andrew; Sutton, Peter; Wäckers, Felix
Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., 'multi-functional' mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that 'multi-functional' flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.
Alistair John Campbell
Full Text Available Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1 pollinators (‘concealed-nectar plants’; (2 natural enemies (‘open-nectar plants’; or (3 both groups concurrently (i.e., ‘multi-functional’ mix. Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers. Pollinator (e.g., bees and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation, and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that ‘multi-functional’ flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.
Aug 17, 2006 ... Embryogenic cultures of Kinnow mandarin (C. nobilis Lour × C. deliciosa Tenora) were raised from unfertilized ovules dissected from unopened flower buds of this plant inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/L kinetin (KN). In vitro flowering was induced in these cultures by using different ...
DM), crude lipid (8.02%DM) and crude fibre (30.35%DM) compared to flower spathe 16.65% DM protein, 5.93%DM lipid, and 12.01%DM crude fibre) which had higher crude ash content (11.65%DM). The major dietary fibre found in flower ...
Most sweet potato cultivars grown in Zimbabwe are poor in agronomic and quality traits and require improvement through breeding. However, most cultivars rarely flower yet the flowers are crucial in genetic improvements. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of 2, 4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ...
Soppe, W.J.J.; Peeters, A.J.M.; Koornneef, M.
This invention relates to the determination, cloning and expression of the flowering time gene FWA and the use of this gene to delay or accelerate flowering in a large variety of plant species. Specifically the gene that was determined is that of Arabidopsis thaliana. Naturally the invention extends
The rooting of cuttings from day-neutral tomato was not influenced by flower development, nor by SD or LD treatments of them or of the mother plants. In cuttings of the SD plant Perilla crispa flower initiation and development severely inhibited rooting. Leaves produced about 61 %
Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 1. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat. Sushil Kumar Vishakha Sharma Swati Chaudhary ...
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis...
CaraDonna, Paul J; Iler, Amy M; Inouye, David W
Phenology--the timing of biological events--is highly sensitive to climate change. However, our general understanding of how phenology responds to climate change is based almost solely on incomplete assessments of phenology (such as first date of flowering) rather than on entire phenological distributions. Using a uniquely comprehensive 39-y flowering phenology dataset from the Colorado Rocky Mountains that contains more than 2 million flower counts, we reveal a diversity of species-level phenological shifts that bring into question the accuracy of previous estimates of long-term phenological change. For 60 species, we show that first, peak, and last flowering rarely shift uniformly and instead usually shift independently of one another, resulting in a diversity of phenological changes through time. Shifts in the timing of first flowering on average overestimate the magnitude of shifts in the timing of peak flowering, fail to predict shifts in the timing of last flowering, and underrepresent the number of species changing phenology in this plant community. Ultimately, this diversity of species-level phenological shifts contributes to altered coflowering patterns within the community, a redistribution of floral abundance across the season, and an expansion of the flowering season by more than I mo during the course of our study period. These results demonstrate the substantial reshaping of ecological communities that can be attributed to shifts in phenology.
flowers with absence or reduced stamens and flowers with absence of pistil) are frequently observed and may reduce fruit set. This study investigates the phenology evolution and the male and female abortion of the oleaster tree (or the wild olive ...
Doorn, van W.G.; Celikel, F.G.; Pak, C.; Harkema, H.
It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris x hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or
Doorn, van W.G.; Dole, I.; Celikel, F.G.; Harkema, H.
Flower opening in Iris (Iris x hollandica) requires elongation of the pedicel and ovary. This moves the floral bud upwards, thereby allowing the tepals to move laterally. Flower opening is requires with elongation of the pedicel and ovary. In cv. Blue Magic, we investigated the possible role of
Zhang, Feng-Ping; Brodribb, Timothy J
Water stress is known to cause xylem cavitation in the leaves, roots and stems of plants, but little is known about the vulnerability of flowers to xylem damage during drought. This is an important gap in our understanding of how and when plants become damaged by water stress. Here we address fundamental questions about if and when flowers suffer cavitation damage, using a new technique of cavitation imaging to resolve the timing of cavitation in water-stressed flower petals compared with neighbouring leaves. Leaves and flowers from a sample of two herbaceous and two woody eudicots were exposed to a severe water stress while the spatial and temporal propagation of embolism through veins was recorded. Although in most cases water potentials inducing 50% embolism of herbaceous flower veins were more negative than neighbouring leaves, there was no significant difference between the average vulnerability of leaves and petals of herbaceous species. In both woody species, petals were more vulnerable to cavitation than leaves, in one case by more than 3 MPa. Early cavitation and subsequent damage of flowers in the two woody species would thus be expected to precede leaf damage during drought. Similar cavitation thresholds of flowers and leaves in the herb sample suggest that cavitation during water shortage in these species will occur simultaneously among aerial tissues. Species-specific differences in the cavitation thresholds of petals provide a new axis of variation that may explain contrasting flowering ecology among plant species. © 2017 The Author(s).
Muthuswamy, Ragunathan; Senthamarai, R.
Background: Butea frondosa Roxb. and Koen. syn. Butea monosperma Lam. (Leguminosae or Fabaceae) is a tree grows up to the height of 8 m at the age 50 years. Its flowers are being used in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer, inflammation, hepatic disorder, and eye diseases. Aims: The present study was aimed at establishing the microscopic characteristics of flower B. monosperma Lam. Materials and Methods: Histological evaluation of flowers was done using standard procedures. Images of microscopic characters were taken at different magnifications using Nikon Labphoto 2 microscopic Unit. Perkin Elmer 5000 an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was employed for elemental analysis. Results: In the study, microscopic characters of floral parts were investigated in transverse section and the flower powder. The current study reveals the presence of pollen grains, ovary (OV), and trichomes in their flower powder. Different cell components were studied, and their sizes were measured. Elemental analysis showed the presence of Zn 52.2 μg/g and Cu 36.3 μg/g were major contents, whereas Cr, Mn, and Pd were minor contents in dried flower powder. Conclusion: The current study paves the way to provide standard information related to the presence of essential elements in the flower. Microscopic characters of the flower and its quantitative measurement of cell components will help to identify the plant and also help to improvise the existing monograph of B. monosperma in the Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. PMID:25861140
Apr 17, 2012 ... Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and ... [Kumar S., Sharma V., Chaudhary S., Tyagi A., Mishra P., Priyadarshini A. and Singh A. 2012 Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat ..... to ascertain the hybrid nature of F1 plants.
Sumiko, Kaihara; Atsushi, Takimoto; Laboratory of Applied Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University; Laboratory of Applied Botany, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyoto University
Flower buds of Pharbitis nil cut from plants growing in the field open rapidly when subjected to darkness (20-25℃) or low temperature (20℃) in light. Petals of the buds are the sites of photo- and thermo-perception; flower-opening is caused mainly by the epinasty of petal midribs.
Robert F. Scharpf
Under the short growing season of the Sierra Nevada, both flowering and seed dispersal of Arceuthobium campylopodum occurred earlier in the fall and dispersal extended for a shorter duration than at lower elevations and along the coast of California. Also in years of above normal surrmer temperatures, flowering and seed dispersal occurred earlier in...
Mojet, J.; Köster, E.P.; Holthuysen, N.T.E.; Veggel, Van R.J.F.M.; Wijk, De R.A.; Schepers, H.E.; Vermeer, F.
Background Flowers are reported to have immediate and long-term effects on health and well-being, emotional reactions, mood, social behaviour and memory, but emotional effects have rarely been studied in more detail. Methods This study investigated the influences of flowers on emotional
Flower Colour Inheritance in Nicotiana alata (Solanaceae) and its Use as a Genetic Marker for Gene Flow Studies. ... Abstract. In Nicotiana alata, flower colour inheritance has followed Mendelian inheritance with dark colours being dominant over lighter colours. Reciprocal crosses concluded the absence of the cytoplasm ...
Acid rain/deposition (including snow and fog), formed due to reaction of oxides of sulphur and nitrogen with atmospheric ... pollution. Several studies conducted in field and greenhouse have demonstrated that acid rain exposure of plants results in poor growth, premature leaf abscission, delayed flowering, decreased flower.
Apr 17, 2012 ... color, and is regarded as one of two flower spectacle in the world (Chen, 2001). However, their genetic backgrounds as well as genetic relationships are lack of knowledge. Large-flower chrysanthemum has been cultivated for more than 1, 600 years (Zhao et al., 2009). It experienced long-term arti-.
The Netherlands is a major exporter of flower bulbs in the world. France is amongst the top10 of the biggest importers of Dutch flower bulbs. However, the growing of bulbs is very damaging to the environment. With the use of 1,5 million kilograms of pesticide and 16 million kilograms of artificial
D'Antuono, L Filippo; Manco, Manuela Agata
The use of edible flowers as an aesthetic and flavour component of specific dishes is gaining popularity, and their production is becoming an interesting niche market activity for growers. Allium is an important genus of flowering plants, also including traditional wild food species. The combination of tradition with the new uses of flowers is appealing, requiring, however, explorative acceptance assays for its exploitation. The flowers of the native Mediterranean species Allium neapolitanum, A. roseum and A. triquetrum were subject to hedonic visual, smell and flavour evaluation. Panellists also indicated specific flavour notes and their opinion about the more suitable uses. All the species were positively rated. A. roseum was preferred for all respects; A. triquetrum obtained the lowest visual rating, whereas A. neapolitanum had the lowest flavour rating. A spicy note was the main determinant of high flavour ratings. Dishes retaining the visual appearance of flowers were indicated as more suitable to combine with Allium flowers. This is the first attempt at sensory evaluation of Allium flowers. Nutritional and health promotion properties and toxicity risks do not represent major issues for these products, because of potentially low consumption levels. The main constraint for a wider use of Allium flowers is represented by the absence of a consolidated consumption habit and regular supply. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
) and four basic flower colour forms (red, salmon, rose-pink and soft-pink) in zonal pelargoniums (Pelargonium x hortorum Bailey L.H.) was studied using complementation tests. The results confirmed that red flower colour is due to ...
In the environmental remediation of a given site, concerned and interested parties have diverse and often conflicting interests with regard to remediation goals, the time frames involved, reuse of the site, the efforts necessary and cost allocation. An environmental remediation policy is essential for establishing the core values on which remediation is to be based. It incorporates a set of principles to ensure the safe and efficient management of remediation situations. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. An environmental remediation strategy sets out the means for satisfying the principles and requirements of the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant remediation implementer or by the government in the case of legacy sites. Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategies. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, countries are advised to formulate an appropriate policy and strategies. Situations involving remediation include remediation of legacy sites (sites where past activities were not stringently regulated or adequately supervised), remediation after emergencies (nuclear and radiological) and remediation after planned ongoing operation and decommissioning. The environmental policy involves the principles of justification, optimization of protection, protection of future generations and the environment, efficiency in the use of resources, and transparent interaction with stakeholders. A typical policy will also take into account the national legal framework and institutional structure and applicable international conventions while providing for the allocation of responsibilities and resources, in addition to safety and security objectives and public information and participation in the decision making process. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set
Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Del Mastro, Nelida Lucia; Wiendl, Frederico Maximiliano
Yellow mini-chrysanthemums were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 Gammacell at the dose of 900 Gy (467 Gy/h) one day after harvest. Samples of 50 flowers, parcially opened buds were used to estimate the flower viability. Aluminum sulfate and 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate were used as two preservative solutions aiming to protect the cut flowers. Our results indicated that the stem immersion in the preservative solutions before and after the irradiation treatment was an efficient procedure, stimulating the flowers development and maintaining the vase-life almost as long as the controls. The present work concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions to minimize the damaging effects of the ionizing radiation on chysanthemum cut flowers, maintaining at the same time the disinfestation action of radiation processing.
Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.
Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.
Bendahmane, Mohammed; Dubois, Annick; Raymond, Olivier; Bris, Manuel Le
Roses hold high symbolic value and great cultural importance in different societies throughout human history. They are widely used as garden ornamental plants, as cut flowers, and for the production of essential oils for the perfume and cosmetic industries. Domestication of roses has a long and complex history, and the rose species have been hybridized across vast geographic areas such as Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. The domestication processes selected several flower characters affecting floral quality, such as recurrent flowering, double flowers, petal colours, and fragrance. The molecular and genetic events that determine some of these flower characters cannot be studied using model species such as Arabidopsis thaliana, or at least only in a limited manner. In this review, we comment on the recent development of genetic, genomic, and transcriptomic tools for roses, and then focus on recent advances that have helped unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying several rose floral traits.
Kurokura, Takeshi; Mimida, Naozumi; Battey, Nicholas H; Hytönen, Timo
Molecular mechanisms regulating the flowering process have been extensively studied in model annual plants; in perennials, however, understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling flowering has just started to emerge. Here we review the current state of flowering research in perennial plants of the rose family (Rosaceae), which is one of the most economically important families of horticultural plants. Strawberry (Fragaria spp.), raspberry (Rubus spp.), rose (Rosa spp.), and apple (Malus spp.) are used to illustrate how photoperiod and temperature control seasonal flowering in rosaceous crops. We highlight recent molecular studies which have revealed homologues of terminal flower1 (TFL1) to be major regulators of both the juvenile to adult, and the vegetative to reproductive transitions in various rosaceous species. Additionally, recent advances in understanding of the regulation of TFL1 are discussed.
Thiele, Jan; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Hauser, Thure Pavlo
The theory of life-history evolution commonly assumes a trade-off between sexual and vegetative reproduction. Hence, production of flowers and fruits should have measurable costs in terms of reduced vegetative growth. This trade-off may be meaningful for breeding of forage and turf grasses...... as reduced flowering could free resources and increase productivity. But if so, less-flowering cultivars might be more competitive and invade natural swards. We tested for costs of sexual reproduction on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of the perennial grass Lolium perenne, one of the most...... provenances the response of clone diameter to flowering was positive or neutral. We conclude that investment of resources into flowering has no measurable costs on vegetative propagation and competitiveness of L. perenne. The apparent lack of costs of sexual reproduction could be explained by bet...
Bertani, S; Bourdy, G; Landau, I; Robinson, J C; Esterre, Ph; Deharo, E
In order to evaluate the antimalarial potential of traditional remedies used in French Guiana, 35 remedies were prepared in their traditional form and screened for blood schizonticidal activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine re4sistant strain (W2). Some of these extracts were screened in vivo against Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria. Ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test was also performed. Four remedies, widely used among the population as preventives, were able to inhibit more than 50% of the parasite growth in vivo at around 100 mg/kg: Irlbachia alata (Gentiananceae), Picrolemma pseudocoffea (Simaroubaceae), Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae), Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae). Five remedies displayed an IC50 in vitro < 10 microg/ml: Picrolemma pseudocoffea, Pseudoxandra cuspidata (Annonaceae) and Quassia amara leaves and stem, together with a multi-ingredient recipe. Two remedies were more active than a Cinchona preparation on the ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test: Picrolemma pseudocoffea and Quassia amara. We also showed that a traditional preventive remedy, made from Geissospermum argenteum bark macerated in rum, was able to impair the intrahepatic cycle of the parasite. For the first time, traditional remedies from French Guiana have been directly tested on malarial pharmacological assays and some have been shown to be active.
Frishmuth, R.A.; Benson, L.A.
The principle objective of remedial actions is to protect human health and the environment. Risk assessments are the only defensible tools available to demonstrate to the regulatory community and public that this objective can be achieved. Understanding the actual risks posed by site-related contamination is crucial to designing cost-effective remedial strategies. All to often remedial actions are overdesigned, resulting in little to no increase in risk reduction while increasing project cost. Risk-based remedial actions have recently been embraced by federal and state regulators, industry, government, the scientific community, and the public as a mechanism to implement rapid and cost-effective remedial actions. Emphasizing risk reduction, rather than adherence to ambiguous and generic standards, ensures that only remedial actions required to protect human health and the environment at a particular site are implemented. Two sites are presented as case studies on how risk-based approaches are being used to remediate two petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The sites are located at two US Air Force Bases, Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) in Oscoda, Michigan and Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana
Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.
The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses program to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory
Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.
The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses progress to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory
Arrom, L; Munné-Bosch, S
Much effort has been focussed on better understanding the key signals that modulate floral senescence. Although ethylene is one of the most important regulators of floral senescence in several species, Lilium flowers show low sensitivity to ethylene; thus their senescence may be regulated by other hormones. In this study we have examined how (1) endogenous levels of hormones in various floral tissues (outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium) vary throughout flower development, (2) endogenous levels of hormones in such tissues change in cut versus intact flowers at anthesis, and (3) spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin alter flower longevity. Results show that floral tissues behave differently in their hormonal changes during flower development. Cytokinin and auxin levels mostly increased in tepals prior to anthesis and decreased later during senescence. In contrast, levels of abscisic acid increased during senescence, but only in outer tepals and the gynoecium, and during the latest stages. In addition, cut flowers at anthesis differed from intact flowers in the levels of abscisic acid and auxins in outer tepals, salicylic acid in inner tepals, cytokinins, gibberellins and jasmonic acid in the androecium, and abscisic acid and salicylic acid in the gynoecium, thus showing a clear differential response between floral tissues. Furthermore, spray applications of abscisic acid and pyrabactin in combination accelerated the latest stages of tepal senescence, yet only when flower senescence was delayed with Promalin. It is concluded that (1) floral tissues differentially respond in their endogenous variations of hormones during flower development, (2) cut flowers have drastic changes in the hormonal balance not only of outer and inner tepals but also of androecium and gynoecium, and (3) abscisic acid may accelerate the progression of tepal senescence in Lilium.
Li, Chao; Zhang, Yannan; Zhang, Kun; Guo, Danli; Cui, Baiming; Wang, Xiyin; Huang, Xianzhong
FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) encodes a mobile signal protein, recognized as major component of florigen, which has a central position in regulating flowering, and also plays important roles in various physiological aspects. A mode is recently emerging for the balance of indeterminate and determinate growth, which is controlled by the ratio of FT-like and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)-like gene activities, and has a strong influence on the floral transition and plant architecture. Orthologs of GhFT1 was previously isolated and characterized from Gossypium hirsutum. We demonstrated that ectopic overexpression of GhFT1 in tobacco, other than promoting flowering, promoted lateral shoot outgrowth at the base, induced more axillary bud at the axillae of rosette leaves, altered leaf morphology, increased chlorophyll content, had higher rate of photosynthesis and caused flowers abscission. Analysis of gene expression suggested that flower identity genes were significantly upregulated in transgenic plants. Further analysis of tobacco FT paralogs indicated that NtFT4, acting as flower inducer, was upregulated, whereas NtFT2 and NtFT3 as flower inhibitors were upregulated in transgenic plants under long-day conditions, but downregulated under short-day conditions. Our data suggests that sufficient level of transgenic cotton FT might disturb the balance of the endogenous tobacco FT paralogs of inducers and repressors and resulted in altered phenotype in transgenic tobacco, emphasizing the expanding roles of FT in regulating shoot architecture by advancing determine growth. Manipulating the ratio for indeterminate and determinate growth factors throughout FT-like and TFL1-like gene activity holds promise to improve plant architecture and enhance crop yield.
Hof, L.; Keizer, L.C.P.; Elberse, I.A.M.; Dolstra, O.
In the development of new crops such as Dimorphoteca pluvialis (L.) Moench, improvement of flowering synchronisation is an important breeding objective. The flowering of single plants of Dimorphotheca pluvialis could be described by a logistic curve obtained by the regression of cumulative number of
Wada, Takuji; Tominaga-Wada, Rumi
CAPRICE (CPC) and six additional CPC family genes encode R3-type MYB transcription factors involved in epidermal cell fate determination, including Arabidopsis root hair and trichome differentiation. Previously, we reported that the CPC and CPC family genes TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE LIKE MYB3 (CPL3) also affect flowering time. The cpl3 mutant plants flower earlier, with fewer but larger leaves, than do wild type plants, and mutations in CPC or TRY delay flowering in the cpl3 mutant. In this study, we examined flowering time, leaf number, and fresh weight for CPC family gene double and triple mutants. Mutation in ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) shortened the flowering time of the cpl3 single mutant. Mutation in ETC2 significantly reduced fresh weight in the cpl3 mutant. Expression levels of the flowering-related genes CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) were higher in the cpl3 mutant than in wild type plants. The high expression levels of CO and FT in cpl3 were significantly reduced by mutations in CPC, TRY, ETC1, or ETC2. Our results suggest that CPC family genes antagonistically regulate flowering time through CO and FT expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Takashi T Makino
Full Text Available When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies, and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.
Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun
When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121
This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes
The US Department of Energy proposes, as a separate operable unit of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, to remove contaminated bulk wastes from the Weldon Spring quarry and transport them approximately four miles to the chemical plant portion of the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. The wastes will be held in temporary storage prior to the record of decision for the overall remedial action. The decision on the ultimate disposal of these bulk wastes will be included as part of the decision for management of the waste materials resulting from remedial action activities at the raffinate pits and chemical plant area. 86 refs., 71 figs., 83 tabs
Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes
Herrera, Carlos M.
Variation in pollinator composition at the individual plant level is an important prerequisite for plant specialization on pollinators that does not seem to have been investigated previously. I studied variation in pollinator composition in a southeastern Spanish population of the insect-pollinated shrub Lavandula latifolia (Labiatae) and examined its correlates, with particular reference to the distinction between factors intrinsic (flower morphology, nectar standing crop, size of floral dis...
Full Text Available Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%–83% followed by (E,E-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.
Lopes Coelho, Lívia; Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk
was used as control species to validate treatments that consisted of combining short day photoperiod (8 h) and different night temperature (18, 12 and 6C). While K. prittwitzii had 100% flowering for all treatments, K. marmorata only flowered at 12C (33% plants flowering) and 6C (25% plants flowering......), and K. longiflora did not flower in any of the treatments. The decrease of night temperature delayed the growth in all species and flowering in K. prittiwitzii and K. marmorata, and the number of open flowers in K. prittiwitzii was higher at 12C. The results demonstrate that there is a variation...... of the flowering stimuli in the Kalanchoë genus, and that short days are not the only factors controlling flowering. Even though short days are enough to induce flowering in easily-induced species (e.g., K. prittwitzii), cold night temperatures are required to flower-induce other species (e.g., K. marmorata...
April, J.G.; Carlson, R.A.; Greif, A.A.; Johnson, C.R.; Orewiler, R.I.; Perry, D.M.; Plastino, J.C.; Roeck, F.V.; Tuttle, B.G.
This Readiness Assessment Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation involves the excavation, treatment if applicable, and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the waste sites in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The scope of the 300-FF-1 remediation is to excavate, transport, and dispose of contaminated solid from sites identified in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit
Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K
Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.
Throughout the world, many countries have experienced problems associated with pollution of the environment. Poorly managed practices in nuclear fuel cycle, medicine, industry, weapons production and testing, research and development activities, as well as accidents, and poor disposal practices have produced a large array of radioactively contaminated facilities and sites. Structures, biota, soils, rocks, and both surface and groundwaters have become contaminated with radionuclides and other associated contaminants, a condition that raises serious concern due to potential health effects to the exposed human populations and the environment. In response to the needs of its Member States in dealing with the problems of radioactive contamination in the environment, the IAEA has established an Environmental Restoration Project. The principal aspects of current IAEA efforts in this area include (1) gathering information and data, performing analyses, and publishing technical summaries, and other documents on key technical aspects of environmental restoration; (2) conducting a Co-ordinated Research Project on Environmental Restoration; and (3) providing direct technical assistance to Member States through technical co-operation programmes. The transfer of technologies to Member States in need of applicable methodologies and techniques for the remediation of contaminated sites is a principal objective of this project
Richardson, J T
This paper evaluates the claim that imagery mnemonic techniques are useful in remediation of memory disorders in brain-damaged patients. Clinical research has confirmed that such techniques can lead to improved performance on formal testing in a number of neurologic disease populations and following lesions of either the left or right hemisphere. However, those patients with more severe forms of amnesia and those with medial or bilateral damage do not improve unless the learning task is highly structured. Even among patients who show improvement on formal testing, there is little evidence that they maintain the use of these techniques in similar learning tasks or generalize the use to new learning situations. Imagery mnemonics also appear to be of little practical value in the daily activities that are of most concern to brain-damaged patients themselves. The effectiveness of imagery mnemonics appears to depend upon the patients' motivation and insight rather than upon their intelligence or educational level. Instead of training patients in specific mnemonic techniques, clinicians should promote the development of "meta-cognitive" skills and the acquisition of knowledge about domains of practical significance.
Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G.
The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project
If it's not clean, you don't pay.'' That's what Bill Packer, CEO of Seaview Thermal Systems (Seaview, Blue Bell, Pa.) told his first customer when they signed a $27-million contract for the remediation of contaminated soil located at a former town gas plant site at Paterson, N.J. For more than a 100 years, the Public Service Electric and Gas Co. (PSE G), and its predecessors, manufactured methane gas from coal and oil in Paterson on the banks of the Passaic River. Now, under orders from the state to clean up the abandoned, 13-acre site, PSE G has contracted with Seaview. The process Seaview uses -- HT-6 high-temperature thermal desorption -- heats up polluted dirt or other solids up to 2,000 F in a nitrogen atmosphere, and recovers the pollutants for recycling. According to Seaview, in hazardous waste sites with soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), or heavy metals, the result is: soil that is 99.99% free of organics and ready to be backfilled, clean water that can be used to remoisturize the soil before backfilling, and oil ready for recycling.
The Kerr Hollow Quarry is a 3-acre flooded limestone quarry located near the Y-12 Facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The quarry was used in the 1940s as a source of construction material for the Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its use was discontinued in the early 1950s, and it was allowed to flood with water. The quarry presently has a maximum water depth of approximately 55 ft. During the period between the early 1950s until about 1988, the quarry was used for the treatment and disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive, alkali metals, shock-sensitive chemicals, and compressed gas cylinders. For some of these materials, the treatment consisted of dropping the vessels containing the materials into the quarry from a high bluff located on one side of the quarry. The vessels were then punctured by gun shot, and the materials were allowed to react with the water and sink to the bottom of the quarry. Very few disposal records exist for the period from 1952 to 1962. The records after that time, from 1962 until 1988, indicate some 50 t of hazardous and nonhazardous materials were disposed of in the quarry. This report documents remediation efforts that have taken place at the quarry beginning in September 1990
Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'
This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...
Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.
This document responds to a need identified by private sector businesses for information on contractors that may be qualified to support building remediation efforts following a wide-area anthrax release.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...
Fisher, Dexter; Lamdin, Lois
Describes a program at a community college in Bronx, New York in which English instructors and content area teachers work together to improve the writing of students needing remedial instruction. (RB)
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exhaustion of administrative remedies. 35.40 Section 35.40... Enforcement Procedures § 35.40 Exhaustion of administrative remedies. (a) A complainant may file a civil action under the Act following the exhaustion of administrative remedies. Administrative remedies are...
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedies after default. 298.41 Section 298.41 Shipping... Defaults and Remedies, Reporting Requirements, Applicability of Regulations § 298.41 Remedies after default... governing remedies after a default, which relate to our rights and duties, the rights and duties of the...
Wei, Qian; Ma, Chao; Xu, Yanjie; Wang, Tianle; Chen, Yiyu; Lü, Jing; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Hong, Bo; Gao, Junping
Age, as a threshold of floral competence acquisition, prevents precocious flowering when there is insufficient biomass, and ensures flowering independent of environmental conditions; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, silencing the expression of a nuclear factor gene, CmNF-YB8, from the short day plant chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium), results in precocious transition from juvenile to adult, as well as early flowering, regardless of day length conditions. The expression of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE (SPL) family members, SPL3, SPL5, and SPL9, is upregulated in CmNF-YB8-RNAi plants, while expression of the microRNA, cmo-MIR156, is downregulated. In addition, CmNF-YB8 is shown to bind to the promoter of the cmo-MIR156 gene. Ectopic expression of cmo-miR156, using a virus-based microRNA expression system, restores the early flowering phenotype caused by CmNF-YB8 silencing. These results show that CmNF-YB8 influences flowering time through directly regulating the expression of cmo-MIR156 in the aging pathway.The mechanisms by which plant age regulates flowering remain incompletely understood. Here the authors show that age dependent regulation of SPL transcription factors by miR156 influence flowering via control of NF-YB8 expression in Chrysanthemum.
Khan, Muhammad Rehman Gul; Ai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Jin-Zhi
Flowering time plays a significant role in the reproductive success of plants. So far, five major pathways to flowering have been characterized in Arabidopsis, including environmental induction through photoperiod, vernalization, and gibberellins and autonomous floral iation, and aging by sequentially operating miRNAs (typically miR156 and miR172) responding to endogenous cues. The balance of signals from these pathways is integrated by a common set of genes (FLOWERING LOCUS C, FLOWERING LOCUS T, LEAFY, and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1) that determine the flowering time. Recent studies have indicated that epigenetic modification, alternative splicing, antisense RNA and chromatin silencing regulatory mechanisms play an important role in this process by regulating related flowering gene expression. In this review, we discuss the current understanding in genetic regulation of the phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth by using Arabidopsis as a model. We also describe how this knowledge has been successfully applied for identifying homologous genes from perennial crops. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the similarities and differences between annual and perennial plants flowering will help elucidate the mechanisms of perennial plant maturation and regulation of floral initiation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Janine Farias Menegaes
Full Text Available The present study aimed to diagnose the flowers retail market and ornamental plants in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, by means of a research in loco, from January to June of 2013, based on questionnaires and interviews applied to the managers of the establishment, as well as of an application of a visual and phytosanitary scale to other establishments that sell flowers and ornamental plants, such as agricultural shops, fairs of horticultural products, supermarkets and providers of funeral services - cemeteries and funeral homes. The diagnosis aims to know the steps of the dynamics observed from the market of flowers until the final consumer, and to segment the types of floricultures, distinguishing them according to the commercial focus — floricultures of arrangements and bouquets, and producing flowers and landscape floricultures. Based on the diagnosis it can be concluded that the Santa Maria retail flowers and ornamental plants follows the national trend of floral arrangements and bouquets shops, with the increase of the companies focused on landscaping and gardening. Among the most marketed plants are the rose as the best-selling cut flower, the begonia as potted flower, the fern for foliage arrangements, the cactus as potted plant, the raffia as garden plant and the pansy as the best-selling plant in boxes.
Wolf, Amelia A.; Zavaleta, Erika S; Selmants, Paul C.
Observational studies and experimental evidence agree that rising global temperatures have altered plant phenology—the timing of life events, such as flowering, germination, and leaf-out. Other large-scale global environmental changes, such as nitrogen deposition and altered precipitation regimes, have also been linked to changes in flowering times. Despite our increased understanding of how abiotic factors influence plant phenology, we know very little about how biotic interactions can affect flowering times, a significant knowledge gap given ongoing human-caused alteration of biodiversity and plant community structure at the global scale. We experimentally manipulated plant diversity in a California serpentine grassland and found that many plant species flowered earlier in response to reductions in diversity, with peak flowering date advancing an average of 0.6 days per species lost. These changes in phenology were mediated by the effects of plant diversity on soil surface temperature, available soil N, and soil moisture. Peak flowering dates were also more dispersed among species in high-diversity plots than expected based on monocultures. Our findings illustrate that shifts in plant species composition and diversity can alter the timing and distribution of flowering events, and that these changes to phenology are similar in magnitude to effects induced by climate change. Declining diversity could thus contribute to or exacerbate phenological changes attributed to rising global temperatures.
Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio; Bautista-Bañios, Silvia
The floriphagia that is the consumption of flowers as a food, is an old practice not widespread among consumers until some decades ago. Edible flowers contribute to increasing the appearance of food. They can provide biologically active substances including vitamin A, C, riboflavins, niacin, minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, iron and potassium that are eventually beneficial to consumers' health. This review includes some examples of edible flowers including roses, violets and nasturtium among others, uses and applications, sensorial characteristics and nutritional values that lead them to be considered as functional food: An important factor that affects the quality of edible flowers is the form in which they are preserved since it may affect their sensorial and nutritional characteristics. However, not all flowers can be eaten as food since there are some of them that can be toxic or even mortal. Finally, although the consumption of flowers is an ancient practice, there is little regulation in this regard. Of the review on edible flowers, it is concluded that there are still numerous aspects about them to evaluate such as nutritional and functional characteristics, conservation and regulation with the aim to extend its consumption.
Samuels, Michael; Hurly, T Andrew; Healy, Susan D
Free-living hummingbirds can learn the refill schedules of individual experimental flowers but little is known about what information they use to do this. Colour cues, in particular, may be important to hummingbirds when learning about rewarded flower properties. We investigated, therefore, whether colour cues facilitated the learning of flower refill schedules in wild, free-living rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus). In the Cued condition, we presented birds with an array of six flowers, three of one colour, each of which were refilled 10min after being emptied by the bird and three of a different colour, which were refilled 20min after being emptied. In the Uncued condition we presented birds with six flowers of the same colour, three of which were refilled after 10min and three of which were refilled after 20min as for the birds in the Cued condition. In the second part of the experiment, we moved the array 2m and changed the shape of the array. Across both phases, birds in the Cued condition learned to discriminate between 10 and 20-min flowers more quickly than did the birds in the Uncued condition. The Cued birds were also better at discriminating between the two distinct refill intervals. Colour cues can, therefore, facilitate learning the refill schedules of experimental flowers in these birds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cognition in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering
The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site's mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial
Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)
New and emerging technologies are making decommissioning and remediation more cost effective, faster and safer. From planning to execution and control, the use of new technologies is on the rise. Before starting decommissioning or environmental remediation, experts need to plan each step of the process, and to do that, they first need a clear idea of the characteristics of the structure and the level of radiation that they can expect to encounter
Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel
SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.
Bandeili, Babak; Müller, Caroline
The distribution of resources and defence is heterogeneous within plants. Specialist insects may prefer tissue with high concentrations of the plant’s characteristic defence compounds. Most herbivorous butterfly or sawfly larvae are considered to be folivores, so also the turnip sawfly Athalia rosae (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), a specialist herbivore on Brassicaceae. We investigated which tissue larvae choose to feed upon and how they perform on flowers, young or old leaves of Sinapis alba. Furthermore, constitutive and inducible levels of glucosinolates and myrosinases were investigated and nutrients analysed. Larvae moved from leaves to flowers for feeding from the third larval instar on. Flowers were not actively chosen, but larvae moved upwards on the plant, regardless of how plants were orientated (upright or inverted). Flower-feeding larvae were heavier and developed faster than larvae feeding on young leaves, and adults laid more eggs. Old leaves as food source resulted in the lowest growth rates. Flowers contained three and ten times higher myrosinase activities than young and old leaves, respectively, whereas glucosinolate concentrations and nitrogen levels of flowers and young leaves were comparable. Glucosinolate concentrations of old leaves were very low. Changes in tissue chemistry caused by larval feeding were tissue specific. Defence levels did not change in flowers and old leaves after A. rosae feeding in contrast to young leaves. The high insect performance on flowers cannot be explained by differences in chemical defence. Instead, the lack of mechanical defence (trichomes) is probably responsible. Movement to the flowers and folivory is overall highly adaptive for this sawfly species.
D. E. Shanklin
This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.
Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.
The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.
The Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy was issued in 1995 to establish overall goals for groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site. This strategy is being refined to provide more detailed justification for remediation of specific plumes and to provide a decision process for long-range planning of remediation activities. Supporting this work is a comprehensive modeling study to predict movement of the major site plumes over the next 200 years to help plan the remediation efforts. The information resulting from these studies will be documented in a revision to the Strategy and the Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Plan. To support the modeling work and other studies being performed to refine the strategy, this supporting technical information report has been produced to compile all of the relevant technical information collected to date on the Hanford Site groundwater contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, and description of the contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, description of the contaminant plumes, rate of movement based on the conceptual model and monitoring data, risk assessment, treatability study information, and current approach for plume remediation
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity
Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.
The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords
Meeteren, van, U.
The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great problem during vase-life of cut Gerbera flowers is ',stem break", a sudden bending of the stem. As described in part 1, this phenomenon was caused by a water shortage in the flower. The water-stress ...
Full Text Available Flower petals have not only diverse macroscopic morphologies but are rich in microscopic surface patterns, which are crucial to their biological functions. Both experimental measurements and theoretical analysis are conducted to reveal the physical mechanisms underlying the formation of minute wrinkles on flower petals. Three representative flowers, daisy, kalanchoe blossfeldiana, and Eustoma grandiflorum, are investigated as examples. A surface wrinkling model, incorporating the measured mechanical properties and growth ratio, is used to elucidate the difference in their surface morphologies. The mismatch between the anisotropic epidermal cell growth and the isotropic secretion of surficial wax is found to dictate the surface patterns.
Baewert, Henning; Weber, Martin; Morche, David
The hydrology of a proglacial river is strongly affected by glacier melting. Due to glacier retreat the effects of snow melt and rain storms will become more important in future decades. Additionally, the development of periglacial landscapes will play a more important role in the hydrology of proglacial rivers. The importance of paraglacial sediment sources in sediment budgets of glacier forefields is increasing, while the role of glacial erosion is declining. In two consecutive ablation seasons the fluvial sediment transport of the river Riffler Bach in the Kaunertal (Tyrol/Austria) was quantified. The catchment area of this station is 20 km² with an altitudinal range from 1929 m to 3518 m above msl. The "Weißseeferner" glacier (2.34 km² in 2012) is the greatest of the remaining glaciers. An automatic water sampler (AWS 2002) and a probe for water level were installed were installed at the outlet of the catchment. In order to calculate annual stage-discharge-relations, discharge (Q) was repeatedly measured with current meters. Concurrent to the discharge measurements bed load was collected using a portable Helley-Smith sampler. Bed load (BL) samples were weighted and sieved in the laboratory to gain annual bed load rating curves and grain size distributions. In 2012, 154 water samples were sampled during 7 periods and subsequently filtered to quantify suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). A Q-SSC-relation was calculated for every period due to the high variability in suspended sediment transport. In addition, the grain size distribution of the filtered material was determined by laser diffraction analysis. In 2013, the same procedure was performed for 232 water samples which were collected during 9 periods. Meteorological data were logged at the climate station "Weißsee", which is located in the centre of the study area. First results show a high variability of discharge and solid sediment transport both at the inter-annual as well as at the intra
Luiz Henrique Fiaminghi
Full Text Available A tradição interpretativa do séc. XIX consagrou ao Presto da Sonata I a violino solo senza basso, BWV 1001, de Bach, uma concepção de moto perpetuo que enfatiza a virtuosidade, a igualdade e a velocidade da performance, tendo como parâmetro as peças idiomáticas violinísticas de bravura, como moto perpetuo de Paganini. Esta concepção afeta diretamente a estrutura métrica da peça e o sentido rítmico a ela associada. Apesar de a fórmula de compasso indicar claramente uma métrica ternária (3/8, a tradição interpretativa herdada do séc. XIX concebe este movimento prioritariamente em uma métrica binária (6/16 em uma interminável sequência de semicolcheias. Exceções à métrica binária ocorrem quando as ligaduras originalmente marcadas duas a duas são respeitadas, o que consequentemente gera na narrativa rítmica um sentido polimétrico exógeno ao ideal estético do séc. XVIII. Além disso, o senso de movimento contínuo e igualdade rítmica presentes em um moto perpetuo do séc. XIX nega as preceptivas de um discurso retoricamente regrado que prioriza contrastes produzidos pela articulação de vozes em textura polifônica implícita, oculta na escrita das sequências de semicolcheias. Joel Lester (1999, por sua vez, defende que não há neste movimento preponderância métrica entre binário e ternário, e que qualquer opção de interpretação tomada é incapaz de impor-se à outra. Divergindo desta prerrogativa, acreditamos que, ao se superar uma análise estruturalista e adentrar-se em questões hermenêuticas (o mundo do texto e fenomenológicas (dança/gesto e tradições rítmico/interpretativas, pode-se trazer nova luz a este ícone do repertório violinístico para construção de uma performance historicamente informada ao violino e arco modernos.
Liu, Weixian; Kim, Moon Young; Kang, Yang Jae; Van, Kyujung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Srinives, Peerasak; Yuan, Dong Lin; Lee, Suk-Ha
Since the genetic control of flowering time is very important in photoperiod-sensitive soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), genes affecting flowering under different environment conditions have been identified and described. The objectives were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for flowering time in different latitudinal and climatic regions, and to understand how chromosomal rearrangement and genome organization contribute to flowering time in soybean. Recombinant inbred lines from a cross between late-flowering 'Jinpumkong 2' and early-flowering 'SS2-2' were used to evaluate the phenotypic data for days to flowering (DF) collected from Kamphaeng Saen, Thailand (14°01'N), Suwon, Korea (37°15'N), and Longjing, China (42°46'N). A weakly positive phenotypic correlation (r = 0.36) was found between DF in Korea and Thailand; however, a strong correlation (r = 0.74) was shown between Korea and China. After 178 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were placed on a genetic map spanning 2,551.7 cM, four independent DF QTLs were identified on different chromosomes (Chrs). Among them, three QTLs on Chrs 9, 13 and 16 were either Thailand- or Korea-specific. The DF QTL on Chr 6 was identified in both Korea and China, suggesting it is less environment-sensitive. Comparative analysis of four DF QTL regions revealed a syntenic relationship between two QTLs on Chrs 6 and 13. All five duplicated gene pairs clustered in the homeologous genomic regions were found to be involved in the flowering. Identification and comparative analysis of multiple DF QTLs from different environments will facilitate the significant improvement in soybean breeding programs with respect to control of flowering time.
Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A.; Tolt, T.L.
High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO 2 , U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS
Hammad, I.; Van Tienderen, P.H.
Genetic variation in flowering time was studied in four natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana, using greenhouse experiments. Two populations from ruderal sites flowered early, two others from river dykes late. However, the late flowering plants flowered almost as early as the others after cold
Modulating days to flowering is a key mechanism in plants for adapting to new environments, and variation in days to flowering drives population structure by limiting mating. To elucidate the genetic architecture of flowering across maize, a quantitative trait, we mapped flowering in five global pop...
Flood and .... Some information about the interaction between VRN-1 and Ppd active alleles have been generated from ... The study also revealed the role of tempera- ture in the attainment of flowering competence in the pho-.
Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana
Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.
Davidson, John F.; Thelen, Leverne J
Points out common misconceptions, especially the idea that pollination in flowering plants corresponds to fertilization in animals. Gives history of understanding of plant sexuality, then summarizes modern view. Suggests we teach accurately or not at all. (EB)
Ebrahimzadeh, M A; Nabavi, S F; Nabavi, S M
Juglans (J.) regia L. is known to possess many biological properties. In this study, antihemolytic activity of methanol extract of Juglans regia L. flower were investigated. Antihemolytic activities of Juglans regia L. flowers were evaluated by various in vitro assays. In addition, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and mineral contents of flowers were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Extract showed good antihemolytic activity against H2O2 and CuOOH induced hemolysis in comparison with control. Extract was capable of scavenging H2O2 in a concentration dependent manner. IC50 for H2O2 scavenging activity was 311±12.8 µg ml-1. The amount of eight elements was determined and was in the order: Mn > Cu > Fe > Zn. Our study indicate that J. regia flower has remarkable antihemolytic activity, which maybe result of its high phenol and flavonoid contents, especially quercetin.
It exhibited antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Serratia mascences, Clostridium ... This work has revealed further potentials of S. officinalis L flowers as an antimicrobial agent, especially against P. aeruginosa which is resistant to some antibiotics.
Johansen, Bo; Frederiksen, Signe; Skipper, Martin
The molecular background of flower development has been intensively studied within core eudicots, and several studies have confirmed the extended ABC model as the molecular background of flower development in this plant group. The core eudicots are characterized as having one copy of each of the B......-class genes apparently are expressed in meristems of both flower and inflorescence. Morphologically petaloid stamens and styles are well known within the petaloid monocots, whereas the phenomenon is rare in core eudicots. A simple model based on the extra copies of B-class genes can explain the molecular...... that A- and C-class gene expression is not mutually exclusive in monocots. The difference in expression of the A-class genes outside the floral organs shows a fundamental difference between monocot and core eudicot flowers....
flower chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) cultivars. Sixty-three cultivars are triploid, 175 cultivars tetraploid, 32 cultivars pentaploid, 46 cultivars hexaploid and 1 cultivar heptaploid. Forty-eight cultivars were then randomly ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The work developed baseline information on fish and benthic communities within the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Surveys employed diving,...
, transpiperitol (68.5%), respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils were evaluated against 9 bacteria by agar diffusion method. The leaves of both plants showed higher activity than their flowers. The leaves of L. chevalieri ...
E. S. Hegazi
Full Text Available Two main categories of olive flowers were characterized. The first by presence of normal gynoecium and the other by the presence of rudimentary gynoecium. Complete flowers differed in shape of ovaries, style length, shape of stigma and density of hairs covering the stigma. Three types of aborted flowers were observed. The first type could be detected by lack of ovule integuments. The second by undevelopment of the style, outer tissues of the ovary and of the ovules, while the third comprised flowers of completely undeveloped female organs. No correlation existed between pistil abortion and the viability of pollen grains. Four groups of pollen grains regarding their stainability and three groups according to their shape were detected.
Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention and
Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention
The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.
The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed
Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel
Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the
This 200-UP-1 remedial design report presents the objective and rationale developed for the design and implementation of the selected interim remedial measure for the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site
April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Calverley, C.
This plan presents the method used to assess the readiness of the 100- DR-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation of the 100-D sites (located on the Hanford Site) involves the excavation (treatment if applicable) and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the high-priority waste sites in the 100 Areas
Bahr, Peter Riley
Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:…
Jud, Nathan A; Gandolfo, Maria A; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter
Southern-Hemisphere terrestrial communities from the early Paleocene are poorly known, but recent work on Danian plant fossils from the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina are providing critical data on earliest Paleocene floras. The fossils described here come from a site in the Salamanca Formation dating to ca. 1 million years or less after the end-Cretaceous extinction event; they are the first fossil flowers reported from the Danian of South America, and possible the entire Southern Hemisphere. They are compressions and impressions in flat-laminated light gray shale, and they belong to the family Rhamnaceae (buckthorns). Flowers of Notiantha grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are pentamerous, with distinctly keeled calyx lobes projecting from the hypanthium, clawed and cucullate emarginate petals, antepetalous stamens, and a pentagonal floral disk that fills the hypanthium. Their phylogenetic position was evaluated using a molecular scaffold approach combined with morphological data. Results indicate that the flowers are most like those of extant ziziphoid Rhamnaceae. The associated leaves, assigned to Suessenia grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are simple and ovate, with serrate margins and three acrodromous basal veins. They conform to the distinctive leaves of some extant Rhamnaceae in the ziziphoid and ampelozizyphoid clades. These fossils provide the first unequivocal megafossil evidence of Rhamnaceae in the Southern Hemisphere, demonstrating that Rhamnaceae expanded beyond the tropics by the earliest Paleocene. Given previous reports of rhamnaceous pollen in the late Paleogene and Neogene of Antarctica and southern Australia, this new occurrence increases the possibility of high-latitude dispersal of this family between South America and Australia via Antarctica during the Cenozoic.
Nathan A Jud
Full Text Available Southern-Hemisphere terrestrial communities from the early Paleocene are poorly known, but recent work on Danian plant fossils from the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina are providing critical data on earliest Paleocene floras. The fossils described here come from a site in the Salamanca Formation dating to ca. 1 million years or less after the end-Cretaceous extinction event; they are the first fossil flowers reported from the Danian of South America, and possible the entire Southern Hemisphere. They are compressions and impressions in flat-laminated light gray shale, and they belong to the family Rhamnaceae (buckthorns. Flowers of Notiantha grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are pentamerous, with distinctly keeled calyx lobes projecting from the hypanthium, clawed and cucullate emarginate petals, antepetalous stamens, and a pentagonal floral disk that fills the hypanthium. Their phylogenetic position was evaluated using a molecular scaffold approach combined with morphological data. Results indicate that the flowers are most like those of extant ziziphoid Rhamnaceae. The associated leaves, assigned to Suessenia grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are simple and ovate, with serrate margins and three acrodromous basal veins. They conform to the distinctive leaves of some extant Rhamnaceae in the ziziphoid and ampelozizyphoid clades. These fossils provide the first unequivocal megafossil evidence of Rhamnaceae in the Southern Hemisphere, demonstrating that Rhamnaceae expanded beyond the tropics by the earliest Paleocene. Given previous reports of rhamnaceous pollen in the late Paleogene and Neogene of Antarctica and southern Australia, this new occurrence increases the possibility of high-latitude dispersal of this family between South America and Australia via Antarctica during the Cenozoic.
Full Text Available The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 | Article 599 and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs.
CaraDonna, Paul J.; Iler, Amy M.; Inouye, David W.
Seasonal timing of biological events, phenology, is one of the strongest bioindicators of climate change. Our general understanding of phenological responses to climate change is based almost solely on the first day on which an event is observed, limiting our understanding of how ecological communities may be responding as a whole. Using a unique long-term record of flowering phenology from Colorado, we find that the number of species changing their flowering times likely has been underestima...
Yadelys Figueroa Águila; Marilys D Milián Jiménez; Yuniel Rodríguez García; Manuel Lima Díaz
Research was done at the Center for Tropical Crop Research (INIVIT), to evaluate inflorescence of taro germplasm (104 accessions) in Cuba´s climatic conditions. Sampling was made every 7 days in the 2013-2014 period to evaluate inflorescence; accessions were characterized according to flowering parameters. The results showed that natural flowering by the 26-accession sample (25%), was observed to early blossom from July to October in 18 accessions (69.2%). Increased temperature and relative h...
Kuceková, Zdenka; Mlček, Jiří; Humpolíček, Petr; Rop, Otakar
The phenolic compound composition, antioxidant activity and impact on cell viability of edible flower extracts of Allium schoenoprasum; Bellis perennis; Cichorium intybus; Rumex acetosa; Salvia pratensis; Sambucus nigra; Taraxacum officinale; Tragopogon pratensis; Trifolium repens and Viola arvensis was examined for the first time. Total phenolic content of the flowers of these plants fell between 11.72 and 42.74 mg of tannin equivalents/kg of dry matter. Antioxidant activity ranged from 35.5...
Wyndee A. Guzman
Full Text Available Certain floral characteristics are associated with specific pollinators. Hummingbird-pollinated flowers are usually red, lack a landing platform, lack nectar guides, and contain a high amount of dilute sucrose-rich nectar. Here we test hypotheses concerning the reasons for these characters to the extent that they involve hummingbird responses. An array was set up of 16 artificial plants, each with five artificial flowers. (1 Flowers made to differ only in colour elicited a slight preference for red. (2 When colour was associated with nectar offerings, and birds generally learned to visit flowers that provided much more nectar but did not associatively learn differences as little as 2 µL. (3 Birds were offered 8 µL of 12% sucrose versus 2 µL of 48% hexose, and they did not prefer the dilute nectar; they showed no evidence of discerning sucrose from hexose; however, they preferred 48% over 12% sucrose when both were offered in the same quantity. (4 Birds preferred flowers that lacked landing platforms over those with landing platforms. (5 Birds were offered flowers with nectar guides, associated with differing nectar volumes, and they did not associate the higher nectar reward with either flower type. In summary, the feedback from hummingbirds reflects some of the differences between bird- and bee-adapted flowers, but nectar seemed less predictive than expected. Factors other than the behavioural proclivities of hummingbirds, such as adaptation to discourage bees, are discussed as additional causes for the differences between the syndromes. We also discuss significance testing for field experiments involving one unreplicated array.
Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Wang, Ling; Dong, Fang; Lei, Tong; Zhan, Bing
The present paper aims to quantitatively retrieve nitrogen content in apple flowers, so as to provide an important basis for apple informationization management. By using ASD FieldSpec 3 field spectrometer, hyperspectral reflectivity of 120 apple flower samples in full-bloom stage was measured and their nitrogen contents were analyzed. Based on the apple flower original spectrum and first derivative spectral characteristics, correlation analysis was carried out between apple flowers original spectrum and first derivative spectrum reflectivity and nitrogen contents, so as to determine the sensitive bands. Based on characteristic spectral parameters, prediction models were built, optimized and tested. The results indicated that the nitrogen content of apple was very significantly negatively correlated with the original spectral reflectance in the 374-696, 1 340-1 890 and 2 052-2 433 nm, while in 736-913 nm they were very significantly positively correlated; the first derivative spectrum in 637-675 nm was very significantly negatively correlated, and in 676-746 nm was very significantly positively correlated. All the six spectral parameters established were significantly correlated with the nitrogen content of apple flowers. Through further comparison and selection, the prediction models built with original spectral reflectance of 640 and 676 nm were determined as the best for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers. The test results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2) of the two models were 0.825 8 and 0.893 6, the total root mean square errors (RMSE) were 0.732 and 0.638 6, and the slopes were 0.836 1 and 1.019 2 respectively. Therefore the models produced desired results for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers with average prediction accuracy of 92.9% and 94.0%. This study will provide theoretical basis and technical support for rapid apple flower nitrogen content prediction and nutrition diagnosis.
de Souza, Everton Hilo; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Souza, Fernanda V D; Ledo, Carlos A S; Alencar, Severino M; Martinelli, Adriana P
Volatile compounds play a vital role in the life cycle of plants, possessing antimicrobial and anti-herbivore activities, and with a significant importance in the food, cosmetic, chemical, and pharmaceutical industry. This study aimed to identify the volatile compounds emitted by flowers of thirteen species belonging to four genera of Bromeliaceae, using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction and detection by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 71 volatile compounds belonging to nine chemical groups were identified. The compounds identified represented more than 97 % of the major components in Aechmea bicolor, Ae. bromeliifolia, Ae. distichantha, Ae. fasciata, and Vriesea friburgensis. In the Ananas varieties, over 99 % of the components were identified, and around 90 % in V. simplex. V. friburgensis presented the largest diversity of volatiles with 31 compounds, while Alcantarea nahoumii presented only 14. All three Ananas varieties presented the same 28 compounds in relatively similar abundance, which has been confirmed by principal component analysis. Current taxonomy and pollination syndrome studies available can adequately explain the variation in volatile compounds among species.
Kumar, Aaram A; Mishra, Priyanka; Kumari, Khushbu; Panigrahi, Kishore C S
Plants are sessile organisms and unlike animals, cannot run away from adverse environmental conditions. Therefore, they have evolved sophisticated signaling and protective systems to overcome sub-lethal stress situations. Although, effect of stress on physiology and morphology were studied earlier, the research on molecular mechanisms of stress response is albeit new. Studies at the molecular level on stress physiology reveal that, many stress-induced pathways converge downstream or interact significantly. Abiotic stress factors regulate the extent and pattern of developmental programme. The timing of transition from vegetative to flowering phase, which is vital for survival and reproductive success, is often altered under various stresses. Unraveling the mechanisms by which different environmental stresses induce their effects and how tolerance to stress is achieved is an active area of research. Enhancing stress tolerance, especially in crop plants is an area of prime importance. In this review, we focus on stress responses induced by temperatures, high and low light intensities, UV radiation, drought and salinity stress and summarize the recent advancements by highlighting the underlying molecular pathways and processes.
Fan, Yunchang; Li, Yang; Cai, Hongxin; Li, Jing; Miao, Juan; Fu, Dexue; Su, Kun
White chrysanthemum flower is one of the most popular plants found everywhere in China and used as herbs. In the present work, three-dimensional fluorescence technique was used to discriminate species of white chrysanthemum flowers. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the three-dimensional fluorescence characteristics of three types of white chrysanthemum flowers were obtained. It was found that there were two main fluorescence peaks with remarkable difference in fluorescence intensity, one was corresponding to flavonoids and another was attributed to chlorophyll-like compounds. There were remarkable differences among the contours of the three white chrysanthemum flowers. Further studies showed that the fluorescence intensity ratios of chlorophyll-like compounds to flavonoids had a certain relationship with the species; those for Huai, Hang and Huangshan white chrysanthemum flowers were 6.9-7.4, 18.9-21.4 and 73.6-84.5, respectively. All of the results suggest that three-dimensional fluorescence spectra can be used for the discrimination of white chrysanthemum flowers with the advantages of low cost, ease for operation and intuition.
Gandolfo, María A; Nixon, Kevin C; Crepet, William L
We report here on a series of fossil flowers exhibiting a mosaic of characters present in the extant monocot family Triuridaceae. Phylogenetic analyses of morphological data from a broad sample of extant monocots confirm the affinities of the fossils with modern Triuridaceae. The fossil flowers were collected from outcrops of the Raritan Formation (Upper Cretaceous, ∼90 million years before present), New Jersey, USA. These are the oldest known unequivocal monocot flowers. Because other reports of "earliest" monocots are all based on equivocal character suites and/or ambiguously preserved fossil material, the Triuridaceae fossils reported here should also be considered as the oldest unequivocal fossil monocots. Flowers are minute and unisexual (only male flowers are known); the perianth is composed of six tepals, lacking stomata. The unicyclic androecium is of three stamens with dithecal, monosporangiate, extrorse anthers that open by longitudinal slits. The endothecium has U-shaped type thickenings. Pollen grains are monosulcate. The triurid fossil flowers can be separated into three distinctive species. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses of morphological characters, the fossil taxa nest within the completely saprophytic achlorophyllous Triuridaceae supporting the interpretation that the extinct plants were also achlorophyllous and saprophytic. If so, this represents the earliest known fossil occurrence of the saprophytic/mycotrophic habit in angiosperms.
Full Text Available Flower grading is a significant task because it is extremely convenient for managing the flowers in greenhouse and market. With the development of computer vision, flower grading has become an interdisciplinary focus in both botany and computer vision. A new dataset named BjfuGloxinia contains three quality grades; each grade consists of 107 samples and 321 images. A multi-input convolutional neural network is designed for large scale flower grading. Multi-input CNN achieves a satisfactory accuracy of 89.6% on the BjfuGloxinia after data augmentation. Compared with a single-input CNN, the accuracy of multi-input CNN is increased by 5% on average, demonstrating that multi-input convolutional neural network is a promising model for flower grading. Although data augmentation contributes to the model, the accuracy is still limited by lack of samples diversity. Majority of misclassification is derived from the medium class. The image processing based bud detection is useful for reducing the misclassification, increasing the accuracy of flower grading to approximately 93.9%.
Full Text Available Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants’ developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2–4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution.
Witjes, Sebastian; Eltz, Thomas
Bumblebees leave traces of cuticular hydrocarbons on flowers they visit, with the amount deposited being positively related to the number of visits. We asked whether such footprint hydrocarbons are retained on flowers for sufficiently long periods of time so as to reflect bee visitation in pollination studies. In laboratory experiments, flower corollae (Primula veris, Digitalis grandiflora) visited by Bombus terrestris workers retained bee-derived nonacosenes (C(29)H(58)) in near-unchanged quantities for 24 hours, both at 15 and 25 degrees C. Additionally, synthetic (Z)-9-tricosene applied to flower corollae of the deadnettle Lamium maculatum was retained for 48 hours in an unchanged quantity. In a field survey, the amount of footprint alkenes on flowers of comfrey (Symphytum officinale) plants was positively correlated with the number of bumblebee visits that those plants had received during the day. Together, these data suggest that flowers retain a long-term quantitative record of bumblebee visitation. The analysis of petal extracts by gas chromatography could provide a cheap and reliable way of quantifying bumblebee visits in landscape scale studies of pollination.
Horibe Takanori; Yamaki Shohei; Yamada Kunio
To understand the role that the leaves play in the translocation of soluble carbohydrates in cut rose flowers, we first evaluated the effect of leaf removal on flower quality and the sugar content in petals. Cut rose flowers with leaves had higher soluble sugar content in petals compared with cut flower without leaves. Next, we treated cut flowers with radioactive glucose to clarify translocation routes of exogenously applied sugar. There was no significant difference between the specific rad...
W. M. Heileson
This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.
Within the DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology manages a number of programs whose purposes are to complete remedial actions at DOE facilities and sites located throughout the United States. These programs include the Surplus Facilities Management Program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings remedial Action Program and the West Valley Demonstration Project. The programs involve the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated structures and equipment, the disposal of uranium mill tailings, and the cleanup or restoration of soils and ground water that have been contaminated with radioactive hazardous substances. Each year the DOE and DOE-contractor staff who conduct these programs meet to exchange information and experience in common technical areas. This year's meeting was hosted by the Surplus Facilities Management Program and was held near DOE Headquarters, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This volume of proceedings provides the record for the meeting. The proceedings consist of abstracts for each presentation made at the meeting, and the visual aids (if any) used by the speakers. The material is organized in the following pages according to the five different sessions at the meeting: Session 1: Environmental Compliance--Policy; Session 2: Environmental Compliance--Practice; Session 3: Reports from working groups; Session 4: DandD Technology; and Session 5: Remedial Action Technology. The agenda for the meeting and the list of meeting registrants are provided in Appendix A and B, respectively. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base
O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F
Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kohn, J.; Nichols, R.; Looney, B.
The goal of this study was to examine two different software tools designed to account for the environmental impacts of remediation projects. Three case studies from the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC were used to exercise SiteWise (SW) and Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT) by including both traditional and novel remediation techniques, contaminants, and contaminated media. This study combined retrospective analysis of implemented projects with prospective analysis of options that were not implemented. Input data were derived from engineering plans, project reports, and planning documents with a few factors supplied from calculations based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Conclusions drawn from software output were generally consistent within a tool; both tools identified the same remediation options as the 'best' for a given site. Magnitudes of impacts varied between the two tools, and it was not always possible to identify the source of the disagreement. The tools differed in their quantitative approaches: SRT based impacts on specific contaminants, media, and site geometry and modeled contaminant removal. SW based impacts on processes and equipment instead of chemical modeling. While SW was able to handle greater variety in remediation scenarios, it did not include a measure of the effectiveness of the scenario.
Full text: Thiess Services has achieved a first in the treatment of contaminated soil, in the process assisting Orica in successfully removing a toxic legacy. In 1980, when Orica Australia's predecessor ICI Australia constructed its car park waste encapsulation (CPWE) to seal off contaminated soil at Botany Industrial Park, 12km south of the Sydney CBD, treatment methods were not available. Fast-forward more than 30 years and Thiess Services has successfully undertaken treatment of the soil, earning it the 2013 CARE award. The contaminated soil contained hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), low levels of hexachlorobenzene and hexachloroethane, all by-products of historical manufacturing of chlorinated solvents, including dry cleaning fluid, in the 1960s and 1970s. ICI Australia decided initially to store the contaminated material in drums and place it on a bed of boiler ash. However, drum corrosion led to contamination of the ash bed and underlying soil, so the company decided to encapsulate the material within a synthetic Hypalon liner, covering it with clean soil and capping it with bitumen in a 45,000 cubic metre cell. In 2005, Orica commissioned Thiess to assess a range of remediation methods and technologies to treat the material. Three options were recommended — directly heated thermal desorption, in situ thermal desorption and indirectly heated thermal desorption. “Together with Orica, we decided that directly heated thermal desorption was the appropriate technology to use,” Thiess project manager Joshua Van Der Heiden said. “Essentially, the soil is introduced into a rotary kiln and a flame directly heats up the soil above the contaminants' boiling point (up to a maximum of 450C) so that the contaminants are volatilised and the soil comes out clean. The gas separated from the soil is then heated to around 1000C in a thermal oxidiser, converting it into carbon dioxide and water. To prevent contaminants from reforming, the gas stream is rapidly
Varona, Marcela E; Tolosa, Jorge E; Cárdenas, Omayda; Torres, Carlos H; Pardo, Darío; Carrasquilla, Gabriel; Frumkin, Howard
In Colombia, pesticide exposure has became a public health problem, as the use of these substances continues to increase. The current study accumulated information concerning pesticides used by flower companies in Bogotá and Rionegro (Antioquia) that were associated with Asociación Colombiana de Exportadores de Flores (Asocolflores) in Colombia. Eighty-four companies were stratified by geographic location and size. Company and worker information was collected, and for each company, the process of pesticide application and maintenance of the cultivated flowers was carefully observed. Univariate and bivariate, and correlation analyses were applied for data analysis. Sex of workers was 39.4% male and 60.6% female. Pesticides were grouped into 4 toxicity classes: 14.3% were class I, 14.4% class II, 52.0% class III, and 19.2% class IV. Dithiocarbamates was the group of pesticides more commonly used (11.7%). The equipment most frequently used for pesticide application was the "bomba móvil" (92.8%), and the "lanza" (92.9%). Cholinesterase activity measured by the Michel-Aldrige method was the biological marker for exposure to pesticides used in 85.9% of the companies. Recommendations for improvements in their use and for measures to further reduce exposure of workers are made.
Alhajhoj, M. R.; Munir, M.
The rationale of the present study was to quantify the effects of different shade levels (30 percent, 40 percent, 50 percent and 60 percent) and a control (no shade) on growth, flowering and dry matter partitioning traits of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty Wight. A linear relationship was observed between different shade levels and flowering time, rate of progress to flowering, leaf numbers, leaf area, plant height, plant spread, plant fresh weight, plant dry weight, leaf fresh weight and lead dry weight. These growth and development traits increased linearly from 30 percent to 60 percent shade levels, however, the rate of progress to flowering was inverse to flowering time when plants were kept under shades. A polynomial hyperbolic relationship was observed in specific leaf area, specific leaf weight, leaf weight ratio, leaf area ratio, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. It is concluded that different shade levels significantly (P<=0.05) prolonged various growth and development phases of Snapdragon cultivar Liberty White. These finding can be applied to enhance crop quality and to delay growth and flowering time for steadily supply of plants to the market. (author)
Full Text Available Squill of the family Hyacinthaceae is a small bulb perennial. The present study on flowering and pollination of Scilla sibirica Andr., S. sibirica 'Alba', and S. bifolia L. was conducted in the years 1995, 1997, and 1999 in the Botanical Garden of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. The plants flowered from the end of March until the middle of May. The duration of flowering of individual taxa was similar and it averaged 20 days (Scilla sibirica, 21 days (S. sibirica 'Alba', and 23 days (S. bifolia. The opening of flower buds always started around 9.00 am and lasted, depending on the taxon, until 3.00 pm (Scilla sibirica 'Alba', 4.00 pm (S. bifolia, and 5.00 pm (S. sibirica. The flowers were visited by bees (Apoidea, primarily the honey bee (Apis mellifera L., bumblebee (Bombus L., and solitary bees. Numerous honey bee foragers were observed; they bit through the anther walls and even attempted to open still closed flower buds in order to reach the pollen.
Full Text Available In Arabidopsis thaliana, the R2R3 MYB-like transcription factor MYB30 is a positive regulator of the pathogen-induced hypersensitive response and of brassinosteroid and abscisic acid signaling. Here, we show that MYB30 expressed under the control of the strong phloem-specific SUC2 promoter accelerates flowering both in long and short days. Early flowering is mediated by elevated expression of flowering locus T (FT, which can be observed in the absence and presence of CONSTANS (CO, the main activator of FT. CO-independent activation by high MYB30 expression results in FT levels that remain below those observed in the wild-type plants, which show an additive CO-dependent activation. In contrast, twin sister of FT (TSF is repressed in plants expressing high levels of MYB30 in the phloem. In transient assays, MYB30 and CO additively increase the activity of a reporter construct driven by a 1 kb FT promoter. Acceleration of flowering by MYB30 does not require the presence of salicylic acid and is independent of FLC. Taken together, increased levels of MYB30, which was reported to be induced in response to the perception of pathogens, can accelerate flowering and MYB30 may thus be a candidate to mediate cross-talk between gene networks involved in biotic stress perception and flowering time.
Full Text Available Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site, and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the
Full Text Available The flower and leaf of hawthorn contains many active components, used in the production of pharmaceutical preparations for cardiotonic, anti-hypertonic anti-hypotonic, artherosclerotic, anti-arithmic and anti-anemic groups. According to the ROTTE list (1996, 159 of 1800 pharmaceutical preparations contain components from hawthorn. Due to the remedial action of hyperoside and other flavonoids from hawthorn, their determination is important for the standardization of extract and preparation quality. The extraction of the flavonoids from a mixture of hawthorn (C. oxycantha and C. monogyna flower and leaf was carried out by percolation with 40% and 70% (v/v ethanol. In order to determine the content of total flavonoids calculated as hyperoside spectrophotometric method with aluminium(lll chloride as a colour reagent at 425 nm was applied. The total flavonoid content in the herbal material mixture was 0.483%, in 40% and 70% (v/v ethanolic liquid extract it was 138 mg/100 cm3 and 157 mg/100 cm, respectively. The extraction degree of total flavonoids with 40% and 70% (v/v ethanolic solutions was 57.14% and 65.01% respectively. The yield of total flavonoids in the dry extract was 63% in regard to the herbal mixure content.
Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.
This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation
Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie
Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....