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Sample records for baccharis sarothroides gray

  1. Screening the phytoremediation potential of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) growing on mine tailings in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Nazmul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Jones, Gary L.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    The metal concentrations in a copper mine tailings and Desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) plants were investigated. The metal concentrations in plants, soil cover, and tailings were determined using ICP-OES. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in tailings was 526.4, 207.4, 89.1, 84.5, 51.7, 49.6, 39.7, and 35.6 mg kg−1, respectively. The concentration of all elements in soil cover was 10~15% higher than that of the tailings, except for molybdenum. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in roots was 818.3, 151.9, 73.9, 57.1, 40.1, 44.6, 96.8, and 26.7 mg kg−1 and 1214.1, 107.3, 105.8, 105.5, 55.2, 36.9, 30.9, and 10.9 mg kg−1 for shoots, respectively. Considering the translocation factor, enrichment coefficient, and the accumulation factor, desert broom could be a potential hyperaccumulator of Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Ni. PMID:17964035

  2. Baccharis pteronioides toxicity

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    Baccharis pteronioides DC. occasionally poisons livestock in the southwestern United States. Various toxins including diterpenic lactones, sesquiterpenes , flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenolic compounds and essential oils have been isolated and described from several Baccharis species, but none...

  3. Potencial ornamental de Baccharis milleflora e Baccharis tridentatacomo folhagem de corte

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    Grasiela Bruzamarello Tognon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A prospecção de novas plantas ornamentais a partir de espécies nativas amplia a oferta de produtos para o mercado da floricultura. Entretanto, antes de uma espécie ser indicada como ornamental, suas características estéticas devem ser avaliadas pelo público consumidor. Com isso, o objetivo deste estudo foi prospectar novas plantas para uso como folhagem de corte e avaliar o seu potencial ornamental. O potencial ornamental das espécies prospectadas foi avaliado por 10 profissionais especialistas em arte floral, com base em metodologia que considera características qualitativas e quantitativas de importância ornamental para o mercado consumidor. Cada critério foi pontuado por meio de notas de dez (mínima a 100 (máxima. Baccharis milleflora e Baccharis tridentata foram selecionadas na região de Mata Atlântica, em borda de mata, por apresentarem ocorrência frequente na paisagem, hastes longas, folhas exuberantes, com coloração destacada na paisagem e aspecto aparentemente rústico. Ambas as espécies apresentam alto potencial ornamental para uso como folhagem de corte com características adequadas para o uso como complementos para arranjos florais.

  4. Intoxicação por Baccharis megapotamica var. weiriiem ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in sheep

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    Pedro M.O. Pedroso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As intoxicações por Baccharis coridifolia afetam especialmente animais de fazenda famintos ou curiosos e que não haviam tido contato prévio com a planta. B. coridifolia ocorre usualmente em terrenos secos de coxilhas no Rio Grande do Sul e estados ou países vizinhos. Uma forma indistinguível e esporádica da doença tem sido associada com a ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica que ocorre em áreas úmidas. Relata-se a intoxicação natural de quatro cordeiros após ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii. A doença foi observada em uma propriedade localizada em Barra do Ribeiro, Rio Grande do Sul. O rebanho era composto por 220 ovinos, os quais eram mantidos em área de pastagem nativa sem qualquer suplementação. Uma rápida doença clínica caracterizada por anorexia, cólica, diarréia e desidratação causou a morte de três cordeiros em um período de 8 a 24 horas, o outro foi encontrado morto. A necropsia revelou alterações significativas no rúmen, no qual havia edema de serosa e hemorragias equimóticas na submucosa. Microscopicamente, o rúmen apresentou edema de submucosa, além de edema, tumefação, vacuolização e necrose de mucosa. O diagnóstico foi fundamentado nos achados clínicos, patológicos e epidemiológicos.Spontaneous poisoning of livestock by Baccharis coridifolia affects mostly hungry or curious animals that have not entered in contact with the plant previously. The plant occurs usually in dried hilly soils of Rio Grande do Sul and neighboring states or countries. An indistinguishable and sporadic form of the disease has been associated with the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica, a species occurring in moist areas. This communication reports the spontaneous poisoning of four lambs after ingestion of B. megapotamica var. weirii. Clinical signs were observed in three lambs, the other was found dead. A rapid clinical disease characterized by anorexia, colic, dehydration, and diarrhea resulted in death

  5. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais produzidos por Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. e Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae Antimicrobial activity of essential oils produced by Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. and Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

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    Regina Ferronatto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais obtidos de plantas nativas de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella, também conhecido como óleo-de-vassoura, é utilizado na indústria de perfumaria, proporcionando um aroma exótico a diversos perfumes, além de muitos estudos sobre atividades biológicas dessas espécies destacam os efeitos alelopáticos, antioxidante, antimicrobianos, citotóxicos e antiinflamatórios. A vassoura é uma planta arbustiva de ocorrência espontânea no Brasil, assim como nos demais países do Mercosul. A composição do óleo depende da região geográfica e do processo de extração utilizado e a importância comercial está diretamente relacionada com a concentração de compostos oxigenados, destacando o nerolidol e o espatulenol. Óleos essenciais obtidos dessas duas espécies pelo processo de hidrodestilação, foram avaliados pelo método de difusão em disco de papel, em placas de Petri contendo meio de Müeller-Hinton, semeadas com suspensões bacterianas previamente ajustadas ao tubo 0,5 da escala de Mac Farland de quatro cepas provenientes da American Type Culture Colection: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Discos contendo diferentes volumes dos óleos essenciais sem qualquer diluição (1, 3, 5 e 10 µL/disco foram adicionadas às placas e incubadas a 36 ºC por 24 a 48 horas. Discos de cloranfenicol (CLO e amoxicilina (AMO com volumes de 50 e 10 µg/disco respectivamente, foram utilizados como controle. Os resultados apresentados revelam que ambos os óleos avaliados apresentam atividade antimicrobiana sobre S. aureus, E. coli e P. aeruginosa.Essential oils obtained from the native plants Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella, known also as "óleo de vassoura", are used in the perfumery industry, providing diverse perfumes with exotic aromas. Besides several studies about the biological activities of these species highlight the allelopathic

  6. Farmacologia e Toxicologia de Peumus boldus e Baccharis genistelloides Pharmacology and toxicology of Peumus boldus and Baccharis genistelloides

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    Ana Lúcia T. G. Ruiz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um grande número de espécies com uso medicinal tradicional ainda continua sem comprovação da eficácia e da segurança de seu uso. Este artigo apresenta uma pequena revisão sobre os trabalhos publicados com boldo (Peumus boldus e carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides. Os estudos farmacológicos realizados com P. boldus e B. genistelloides comprovam várias das atividades atribuídas popularmente a esses chás, além de correlacionarem esses efeitos a compostos puros, isolados a partir desses extratos. Já os estudos toxicológicos sugerem que o chá de boldo deve ser consumido com moderação e cuidado, principalmente no primeiro trimestre da gravidez (indícios de teratogenia e no uso por tempo prolongado (indícios de hepatotoxicidade, enquanto o consumo do chá de carqueja deve ser proibido para gestantes (risco comprovado de aborto e para pacientes que utilizam drogas para tratamento de problemas pressóricos (ação hipotensora. Estes relatos reforçam a necessidade de um maior conhecimento sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas popularmente, não apenas para a confirmação das atividades descritas pelo uso tradicional, mas também para que o uso seguro seja estabelecido.There are a great number of medicinal plants without any scientific confirmation about their efficacy and safety. This paper is a short review about two medicinal plants, "boldo do chile" (Peumus boldus and "carqueja" (Baccharis genistelloides. Pharmacological studies have confirmed several popular indications for P. boldus and B. genistelloides, besides have established a relationship between isolated compounds from these extracts and the pharmacological effects observed. On the other hand, toxicological researches have pointed out that P. boldus tea should not be consumed during a long period (potential hepatotoxicity and by pregnant, especially during the first three months. Moreover, B. genistelloides tea must be prohibited for pregnant because of confirmed abortive

  7. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

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    José C. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw (~1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw. The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness, laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted by six aldopentose conjugates (probably xylose, which has never been reported in the literature.

  8. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina Flavonoids and triterpenes from Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioactivity on Artemia salina

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    Francisco de Paula Madeira Moreira; Valmor Coutinho; Ana Beatriz Pimentel Montanher; Miguel Soriano Balparda Caro; Inês Maria Costa Brighente; Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti; Franco Delle Monache

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  9. Gênero Baccharis (Asteraceae: aspectos químicos, econômicos e biológicos The Baccharis genus (Asteraceae: chemical, economic and biological aspects

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    Luiz Gonzaga Verdi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Baccharis genus is represented by more than 500 species distributed mainly in the tropical areas of South America. Many of them are extensively used in folk medicine in the treatment or prevention of anemias, inflammations, diabetes and stomach, liver and prostate diseases. Phytochemical and biological investigations in about 120 species resulted mainly in the isolation of clerodane and labdane diterpenes and flavonoid aglicones with the flavone unit being the most frequent.

  10. Intoxicação experimental por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae in cattle

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    Mary Suzan Varaschin

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Treze terneiros receberam Baccharis coridifolia recém-colhida ou dessecada, em doses únicas que variaram entre 0,5 e 5g/kg. Um terneiro recebeu quatro administrações diárias de 0,5g/kg da planta dessecada. Dois terneiros não receberam a planta e serviram como controles. A planta foi colhida mensalmente de julho de 1991 a maio de 1992 e em março de 1993, e foi analisada para seu conteúdo em tricotecenos macrocíclicos. Quando em floração, as amostras dos espécimes macho e fêmea da planta foram analisadas e administradas aos terneiros separadamente. Os níveis de tricotecenos macrocíclicos e seus glicosídeos foram muito maiores nas plantas fêmeas em floração do que os níveis observados nas plantas não em floração e nas plantas machos em floração. Dez bovinos morreram espontaneamente ou foram sacrificados devido à toxicose. Dois terneiros que receberam a planta fêmea em floração, adoeceram e morreram, enquanto que três terneiros que receberam a planta macho em floração não adoeceram. Os sinais clínicos nos terneiros intoxicados foram anorexia, desidratação, atonia ruminal, tensão e dores abdominais, diarréia líquida, focinho seco, instabilidade dos membros posteriores e decúbito esternal. Os achados patológicos incluiram lesões necróticas no tubo gastrintestinal, particularmente nos pré-estômagos, e nos tecidos linfóides com exceção do timo. Esse último achado sugere um efeito sobre as células B do tecido linfóide. A distribuição das lesões nos sistemas digestivo e linfóide foi sistematicamente determinada. Conclui-se que os tricotecenos macrocíclicos presentes na planta são responsáveis pelas lesões observadas na toxicose e que a planta fêmea em floração é substâncialmente mais tóxica que a planta macho em floração ou das plantas que não estão em floração. Essa diferença em toxicidade é devida à diferença no conteúdo de tricotecenos macrocíclicos.Thirteen calves were fed

  11. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina

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    Moreira Francisco de Paula Madeira; Coutinho Valmor; Montanher Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Caro Miguel Soriano Balparda; Brighente Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo; Monache Franco Delle

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  12. Intoxicação natural por Baccharis megapotamica var.weirii em caprinos

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    Welden Panziera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intoxicações por plantas do gênero Baccharis representam uma importante causa de morte em animais de produção. Baccharis coridifolia e Baccharis megapotamica são as espécies mais comuns e importantes. Nesse trabalho, são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação natural por Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii em caprinos. Onze caprinos jovens, de um total de 152, foram afetados por uma doença aguda fatal. Os casos ocorreram em uma pequena propriedade rural no município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Grande quantidade de exemplares de Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii em estágio de floração, foram encontrados onde os caprinos estavam. As plantas cresceram em áreas úmidas e alagadas. Os caprinos afetados tinham entre seis meses a um ano de idade e todos apresentaram sinais clínicos caracterizados por apatia, anorexia, prostração, diarreia, desidratação, desconforto abdominal, timpanismo, decúbito e morte. O curso clínico variou aproximadamente de 12 a 24 horas. Dos onze caprinos acometidos, três foram necropsiados. As alterações presentes em todas as necropsias incluíam desidratação, conteúdo líquido no rúmen, avermelhamento, erosões e úlceras da mucosa dos pré-estômagos, e avermelhamento na mucosa do abomaso e intestino. Um dos caprinos apresentou marcada hemorragia dos linfonodos mesentéricos. As lesões histológicas de todos os caprinos necropsiados incluíam hiperemia, hemorragia, alterações degenerativas, necróticas e ulcerativas variadas no revestimento epitelial do rúmen, retículo e omaso, e na mucosa do abomaso e de alguns segmentos do intestino delgado. Necrose do tecido linfoide foi observada em linfonodos mesentéricos e em agregados linfoides no intestino e folículos do baço.

  13. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

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    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-01-01

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented. PMID:27395706

  14. Estudo farmacobotânico de partes vegetativas aéreas de Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae Pharmacobotanical study of aerial vegetative parts of Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae

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    Jane M. Budel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Baccharis pertence à família Asteraceae e se destaca por incluir espécies medicinais. Baccharis anomala DC., conhecida como "uva-do-mato" e "cambará-de-cipó", é utilizada popularmente como diurético e estudos fitoquímicos constataram a presença de taninos e saponinas. Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudo farmacobotânico de folha e caule dessa espécie. O material foi submetido a microtécnicas fotônica e eletrônica de varredura usuais. A lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada revestida por cutícula delgada e estriada. Estômatos anomocíticos ocorrem somente na face abaxial. Em ambas as faces aparecem dois tipos de tricomas tectores pluricelulares unisseriados, um com ápice agudo e outro com célula apical flageliforme. O mesofilo é isobilateral e a nervura central é plano-convexa, sendo percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral. O pecíolo mostra três feixes vasculares que se dispõem em arco aberto. O caule tem secção circular e epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas similares aos da folha. Colênquima angular e clorênquima alternam-se no córtex e fibras perivasculares apõem-se ao floema. Evidencia-se uma zona cambial, cujas células formam xilema no sentido centrípeto e floema, centrifugamente, e a medula compõe-se de células parenquimáticas. Dutos secretores acompanham o sistema vascular na folha e no caule.The genus Baccharis belongs to the family Asteraceae and includes medicinal species. Baccharis anomala DC., popularly known as "uva-do-mato" and "cambará-do-cipó" in Portuguese, is used as diuretic in folk medicine and phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of tannins and saponins. This work has aimed at studying the macro and microscopic aspects of the leaf and stem of this species. The botanical material was prepared according to standard light and scanning microtechniques. The leaf blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with a thin and striate cuticle. Anomocytic stomata are

  15. Efectos de la salinidad y el herbicida glifosato sobre la especie invasora Baccharis halimifolia

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    Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina

    2015-01-01

    CASTELLANO. La introducción de especies exóticas invasoras es una de las causas más importantes de pérdida de biodiversidad. Baccharis halimifolia es una de las 20 especies exóticas invasoras mas perjudiciales en España e invade gran parte de la marisma de Urdaibai. En dicha marisma se aplicaron tratamientos de control mediante la corta y aplicación de herbicida (glifosato) tras los cuales se observó un variable porcentaje de rebrote en función de la salinidad edáfica. Se realizó un experim...

  16. Physicochemical characteristics of the essential oils of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae Características físico-químicas dos óleos essenciais de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

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    Kely Cristina Fabiane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella, which were obtained by hydrodistillation, were physically and chemically characterized for their yield, relative density (d20(20, refraction index, solubility in ethanol and chemical composition through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS. The results showed a yield of 1.5 and 1.65 mL/100g-1, relative density (d20(20 of 0.9151 and 0.9147, refraction index of 1.4593 and 1.4602, rotatory power of +1.99 and +2.18. Solubility in 70% ethanol was 3.0, in 80% ethanol was 1.0 and in 96.5% ethanol was 1.0, for the oils of B. dracunculifolia and B. uncinella respectively. The evaluations in gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry showed that the oils studied are similar, presenting 26 constituents among which β-pinene, ε-nerolidol, limonene and spathulenol are highlighted.Os óleos essenciais de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella, obtidos por hidrodestilação, foram caracterizados físico e quimicamente em relação ao seu rendimento, sua densidade relativa (d20(20, seu índice de refração, sua solubilidade em etanol e sua composição química por meio de cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM. Os resultados mostraram um rendimento de 1,5 e 1,65 mL/100g-1, uma densidade relativa (d20(20 de 0,9151 e 0,9147, um índice de refração de 1,4593 e 1,4602, um poder rotatório de +1,99 e +2,18, a sua solubilidade em etanol 70% foi 3,0, em etanol 80% foi 1,0 e em etanol 96,5% também foi de 1,0, para o óleo de B. dracunculifolia e B. uncinella, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que os óleos avaliados são semelhantes, apresentando 26 compostos, com destaque para β-pineno, ε-nerolidol, limoneno e espatulenol.

  17. Comparação entre os metais presentes em Croton floribundus Spreng. e Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.

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    Patrícia A.Telles Macari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are very important in the vegetal fisiology, if so, it's necessary their quantification. In the soil the plants are acumulatives and detectors of metals. The medicinal plants Croton floribundus Spreng. and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. were collected in the Floresta Nacional de Ipanema (FLONA - Iperó - SP. The analysis method used the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

  18. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. (carqueja against bacteria of medical interest

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    Álan Alex Aleixo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (Less. (Asteraceae, popularly know as "carqueja", is a species commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment or prevention of diseases. In this context, the purpose of this work was to study the antibacterial activity of crude hydroalcoholic extract from Baccharis trimera against Gram-positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli EHEC ATCC 43895, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, Salmonella typhi ATCC 19430 of clinical interest. Antibacterial susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following the CLSI (formerly the NCCLS guidelines. The extract from B. trimera showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and the most interesting result was obtained against S. epidermidis that presented Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of 250μg/mL. These results indicate that B. trimera have bacterisostatic potential against Gram-positive bacterial strains of medical interest and could serve as a base for further studies on the use of isolated compounds from this species as future antimicrobials.

  19. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep

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    Daniela B. Rozza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se uma mortalidade de ovinos associada à intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia ("mio-mio". A intoxicação ocorreu no município de Caxias do Sul, RS, em novembro de 2004. De um lote de 212 ovinos, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, no município de Jaguarão, RS, morreram 35 ovinos em até 5 dias após serem liberadas para o pasto onde mio-mio era encontrado em abundância, apesar de terem sido removidos deste pasto 1 dia e meio após sua introdução. Ovinos que anteriormente estavam na propriedade não foram afetados. O quadro clínico iniciou-se 8 horas após a introdução dos animais na nova pastagem e incluiu anorexia, depressão, retração abdominal ou leve timpanismo, incoordenação de membros posteriores, fezes pastosas, corrimento nasal catarral, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem, coma e morte com evolução clínica entre 5 e 48 horas. Os principais achados de necropsia foram no trato digestivo com edema de serosa e da parede dos pré-estômagos principalmente na região retículo-ruminal e do abomaso, avermelhamento e desprendimento da mucosa ruminal e do retículo e intensa hemorragia na submucosa. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose do epitélio do pré-estômago, com infiltrado polimorfonuclear, congestão, hemorragia e edema, e necrose do tecido linfóide de linfonodos, baço e trato digestivo.An outbreak of Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep is reported, which occurred in November 2004 in the county of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil. From a herd of 212 sheep, coming from a Baccharis coridifolia free area, in the county of Jaguarão, RS, 35 sheep died until 5 days after the arrival in the new area where the plant was found with abundance. The clinical signs began 8 hours after introduction of the animals into the new pasture and included apathy, anorexia, abdominal retraction or mild distension, weakness of hind limbs

  20. Germinação de aquênios de Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C.(Asteraceae Germination of Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae achene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Gomes

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia D. C. (Asteraceae é uma espécie arbustiva dióica que apresenta características invasoras e colonizadoras e potencial para recuperação de áreas degradadas. Estudou-se o comportamento germinativo de aquênios de Baccharis dracunculifolia recém coletados e estocados por um ano. Aquênios coletados em 1998 foram postos para germinar em quatro repetições de 25 aquênios nas temperaturas de 15º, 20º, 25º e 30ºC sob luz ou escuro contínuo, enquanto que os coletados em 1997 germinaram a 20º e a 25ºC. As médias de germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE foram calculados para responder às seguintes perguntas: (a Como varia o comportamento germinativo dos aquênios de B. dracunculifolia sob diferentes condições de luz e temperatura? (b Existe relação entre o número total de aquênios germinados e o IVE? (c O armazenamento afeta as porcentagens de germinação? Os aquênios que germinaram a 15ºC na presença e na ausência de luz e a 20ºC na luz obtiveram porcentagens de germinação significativamente maiores que os aquênios que germinaram sob os demais tratamentos (p We studied the germination of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae, achene, a species that has colonizing traits, which makes it a potential candidate for forest rehabilitation. Achenes were collected in 1998 and were germinated at 15º, 20º, 25º and 30ºC under continuous light, and darkness conditions with four replicates with 25 achenes in each. We had also collected achenes in 1997, ând they were germinated at 20º and 25ºC, under the same conditions. The mean germination rate and emergency velocity index (EVI were calculated to answer the following questions: (a How does the germination behavior of B. dracunculifolia's achenes vary under different temperature and light conditions? (b Is there any relationship between the total number of germinated achenes and the EVI? (c How does achene storage affect the

  1. Macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering

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    Jane Manfron Budel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Baccharis usterii for quality control purposes. The plant was prepared for light and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The stem consisted of three-winged cladodes with small leaves. In the caulinar axis, these was a uniseriate epidermis, chlorenchyma alternating with angular collenchyma, perivascular fibre caps adjoining the phloem which was outside the xylem, and parenchymatic pith. The wings and the leaves were alike, presenting a uniseriate epidermis, palisade parenchyma next to the both sides of the epidermis and spongy parenchyma traversed by minor collateral vascular bundles in the central region. In the leaf midrib, a single collateral vascular bundle was embedded in the ground parenchyma. Secretory ducts and glandular trichomes occured in the stem and leaf.Caracteres macro e microscópicos dos órgãos vegetativos aéreos de carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering. Este trabalho objetivou estudar os caracteres macro e microscópicos dos órgãos vegetativos aéreos de Baccharis usterii, com aplicação no controle de qualidade. O material botânico foi preparado de acordo com técnicas para microscopia óptica e de varredura. O caule consistiu de cladódios trialados, nos quais se inserem pequenas folhas. O eixo caulinar apresentou epiderme unisseriada, clorênquima em alternância com colênquima angular, calotas de fibras perivasculares apostas ao floema, o qual se forma externamente ao xilema, e medula parenquimática. As alas e as folhas mostraram-se semelhantes, apresentando epiderme unisseriada, parênquima paliçádico junto a ambas as faces epidérmicas e parênquima esponjoso na região central, atravessado por feixes vasculares de pequeno porte. Na nervura central da folha, um feixe vascular colateral encontrou-se mergulhado no parênquima fundamental. Dutos secretores e tricomas glandulares ocorreram no caule e na folha

  2. Henry Gray, plagiarist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    The first edition of Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (1858) was greeted with accolades, but also provoked serious controversy concerning Henry Gray's failure to acknowledge the work of earlier anatomists. A review in the Medical Times (1859) accused Gray of intellectual theft. The journal took the unusual step of substantiating its indictment by publishing twenty parallel texts from Gray and from a pre-existing textbook, Quain's Anatomy. At the recent "Vesalius Continuum" conference in Zakynthos, Greece (2014) Professor Brion Benninger disputed the theft by announcing from the floor the results of a computer analysis of both texts, which he reported exonerated Gray by revealing no evidence of plagiarism. The analysis has not been forthcoming, however, despite requests. Here the historian of Gray's Anatomy supplements the argument set out in the Medical Times 150 years ago with data suggesting unwelcome personality traits in Henry Gray, and demonstrating the utility of others' work to his professional advancement. Fair dealing in the world of anatomy and indeed the genuineness of the lustre of medical fame are important matters, but whether quantitative evidence has anything to add to the discussion concerning Gray's probity can be assessed only if Benninger makes public his computer analysis. PMID:26696521

  3. Atividade antiproliferativa e mutagênica dos extratos aquosos de Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle e Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae sobre o sistema teste de Allium cepa Antiproliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle and Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae on the Allium cepa test system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Fachinetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies medicinais Baccharis trimera e Baccharis articulata, nativas no sul do Brasil, são muito utilizadas na medicina popular. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial efeito citotóxico destas infusões sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Ramos de duas populações de cada espécie coletados durante os estádios vegetativo e reprodutivo (floração foram usados para preparar infusões em duas concentrações: 15 mg mL-1 e 75 mg mL-1. Células das pontas de raízes Allium cepa são usadas como sistema teste in vivo. Foram preparadas lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. As células foram analisadas em todo o ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 4000 células para cada grupo de bulbos. O índice mitótico (IM foi calculado e realizado análise estatística através do teste Qui-quadrado (c² = 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que as infusões de B. trimera nas duas populações causaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, mas não entre as concentrações, em ambos estádios utilizados. Os extratos de B. articulata também apresentaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, sendo que uma das populações apresentou diferença do IM entre as concentrações nos dois estádios, o que não ocorreu na outra população. Com relação à presença de células com aberrações cromossômicas, esta ocorreu em todas as populações estudadas. Os resultados indicaram que os extratos dessas espécies apresentaram efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico para as concentrações estudadas, não possuindo diferença nesses efeitos quanto ao estádio de desenvolvimento das plantas.The medicinal species Baccharis trimera and Baccharis articulata, which are native to the south of Brazil, are extensively used in popular medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effect of these infusions on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. Branches of two populations of each species collected during the vegetative and reproductive

  4. VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM GALLS INDUCED BY Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae ON LEAVES OF Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

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    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of the galls induced by the insect Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyflame- ionisation detection (GC-FID, and then comparison with volatile oil samples from healthy leaves collected in the vicinity. The galls produced around 3.5% of the total organic volatiles whereas healthy leaves rendered an average yield of 0.6%. The observed higher proportions of germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, limonene, and β-pinene in the galls suggest that all these compounds are important targets in the search for natural enemies of this Psyllid. Moreover, higher relative percentages of (E-nerolidol and spathulenol were found in healthy leaves.

  5. Tannins in Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): effects of seasonality, water availability and plant sex Taninos em Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): efeitos da sazonalidade, disponibilidade de água e sexo da planta

    OpenAIRE

    Espírito-Santo, Mário M.; G. Wilson Fernandes; Luciana R Allain; Ticiana R. F Reis

    1999-01-01

    Several ecological, genetic, and environmental factors are known to influence tannin concentration in plant tissues. In this study, the effects of seasonality, water availability, and sex of the plant on tannin concentration in the dioecious shrub Baccharis dracunculifolia were assessed. The effects of water availability on plant shoot growth and its relationship to tannin concentration were also experimentally evaluated. Tannins occurred in B. dracunculifolia from November to May, peaking du...

  6. Atividades antiúlcera e antioxidante Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae Antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Funabashi de Toledo Dias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A "carqueja", Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae, é uma espécie vegetal característica de regiões tropicais, muito utilizada na medicina popular como antiinflamatória, hipoglicemiante e em tratamento de problemas digestivos. A avaliação da atividade antiúlcera do extrato bruto liofilizado e do extrato liofilizado da "resina" (porção que durante a concentração dos extratos ficava depositada no fundo do recipiente com aspecto viscoso e pegajoso foi realizada através de indução aguda por etanol acidificado. O extrato bruto liofilizado, na dose de 400 mg/ kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 90%, 200 mg/kg, 87%, 100 mg/kg, 66% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 66%. O extrato liofilizado da "resina", administrado na dose de 400 mg/kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 82%, 200 mg/kg, 82%, 100 mg/kg, 53% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 70%. A atividade antioxidante foi ensaiada com extrato bruto liofilizado, extrato liofilizado da "resina", pó da droga e frações clorofórmica, acetato de etila, etanol e etanol 50% através do método que reduz o radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH, permitindo após o equilíbrio da reação, calcular a quantidade de antioxidante gasta para reduzir 50% do DPPH, apresentando resultado evidente, comparado à vitamina E. Não foram verificados sinais de alteração aparente no ensaio de toxicidade na dose única de 5g/kg, em camundongos.Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae is a medicinal Brazilian plant well-known by "carqueja". Natural from tropical regions, used as home-made medicine as anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemiant and for the treatment of digestive problems. The evaluation of the antiulcer activity of the extract and the "resin" (portion which during the extracts concentration was settled at the bottom of the recipient, showing a viscous and clammy aspect, was accomplished through the acute induction by acidified ethanol. The lyophilized extract, at a dose of 400 mg/kg, reduced the

  7. Premature graying of hair

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    Deepika Pandhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature graying is an important cause of low self-esteem, often interfering with socio-cultural adjustment. The onset and progression of graying or canities correlate very closely with chronological aging, and occur in varying degrees in all individuals eventually, regardless of gender or race. Premature canities may occur alone as an autosomal dominant condition or in association with various autoimmune or premature aging syndromes. It needs to be differentiated from various genetic hypomelanotic hair disorders. Reduction in melanogenically active melanocytes in the hair bulb of gray anagen hair follicles with resultant pigment loss is central to the pathogenesis of graying. Defective melanosomal transfers to cortical keratinocytes and melanin incontinence due to melanocyte degeneration are also believed to contribute to this. The white color of canities is an optical effect; the reflection of incident light masks the intrinsic pale yellow color of hair keratin. Full range of color from normal to white can be seen both along individual hair and from hair to hair, and admixture of pigmented and white hair is believed to give the appearance of gray. Graying of hair is usually progressive and permanent, but there are occasional reports of spontaneous repigmentation of gray hair. Studies evaluating the association of canities with osteopenia and cardiovascular disease have revealed mixed results. Despite the extensive molecular research being carried out to understand the pathogenesis of canities, there is paucity of effective evidence-based treatment options. Reports of repigmentation of previously white hair following certain inflammatory processes and use of drugs have suggested the possibility of cytokine-induced recruitment of outer sheath melanocytes to the hair bulb and rekindled the hope for finding an effective drug for treatment of premature canities. In the end, camouflage techniques using hair colorants are outlined.

  8. Antioxidant effects of crude extracts from Baccharis species: inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity, protection against lipid peroxidation, and action as oxidative species scavenger

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    Tiago O. Vieira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show a comparison of the antioxidant properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Baccharis spicata (Lam. Baill. and Baccharis usterii Heering, Asteraceae, by several techniques covering a range of oxidant species and of biotargets. We have investigated the ability of the plant extracts to scavenge DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical, action against lipid peroxidation of membranes including rat liver microsomes and soy bean phosphatidylcholine liposomes by ascorbyl radical and peroxynitrite. Hydroxyl radical scavenger activity was measured monitoring the deoxyribose oxidation. The hypochlorous acid scavenger activity was also evaluated by the prevention of protein carbonylation and finally the myeloperoxidase (MPO activity inhibition. The results obtained suggest that the Baccharis extracts studied present a significant antioxidant activity scavenging free radicals and protecting biomolecules from the oxidation. We can suggest that the supposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

  9. Shades of Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, John C.; Calibeo, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A university's financing choices cover many shades of gray. Some off-balance-sheet financing uses no debt capacity, while others represent or imply full financial commitment. Many others fall in between. The choices made by a number of institutions in financing facility expansions or improvements are discussed, and the Moody's Investors Service…

  10. Short and Long-Term Effects of Baccharis articulata on Glucose Homeostasis

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    Flávio H. Reginatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vivo effect of the crude extract and n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. on serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and liver and muscle glycogen content, as well as in vitro action on serum intestinal disaccharidase activity and albumin glycation were investigated. Oral administration of the extract and fractions reduced glycemia in hyperglycemic rats. Additionally, the n-butanol fraction, which has high flavonoids content, stimulated insulin secretion, exhibiting an insulinogenic index similar to that of glipizide. Also, the n-butanol fraction treatment significantly increased glycogen content in both liver and muscle tissue. In vitro incubation with the crude extract and n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs. Thus, the results demonstrated that B. articulata exhibits a significant antihyperglycemic and insulin-secretagogue role. These effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for B. articulata indicate potential anti-diabetic properties.

  11. Carqueja (Baccharis trimera Protects against Oxidative Stress and β-Amyloid-Induced Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Franciny Aparecida Paiva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carqueja (Baccharis trimera is a native plant found throughout South America. Several studies have shown that Carqueja has antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, analgesic, antihepatotoxic, and antimutagenic properties. However, studies regarding its antioxidant potential in vivo are limited. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to examine the antioxidant effects of a Carqueja hydroalcoholic extract (CHE on stress resistance and lifespan and to investigate whether CHE has a protective effect in a C. elegans model for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show for the first time, using in vivo assays, that CHE treatment improved oxidative stress resistance by increasing survival rate and by reducing ROS levels under oxidative stress conditions independently of the stress-related signaling pathways (p38, JNK, and ERK and transcription factors (SKN-1/Nrf and DAF-16/Foxo tested here. CHE treatment also increased the defenses against β-amyloid toxicity in C. elegans, in part by increasing proteasome activity and the expression of two heat shock protein genes. Our findings suggest a potential neuroprotective use for Carqueja, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to boost the defensive systems against stress and neurodegeneration.

  12. PROMOCIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Baccharis macrantha (ASTERACEAE) CON BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADAS A SU RIZOSFERA

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Marina LIZARAZO FORERO; Elsa Giovanna ÁVILA MARTÍNEZ; Francisco CORTÉS PÉREZ

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación fue aislar y caracterizar bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos (BSF) asociadas a la rizosfera de Baccharis macrantha y Viburnum triphyllum, y evaluar su capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos en condiciones in vitro. Además se determinó el efecto de la inoculaciónde las cepas de BSF más eficientes sobre el crecimiento de B. macrantha. Las muestras de suelo rizosférico de B. macrantha y V. triphyllum fueron colectadas en los meses de mayo-período de lluvia y sep...

  13. Nerolidol, an antiulcer constituent from the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopell, Fernando Canani; Lemos, Marivane; Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Comunello, Eros; Maistro, Edson Luis; Bastos, Jairo Kennup; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the antiulcerogenic effect of essential oil from Baccharis dracunculifolia was evaluated using the model of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The ulcerative lesion index (ULI) was significantly reduced by oral administration of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia at doses of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg which reduced the lesions by 42.79, 45.70 and 61.61%, respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from B. dracunculifolia by GC showed that this was composed mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenes and the majority compound was nerolidol. Therefore, antiulcerogenic activity of nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was investigated using ethanol-, indomethacin- and stress-induced ulcer models in rat. In the stress-induced ulcer model, a significant reduction of the ULI in animals treated with nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was observed, compared to the control group (p omeprazol (positive control), respectively. In indomethacin-ulcer the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 34.69, 40.80, 51.02 and 46.93% in groups treated with 50, 250, 500 mg/kg of nerolidol and 100 mg/ kg of cimetidine (positive control), respectively. The results of this study show that nerolidol displays antiulcer activity, as it significantly inhibited the formation of ulcers induced in different animal models. However, further pharmacological and toxicological investigations, to delineate the mechanism(s) of action and the toxic effects, are required to allow the use of nerolidol for the treatment of gastric ulcer. PMID:17913068

  14. Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal burning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F

    2016-03-01

    The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal burning have been contaminating plants that grow in area impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal burning regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal burning (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells. PMID:26741544

  15. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mateus Freire; Tavares, Reisla Cristina; Sato, Sandra; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t = 1), there was no difference between products (P = 0.602); that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t = 2), there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P = 0.674), so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test). It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care. PMID:25874255

  16. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae, popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t=1, there was no difference between products (P=0.602; that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t=2, there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P=0.674, so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test. It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care.

  17. Grays Harbor Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, B. [Grays Harbor Paper, Hoquiam, WA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wood waste biomass boilers are used at Grays Harbor Paper in Hoquiam, Washington. This presentation showed that large volumes of biomass are left after a traditional clearcut. The opportunities and challenges of collecting branches, tops and stumps from this wet coastal climate were outlined. The paper described some of the low-tech methods for picking up branches, stumps and woody debris. It included several photographs of custom logging machines for timber harvest, including a brush grapple slasher, a shearer shovel, chippers, grinders, slicesaws, trucks, trailers and caterpillar log loaders for handling slash. The slash recovery program relies on innovative harvesting machines that convert scattered logging slash into bundles that can be easily collected, transported, and stored for use in existing facilities that utilize wood fiber for fuel. figs.

  18. Gray Whale Population Count Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale abundance is estimated from data collected during the southbound migration from feeding grounds in the Arctic to breeding grounds in the lagoons of...

  19. Gray Whale Calf Production Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale calf production is estimated from data collected during the northbound migration as whales return to their feeding grounds in the Arctic. Counts of adult...

  20. Niobium in gray cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for utilization of niobium in gray cast iron is appraised and reviewed. Experiments described in literature indicate that niobium provides structural refinement of the eutectic cells and also promotes pearlite formation. (Author)

  1. GRAY MARKETING: PROBLEMS, PROSPECTS & STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    PREETI KHATRI

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the grey marketing…….Gray markets occur when a product is designed and destined for a particular market, and an intermediary known as a 'gray marketer' brings that product to a second market to sell it for less than its list price in that second market. (David Soberman, 2012)The grey market has been escalating rapidly, leading to a number of problems including loss of revenue and margin, damage to the carrier affiliation, depreciation of the brand, possible liability and safety ...

  2. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em equinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in horses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín L. de Alda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia em equinos PSI. A intoxicação ocorreu em julho de 2008, em três de quatro animais que haviam sido transportados do estado do Paraná para uma propriedade no município de Aceguá, Rio Grande do Sul. A intoxicação ocorreu três dias após a entrada dos animais em uma área onde havia Baccharis coridifolia em brotação. A égua que não foi afetada não havia sido colocada no potreiro invadido pela planta. Os equinos estavam recebendo um terço da ração que normalmente consumiam para adaptação e permaneciam durante a noite na cocheira. Os sinais clínicos se caracterizaram inicialmente por desconforto abdominal, aumento da freqüência cardíaca e movimentos respiratórios, anorexia, hipermotilidade do intestino delgado e cólon, presença de gás no ceco e diarréia. A evolução da enfermidade variou de 18-36 horas, sendo que um dos animais afetados sobreviveu após tratamento sintomático. As lesões macroscópicas caracterizaram-se por congestão acentuada e hemorragias da mucosa glandular do estômago e presença de úlceras e edema acentuado da parede. Havia também, congestão, edema e hemorragias nas mucosas do íleo, ceco e cólon maior. Histologicamente observou-se degeneração e necrose do epitélio da porção aglandular do estômago, gastrite e enterite com necrose do epitélio de revestimento do estômago glandular, íleo, ceco e cólon observando-se acentuado infiltrado de células mononucleares e polimorfonucleares, edema da submucosa e dilatação de vasos linfáticos. Um equino intoxicado experimentalmente com 1g/kg de peso corporal de planta verde apresentou sinais clínicos, lesões macroscópicas e histológicas similares aos casos espontâneos.An outbreak of spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia poisoning in horses in July 2008 is reported from southern Brazil. The poisoning affected three mares out of four that were transported from the state

  3. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas = Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocaralterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanussativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can cause developmental changes in other plants or even in other organisms. Theobjective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of seedlings of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at 1g 10mL-1 (p/vconcentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations (100

  4. PROMOCIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Baccharis macrantha (ASTERACEAE CON BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADAS A SU RIZOSFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Marina LIZARAZO FORERO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue aislar y caracterizar bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos (BSF asociadas a la rizosfera de Baccharis macrantha y Viburnum triphyllum, y evaluar su capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos en condiciones in vitro. Además se determinó el efecto de la inoculaciónde las cepas de BSF más eficientes sobre el crecimiento de B. macrantha. Las muestras de suelo rizosférico de B. macrantha y V. triphyllum fueron colectadas en los meses de mayo-período de lluvia y septiembre-período seco del 2012. Para la cuantificación de bacterias heterótrofas cultivables y BSF se empleó el método de recuento en placa en los medios Agar Tripticasa de Soya y Pikovskaya (PVK respectivamente. La capacidad de solubilización de fosfatos de las cepas aisladas se estimó a partir del diámetro de los halos formados alrededor de las colonias en el medio de cultivo PVK después de 7 días de incubación a 28 °C. Los ensayos de inoculación en B. macrantha se realizaron con las BSF más eficientes. La inoculación de las BSF B. firmus y P. fluorescens de forma individual y como inoculante combinado mostro un efecto benéfico, incrementando significativamente el porcentaje de germinación de semillas, la altura de la plántula, la longitud de la raíz y el peso seco de B. macrantha. La inoculación de BSF podría ser considerada una estrategia para mejorar el crecimiento y establecimiento de B. macrantha en pastizales abandonados.Growth Promotion of Baccharis macrantha (Asteraceae by Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizosphere Bacteria     The objectives of this research was to isolate and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria (BSF associated to the rhizosphere of Baccharis macrantha and Viburnum triphyllum, and to assess their ability to solubilize phosphate under conditions in vitro. Furthermore to determine the effect of inoculation of the strains BSF more efficient on the growth of B. macrantha. Rhizosphere soil samples of B

  5. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  6. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  7. Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC as genotoxicity indicator of exposure to coal and emissions from a thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Paula Simões; Da Silva, Juliana; Roloff, Joice; Reyes, Juliana; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny F; Rohr, Paula; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    During coal combustion, hazardous elements are discharged that impair environmental quality. Plant cover is the first available surface for the atmospheric pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity in the aqueous extract of the native plant, Baccharis trimera, exposed to coal and emissions from a thermal power plant (coal-fired power plant in Candiota, Brazil), correlating seasonality, wind tunnel predominance, and presence of inorganic elements. The presence of inorganic elements in the aerial parts of B. trimera was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry, and genotoxicity was evaluated by ex vivo comet assay. The genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of B. trimera from four sites located in the area around power plant were analyzed by comet assay in peripheral human lymphocytes. Winter samples showed greater levels of metals than summer samples. Genotoxicity was detected in B. trimera extracts collected from the region exposed to extraction and burning coal. Extracts from the site impacted by the dominant wind induced more damage to DNA than those from other sites. Based on our data, we can suggest that in winter the inorganic elements from extraction and burning of coal and carried through the wind tunnel were responsible for the genotoxicity observed in aqueous extract of B. trimera.

  8. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase by extracts of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae: evaluation of antinutrients and effect on glycosidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefânia P. de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to confirm the traditional use of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Asteraceae, for the reduction of weight, plant extracts were evaluated on the activity of pancreatic lipase (PL, an enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of triacylglycerols in the diet for its subsequent absorption. The aqueous and infused extracts did not show inhibitory activity on the PL, the ethanol inhibited 16% (66 ALI/g and methanol extract inhibited 78% (241 ALI/g. The methanol extract of B. trimera (MEB was subjected to a wash with decreasing solvent polarity (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and only the methanol fraction inhibited the lipase by 72% (230 ALI/g. We evaluated the MEB and infused inhibitory activity on the enzymes α-amylase and α and β-glycosidases. The α-amylase was not inhibited by any of the extracts, the enzyme α-glucosidase was inhibited by both extracts in the same proportion (46.9±0.1 and β-glucosidase was inhibited by 73% by the methanol extract and 65% by the infused. We also evaluated the presence of anti-nutrients. We detected the presence of saponins, polyphenols and trypsin inhibitors in the two samples. Tests performed in vivo can assess at which therapeutic concentration the presence of these anti-nutrients can be harmful to health.

  9. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  10. Tsenseerimata Dorian Gray? / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus üllitas 2011. a. kevadel Oscar Wilde'i ainsaks jäänud romaani "Dorian Gray portree" esialgse versiooni, mis on varustatud toimetaja Nicholas Frankeli põhjalike kommentaaridega ja kus eessõna manifesteerib jõuliselt autori esteetilisi vaateid

  11. Variabilidade sazonal do teor de saponinas de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja e isolamento de flavona Seasonal variability in the content of saponins from Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja and isolation of flavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Borella

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sazonalidade sobre o teor de saponinas e o isolamento e elucidação estrutural de constituinte químico (flavona de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja. O cultivo de indivíduos estaminados de B. trimera foi realizado no Campo Experimental da Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - Unaerp, em Ribeirão Preto, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1998 e foi conduzido em três blocos, sendo que cada um deles era constituído de 48 mudas. As amostras foram colhidas após seis meses do plantio (durante o inverno, três meses após a primeira colheita (durante a primavera e três meses após a segunda colheita (durante o verão. Após processo de secagem e moagem, as drogas foram submetidas ao ensaio para obtenção do índice de espuma. Os resultados mostraram que não há variabilidade neste índice em função da época de colheita. Parte da droga colhida no verão sofreu análise química para isolamento e elucidação estrutural de componente químico. O isolamento a partir do extrato metanólico de partes aéreas de B. trimera foi realizado através de métodos cromatográficos (CC e CLAE e a identificação estrutural da substância isolada, através de métodos espectrométricos (UV, RMN ¹H e 13C. Foi identificada a flavona denominada 5,6-diidroxi-7,3’,4’-trimetoxiflavona.The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effect on the foam index and the isolation and structural identification of a chemical constituent (flavone of Baccharis trimera. The culture staminate samples of B. trimera were realized in the experimental cultivation area of the Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - Unaerp, in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil from January to December/1998 and were conduced in three blocks, which received 48 seedlings. The samples were harvested six months after installation (during the winter, three months after the first harvest (during the spring and three months after the second harvest

  12. Estudo do óleo essencial de algumas espécies do gênero Baccharis (Asteraceae do sul do Brasil Studies on the essential oils from several Baccharis (Asteraceae from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agostini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 15% das espécies de Baccharis têm sido analisadas do ponto de vista fitoquímico, mas trabalhos envolvendo estudos de óleos essenciais têm sido pouco informados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar espécies deste gênero, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, e avaliar o potencial aromático de doze amostras coletadas em diferentes localidades do Estado. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação em Clevenger por 1 hora a partir do material desidratado a 30°C por quatro dias. As análises em CG foram realizadas em equipamento HP6890 Series, equipado com processador de dados HP-Chemstation e coluna HP-Innowax, e, as análises em CG/EM foram realizadas em equipamento HP 6890/MSD5973, com software HP Chemstation e biblioteca Wiley 275 de espectros, com coluna de mesma polaridade. O melhor rendimento foi obtido em B. articulata com 0,5% p/v. beta-Pineno foi identificado nas amostras de B. articulata (41,4% a 52,8%, e em B. cogata (27,2%. Espatulenol esteve presente nas amostras de B. semiserrata (15,5% e 25,5% e nas amostras de B. uncinella (47,7% e 23,1%. B. oxyodonta apresentou limoneno (24,3%. Duas amostras de B. milleflora apresentaram espatulenol, enquanto que uma apresentou beta-pineno.About 15% of the known Baccharis species have been phytochemically studied, but few studies regarding their essential oils have been reported. The present work aims to identify native species of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, and to evaluate their aromatic potential. Twelve samples were collected in different sites within the State. The essential oils were obtained by an one hour hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, using plant materials dried for four days at 30°C. The GC analyses were carried out with a HP6890 Series apparatus, equiped with a HP-Chemstation data processor and an HP-Innowax column. The GC/MS analyses were carried out with an HP 6890/MSD5973, equiped with an HP Chemstation and a Wiley 275 spectra library, using the same

  13. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Borgo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  14. Gray Code for Cayley Permutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Baril

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A length-n Cayley permutation p of a total ordered set S is a length-n sequence of elements from S, subject to the condition that if an element x appears in p then all elements y < x also appear in p . In this paper, we give a Gray code list for the set of length-n Cayley permutations. Two successive permutations in this list differ at most in two positions.

  15. Comparative Studies of the (Anti Mutagenicity of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Artepillin C by the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Aparecida Varanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia is a plant native from Brazil, commonly known as ‘Alecrim-do-campo’ and ‘Vassoura’ and used in alternative medicine for the treatment of inflammation, hepatic disorders and stomach ulcers. Previous studies reported that artepillin C (ArtC, 3-{4-hydroxy-3,5-di(3-methyl-2-butenylphenyl}-2(E-propenoic acid, is the main compound of interest in the leaves. This study was undertaken to assess the mutagenic effect of the ethyl acetate extract of B. dracunculifolia leaves (Bd-EAE: 11.4–182.8 µg/plate and ArtC (0.69–10.99 µg/plate by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, and to compare the protective effects of Bd-EAE and ArtC against the mutagenicity of a variety of direct and indirect acting mutagens such as 4-nitro-O-phenylenediamine, sodium azide, mitomycin C, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminofluorene.The mutagenicity test showed that Bd-EAE and ArtC did not induce an increase in the number of revertant colonies indicating absence of mutagenic activity. ArtC showed a similar antimutagenic effect to that of Bd-EAE in some strains of S. typhimurium, demonstrating that the antimutagenic activity of Bd-EAE can be partially attributed to ArtC. The present results showed that the protective effect of whole plant extracts is due to the combined and synergistic effects of a complex mixture of phytochemicals, the total activity of which may result in health benefits.

  16. Underwater sonar image recognition based on gray-spatial histograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhuo-fu; SANG En-fang

    2003-01-01

    A new gray-spatial histogram is proposed, which incorporates spatial information with gray compositions without sacrificing the robustness of traditional gray histograms. The purpose is to consider the representation role of gray compositions and spatial information simultaneously. Each entry in the gray-spatial histogram is the gray frequency and corresponding position information of images. In the experiments of sonar image recognition, the results show that the gray-spatial histogram is effective in practical use.

  17. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  18. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitn...

  19. Anthelmintic activity in vitro and in vivo of Baccharis trimera (Less) DC against immature and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Oliveira, Adriana Silva Santos; Jeraldo, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe; Linhares, Arício Xavier; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2014-04-01

    Although its efficiency against all Schistosoma species, praziquantel (PZQ) shows low efficacy against schistosomula and juvenile stages. The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In this scenario, studies to new formulations, more comprehensive and without adverse effects, are being conducted. One viable and promising treatment is the study of medicinal plants as a new approach to the experimental treatment for Schistosomiasis. Amongst all the variety of the medicinal species studied, we can highlight Baccharis trimera (Less) DC, known as "Carqueja-amarga". This paper not only describes the effect of crude dichloromethane extract (DE) and aqueous fraction (AF) obtained from B. trimera, in vitro but also is the first one that investigates the in vivo efficacy of B. trimera against schistosomula, juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni BH strain. In the experiment, mice were treated with DE, AF and PZQ (40 and 200mg/kg) over the period of larval development (3 and 30 post-infection; pi), and adult worms (60days post-infection; pi). The in vitro results show that the DE and AF effects are dose-dependents, being the 130μg/mL the most effective one in a shorter period of incubation. The exposure of the in vitro samples over adult parasites were able to inhibit 100% of the oviposition in females. Likewise caused the mortality of the parasites with morphological alterations on the tegument, on the suckers, oral and acetabulum, in both males and females after 6-72h of exposure. Additionally, the in vivo treatments against juvenile and adult infection were more effective compared to the control group untreated. Administrations of AF and DE in day 30pi (juvenile worms) show female worm total burden reductions of 75% and 68% respectively. At the same period of infection reductions of respectively 98% and 97% egg/g in the faeces were seen. In relation to the different egg developmental stages

  20. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera: a quality control study of products commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Brazil Autenticidade de Baccharis trimera baseada em CG-DIC: um estudo de controle de qualidade de produtos comercializados em Curitiba e Região Metropolitana (Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia M. S. de Ferrante

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (carqueja is a medicinal plant used for stomach pain, bad digestion, heart bum, kidney problems and constipation. The objective of the present work was a quality study of carqueja commercialized in Curitiba and metropolitan region (Paraná-Brazil using gas chromatography techniques (GC/FID for analyses of the essential oil, which was extracted through hydrodistillation using a Clevenger system. Macro and microscopic analyses were also done. Some samples were contaminated by other species of plants, fungi and small insects, some of them could be identified. Among all samples, 21 showed similar chromatographic profile to the standard oil, and 7 had different profile in relation to the standard. The chromatogram analyses showed that most of the analyzed samples had the similar profile as the standard oil of Baccharis trimera. GC/FID-based authentication of Baccharis trimera may be useful as a rapid tool to ensure quality control and safety monitoring of this kind of herbal pharmaceuticals.Baccharis trimera (carqueja é uma planta medicinal empregada popularmente para tratamentos de problemas dos sistemas digestório e renal. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de amostras de carqueja comercializadas em Curitiba e Região Metropolitana (Paraná-Brasil, por meio de análises de cromatografia a gás (CG/DIC do óleo essencial delas extraído por hidrodestilação usando aparelho de Clevenger. Análises macro e microscópicas foram também realizadas para as amostras, e os resultados demonstraram a ocorrência de contaminação de algumas delas por outras espécies de plantas, fungos e pequenos insetos. Das amostras analisadas, 21 apresentaram perfil cromatográfico semelhante ao encontrado para óleo essencial padrão da espécie, enquanto 7 diferenciaram-se em relação a este perfil. As análises dos cromatogramas obtidos para as amostras de óleo essencial extraídas de ervas comercializadas permitem

  1. Properties of gray and binary representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jonathan; Whitley, Darrell; Barbulescu, Laura; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2004-01-01

    Representations are formalized as encodings that map the search space to the vertex set of a graph. We define the notion of bit equivalent encodings and show that for such encodings the corresponding Walsh coefficients are also conserved. We focus on Gray codes as particular types of encoding and present a review of properties related to the use of Gray codes. Gray codes are widely used in conjunction with genetic algorithms and bit-climbing algorithms for parameter optimization problems. We present new convergence proofs for a special class of unimodal functions; the proofs show that a steepest ascent bit climber using any reflected Gray code representation reaches the global optimum in a number of steps that is linear with respect to the encoding size. There are in fact many different Gray codes. Shifting is defined as a mechanism for dynamically switching from one Gray code representation to another in order to escape local optima. Theoretical results that substantially improve our understanding of the Gray codes and the shifting mechanism are presented. New proofs also shed light on the number of unique Gray code neighborhoods accessible via shifting and on how neighborhood structure changes during shifting. We show that shifting can improve the performance of both a local search algorithm as well as one of the best genetic algorithms currently available. PMID:15096305

  2. The Effect of Illumination on Gray Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pos, Osvaldo; Baratella, Linda; Sperandio, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell…

  3. Composition of essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus from 'campos de altitude' of the atlantic forest of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus (B. dracunculifolia, B. microdonta, B. regnelli, B. schultzii, B. trimera, and B. uncinella), collected in the 'Campos de Altitude' of the Atlantic Forest (SP), were extracted using hydrodistillation procedures and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. There was a predominance of sesquiterpenes in all studied oils as β-elemene in B. dracunculifolia and B. regnelli, α-humulene in B. trimera, γ-gurjunene in B. schultzii, bicyclogermacrene in B. regnelli, δ-cadinene in B. regnelli and B. uncinella, spathulenol in B. schultzii, caryophyllene oxide in B. microdonta and guaiol in B. uncinella. However, a high amount of monoterpenes was also observed in B. uncinella (α-pinene), B. regnelli (δ-car-3-ene) and B. schultzii (limonene). The chemical compounds of the essential oils of B. schultzii, B. regnelli and B. microdonta are described for the first time in this work. (author)

  4. Atividade bacteriostática e bactericida do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C., Compositae, carqueja, como desinfetante ou anti-séptico

    OpenAIRE

    Avancini C.A.M.; Wiest J.M.; Mundstock E.

    2000-01-01

    Verificou-se a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less) D.C., Compositae, (carqueja) por meio de testes-padrão internacionais utilizados para avaliar desinfetantes e anti-sépticos. Determinaram-se a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração bactericida mínima do decocto frente a várias diluições de inóculos. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de se utilizar o decocto de B. trimera como desinfetante e anti-séptico em determinadas situações-problema em p...

  5. MR imaging of heterotopic gray matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with heterotopic gray matter were evaluated with MR. 5 patients had history of seizures. 4 cases were suspected of the cerebral tumor. In the MR examination areas of heterotopic gray matter were found along the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle on the one side in 4 cases and bilateraly in 2 cases. In 3 cases another brain abnormalities were also detected including: hypoplasia of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of brain hemisphere, cavum septi pellucidi. MR is a modality of choice in the assessment of abnormal gray matter migration. (author)

  6. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor (4-MBC)

  7. Toxicidade pré-clínica de fitoterápico contendo Gentiana lutea, Rheum palmatum, Aloe ferox, Cynara scolymus, Atropa belladona, Peumus boldus e Baccharis trimera em Coelhos Nova Zelândia

    OpenAIRE

    Braga de Mello Joao Roberto; Mello, Fernanda B.; Langeloh, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    The phytotherapic formulation constituted by Gentiana lutea (genciana), Rheum palmatum (ruibarbo), Aloe ferox (aloé), Cynara scolymus (alcachofra), Atropa belladona (beladona), Paumus boldus (boldo) and Baccharis trimera (carqueja) (Gotas Preciosas®) was investigated from the potential of toxicological effects when orally administered for 30 days to male and female New Zealand rabbits. The daily oral dose was ten times the prescribed dosage to humans. The general signs of toxicity...

  8. Gray Matter Pathology in MS: Neuroimaging and Clinical Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Justin Morris Honce

    2013-01-01

    It is abundantly clear that there is extensive gray matter pathology occurring in multiple sclerosis. While attention to gray matter pathology was initially limited to studies of autopsy specimens and biopsies, the development of new MRI techniques has allowed assessment of gray matter pathology in vivo. Current MRI techniques allow the direct visualization of gray matter demyelinating lesions, the quantification of diffuse damage to normal appearing gray matter, and the direct measurement of...

  9. Gray matter heterotopias: MR and clinical features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Myung; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Chung, Chun Phil [Maryknoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-15

    To evaluate types of gray matter heterotopias, associated brain anomalies, and its correlation with the patterns of seizure. We evaluated retrospectively 19 patients (male:female=10:9, mean age 21 years) with gray matter heterotopias on brain MRI. Using 1.0T superconducting MR unit, spin echo T1-, proton -density and T2-weighted images in axial, coronal and sagittal planes were obtained. Types of gray matter heterotopias were single subependymal in four patients, multiple subependymal in one, focal subcortical in eight, diffuse subcortical in two, mixed multiple subependymal and focal subcortical in four. Associated anomalies were seen in 11 patients: other neuronal migration anomalies in eight patients, corpus callosum agenesis in two, and combined holoprosencephaly and Dandy-Walker malformation in one. Fifteen patients had seizure. The patterns of seizure were not correlated with the types of heterotopias. In addition to subependymal, focal subcortical, and diffuse subcortical types, gray matter heterotopias included mixed variant of multiple subependymal and subcortical type. Schizencephaly was the most common form of accompanying anomalies, and patterns of seizure were not correlated with types of gray matter heterotopias, even though main clinical manifestation was seizure.

  10. Atividade bacteriostática e bactericida do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C., Compositae, carqueja, como desinfetante ou anti-séptico Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of the Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C. - Compositae decocto, as disinfectant or antisseptic

    OpenAIRE

    C.A.M. Avancini; J.M. Wiest; E. Mundstock

    2000-01-01

    Verificou-se a atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less) D.C., Compositae, (carqueja) por meio de testes-padrão internacionais utilizados para avaliar desinfetantes e anti-sépticos. Determinaram-se a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração bactericida mínima do decocto frente a várias diluições de inóculos. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de se utilizar o decocto de B. trimera como desinfetante e anti-séptico em determinadas situações-problema em p...

  11. Avaliação da qualidade das amostras comercias de Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja vendidas no Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050 Quality Evaluation of Commercial Samples of Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja sold in Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a avaliação da qualidade de 12 amostras comerciais de ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. que são empregadas na medicina tradicional como estomáquicas e diuréticas e são vendidas em estabelecimentos comerciais farmacêuticos no Estado do Paraná, visando ao preparo de chás. Foram avaliados parâmetros de qualidade preconizados na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica: características dos rótulos e bulas, análise sensorial, autenticidade das amostras, material estranho e doseamento de marcadores químicos. Todos os produtos avaliados apresentaram algum tipo de irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessária maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 12 samples prepared with ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. used in traditional medicine as stomachic and diuretic medicines, and sold in commercial pharmacies in Paraná State. The analyses used parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. The methodology consisted in evaluating the product labels and instructions of the samples to verify their accordance to the specific legislation, sensorial analysis, authenticity of the samples, purity and dosage of chemical markers. All products showed some type of mistake or irregularity according to the official codes. These results showed that is necessary to intensify the inspection of medicinal plants in Brazil.

  12. Analysis of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS Análise de uma própolis verde brasileira da Baccharis dracunculifolia por CLAE-ICPA-EM e CG-EM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Chang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and dichloromethane extracts of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS, respectively. The HPLC-APCI-MS technique, at the positive mode, furnished a complete and unequivocal chemical composition of the green propolis sample. It serves as fingerprint for different propolis samples. The composition of the ethanol extract consisted mainly of cinnamic acid and derivatives, flavonoids, benzoic acid and a few benzoates, non-hydroxylated aromatics, and aliphatic acids and esters, which are normally not reported in the literature because they do not absorb UV light. The main constituents of the dichloromethane extract were prenylated compounds, alkanes and terpenoids.Os extratos em etanol e diclorometano de uma própolis verde de Baccharis dracunculifolia foram analisados por CLAE-ICPA-EM e CG-EM, respectivamente. A técnica de CLAE-EM-ICPA, no modo positivo, forneceu uma completa e inequívoca composição química da amostra de própolis verde. Ela serve como impressão digital para amostras diferentes de própolis. A composição do extrato em etanol consistiu fundamentalmente de ácido cinâmico e derivados, flavonóides, ácido benzóico e alguns benzoatos, aromáticos não hidroxilados, e ácidos e ésteres alifáticos, os quais são normalmente ignorados na literatura porque não absorvem luz UV. Os constituintes principais do extrato em diclorometano foram compostos prenilados, alcanos e terpenóides.

  13. A comparative study of two clerodane diterpenes from Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. on the influx and mobilization of intracellular calcium in rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Francisca Adilfa de Oliveira; Tanae, Mirtes Midori; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Lapa, Antônio José; de Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa Riggio; Souccar, Caden

    2014-01-01

    Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal species native to South America and used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and liver diseases, kidney disorders and diabetes. The aqueous extract (AE) of the aerial parts of this species presented two mainly constituents: the ent-clerodane diterpene (Fig. 1) and the neo-clerodane diterpene (Fig. 2). The objective of this work was to study their activities on the blockade of Ca(2+)-induced contractions in KCL-depolarized rat portal vein preparations, and on the influx and mobilization of cytosolic calcium in rat cardiomyocytes by fluorescence measurements. The results showed that both the neo- and the ent-clerodane diterpenes reduced the maximal contractions induced by CaCl2, in KCl depolarized rat portal vein preparations, without modifying the EC50. The data on the concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]c) showed that, while the neo-clerodane diterpene stimulates the mobilization of [Ca(2+)]c in rat cardiomyocytes, this effect was not observed with the ent-clerodane diterpene. On the other hand, the influx of calcium was not altered by the neo-clerodane diterpene, but was reduced in the presence of the ent-clerodane diterpene, indicating that this compound induces a blockade of the voltage-dependent calcium channels.

  14. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

  15. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume.

  16. Norma Gray: Leading the Way for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casto, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Founded by Norma Gray in 1972 as an early-childhood demonstration center, River Valley Child Development Services now operates various programs related to young children in nine southern West Virginia counties and a statewide apprenticeship program for child-development specialists. Programs provide child care, after-school programs,…

  17. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  18. Response to Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, WeiWei

    2013-01-01

    The recent "TESOL Quarterly" article by Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011) raises important considerations with respect to the use of syntactic complexity (SC) measures in second language (L2) studies. The article draws the field's attention to one particular measure--complexity of noun phrases (NP) (i.e., noun phrases with modifiers, such as…

  19. The Return to Gray Flannel Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, James J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The liberal mood of the 1960s has given way to a conservatism reminiscent of the gray flannel thinking of the 1950s. Today's young people are cautious, cynical, and dead serious about personal survival. Innovation and liberalism in education are being replaced by fiscal conservatism and emphasis on standards. (Author/SJL)

  20. The Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray Control of Respiration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Balnave, Ron J.; Holstege, Gert

    2008-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) organizes basic survival behavior, which includes respiration. How the PAG controls respiration is not known. We studied the PAG control of respiration by injecting D,L-homocysteic acid in the PAG in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats. Injections

  1. New Records of Two Asteroids Calliaster childreni Gray, 1840 and Pentaceraster horridus (Gray, 1840 from the Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karuppaiyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This research describes two new records of the Asteroidea Calliaster childerni Gray, 1840 and Pentaceraster horridus Gray, 1840, from the Bay of Bengal. A detailed description of the little known species of given in to photographs.

  2. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.; Meier, T.; Geffen, E.; Mech, L.D.; Burch, J.W.; Adams, L.G.; Wayne, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves often is short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measure relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and their offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  3. Aestheticism in the Picture of Dorian Gray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康妮芝

    2009-01-01

    Aestheticism or aestheticism movement Was an impomuat phenomenon during the hter nineteenth century.Aestheticism advocated the phrase"art for art's sake".Oscar Wildewas the most famous aestheticism writer during the later nineteenth century in Enghnd.His novel the Picture of Dorian Gray was the representative show of his aestheticism thought.The passage mainly shows Wilde's aestheticism thought of the novel in three aspects.

  4. Regional gray matter correlates of vocational interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroeder David H

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have identified brain areas related to cognitive abilities and personality, respectively. In this exploratory study, we extend the application of modern neuroimaging techniques to another area of individual differences, vocational interests, and relate the results to an earlier study of cognitive abilities salient for vocations. Findings First, we examined the psychometric relationships between vocational interests and abilities in a large sample. The primary relationships between those domains were between Investigative (scientific interests and general intelligence and between Realistic (“blue-collar” interests and spatial ability. Then, using MRI and voxel-based morphometry, we investigated the relationships between regional gray matter volume and vocational interests. Specific clusters of gray matter were found to be correlated with Investigative and Realistic interests. Overlap analyses indicated some common brain areas between the correlates of Investigative interests and general intelligence and between the correlates of Realistic interests and spatial ability. Conclusions Two of six vocational-interest scales show substantial relationships with regional gray matter volume. The overlap between the brain correlates of these scales and cognitive-ability factors suggest there are relationships between individual differences in brain structure and vocations.

  5. Raising the curtain on the gray region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchmer, C J; Lombard, S M

    2000-01-01

    The gray region in EPA Document QA/G-4 is defined as the range of possible parameter values near the action level where the cost of determining that the alternative condition is true outweighs the expected consequences of a decision error. The gray region is also described as a range of true parameter values within the alternative condition near the action level where it is "too close to call." EPA Document QA/G-4HW states that during the planning stage the action level is based on an ideal decision rule, while during the assessment stage an operational decision rule is used. This paper analyzes the factors that define the gray region and the action level, including the errors of the first kind (a) and second kind (beta) and the number of samples taken to determine the mean result. The relationship between the Decision Performance Curve presented in EPA QA/G-4 and the statistical power curve is also discussed. The statistically derived critical level is identified as the concentration of importance for decision-making. The action level is defined in terms of the critical level so that its value is consistent for decisions made during both planning (a priori decisions) and assessment (a posteriori decisions). PMID:12008893

  6. Composition of essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus from 'campos de altitude' of the atlantic forest of Sao Paulo; Composicao quimica dos oleos essenciais das folhas de seis especies do genero Baccharis de 'campos de altitude' da Mata Atlantica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Romoff, Paulete; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades]. E-mail: joaolago@mackenzie.com.br; Soares, Marisi G.; Baraldi, Patricia T.; Correa, Arlene G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Fatima O. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Curadoria do Herbario

    2008-07-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus (B. dracunculifolia, B. microdonta, B. regnelli, B. schultzii, B. trimera, and B. uncinella), collected in the 'Campos de Altitude' of the Atlantic Forest (SP), were extracted using hydrodistillation procedures and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. There was a predominance of sesquiterpenes in all studied oils as {beta}-elemene in B. dracunculifolia and B. regnelli, {alpha}-humulene in B. trimera, {gamma}-gurjunene in B. schultzii, bicyclogermacrene in B. regnelli, {delta}-cadinene in B. regnelli and B. uncinella, spathulenol in B. schultzii, caryophyllene oxide in B. microdonta and guaiol in B. uncinella. However, a high amount of monoterpenes was also observed in B. uncinella ({alpha}-pinene), B. regnelli ({delta}-car-3-ene) and B. schultzii (limonene). The chemical compounds of the essential oils of B. schultzii, B. regnelli and B. microdonta are described for the first time in this work. (author)

  7. Screen-Camera Calibration Using Gray Codes

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCKEN, Yannick; Hermans, Chris; Bekaert, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for efficient calibration of a screen-camera setup, in which the camera is not directly facing the screen. A spherical mirror is used to make the screen visible to the camera. Using Gray code illumination patterns, we can uniquely identify the reflection of each screen pixel on the imaged spherical mirror. This allows us to compute a large set of 2D-3D correspondences, using only two sphere locations. Compared to previous work, this means we require less manu...

  8. Mechanical Properties of Niobium Alloyed Gray Iron

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna, Ivil

    2011-01-01

    The influence of adding an amount of 0.1% and 0.3% niobium to the gray iron alloy used for brake discs, these disc materials are called disc 16 respective 17, have been investigated at RT (room temperature). That is together with two other alloys, the reference disc which contains 0.32% molybdenum but lacks niobium and another one with neither niobium nor molybdenum in it, this is called disc material 15. Focus in this thesis work is on the mechanical properties of the studied materials and f...

  9. Gray Related Analysis on Shaped-charge Rod Penetrator Shaped

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zheng-xiang; ZHANG Xian-feng; CHEN Hui-wu

    2005-01-01

    The gray relation among the design parameters of the cumulative charge rod penetrator (CCRP) is analyzed adopting the gray systematic theory and method, and the gray related matrix among the parameters is obtained. The result parameters of CCRP and the main parameters of influencing the CCRP molding are obtained utilizing numerical simulation. This lays the foundation of CCRP design and provides a kind of effective research method.

  10. Failure to transmit disease from gray tremor mutant mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, G A; Banks, S; Lund,D.; Reichert, C. (rapporteur); Groth, D; Torchia, M; DeArmond, S J; Prusiner, S B

    1997-01-01

    Mice homozygous for mutant alleles at the gray tremor (gt) locus develop a marked non-intention tremor beginning at 8 days of age. Most homozygous mice die by 3 months. Homozygotes exhibit intense vacuolation of the central nervous system gray matter and vacuolation and hypomyelination of some white matter tracts. Based on neuropathological similarities with scrapie, other investigators inoculated wild-type mice with gray tremor brain homogenates to test the hypothesis of transmissibility. Pu...

  11. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  12. Inoculated Slightly Hypereutectic Gray Cast Irons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamera, Mihai; Riposan, Iulian; Stan, Stelian; Militaru, Cristina; Anton, Irina; Barstow, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The current experimental investigation in this article was designed to characterize the structure of mold (M) and ladle (L) inoculated, low-S (0.025 wt.% S), low-Al (0.003 wt.% Al), slightly hypereutectic (CE = 4.4-4.5 wt.%) electric melted gray irons, typical for high performance thin-wall castings. It describes the effect of a Ca, Al, Zr-FeSi inoculant addition of 0-0.25 wt.% on structure characteristics, and compares to similar treatments with hypoeutectic irons (3.5-3.6 wt.% CE, 0.025 wt.% S, and 0.003 wt.% Al). A complex structure including primary graphite, austenite dendrites, and eutectic cells is obtained in hypereutectic irons, as the result of nonequilibrium solidification following the concept of a coexisting region. Dendrites appear to be distributed between eutectic cells at higher eutectic undercooling, while in inoculated irons and for lower undercooling, the eutectic cells are "reinforced" by eutectic austenite dendrites. A Zr, Ca, Al-FeSi alloy appears to be an effective inoculant in low S, low Al, gray cast irons, especially for a late inoculation technique, with beneficial effects on both graphite and austenite phases. First, inoculation influenced the nucleation of graphite/eutectic cell, and then their characteristics. A further role of these active elements directly contributed to form nucleation sites for austenite, as complex (Mn,X)S particles.

  13. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-xing; Li, Cheng-Rang

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata.

  14. On the motivational drivers of gray entrepreneurship: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, Rainer; Luck, Florian; Kraus, Sascha; Walsh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change, gray entrepreneurship has become more prevalent. When gray entrepreneurs chose to leave paid employment to become self-employed, it is of concern for companies who may lose highly capable older employees. One of the reasons for this can be a failure to u

  15. Etnobotánica, anatomía y caracterización físico-química del aceite esencial de Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae Ethnobotany, anatomy and physicochemical characterization of essential oil of Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Molares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. es una especie aromática conocida como "wautro", y forma parte destacada de la herbolaria Mapuche de la Patagonia Argentina. Los objetivos fueron investigar la etnobotánica, la anatomía del vástago, y caracterizar físicoquímicamente el aceite esencial presente en el mismo. Se realizaron entrevistas a pobladores de dos comunidades Mapuches del noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina, y se colectó material vegetal para su observación al microscopio óptico y de barrido ambiental, como así también, para la hidrodestilación del aceite esencial. Los informantes indicaron que la planta es utilizada en forma consensuada para el tratamiento de alopecia, caspa, diversas dermatitis, y cefaleas. Las principales características de la hoja son: mesofilo isobilateral, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas glandulares pluricelulares, y cavidades esquizógenas secretoras de aceites esenciales. El tallo primario presenta tricomas y cavidades secretoras semejantes a los de las hojas, colénquima en las costillas, clorénquima en los valles interrumpido por espacios de aire, cilindro vascular continuo, endodermis uniseriada y por sectores biseriada, esclerénquima discontinuo, y cristales aciculares en células periféricas de médula. Las determinaciones físico-químicas que se aportan son rendimiento medio anual, tiempo óptimo de destilación, densidad relativa, rotación específica e índice de refracción. B. obovata es una especie cosmecéutica de interés, este trabajo contribuye a su conocimiento general, aportando información para futuras tareas de control de calidad y para su conservación biocultural.Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. is an aromatic species known as "wautro", and is an important part of the Mapuche herbolarium of Patagonia Argentina. The objectives were to investigate its ethnobotany and shoot anatomy, as well as to characterize physically and chemically its essential oil. Rural informant-interviews were

  16. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3592 Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Horácio Couto Bittencourt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can provoke development changes in other plants or even in other organisms. The objective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays seedlings. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at a 1g 10 mL-1 (p/v concentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations

  17. Mapping gray matter volume and cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Li, Ziyi; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-03-01

    Gray matter volume and cortical thickness are two important indices widely used to detect neuropathological changes in brain structural magnetic resonance imaging. Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol and surface-based cortical thickness measure, this study comprehensively investigated the regional changes in cortical gray matter volume and cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirteen patients with AD and fourteen age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Results showed that voxel-based gray matter volume and cortical thickness reductions were highly correlated in the temporal lobe and its medial structure in AD. Moreover significant reduced cortical regions of gray matter volume were obviously more than that of cortical thickness. These findings suggest that gray matter volume and cortical thickness, as two important imaging markers, are effective indices for detecting the neuroanatomical alterations and help us understand the neuropathology from different views in AD.

  18. The optimized design of the Gray-code counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has expatiated on the signality of using Gray-code in designing high-speed digital circuit,and given the low-power-cost analysis in the use of Gray-code counter. The main content of this article is the design and realization of a Gray-code counter. This design has formed an n-bit Gray-code counter with n piece main D-trigger and one piece assistant D-trigger, by the speciality of Gray-code. In the end, this article has given the realization of this counter's core by VHDL, this VHDL realization may be the guidance for the forward job on FPGA design and some other domain. (authors)

  19. Spatial hearing in Cope's gray treefrog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caldwell, Michael S; Lee, Norman; Schrode, Katrina M;

    2014-01-01

    , advertisement calls, and frequency-modulated sweeps to examine the influence of frequency, signal level, lung inflation, and sex on ear directionality. Interaural differences in the amplitude of tympanum vibrations were 1-4 dB greater than sound pressure differences adjacent to the two tympana, while interaural...... and phase of tone- and call-evoked responses did not differ between sexes. Lung inflation strongly affected tympanum directionality over a narrow frequency range that, in females, included call frequencies. This study provides a foundation for further work on the biomechanics and neural mechanisms......Anuran ears function as pressure difference receivers, and the amplitude and phase of tympanum vibrations are inherently directional, varying with sound incident angle. We quantified the nature of this directionality for Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis. We presented subjects with pure tones...

  20. Instrumentation of digital gray-scale US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, A

    1993-11-01

    Modern, high-resolution, gray-scale, ultrasound (US) imaging equipment is computer based, with all hardware signal processing functions under software control. This systems architecture permits maximum flexibility in function, rapid upgrades, and reliable performance. With modern US equipment, the spatial dimensions of the analog image are transformed into a digital matrix of picture elements (pixels). The volume of tissue, or voxel, that contributes to the echo amplitudes received from each pixel depends crucially on the section (ie, "slice") thickness at the voxel depth. Partial volume effects are more likely to occur in a longer voxel located at a depth outside the section thickness focal zone. The echo signal voltage, or amplitude, is acquired by an analog-to-digital converter simultaneously with the pixel location of the image echo origin. The most accurate echo amplitudes (with least partial volume averaging) occur at the highest image magnification when the voxel dimensions are the smallest in and out of the scan plane. With computer-based imaging, postprocessing procedures, such as fill-in algorithms and digital calipers (measurements of distances in images), can be used to aid in diagnosis. PMID:8290732

  1. A Gray path on binary partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Colthurst, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A binary partition of a positive integer $n$ is a partition of $n$ in which each part has size a power of two. In this note we first construct a Gray sequence on the set of binary partitions of $n$. This is an ordering of the set of binary partitions of each $n$ (or of all $n$) such that adjacent partitions differ by one of a small set of elementary transformations; here the allowed transformatios are replacing $2^k+2^k$ by $2^{k+1}$ or vice versa (or addition of a new +1). Next we give a purely local condition for finding the successor of any partition in this sequence; the rule is so simple that successive transitions can be performed in constant time. Finally we show how to compute directly the bijection between $k$ and the $k$th term in the sequence. This answers a question posed by Donald Knuth in section 7.2.1 of The Art of Computer Programming.

  2. Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceunen, Stijn; Wim, De Borggraeve; Compernolle, Frans; Mai, Anh Hung; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-09-20

    The rare Mexican species Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray was long considered to be the only known Stevia species, beside the well-known S. rebaudiana, containing the highly sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides. We report a re-evaluation of this claim after phytochemically screening leaves obtained from two herbarium specimens of S. phlebophylla for the presence of steviol glycosides. Despite extensive MS analyses, no steviol glycosides could be unambiguously verified. Instead, the main chromatographic peak eluting at retention times similar to those of steviol glycosides was identified as a new compound, namely 16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive NMR and MS data as well as the characterization of its acid hydrolysate. Seven more compounds were detected by ESIMS which are possibly structurally related to 1. It can therefore be concluded that S. phlebophylla is unlikely to contain significant amounts of steviol glycosides, if any.

  3. Characterization of Titanium-Containing Compounds in Gray Iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Daxin; ZHANG Yuanhao; LIU Jianyong; HE Hanjun; HONG Xiaoxian

    2008-01-01

    Titanium produces different compounds in gray iron. In order to determine their characteristics, a scanning electron microscope, an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and an optical microscopy were used to analyze the morphology, distribution, and composition of titanium-containing compounds in metal-lographic specimens and machined surfaces in four gray irons. The results show that the titanium-containing compounds in the gray irons are complex compounds containing V, Nb, Mn, S, and other metals, depending on the concentration of these elements in the iron. The number of titanium-containing compounds increases with increasing Ti content in the gray iron. Most of the titanium-containing compounds are located in the peariite matrix, with some in the steadite and carbides. The results suggest that titanium-containing com-pounds reduce tool lifetime.

  4. Trap-related injuries to gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, D.W.; Fuller, T.K.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Fritts, S.H.; Berg, W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Gray wolves (Canis lupus) captured in traps with toothed jaws offset 1.8 cm incurred fewer injuries than those captured in 3 other types of steel traps. Few wolves seriously damaged canine or carnassial teeth while in traps.

  5. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xie, Fang; Bergquist, Jonas P.; Vecsei, Lazlo' ; Zadori, Denes; Camp, David G.; Holland, Bart K.; Smith, Richard D.; Coyle, Patricia K.

    2013-09-10

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  6. Comparison of Cox and Gray's survival models in severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasal, Jan; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Clermont, Gilles;

    2004-01-01

    Although survival is traditionally modeled using Cox proportional hazards modeling, this approach may be inappropriate in sepsis, in which the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. Newer, more flexible models, such as Gray's model, may be more appropriate....

  7. INCREASE OF EFFICIENCY OF MODIFIERS FOR GRAY CAST-IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Komarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is established that for the purpose of increase of modifying efficiency of the melt from gray cast iron it is possible to use mechanically alloyed aluminum powder with superdispersed particles of aluminum and graphite oxide.

  8. Cognitive Radios Exploiting Gray Spaces via Compressed Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieruch, Dennis; Jung, Peter; Wirth, Thomas; Dekorsy, Armin; Haustein, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We suggest an interweave cognitive radio system with a gray space detector, which is properly identifying a small fraction of unused resources within an active band of a primary user system like 3GPP LTE. Therefore, the gray space detector can cope with frequency fading holes and distinguish them from inactive resources. Different approaches of the gray space detector are investigated, the conventional reduced-rank least squares method as well as the compressed sensing-based orthogonal matching pursuit and basis pursuit denoising algorithm. In addition, the gray space detector is compared with the classical energy detector. Simulation results present the receiver operating characteristic at several SNRs and the detection performance over further aspects like base station system load for practical false alarm rates. The results show, that especially for practical false alarm rates the compressed sensing algorithm are more suitable than the classical energy detector and reduced-rank least squares approach.

  9. Physical interpretation of gray cloud observed from airplanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Rintaro; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2016-07-20

    When obliquely observed from an airplane, gray clouds near the horizon are sometimes observed to overlap with white clouds. Photographic observation from an airplane and simulations using a three-dimensional radiative transfer model are conducted to understand why such clouds appear gray. From observations, the brightness depression rate of gray clouds relative to surrounding whitish clouds is about 25%, whereas in simulations, it is as high as about 30%. Conditions necessary for the observation of gray clouds are as follows: (1) two clouds at different altitudes do not overlap, but the higher cloud overlaps with the lower cloud along the line of sight when these clouds are observed in near-horizontal direction, and (2) the higher cloud is optically thin in the vertical direction, but optically thick along the line of sight. PMID:27463934

  10. Gray matter is targeted in first-attack multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Schutzer

    Full Text Available The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS, its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups compared to established relapsing remitting (RR MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse. Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  11. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  12. Effectiveness of predator odors as gray squirrel repellents

    OpenAIRE

    Rosell, Frank

    2001-01-01

    The ability of gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) to discriminate between different predator odors and the use of predator odors to deter gray squirrels from foraging on plants have not been previously investigated. To test the hypothesis that predator scent decreases foraging, I investigated the effect of such scent on consumption of butternuts (Juglans cinerea) in the field. Results showed that (i) red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scent was significantly more effective than either a control or hu...

  13. Cyber operations and Gray Zones:challenges for NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Fitton, Oliver James

    2016-01-01

    The Gray Zone represents a space between peaceful state rivalries and war. Within this space actors have developed hybrid strategies to extend their influence. This concept of conflict is best illustrated by Russia’s actions in Eastern Ukraine in 2014. Gray Zone doctrine leverages ambiguity to create an environment in which adversaries are unable to make strategic decisions in a timely and confident manner. Cyber Operations, because of the attribution problem, lend themselves to this kind of ...

  14. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Hernández-Camacho; Raúl Francisco Pineda-López; María de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo; Germinal Jorge Cantó-Alarcón; Robert Wallace Jones; Marco Antonio Moreno-Pérez; Juan Joel Mosqueda-Gualito; Salvador Zamora-Ledesma; Brenda Camacho-Macías

    2016-01-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the ...

  15. 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIST 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of fingerprint images contains 2000 8-bit gray scale fingerprint image pairs. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  16. The ARGOS system used for tracking gray whales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mate, B. R.; Beaty, D.; Hoisington, C.; Kutz, R.; Mate, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of satellite whale tags used to track gray whales in the eastern north Pacific Ocean is summarized. Two gray whales were radio-tagged in San Ignacio Lagoon (Mexico) and tracked on their northbound migration. One of the transmitters was modified to record and relay depth-of-dive information at 15 sec intervals throughout the course of the dive. Technical elements of data acquisition and analysis are outlined. The major biological findings are discussed.

  17. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  18. Past and present research on gray whale vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollervides, Francisco

    2002-05-01

    Eberhadt and Evans first recorded vocalizations of gray whales in 1967 in Laguna Ojo de Liebre, Mexico. Three and a half decades of bioacoustic research on gray whales has followed this groundbreaking work. Gray whales appear more vocal while at the southern breeding lagoons off Baja California and are least vocal at the northern feeding areas of the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas. Ten different vocalizations have been identified on the breeding grounds, while only six different vocalizations have been recorded on the feeding grounds. Evans also conducted the first recordings of vocalizations of gray whales in captivity with his work on J.J. II in San Diego in 1974. Since then, the database of captive gray whale vocalizations has expanded with research on GiGi in 1997. From this review, an acoustic repertoire of at least 12 different types of vocalizations is suggested. Nevertheless, not all gray whale calls fall into obvious or distinct categories; thus, correlating specific behaviors with each vocalization type merits further study.

  19. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  20. Medial frontal white and gray matter contributions to general intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Ohtani

    Full Text Available The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC are part of a wider neural network that plays an important role in general intelligence and executive function. We used structural brain imaging to quantify magnetic resonance gray matter volume and diffusion tensor white matter integrity of the mOFC-rACC network in 26 healthy participants who also completed neuropsychological tests of intellectual abilities and executive function. Stochastic tractography, the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging method for examining white matter connections between adjacent gray matter regions, was employed to assess the integrity of mOFC-rACC pathways. Fractional anisotropy (FA, which reflects the integrity of white matter connections, was calculated. Results indicated that higher intelligence correlated with greater gray matter volumes for both mOFC and rACC, as well as with increased FA for left posterior mOFC-rACC connectivity. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that DTI-derived FA of left posterior mOFC-rACC uniquely accounted for 29%-34% of the variance in IQ, in comparison to 11%-16% uniquely explained by gray matter volume of the left rACC. Together, left rACC gray matter volume and white matter connectivity between left posterior mOFC and rACC accounted for up to 50% of the variance in general intelligence. This study is to our knowledge the first to examine white matter connectivity between OFC and ACC, two gray matter regions of interests that are very close in physical proximity, and underscores the important independent contributions of variations in rACC gray matter volume and mOFC-rACC white matter connectivity to individual differences in general intelligence.

  1. Gray cases of child abuse: Investigating factors associated with uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyachati, Barbara H; Asnes, Andrea G; Moles, Rebecca L; Schaeffer, Paula; Leventhal, John M

    2016-01-01

    Research in child abuse pediatrics has advanced clinicians' abilities to discriminate abusive from accidental injuries. Less attention, however, has been paid to cases with uncertain diagnoses. These uncertain cases - the "gray" cases between decisions of abuse and not abuse - represent a meaningful challenge in the practice of child abuse pediatricians. In this study, we describe a series of gray cases, representing 17% of 134 consecutive children who were hospitalized at a single pediatric hospital and referred to a child abuse pediatrician for concerns of possible abuse. Gray cases were defined by scores of 3, 4, or 5 on a 7-point clinical judgment scale of the likelihood of abuse. We evaluated details of the case presentation, including incident history, patient medical and developmental histories, family social histories, medical studies, and injuries from the medical record and sought to identify unique and shared characteristics compared with abuse and accidental cases. Overall, the gray cases had incident histories that were ambiguous, medical and social histories that were more similar to abuse cases, and injuries that were similar to accidental injuries. Thus, the lack of clarity in these cases was not attributable to any single element of the incident, history, or injury. Gray cases represent a clinical challenge in child abuse pediatrics and deserve continued attention in research.

  2. Avaliação da atividade mutagênica da infusão de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. em teste de Allium cepa e teste de aberrações cromossômicas em linfócitos humanos Evaluation of mutagenic activity resulting from the infusion Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. using the Allium cepa test and a chromosomal test for aberrations in human lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane S. de Pinho

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A carqueja (Baccharis trimera(Less. DC. é uma planta medicinal da família Asteraceae muito utilizada como chá no sul do Brasil no tratamento de doenças renais, intestinas, estomacais e principalmente como emagrecedora. O objetivo desde trabalho foi de avaliar a mutagenicidade in vivoe in vitrodo chá e para isso foi realizado o teste de Allium cepaL. e o de aberrações cromossômicas em linfócitos humanos utilizando quatro tratamentos: T1 (água; T2 (20 g/L de carqueja; T3 (200 g/L de carqueja, e T4 (paracetamol, a 400 mg/L. Ambos os procedimentos foram analisados pelo teste Mann-Whitney U. Este estudo evidencia um efeito mutagênico do chá em células vegetais (Allium cepa e em células humanas (aberrações cromossômicas cultivadas, pois em ambos os testes, T2 e T3 obteve-se uma média mais elevada que nos outros tratamentos. Este estudo demonstra que o efeito é dependente da dose, portanto recomenda-se que o chá de carqueja seja consumido com moderação.Broom (Baccharis trimera(Less. DC. is a medicinal plant from Asteraceae that is commonly used as a tea in the south of Brazil for the treatment of renal, intestinal and stomach diseases. It is also used as a slimming agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mutagenicity of the tea in vivoand in vitro. In order to do this, the Allium cepatest was carried out and the chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes were tested using four treatments: T1 (water; T2 (20 g/L of broom; T3 (200 g/L of broom and T4 (paracetamol at 400 mg/L. Both procedures were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. This study provided evidence of a mutagenic effect of the tea in vegetable cells (Allium cepa and in cultivated human cells. In tests T2 and T3 there was a higher average than the other treatments. This study shows that the effect is dependent on the dose. It is therefore recommended that broom tea be consumed with moderation.

  3. Short-term Power Load Forecasting Based on Gray Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Herui

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Power load forecasting provides the basis for the preparation of power planning, especially the accurate short-term power load forecasting. It can formulate power rationing program of area load reliably and timely, to maintain the normal production and life. This article describes the gray prediction method, and improves GM (1,1 model via processing the original data sequence smoothly, using the correction model of parameteramending parameter values​​, adding the residual model, and also applying the idea of the metabolism. It conducts an empirical analysis of the 10KV large cable of Guigang Power Supply Bureau in Nan Ping, and verifies the limitations of ordinary gray theory. The improved gray model has a higher prediction accuracy than the conventional GM (1,1 model.  

  4. Wavelet-based gray-level digital image watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The watermarking technique has been proposed as a method by hiding secret information into the im age to protect the copyright of multimedia data. But most previous work focuses on the algorithms of embedding one-dimensional watermarks or two-dimensional binary digital watermarks. In this paper, a wavelet-based method for embedding a gray-level digital watermark into an image is proposed. By still image decomposition technique, a gray-level digital watermark is decompounded into a series of bitplanes. By discrete wavelet transform ( DWT ), the host image is decomposed into multiresolution representations with hierarchical structure. Thedifferent bitplanes of the gray-level watermark is embedded into the corresponding resolution of the decomposed host image. The experimental results show that the proposed techniques can successfully survive image processing operations and the lossy compression techniques such as Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG).

  5. Seismic wave separation by the gray-scale Hough transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjadj, Asma; Benaïssa, Zahia; Benaissa, Abdelkader; Boudella, Amar; Ouadfeul, Sid Ali

    2016-04-01

    In a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) recording, the useful signal is composed of the superposition of two wavefields: 1/ a downgoing wavefield with positive apparent velocities, and 2/ an upgoing wavefield with negative apparent velocities. To make best use of them, they need to be separated. Several methods exist to perform this separation, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The most frequently used in the industry is median filtering which remains, however, unsuitable when amplitude preservation is critical. In this study, we purpose a new method based on the gray-scale Hough transform (GSHT) which is an extension of the conventional Hough transform used to detect straight lines and other curves. The GSHT has been proposed to detect thick lines or bands in a gray-scale image. The technique, we suggest here, directly maps the gray-scale PSV image, including the downgoing and upgoing events linear bands, in image coordinate space (x, t, G) to the gray Hough parameter counting space (ρ, θ, G). In this new space, the downgoing events appear in the negative angles θ quadrant and the upgoing in the positive quadrant. The inverse GSHT algorithm, we developed, is then performed to extract the bands that satisfy the filtering conditions: θ negative for the downgoing PSV wavefield and θ positive for the upgoing PSV wavefield. The experimental results on synthetic and real VSP datasets are convincing. The wave separation is well performed, even in the presence of loud noise levels, with signal to noise ratio improvement and amplitude preservation, in contrast to median filtering. Key words: Conventional Hough transform - Gray-scale Hough transform - Inverse gray-scale Hough transform - VSP - Seismic wave - Upgoing wavefield - Downgoing wavefield.

  6. James N Gray - An eScience Visionary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-01

    James N Gray (Jim Gray) was a computer scientist whosemajor contributions include formalising a theory for reliabletransaction processing of large databases and implementingsystems based on his theory. This work was crucial to implementreliable financial transactions by banks and other financialinstitutions. (Financial transactions are a subset of alltransactions.) In addition, he is credited with coining the termFourth Paradigm, i.e., data driven scientific discovery byscientists who collect humongous amount of data with modernscientific instruments. He also collaborated with diversegroups of scientists to organize the data collected by them tofacilitate easy retrieval and interpretation.

  7. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition ($3s\\, ^2S_{1/2} \\rightarrow 3p\\, ^2P_{1/2}$) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing $3\\times10^9$ atoms, previously cooled to 350 $\\mu$K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 $\\mu$K and phase-space densities in the range of $10^{-4}$. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no densi...

  8. Neural response to reward anticipation is modulated by Gray's impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Dresler, Thomas; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Plichta, Michael M; Heinzel, Sebastian; Polak, Thomas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Breuer, Felix; Jakob, Peter M; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2009-07-15

    According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), Gray's dimension of impulsivity, reflecting human trait reward sensitivity, determines the extent to which stimuli activate the Behavioural Approach System (BAS). The potential neural underpinnings of the BAS, however, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the association between Gray's impulsivity as defined by the RST and event-related fMRI BOLD-response to anticipation of reward in twenty healthy human subjects in brain regions previously associated with reward processing. Anticipation of reward during a Monetary Incentive Delay Task elicited activation in key components of the human reward circuitry such as the ventral striatum, the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. Interindividual differences in Gray's impulsivity accounted for a significant amount of variance of the reward-related BOLD-response in the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Specifically, higher trait reward sensitivity was associated with increased activation in response to cues indicating potential reward. Extending previous evidence, here we show that variance in functional brain activation during anticipation of reward is attributed to interindividual differences regarding Gray's dimension of impulsivity. Thus, trait reward sensitivity contributes to the modulation of responsiveness in major components of the human reward system which thereby display a core property of the BAS. Generally, fostering our understanding of the neural underpinnings of the association of reward-related interindividual differences in affective traits might aid researchers in quest for custom-tailored treatments of psychiatric disorders, further disentangling the complex relationship between personality traits, emotion, and health. PMID:19328237

  9. An Ecological Study of Gray Goose Marsh, Alviso California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The area of our study is located in the heart of the 300m wide strip of land just north of Triangle Marsh, known as Gray Goose Marsh. This land used to be part of...

  10. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  11. "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. Literature Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mari Lu

    Intended as an aid to classroom teachers, this 48-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children's book, "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, and vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters of "Adam of the…

  12. Paradox of the Characters in The Picture of Dorian Gray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东博

    2014-01-01

    Oscar Wilde is a brilliant Irish dramatist, novelist and critic. His only novel - The Picture of Dorian Gray- is one of the most influential works by Wilde. This paper aims to study the paradox of the three main characters’ life in this novel through close reading in order to achieve a better understanding of this controversial book.

  13. Keloid in the gray reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.C.; Hartley, F.K.

    1976-04-01

    A gray reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, was captured at Enewetak Atoll, the Marshall Islands, in 1972. Near the right pectoral fin was a large fungating tumor. Microscopically, no evidence of microorganisms or definite malignant transformation was observed, and inflammation and necrosis were minimal. However, the tumor appeared to be a keloid, the first to be reported in sharks.

  14. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria californica A. Gray Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile constituents of California skullcap (Scutellaria californica A. Gray) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 52 constituents were identified (constituting 90.79% of the total area), 12 of which were tentatively identified. Cary...

  15. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  16. Wave-splitting in the bistable Gray-Scott model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K.E.; Mazin, W.; Mosekilde, Erik;

    1996-01-01

    The Gray-Scott model describes a chemical reaction in which an activator species grows autocatalytically on a continuously fed substrate. For certain feed rates and activator life times the model shows the coexistence of two homogeneous steady states. The blue state, where the activator......-from-equilibrium phenomena. Special emphasis is given to the propagation, collision and splitting of traveling pulses....

  17. Asynchronous Cellular Operations on Gray Images Extracting Topographic Shape Features and Their Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Polkovnikov, Igor

    2013-01-01

    A variety of operations of cellular automata on gray images is presented. All operations are of a wave-front nature finishing in a stable state. They are used to extract shape descripting gray objects robust to a variety of pattern distortions. Topographic terms are used: "lakes", "dales", "dales of dales". It is shown how mutual object relations like "above" can be presented in terms of gray image analysis and how it can be used for character classification and for gray pattern decomposition...

  18. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  19. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raúl Francisco; de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, María; Cantó-Alarcón, Germinal Jorge; Jones, Robert Wallace; Moreno-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Mosqueda-Gualito, Juan Joel; Zamora-Ledesma, Salvador; Camacho-Macías, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC) were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico) Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013-2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species), mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission. PMID:27408801

  20. Estudo de toxicidade pré-clínica de fitoterápico contendo Gentiana lutea, Rheum palmatum, Aloe ferox, Cynara scolymus, Atropa belladona, Peumus boldus e Baccharis trimera

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Joao Roberto Braga de; Mello, Fernanda B.; Langeloh, Augusto

    2008-01-01

    A formulação fitoterápica contendo Gentiana lutea, (genciana), Rheum palmatum (ruibarbo), Aloe ferox (aloé), Cynara scolymus (alcachofra), Atropa belladona (beladona), Paumus boldus (boldo) e Baccharis trimera (carqueja) (Gotas Preciosas®) foi investigada quanto aos potenciais efeitos tóxicos em doses repetidas quando administrada por via oral (gavagem) a ratos e ratas Wistar (machos por 30 dias e fêmeas por 44 dias, correspondendo à gestação e lactação). Nos estudos a dosagem diária usada fo...

  1. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following...

  2. Building Consensus toward a Shared Purpose: A Profile of President David Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The author presents a profile of APPA president David Gray. One might say that David Gray's path into higher education facilities management was anything but traditional. Today, Gray is the assistant vice president of facilities services at Middle Tennessee State University. His professional career, however, actually began in banking. In 1993 he…

  3. Completely Colorblind: Advances in Gray Techniques and Applications to Planets Near and Far

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Tyler D

    2015-01-01

    Gray models, which replace spectrally-resolved opacities with a wavelength independent mean opacity, are currently seeing wide and diverse application. In this brief review, we discuss both the history of gray techniques as well as recent applications of gray models, with an emphasis on planetary atmospheres. Methods and results for generating mean opacities are summarized. We present examples where gray radiative transfer tools are incorporated into three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models. Gray techniques are also useful for problems in comparative climatology, and we inter-compare results from several generalized gray models as applied to the computation of convective fluxes in planetary atmospheres. Finally, we provide examples where future progress can be made in the development of gray models.

  4. Gray whale sightings in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, September 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwahara, Yuka; Fujiwara, Amane; Ito, Keizo; Miyashita, Kazushi; Mitani, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) are distributed within the productive neritic and estuarine waters of the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. They migrate to high-latitude feeding grounds each spring. Their main feeding grounds in the Arctic include the Chirikov Basin, the northeastern Chukchi Sea from Pt. Hope to Cape Lisburne and Pt. Lay to Pt. Barrow, and the northwestern Chukchi Sea along the Chukotka coast. Although sightings are rare in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, we observed three gray whales in two groups in this area in September 2014. A mud plume was observed near one of the whales, suggesting the animal had been feeding. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, large-scale monitoring of the distributions of marine mammals has been continuously conducted since 1979; however, there has been less monitoring in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to record opportunistic sightings, such as those described here.

  5. Colorization of Gray Level Images by Using Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ghayoumi Zadeh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the colorization of gray level images. Because of the technique applied in this paper, this method can be used in colorizing medical images. Color images achieved have good distinction and separation. The proposed method can be used to separate the objects in gray images. Our method is based on a simple premise: neighboring pixels in space-time that have similar intensities should have similar colors. We formalize this premise using a quadratic cost function and obtain an optimization problem that can be solved efficiently using standard techniques. In our approach an artist only needs to annotate the image with a few color scribbles, and the indicated colors are automatically propagated in both space and time to produce a fully colorized image or sequence.

  6. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  7. Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, T.L.; Sherwood, C.R. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.

  8. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  9. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition (3 s 1/2 2S →3 p 1/2 2P) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing 3 ×109 atoms, previously cooled to 350 μ K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 μ K and phase-space densities in the range of 10-4. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no density-dependent heating for densities up to 1011cm-3 .

  10. Multiuser-based Gray-level Watermarking Sharing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel watermarking sharing system having the ability of sharing gray-level secret images with multi-user is proposed. Multiple-based number system is used to split the secret into n meaningless shares, each share is embedded into respective cover image with controlled distortion and to be assigned to each user afterwards. The architecture of the proposed watermarking system is an open issue, which means the system is easy to be implemented according to the purposes and concerns of the users. The main feature of the proposed system is sharing a secret of gray-level image among multi-users; another application of such system is ownership verification. To reveal the secret, the necessary amount of shares has to be presented. That is, the secret can be recovered even if some shares were lost. Simulation results show that the recovered secret has robustness against a wide range of imaging processing operations.

  11. Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Julie K; Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically ...

  12. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  13. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  14. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems. ...... in a SCADA system because the most important information on the specific system is provided on-line...

  15. Changes in Gray Matter Induced by Learning—Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Joenna Driemeyer; Janina Boyke; Christian Gaser; Christian Büchel; Arne May

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, activation-dependant structural brain plasticity in humans has been demonstrated in adults after three months of training a visio-motor skill. Learning three-ball cascade juggling was associated with a transient and highly selective increase in brain gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex comprising the motion sensitive area hMT/V5 bilaterally. However, the exact time-scale of usage-dependant structural changes occur is still unknown. A better understanding of the t...

  16. Neuroimaging of the Periaqueductal Gray: State of the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Linnman, Clas; Moulton, Eric A.; Barmettler, Gabi; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    This review and meta-analysis aims at summarizing and integrating the human neuroimaging studies that report periaqueductal gray (PAG) involvement; 250 original manuscripts on human neuroimaging of the PAG were identified. A narrative review and meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimates is included. Behaviors covered include pain and pain modulation, anxiety, bladder and bowel function and autonomic regulation. Methods include structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, fu...

  17. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmers Christopher C; Getz Wayne M

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefo...

  18. Cerebral palsy with heterotopic gray matter as demonstrated by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterotopic gray matter was found by magnetic resonance imaging on a 3-year-old girl with left hemiparesis and atonic seizures. In the inversion recovery sequence, a large area of decreased signal intensity was noted in the right centrum semiovale and the differentiation of right basal ganglia was not clear. We speculated that the brain malformation of our patient occured at ten weeks of conceptional age. (author)

  19. Compound Optical Film Using Gray Scale Mask Embedded with Microvoids

    OpenAIRE

    C. T. Pan; Chen, Y.C.; Y. J. Chen; Wang, W.C; Yang, H. C.; Wu, H C

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a compound optical film to improve luminance and uniformity to apply in side-LED (light-emitting diode) backlight module. LIGA (lithographie galvanoformung abformung) technology, soft lithography, and homemade gray scale mask were combined to fabricate microlens array. Optical film with variable size microlens array embedded with microvoids was designed and manufactured. FRED software was used to simulate optical performance. Microvoids were quantitatively embedded in the ...

  20. Gray tone image watermarking with complementary computer generated holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Christophe; Laulagnet, Fabien; Lemonnier, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    We present herein an original approach for the watermarking of holograms in gray tone images for use in microscopic halftone image archiving. Our concept is based on the principle of complementary holography presented in a previous contribution. The efficiency of the concept is evaluated theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate the interest of elliptical diffraction patterns as an alternative to the usual rectangular diffraction patterns and confirm the subsidiary role of the hologram amplitude in the hologram recovery process.

  1. On pattern formation in the Gray-Scott model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, we investigate an elliptic system well-known as the Gray-Scott model and present some further results for positive solutions of this model. More precisely, we give the refined a priori estimates of positive solutions, and improve some previous results for the non-existence and existence of positive non-constant solutions as the parameters are varied, which imply some certain conditions where the pattern formation occurs or not.

  2. A Case for Hydrothermal Gray Hematite in Aram Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, D. C.; Moore, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Mars Global Surveyor has detected deposits of coarsegrained, gray crystalline hematite in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos, and Vallis Marineris [1]. Detailed features in the hematite spectral signature of the Sinus Meridiani region show that the spectrum is consistent with emission dominated by crystal c-faces of hematite, implying that the hematite is specular [2]. Gray specular hematite (also known as specularite ) is a particular gray crystalline form that has intergrown, hexagonal plates with a silvery metallic luster. We believe that the key to the origin of specularite is that it requires crystallization at temperatures in excess of about 100 C. In reviewing the occurrence of gray hematite on Earth, we find no exceptions to this warm temperature requirement [3]. Thermal crystallization on Mars could occur (1) as diagenesis at a depth of a few kilometers of sediments originally formed in lowtemperature waters, or (2) as direct precipitation from hydrothermal solution. Aram Chaos has unique chaotic terrain that offers more clues to the formation of the hematite than the relatively featureless flat terrain (as seen from orbit) of Sinus Meridiani. Aram Chaos provides the opportunity to look at a combination of TES data, Mars Orbiter Camera images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography. This combination of data suggests that high concentrations of hematite were formed in planar strata and have since been exposed by erosion of an overlying light-toned, caprock. Lesser concentrations of hematite are found adjacent to these strata at lower elevations, which we interpret as perhaps a lag deposit. The topography and the collapsed nature of the chaotic terrain favor a hydrothermally charged aquifer as the original setting where the hematite formed. An alternative sedimentary origin requires post-depositional burial to a depth of 3-5 km to induce thermally driven recrystallization of fine-grained iron oxides to coarse

  3. Age Strengthening of Gray Cast Iron Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von L. Richards; Wayne Nicola

    2003-06-26

    The primary objective of this research is to identify the age strengthening mechanism in gray and ductile cast iron, and to quantify the parameters that control it. It is also to contribute to a new predictive model for gray and ductile iron strength and hardness. This work shows that age strengthening occurs on a sigmoidal-logarithmic scale in gray and ductile cast irons, to a statistically significant extent. This is similar to Avrami-Johnson-Mehl kinetics for phase transformations in metals. It occurs in both cupola-melted iron and induction melted iron. However, it does not happen in all compositions. We have developed some understanding of the process. Data suggests that nitrogen and nitride-forming trace elements have a significant role in the process, but that is yet not fully characterized. Also, the time dependence of the bulk hardness and strength increase, the nano-scale precipitation evidence from neutron scattering, differential scanning calorimetry results and matrix micro-hardness increase in ferrite all indicate that age strengthening occurs by a precipitation or pre-precipitate cluster formation mechanism.

  4. Heart pigmentation in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus (Actinopterygii: Polypteriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Moya, I; Torres-Prioris, A; Sans-Coma, V; Fernández, B; Durán, A C

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of pigment cells in the heart is well documented in amphibians, birds and mammals. By contrast, information on heart pigmentation in fish is extremely sparse. The aim is to report the presence of pigment cells over the entire surface of the heart in the gray bichir, Polypterus senegalus. The sample consisted of 12 hearts, which, after gross anatomical examination, were studied using histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques for light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The pigment cells were located in the subepicardium, showing a regular distribution pattern across the whole heart, except for the anterior end of the outflow tract, where the pigmentation was much more intense. The cells contained dark, ovoid-shaped organelles which was consistent with a melanosome cell identity. As in other vertebrates, the physiological role of the pigment cells in the heart of the gray bichir is unknown. The absence of such cells in hearts of other polypteriforms suggests that cells containing melanin are not essential for normal fish heart function. Basing on literature data concerning tetrapods, it can be inferred that the pigment cells of the heart of the gray bichir derive from the neural crest. If this were true, our findings would provide the first evidence for the presence of neural crest-derived cells in the subepicardium of adult hearts of early actinopterygians.

  5. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  6. Consistency analysis of accelerated degradation mechanism based on gray theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxia Chen; Hongxia Chen; Zhou Yang; Rui Kang; Yi Yang

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental premise of an accelerated testing is that the failure mechanism under elevated and normal stress levels should remain the same. Thus, verification of the consistency of failure mechanisms is essential during an accelerated testing. A new consistency analysis method based on the gray theory is pro-posed for complex products. First of al , existing consistency ana-lysis methods are reviewed with a focus on the comparison of the differences among them. Then, the proposed consistency ana-lysis method is introduced. Two effective gray prediction models, gray dynamic model and new information and equal dimensional (NIED) model, are adapted in the proposed method. The process to determine the dimension of NIED model is also discussed, and a decision rule is expanded. Based on that, the procedure of ap-plying the new consistent analysis method is developed. Final y, a case study of the consistency analysis of a reliability enhancement testing is conducted to demonstrate and validate the proposed method.

  7. Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuhiro Ichinose

    Full Text Available We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.

  8. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  9. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  10. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  11. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: gray short-tailed opossum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gray short-tailed opossum Monodelphis domestica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria.../Metatheria Monodelphis_domestica_L.png Monodelphis_domestica_NL.png Monodelphis_domestica_S.png Monodelphis_domestic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Monodelphis+domestica&t=NS ...

  13. Gray Matter Volumes in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-wei Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue with uncertain pathologic mechanism. Neuroimage may be an important key to unveil the central nervous system (CNS mechanism in CFS. Although most of the studies found gray matter (GM volumes reduced in some brain regions in CFS, there are many factors that could affect GM volumes in CFS, including chronic pain, stress, psychiatric disorder, physical activity, and insomnia, which may bias the results. In this paper, through reviewing recent literatures, we discussed these interferential factors, which overlap with the symptoms of CFS.

  14. Douglas Gray et al., ed. The Oxford Companion to Chaucer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen MORRISON

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Students and other readers of English medieval literature might well be forgiven for doubting the usefulness of yet another guide to the life and works of Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1340-1400, around whom a veritable publishing industry has developed in the course of the last few decades. In the case of the Oxford Companion, expertly edited by Professor Douglas Gray of Oxford University, such doubts are misplaced: students and teachers alike will derive great profit and pleasure from this compact,...

  15. FUSION OF WAVELET AND CURVELET COEFFICIENTS FOR GRAY TEXTURE CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Santhanalakshmi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a framework for gray texture classification based on the fusion of wavelet and curvelet features. The two main frequency domain transformations Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Discrete Curvelet Transform (DCT are analyzed. The features are extracted from the DWT and DCT decomposed image separately and their performance is evaluated independently. Then feature fusion technique is applied to increase the classification accuracy of the proposed approach. Brodatz texture images are used for this study. The results show that, only two texture images D105 and D106 are misclassified by the fusion approach and 99.74% classification accuracy is obtained.

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: silver-gray brushtail possum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available silver-gray brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Metatheria Trichosur...us_vulpecula_L.png Trichosurus_vulpecula_NL.png Trichosurus_vulpecula_S.png Trichosur...us_vulpecula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichosurus+vulpecula&t=L http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichosurus+vulpecula&t=NL http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichosurus+vulpecula&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trichosurus+vulpecula&t=NS ...

  17. Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, Julia M.; Williams, Lisa E.; Woodward, Neil D.; Heckers, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorders group, total gray matter vol...

  18. 77 FR 8810 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Sport diving and charter/commercial fishing... they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy regarding the protection...

  19. Evaluation of age determination techniques for gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, D.B.; Waite, C.A.; Peterson, R.O.; Mech, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated tooth wear, cranial suture fusion, closure of the canine pulp cavity, and cementum annuli as methods of age determination for known- and unknown-age gray wolves (Canis lupus) from Alaska, Minnesota, Ontario, and Isle Royale, Michigan. We developed age classes for cranial suture closure and tooth wear. We used measurement data obtained from known-age captive and wild wolves to generate a regression equation to predict age based on the degree of closure of the canine pulp cavity. Cementum annuli were studied in known- and unknown-age animals, and calcified, unstained thin sections were found to provide clear annulus patterns under polarized transmitted light. Annuli counts varied among observers, partly because of variation in the pattern of annuli in different regions of the cementum. This variation emphasizes the need for standardized models of cementum analysis. Cranial suture fusion is of limited utility in age determination, while tooth wear can be used to estimate age of adult wolves within 4 years. Wolves lt 7 years old could be aged to within 13 years with the regression equation for closure of the canine pulp cavity. Although inaccuracy remains a problem, cementum-annulus counts were the most promising means of estimating age for gray wolves.

  20. Changes in gray matter induced by learning--revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joenna Driemeyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recently, activation-dependant structural brain plasticity in humans has been demonstrated in adults after three months of training a visio-motor skill. Learning three-ball cascade juggling was associated with a transient and highly selective increase in brain gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex comprising the motion sensitive area hMT/V5 bilaterally. However, the exact time-scale of usage-dependant structural changes occur is still unknown. A better understanding of the temporal parameters may help to elucidate to what extent this type of cortical plasticity contributes to fast adapting cortical processes that may be relevant to learning. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a 3 Tesla scanner and monitoring whole brain structure we repeated and extended our original study in 20 healthy adult volunteers, focussing on the temporal aspects of the structural changes and investigated whether these changes are performance or exercise dependant. The data confirmed our earlier observation using a mean effects analysis and in addition showed that learning to juggle can alter gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex as early as after 7 days of training. Neither performance nor exercise alone could explain these changes. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the qualitative change (i.e. learning of a new task is more critical for the brain to change its structure than continued training of an already-learned task.

  1. Gray Coded Grayscale Image Steganoraphy using Hufman Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithyanandam Pandian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is an art of hiding secret information on a cover medium through imperceptible methodology. The cover medium can be any digital entity ranging from an image, audio, video to any object which can be digitally represented. Embedding capacity, imperceptibility and robustness are the primary goal of steganography. However the requirement of the above said goal vary from application to application. The notion of the proposed work is to focus on improving embedding capacity and bring down the distortion occurring to the stego image. For accomplishing higher embedding capacity and undetectability it is not essential to rely only on the cover image and efficient embedding technique but also on the refinement of the algorithm. One such attempt has been taken in the proposed work by applying gray coding technique to the payload (secret image. The gray coded binary data is bit planed and runlength encoded, prior to the submission of Huffman enoding technique results in supporting higher embedding capacity. The experimental results shows that the assessment metrics such as peak signal to noise ratio, histogram and embedding capacity are highly improved.

  2. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. PMID:25773058

  3. Outdoor relative radiometric calibration method using gray scale targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; YiNi; YAN; Lei; YANG; Bin; JING; Xin; CHEN; Wei

    2013-01-01

    The radiometric calibration of remote sensors is a basis and prerequisite of information quantification in remote sensing. This paper proposes a method for outdoor relative radiometric calibration using gray scale targets. In this method, the idea of two substitutions is adopted. Sunlight is used to replace the integrating sphere light source, and gray scale targets are used to re-place the diffuser. In this way, images at different radiance levels obtained outdoors can calculate the relative radiometric cali-bration coefficients using the least square method. The characteristics of this method are as follows. Firstly, compared with la-boratory calibration, it greatly reduces the complexity of the calibration method and the test cost. Secondly, compared with the existing outdoor relative radiometric calibration of a single radiance level, it uses test images of different radiance levels to re-duce errors. Thirdly, it is easy to operate with fewer environmental requirements, has obvious advantages in the rapid calibra-tion of airborne remote sensors before or after flight and is practical in engineering. This paper theoretically and experimental-ly proves the feasibility of this method. Calibration experiments were conducted on the wide-view multispectral imager (WVMI) using this method, and the precision of this method was evaluated by analyzing the corrected images of large uniform targets on ground. The experiment results have demonstrated that the new method is effective and its precision meets the re-quirement of the absolute radiometric calibration.

  4. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Antidumping Order: Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan, 60 FR 39150 (August 1, 1995). As a result of... Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan, 76 FR 76760 (December 8, 2011), and USITC Publication 4281..., 1992) (classes G and H of oil well cement are within the scope of the order), and Scope Rulings, 58...

  5. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Hunter, T.

    2012-07-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural selection had not presented any new scientific or theological difficulties for traditional Christian belief. From his personal correspondence with the author of the Origin, Gray well knew that Darwin did not affirm God's "particular" design of nature but conceded to the possibility that evolution proceeded according to "designed laws." From this concession, Gray attempted to develop a post-Darwinian natural theology which encouraged theistic naturalists to view God's design of nature through the evolutionary process in a manner similar to the way in which they viewed God's Providential interaction with human history. Indeed, securing a fair reading of the Origin was not Gray's sole aim as a promoter of Darwinian ideas. In Darwin's theory of natural selection, Gray believed he had discovered the means by which a more robust natural theological conception of the living and evolving natural world could be developed. In this paper I outline Gray's efforts to produce and popularize a theistic interpretation of Darwinian theory in order to correct various misconceptions concerning Gray's natural theological views and their role in the Darwinian Revolution.

  6. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  7. Efficient 2-D Gray-Scale Dilations and Erosions with Arbitrary Flat Structuring Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbach, Erik R.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2006-01-01

    An efficient algorithm is presented for the computation of gray-scale morphological operations with 2-D structuring elements (S.E.). The required computing time is independent of the image content and of the number of gray levels used. For circular S.E.s, it always outperforms the only existing comp

  8. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia Based on an International Mega-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, C.N.; Calhoun, V.D.; Rachakonda, S.; Chen, J.; Patel, V.; Liu, J.; Segall, J.; Franke, B.; Zwiers, M.P.; Arias-Vasquez, A.; Buitelaar, J.; Fisher, S.E.; Fernandez, G.; Erp, T.G. van; Potkin, S.; Ford, J.; Mathalon, D.; McEwen, S.; Lee, H.J.; Mueller, B.A.; Greve, D.N.; Andreassen, O.; Agartz, I.; Gollub, R.L.; Sponheim, S.R.; Ehrlich, S.; Wang, L.; Pearlson, G.; Glahn, D.C.; Sprooten, E.; Mayer, A.R.; Stephen, J.; Jung, R.E.; Canive, J.; Bustillo, J.; Turner, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of gray matter concentration (GMC) deficits in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) have identified robust changes throughout the cortex. We assessed the relationships between diagnosis, overall symptom severity, and patterns of gray matter in the largest aggregated structural imaging dataset t

  9. Regional Gray Matter Volume Deficits in Adolescents with First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Fraguas, David; Zabala, Arantzazu; Vazquez, Veronica Garcia; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The regional gray matter volumes of adolescents with first-episode psychosis are compared with those of a control group. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 70 patients with early onset FEP and on 51 individuals without FEP. Findings revealed that volume deficits in the left medial frontal gray matter were common in individuals with…

  10. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  11. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  12. An assessment of some non-gray global radiation models in enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, J.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of several non-gray global gas/soot radiation models, namely the Wide-Band Correlated-K (WBCK) model, the Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model with one optimized gray gas (SLW-1), the (non-gray) Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (WSGG) model with different sets of coefficients (Smith et al., Soufiani and Djavdan, Taylor and Foster) was assessed on several test cases from the literature. Non-isothermal (or isothermal) participating media containing non-homogeneous (or homogeneous) mixtures of water vapor, carbon dioxide and soot in one-dimensional planar enclosures and multi-dimensional rectangular enclosures were investigated. For all the considered test cases, a benchmark solution (LBL or SNB) was used in order to compute the relative error of each model on the predicted radiative source term and the wall net radiative heat flux.

  13. Gray Level of FIC using Zero-Mean Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman A. Al-Hilo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a fractal image compression (FIC based on zero-mean block matching method is adopted. In this method the mean of the range blocks is used instead of traditional offset parameter. The parameter ( has a smaller dynamic range [0,255] than the (o parameter [-255,511] which using in traditional method. This may cause large errors in some image regions (or points especially those which belong to high contrast area. Replace this factors also reduces and simplifies the computations of the affine parameters during the encoding process. The test results conducted on 24 bits/pixel gray Cat image indicated that the encoding time (7.47 sec, compression ratio (5.63 ,PSNR (35.16

  14. Three temperature plasma shock solutions with gray radiation diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Bryan M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of radiation on the structure of shocks in a fully-ionized plasma are investigated by solving the steady-state fluid equations for ions, electrons, and radiation. The electrons and ions are assumed to have the same bulk velocity but separate temperatures, and the radiation is modeled with the gray-diffusion approximation. Both electron and ion conduction are included, as well as ion viscosity. When the material is optically thin, three-temperature behavior occurs. When the diffusive flux of radiation is important but radiation pressure is not, two-temperature behavior occurs, with the electrons strongly coupled to the radiation. Since the radiation heats the electrons on length scales that are much longer than the electron-ion Coulomb coupling length scale, these solutions resemble radiative shock solutions rather than plasma shock solutions that neglect radiation. When radiation pressure is important, all three components are strongly coupled. Results with constant values for the transport and co...

  15. Gray Connection Analysis on Grain Yield and Agricultural Fundamental Infrastructure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying; FAN Yadong

    2011-01-01

    Although the agriculture in Heilongjiang Province has develope poor historical basis and differences between rural and urban institutional fa d ct effectively in recent years, due to issues such as ors, the backward of the agricultural fundamental infrastructure is always the major obstacle in rural economic development of Heilongjiang Province, which prevents the advantage of agricultural production from being fully developed, leading to the increase rate of the grain yield to grow slowly. The backward reflects in the following aspects, the serious aging of water facilities, insufficient agricultural machinery and equipment, low leve of rural roads, lacking of research equipment, shortage of ecological protection facilities, and so on. Based on the latcr data of Heilongjiang Province, this paper analyzed the connection between agricultural fundamental infrastructure and grain yield by using the gray connected model, differentiated primary rural fundamental infrastructure from the secondary one, and provided some suggestions to develop rural areas

  16. Quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane scrambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Sun, Ya-Juan; Fan, Ping

    2015-05-01

    With the rapid development of multimedia technology, the image scrambling for information hiding and digital watermarking is crucial. But, in quantum image processing field, the study on image scrambling is still few. Several quantum image scrambling schemes are basically position space scrambling strategies; however, the quantum image scrambling focused on the color space does not exist. Therefore, in this paper, the quantum image Gray-code and bit-plane (GB) scrambling scheme, an entire color space scrambling strategy, is proposed boldly. On the strength of a quantum image representation NEQR, several different quantum scrambling methods using GB knowledge are designed. Not only can they change the histogram distribution of the image dramatically, some designed schemes can almost make the image histogram flush, enhance the anti-attack ability of digital image, but also their cost or complexity is very low. The simulation experiments result also shows a good performance and indicates the particular advantage of GB scrambling in quantum image processing field.

  17. Changes in brain gray matter due to repetitive painful stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teutsch, S; Herken, W; Bingel, U; Schoell, E; May, A

    2008-08-15

    Using functional imaging, we recently investigated how repeated painful stimulation over several days is processed, perceived and modulated in the healthy human brain. Considering that activation-dependent brain plasticity in humans on a structural level has already been demonstrated in adults, we were interested in whether repeated painful stimulation may lead to structural changes of the brain. 14 healthy subjects were stimulated daily with a 20 min pain paradigm for 8 consecutive days, using structural MRI performed on days 1, 8, 22 and again after 1 year. Using voxel based morphometry, we are able to show that repeated painful stimulation resulted in a substantial increase of gray matter in pain transmitting areas, including mid-cingulate and somatosensory cortex. These changes are stimulation dependent, i.e. they recede after the regular nociceptive input is stopped. This data raises some interesting questions regarding structural plasticity of the brain concerning the experience of both acute and chronic pain. PMID:18582579

  18. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  19. The Weighted Gray Situation Decision-Making Model Based on the Gray Theory of Decision-Making and Its Application -- An Example of Forest Health Park of Hainan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuailin; Bai, Zhiyong

    This paper analyses the complication of influence construction of eco-tourism park decision-making, through study on gray situation theory of decision making establishes an new model of decision-making, -- weighted gray situation decision-making model based on the gray situation theory of decision-making, and on the empirical analysis, it gives a new method of gray situation theory used in decision-making of construction.

  20. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  1. The Contra-Diction of Design: Blake's Illustrations to Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Argues that William Blake's illustrations for Thomas Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat" testify to the contradictions in Gray's poetry. States that Blake's designs offer another language, a contra-diction, that deconstructs Gray's conscious discourse and liberates his unconscious discourse. (RS)

  2. AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in

  3. AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in

  4. Aerobic Fitness is Associated with Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Snook, Erin M.; Motl, Robert W.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in gray and white matter have been well documented in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Severity and extent of such brain tissue damage have been associated with cognitive impairment, disease duration and neurological disability, making quantitative indices of tissue damage important markers of disease progression. In this study, we investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of gray matter atrophy and white matter integrity. Employing a voxel-based approach to analyses of gray matter and white matter, we specifically examined whether higher levels of fitness in multiple sclerosis participants were associated with preserved gray matter volume and integrity of white matter. We found a positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness and regional gray matter volumes and higher focal fractional anisotropy values. Statistical mapping revealed that higher levels of fitness were associated with greater gray matter volume in the midline cortical structures including the medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. Further, we also found increasing levels of fitness were associated with higher fractional anisotropy in the left thalamic radiation and right anterior corona radiata. Both preserved gray matter volume and white-matter tract integrity were associated with better performance on measures of processing speed. Taken together, these results suggest that fitness exerts a prophylactic influence on the cerebral atrophy observed early on preserving neuronal integrity in multiple sclerosis, thereby reducing long-term disability. PMID:19560443

  5. A gray-natural logarithm ratio bilateral filtering method for image processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanan Chen; Kuntao Yang; Rong Chen; Zhiming Xie

    2008-01-01

    A new method based on gray-natural logarithm ratio bilateral filtering is presented for image smoothing in this work. A new gray-natural logarithm ratio range filter kernel, leading to adaptive magnitude from image gray distinction information, is pointed out for the bilateral filtering. The new method can not only well restrain noise but also keep much more weak edges and details of an image, and preserve the original color transition of color images. Experimental results show the effectiveness for image denoising with our method.

  6. A Tentative Interpretation of the Picture of Dorian Gray with Psychoanalytical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇怡彬

    2007-01-01

    This paper applies Freudian psychoanalytical method to interpreting the characteristics of the three heroes in the Picture of Dorian Gray.Based on Freud's theory of psychoanalysis,the paper presents that the harmony of the tripartite personality is the underlying highlight of the novel and concludes that the concepts of the id,the ego,and the superego correspond with the images of Lord Henry,Dorian Gray and Basil Hallward respectively.And this paper claims that Dorian Gray's self-destruction is the most ext...

  7. Petrology, Palynology, and Geochemistry of Gray Hawk Coal (Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian) in Eastern Kentucky, USA

    OpenAIRE

    James C. Hower; Cortland F. Eble; Jennifer M. K. O'Keefe; Shifeng Dai; Peipei Wang; Panpan Xie; Jingjing Liu; Ward, Colin R.; David French

    2015-01-01

    This study presents recently collected data examining the organic petrology, palynology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Gray Hawk coal bed. From the Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian substage, Gray Hawk coal has been mined near the western edge of the eastern Kentucky portion of the Central Appalachian coalfield. While the coal is thin, rarely more than 0.5-m thick, it has a low-ash yield and a low-S content, making it an important local resource. The Gray Hawk coal palynology is dominate...

  8. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability.

  9. Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in a 2,060km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus (CPV). The CPV had little effect (P gt 0.05) on wolf population size while epizootic during 1979-83. However, after CPV became enzootic, percentage of pups captured during summer-fall 1984-93 and changes in subsequent winter wolf numbers were each inversely related to the serological prevalence of CPV in wolves captured during July-November (r2 = 0.39 and 0.72, P = 0.05 and lt 0.01, respectively). The CPV antibody prevalence in adult wolves increased to 87% in 1993 (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.05). However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation. We -predict that the winter wolf population will decline when CPV prevalence in adults consistently exceeds 76%. The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations.

  10. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM to explore gray matter (GM asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15 or left-sided limb (n = 15. Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01. Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  11. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew S; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; McCombe, Pamela A; Rose, Stephen E; Henderson, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15) or left-sided limb (n = 15). Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left) motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01). Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability. PMID:25844330

  12. Neuroimaging of the periaqueductal gray: state of the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Moulton, Eric A; Barmettler, Gabi; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-03-01

    This review and meta-analysis aims at summarizing and integrating the human neuroimaging studies that report periaqueductal gray (PAG) involvement; 250 original manuscripts on human neuroimaging of the PAG were identified. A narrative review and meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimates is included. Behaviors covered include pain and pain modulation, anxiety, bladder and bowel function and autonomic regulation. Methods include structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity measures, diffusion weighted imaging and positron emission tomography. Human neuroimaging studies in healthy and clinical populations largely confirm the animal literature indicating that the PAG is involved in homeostatic regulation of salient functions such as pain, anxiety and autonomic function. Methodological concerns in the current literature, including resolution constraints, imaging artifacts and imprecise neuroanatomical labeling are discussed, and future directions are proposed. A general conclusion is that PAG neuroimaging is a field with enormous potential to translate animal data onto human behaviors, but with some growing pains that can and need to be addressed in order to add to our understanding of the neurobiology of this key region. PMID:22197740

  13. Gray matter volumetric abnormalities associated with the onset of psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi Hoon eJung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with psychosis display structural brain abnormalities in multiple brain regions. The disorder is characterized by a putative prodromal period called ultra-high-risk (UHR status, which precedes the onset of full-blown psychotic symptoms. Recent studies on psychosis have focused on this period. Neuroimaging studies of UHR individuals for psychosis have revealed that the structural brain changes observed during the established phases of the disorder are already evident prior to the onset of the illness. Moreover, certain brain regions show extremely dynamic changes during the transition to psychosis. These neurobiological features may be used as prognostic and predictive biomarkers for psychosis. With advances in neuroimaging techniques, neuroimaging studies focusing on gray matter abnormalities provide new insights into the pathophysiology of psychosis, as well as new treatment strategies. Some of these novel approaches involve antioxidants administration, because it is suggested that this treatment may delay the progression of UHR to a full-blown psychosis and prevent progressive structural changes. The present review includes an update on the most recent developments in early intervention strategies for psychosis and potential therapeutic treatments for schizophrenia. First, we provide the basic knowledge of the brain regions associated with structural abnormalities in individuals at UHR. Next, we discuss the feasibility on the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-biomarkers in clinical practice. Then, we describe potential etiopathological mechanisms underlying structural brain abnormalities in prodromal psychosis. Finally, we discuss the potentials and limitations related to neuroimaging studies in individuals at UHR.

  14. Differences in gray matter structure correlated to nationalism and patriotism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-07-15

    Nationalism and patriotism both entail positive evaluations of one's nation. However, the former inherently involves derogation of other nations, whereas the latter is independent of comparisons with other nations. We used voxel-based morphometry and psychological measures and determined nationalism and patriotism's association with gray matter density (rGMD) and their cognitive nature in healthy individuals (433 men and 344 women; age, 20.7 ± 1.9 years) using whole-brain multiple regression analyses and post hoc analyses. We found higher nationalism associated with greater rGMD in (a) areas of the posterior cingulate cortex and greater rGMD in (b) the orbitofrontal cortex, and smaller rGMD in (c) the right amygdala area. Furthermore, we found higher patriotism associated with smaller rGMD in the (d) rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Post hoc analyses revealed the mean rGMD of the cluster (a) associated with compassion, that of (b) associated with feeling of superiority, that of (c) associated with suicide ideation, and that of (d) associated with quality of life. These results indicate that individual nationalism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in social-related areas and limbic neural mechanisms, whereas patriotism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in areas related to well-being.

  15. Obtaining Martensitic Structures during Thixoforming of Hypoeutectic Gray Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bertolino Ragazzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of parameters such as liquid fraction, holding time, and cooling rate during thixoforming can help control the final microstructure of the thixoformed part, thus improving its mechanical properties. This study intended to investigate conditions required to obtain martensite in hypoeutectic gray cast iron at 3.1% CE (carbon equivalent deformed in the semisolid state. Samples heated up to 1130, 1135, and 1145°C (liquid fractions of 10, 30, and 45% were compressed into platens without any holding time (0 s. If a sample presented a martensitic structure for 0 s holding time, new samples were retested at the same temperature for 30, 60, and 90 s holding times. The die casting process was simulated by allowing the platens to become locked after hot compression. Samples that cooled in the locked platens were submitted to higher cooling rates than samples that cooled with the platens open and presented martensite instead of the conventional ferrite and pearlite. Thus, the factor that had the greatest influence on the formation of martensite was the cooling rate rather than stress. The thixoforming process presented good morphological stability, which is highly desirable for industrial applications.

  16. Structure Analysis at the Micro Iron Pour at Gray Brake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melya D. Sebayang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of gray cast iron brake drum as the material is the most appropriate choice, because it has properties which have good heat conductivity, hardness, toughness, good friction properties and the ability to absorb vibration. The purpose of this study to determine the ratio of the microstructure on both original material drum that is new and original drum ex-wear. With the aim of analysis is expected to be used as basis in planning the development of better vehicle brakes. Of all the test results it can be mentioned chemical composition of test results with the main alloying elements, to drum new original: C 4:13%, 2:51% Si, 0.15% S, 0.65% Mn, 0.0054% P, and the original drum ex-wear: C 4:13%, 2:17% Si, 0.15% S, 0.53% Mn, 0.0054% P. So the comparison of properties of the resulting structure after the testing process on each drum is the hardness and resistance to wear and tear on a new original drum better when compared with the original drum ex-wear.

  17. Gray-Box Modeling of a Pneumatic Servo-Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Aghamirsalim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation as well as the combined analytical andexperimental identification (gray box identification of a servo-valve torque motor as thedirectional valve applied in a pneumatic actuator. Based on analytical modelling, a simplelinear parametric model with transfer function and block diagram is developed. Next, thestatic and dynamic characteristics of the torque motor are obtained from experimentalobservations. The characteristics confirm the desired linear behaviour of the torque motor.Hence, linearized coefficients from a best curve fitting of static characteristics can bederived. Classical methods of identification are applied on the frequency and stepresponses obtained from a set of tests on the torque motor. Obtained tests results based onparsimony principle and model order of analytical investigations are then implemented toderive the best identified transfer function to describe the performance of the servo-valvetorque motor. Design parameters are estimated with the comparison of the experimentaland analytical models. These parameters can be implemented with acceptable accuracy forservo control studies of pneumatic actuators.

  18. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability. PMID:24304583

  19. Differences in gray matter structure correlated to nationalism and patriotism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Nationalism and patriotism both entail positive evaluations of one's nation. However, the former inherently involves derogation of other nations, whereas the latter is independent of comparisons with other nations. We used voxel-based morphometry and psychological measures and determined nationalism and patriotism's association with gray matter density (rGMD) and their cognitive nature in healthy individuals (433 men and 344 women; age, 20.7 ± 1.9 years) using whole-brain multiple regression analyses and post hoc analyses. We found higher nationalism associated with greater rGMD in (a) areas of the posterior cingulate cortex and greater rGMD in (b) the orbitofrontal cortex, and smaller rGMD in (c) the right amygdala area. Furthermore, we found higher patriotism associated with smaller rGMD in the (d) rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Post hoc analyses revealed the mean rGMD of the cluster (a) associated with compassion, that of (b) associated with feeling of superiority, that of (c) associated with suicide ideation, and that of (d) associated with quality of life. These results indicate that individual nationalism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in social-related areas and limbic neural mechanisms, whereas patriotism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in areas related to well-being. PMID:27418362

  20. Third Annual Foreign Acquisitions Workshop: Improving Access to Foreign Gray Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The theme of the Third Annual Foreign Acquisitions Workshop was the acquisition of and access to foreign (non-U.S.) gray literature. Individual presentations addressed general topics related to the value and scope of gray literature, specialized and foreign gray-literature sources, intellectual property issues, and U.S. Federal Agency activities. Additional topics focused on electronic access and evaluation techniques and the current and potential uses of networking technology. The workshop papers are presented in their entirety or in abstract or outline form. Appendices include a listing of databases that include foreign gray literature, a bibliography, and a report on U.S.-Japan cooperation in the use of scientific and technical information.

  1. Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Vieno, N.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic + aero

  2. Partner Selection Analysis and System Development Based on Gray Relation Analysis for an Agile Virtual Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the state of the art of partner selection and enumerates the advantage of partner selection based on gray relation analysis comparing to the other algorithms of the partner selection. Furthermore, partner selection system based on gray relation for an Agile Virtual Enterprise(AVE) is analyzed and designed based on the definition and characteristics of the AVE. According to J2EE mode, the architecture of the partner selection system is put forward and the system is developed using JSP, EJB and SQL Server. The paper lays emphasis on a gray relational mathematic model, AVE evaluation infrastructure, a core algorithm of partner selection and a multi-layer gray relation selection process.

  3. Thermal Microstructural Multiscale Simulation of Solidification and Eutectoid Transformation of Hypereutectic Gray Cast Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Alejandro; Celentano, Diego J.; Gunasegaram, Dayalan R.; Deeva, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    Although the gray cast iron solidification process has been the subject of several modeling studies, almost all available models appear to deal with only the more widely used hypoeutectic compositions. Models related to hypereutectic gray iron compositions with lamellar (or flake) graphite, and in particular for the proeutectic and eutectoid zones, are hard to find in the open literature. Hence, in the present work, a thermal microstructural multiscale model is proposed to describe the solidification and eutectoid transformation of a slightly hypereutectic composition leading to lamellar graphite gray iron morphology. The main predictions were: (a) temperature evolutions; (b) fractions of graphite, ferrite, and pearlite; (c) density; and (d) size of ferrite, pearlite, and gray eutectic grains; (e) average interlamellar graphite spacing; and (f) its thickness. The predicted cooling curves and fractions for castings with two different compositions and two different pouring temperatures were validated using experimental data. The differences between this model and existing models for hypoeutectic compositions are discussed.

  4. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled (PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  5. Fabrication of Partially Transparent Petaled Masks Using Gray Scale Lithography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our main objective in this study is to design, fabricate, and analyze the partially transparent petaled(PTP) masks using gray scale lithography to suppress the...

  6. Modeling public health interventions for improved access to the gray literature

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Anne M.; Liddy, Elizabeth D.; Bradley, Jana; Wheatley, Joyce A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Much of the useful information in public health (PH) is considered gray literature, literature that is not available through traditional, commercial pathways. The diversity and nontraditional format of this information makes it difficult to locate. The aim of this Robert Wood Johnson Foundation–funded project is to improve access to PH gray literature reports through established natural language processing (NLP) techniques. This paper summarizes the development of a model for repre...

  7. Construction of engineering Trichoderma strains and their characteristics against tomato gray mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian; ZHUANG Jing-hua; GAO Zeng-gui; YANG Chang-cheng; CHEN Jie

    2004-01-01

    @@ The transformed Trichoderma strains Ttrm31, Ttrm34 and Ttrm55 were obtained from Trichoderma wild strain T21 mutated by REMI technique for more effective biocontrol of tomato gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) with Trichoderma agent. Those transformants appeared much better in biocontrol activity in vitro or in vivo against tomato gray mold were better than that of wild strain T21. The main results were as follow:

  8. Gray comprehensive assessment and optimal selection of water consumption forecasting model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive assessing method based on the principle of the gray system theory and gray relational grade analysis was put forward to optimize water consumption forecasting models. The method provides a better accuracy for the assessment and the optimal selection of the water consumption forecasting models. The results show that the forecasting model built on this comprehensive assessing method presents better self-adaptability and accuracy in forecasting.

  9. 灰色收入浅析%Analysis of Gray Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王越; 蒋欣妤

    2013-01-01

    In the market-oriented reform process, there will be widening income gap, these gaps in the normal range. It is acceptable, but the gray income caused by abnormal income, people with a strong public anger emotions, and even lead to social problems. The gray income is divided into light and dark gray, and the existence of gray income areas, light gray areas include teachers, the tourism industry, medicine, and reporters; dark gray areas include the operation of financial capital, lending operations and rent-seeking behavior of gray income from the social, political and economic analysis of three levels of gray income hazards, put forward a sound legal system, strengthen ideological and strengthen social supervision countermeasures and suggestions.%  在市场化改革过程中,必然出现收入差距扩大,这些差距在正常范围内。人们是可以接受的,但灰色收入所导致的不正常的收入,人们具有强烈的公愤情绪、甚至引发社会问题。将灰色收入划分为浅灰和深灰,以及灰色收入存在的领域,浅灰领域主要包括教师、旅游行业、医药和记者;深灰领域主要包括财政资金的运作、贷款操作和寻租行为的灰色收入,从社会、政治和经济三个层面分析灰色收入的危害,提出完善法制、加强思想建设和增强社会监督的对策和建议。

  10. Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: exact results

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Anderson, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation are found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low frequency limit.

  11. Generalizing the mean intercept length tensor for gray-level images

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Borga, Magnus; Smedby, Örjan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The mean intercept length tensor is the most used technique to estimate microstructure orientation and anisotropy of trabecular bone. This paper proposes an efficient extension of this technique to gray-scale images based on a closed formulation of the mean intercept length tensor and a generalization using different angular convolution kernels. Methods: First, the extended Gaussian image is computed for the binary or gray-scale image. Second, the intercepts are computed for all poss...

  12. Improving the Calibration of Image Sensors Based on IOFBs, Using Differential Gray-Code Space Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Luna Vázquez; Cano García, Ángel E.; Ignacio Bravo Muñoz; Alfredo Gardel Vicente; José Luis Lázaro Galilea; Pedro R. Fernández

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fast calibration method to determine the transfer function for spatial correspondences in image transmission devices with Incoherent Optical Fiber Bundles (IOFBs), by performing a scan of the input, using differential patterns generated from a Gray code (Differential Gray-Code Space Encoding, DGSE). The results demonstrate tha...

  13. Aerobic Fitness is Associated with Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Snook, Erin M.; Motl, Robert W.; Arthur F Kramer

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in gray and white matter have been well documented in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Severity and extent of such brain tissue damage have been associated with cognitive impairment, disease duration and neurological disability, making quantitative indices of tissue damage important markers of disease progression. In this study, we investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of gray matter atrophy and white matter integrity. Employing a voxel-ba...

  14. Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrices: Generalisation and Some New Features

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Bino; Balakrishnan, Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) are one of the earliest techniques used for image texture analysis. In this paper we defined a new feature called trace extracted from the GLCM and its implications in texture analysis are discussed in the context of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR). The theoretical extension of GLCM to n-dimensional gray scale images are also discussed. The results indicate that trace features outperform Haralick features when applied to CBIR.

  15. Gray Comprehensive Evaluation Method on Coal Seam Water Injection in Order of Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Xiao Li; Zhang Zhi Ye; Li Meng Qian

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the coal mine water injection accurately, the gray comprehensive evaluation is applied in this paper, the depth of coal seam, the development degree of coal seam crack, porosity, gas pressure in coal seam, wetting edge of coal, firmness coefficient of coal are chosen as the main index to evaluate the method of water injection into coal mine. The results show that the gray comprehensive evaluation model has a relatively high reliability and accuracy, which can be used to p...

  16. Optic nerve gray crescent can confound neuroretinal rim interpretation: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Sourabh; Rayat, Jaspreet; Damji, Karim F

    2014-06-01

    The optic nerve gray crescent can be of clinical significance if unrecognized during assessment for glaucoma. It has a characteristic appearance of a slate gray area of pigmentation within the disc margins and commonly appears along the inferotemporal or temporal neuroretinal rim areas. This type of disc rim pigmentation can create the impression of neuroretinal rim thinning, and thus lead to the misdiagnosis of glaucoma or "glaucoma suspect" with attendant implications for overtreatment or unnecessary close monitoring of such patients. The gray crescent is more common in African Americans than whites (prevalence rate 27% vs 7%) and is bilateral in at least 58% of cases. It has been reported in association with Kjer optic atrophy type 1. Suggested causes of the gray crescent include an accumulation of melanocytes, or retinal pigment epithelium cells partially located in the optic nerve head region if Bruch's membrane extends internal to the peripapillary scleral ring. Other causes of pigmentation that may resemble gray crescent are conus pigmentosus and variations of peripapillary atrophy. When a gray crescent is present, clinicians should endeavour to identify the true anatomical disc margins via the scleral lip and, if necessary, evaluate the patient further with imaging and visual field studies.

  17. Relationship between Hounsfield Unit in CT Scan and Gray Scale in CBCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Tahmineh; Niknami, Mahdi; Alavi Ghazani, Fakhri

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is an imaging system which has many advantages over computed tomography (CT). In CT scan, Hounsfield Unit (HU) is proportional to the degree of x-ray attenuation by the tissue. In CBCT, the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gray scale in CBCT) and Hounsfield Unit (HU) in CT scan. Materials and methods. In this descriptive study, the head of a sheep was scanned with 3 CBCT and one medical CT scanner. Gray scales and HUs were detected on images. Reconstructed data were analyzed to investigate relationship between CBCT gray scales and HUs. Results. A strong correlation between gray scales of CBCT and HUs of CT scan was determined. Conclusion. Considering the fact that gray scale in CBCT is the criteria in measurement of bone density before implant treatments, it is recommended because of the lower dose and cost compared to CT scan.

  18. The gray phenotype and tristable phenotypic transitions in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Tao, Li; Zhang, Qiuyu; Guan, Guobo; Nobile, Clarissa J; Zheng, Qiushi; Ding, Xuefen; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, the ability to switch between different morphological types, plays critical roles in environmental adaptation, leading to infections, and allowing for sexual reproduction in pathogenic Candida species. Candida tropicalis, which is both an emerging human fungal pathogen and an environmental fungus, can switch between two heritable cell types termed white and opaque. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel phenotype in C. tropicalis, named the gray phenotype. Similar to Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis, white, gray, and opaque cell types of C. tropicalis also form a tristable switching system, where gray cells are relatively small and elongated. In C. tropicalis, gray cells exhibit intermediate levels of mating competency and virulence in a mouse systemic infection model compared to the white and opaque cell types, express a set of cell type-enriched genes, and exhibit both common and species-specific biological features. The key regulators of white-opaque transitions, Wor1 and Efg1, are not required for the gray phenotype. A comparative study of the gray phenotypes in C. tropicalis, C. albicans, and C. dubliniensis provides clues to explain the virulence properties and niche preferences of C. tropicalis. PMID:27246518

  19. Fast retrieval of calcification from sequential intravascular ultrasound gray-scale images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sun; Bing-Ru, Liu

    2016-08-12

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based tissue characterization is invaluable for the computer-aided diagnosis and interventional treatment of cardiac vessel diseases. Although the analysis of raw backscattered signals allows more accurate plaque characterization than gray-scale images, its applications are limited due to its nature of electrocardiogram-gated acquisition. Images acquired by IVUS devices that do not allow the acquisition of raw signals cannot be characterized. To address these limitations, we developed a method for fast frame-by-frame retrieval and location of calcification according to the jump features of radial gray-level variation curves from sequential IVUS gray-scale images. The proposed method consists of three main steps: (1) radial gray-level variation curves are extracted from each filtered polar view, (2) sequential images are preliminarily queried according to the maximal slopes of radial gray-level variation curves, and finally, (3) key frames that include calcification are selected through checking the gray-level features of successive pixel columns in the preliminary results. Experimental results with clinically acquired in vivo data sets indicate key frames that include calcification can be retrieved with the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and accuracy. Recognition results correlate well with manual characterization results obtained by experienced physicians and through virtual histology. PMID:27567774

  20. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmers Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  1. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Wilmers

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  2. Electroconvulsive therapy increases temporal gray matter volume and cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Alexander; Demirakca, Traute; Böhringer, Andreas; Clemm von Hohenberg, Christian; Aksay, Suna Su; Bumb, Jan Malte; Kranaster, Laura; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment of choice for severe and therapy resistant forms of major depressive episodes (MDE). Temporal brain volume alterations in MDE have been described for more than two decades. In our prospective study we aimed to investigate individual pre-post ECT treatment whole brain gray matter (GM) volume changes (quantified with voxel-based morphometry) in a sample of 18 patients with MDE. In addition, we studied the effect of ECT on voxel-based cortical thickness in cortical brain regions. The most prominent longitudinal GM increases (significant at a whole brain corrected level) occurred in temporal lobe regions. Within specific region of interest analyses we detected highly significant increases of GM in the hippocampus and the amygdala and to a lesser extent in the habenula (left p=0.003, right p=0.032). A voxel based cortical thickness analysis revealed an increase in cortical temporal regions (basically temporal pole and insula) further corroborating our cortical voxel-based morphometry results. Neither GM decreases or white matter increases nor correlations of GM changes with basic psychopathological parameters were detected. We corroborate earlier findings of hippocampal and amygdala GM volume increase following an acute ECT series in patients with MDE. Temporal GM volume increase was significant on a whole brain level and further corroborated by a cortical thickness analysis. Our data widely exclude white matter loss as an indirect cause of GM growth. Our data add further evidence to the hypothesis that ECT enables plasticity falsifying older ideas of ECT induced "brain damaging". PMID:26792445

  3. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  4. Walsh, Sine, Haar & Cosine Transform With Various Color Spaces for ‘Color to Gray and Back’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H. B. Kekre

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows performance comparison of various color spaces with Image transforms alias Walsh, DCT, DST & Haar for ‘Color to Gray and Back’. The color information of the image is embedded into its gray scale version/equivalent [1][2][3]. Instead of using the original color image for storage and transmission, matted gray (Gray scale version with embedded color information can be used, resulting into better bandwidth or storage utilization. Total twenty-eight variations of the algorithm for ‘Color to Gray and Back’ are proposed and evaluated for qualitative performance using four image transforms and seven color spaces (RGB, YCbCr, YCgCb, YUV, YIQ, XYZ and Kekre’s LUV [4]. Among all considered image transforms and color spaces, Discreet Cosine Transform (DCT gives better performance with YCbCr color space in ‘Color to gray and Back’.

  5. Complex surface three-dimensional shape measurement method based on defocused Gray code plus phase-shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhuohuan; Fu, Yanjun; Li, Biao; Chai, Minggang

    2016-08-01

    Binary pattern defocused projection method can overcome the nonlinear gamma of the projector, as well as filter high harmonics and high-frequency noise. However, high-accuracy three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement of complex surface using it still remains a challenge. Therefore, a novel Gray code plus phase-shifting method based on defocusing is proposed to solve the problem. The edges of Gray code patterns become blurred owing to defocus, which makes the recovery of accurate Gray code patterns difficult. To solve this problem, the positive and inverse Gray code patterns are projected to obtain threshold values, which are used to achieve the binarization of Gray code patterns. This method is robust and suitable for different defocus levels. Compared with the traditional Gray code plus phase-shifting method, the experimental results prove the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  6. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehatpour, Pejman; Long, Jun; Gui, Weihua; Qiao, Jianping; Javitt, Daniel C.; Wang, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    A failure of adaptive inference—misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action—is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci) in subcortical gray matter (GM) in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD), a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth) surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales) of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based) information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19) (age ranges: patients, 22.7–54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9–51.6 years old). We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07–2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15–2.23, p<0.001; Cohen’s effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0)), the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05–2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12–2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1)), as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40–2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473)) in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM

  7. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihu Zhao

    Full Text Available A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci in subcortical gray matter (GM in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD, a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19 (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old. We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0, the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1, as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473 in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  8. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guihu; Denisova, Kristina; Sehatpour, Pejman; Long, Jun; Gui, Weihua; Qiao, Jianping; Javitt, Daniel C; Wang, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci) in subcortical gray matter (GM) in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD), a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth) surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales) of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based) information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19) (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old). We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0)), the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1)), as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473)) in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  9. The role of non-gray model atmospheres in the evolution of low mass metal poor stars

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, G. J.; Lynas-Gray, A. E.; Tennyson, J.; Miller, S.

    2006-01-01

    Gray model atmospheres are generally considered a reasonable approximation to make upon stars of mass greater than about 0.6 M-circle dot. Here we show that non-gray atmospheres can significantly affect evolutionary models, with masses up to 0.9 M-circle dot. The effect of including a non-gray atmosphere is strongest in the pre-main and post-main Sequence. This may have implications for the ages of the oldest globular clusters.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Pueraria lobata Extract in Gray Hair Prevention: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Seong Jin; Shin, Hyoseung; Paik, Seung Hwan; Na, Sun Jae; Jin, Yingji; Park, Won Seok; Kim, Su Na; Kwon, Oh Sang

    2013-01-01

    Background Graying of hair-a sign of aging-raises cosmetic concerns. Individuals with gray hair often look older than others their age; therefore, some dye their hair for aesthetic purposes. However, hair colorants can induce many problems including skin irritation, allergic reaction and hair-breakage. Objective This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed in order to examine the effects of APHG-1001, a compound including an extract from Pueraria lobata, on graying hair. Methods...

  11. Changes of brain gray matter structure in Parkinson's disease patients with dementia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Xia; Weizhong Tian; Jinlin Miu; Hongbin Ding; Xiuping Wang; Hua Chen; Juan Wang; Juan Wu; Jingli Zhao; Huanxin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry is gaining considerable interest for studies examining Parkinson's disease dementia patients. In this study, 12 patients with clinically defined Parkinson's disease and dementia and 12 non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease were examined using a T1WI three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo sequence. Gray matter data were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry method and independent sample t-test based on Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 software. Differences in gray matter volume were represented with statistical parametric mapping. Compared with Parkinson's disease patients without dementia, decreased gray matter volume in Parkinson's disease dementia patients was observed in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral posterior cingulate and left cingulate gyrus, right parahippocampal gyrus and hippocampus, right precuneus and right cuneus, left inferior frontal gyrus and left insular lobe. No increased gray matter volume was apparent. These data indicate that gray matter atrophy in the limbic system and cerebral neocortex is related to the presence of dementia.

  12. Gray matter atrophy in narcolepsy: An activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Chen, Chih-Feng; Tsai, Yuan-Hsiung; Wu, Chih-Ying; Lee, Meng; Lin, Yu-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2015-12-01

    The authors reviewed the literature on the use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in narcolepsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies via the use of a meta-analysis of neuroimaging to identify concordant and specific structural deficits in patients with narcolepsy as compared with healthy subjects. We used PubMed to retrieve articles published between January 2000 and March 2014. The authors included all VBM research on narcolepsy and compared the findings of the studies by using gray matter volume (GMV) or gray matter concentration (GMC) to index differences in gray matter. Stereotactic data were extracted from 8 VBM studies of 149 narcoleptic patients and 162 control subjects. We applied activation likelihood estimation (ALE) technique and found significant regional gray matter reduction in the bilateral hypothalamus, thalamus, globus pallidus, extending to nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left mid orbital and rectal gyri (BAs 10 and 11), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), and the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 41) in patients with narcolepsy. The significant gray matter deficits in narcoleptic patients occurred in the bilateral hypothalamus and frontotemporal regions, which may be related to the emotional processing abnormalities and orexin/hypocretin pathway common among populations of patients with narcolepsy.

  13. Gray Box Optimization for Mk Landscapes (NK Landscapes and MAX-kSAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, L Darrell; Chicano, Francisco; Goldman, Brian W

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates Gray Box Optimization for pseudo-Boolean optimization problems composed of M subfunctions, where each subfunction accepts at most k variables. We will refer to these as Mk Landscapes. In Gray Box Optimization, the optimizer is given access to the set of M subfunctions. We prove Gray Box Optimization can efficiently compute hyperplane averages to solve non-deceptive problems in [Formula: see text] time. Bounded separable problems are also solved in [Formula: see text] time. As a result, Gray Box Optimization is able to solve many commonly used problems from the evolutional computation literature in [Formula: see text] evaluations. We also introduce a more general class of Mk Landscapes that can be solved using dynamic programming and discuss properties of these functions. For certain type of problems Gray Box Optimization makes it possible to enumerate all local optima faster than brute force methods. We also provide evidence that randomly generated test problems are far less structured than those found in real-world problems.

  14. Assessment of an unstructured exponential scheme discrete ordinates radiation model for non-gray media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, S.; Lima, K. L. M.; Wen, J. X.

    2011-11-01

    For radiative transfer in complex geometries, Sakami and his co-workers have developed a discrete ordinates method (DOM) exponential scheme for unstructured meshes which was mainly applied to gray media. The present study investigates the application of the unstructured exponential scheme to a wider range of non-gray scenarios found in fire and combustion applications, with the goal to implement it in an in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code for fire simulations. The original unstructured gray exponential scheme is adapted to non-gray applications by employing a statistical narrow-band/correlated-k (SNB-CK) gas model and meshes generated using the authors' own mesh generator. Different non-gray scenarios involving spectral gas absorption by H2O and CO2 are investigated and a comparative analysis is carried out between heat flux and radiative source terms predicted and literature data based on ray-tracing and Monte Carlo methods. The maximum discrepancies for total radiative heat flux do not typically exceed 5%.

  15. Attentional Control and Intelligence: MRI Orbital Frontal Gray Matter and Neuropsychological Correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G. Nestor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attentional control is a key function of working memory that is hypothesized to play an important role in psychometric intelligence. To test the neuropsychological underpinnings of this hypothesis, we examined full-scale IQ, as measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III, and attentional control, as measured by Trails B response time and Wisconsin Card Sorting (WCS test perseverative errors in 78 healthy participants, 25 of whom also had available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI gray matter volume studies of the orbital frontal cortex (OFC parcellated into three regions: gyrus rectus, middle orbital gyrus, and lateral orbital gyrus. Hierarchical regression indicated that Trails B response time specifically explained 15.13% to 19.18% of the variation in IQ and WCS perseverative errors accounted for an additional 8.12% to 11.29% of the variance. Full-scale IQ correlated very strongly with right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r=0.610, p=0.002, as did Trails B response time with left middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume (r=-0.608, p=0.003. Trails B response time and right middle orbital gyrus gray matter volume jointly accounted for approximately 32.95% to 54.82% of the variance in IQ scores. These results provided evidence of the unique contributions of attentional control and OFC gray matter to intelligence.

  16. Local synchronization of resting-state dynamics encodes Gray's trait Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Dresler, Thomas; Pyka, Martin; Notebaert, Karolien; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2013-01-01

    The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo) in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS. PMID:23520499

  17. Non-gray gas radiation effect on mixed convection in lid driven square cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherifi, Mohammed; Benbrik, Abderrahmane; Laouar-Meftah, Siham; Lemonnier, Denis

    2016-06-01

    A numerical study is performed to investigate the effect of non-gray radiation on mixed convection in a vertical two sided lid driven square cavity filled with air-H2O-CO2 gas mixture. The vertical moving walls of the enclosure are maintained at two different but uniform temperatures. The horizontal walls are thermally insulated and considered as adiabatic walls. The governing differential equations are solved by a finite-volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the pressure-velocity coupling. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by the discrete ordinates method (DOM). The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. Simulations are performed in configurations where thermal and shear forces induce cooperating buoyancy forces. Streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number are analyzed for three different values of Richardson's number (from 0.1 to 10) and by considering three different medium (transparent medium, gray medium using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, and non-gray medium assumption).

  18. Externalizing personality traits, empathy, and gray matter volume in healthy young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Judith; Dzemidzic, Mario; West, John; Oberlin, Brandon G; Eiler, William J A; Saykin, Andrew J; Kareken, David A

    2016-02-28

    Externalizing psychopathology has been linked to prefrontal abnormalities. While clinically diagnosed subjects show altered frontal gray matter, it is unknown if similar deficits relate to externalizing traits in non-clinical populations. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to retrospectively analyze the cerebral gray matter volume of 176 young adult social to heavy drinkers (mean age=24.0±2.9, male=83.5%) from studies of alcoholism risk. We hypothesized that prefrontal gray matter volume and externalizing traits would be correlated. Externalizing personality trait components-Boredom Susceptibility-Impulsivity (BS/IMP) and Empathy/Low Antisocial Behaviors (EMP/LASB)-were tested for correlations with gray matter partial volume estimates (gmPVE). Significantly large clusters (pFWEEMP/LASB in dorsolateral and medial prefrontal regions, and in occipital cortex. BS/IMP did not correlate with gmPVE, but one scale of impulsivity (Eysenck I7) correlated positively with bilateral inferior frontal/orbitofrontal, and anterior insula gmPVE. In this large sample of community-dwelling young adults, antisocial behavior/low empathy corresponded with reduced prefrontal and occipital gray matter, while impulsivity correlated with increased inferior frontal and anterior insula cortical volume. These findings add to a literature indicating that externalizing personality features involve altered frontal architecture. PMID:26778367

  19. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  20. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus. PMID:26477659

  1. Local synchronization of resting-state dynamics encodes Gray's trait Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hahn

    Full Text Available The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS as defined within the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST modulates reactions to stimuli indicating aversive events. Gray's trait Anxiety determines the extent to which stimuli activate the BIS. While studies have identified the amygdala-septo-hippocampal circuit as the key-neural substrate of this system in recent years and measures of resting-state dynamics such as randomness and local synchronization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations have recently been linked to personality traits, the relation between resting-state dynamics and the BIS remains unexplored. In the present study, we thus examined the local synchronization of spontaneous fMRI BOLD fluctuations as measured by Regional Homogeneity (ReHo in the hippocampus and the amygdala in twenty-seven healthy subjects. Correlation analyses showed that Gray's trait Anxiety was significantly associated with mean ReHo in both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Specifically, Gray's trait Anxiety explained 23% and 17% of resting-state ReHo variance in the left amygdala and the left hippocampus, respectively. In summary, we found individual differences in Gray's trait Anxiety to be associated with ReHo in areas previously associated with BIS functioning. Specifically, higher ReHo in resting-state neural dynamics corresponded to lower sensitivity to punishment scores both in the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings corroborate and extend recent findings relating resting-state dynamics and personality while providing first evidence linking properties of resting-state fluctuations to Gray's BIS.

  2. Prediction analysis of long-term memory effect for calamity gray series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Zhaonan(CHEN; Chaonan); LI; Zongyang(LEE; Tzongye

    2004-01-01

    It is adequate to use the gray theory for modeling and forecasting short-term calamity series. The forecast of calamity gray series is equivalent to predicting an extraordinary event in nature. In order to look for the regularity, the calamity date series, created from the threshold for a fixed time-interval series, are studied. In this paper, the Hurst exponent is applied to defining the long-term memory effect of the simulated calamity series, and is tested for the feasibility of using it as pre-requisite information before the gray modeling and forecasting. Based on the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) model, the time series with a definite length or quantity of data are derived assuming that various kinds of memory effect exist. Different threshold values are defined to yield or to analogize the calamity date series that are required in the prediction of the gray calamity events. After case study, both of the simulated and real seismic data show that the Hurst exponents are greater than 0.5 and, therefore, indicate that the long-term memory effect exists. The correlation between the Hurst exponent and the gray modeling parameter, a, provides criteria for the classification of the forecast.

  3. Digital gray-level transformation for the reduction of redundant shadows in rotational panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Y; Wakoh, M; Yamamoto, K; Ueno, H; Kuroyanagi, K

    1990-08-01

    In rotational panoramic radiography, the tomographic motion in combination with a slit scanning method make an image layer wide. But some objects outside the image layer are hard to blur and they result to redundant shadows. The gray-level transformation, as one form of digital image processing for the reduction of these redundant shadows, was evaluated. Two methods, the gamma transformation and the histogram flattening method, were examined. A drum scanner was used as the image scanner. The panoramic image on the x-ray film was turned into an 8 bit digital image on the image memory, which had the size of a 512 x 480 matrix. In rotational panoramic radiography, there are low density and contrast regions where redundant shadows of the cervical vertebrae and the mandibular ramus are superimposed on the tomographic image. The histogram of the gray-level was suppressed for the lower gray-levels. The stretching of this gray-level distribution was effective in the reducing redundant shadows. When processed by gamma transformation, the smaller gamma coefficient below 1.0 clarified the tomographic image, and when processed by the histogram flattening method, the setting of the level (L) value around 64-128 effectively reduced the redundant shadows. However, the effectiveness of both gray-level transformations was greatest in restricted cases in which the area where redundant shadows were superimposed on the tomographic image was comparatively large.

  4. Externalizing personality traits, empathy, and gray matter volume in healthy young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Judith; Dzemidzic, Mario; West, John; Oberlin, Brandon G; Eiler, William J A; Saykin, Andrew J; Kareken, David A

    2016-02-28

    Externalizing psychopathology has been linked to prefrontal abnormalities. While clinically diagnosed subjects show altered frontal gray matter, it is unknown if similar deficits relate to externalizing traits in non-clinical populations. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to retrospectively analyze the cerebral gray matter volume of 176 young adult social to heavy drinkers (mean age=24.0±2.9, male=83.5%) from studies of alcoholism risk. We hypothesized that prefrontal gray matter volume and externalizing traits would be correlated. Externalizing personality trait components-Boredom Susceptibility-Impulsivity (BS/IMP) and Empathy/Low Antisocial Behaviors (EMP/LASB)-were tested for correlations with gray matter partial volume estimates (gmPVE). Significantly large clusters (pFWEyoung adults, antisocial behavior/low empathy corresponded with reduced prefrontal and occipital gray matter, while impulsivity correlated with increased inferior frontal and anterior insula cortical volume. These findings add to a literature indicating that externalizing personality features involve altered frontal architecture.

  5. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus.

  6. Application of Gray Markov SCGM1,1c Model to Prediction of Accidents Deaths in Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Jian-yi; Zhou, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of mine accident is the basis of aviation safety assessment and decision making. Gray prediction is suitable for such kinds of system objects with few data, short time, and little fluctuation, and Markov chain theory is just suitable for forecasting stochastic fluctuating dynamic process. Analyzing the coal mine accident human error cause, combining the advantages of both Gray prediction and Markov theory, an amended Gray Markov SCGM1,1c model is proposed. The gray SCGM1,1c mod...

  7. Program evaluation and its application to equipment based on super-efficiency DEA and gray relation projection method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linbing Tang; Dong Guo; Jie Wu; Qingmei Tan

    2014-01-01

    For the gray attributes of the equipment program and its difficulty to carry out the quantitative assessment of the equip-ment program information, the gray relation projection method is simply reviewed. Combining the super-data envelopment analysis (DEA) model and the gray system theory, a new super-DEA for measuring the weight is proposed, and a gray relation projection model is established to rank the equipment programs. Final y, this approach is used to evaluate the equipment program. The results are verified valid and can provide a new way for evaluating the equipment program.

  8. Working memory training using mental calculation impacts regional gray matter of the frontal and parietal regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Takeuchi

    Full Text Available Training working memory (WM improves performance on untrained cognitive tasks and alters functional activity. However, WM training's effects on gray matter morphology and a wide range of cognitive tasks are still unknown. We investigated this issue using voxel-based morphometry (VBM, various psychological measures, such as non-trained WM tasks and a creativity task, and intensive adaptive training of WM using mental calculations (IATWMMC, all of which are typical WM tasks. IATWMMC was associated with reduced regional gray matter volume in the bilateral fronto-parietal regions and the left superior temporal gyrus. It improved verbal letter span and complex arithmetic ability, but deteriorated creativity. These results confirm the training-induced plasticity in psychological mechanisms and the plasticity of gray matter structures in regions that have been assumed to be under strong genetic control.

  9. Optimal Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images via Fuzzy Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jesus A. (Inventor); Klinko, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A technique for finding an optimal threshold for binarization of a gray scale image employs fuzzy reasoning. A triangular membership function is employed which is dependent on the degree to which the pixels in the image belong to either the foreground class or the background class. Use of a simplified linear fuzzy entropy factor function facilitates short execution times and use of membership values between 0.0 and 1.0 for improved accuracy. To improve accuracy further, the membership function employs lower and upper bound gray level limits that can vary from image to image and are selected to be equal to the minimum and the maximum gray levels, respectively, that are present in the image to be converted. To identify the optimal binarization threshold, an iterative process is employed in which different possible thresholds are tested and the one providing the minimum fuzzy entropy measure is selected.

  10. A new colour constancy algorithm based on automatic determination of gray framework parameters using neural network

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Mehdi Faghih; Zeynab Khosravinia; Mohsen Ebrahimi Moghaddam

    2014-04-01

    Colour constancy is defined as the ability to estimate the actual colours of objects in an acquired image disregarding the colour of scene illuminant. Despite large variety of existing methods, no colour constancy algorithm can be considered as universal. Among the methods, the gray framework is one of the best-known and most used approaches. This framework has some parameters that should be set with appropriate values to achieve the best performance for each image. In this article, we propose a neural network-based algorithm that aims to automatically determine the best value of gray framework parameters for each image. It is a multi-level approach that estimates the optimal values for the gray framework parameters based on relevant features extracted from the input image. Experimental results on two popular colour constancy datasets show an acceptable improvement over state-of-the-art methods.

  11. Bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography:Only a few shades of gray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcio; José; da; Silva; Campos; Thainara; Salgueiro; de; Souza; Sergio; Luiz; Mota; Júnior; Marcelo; Reis; Fraga; Robert; Willer; Farinazzo; Vitral

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography(CBCT) has often been used to determine the quality of craniofacial bone structures through the determination of mineral density, which is based on gray scales of the images obtained. However, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of the determination of the gray scales in these exams. This study aims to provide a literature review concerning the reliability of CBCT to determine bone mineral density. The gray values obtained with CBCT show a linear relationship with the attenuation coefficients of the materials, Hounsfield Units values obtained with medical computed tomography, and density values from dual energy X-ray absorciometry. However, errors are expected when CBCT images are used to define the quality of the scanned structures be-cause these images show inconsistencies and arbitrari-ness in the gray values, particularly when related to abrupt change in the density of the object, X-ray beam hardening effect, scattered radiation, projection data discontinuity-related effect, differences between CBCTdevices, changes in the volume of the field of view(FOV), and changes in the relationships of size and position between the FOV and the object evaluated. A few methods of mathematical correction of the gray scales in CBCT have been proposed; however, they do not generate consistent values that are independent of the devices and their configurations or of the scanned objects. Thus, CBCT should not be considered the ex-amination of choice for the determination of bone and soft tissue mineral density at the current stage, par-ticularly when values obtained are to be compared to predetermined standard values. Comparisons between symmetrically positioned structures inside the FOV and in relation to the exomass of the object, as it occurs with the right and left sides of the skull, seem to be viable because the effects on the gray scale in the re-gions of interest are the same.

  12. Growth characteristics of pearl gray guinea fowl as predicted by the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahashon, S N; Aggrey, S E; Adefope, N A; Amenyenu, A; Wright, D

    2006-02-01

    This study was undertaken to describe the growth pattern of the pearl gray Guinea fowl. Using BW data from hatch to 22 wk, 3 nonlinear mathematical functions (Richards, Gompertz, and logistic) were used to estimate growth patterns of the pearl gray guinea fowl. The logistic and Gompertz models are a special case of the Richards model, which has a variable point of inflection defined by the shape or growth trajectory parameter, m. The shape parameter m was 1.08 and 0.98 in males and females, respectively, suggesting that the growth pattern of the pearl gray female guinea fowl is Gompertz. The pearl gray guinea fowl exhibited sexual dimorphism for their growth characteristics. From the Gompertz model, the asymptotic BW, growth rate, and age at maximum growth were 1.62 kg, 0.22 kg/wk, and 6.65 wk in males, respectively, and 1.70 kg, 0.19 kg/wk, and 6.70 wk in females, respectively. The ages at maximum growth were 6.65, 6.47, and 8.12 wk for the Richards, Gompertz, and logistic models, respectively. The pearl gray guinea fowl females have a higher asymptotic BW compared with the males. The average asymptotic BW of about 1.57 kg for both sexes predicted by the logistic model was below the average predicted BW from the Richards (1.66 kg) and Gompertz (1.67 kg) models, respectively, at 22 wk of age. The inverse relationship between the asymptotic weight and both relative growth and age at maximum growth of the pearl gray guinea fowl is similar to that of chickens, quail, and ducks. Success in studying the growth characteristics of guinea fowl will contribute to the efforts of genetically improving this least-studied avian species.

  13. Ventral striatum gray matter density reduction in patients with schizophrenia and psychotic emotional dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Stegmayer

    2014-01-01

    Discussion: Decreased gray matter density in a large cluster including the right ventral striatum was associated with severe symptoms of emotional dysregulation in patients with schizophrenia. The ventral striatum is an important part of the limbic system, and was indicated to be involved in the generation of incentive salience and psychotic symptoms. Only patients with severe emotional dysregulation had decreased gray matter in several brain structures associated with emotion and reward processing compared to healthy controls. The results support the hypothesis that grouping patients according to specific clinical symptoms matched to the limbic system allows identifying patient subgroups with structural abnormalities in the limbic network.

  14. A Tentative Interpretation of the Picture of Dorian Gray with Psychoanalytical Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郇怡彬

    2007-01-01

    This paper applies Freudian psychoanalytical method to interpreting the characteristics of the three heroes in the Picture of Dorian Gray.Based on Freudg theory of psychoanalysis,the paper presents that the harmony of the tripartite personality is the underlying highlight of the novel and concludes that the concepts of the id,the ego,and the superego correspond with the images of Lord Henry,Dorian Gray and Basil Hauward respectively.And this paper claims that Dorian Grayg self-destruction is the most extreme development of the imbalance between the superego and the id.

  15. Application of Gray Metabolic Model in the Prediction of the Cotton Output in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to forecast the cotton output of China in the year 2011, Gray Metabolic Forecast Model is established based on both the Gray Forecast Model and the Metabolic Theory. According to the actual situation, forecast results of conventional GM (1, 1) Model and Metabolism GM (1, 1) Model are analyzed, showing that Metabolic Forecast Model has higher precision than the conventional forecast model. Therefore, Metabolism GM (1, 1) Model is used to forecast the cotton output of China in the year 2011, which is 614 968.3 thousand tons.

  16. Andrew Sexton Gray (1826-1907). A founder of Australian ophthalmology: his life and times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, R F

    1985-11-01

    Andrew Sexton Gray was born in Limerick, Ireland, medically trained in Dublin, and was assistant to William Wilde, the distinguished oculist and aurist. He migrated to Victoria in 1859, was surgeon to a railway's construction company, then in 1862 began practice as a surgeon and oculist in Melbourne. In 1863 he founded a charitable eye and ear hospital, and had a very active, long life devoted mostly to ophthalmology. The hospital progressively expanded and became the centre for training for many ophthalmologists, as well as the nucleus for the cohesion of Victorian ophthalmology. History shows Andrew Sexton Gray to have been a founder of Australian ophthalmology. PMID:3914312

  17. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data

  18. A key pose model for human interaction recognition and color from gray by optimized color ordering

    OpenAIRE

    Vahdat, Arash

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, we address two different problems in computer vision. First, the human interaction recognition is discussed whose goal is to recognize the action type of interacting humans in videos. We model the interaction using a sequence of key poses, important atomic-level actions. Spatial arrangements between the actors are included in the model as is strict temporal ordering of the key poses. Second, we attack the problem of color from gray. Our goal is to build a gray level image whic...

  19. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Morris, Aaron; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how often various prey animals are at risk of predation by Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). We used a system to monitor the presence during the day of two radio-collared Gray Wolves within 2 km of a radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a fawn or fawns in August 2013 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. We concluded that the fawn or fawns were at risk of predation by at least one wolf at least daily.

  20. Gray molasses cooling of $^{39}$K to a high phase-space density

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Guillaume; Fouché, Lauriane; Wang, Pengjun; Aspect, Alain; Bouyer, Philippe; Bourdel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We present new techniques in cooling $^{39}$K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray molasses type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\,$\\mu$K. The resulting phase-space density is $2\\times 10^{-4}$ and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, ...

  1. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY OF GRAY CAST IRON GRAPHITIZING MODIFICATION BY DISPERSION-FILLED CONSUMABLE PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nebozhak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The key criteria of the process of graphitizing modification of matrix melt silicon concentration and silicon assimilation evaluated were on samples of gray cast iron grade СЧ20 State Standard 1412-85. These criteria of evaluation on the structure and properties of casting ingots proved an efficiency of intra-mold modification of molten gray cast iron by dispersed ferrosilicon grade ФС75 State Standard 1415-93 (ISO 5445-80 using lost-foam casting (LFC-process.

  2. Improving the Calibration of Image Sensors Based on IOFBs, Using Differential Gray-Code Space Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna Vázquez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast calibration method to determine the transfer function for spatial correspondences in image transmission devices with Incoherent Optical Fiber Bundles (IOFBs, by performing a scan of the input, using differential patterns generated from a Gray code (Differential Gray-Code Space Encoding, DGSE. The results demonstrate that this technique provides a noticeable reduction in processing time and better quality of the reconstructed image compared to other, previously employed techniques, such as point or fringe scanning, or even other known space encoding techniques.

  3. Human reactions to reward and punishment: a questionnaire examination of Gray's personality theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, G D; Barrett, P T; Gray, J A

    1989-11-01

    The development of the Gray-Wilson Personality Questionnaire is described; this is an instrument designed to measure human equivalents of six animal behaviour paradigms--Approach, Active Avoidance, Passive Avoidance, Extinction, Fight and Flight. Although these six scales showed satisfactory internal consistency they failed to link up into the three major systems suggested by Gray's personality theory. The strongest associations were between Fight and Approach and between Flight and Passive Avoidance. This raises questions as to how the neurological systems of activation, inhibition and fight/flight are related to human personality structure. PMID:2597937

  4. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... on the petition (75 FR 68756). That Federal Register notice began NMFS' 15-day public comment period... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as...

  5. 75 FR 65574 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Gray Wolf in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... released near its point of capture. (D) If the animal is determined not to be a wild gray wolf or if the... removed in Wyoming by our April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15123), final delisting rule, Wyoming is not impacted by... Population Segment (DPS) (74 FR 15123). Additional background information on the NRM gray wolf population...

  6. 78 FR 64181 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the Commercial Harvest of Gray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... (78 FR 39188), to close gray triggerfish on July 7, 2013. However, since that closure, the Science and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC900 Snapper-Grouper Fishery of... Council (Council) manage South Atlantic snapper-grouper including gray triggerfish under the...

  7. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... gray wolf (Canis lupus) (72 FR 6052). Three parties challenged this rule (Humane Society of the United...) from the western wolf (Canis lupus). In our May 5, 2011, proposed rule (76 FR 26806), we proposed to... that identified and delisted the WGL DPS of the gray wolf (Canis lupus) (72 FR 6052). Three...

  8. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  9. Effect of bionic coupling units' forms on wear resistance of gray cast iron under dry linear reciprocating sliding condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Guofeng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

    2015-07-01

    In order to get close to the wear form of guide rails, the homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine was used for the wear test. In order to improve the wear-resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, bionic coupling units of different forms were manufactured by a laser. Wear behavior of gray-cast-iron with bionic-coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using the wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that bionic coupling unit could improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron. The wear resistance of gray cast iron with reticulation bionic coupling unit is the best. When the load and speed changed, reticulation bionic coupling unit still has excellent performance in improving the wear resistance of gray cast iron.

  10. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  11. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  12. Family history of alcohol dependence and gray matter abnormalities in non-alcoholic adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; van den Brink, Wim; Van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Buchem, Mark A.; Aleman, Andre; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Alcohol-use disorders in adolescents are associated with gray matter (GM) abnormalities suggesting neurotoxicity by alcohol. However, recently similar GM abnormalities were found in non-drinking children with a family history (FH) of alcohol dependence (AD). The question thus rises wheth

  13. Regional gray matter atrophy and neuropsychologcal problems in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiyu Lin; Fuyong Chen; Fang Liu; Zhiwen Li; Ying Liu; Shifang Lin; Xiaoyi Wang; Jiting Zhu

    2013-01-01

    In multiple sclerosis, gray matter atrophy is extensive, and cognitive deficits and mood disorders are frequently encountered. It has been conjectured that focal atrophy is associated with emotional de-cline. However, conventional MRI has revealed that the pathological characteristics cannot ful y account for the mood disorders. Moreover, there is no correlation between cognitive disorders and MRI results in clinical y isolated syndromes or in cases of definite multiple sclerosis. In this case-control study, voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed on 11 subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, and the results show that these patients exhibit gray matter atrophy. Moreover, the gray matter atrophy in the superior and middle gyri of the right frontal lobe in patients with multiple sclerosis was correlated with scores from the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale. The scores obtained with the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status were associated with gray matter atrophy in the middle gyrus of the left frontal lobe, the superior and middle gyrus of the right frontal lobe, the middle gyrus of the left cingulate, the superior and middle gyri of the left frontal lobe, and the triangular area of the left frontal lobe. However, there was no statistical significance. These findings suggest that the cingulate and frontal cortices of the nant hemisphere are the most severely atrophic regions of the brain, and this atrophy is correlated with cognitive decline and emotional abnormalities.

  14. Comparative Chromosome Map and Heterochromatin Features of the Gray Whale Karyotype (Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Lemskaya, Natalia A; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Cetacean karyotypes possess exceptionally stable diploid numbers and highly conserved chromosomes. To date, only toothed whales (Odontoceti) have been analyzed by comparative chromosome painting. Here, we studied the karyotype of a representative of baleen whales, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus, Mysticeti), by Zoo-FISH with dromedary camel and human chromosome-specific probes. We confirmed a high degree of karyotype conservation and found an identical order of syntenic segments in both branches of cetaceans. Yet, whale chromosomes harbor variable heterochromatic regions constituting up to a third of the genome due to the presence of several types of repeats. To investigate the cause of this variability, several classes of repeated DNA sequences were mapped onto chromosomes of whale species from both Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We uncovered extensive intrapopulation variability in the size of heterochromatic blocks present in homologous chromosomes among 3 individuals of the gray whale by 2-step differential chromosome staining. We show that some of the heteromorphisms observed in the gray whale karyotype are due to distinct amplification of a complex of common cetacean repeat and heavy satellite repeat on homologous autosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate localization of the telomeric repeat in the heterochromatin of both gray and pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Odontoceti). Heterochromatic blocks in the pilot whale represent a composite of telomeric and common repeats, while heavy satellite repeat is lacking in the toothed whale consistent with previous studies.

  15. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joé L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; Palen, van der Job; Dungen, van den Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature. Thi

  16. Relation between B-mode Gray-scale Median and Clinical Features of Carotid Stenosis Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, Joe L.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Loonstra, Jan; Schenk, Miranda; van der Palen, Job; van den Dungen, Jan J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vulnerability of the carotid plaque might be useful as a predictor for ischemic stroke risk. The gray-scale median (GSM) of the carotid plaque at B-mode imaging has been described as an objective tool to quantify vulnerability. However, its use is disputed in the published literature. Th

  17. Gray box modeling of MSW degradation: Revealing its dominant (bio)chemical mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Turnhout, A.G.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to describe organic degradation within immobile water regions of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills which is best described by the term “gray box” model. We use a simplified set of dominant (bio)chemical and physical reactions and realistic environmental condi

  18. The acoustic communication of the Polynesian megapode Megapodius pritchardii G. R. Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göth, A.; Vogel, U.; Curio, E.

    1999-01-01

    The acoustic communication of the Polynesian megapode Megapodius pritchardii G.R. Gray, 1864, was studied and analysed for the first time. Adults pair up monogamously and the male produces so called whistles while guarding its mate. The three-element song of the male together with the females`s “coo

  19. Gray matter correlates of cognitive ability tests used for vocational guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Cheuk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual differences in cognitive abilities provide information that is valuable for vocational guidance, but there is an ongoing debate about the role of ability factors, including general intelligence (g, compared to individual tests. Neuroimaging can help identify brain parameters that may account for individual differences in both factors and tests. Here we investigate how eight tests used in vocational guidance correlate to regional gray matter. We compare brain networks identified by using scores for ability factors (general and specific to those identified by using individual tests to determine whether these relatively broad and narrow approaches yield similar results. Findings Using MRI and voxel-based morphometry (VBM, we correlated gray matter with independent ability factors (general intelligence, speed of reasoning, numerical, spatial, memory and individual test scores from a battery of cognitive tests completed by 40 individuals seeking vocational guidance. Patterns of gray matter correlations differed between group ability factors and individual tests. Moreover, tests within the same factor showed qualitatively different brain correlates to some degree. Conclusions The psychometric factor structure of cognitive tests can help identify brain networks related to cognitive abilities beyond a general intelligence factor (g. Correlates of individual ability tests with gray matter, however, appear to have some differences from the correlates for group factors.

  20. Evidence for a periaqueductal gray-nucleus retroambiguus spinal cord pathway in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.; Kerstens, Lenka; Moes, M.C.; Horst, V.G.J.M. van der

    1997-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus in the cat has been shown to receive strong projections from the periaqueductal gray and to send fibres to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in brainstem and spinal cord. The nucleus retroambiguus plays a role in the production of vocalization and possibly copulatory (lordo

  1. A new species of Erylus Gray, 1867 (Porifera, Geodiidae) from the southeastern coast of Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mothes, Beatriz; Lerner, Cléa

    2001-01-01

    A new species, Erylus soesti n. sp. is described from SE Brazil. This study is part of an ongoing revision of genus Erylus Gray, 1867 (Mothes, Lerner & Da Silva, 1999; Mothes & Lerner, 1999) and adds a further brazilian species to the genus. This new species can be distinguished by the possession of

  2. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... review. Background The Commission instituted this review on May 2, 2011 (76 FR 24519) and determined on August 5, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 50252, August 12, 2011). The Commission... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record...

  3. Gray-scale and color optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Mehrdad; Kheradmand, Reza; Ahmadi-Kandjani, Sohrab

    2012-09-01

    We propose two approaches for optical encryption based on computational ghost imaging. These methods have the capability of encoding ghost images reconstructed from gray-scale images and colored objects. We experimentally demonstrate our approaches under eavesdropping in two different setups, thereby proving the robustness and simplicity thereof for encryption compared with previous algorithms.

  4. Estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray of the adult ovariectomized female cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Meijer, Ellie; Schasfoort, Fabienne C.; Leeuwen, Fred van; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological studies in rodent and cat have shown that distinct parts of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (FAG) are important for the estrogen dependent, female reproductive behavior. The present study gives a detailed overview of the estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive (ER-IR) ne

  5. Cortical Gray Matter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Martin J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Pitiot, Alain; Toro, Roberto; Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Liotti, Mario; Liddle, Peter F.; Paus, Tomas; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown smaller brain volume and less gray matter in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Relatively few morphological studies have examined structures thought to subserve inhibitory control, one of the diagnostic features of ADHD. We examined one such region, the pars opercularis,…

  6. An Analysis of Self-Destruction In The Picture of Dorian Gray and Heart of Darkness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娜

    2007-01-01

    This essay is intended to give an analysis of self-destruction in The Picture of Dorian Gray and Heart of Darkness based on Freud's theory of psychoanalysis. There is an exploration into the dark depth of man's psyche in both novels, which helps us gain profound self-knowledge.

  7. First report of Botrytis pseudocinerea causing gray mold on blueberry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrytis cinerea has been shown to consist of two sibling species, referred to Group I and Group II, and the two groups can be differentiated by a PCR-RFLP on the Bc-hch gene (vegetative incompatibility locus). Group I has recently been described as a new species B. pseudocinerea. Gray mold caused b...

  8. Comparative Chromosome Map and Heterochromatin Features of the Gray Whale Karyotype (Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Lemskaya, Natalia A; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Cetacean karyotypes possess exceptionally stable diploid numbers and highly conserved chromosomes. To date, only toothed whales (Odontoceti) have been analyzed by comparative chromosome painting. Here, we studied the karyotype of a representative of baleen whales, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus, Mysticeti), by Zoo-FISH with dromedary camel and human chromosome-specific probes. We confirmed a high degree of karyotype conservation and found an identical order of syntenic segments in both branches of cetaceans. Yet, whale chromosomes harbor variable heterochromatic regions constituting up to a third of the genome due to the presence of several types of repeats. To investigate the cause of this variability, several classes of repeated DNA sequences were mapped onto chromosomes of whale species from both Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We uncovered extensive intrapopulation variability in the size of heterochromatic blocks present in homologous chromosomes among 3 individuals of the gray whale by 2-step differential chromosome staining. We show that some of the heteromorphisms observed in the gray whale karyotype are due to distinct amplification of a complex of common cetacean repeat and heavy satellite repeat on homologous autosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate localization of the telomeric repeat in the heterochromatin of both gray and pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Odontoceti). Heterochromatic blocks in the pilot whale represent a composite of telomeric and common repeats, while heavy satellite repeat is lacking in the toothed whale consistent with previous studies. PMID:27088853

  9. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  10. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  11. The Applicability of Deadline Models: Comment on Glickman, Gray, and Morales (2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N.

    2005-01-01

    Glickman, Gray, and Morales (this issue) propose a statistical model for measuring the unobserved latency of stimulus-controlled processes. The model accounts for both speed and accuracy and does so by assuming that participants set an internal deadline. If a stimulus-controlled response is not produced by the deadline, the participant then…

  12. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  13. Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…

  14. Analysis of the reproducibility of the gray values and noise of a direct digital radiography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poleti, Marcelo Lupion; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Teixeira, Renata Cordeiro; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Alvares; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the gray values and noise of a direct digital radiography system (Visualix eHD) for various exposure times and analyzed regions. To obtain radiographic images in a standardized manner, the digital sensor of the system and a stepwedge were positioned in a phantom at a focus-film distance of 30 cm in a dental device at 70 kV, 7 mA and 2.2 mm filtration. Ten consecutive repetitions of X-ray imaging were performed at each exposure time (0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.13 s). Gray values were analyzed using ImageJ software in five regions of interest (ROIs): alveolar bone (AB), soft tissue (ST) and three steps of the stepwedge (S1, S2 and S3). The results showed that both the variability of the gray values and the noise were statistically greater (p < 0.05) in the most radiolucent region (ST). Only the noise was affected by the exposure time. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the gray values and the noise of the Visualix eHD system can vary in specific areas with different radiolucency. PMID:26017488

  15. Analysis of the reproducibility of the gray values and noise of a direct digital radiography system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lupion POLETI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the gray values and noise of a direct digital radiography system (Visualix eHD for various exposure times and analyzed regions. To obtain radiographic images in a standardized manner, the digital sensor of the system and a stepwedge were positioned in a phantom at a focus-film distance of 30 cm in a dental device at 70 kV, 7 mA and 2.2 mm filtration. Ten consecutive repetitions of X-ray imaging were performed at each exposure time (0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.13 s. Gray values were analyzed using ImageJ software in five regions of interest (ROIs: alveolar bone (AB, soft tissue (ST and three steps of the stepwedge (S1, S2 and S3. The results showed that both the variability of the gray values and the noise were statistically greater (p < 0.05 in the most radiolucent region (ST. Only the noise was affected by the exposure time. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the gray values and the noise of the Visualix eHD system can vary in specific areas with different radiolucency.

  16. Gray matter in the brain : Differences associated with tinnitus and hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; Langers, Dave R. M.; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Tinnitus, usually associated with hearing loss, is characterized by the perception of sound without an external sound source. The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood. In the present study, voxel-based morphometiy (VBM) was employed to identify gray matter differences related to hearing

  17. Magnetic resonance morphometry of the loss of gray matter volume in Parkinson’s disease patients****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Xia; Lemin Tang; Juan Wang; Weizhong Tian; Hongbin Ding; Qilin Wei; Huanxin Huang; Jun Wang; Jinli Zhao; Hongmei Gu

    2013-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry can be used to quantitatively compare structural differences and func-tional changes of gray matter in subjects. In the present study, we compared gray matter images of 32 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 25 healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry based on 3.0 T high-field magnetic resonance T1-weighted imaging and clinical neurological scale scores. Results showed that the scores in Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were lower in patients compared with controls. In particular, the scores of visuospatial/executive function items in Montreal Cognitive Assessment were significantly reduced, but mean scores of non-motor symptoms significantly increased, in patients with Parkinson’s dis-ease. In addition, gray matter volume was significantly diminished in Parkinson’s disease patients compared with normal controls, including bilateral temporal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral insular lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral amygdale, right uncus, and right posterior lobe of the cerebel um. These findings indicate that voxel-based morphometry can accurately and quantitatively assess the loss of gray matter volume in patients with Parkinson's disease, and provide essential neuroimaging evidence for multisystem pathological mechanisms involved in Parkinson’s disease.

  18. Numerical modeling of coupled heat transfer and phase transformation for solidification of the gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Azin

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the numerical model in 2D is used to study the solidification bahavior of the gray cast iron. The conventional heat transfer is coupled with the proposed micro-model to predict the amount of different phases, i.e. total austenite (c) phase, graphite (G) and cementite (C), in...

  19. On the diagnosis of the Spinner Dolphin, Stenella longirostris (Gray, 1828) and its holotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, van P.J.H.; Perrin, W.F.

    1977-01-01

    In 1828 (p. 1-2), John Edward Gray described the spinner dolphin as follows: Delphinus longirostris, n. - Osse palatino carinato, postice convexo; rostro longissimo attenuata, supra depresso, lineâ mediâ elevatâ; dentibus parvis utrique 48/è48 50/50 ." To this Latin diagnosis he added: "Inhab.......

  20. Taxonomy and biogeography of African fruit bats (Mammalia, Megachiroptera). 4. The genus Rousettus Gray, 1821

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Wim

    1994-01-01

    The concept of the genus Rousettus Gray, 1821 as established by Andersen (1912) is revised to accommodate R. madagascariensis Grandidier, 1929, R. obliviosus Kock, 1978 and R. spinalatus Bergmans & Hill, 1980, and to reflect the following mutations. Following Bergmans et al. (1988), the genus Boneia

  1. 76 FR 4893 - FFP Missouri 13, LLC, Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Missouri 13, LLC, Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit... River in Greene County, Pennsylvania.\\1\\ The applications were filed by FFP Missouri 13, LLC,...

  2. Gray Matter Characteristics in Mid and Old Aged Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise…

  3. Oxycheila binotata Gray (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae), information on a little known taxon from Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kippenhan, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Two specimens of Oxycheila binotata Gray (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) in the Field Museum of Natural History offer additional information on the morphology and distribution of this rare species. One of the specimens, a female, is considered to be the first known specimen of this species.

  4. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzel, Britta K; Carmody, James; Vangel, Mark; Congleton, Christina; Yerramsetti, Sita M; Gard, Tim; Lazar, Sara W

    2011-01-30

    Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program. Anatomical magnetic resonance (MR) images from 16 healthy, meditation-naïve participants were obtained before and after they underwent the 8-week program. Changes in gray matter concentration were investigated using voxel-based morphometry, and compared with a waiting list control group of 17 individuals. Analyses in a priori regions of interest confirmed increases in gray matter concentration within the left hippocampus. Whole brain analyses identified increases in the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the cerebellum in the MBSR group compared with the controls. The results suggest that participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking.

  5. Application of gray correlation analysis and artificial neural network in rock mass blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-bing; WU Liang

    2005-01-01

    Studied forecasting and controlling the blasting fragmentation by using artificial neural network for multi-ingredients. At the same time, according to the characteristic of multi-parameters input to network model, the gray correlation theory was employed to find out key factors, which can not only save time of computation and parameters input, but improve the stability of the model.

  6. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY INFLUENCE ON CARDIOVASCULAR NEURONS IN THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA-OBLONGATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLAS, J; MAES, FW; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of sites in the rostral or caudoventral periaqueductal gray (PAG) results in substantial increases in mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR). The efferent pathways from these PAG subregions possibly include a relay in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata (VLM), where neurons involv

  7. Latent-variable modeling of brain gray-matter volume and psychopathy in incarcerated offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Neumann, Craig S; Cope, Lora M; Kiehl, Kent A

    2016-08-01

    Advanced statistical modeling has become a prominent feature in psychological science and can be a useful approach for representing the neural architecture linked to psychopathology. Psychopathy, a disorder characterized by dysfunction in interpersonal-affective and impulsive-antisocial domains, is associated with widespread neural abnormalities. Several imaging studies suggest that underlying structural deficits in paralimbic regions are associated with psychopathy. Although these studies are useful, they make assumptions about the organization of the brain and its relevance to individuals displaying psychopathic features. Capitalizing on statistical modeling, in the present study (N = 254), we used latent-variable methods to examine the structure of gray-matter volume in male offenders, and assessed the latent relations between psychopathy and gray-matter factors reflecting paralimbic and nonparalimbic regions. Results revealed good fit for a 4-factor gray-matter paralimbic model and these first-order factors were accounted for by a superordinate paralimbic "system" factor. Moreover, a superordinate psychopathy factor significantly predicted the paralimbic, but not the nonparalimbic factor. The latent-variable paralimbic model, specifically linked with psychopathy, goes beyond understanding single brain regions within the system and provides evidence for psychopathy-related gray-matter volume reductions in the paralimbic system as a whole. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27269123

  8. Grays River Watershed Restoration Status Report 2007, May 1, 2007 - October 30, 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-10-20

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-013-00, 'Grays River Watershed Restoration', began in FY04 and continues into FY09. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during the period 1 May 2007 through 30 October 2008. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with the Columbia River Estuary Task Force (CREST) on implementation of the Grays River Restoration Project. The Grays River is vitally important to the recovery of Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon because it currently has the most viable population remaining in the LCR region. The Grays River watershed is also important to the recovery of salmon and steelhead in the LCR ecosystem. Today, numbers of naturally spawning salmon and steelhead have declined to levels far below historical numbers because of habitat limiting factors that include but are not limited to the lack of habitat connectivity, diversity, channel stability, riparian function and altered stream flow conditions. The objective of this project is to restore habitat-forming processes to enhance salmon and steelhead populations in the Grays River, following recommendations developed during the FY04-06 BPA-sponsored Grays River Watershed Assessment (BPA Project No. 2003-013-00). Specifically, this project will be the first step in restoring channel structure and function that will increase instream habitat diversity, channel stability, and riparian integrity in the critical response reach upstream and adjacent to critical salmon spawning areas of the Grays River. The major component of this strategy is the planning, design, installation, and monitoring of engineered logjams (ELJ) that will rejuvenate historic channel and floodplain processes. Additional restoration measures include reforesting the riparian corridor to enhance future large

  9. The Narrow Niche hypothesis: gray squirrels shed new light on primate origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkin, Joseph D; Pontzer, Herman

    2011-04-01

    Current hypotheses for primate origins propose that nails and primate-like grasping hands and feet were important early adaptations for feeding in fine branches. Comparative research in this area has focused on instances of convergence in extant animals, showing that species with primate-like morphology feed predominantly from terminal branches. Little has been done to test whether animals without primate-like morphology engage in similar behavior. We tested the fine-branch niche hypothesis for primate origins by observing branch use in Eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, a species lacking primate grasping adaptations that has been understudied in the context of primate origins. We hypothesized that because gray squirrels lack primate-like grasping adaptations, they would avoid feeding and foraging in terminal branches. Instantaneous focal animal sampling was used to examine the locomotor and postural behaviors used while feeding and foraging. Our results demonstrate habitual and effective usage of terminal branches by gray squirrels while feeding and foraging, primarily on tree seeds (e.g., oak, maple, and elm). Discriminant function analysis indicates that gray squirrels feed and forage like primates, unlike some other tree squirrel species. Given the absence of primate-like features in gray squirrels, we suggest that although selection for fine-branch foraging may be a necessary condition for primate origins, it is not sufficient. We propose an alternative model of primate origins. The Narrow Niche hypothesis suggests that the primate morphological suite evolved not only from selection pressure for fine branch use, but also from a lack of engagement in other activities. PMID:21404237

  10. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia V. Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii tractography-based analysis, and using (iii whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores, and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be

  11. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  12. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  13. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: a Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Callegari Piccinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in craniocervical dystonia but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry to identify patterns of gray matter changes in craniocervical dystonia.Methods: We compared 27 patients with craniocervical dystonia matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age and we tested with a level of significance of p<0.001 and false discovery rate correction (p<0.05. Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of gray matter using p<0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplemementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum , hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the false discovery rate correction. We also detected correlations between gray matter volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment and the Marsden-Fahn dystonia scale scores.Conclusions: We detected large clusters of gray matter changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function and emotional processing.

  14. Soil biochemical properties in brown and gray mine soils with and without hydroseeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-09-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with a herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After 6 years, the average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray mine soils (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  15. Soil biochemical properties after six years in amended brown and gray mine soils in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-06-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River Mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with an herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After six years, average tree volume index was nearly ten times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  16. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Andreia V; Ratnanather, J Tilak; Tward, Daniel J; Lee, David Soobin; van den Noort, Frieda; Wu, Dan; Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Hans; Paulsen, Jane S; Ross, Christopher A; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i) regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii) tractography-based analysis, and using (iii) whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores), and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be targeted to delay

  17. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  18. Brain gray matter volume changes associated with motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dezhi Kang; Fuyong Chen; Fangyu Wang; Guorong Wu; Ying Liu; Gang Wu; Lianghong Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background:Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease.Most studies have found that the histopathological lesion is not only localized at the extrapyramidal area (basal ganglia) but also at the cortex in PD patients.Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on the voxel as a unit is described for quantitative detection of density and volume of brain tissue.In this study,VBM was used to investigate the brain gray matter changes associated with motor symptoms in PD patients.Methods:Twelve outpatients with PD and 12 healthy controls were recruited in our hospital from September 2013 to March 2014.VBM was performed on the whole brain of all subjects.Image processing and statistical analysis were performed using SPM8.A two-sample t test and multiple regression analysis were performed.Results were displayed with a threshold of P < 0.01,corrected by false discovery rate (FDR) correction and cluster size >30 voxels.Results:Comparing control healthy subjects with the patients,the data showed that PD patients had reduced gray matter volume in the postcentral gyrus,the right supramarginal center,superior temporal gyrus,precentral gyrus,Brodmann area 41,transverse temporal gyrus,Brodmann area 3,and inferior parietal Iobule.The data also found that between gray matter volume and UPDRSIII in PD patients,there were negative correlations in the right middle frontal gyrus,BA06,right precentral gyrus,right superior frontal gyrus,and medial frontal gyrus,and between gray matter volume and Hoehn-Yahr (HY) in PD patients,there were negative correlations in the right middle frontal gyrus,right superior frontal gyrus,BA6,and right precentral gyrus.Conclusions:These data supported that extensive changes associated with motor symptoms in the gray matter volume was mainly located in the related area of movement,which had obvious relevance with the progression of PD.

  19. Gray and White Matter Contributions to Cognitive Frontostriatal Deficits in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine C Price

    Full Text Available This prospective investigation examined: 1 processing speed and working memory relative to other cognitive domains in non-demented medically managed idiopathic Parkinson's disease, and 2 the predictive role of cortical/subcortical gray thickness/volume and white matter fractional anisotropy on processing speed and working memory.Participants completed a neuropsychological protocol, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, brain MRI, and fasting blood draw to rule out vascular contributors. Within group a priori anatomical contributors included bilateral frontal thickness, caudate nuclei volume, and prefrontal white matter fractional anisotropy.Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n = 40; Hoehn & Yahr stages 1-3 and non-Parkinson's disease 'control' peers (n = 40 matched on demographics, general cognition, comorbidity, and imaging/blood vascular metrics. Cognitively, individuals with Parkinson's disease were significantly more impaired than controls on tests of processing speed, secondary deficits on working memory, with subtle impairments in memory, abstract reasoning, and visuoperceptual/spatial abilities. Anatomically, Parkinson's disease individuals were not statistically different in cortical gray thickness or subcortical gray volumes with the exception of the putamen. Tract Based Spatial Statistics showed reduced prefrontal fractional anisotropy for Parkinson's disease relative to controls. Within Parkinson's disease, prefrontal fractional anisotropy and caudate nucleus volume partially explained processing speed. For controls, only prefrontal white matter was a significant contributor to processing speed. There were no significant anatomical predictors of working memory for either group.Caudate nuclei volume and prefrontal fractional anisotropy, not frontal gray matter thickness, showed unique and combined significance for processing speed in Parkinson's disease. Findings underscore the relevance for examining gray-white matter interactions

  20. 改进的Gray World-Retinex图像自动白平衡方法%Modified Automatic White Balance Method for Gray World-Retinex Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张钰; 姚素英; 张娜; 金则群

    2008-01-01

    提出了一种改进的白平衡方法,改善了Gray World-Retinex算法对色彩丰富度低、近白(灰)点数量较少的图像白平衡后仍然偏色的缺点.使用图像Cb和Cr分量的样本标准差分析图像色彩丰富度.并改进了确定图像近白(灰)点数量的方法,最终定量地给出适合采用Gray World-Retinex白平衡法的图像特征,对于样本标准差极低而且近白(灰)点很少的图像,给出一种求极大值增益的方法进行白平衡.对40幅色彩丰富度和近白(灰)点数量不同的偏色图像进行验证,并与Gray World-Retinex算法作了对比.结果表明,本文算法对于具有不同色彩丰富程度和近白(灰)点数量的偏色图像,都可以获得较理想的白平衡效果.该算法复杂度低,对图像实时处理具有很大吸引力.

  1. Eye, nose, hair, and throat: external anatomy of the head of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Zellmer, Nicholas T; Deméré, Thomas A; Kienle, Sarah S; Smallcomb, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Information is scarce on gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) anatomy and that of mysticetes in general. Dissection of the head of a neonatal gray whale revealed novel anatomical details of the eye, blowhole, incisive papilla with associated nasopalatine ducts, sensory hairs, and throat grooves. Compared to a similar sized right whale calf, the gray whale eyeball is nearly twice as long. The nasal cartilages of the gray whale, located between the blowholes, differ from the bowhead in having accessory cartilages. A small, fleshy incisive papilla bordered by two blind nasopalatine pits near the palate's rostral tip, previously undescribed in gray whales, may be associated with the vomeronasal organ, although histological evidence is needed for definitive identification. Less well known among mysticetes are the numerous elongated, stiff sensory hairs (vibrissae) observed on the gray whale rostrum from the ventral tip to the blowhole and on the mandible. These hairs are concentrated on the chin, and those on the lower jaw are arranged in a V-shaped pattern. We confirm the presence of two primary, anteriorly converging throat grooves, confined to the throat region similar to those of ziphiid and physeteroid odontocetes. A third, shorter groove occurs lateral to the left primary groove. The throat grooves in the gray whale have been implicated in gular expansion during suction feeding. PMID:25737431

  2. Is Gray Water the Key to Unlocking Water for Resource-Poor Areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Arid Regions of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Leas, Eric C.; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2013-01-01

    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices global...

  3. grayStar3 - gray no more: More physical realism and a more intuitive interface - all still in a WWW browser

    CERN Document Server

    Short, C Ian

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the openStar project is to turn any WWW browser, running on any platform, into a virtual star equipped with parameter knobs and instrumented with output displays that any user can experiment with using any device for which a browser is available. grayStar3 (gS3) is a major improvement upon GrayStar 2.0 (GS2), both in the physical realism of the modeling and the intuitiveness of the user interface. The code integrates scientific modeling in JavaScript with output visualization HTML. The user interface is adaptable so as to be appropriate for a large range of audiences from the high-school to the introductory graduate level. The modeling is physically based and all outputs are determined entirely and directly by the results of in situ modeling, giving the code significant generality and credibility for pedagogical applications. gS3 also models and displays the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ) and allows the user to adjust the greenhouse effect and albedo of the planet. In its default mode the code...

  4. A Mechanism for Detection of Gray Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip; G., Harihara S; Reddy, Harish; Balamuralidhar, P

    2011-01-01

    Protecting the network layer from malicious attacks is an important and challenging security issue in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In this paper, a security mechanism is proposed to defend against a cooperative gray hole attack on the well known AODV routing protocol in MANETs. A gray hole is a node that selectively drops and forwards data packets after it advertises itself as having the shortest path to the destination node in response to a route request message from a source node. The proposed mechanism does not apply any cryptographic primitives on the routing messages. Instead, it protects the network by detecting and reacting to malicious activities of any node. Simulation results show that the scheme has a significantly high detection rate with moderate network traffic overhead.

  5. Production and Machining of Thin Wall Gray and Ductile Cast Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischman, E.H. (INEEL POC); Li, H.; Griffin, R.; Bates, C.E.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2000-11-03

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham, in cooperation with the American Foundry Society, companies across North America, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a project to develop an understanding of the factors that control the machinability of cast gray and ductile iron. Differences of as much as 500% have been found in machinability have been observed at the same strength. The most machinable irons were those with a high cell counts and few carbonitride inclusions. Additions of tin and copper can be added to both gray and ductile iron to stabilize the pearlite, but excessive additions (above those required to produce the desired pearlite content) degrade the machinability.

  6. 'GORGEOUS MONSTROSITY': DERRIDA'S DECONSTRUCTION AS AN ALTERNATIVE POSTMODERNIST TOOL IN ANALYSING ALASDAIR GRAY'S POOR THINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Małecka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is a postmodernism interpretation of Alasdair Gray's acclaimed novel "The Poor Things". The main motifs in the novel are re-read in the light of the theories of Jacques Derrida and Ludwig Wittgenstein. At the centre of the analysis stands the intertextual and deconstructive reading of the role of the main heroine, Bella Baxter. As the novel's 'gorgeous monstrosity', Bella is a prototype construct embedded in the linguistic nature of reality. In Gray's postmodern vision, Bella embodies the main concerns of the novel: the blurring of the boundaries between concepts (such as centre/periphery; memory/forgetfulness; life/death, and the continuous questioning of their definitions.

  7. Segregation of the brain into gray and white matter: a design minimizing conduction delays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A ubiquitous feature of the vertebrate anatomy is the segregation of the brain into white and gray matter. Assuming that evolution maximized brain functionality, what is the reason for such segregation? To answer this question, we posit that brain functionality requires high interconnectivity and short conduction delays. Based on this assumption we searched for the optimal brain architecture by comparing different candidate designs. We found that the optimal design depends on the number of neurons, interneuronal connectivity, and axon diameter. In particular, the requirement to connect neurons with many fast axons drives the segregation of the brain into white and gray matter. These results provide a possible explanation for the structure of various regions of the vertebrate brain, such as the mammalian neocortex and neostriatum, the avian telencephalon, and the spinal cord.

  8. Production of large 41K Bose-Einstein condensates using D1 gray molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao-Ze; Yao, Xing-Can; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Wang, Yu-Xuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-09-01

    We use D1 gray molasses to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation of a large number of 41K atoms in an optical dipole trap. By combining a specific configuration of a compressed magneto-optical trap with D1 gray molasses, we obtain a cold sample of 2.4 ×109 atoms with a temperature as low as 42 μ K . After magnetically transferring the atoms into the final glass cell, we perform a two-stage evaporative cooling. A condensate with up to 1.2 ×106 atoms in the lowest Zeeman state |F =1 , mF=1 > is achieved in the optical dipole trap. Furthermore, we observe two narrow Feshbach resonances in the lowest hyperfine channel, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  9. Extensive learning is associated with gray matter changes in the right hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kathrin; Reess, Tim Jonas; Rus, Oana Georgiana; Zimmer, Claus

    2016-01-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated increases in gray matter volume in hippocampal areas following extensive cognitive learning. Moreover, there is increasing evidence for the relevance of the subiculum in the context of learning and memory. Using longitudinal FreeSurfer analyses and hippocampus subfield segmentation the present study investigated the effects of 14weeks of intensive learning on hippocampal and subicular gray matter volume in a sample of medical students compared to control subjects not engaged in any cognitive learning activities. We found that extensive learning resulted in a significant increase of right hippocampal volume. Volume of the left hippocampus and the subiculum remained unchanged. The current findings emphasize the role of the hippocampus in semantic learning and memory processes and provide further evidence for the neuroplastic ability of the hippocampus in the context of cognitive learning. PMID:26518629

  10. Production of large $^{41}$K Bose-Einstein condensates using D1 gray molasses

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Hao-Ze; Wu, Yu-Ping; Liu, Xiang-Pei; Wang, Xiao-Qiong; Wang, Yu-Xuan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-01-01

    We use D1 gray molasses to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation of a large number of $^{41}$K atoms in an optical dipole trap. By combining a new configuration of compressed-MOT with D1 gray molasses, we obtain a cold sample of $2.4\\times10^9$ atoms with a temperature as low as 42 $\\mu$K. After magnetically transferring the atoms into the final glass cell, we perform a two-stage evaporative cooling. A condensate with up to $1.2\\times10^6$ atoms in the lowest Zeeman state $|F=1,m_F=1\\rangle$ is achieved in the optical dipole trap. Furthermore, we observe two narrow Feshbach resonances in the lowest hyperfine channel, which are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  11. Determination of insecticidal activity of Heliopsis longipes A. Gray Blake, an endemic plant of Guanajuato state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are involved in transmission of infectious diseases like malaria which affect human health, causing economic losses due to expensive treatments and job incapacity of patients. Strategies to minimize transmission of this disease are the employ of chemical insecticides that are excellent methods to reduce insect populations; however it causes deleterious effects on human health and environmental damage. Therefore is necessary to explore harmless alternatives, such as plant extracts which are potential source of natural insecticides. In this work we evaluated insecticidal properties of Heliopsis longipes A. Gray Blake against third instar larvae of Anopheles albimanus, malaria vector. Results showed that H.longipes A. Gray Blake has insecticide properties to control insect involved in malaria transmission.

  12. Microstructural changes in ischemic cortical gray matter predicted by a model of diffusion-weighted MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Hansen, Brian; Østergaard, Leif;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To understand the diffusion attenuated MR signal from normal and ischemic brain tissue in order to extract structural and physiological information using mathematical modeling, taking into account the transverse relaxation rates in gray matter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We fit our diffusion...... fraction of 0.19 in accordance with the accepted value from histology. The absolute apparent diffusion coefficient obtained from the model was similar to that of experiments. The model and the experimental results indicate significant differences in diffusion and transverse relaxation between the tissue...... model to the diffusion-weighted MR signal obtained from cortical gray matter in healthy subjects. Our model includes variable volume fractions, intracellular restriction effects, and exchange between compartments in addition to individual diffusion coefficients and transverse relaxation rates for each...

  13. Gray-molasses cooling of 39K to a high phase-space density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Wang, P.; Aspect, A.; Bouyer, P.; Bourdel, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present new techniques in cooling 39K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray-molasses-type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\ \\mu\\text{K} . The resulting phase-space density is 2\\times 10^{-4} and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, we use it to directly load up to 3\\times 10^7 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production of potassium degenerate gases.

  14. Structural gray matter abnormalities in migraine relate to headache lateralization, but not aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal M; Hoffmann, Michael B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The hallmark of migraine aura (MA) is transient cortical dysfunction but it is not known if MA is associated with structural cortical or subcortical changes. To determine the relation between MA and structural gray matter abnormalities, we studied a unique sample of 20 patients...... with frequent side-locked MA, i.e. visual aura consistently occurring in the same hemifield. METHODS: We applied a highly sensitive within-patient design to assess anatomical differences with both voxel-based morphometry and surface-based morphometry on a whole-hemisphere level and for specific anatomical...... regions of interest. Within-subject comparisons were made with regard to aura symptoms (N = 20 vs 20) and with regard to headache (N = 13 vs 13). RESULTS: We found no differences in gray matter structure with regard to aura symptoms in MA patients. Comparing the typical migraine headache side...

  15. Gray Matter Characteristics in Mid and Old Aged Adults with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-08-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses of cortical volume, thickness, surface area, and gyrification index in 51 adults with and 49 without ASD, between 30 and 75 years. There was significant age-related volume loss and cortical thinning, but there were no group differences. The lack of significant anatomical differences between intellectual able individuals with and without ASD, suggests that ASD is not (strongly) related to gray matter morphology in mid and late adulthood. PMID:27177894

  16. Extensive learning is associated with gray matter changes in the right hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kathrin; Reess, Tim Jonas; Rus, Oana Georgiana; Zimmer, Claus

    2016-01-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated increases in gray matter volume in hippocampal areas following extensive cognitive learning. Moreover, there is increasing evidence for the relevance of the subiculum in the context of learning and memory. Using longitudinal FreeSurfer analyses and hippocampus subfield segmentation the present study investigated the effects of 14weeks of intensive learning on hippocampal and subicular gray matter volume in a sample of medical students compared to control subjects not engaged in any cognitive learning activities. We found that extensive learning resulted in a significant increase of right hippocampal volume. Volume of the left hippocampus and the subiculum remained unchanged. The current findings emphasize the role of the hippocampus in semantic learning and memory processes and provide further evidence for the neuroplastic ability of the hippocampus in the context of cognitive learning.

  17. EVALUATION OF GRAY INTENSITY VALUE FOR RELIABLE DIGITIZATION OF DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHY IN DEFECT DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Chitra

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Radiography is one of the oldest NDT technique used for evaluation of weld defects in metal. Radiographic defects are classified based on the shape, location, orientation, depth, width etc. Once a radiographof a weld is taken, the radiographer examines the same for identifying the defects and quantitatively evaluating the same based on codes and specifications. In recent years digital imaging has superseded conventional imaging, which has led to a profound change in interpretation of radiographic images. A change in the Gray values of the digital image (edges indicates the flaws on the radiographic image. This paper discusses the Gray level distribution of a test piece radiograph. The test piece considered is a stainless steel metal plate on which a square hole is drilled with different area and depth. The plate is radiographed using X-ray and gamma rays (IR192.

  18. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  19. Association of frontal gray matter volume and cerebral perfusion in heroin addiction: A multimodal neuroimaging study

    OpenAIRE

    StefanBorgwardt; Ernst-WilhelmRadue

    2013-01-01

    Structure and function are closely related in the healthy human brain. In patients with chronic heroin exposure, brain imaging studies have identified long-lasting changes in gray matter (GM) volume. More recently, we showed that acute application of heroin in dependent patients results in hypoperfusion of fronto-temporal areas compared with the placebo condition. However, the relationship between structural and cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in heroin addiction has not yet been investigat...

  20. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, YongMing; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional ...

  1. Assessment of in vivo microstructure alterations in gray matter using DKI in internet gaming addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yawen; Sun, Jinhua; Zhou, Yan; Ding, Weina; Chen, Xue; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xu, Jianrong; Du, Yasong

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the utility of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) in the detection of gray matter (GM) alterations in people suffering from Internet Gaming Addiction (IGA). Methods DKI was applied to 18 subjects with IGA and to 21 healthy controls (HC). Whole-brain voxel-based analyses were performed with the following derived parameters: mean kurtosis metrics (MK), radial kurtosis (K⊥), and axial kurtosis (K//). A significance threshold was set at P

  2. Reduced prefrontal cortical gray matter volume in young adults exposed to harsh corporal punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoda, Akemi; Suzuki, Hanako; Rabi, Keren; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.; トモダ, アケミ; スズキ, ハナコ; 友田, 明美

    2009-01-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressorassociated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such assexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potentialneurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associatedwith discernible alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM).Methods...

  3. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killingley, J.S.

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships.

  4. Machinable, Thin-Walled, Gray and Ductile Iron Casting Production, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bates; Hanjun Li; Robin Griffin

    2003-12-08

    This report presents the results of research conducted to determine the effects of normal and abnormal processing and compositional variations on machinability (tool wear rate) of gray and ductile iron. The procedures developed allow precise tool wear measurements to be made and interpreted in terms of microstructures and compositions. Accurate data allows the most efficient ways for improving machinability to be determined without sacrificing properties of the irons.

  5. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates.

  6. Emissivity measurements of opaque gray bodies up to 2000 C by a dual-frequency pyrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the SPES project at LNL-INFN a method for emissivity measurements by a double-frequency pyrometer in the infrared region at high temperatures on opaque gray bodies of SiC and graphite is presented. The measurement method proposed in this work reveals a good fitting with literature values. Moreover, the effect of surface finishing on emissivity values has been investigated. (orig.)

  7. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin M Mekonnen; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related...

  8. "GRAY-BOX" MODELING METHOD AND PARAMETERS IDENTIFICATION FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Modeling and digital simulation is an effective method to analyze the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic system. It is difficult to determine some performance parameters in the hydraulic system by means of currently used modeling methods. The "gray-box" modeling method for large-scale hydraulic system is introduced. The principle of the method, the submodels of some components and the parameters identification of components or subsystem are researched.

  9. Developing ICC Profile Using Gray Level Control In Offset Printing Process

    OpenAIRE

    Dilawari, Jaswinder Singh; Khanna, Ravinder

    2012-01-01

    In prepress department RGB image has to be converted to CMYK image. To control that amount of black, cyan, magenta and yellow has to be controlled by using color separation method. Graycolor separation method is selected to control the amounts of these colors because it increase the quality of printing also. A single printer used for printing the same image on different paper also results in different printed images. To remove this problem a different ICC profile based on gray level control i...

  10. New perspective on the pathophysiology of panic: merging serotonin and opioids in the periaqueductal gray

    OpenAIRE

    F.G. Graeff

    2012-01-01

    Panic disorder patients are vulnerable to recurrent panic attacks. Two neurochemical hypotheses have been proposed to explain this susceptibility. The first assumes that panic patients have deficient serotonergic inhibition of neurons localized in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain that organize defensive reactions to cope with proximal threats and of sympathomotor control areas of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that generate most of the neurovegetative symptoms of the p...

  11. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships

  12. Checking Fine and Gray Subdistribution Hazards Model with Cumulative Sums of Residuals

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter estimation, and only a limited contribution has been made to check the model assumptions. In this paper, we present a class of analytical methods and graphical approaches for checking the assumptions of Fine and Gray’s model. T...

  13. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Piccinin, Camila C.; Luiza G. Piovesana; Santos, Maria C. A.; Rachel P. Guimarães; Campos, Brunno M.; Rezende, Thiago J. R.; Campos, Lidiane S.; Torres, Fabio R.; Amato-Filho, Augusto C.; França, Marcondes C.; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Cendes, Fernando; D’Abreu, Anelyssa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia (CCD). Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in CCD but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole-brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify patterns of gray matter (GM) changes in CCD. Methods: We compared 27 patients with CCD matched in age and gender to 54 ...

  14. Why Sex Matters: Brain Size Independent Differences in Gray Matter Distributions between Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Luders, Eileen; Gaser, Christian; Narr, Katherine L.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    The different brain anatomy of men and women is both a classic and continuing topic of major interest. Among the most replicated and robust sex differences are larger overall brain dimensions in men, and relative increases of global and regional gray matter (GM) in women. However, the question remains whether sex-typical differences in brain size (i.e., larger male and smaller female brains) or biological sex itself account for the observed sex effects on tissue amount and distribution. Explo...

  15. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of microstructure in gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, Parviz; Varahram, Naser

    2012-01-01

    To predict the amount of different phases in gray cast iron by a finite difference model (FDM) on the basis of cooling rate (R), the volume fractions of total γ phase, graphite, and cementite were calculated. The results of phase composition were evaluated to find a proper correlation with cooling...... to correlate the phase volume fraction to hardness. The results are compared with experimental data and show reasonable agreement....

  16. Cortical Gray Matter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, Martin J; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Pitiot, Alain; Toro, Roberto; Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Liotti, Mario; Peter F Liddle; Paus, Tomáš; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have shown smaller brain volume and less gray matter in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Relatively few morphological studies have examined structures thought to subserve inhibitory control, one of the diagnostic features of ADHD. We examined one such region, the pars opercularis, predicting a thinner cortex of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in children with ADHD. Method Structural images were obtained from 49 children (24 control; 25...

  17. Sex similarities and differences in pain-related periaqueductal gray connectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Linnman, Clas; Beucke, Jan-Carl; Jensen, Karin B.; Gollub, Randy L; Kong, Jian

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated sex similarities and differences in pain-related functional connectivity in 60 healthy subjects. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and psychophysiological interaction analysis to investigate how exposure to low vs high experimental pain modulates the functional connectivity of the periaqueductal gray (PAG). We found no sex differences in pain thresholds, and in both men and women, the PAG was more functionally connected with the somatosensory cortex, the su...

  18. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine. PMID:20447244

  19. Gene by Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-12-05

    Chronic cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. We therefore examined variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype in cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy controls.

  20. An Imprecise Probability Model for Structural Reliability Based on Evidence and Gray Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Suo; Ying Yan; Chao Zeng; Jun Li

    2013-01-01

    To avoid the shortages and limitations of probabilistic and non-probabilistic reliability model for structural reliability analysis in the case of limited samples for basic variables, a new imprecise probability model is proposed. Confidence interval with a given confidence is calculated on the basis of small samples by gray theory, which is not depending on the distribution pattern of variable. Then basic probability assignments and focal elements are constructed and approximation methods of...

  1. Modification of gray iron produced by induction melting with barium strontium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelevskaya, G.; Feoktistov, A. V.; Selyanin, I. F.; Kutsenko, A. I.; Kutsenko, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The article provides analysis of results of gray iron experimental melts in induction furnace and the following melt modification with barium-strontium carbonate (BSC-2). It is shown that modification positively affects mechanical and casting properties and as-cast iron structure. It was established that BSC-2 granulated immediately prior to use has greater impact on melt than BSC-2 of the same faction, supplied by the manufacturer.

  2. Emissivity measurements of opaque gray bodies up to 2000 C by a dual-frequency pyrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biasetto, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Settore Materiali, Padova (Italy); Manzolaro, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy); Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Padova (Italy); Andrighetto, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Italy)

    2008-11-15

    In the framework of the SPES project at LNL-INFN a method for emissivity measurements by a double-frequency pyrometer in the infrared region at high temperatures on opaque gray bodies of SiC and graphite is presented. The measurement method proposed in this work reveals a good fitting with literature values. Moreover, the effect of surface finishing on emissivity values has been investigated. (orig.)

  3. Higher homocysteine associated with thinner cortical gray matter in 803 ADNI subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Shantanu H Joshi; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant portion of our risk for dementia in old age is associated with lifestyle factors (diet, exercise, and cardiovascular health) that are modifiable, at least in principle. One such risk factor – high homocysteine levels in the blood – is known to increase risk for Alzheimer’s disease and vascular disorders. Here we set out to understand how homocysteine levels relate to 3D surface-based maps of cortical gray matter distribution (thickness, volume, surface area) computed from brain ...

  4. Normal gray matter volumes in women recovered from anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Lasse; Rø, Øyvind; Endestad, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) has consistently been associated with reduced gray (GM) and white matter (WM) brain volumes. It is unclear whether GM alterations are present following recovery from AN, as previous findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to determine if women recovered from AN exhibit reduced global or regional GM volumes. Methods Global GM and WM, as well as regional GM volumes, were investigated in 22 women recovered from AN and 22 age-matched healthy co...

  5. Gray box modeling of MSW degradation: Revealing its dominant (bio)chemical mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Van Turnhout, A.G.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Kleerebezem, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to describe organic degradation within immobile water regions of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills which is best described by the term “gray box” model. We use a simplified set of dominant (bio)chemical and physical reactions and realistic environmental conditions. All equations, relationships and inhibitions are based on semi-empirical or fundamental relationships which have proven to be applicable in the peer reviewed literature. As much as possible ...

  6. Bank's Self-learning Process in a Gray System of Credit Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO Jian-xiong

    2001-01-01

    A bank had better ration its credit if it first enters a gray system of credit information where it cannot distinguish between the low- and high-risk borrowers. As the bank keeps a long-term relationship with its borrowers the bank learns about the borrowers through time. With the help of logit model and Bayes rule, a bank can process customer's credit information and build a better credit term it gives.

  7. Cost Control Method and Software in Bidding Process Based on Gray System Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Liu Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of social economy, the competition between enterprises in construction projects becomes more and more serious. The cost control method is proposed to the bidding process of enterprises based on the gray system forecast. At the same time, the cost control software is also constructed to the bidding process of enterprises. Experimental results suggest that the proposed approach is feasible and correct.

  8. Bioreactor Cultivation of Zeltnera beyrichii (Torr. & A. Gray) Mans.: A Novel Source of Biologically Active Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Miloš Radović; Branislav Šiler; Jasmina Nestorović Živković; Tijana Banjanac; Suzana Živković; Miloš Nikolić; Marina Soković; Danijela Mišić

    2013-01-01

    With regard to world’s increasing demand for biologically active compounds, a novel source of xanthones and secoiridoid glycosides has been studied . Zeltnera beyrichii (Torr. & A. Gray) Mans., an insufficiently acknowledged North American medicinal plant species, may be considered a pharmacological substitute for commercial C. erythraea Rafn, since it accumulates in aerial parts nearly the same amount of secoiridoid glycosides: swertiamarin, gentiopicrin, and sweroside (13.76, 7.56, and 0.17...

  9. Analysis of mammographic microcalcifications using gray-level image structure features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawan, A.P.; Chitre, Y.; Kaiser-Bonasso, C.; Moskowitz, M. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Most of the techniques used in the computerized analysis of mammographic microcalcifications use shape features on the segmented regions of microcalcifications extracted from the digitized mammograms. Since mammographic images usually suffer from poorly defined microcalcification features, the extraction of shape features based on a segmentation process may not accurately represent microcalcifications. In this paper, the authors define a set of image structure features for classification of malignancy. Two categories of correlated gray-level image structure features are defined for classification of difficult-to-diagnose cases. The first category of features includes second-order histogram statistics-based features representing the global texture and the wavelet decomposition-based features representing the local texture of the microcalcification area of interest. The second category of features represents the first-order gray-level histogram-based statistics of the segmented microcalcification regions and the size, number, and distance features of the segmented microcalcification cluster. Various features in each category were correlated with the biopsy examination results of 191 difficult-to-diagnose cases for selection of the best set of features representing the complete gray-level image structure information. The selection of the best features was performed using the multivariate cluster analysis as well as a genetic algorithm (GA)-based search method. The selected features were used for classification using backpropagation neural network and parametric statistical classifiers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the neural network-based classification with linear and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers.

  10. Gray matter involvement in patients with multiple sclerosis as shown by magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reshiana Rumzan; CHEN Xuan; LI Yong-mei

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the main findings seen on conventional and advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)used to assess gray matter (GM) involvement in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).Data sources The data used in this review were obtained mainly from studies reported in the PubMed database using the terms of multiple sclerosis,gray matter,magnetic resonance imaging.Study selection Relevant literatures on studies of GM involvement in MS patients were identified,retrieved and reviewed.Results MS is the most common chronic,disabling central nervous system disease in young adults.Although traditional thinking has considered MS to be a chronic inflammatory demyelinating condition affecting solely the white matter (WM) of the central nervous system,over the last few years it has been shown that GM pathology is also common and extensive.GM demyelinating lesions can not only be found in the cerebral cortex but also in the deep gray nuclei.Apart from focal demyelinatad lesions,diffuse neuronal loss and atrophy is also present in the GM of MS patients.Conclusions The widespread use of conventional and quantitative MRI based techniques in MS has led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms underlying the inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes of the disease.However,more researches are needed to unravel GM pathology in MS patients,which at present remains enigmatic.

  11. New perspective on the pathophysiology of panic: merging serotonin and opioids in the periaqueductal gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Panic disorder patients are vulnerable to recurrent panic attacks. Two neurochemical hypotheses have been proposed to explain this susceptibility. The first assumes that panic patients have deficient serotonergic inhibition of neurons localized in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain that organize defensive reactions to cope with proximal threats and of sympathomotor control areas of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that generate most of the neurovegetative symptoms of the panic attack. The second suggests that endogenous opioids buffer normal subjects from the behavioral and physiological manifestations of the panic attack, and their deficit brings about heightened suffocation sensitivity and separation anxiety in panic patients, making them more vulnerable to panic attacks. Experimental results obtained in rats performing one-way escape in the elevated T-maze, an animal model of panic, indicate that the inhibitory action of serotonin on defense is connected with activation of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray. This allows reconciliation of the serotonergic and opioidergic hypotheses of panic pathophysiology, the periaqueductal gray being the fulcrum of serotonin-opioid interaction.

  12. Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Cekic, Milos

    2007-10-01

    Zen meditation, a Buddhist practice centered on attentional and postural self-regulation, has been speculated to bring about beneficial long-term effects for the individual, ranging from stress reduction to improvement of cognitive function. In this study, we examined how the regular practice of meditation may affect the normal age-related decline of cerebral gray matter volume and attentional performance observed in healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry for MRI anatomical brain images and a computerized sustained attention task were employed in 13 regular practitioners of Zen meditation and 13 matched controls. While control subjects displayed the expected negative correlation of both gray matter volume and attentional performance with age, meditators did not show a significant correlation of either measure with age. The effect of meditation on gray matter volume was most prominent in the putamen, a structure strongly implicated in attentional processing. These findings suggest that the regular practice of meditation may have neuroprotective effects and reduce the cognitive decline associated with normal aging.

  13. Anatomical and diffusion MRI of deep gray matter in pediatric spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Ware

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM exhibit brain abnormalities in cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and cerebellar structure. Little is known about deep gray matter macro- and microstructure in this population. The current study utilized volumetric and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques to examine gray matter volume and microstructure in several subcortical structures: basal ganglia nuclei, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Sixty-six children and adolescents (ages 8–18; M = 12.0, SD = 2.73 with SBM and typically developing (TD controls underwent T1- and diffusion-weighted neuroimaging. Microstructural results indicated that hippocampal volume was disproportionately reduced, whereas the putamen volume was enlarged in the group with SBM. Microstructural analyses indicated increased mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA in the gray matter of most examined structures (i.e., thalamus, caudate, hippocampus, with the putamen exhibiting a unique pattern of decreased MD and increased FA. These results provide further support that SBM differentially disrupts brain regions whereby some structures are volumetrically normal whereas others are reduced or enlarged. In the hippocampus, volumetric reduction coupled with increased MD may imply reduced cellular density and aberrant organization. Alternatively, the enlarged volume and significantly reduced MD in the putamen suggest increased density.

  14. SAR River Image Segmentation Based on Reciprocal Gray Entropy and Improved Chan-Vese Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Shihua

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To further improve the accuracy and speed of river segmentation on synthetic aperture radar(SAR images, a segmentation method is proposed, which is based on improved Chan-Vese(CV model combining with reciprocal gray entropy multi-threshold selection optimized by artificial bee colony algorithm. Considering the uniformity of the gray level within river object cluster and background cluster, a coarse river image segmentation is made by using the multi-threshold selection algorithm based on reciprocal gray entropy and artificial bee colony optimization; Contrapose the low convergence speed and the sensitivity to initial conditions of basic CV model, the Dirac function is replaced with the image edge intensity and the coarse segmentation results serve as the initial condition of improved CV model which is utilized to make a fine segmentation for the river image. A large number of experimental results show that, the proposed segmentation method needs not set initial conditions and has high running speed as well as segmentation accuracy.

  15. Magnetic resonance signal intensity ratio of gray/white matter in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in 87 children with various clinical entities were used to determine the signal intensity ratio of gray/white matter in T1-weighted and T2-weighted images using a 1.5 T MR scanner. Signal intensity ratio changes in both T1- and T2-weighted images correlated well with advancing age (y=0.9349-0.001575, r=0.584, P1-weighted images; y=0.9798+0.002854, r=0.723, P2-weighted images), but the correlation was more linear when we included only normally developed (34) children (y=0.9689-0.001967, r=-0.654, P1-weighted images; y=0.9882+0.002965, r=0.747, P2-weighted images). Abnormal ratios were observed in patients with congenital hydrocephalus, inherited metabolic diseases and cerebral palsy. Although the gray/white matter differentiation would not delineate the myelination itself, measurement of the signal intensity ratio of gray/white matters is a practical way to evaluate delayed myelination in a busy MR center. (author)

  16. Comparative QTL Mapping of Resistance to Gray Leaf Spot in Maize Based on Bioinformatics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Li-yu; LI Xin-hai; HAO Zhuan-fang; XIE Chuan-xiao; JI Hai-lian; L(U) Xiang-ling; ZHANG Shi-huang; PAN Guang-tang

    2007-01-01

    The integration QTL map for gray leaf spot resistance in maize was constructed by compiling a total of 57 QTLs available with genetic map IBM2 2005 neighbors as reference.Twenty-six "real QTLs" and seven consensus QTLs were identified by refining these 57 QTLs using overview and meta-analysis approaches.Seven consensus QTLs were found on chromosomes 1.06,2.06,3.04,4.06,4.08,5.03,and 8.06,and the map coordinates were 552.53,425.72,279.20,368.97,583.21,308.68 and 446.14 cM,respectively.Using a synteny conservation approach based on comparative mapping between the maize genetic map and rice physical map,a total of 69 rice and maize resistance genes collected from websites Gramene and MaizeGDB were projected onto the maize genetic map IBM2 2005 neighbors,and 2(Rgene32,ht1),4(Rgene5,rp3,scmv2,wsm2),and 4(ht2,Rgene6,Rgene8 and Rgene7)positional candidate genes were found in three consensus QTLs on chromosomes 2.06,3.04,and 8.06,respectively.The results suggested that the combination of meta-analysis of gray leaf spot in maize and sequence homologous comparison between maize and rice could be an efficient strategy for identifying major QTLs and corresponding candidate genes for the gray leaf spot.

  17. Food choice by Blue-gray Tanagers in relation to protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque, Carlos; Calchi, Rosanna

    2003-06-01

    We tested discriminatory ability and food choice in relation to protein content of the diet in wild-caught Blue-gray Tanagers (Thraupis episcopus), a generalist tropical frugivorous bird. In two sets of experiments we offered to five individual birds in pair-wise choice trials two nearly iso-caloric experimental diets differing in their protein content only. Protein contents of the experimental diets were 4.6 vs. 1.4% in the first experiment and 3.2 and 1.5% (dry matter basis) in the second experiment. Response varied among individual tanagers, but 6 of the 10 birds showed a clear preference for the food highest in protein. Two individuals displayed a strong positional preference. When testing each treatment group, birds ate daily significantly more of the food that had higher protein content. We conclude that Blue-gray Tanagers prefer richer nitrogen foods. Our results also demonstrate that Blue-gray Tanagers have remarkable discriminatory abilities, they reacted to differences in protein content as small as 0.09% fresh matter. We show for the first time discriminatory ability and preference of wild frugivorous birds for foods richer in protein under controlled conditions. Our findings support the hypothesis that frugivorous birds can act as selective agents for fruit pulp composition. PMID:12781832

  18. Jacobian integration method increases the statistical power to measure gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Nakamura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gray matter atrophy provides important insights into neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS and can be used as a marker of neuroprotection in clinical trials. Jacobian integration is a method for measuring volume change that uses integration of the local Jacobian determinants of the nonlinear deformation field registering two images, and is a promising tool for measuring gray matter atrophy. Our main objective was to compare the statistical power of the Jacobian integration method to commonly used methods in terms of the sample size required to detect a treatment effect on gray matter atrophy. We used multi-center longitudinal data from relapsing–remitting MS patients and evaluated combinations of cross-sectional and longitudinal pre-processing with SIENAX/FSL, SPM, and FreeSurfer, as well as the Jacobian integration method. The Jacobian integration method outperformed these other commonly used methods, reducing the required sample size by a factor of 4–5. The results demonstrate the advantage of using the Jacobian integration method to assess neuroprotection in MS clinical trials.

  19. Structure elucidation, anticancer and antioxidant activities of a novel polysaccharide from Gomphus clavatus Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiang; Hou, Yiling; Zhu, Yuanxiu; Wang, Panpan; Fu, Lei; Zhu, Hongqing; Zhang, Nan; Qin, Hang; Qu, Wei; Wang, Fang; Hou, Wanru

    2015-06-01

    A novel heteropolysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Gomphus clavatus Gray was isolated through Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-cellulose columns. The Gomphus clavatus Gray polysaccharide (GCG-1) was mainly composed of β-D-glucosepyranose (β-D-Glu) and α-D-galactopyranose (α-D-Gal) in a ratio of 3:2 and had a molecular weight of ~50,000 Da. The structure of GCG-1 was investigated by a combination of total hydrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectra. The results indicated that GCG-1 had a backbone of (1 → 4)-β-D-glucosepyranose residues with branches at O-6 and the branches consisted of two with (1 → 3)-α-D-galactopyranose residue. Antioxidation test in vitro showed that it possessed strong free radical scavenging activity, which may be comparable to vitamin C and butylated hydroxytoluene. GCG-1 also induced the apoptosis of HepG-2 cells and affected the mRNA expression of various housekeeping genes in the HepG-2 cells. The results indicated that Gomphus clavatus Gray may be an ideal sources for antioxidant and anticancer agents. PMID:25901792

  20. Regional gray matter density associated with emotional intelligence: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions and the ability to use the gathered information to guide one's thinking and action. EI is thought to be important for social life making it a popular subject of research. However, despite the existence of previous functional imaging studies on EI, the relationship between regional gray matter morphology and EI has never been investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and a questionnaire (Emotional Intelligence Scale) to measure EI to identify the gray matter correlates of each factor of individual EI (Intrapersonal factor, Interpersonal factor, Situation Management factor). We found significant negative relationships between the Intrapersonal factor and regional gray matter density (rGMD) (1-a) in an anatomical cluster that included the right anterior insula, (1-b) in the right cerebellum, (1-c) in an anatomical cluster that extends from the cuneus to the precuneus, (1-d) and in an anatomical cluster that extends from the medial prefrontal cortex to the left lateral fronto-polar cortex. We also found significant positive correlations between the Interpersonal factor and rGMD in the right superior temporal sulcus, and significant negative correlations between the Situation Management factor and rGMD in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that each factor of EI in healthy young people is related to the specific brain regions known to be involved in the networks of social cognition and self-related recognition, and in the somatic marker circuitry.

  1. Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope’s gray treefrog) x Hyla cinerea (green treefrog): putative natural hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Jenkins, Jill A.; Olivier, Heather M.; Layton, Rebekah R.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally–occurring hybrid treefrogs have been occasionally found in the eastern United States. However, these hybrids are almost always between members of the same species group. On 10 Jun 2014, at 2145 h, we located an individual making an unusual advertisement call along Bayou Manual Road in Sherburne Wildlife Management Area in the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana, USA, and brought it back to the laboratory for further study. Physically, the treefrog appeared intermediate between a Green Treefrog and a Cope’s Gray Treefrog, which are members of different species groups. Call analysis also showed the individual to be intermediate between the two putative parental species. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the total genome size from nuclei of whole blood cells, and also determined the individual to be intermediate of the putative parental species. Despite vocalizing for mates, the hybrid did not appear to have viable spermatozoa, and was likely the result of an anomalous mis-mating event between a male Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a female Green Treefrog. To our knowledge, natural hybrids between a Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a Green Treefrog have not been previously reported.

  2. Differential Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules Using Gray-Scale and Color Doppler Ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the differential points between benign and malignant thyroid nodules, we retrospectively analysed the gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasovograms, radioisotope(RI) scans, and thyroid function tests of lO4 cases. The pathology of the lesion was confirmed as benign in 80 cases and malignant in 24 case, either at operation orby fine needle aspiration biopsy. Gray-scale ultrasonographic findings were analysed in terms of lymphadenopathy,size, and multiplicity. Color Doppler ultrasonography was performed in 40 case, and color singals were graded from type 0 to type III according to color flow distributions. There were no statistically significant differences inperipheral halo, size, multiplicity, color Doppler ultrasonograms, and findings at RI scan and thyriod functiontest between benign and malignant nodules(Chi-square test : P>0.05). However, internal punctate calcification,solid and hypoechoic pattern, cervical lymphadenopathy, irregular and illdefined outer margin, male gender weremore common in malignant thyroid nodules, while smooth and well-defined outer margin, complex echogenicity weremore common in benign nodules(P<0.05). Although color Doppler examination did not contribute to the differentialdiagnosis of benign and malignant nodules, complete halo in grat-scale ultrasonographt and color signal type II (prominent color flow at the periphery of the nodules; color 'halo' sihn) showed statistically significantcorrelation. In conclusion, gray-scale ultrasonography is a useful imaging modality for differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and further studies may be requires to clarify the availability of color Doppler ultrasonography

  3. Regional gray matter reduction correlates with subjective quality of life in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Shiho; Miyata, Jun; Yoshizumi, Miho; Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Kawada, Ryosaku; Fujimoto, Shinsuke; Tanaka, Yusuke; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Murai, Toshiya

    2013-04-01

    Subjective quality of life (QOL) has been recognized as an important consideration in schizophrenia. Several symptoms and neurocognitive functions were shown to be correlated with subjective QOL; however its determinants are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the association between brain structural abnormalities and subjective QOL in patients with schizophrenia. Forty-five schizophrenia patients and 48 age, sex, and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS) was used to rate subjective QOL. We performed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate regional brain alterations. Relative to normal controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited gray matter reductions mainly in the frontal and temporal regions. Worse psychosocial subscale of SQLS was associated with gray matter (GM) reduction in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and worse motivation/energy subscale was associated with gray matter reduction in the left superior frontal sulcus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and the left inferior temporal gyrus. The correlation between DLPFC GM volume and psychosocial subscale of SQLS disappeared after controlling for severity of psychopathology, while the other correlations remained significant when controlled by demographic and clinical variables. Combining imaging techniques with psychosocial methods would help to elucidate those factors that are associated with QOL.

  4. The role of theory in the psychophysiology of personality: from Ivan Pavlov to Jeffrey Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; Perkins, Adam M

    2006-12-01

    Psychophysiological approaches to personality have made significant progress in recent years, partly as a spin-off of technological innovation (e.g., functional neuroimaging) and partly as a result of an emerging theoretical consensus regarding the structure and biology of basic processes. In this field, Jeffrey Gray's influential psychophysiological theory of personality - now widely known as Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) - owes much to Pavlov, who devoted a large proportion of his later life to personality differences and their implications for psychiatry. In this article, we trace the influence of Pavlov on Hans Eysenck's and Jeffrey Gray's work, and then provide a brief description of RST in order to highlight some of the central problems - as well as some tentative solutions - in the psychophysiology of personality. Specifically, the importance of theory in personality research is stressed by the contrast of Gray's theoretically driven model with less fertile atheoretical (i.e., exploratory-inductive) approaches. The fecundity of RST, which has been in continual development over a period of thirty years, is discussed in the light of Karl Popper's views on the nature of science, especially the formulation of the 'problem situation', which sets up the theoretical and operational conditions under which hypotheses may be challenged and tested to destruction. In this respect, we see the truth of Lewin's [Lewin, K., 1951. Field theory in social science: selected theoretical papers. In: Cartwright, D., (Ed.). Harper & Row, New York] famous phrase, "There is nothing so practical as a good theory".

  5. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by 2H or 3H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both 2HHO and 3HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with 3H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals

  6. Correlation of polishing-induced shallow subsurface damages with laser-induced gray haze damages in fused silica optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Zhao, Heng; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Peifan; Ma, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Laser-induced damage in fused silica optics greatly restricts the performances of laser facilities. Gray haze damage, which is always initiated on ceria polished optics, is one of the most important damage morphologies in fused silica optics. In this paper, the laser-induced gray haze damages of four fused silica samples polished with CeO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, and colloidal silica slurries are investigated. Four samples all present gray haze damages with much different damage densities. Then, the polishing-induced contaminant and subsurface damages in four samples are analyzed. The results reveal that the gray haze damages could be initiated on the samples without Ce contaminant and are inclined to show a tight correlation with the shallow subsurface damages.

  7. AFSC/NMML: Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California, 1967 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years...

  8. Directional wave and temperature data from nine buoys in Gray's Harbor, Washington, 1994-2002 (NODC Accession 0000756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wave data were collected from 9 buoys in Grays Harbor, Washington, from 01 January 1994 to 24 July 2002. Data were collected as part of the Coastal Data Information...

  9. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network.

  10. Brain Gray Matter Changes Associated with Mindfulness Meditation in Older Adults: An Exploratory Pilot Study using Voxel-based Morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Kurth, Florian; Luders, Eileen; Wu, Brian; Black, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have previously been associated with structural gray matter changes in normal healthy adults. However, it remains unknown if standardized MBIs can induce similar changes in older adults and those with health complaints as well. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of a standardized MBI on the gray matter tissue of older adults with sleep disturbances. Methods This exploratory single-group pilot longitudinal study exami...

  11. Elimination of Gray-Tracking Effects of KTiOPO4 Crystals Using a Strong Focusing Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Zhen; GE Jian-Hong; ZHAO Zhi-Gang; WANG Sha; HU Miao; LIU Chong; CHEN Jun

    2009-01-01

    A simple method is presented to eliminate gray-tracking effects of KTP crystals using a strong focusing scheme.Experimental and theoretical studies on the gray-tracking effects are carried out.A 18 W green laser is demonstrated with a 9 kHz repetition rate,a beam quality factor of M2=1.6 and a conversion efficiency of 44%.

  12. A Survey of the Awareness, Knowledge and Behavior of Hair Dye Use in a Korean Population with Gray Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jung Eun; Jung, Hee Dam; Kang, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Background Gray hair naturally develops in the process of human aging. Many people with gray hair periodically dye their hair. Hair dyeing products are widely used and they can cause adverse effects. Therefore, the user's knowledge and recognition about hair dyeing and related side effects are important. Objective The goal of this study was to lay the foundation for understanding, preventing and treating side effects caused by hair coloring products. Methods We conducted a questionnaire surve...

  13. Forty Years of Winter: Cetaceans Observed During the Southbound Migration of Gray Whales, Eschrichtius robustus, Near Granite Canyon, Central California

    OpenAIRE

    Shelden, Kim E. W.; Rugh, David J.

    2010-01-01

    From December to February in most years from 1967 to 2007, observers counted gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, from shore sites south of Carmel in central California. In addition to gray whales, other cetacean species were also recorded. These observations were summarized and compared among survey platforms and to ocean conditions. Eleven cetacean species were identified including eight odontocete species (killer whale, Orcinus orca; Pacific white-sided dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obliqui...

  14. Biological response to changes in climate patterns: population increases of gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) in Texas bays and estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Tolan, James M.; Fisher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The increase in the abundance of gray snapper (Lutjanus griseus) in Texas bays and estuaries over the past 30 years is correlated to increased wintertime surface water temperatures. Trends in the relative abundance of gray snapper are evaluated by using monthly fishery-independent monitoring data from each of the seven major estuaries along the Texas coast from 1978 through 2006. Environmental conditions during this period demonstrated increasing annual sea surface temperatures, alth...

  15. The coral grayness in northern South China Sea and its description of interdecadal variation of precipitation in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Dejun; WANG Dongxiao; SUN Donghuai; GAO Rongzhen; JI Zhongping

    2006-01-01

    The interdecadal variation of coral grayness in northern South China Sea (SCS) is studied using the annual mean coral grayness in northern SCS from 1789 to 1992 and annual precipitation at Guangzhou from 1908 to 1992 by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), correlation analysis, Mann-Kendall's abrupt change analysis and composite analysis. The interdecadal variation of south China precipitation as reflected by the series of Guangzhou precipitation rebuilt with the coral grayness is discussed. The results show that the variation of coral grayness in SCS has significant terms of tendency, much-weighted interdecadal variation and weak interannual variation.There was a century-scale abrupt change of coral grayness at the end of the 1880s that changed from positive anomalies to negative anomalies. The global field of SST difference corresponding to the point of abrupt change was negative anomalies over the SCS and neighboring northern Indian Ocean, most of central and western Pacific Ocean and coastal areas of the northern Atlantic Ocean. The large-scale distribution of SST anomalies is concomitant with the century-scale abrupt change of coral grayness in SCS. Negative correlation exists between the coral grayness in SCS and precipitation in Guangzhou on the interdecadal scale and the interdecadal precipitation in Guangzhou as reflected by the interdecadal data of SCS coral grayness shows that the interdecadal variation of south China precipitation changes significantly from phase to phase. The current study aims at contributing in the effort of identifying alternative indexes for climate change in south China on the interdecadal scale and beyond.

  16. Resting-state functional connectivity bias of middle temporal gyrus and caudate with altered gray matter volume in major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoqiong Ma

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have indicated that the structure deficits and resting-state functional connectivity (FC imbalances in cortico-limbic circuitry might underline the pathophysiology of MDD. Using structure and functional MRI, our aim is to investigate gray matter abnormalities in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD and treatment-responsive depression (TSD, and test whether the altered gray matter is associated with altered FC. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the regions with gray matter abnormality and FC analysis was further conducted between each gray matter abnormal region and the remaining voxels in the brain. Using one-way analysis of variance, we found significant gray matter abnormalities in the right middle temporal cortex (MTG and bilateral caudate among the TRD, TSD and healthy controls. For the FC of the right MTG, we found that both the patients with TRD and TSD showed altered connectivity mainly in the default-mode network (DMN. For the FC of the right caudate, both patient groups showed altered connectivity in the frontal regions. Our results revealed the gray matter reduction of right MTG and bilateral caudate, and disrupted functional connection to widely distributed circuitry in DMN and frontal regions, respectively. These results suggest that the abnormal DMN and reward circuit activity might be biomarkers of depression trait.

  17. Investigation of the alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation with the optimal voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To detect brain structural difference between children with unexplained mental retardation and children with typically normal development. Methods: The high-resolution magnetic MR imaging were obtained from 21 children with unexplained mental retardation and 30 age-matched control children without intellectual disabilities. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures were applied to compare differences of gray matter volume between the two groups. The total and regional gray matter volume were compared between the two groups with independent t test. Meanwhile, correlation was conducted to analyze the relationship between the total gray matter volume and intelligence quotient (IQ) with partial correlation test. Results: The total gray matter volume was significantly increased in the mental retardation children (1.012±0.079) × 106 mm3] in relative to the controls [(0.956±0.059)×106 mm3, t=-2.80, P0.05). Conclusions: VBM would detect the gray matter abnormalities that were not founded in routine MR scanning. The increase of gray matter volume in the frontal-thalamus network might indicate the delayed maturation of the brain development. This might be one of the causations of' mental retardation in children. (authors)

  18. A Large Scale (N=400) Investigation of Gray Matter Differences in Schizophrenia Using Optimized Voxel-based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Giuliani, Nicole R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Schretlen, David J.; Pulver, Anne; Cascella, Nicola; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kates, Wendy; Buchanan, Robert; Sharma, Tonmoy; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of MRI images as an automated method of investigating cortical gray matter differences in schizophrenia. However, results from these studies vary widely, likely due to different methodological or statistical approaches. Objective To use VBM to investigate gray matter differences in schizophrenia in a sample significantly larger than any published to date, and to increase statistical power sufficiently to reveal differences missed in smaller analyses. Methods Magnetic resonance whole brain images were acquired from four geographic sites, all using the same model 1.5T scanner and software version, and combined to form a sample of 200 patients with both first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 200 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and scanner location. Gray matter concentration was assessed and compared using optimized VBM. Results Compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less gray matter concentration in multiple cortical and subcortical regions, some previously unreported. Overall, we found lower concentrations of gray matter in regions identified in prior studies, most of which reported only subsets of the affected areas. Conclusions Gray matter differences in schizophrenia are most comprehensively elucidated using a large, diverse and representative sample. PMID:18378428

  19. Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for gray whales along the Oregon coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerquist, Barbara [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute; Winsor, Martha [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute; Mate, Bruce [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute

    2012-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine whether a low-powered sound source could be effective at deterring gray whales from areas that may prove harmful to them. With increased interest in the development of marine renewal energy along the Oregon coast the concern that such development may pose a collision or entanglement risk for gray whales. A successful acoustic deterrent could act as a mitigation tool to prevent harm to whales from such risks. In this study, an acoustic device was moored on the seafloor in the pathway of migrating gray whales off Yaquina Head on the central Oregon coast. Shore-based observers tracked whales with a theodolite (surveyor’s tool) to accurately locate whales as they passed the headland. Individual locations of different whales/whale groups as well as tracklines of the same whale/whale groups were obtained and compared between times with the acoustic device was transmitting and when it was off. Observations were conducted on 51 d between January 1 and April 15, 2012. A total of 143 individual whale locations were collected for a total of 243 whales, as well as 57 tracklines for a total of 142 whales. Inclement weather and equipment problems resulted in very small sample sizes, especially during experimental periods, when the device was transmitting. Because of this, the results of this study were inconclusive. We feel that another season of field testing is warranted to successfully test the effectiveness of the deterrent, but recommend increasing the zone of influence to 3 km to ensure the collection of adequate sample sizes. Steps have been taken to acquire the necessary federal research permit modification to authorize the increased zone of influence and to modify the acoustic device for the increased power. With these changes we are confident we will be able to determine whether the deterrent is effective at deflecting gray whales. A successful deterrent device may serve as a valuable mitigation tool to protect gray whales, and

  20. Changes in the white-gray matter density difference in computed tomography associated with maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attenuation of the x-ray beam in infantile brain tissue is markedly lower than in adults, so the CT image in infants, particularly in the newborn, seems to indicate demyelinating diseases. Therefore, the evaluation of nonpathological scans of infants and adults was performed in order to establish baseline numerical data on white and gray matter differentiation associated with maturation. One hundred and nine normal cases with no motion artifacts were selected. The age distribution was from 39 weeks to 40 years, as shown in Fig. 1. The Hitachi CT-H 250 tomograph was used for all the patient scans. The x-ray tube was operated at 120 kV and 30 mA. The thickness of each slice was 10 mm. The patients were scanned parallel with the canthomeatal line. The CT numbers are displayed on the EMI scale, in which water is zero and bone is +500. The mean CT numbers and the standard deviation were calculated by means of a computer on a horizontal plane through the pineal body; the following regions were selected for computation: White matter: preventricular frontal area. 44 mm2 (36 pixels). Gray matter: head of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus. 24 mm2 (20 pixels). The mean CT number for white matter was 13.5 +- 0.5 in the newborn and 16.8 +- 0.4 in adults. These numbers increased very rapidly during the 2nd month after birth and reached the adult value by 13 years. On the other hand, the mean CT number for gray matter was 15.6 +- 0.6 in the newborn and 19.7 +- 0.4 in adults. These numbers increased only gradually after birth and reached maximum value at 20 years, These results are probably due to a decrease in the water content per unit of volume and an increase in brain solids (protein, RNA and myelin) rather than to a decrease in the extracellular space associated with maturation. The difference between the average white and gray value was also studied. The white-gray difference was lowest (1.6 units) at 2 months and highest (2.9 units) in adults. (author)

  1. Characteristics of annual laminae gray level variations in a stalagmite from Shihua Cave, Beijing and its climatic significance (II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The annual laminae gray level variations in the stalagmite TS9501 of Shihua Cave, Beijing are studied in detail. The environmental factors influencing the laminae gray level are also analyzed. The following conditions may be necessary to the study on the lamina gray level. A) The seasonal differences of climate in the studied area are strong. B) The cave has a rapid and simple hydrological connection with the surface, such that the gray level variation is great; therefore, climatic changes can be more clearly recorded in a stalagmite. C) No water from other sources due to lateral flow adds to the seepage over the cave. D) There are more organic impurities than inorganic ones, whose content changes distinctly with time in the sample. By comparison with the modern instrumental climate records, it was found that the gray level of laminae is mainly related to the air temperature, especially the summer mean temperature. Therefore, the gray level can be used as a proxy of the air temperature. The variation of the lamina gray level also represents the oscillation of Indian summer monsoon as identified in the modern climate records. The variability of the temperature in Beijing area over the last 1 ka is reconstructed. The results show that there are several cold periods corresponding to historical records. An important phenomenon is noticed that the climatic pattern before about 1400AD is different from that after about 1400AD. In Beijing area, before about 1400AD, low amplitude and high frequency temperature oscillations dominated the signal. The climate pattern is warm-dry and cold-wet. After about 1400AD, both the temperature and rainfall varied synchronously, temperature oscillated strongly and the Little Ice Age occurred. The climate pattern is cold-dry and warm-wet. This transition of the climate pattern is also observed in other worldwide paleoclimatic records, demonstrating that there was a global climate event at about 1400AD.

  2. Structured Light Based 3d Scanning for Specular Surface by the Combination of Gray Code and Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-06-01

    Surface reconstruction using coded structured light is considered one of the most reliable techniques for high-quality 3D scanning. With a calibrated projector-camera stereo system, a light pattern is projected onto the scene and imaged by the camera. Correspondences between projected and recovered patterns are computed in the decoding process, which is used to generate 3D point cloud of the surface. However, the indirect illumination effects on the surface, such as subsurface scattering and interreflections, will raise the difficulties in reconstruction. In this paper, we apply maximum min-SW gray code to reduce the indirect illumination effects of the specular surface. We also analysis the errors when comparing the maximum min-SW gray code and the conventional gray code, which justifies that the maximum min-SW gray code has significant superiority to reduce the indirect illumination effects. To achieve sub-pixel accuracy, we project high frequency sinusoidal patterns onto the scene simultaneously. But for specular surface, the high frequency patterns are susceptible to decoding errors. Incorrect decoding of high frequency patterns will result in a loss of depth resolution. Our method to resolve this problem is combining the low frequency maximum min-SW gray code and the high frequency phase shifting code, which achieves dense 3D reconstruction for specular surface. Our contributions include: (i) A complete setup of the structured light based 3D scanning system; (ii) A novel combination technique of the maximum min-SW gray code and phase shifting code. First, phase shifting decoding with sub-pixel accuracy. Then, the maximum min-SW gray code is used to resolve the ambiguity resolution. According to the experimental results and data analysis, our structured light based 3D scanning system enables high quality dense reconstruction of scenes with a small number of images. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed to extract the advantages of our new

  3. Survival and growth of hardwoods in brown versus gray sandstone on a surface mine in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, P; Skousen, J; Ziemkiewicz, P

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining in West Virginia removes the eastern deciduous forest and reclaiming the mined land to a productive forest must consider soil depth, soil physical and chemical properties, soil compaction, ground cover competition, and tree species selection. Our objective was to evaluate tree survival and growth in weathered brown sandstone and in unweathered gray sandstone. Brown and gray sandstone are often substituted when insufficient native topsoil is available for replacement. Three 2.8-ha plots were constructed with either 1.5 or 1.2 m of brown sandstone, or 1.5 m of gray sandstone at the surface. Half of each plot was compacted with a large dozer. Percent fines (sandstone and 34% in gray. Brown sandstone's pH was 5.1, while gray sandstone's pH was around 8.0. In March 2005, 2-yr-old seedlings of 11 hardwood species were planted. After 3 yr, tree survival was 86% on 1.5-m gray sandstone, 67% on 1.5-m brown sandstone, and 82% on 1.2-m brown sandstone. Survival was 78% on noncompacted and 79% on compacted areas. Average volume of all trees (height x diameter(2)) was significantly greater on brown sandstone (218 cm(3)) than gray sandstone (45 cm(3)) after 3 yr. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) had the highest survival (100%) and significantly greater volume (792 cm(3)) than all other tree species. Survival of the other 10 species varied between 65% for tulip poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) and 92% for redbud (Cercis canadensis L.), and volume varied between 36 cm(3) for white pine (Pinus strobes L.) and 175 cm(3) for tulip poplar. After 3 yr, brown sandstone appears to be a better topsoil material due to the much greater growth of trees, but tree growth over time as these topsoils weather will determine whether these trends continue.

  4. Cyclic variation in myocardial gray level as a marker of viability in man. A videodensitometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, C; Picano, E; Varga, A; Marzullo, P; Pingitore, A; Paterni, M

    1996-03-01

    Experimental and human studies have shown that a preserved cyclic (diastolic-to-systolic) echoreflectivity variation, assessed by radiofrequency sampling of backscatter signal with non-commercially available prototypes, identifies viability in a myocardial segment with a resting dyssynergy. The objective of this study was to assess whether a videodensitometric analysis of myocardial gray level variation during cardiac cycle might identify viable but dyssynergic myocardium in a clinical setting. Thirty-four patients with a resting dyssynergy (akinesis in 26, marked hypokinesis in eight) in the septum and/or inferno-posterior wall were evaluated by videodensitometry. All echo studies were performed with commercially available instruments in the long axis parasternal view, with quantitative analysis of gray levels performed off-line on digitized images. Segmental wall motion was assessed with a 16 segment model of the left ventricle, each scored from 1, normal, to 4, dyskinetic. A follow-up echo study was obtained in all patients > 4 weeks after successful revascularization (in 22 by angioplasty, in 12 by bypass surgery). Two groups of segments were identified: 18 viable segments (contractile improvement of 1 grade or more in resting function after revascularization); 16 necrotic segments (no contractile improvement in resting function after revascularization). The % cyclic variation was higher in viable vs necrotic segments (26 +/- 16 vs 1 +/- 13%, P or = 9.4% cyclic variations in a dyssynergic segment yielded 89% sensitivity and 88% specificity for predicting functional recovery following successful revascularization. In conclusion, viable dyssynergic myocardial segments show a cyclic gray level variation at rest, which can be detected by simple videodensitometric analysis, much less technologically demanding than radiofrequency backscatter evaluation.

  5. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Parvaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD, known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300 in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC–N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations.

  6. Gray Water Footprint of Pigs Slaughtered in Corede Serra/RS - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Helena Zanella Carra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The pig activity, as well as other livestock activities, is directly dependent on natural resources and therefore the lack of knowledge about the impact on water resources in the cattle industry could compromise the sector's growth. In this context, the water footprint comes as a comprehensive indicator of water use that evaluates which is the fuel used, directly or indirectly, to produce a particular product throughout the supply chain. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the gray water footprint for pigs slaughtered in 2014 in Corede Serra/RS, in the confinement process. The gray water footprint in Corede Serra was 0.1346 km3. The municipalities of Parai (0.0142 km3, Nova Prata (0.0133 km3 and Serafina Correa (0.0103 km3 showed the largest footprints while the municipalities of São Marcos (0.00001 km3 and Bento Gonçalves (0.00002 km3 presented the smallest footprints. Because of the concentration of phosphorus in pig manure have presented a significant value (1.65 kg animal year-1 when evaluated under the total number of animals slaughtered in each municipality and considering the phosphorus concentration provided for in Conama Resolution n° 357/05, the demand is observed a large volume of water to phosphorus load assimilation. The gray water footprint can be reduced through the use of more efficient technologies for processing of manure, so that phosphorus is removed or reduced to low concentrations.

  7. Gray-scale and color doppler US features corresponding to histological subtypes of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Kwon, Sun Young; Woo, Seong Ku [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-01-15

    To compare the gray-scale and color or power Doppler ultrasonographic (US) features according to the histological subtypes of a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The gray-scale and color or power Doppler US features of 159 surgically confirmed PTC (classic type of PTC, 69; classic type of papillary microcarcinoma [PMC], 67; and follicular variant of PTC [FVPTC], 23) in 118 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The following US characteristics were evaluated: the type of vascularization, echogenicity, outline, ratio of anteroposterior/transverse (AP/T) diameters, as well as the presence or absence of halo sings, cystic changes, and microcalcification. The most common type of vascularization was penetrating or central (75.4%) for the classic type of PTC, avascular (56.7%) for PMC, and peripheral and central (82.6%) for FVPTC. The echogenicity was most commonly hypoechoic (47.8%) for the classic type, hypoechoic (74.6%) for PMC, and isoechoic (30.4%) for FVPTC. The outline was most often irregular (60.9%) for the classic type, irregular (86.6%) for PMC, and regular (91.3%) for FVPTC. The ratio of the AP/T diameters was 1.0 or more in 31.9%, 55.2%, and 13.0%, a halo sign was observed in 30.4%, 6.0%, and 78.3%, cystic changes was present in 1.4%, 0%, and 21.7%, and microcalcifications were present in 55.1%, 28.4%, and 13.0% of those with the classic type, PMC and FVPTC, respectively. The gray-scale and color Doppler US features corresponding to the histological subtypes of PTC are significantly different from one another. The US features of FVPTC appear to be significantly different from the other subtypes in that they tend to have more benign US characteristics than those of the classic type or PMC.

  8. Graying severity score: A useful tool for evaluation of premature canities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Singal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no uniform grading scale for objective assessment of premature canities that can serve as a reference. The aim of the study was to devise an objective and reproducible scoring system to assess the severity of premature canities. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted from November 2011 to April 2013 in a tertiary care setup with 52 apparently healthy individuals with onset of premature graying of scalp hair before the age of 20 years. A new scoring system (Graying Severity Score, GSS was devised to evaluate the extent of graying taking into account five representative sites from the scalp by two independent investigators and analysed for agreement. GSS ranged from 0 to 15 that was further graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Results: The highest total GSS attained was 13 and lowest was 4 (mean = 6.6 ± 1.97. Of the 52 patients 17 (32.69% had mild, 32 (61.54% moderate, and only 3 (5.77% had severe GSS. Scores of both investigators were found to have good agreement. The intraclass correlation calculated by the two-way mixed model using the absolute agreement definition for the GSS was 0.967 (CI = 0.944–0.981; P = 0.000 and for GSS grade was 0.962 (P = 0.000. In the study subjects the frontal and the vertex regions were found to be the worst affected. Conclusion: GSS is a novel, numeric, objective, and reproducible tool for evaluation of premature canities that can be used to follow up and assess therapeutic response. Further large scale studies are recommended to optimize its utility.

  9. Impulsivity Relates To Striatal Gray Matter Volumes In Humans: Evidence From A Delay Discounting Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eTschernegg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-stable personality traits, such as impulsivity and its relationship with functional and structural brain alterations, have gained much attention in the recent literature. Evidence from functional neuroimaging data implies an association between impulsivity and cortical as well as subcortical areas of the reward system. Discounting future rewards during impulsive decisions can be related to activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and striatum. Cortical structural changes in prefrontal regions have been found for introspective impulsivity measures. The present study focuses on brain regions associated with delay discounting to investigate structural manifestations of trait impulsivity. To test this, seventy subjects underwent structural MRI followed by a behavioural delay discounting task outside of the scanner to measure impulsivity with questions like: Would you like to have 3 € immediately or 10 € in five days?. The amount of smaller-but-sooner decisions was calculated and used as a measure of behavioural impulsivity. Furthermore, we estimated subject’s individual delay discounting parameter K reflecting the tendency to discount future rewards. Behaviourally, we found strong evidence in favour of a discounting utility model compared to a standard hyperbolic model of choice valuation. Neuronally, we focused on cortical and subcortical brain structure and investigated the association of behavioural impulsivity with delay discounting tendencies and gray matter volume. Voxel-based morphometric analyses showed positive correlations between delay discounting and gray matter volume in the striatum. Additional analyses using Freesurfer provided evidence for a positive correlation between delay discounting and gray matter volume of the caudate. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence for a structural manifestation of time-stable trait impulsivity in the human brain.

  10. Exercise Effects on the Course of Gray Matter Changes Over 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight affects posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes through direct effects on peripheral changes that result from reduced vestibular stimulation and body unloading. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on earth using bed rest studies. Long duration bed rest serves as a space-flight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. It has been hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that has been observed in microgravity could potentially affect central nervous system function and structure, and thereby indirectly affect sensorimotor or cognitive functioning. Preliminary results of one of our ongoing studies indeed showed that 70 days of long duration head down-tilt bed rest results in focal changes in gray matter volume from pre-bed rest to various time points during bed rest. These gray matter changes that could reflect fluid shifts as well as neuroplasticity were related to decrements in motor skills such as maintenance of equilibrium. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both inand post-flight we are currently conducting a study that investigates the potential preventive effects of exercise on gray matter and motor performance changes that we observed over the course of bed rest. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy and demented subjects over a large age range. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention in bed rest could potentially mitigate or prevent the effects of bed rest on the central nervous system. Here we present preliminary outcomes of our study.

  11. Regional cingulum disruption, not gray matter atrophy, detects cognitive changes in amnestic mild cognitive impairment subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Chen, Ta-Fu; Shih, Yao-Chia; Chiu, Ming-Jang; Yan, Sui-Hing; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), which has a high risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be classified into single domain (S-aMCI) and multiple domain (M-aMCI) subtypes. We investigated the integrity of regional gray matter and segments of the cingulum bundle with diffusion spectrum imaging tract-specific analysis, and their relationships to neuropsychological functioning, in 46 individuals with aMCI (S-aMCI n = 24; M-aMCI n = 22) and 36 healthy controls (HC). Results demonstrated that although both aMCI groups were impaired on all memory measures relative to HCs, the M-aMCI group demonstrated worse performance on paired association memory and on selective executive function relative to the S-aMCI group. The two aMCI groups did not show significant atrophy in regional gray matter indices as compared to the HC group, but the M-aMCI group showed significant disruption in white matter of the left anterior and inferior cingulum bundles relative to the S-aMCI and HC groups. Furthermore, disruption in the inferior cingulum bundles was significantly associated with executive function and attention/processing speed in all aMCI participants above and beyond the contribution of bilateral hippocampal volumes. Overall, these results indicate that the degeneration of cingulum fibers did not appear to arise from degeneration of the corresponding cerebral cortex. It also suggests relatively greater sensitivity of a white matter biomarker and comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation over gray matter biomarkers in early detection of AD.

  12. Gene x Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine-receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. The objective is to examine variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the genotype of the monoamine oxidase A gene, MAOA, in men with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy male controls. Forty individuals with CUD and 42 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging to assess GMV and were genotyped for the MAOA polymorphism (categorized as high- and low-repeat alleles). The impact of cocaine addiction on GMV, tested by (1) comparing the CUD group with controls, (2) testing diagnosis x MAOA interactions, and (3) correlating GMV with lifetime cocaine, alcohol, and cigarette smoking, and testing their unique contribution to GMV beyond other factors. The results are: (1) Individuals with CUD had reductions in GMV in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and temporal cortex and the hippocampus compared with controls; (2) The orbitofrontal cortex reductions were uniquely driven by CUD with low- MAOA genotype and by lifetime cocaine use; and (3) The GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was driven by lifetime alcohol use beyond the genotype and other pertinent variables. Long-term cocaine users with the low-repeat MAOA allele have enhanced sensitivity to gray matter loss, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex, indicating that this genotype may exacerbate the deleterious effects of cocaine in the brain. In addition, long-term alcohol use is a major contributor to gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and is likely to further impair executive function and learning in cocaine addiction.

  13. Gene x Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.B.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-03-07

    Long-term cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine-receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. The objective is to examine variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the genotype of the monoamine oxidase A gene, MAOA, in men with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy male controls. Forty individuals with CUD and 42 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging to assess GMV and were genotyped for the MAOA polymorphism (categorized as high- and low-repeat alleles). The impact of cocaine addiction on GMV, tested by (1) comparing the CUD group with controls, (2) testing diagnosis x MAOA interactions, and (3) correlating GMV with lifetime cocaine, alcohol, and cigarette smoking, and testing their unique contribution to GMV beyond other factors. The results are: (1) Individuals with CUD had reductions in GMV in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and temporal cortex and the hippocampus compared with controls; (2) The orbitofrontal cortex reductions were uniquely driven by CUD with low- MAOA genotype and by lifetime cocaine use; and (3) The GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was driven by lifetime alcohol use beyond the genotype and other pertinent variables. Long-term cocaine users with the low-repeat MAOA allele have enhanced sensitivity to gray matter loss, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex, indicating that this genotype may exacerbate the deleterious effects of cocaine in the brain. In addition, long-term alcohol use is a major contributor to gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and is likely to further impair executive function and learning in cocaine addiction.

  14. Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP Sequence; Characteristic Gray-Scale and Doppler Ultrasonography Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyukkaya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP sequence is a syndrome with poor prognosis, seen only in monochorionic monozygotic twin pregnancies. The incidence is one in 35.000 births and one in 100 monozygotic twin pregnancies. It is characterized with a recipient fetus exhibiting lethal anomalies including acardia and a pump fetus. Mortality is usually due to heart failure or premature labor caused by polyhydramnios of pump fetus. Herein, we report a case of TRAP sequence that emphasizes the importance of gray-scale and color Doppler imaging in the diagnosis and management of TRAP sequence.

  15. Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP) Sequence; Characteristic Gray-Scale and Doppler Ultrasonography Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyukkaya, Ayla; Tekbas, Guven; Buyukkaya, Ramazan

    2015-07-01

    Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence is a syndrome with poor prognosis, seen only in monochorionic monozygotic twin pregnancies. The incidence is one in 35.000 births and one in 100 monozygotic twin pregnancies. It is characterized with a recipient fetus exhibiting lethal anomalies including acardia and a pump fetus. Mortality is usually due to heart failure or premature labor caused by polyhydramnios of pump fetus. Herein, we report a case of TRAP sequence that emphasizes the importance of gray-scale and color Doppler imaging in the diagnosis and management of TRAP sequence.

  16. Analysis of Graphite Morphology of Gray Cast Iron in Pulse Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiu-shu; LIU Li-qiang; ZHAI Qi-jie

    2005-01-01

    By self-made pulse electrical source and strong magnetic field solidification tester,the effect of strong pulse magnetic field on graphite morphology and solidification structure of gray cast iron was studied.The results show that the structure is remarkably refined after treated by pulse magnetic field,and the width of graphite flakes is decreased while the length is increased after a slight decrease.The solidification temperature and eutectic temperature are increased and the undercooling degree of eutectic transformation is decreased by magnetic field.

  17. Overlapping decline in orbitofrontal gray matter volume related to cocaine use and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dana G; Jones, P Simon; Williams, Guy B; Bullmore, Edward T; Robbins, Trevor W; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-01-01

    Loss of control over hedonically motivated actions is a defining component of impulse control disorders, such as drug dependence and the proposed 'food addiction' model of obesity. Devolution from goal-directed to compulsively maintained behaviors is partially attributed to abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex, an area critical in reward valuation. In the current study, overlapping reductions in orbitofrontal gray matter volume relating to body mass index were seen in healthy control and cocaine-dependent individuals, as well as in relation to duration of cocaine abuse, providing support for a shared neuropathology between the two conditions potentially related to dysfunctional reward-seeking behavior. PMID:23927455

  18. Steganalysis of LSB Embedded Images Using Gray Level Co-Occurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B.Kekre, A.A.Athawale, Sayli Anand Patki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a steganalysis technique for both grayscale and colorimages. It uses the feature vectors derived from gray level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM in spatial domain, which is sensitive to data embedding process. ThisGLCM matrix is derived from an image. Several combinations of diagonalelements of GLCM are considered as features. There is difference between thefeatures of stego and non-stego images and this characteristic is used forsteganalysis. Distance measures like Absolute distance and Euclidean distanceare used for classification. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposedscheme outperforms the existing steganalysis techniques in attacking LSBsteganographic schemes applied to spatial domain.

  19. Richard Gray, After the Fall: American Literature Since 9/11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki Tseti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available “If there was one thing writers agreed about in response to 9/11, it was the failure of language; the terrorist attacks made the tools of their trade seem absurd.” While repeating the common catchphrase of the majority of studies on literary production after 9/11, the powerful opening sentence of After the Fall also signals the book’s insightful differentiation and shift of focus from previous attempts at addressing the subject and immediately brings to the fore what, for Gray, is mostly at s...

  20. Richard Gray, After the Fall: American Literature Since 9/11.

    OpenAIRE

    Angeliki Tseti

    2012-01-01

    “If there was one thing writers agreed about in response to 9/11, it was the failure of language; the terrorist attacks made the tools of their trade seem absurd.” While repeating the common catchphrase of the majority of studies on literary production after 9/11, the powerful opening sentence of After the Fall also signals the book’s insightful differentiation and shift of focus from previous attempts at addressing the subject and immediately brings to the fore what, for Gray, is mostly at s...

  1. Major efforts for acquisition and database construction of Japanese gray literatures at JICST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Hideko; Matsumoto, Miwako

    JICST activities on Japanese non-conventional literatures published by such public organizations, as governmental or local governmental bodies and other public-service corporations, are reviewed. Since the fiscal-year of 1984, JICST has been constructing a new database which provides bibliographic information on the above described literatures through the on-line network of JOIS, and assures accessibility for users to about 16,000 Japanese gray literatures up to April, 1988. Emphasis is focused on literature acquisition conducted by JICST and analyses of input ratio to the database by respective source-organization and subject fields.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (Primates, Cheirogaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Aujard, Fabienne; Holota, Hélène; Murienne, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    We report the high-coverage complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the gray mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. The sequencing has been performed on an Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform, with a genome skimming strategy. The total length of this mitogenome is 16 963 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to those reported from other primate's mitochondrial genomes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates.

  3. Study on Cracking Tendency and Mechanism of Gray Cast Iron Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hong; YAN Zhong-lin; HUANG Qi; YANG Hui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, NiCrSiB and CoWC35 powder has been used in laser cladding of gray cast iron. The cracking tendency has also been discussed. The cracks have been observed with a scan electron microscopy to analyze the cracking mechanism. The results show that cracks have not appeared in NiCrSiB cladding. Nevertheless, the cracking tendency of CoWC35 cladding is extremely high and there are both cold cracks and hot cracks in the cladding. The cracking tendency of laser cladding depends on physical properties of the cladding material and plasticity and roughness of the cladding.

  4. Study on Cracking Tendency and Mechanism of Gray Cast Iron Laser Cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YEHong; YANZhong-lin; HUANGQi; YANGHui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, NiCrSiB and COWC35 powder has been used in laser cladding of gray cast iron. The cracking tendency has also been discussed. The cracks have been observed with a scan electron microscopy to analyze the cracking mechanism. The results show that cracks have not appeared in NiCrSiB cladding. Nevertheless, the cracking tendency of CoWC35 cladding is extremely high and there are both cold cracks and hot cracks in the cladding. The cracking tendency of laser cladding depends on physical properties of the cladding material and plasticity and roughness of the cladding.

  5. Opioid tolerance in periaqueductal gray neurons isolated from mice chronically treated with morphine

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Elena E.; Chieng, Billy C H; Christie, MacDonald J.; Connor, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a major site of opioid analgesic action, and a significant site of cellular adaptations to chronic morphine treatment (CMT). We examined μ-opioid receptor (MOP) regulation of voltage-gated calcium channel currents (ICa) and G-protein-activated K channel currents (GIRK) in PAG neurons from CMT mice.Mice were injected s.c. with 300 mg kg−1 of morphine base in a slow release emulsion three times over 5 days, or with emulsion alone (vehicles). This protoc...

  6. Aestheticism and decadentism in Wilde and Huysmans’ dandies: Portraits of Dorian Gray and Des Esseintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enéias Farias Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will discuss the figuration of the dandy character in the field of literary production. Initially I discuss its origin during the nineteenth century in French and English contexts. In order to understand this characterization, I will analyze the characterization of the characters of the novels À rebours by J. K. Huysmans and The Picture of Dorian Gray, by Oscar Wilde. As a methodology I intend to search in the field of literary studies which are the formative elements of the dandy in the works of the above mentioned authors.

  7. Pursuing Beauty in Utopia:A Defence of The Picture of Dorian Gray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zi-juan

    2016-01-01

    The Picture of Dorian Gray, Oscar Wilde’s only novel, has created a great sensation after its publication. This article tries to justify the righteousness of Wilde’s declamation—art for art’s sake rather than for morality. Facing the dilemma of the coexistent Realism and Romanticism and restricted by the prevailed Puritan doctrine, Wilde chose to evade into the shelter of Utopia. In his Utopian world, there’s no morality or immorality, there’s only beauty. With his self-fashioning aestheticism, Os-car Wilde pursues beauty in his own Utopian world.

  8. Gray Synthetic Evaluation on Moisture Comfort of Sportswear Fabrics under the Condition of Heavy Sweating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Min; LIU Yu; ZHANG Wei-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Moisture and water transfer under the condition of heavy sweating are analyzed. Four different experiments are made to test moisture resistance, water-keep, wicking effect and drying ability of samples. Then gray analysis method is introduced to evaluate the comprehensive comfort of these fabrics. Result shows chemical fiber with high moisture transfer performance has advantage in water transfer and diffusion, which is suitable for human under the condition of heavy sweating. Though natural fiber can absorb moisture well, it cannot transfer fluid sweat. Therefore natural fiber fabrics such as cotton, wool are unsuitable to make functional sportswear.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome of the gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (Primates, Cheirogaleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Crouau-Roy, Brigitte; Aujard, Fabienne; Holota, Hélène; Murienne, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    We report the high-coverage complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the gray mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. The sequencing has been performed on an Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform, with a genome skimming strategy. The total length of this mitogenome is 16 963 bp, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 non-coding region (D-loop region). The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage are similar to those reported from other primate's mitochondrial genomes. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence reported here will be useful for comparative genomics studies in primates. PMID:27158869

  10. Analysis of the reproducibility of the gray values and noise of a direct digital radiography system

    OpenAIRE

    Poleti, Marcelo Lupion; FERNANDES, Thais Maria Freire; TEIXEIRA, Renata Cordeiro; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Alvares; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the gray values and noise of a direct digital radiography system (Visualix eHD) for various exposure times and analyzed regions. To obtain radiographic images in a standardized manner, the digital sensor of the system and a stepwedge were positioned in a phantom at a focus-film distance of 30 cm in a dental device at 70 kV, 7 mA and 2.2 mm filtration. Ten consecutive repetitions of X-ray imaging were performed at each exposure time ...

  11. A Novel Approach for Unsupervised Segmentation of Homogeneous Regions in Gray-scale Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王郁中; 杨杰; 周大可; 郑元杰

    2004-01-01

    An improved approach for JSEG is presented for unsupervised segmentation of homogeneous regions in gray-scale images. Instead of intensity quantization, an automatic classification method based on scale space-based clustering is used for nonparametric clustering of image data set. Then EM algorithm with classification achieved by space-based classification scheme as initial data used to achieve Gaussian mixture modelling of image data set that is utilized for the calculation of soft J value. Original region growing algorithm is then used to segment the image based on the multiscale soft J-images. Experiments show that the new method can overcome the limitations of JSEG successfully.

  12. Gray and Green Revisited: A Multidisciplinary Perspective of Gardens, Gardening, and the Aging Process

    OpenAIRE

    WRIGHT, SCOTT D.; Amy Maida Wadsworth

    2014-01-01

    Over fourteen years ago, the concept of “gray and green” was first introduced by Wright and Lund (2000) to represent a new awareness and a call for increased scholarship at the intersection of environmental issues and the aging process. This review paper revisits that concept with a fresh perspective on the specific role of gardens and gardening in the aging experience. As example, gardening is one of the most popular home-based leisure activities in the US and represents an important activit...

  13. The gray run length and its statistical texture features of coal flotation froth image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yong; Yang Gong-xun; Lu Mai-xi; Gao Shu-hua [China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Electronic and Information Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Aiming at the problem of statistical texture features of coal flotation froth image, many images of coal flotation froth were collected in laboratory. The types and features of froth image were analyzed. Method of extracting gray run length matrix was presented. The run length factors were extracted, which show visual feature of froth. Relationship of these features were studied with flotation time. The result shows that theses parameters show the texture features of coal flotation froth image, which has relationship with special types of froth. The information about froth was offered for visual supervision system of coal flotation. 6 refs., 7 figs.

  14. A Novel Fast Algorithm of Mono Transition Region Determination with Gray Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ai-hua

    2004-01-01

    There is a transition region between objects and background in any gray image. Many valuable applications of image segmcntation and edge detection based on transition region determination have been developed in recent years. But,the complexity of calculation for determining transition region is too high. It results in the very limitation of applications based on transition region. A new novel fast method for tran sition region determination is presented in this paper, which will reduce the complexity of calculation dramatically. Many experiments have showed that this algorithm is effective and correct and will lay a good foundation for applications based on transition region.

  15. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hopper, T. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI`s Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  16. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hopper, T. (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  17. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Beek, Martijn van; Skewes, Joshua;

    2009-01-01

    Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter...... density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators. Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This could account for some...... of the cardiorespiratory parasympathetic effects and traits, as well as the cognitive, emotional, and immunoreactive impact reported in several studies of different meditation practices....

  18. Wear Fault Diagnosis of Machinery Based on Neural Networks and Gray Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the regular characteristic of wear particles related to fault type of machines based on condition monitoring of reciprocal machinery is discussed. The typi-cal wear particles spectrum is established according to the equipment structure, friction and wear rule and the characteristic of wear particles; The identification technology of wear particles is proposed based on neural networks and a gray relationship; an intelligent wear particles identification system is designed. The diagnosis example shows that this system can promote the accuracy and the speed of wear particles identification.

  19. SEALING ABILITY OF GRAY MTA ANGELUS™, CPM™ AND MBPC USED AS APICAL PLUGS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Accorsi Orosco; Clovis Monteiro Bramante; Roberto Brandão Garcia; Norberti Bernadineli; Ivaldo Gomes de Moraes

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of apical plugs fabricated with gray MTA AngelusTM sealer, CPM TM sealer and MBPc sealer. The root canals of 98 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with #5 to #1 Gates Glidden drills according to the crown-down technique until the #1 drill could pass through the apical foramen. The specimens were then prepared with K-files, starting with an ISO 50 until an ISO 90 could be visualized 1 mm beyond the apex. After root canal preparation, ...

  20. Dark gray soils on two-layered deposits in the north of Tambov Plain: Agroecology, properties, and diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidelman, F. R.; Nikiforova, A. S.; Stepantsova, L. V.; Volokhina, V. P.

    2012-05-01

    Dark gray soils in the Tambov Plain are developed from the light-textured glaciofluvial deposits underlain by the calcareous loam. Their morphology, water regime, and productivity are determined by the depth of the slightly permeable calcareous loamy layer, relief, and the degree of gleyzation. The light texture of the upper layer is responsible for its weak structure, high density, the low content of productive moisture, and the low water-holding capacity. If the calcareous loam is at a depth of 100-130 cm, dark gray soils are formed; if it lies at a depth of 40-70 cm, temporary perched water appears in the profile, and dark gray contact-gleyed soils are formed. Their characteristic pedofeatures are skeletans in the upper layers, calcareous nodules in the loamy clay layer, and iron nodules in the podzolized humus and podzolic horizons. The appearance of Fe-Mn concretions is related to gleyzation. The high yield of winter cereals is shown to be produced on the dark gray soils; the yields of spring crops are less stable. Spring cereals should not be grown on the contact-gleyed dark gray soils.

  1. A Fixed-Pattern Noise Correction Method Based on Gray Value Compensation for TDI CMOS Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenwang; Xu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xinlei; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in the output image of time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS), a FPN correction method based on gray value compensation is proposed. One hundred images are first captured under uniform illumination. Then, row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated based on the row-mean vector and column-mean vector of all collected images, respectively. Finally, RFPN are corrected by adding the estimated RFPN gray value to the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding row, and CFPN are corrected by subtracting the estimated CFPN gray value from the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding column. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination with the proposed method, the standard-deviation of row-mean vector decreases from 5.6798 to 0.4214 LSB, and the standard-deviation of column-mean vector decreases from 15.2080 to 13.4623 LSB. Both kinds of FPN in the real images captured by TDI-CIS are eliminated effectively with the proposed method.

  2. A Fixed-Pattern Noise Correction Method Based on Gray Value Compensation for TDI CMOS Image Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwang Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to eliminate the fixed-pattern noise (FPN in the output image of time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS, a FPN correction method based on gray value compensation is proposed. One hundred images are first captured under uniform illumination. Then, row FPN (RFPN and column FPN (CFPN are estimated based on the row-mean vector and column-mean vector of all collected images, respectively. Finally, RFPN are corrected by adding the estimated RFPN gray value to the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding row, and CFPN are corrected by subtracting the estimated CFPN gray value from the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding column. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination with the proposed method, the standard-deviation of row-mean vector decreases from 5.6798 to 0.4214 LSB, and the standard-deviation of column-mean vector decreases from 15.2080 to 13.4623 LSB. Both kinds of FPN in the real images captured by TDI-CIS are eliminated effectively with the proposed method.

  3. Effect of selenium on control of postharvest gray mould of tomato fruit and the possible mechanisms involved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin eWu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of selenium against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mould control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mould in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mould rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mould disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mould decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae.

  4. Optimal scan strategy for mega-pixel and kilo-gray-level OLED-on-silicon microdisplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Ran, Feng; Ji, Weigui; Xu, Meihua; Chen, Zhangjing; Jiang, Yuxi; Shen, Weixin

    2012-06-10

    The digital pixel driving scheme makes the organic light-emitting diode (OLED) microdisplays more immune to the pixel luminance variations and simplifies the circuit architecture and design flow compared to the analog pixel driving scheme. Additionally, it is easily applied in full digital systems. However, the data bottleneck becomes a notable problem as the number of pixels and gray levels grow dramatically. This paper will discuss the digital driving ability to achieve kilogray-levels for megapixel displays. The optimal scan strategy is proposed for creating ultra high gray levels and increasing light efficiency and contrast ratio. Two correction schemes are discussed to improve the gray level linearity. A 1280×1024×3 OLED-on-silicon microdisplay, with 4096 gray levels, is designed based on the optimal scan strategy. The circuit driver is integrated in the silicon backplane chip in the 0.35 μm 3.3 V-6 V dual voltage one polysilicon layer, four metal layers (1P4M) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process with custom top metal. The design aspects of the optimal scan controller are also discussed. The test results show the gray level linearity of the correction schemes for the optimal scan strategy is acceptable by the human eye. PMID:22695650

  5. Unequal-period combination approach of gray code and phase-shifting for 3-D visual measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin

    2016-09-01

    Combination of Gray code and phase-shifting is the most practical and advanced approach for the structured light 3-D measurement so far, which is able to measure objects with complex and discontinuous surface. However, for the traditional combination of the Gray code and phase-shifting, the captured Gray code images are not always sharp cut-off in the black-white conversion boundaries, which may lead to wrong decoding analog code orders. Moreover, during the actual measurement, there also exists local decoding error for the wrapped analog code obtained with the phase-shifting approach. Therefore, for the traditional approach, the wrong analog code orders and the local decoding errors will consequently introduce the errors which are equivalent to a fringe period when the analog code is unwrapped. In order to avoid one-fringe period errors, we propose an approach which combines Gray code with phase-shifting according to unequal period. With theoretical analysis, we build the measurement model of the proposed approach, determine the applicable condition and optimize the Gray code encoding period and phase-shifting fringe period. The experimental results verify that the proposed approach can offer a reliable unwrapped analog code, which can be used in 3-D shape measurement.

  6. Gray matter textural heterogeneity as a potential in-vivo biomarker of fine structural abnormalities in Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulescu, E; Ganeshan, B; Minati, L; Beacher, F D C C; Gray, M A; Chatwin, C; Young, R C D; Harrison, N A; Critchley, H D

    2013-02-01

    Brain imaging studies contribute to the neurobiological understanding of Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC). Herein, we tested the prediction that distributed neurodevelopmental abnormalities in brain development impact on the homogeneity of brain tissue measured using texture analysis (TA; a morphological method for surface pattern characterization). TA was applied to structural magnetic resonance brain scans of 54 adult participants (24 with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 30 controls). Measures of mean gray-level intensity, entropy and uniformity were extracted from gray matter images at fine, medium and coarse textures. Comparisons between AS and controls identified higher entropy and lower uniformity across textures in the AS group. Data reduction of texture parameters revealed three orthogonal principal components. These were used as regressors-of-interest in a voxel-based morphometry analysis that explored the relationship between surface texture variations and regional gray matter volume. Across the AS but not control group, measures of entropy and uniformity were related to the volume of the caudate nuclei, whereas mean gray-level was related to the size of the cerebellar vermis. Similar to neuropathological studies, our study provides evidence for distributed abnormalities in the structural integrity of gray matter in adults with ASC, in particular within corticostriatal and corticocerebellar networks. Additionally, this in-vivo technique may be more sensitive to fine microstructural organization than other more traditional magnetic resonance approaches and serves as a future testable biomarker in AS and other neurodevelopmental disorders.

  7. Effect of Selenium on Control of Postharvest Gray Mold of Tomato Fruit and the Possible Mechanisms Involved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Yin, Xuebin; Bañuelos, Gary S; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Ying; Yuan, Linxi; Li, Miao

    2015-01-01

    Selenium (Se) has important benefits for crop growth and stress tolerance at low concentrations. However, there is very little information on antimicrobial effect of Se against the economically important fungus Botrytis cinerea. In the present study, using sodium selenite as Se source, we investigated the effect of Se salts on spore germination and mycelial growth of the fungal pathogen in vitro and gray mold control in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L significantly inhibited spore germination of the fungal pathogen and effectively controlled gray mold in harvested tomato fruit. Se treatment at 24 mg/L seems to induce the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in the fungal spores. The membrane integrity damage was observed with fluorescence microscopy following staining with propidium iodide after treatment of the spores with Se. These results suggest that Se has the potential for controlling gray mold rot of tomato fruits and might be useful in integrated control against gray mold disease of postharvest fruits and vegetables caused by B. cinerea. The mechanisms by which Se decreased gray mold decay of tomato fruit may be directly related to the severe damage to the conidia plasma membrane and loss of cytoplasmic materials from the hyphae. PMID:26779128

  8. A Fixed-Pattern Noise Correction Method Based on Gray Value Compensation for TDI CMOS Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenwang; Xu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xinlei; Nie, Kaiming; Jin, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    In order to eliminate the fixed-pattern noise (FPN) in the output image of time-delay-integration CMOS image sensor (TDI-CIS), a FPN correction method based on gray value compensation is proposed. One hundred images are first captured under uniform illumination. Then, row FPN (RFPN) and column FPN (CFPN) are estimated based on the row-mean vector and column-mean vector of all collected images, respectively. Finally, RFPN are corrected by adding the estimated RFPN gray value to the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding row, and CFPN are corrected by subtracting the estimated CFPN gray value from the original gray values of pixels in the corresponding column. Experimental results based on a 128-stage TDI-CIS show that, after correcting the FPN in the image captured under uniform illumination with the proposed method, the standard-deviation of row-mean vector decreases from 5.6798 to 0.4214 LSB, and the standard-deviation of column-mean vector decreases from 15.2080 to 13.4623 LSB. Both kinds of FPN in the real images captured by TDI-CIS are eliminated effectively with the proposed method. PMID:26389917

  9. Origin of gray-green sandstone in ore bed of sandstone type uranium deposit in north Ordos Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; ZiYing; FANG; XiHeng; CHEN; AnPing; OU; GuangXi; XIAO; XinJian; SUN; Ye; LIU; ChiYang; WANG; Yi

    2007-01-01

    Dongsheng sandstone-type uranium deposit is located in the northern part of Ordos Basin, occurring in the transitional zones between gray-green and gray sandstones of Jurassic Zhiluo Formation. Sandstones in oxidized zone of the ore bed look gray-green, being of unique signature and different from one of ordinary inter-layered oxidation zone of sandstone-type uranium deposits. The character and origin of gray-green sandstones are systematically studied through their petrology, mineralogy and geochemistry. It is pointed out that this color of sandstones is originated from secondary oil-gas reduction processes after paleo-oxidation, being due to acicular-leaf chlorite covering surfaces of the sandstone grains. To find out the origin of gray-green sandstone and recognize paleo-oxidation zones in the ore bed are of not only theoretical significance for understanding metallogenesis of this kind of sandstone-type uranium deposit, but also very importantly practical significance for prospecting for similar kind of sandstone-type uranium deposit.

  10. Finding of Gray Points on the Surface of the Sn-Fe Alloy Layer and Its Effects on the Corrosion Resistance of the Alloy Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    After removing tin coating of tinplates offered by some steel works, we discovered massive, highly disperse gray points outspreading along rolling direction on the surface of the alloy layer. Morphology of the alloy layer was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and many cavities of the alloy layer were found out in the gray point. After analyzing the composition of the alloy layer, we found that content of Fe in the gray points was more than that in the normal alloy layer. Moreover, corrosion resistance of the alloy layer declines with increase of amount of gray points.In addition, the hot-humidity testing was carried out for some plates whose surface has many gray points. After 14 days, there were many rust points occurring in the edge of gray points and in the small gray points. The morphology of rust points was observed by atomic force microscope (AFM). The reason why rust points generated in the edge of gray points and in the small gray points was discussed.

  11. The Gray Distribution Channels%灰色营销渠道刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏肖杰

    2012-01-01

    营销渠道已成为企业应对市场竞争的核心手段,研究渠道不能回避灰色渠道,而目前对灰色渠道的研究还很欠缺。本文通过对灰色渠道中的产品特征、销售区域特征以及相关参与者的利益分析,揭示出灰色渠道的本质特征,这对实务操作者和理论研究者都有重要作用。%Marketing channels have become the core means for enterprises to compete in the market.Though the gray distribution channels can not be ignored,study of it is still lacking.On analyzing its product features,regional characteristics,as well as the interests of the related participants,this paper revealed the essential characteristics of the gray distribution channels.it is important not only for practical operators,but for theoretical researchers as well.

  12. GrayStar: A Web application for pedagogical stellar atmosphere and spectral line modelling and visualisation

    CERN Document Server

    Short, C Ian

    2014-01-01

    GrayStar is a stellar atmospheric and spectral line modelling, post-processing, and visualisation code, suitable for classroom demonstrations and laboratory-style assignments, that has been developed in Java and deployed in JavaScript and HTML. The only software needed to compute models and post-processed observables, and to visualise the resulting atmospheric structure and observables, is a common Web browser. Therefore, the code will run on any common PC or related X86 (-64) computer of the type that typically serves classroom data projectors, is found in undergraduate computer laboratories, or that students themselves own, including those with highly portable form-factors such as net-books and tablets. The user requires no experience with compiling source code, reading data files, or using plotting packages. More advanced students can view the JavaScript source code using the developer tools provided by common Web browsers. The code is based on the approximate gray atmospheric solution and runs quickly eno...

  13. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba

    Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  14. Effects of tannins on digestion and detoxification activity in gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-MacCoubrey, A L; Hagerman, A E; Kirkpatrick, R L

    1997-01-01

    Acorn tannins may affect food preferences and foraging strategies of squirrels through effects on acorn palatability and digestibility and squirrel physiology. Captive eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) were fed 100% red oak (Quercus rubra) or white oak (Quercus alba) acorn diets to determine effects on intake, digestion, and detoxification activity. Red oak acorns had higher phenol and tannin levels, which may explain the lower dry matter intakes and apparent protein digestibilities and the higher glucuronidation activities observed in squirrels. Although the white oak acorn diet had lower apparent protein digestibilities than the reference diet, it did not suppress dry matter intake for a prolonged period or stimulate glucuronidation. Negative physiological effects of a 100% red oak acorn diet suggest gray squirrels may require other foods to dilute tannin intake and provide additional nutrients. To distinguish the roles of different tannin types in the observed effects of acorn diets on squirrels, squirrels were fed rat chow containing no tannins, 4% or 8% tannic acid (hydrolyzable tannin), or 3% or 6% quebracho (condensed tannin). Apparent protein digestibilities were reduced by tannic acid and quebracho diets. Only the 8% tannic acid diet tended to increase glucuronidation. Specific effects of tannins may largely depend on tannin type, composition, and source and on other nutritional and physiological factors. PMID:9231400

  15. Machinability of clean thin-wall gray and ductile iron castings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, C.E.; Littleton, H.E.; Eleftheriou, E.; Griffin, R.D.; Dwyer, Z.B.; DelSorbo, C.; Sprague, J.

    1997-02-01

    First phase was to develop a laboratory technique for evaluating the machinability of gray and ductile iron; longer term goal is to learn how to modify the foundry process to produce castings meeting all specified mechanical properties while providing improved machining behavior. Microcarbides present in the irons were found to dominate the machinability of iron. Pearlitic irons with acceptable machinability contain 8.9 to 10.5 wt% microcarbides. The weight fraction microcarbides in the iron is influenced by carbide forming element concentrations, presence of elements that retard carbon diffusion, and cooling rate from the eutectic through the eutectoid temperature range. Tool wear rate increased at higher surface machining speeds and fraction microcarbides; all irons containing above 11.5% microcarbides had poor machinability. Graphite size, shape, distribution, etc. had a lesser effect on machinability. Reducing the addition of a foundry grade Ca and Al bearing 75% FeSi inoculant from 0.5 to 0.2% increased the tool life 100%. Inoculation test castings were also poured in a class 40 gray iron; laboratory analysis is currently underway. Exploratory studies were conducted to determine if tool force could be used to predict tool life: torque and feed forces were found to correlate with machinability.

  16. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Nienke Pannekoek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents.

  17. Alcohol exposure in utero is associated with decreased gray matter volume in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Kirsten A; Fouche, J P; Roos, Annerine; Koen, Nastassja; Howells, Fleur M; Riley, Edward P; Woods, Roger P; Zar, Heather J; Narr, Katherine L; Stein, Dan J

    2016-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with alterations in the structure of specific brain regions. However, the temporal specificity of such changes and their behavioral consequences are less known. Here we explore the brain structure of infants with in utero exposure to alcohol shortly after birth. T2 structural MRI images were acquired from 28 alcohol-exposed infants and 45 demographically matched healthy controls at 2-4 weeks of age on a 3T Siemens Allegra system as part of large birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Neonatal neurobehavior was assessed at this visit; early developmental outcome assessed on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III at 6 months of age. Volumes of gray matter regions were estimated based on the segmentations of the University of North Carolina neonatal atlas. Significantly decreased total gray matter volume was demonstrated for the alcohol-exposed cohort compared to healthy control infants (p smoking status. Both early neurobehavioral and developmental adverse outcomes at 6 months across multiple domains were significantly associated with regional volumes primarily in the temporal and frontal lobes in infants with prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure during the prenatal period has potentially enduring neurobiological consequences for exposed children. These findings suggest the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain growth is present very early in the first year of life, a period during which the most rapid growth and maturation occurs.

  18. A case study of view-factor rectification procedures for diffuse-gray radiation enclosure computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert P.; Luck, Rogelio

    1995-01-01

    The view factors which are used in diffuse-gray radiation enclosure calculations are often computed by approximate numerical integrations. These approximately calculated view factors will usually not satisfy the important physical constraints of reciprocity and closure. In this paper several view-factor rectification algorithms are reviewed and a rectification algorithm based on a least-squares numerical filtering scheme is proposed with both weighted and unweighted classes. A Monte-Carlo investigation is undertaken to study the propagation of view-factor and surface-area uncertainties into the heat transfer results of the diffuse-gray enclosure calculations. It is found that the weighted least-squares algorithm is vastly superior to the other rectification schemes for the reduction of the heat-flux sensitivities to view-factor uncertainties. In a sample problem, which has proven to be very sensitive to uncertainties in view factor, the heat transfer calculations with weighted least-squares rectified view factors are very good with an original view-factor matrix computed to only one-digit accuracy. All of the algorithms had roughly equivalent effects on the reduction in sensitivity to area uncertainty in this case study.

  19. Design of a 16 gray scales 320×240 pixels OLED-on-silicon driving circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ran; Wang Xiaohui; Wang Wenbo; Du Huan; Han Zhengsheng

    2009-01-01

    A 320×240 pixel organic-light-emitting-diode-on-silicon (OLEDoS) driving circuit is implemented using the standard 0.5 μm CMOS process of CSMC. It gives 16 gray scales with integrated 4 bit D/A converters. A three-transistor voltage-programmed OLED pixel driver is proposed, which can realize the very small current driving required for the OLEDoS microdisplay. Both the D/A converter and the pixel driver are implemented with pMOS devices. The pass-transistor and capacitance in the OLED pixel driver can be used to sample the output of the D/A converter. An additional pMOS is added to OLED pixel driver, which is used to control the D/A converter operating only when one row is on. This can reduce the circuit's power consumption. This driving circuit can work properly in a frame frequency of 50 Hz, and the final layout of this circuit is given. The pixel area is 28.4×28.4 μm2 and the display area is 10.7×8.0 mm2 (the diagonal is about 13 mm). The measured pixel gray scale voltage shows that the function of the driver circuit is correct, and the power consumption of the chip is about 350 mW.

  20. The gray-scale ink-jet printer: value in making hard copies of digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, M J; Snell, J; Cail, W S; Maier, T; Buck, D A

    1995-01-01

    Referring physicians often are supplied with copies of images to illustrate a report of the findings of a radiologic study or so that the radiologist can retain the original images. The increasing costs of production, film, and recovery of chemicals have enhanced the requirement for a clean, low-cost dry printing process. An ink-jet gray-scale paper printer (Unitone, Scitex Medical Systems, Bedford, MA) can print high-quality (300 dots per inch [dpi]) images with an effective 10-bit gray scale range by using the Hertz continuous ink-jet method [1-3], which does not require the use of a darkroom or hazardous chemicals. Several types of media (matte paper, glossy paper, transparency film) with a printing area of 26.9 x 43.7 cm (10.6 x 17.4 inches) may be used. The consumables are approximately 50-70% less expensive than the cost of silver halide film, providing a cost advantage over film for referral and archival copies. The results of an initial evaluation of the ink-jet printer at our institution are reported here.

  1. Advanced resonance self-shielding method for gray resonance treatment in lattice physics code GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new resonance self-shielding method based on the equivalence theory is developed for general application to the lattice physics calculations. The present scope includes commercial light water reactor (LWR) design applications which require both calculation accuracy and calculation speed. In order to develop the new method, all the calculation processes from cross-section library preparation to effective cross-section generation are reviewed and reframed by adopting the current enhanced methodologies for lattice calculations. The new method is composed of the following four key methods: (1) cross-section library generation method with a polynomial hyperbolic tangent formulation, (2) resonance self-shielding method based on the multi-term rational approximation for general lattice geometry and gray resonance absorbers, (3) spatially dependent gray resonance self-shielding method for generation of intra-pellet power profile and (4) integrated reaction rate preservation method between the multi-group and the ultra-fine-group calculations. From the various verifications and validations, applicability of the present resonance treatment is totally confirmed. As a result, the new resonance self-shielding method is established, not only by extension of a past concentrated effort in the reactor physics research field, but also by unification of newly developed unique and challenging techniques for practical application to the lattice physics calculations. (author)

  2. Rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1 induced by balance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Marco; Mehnert, Jan; Pleger, Burkhard; Villringer, Arno

    2016-06-01

    Training-induced changes in cortical structure can be observed non-invasively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). While macroscopic changes were found mainly after weeks to several months of training in humans, imaging of motor cortical networks in animals revealed rapid microstructural alterations after a few hours of training. We used MRI to test the hypothesis of immediate and specific training-induced alterations in motor cortical gray matter in humans. We found localized increases in motor cortical thickness after 1h of practice in a complex balancing task. These changes were specific to motor cortical effector representations primarily responsible for balance control in our task (lower limb and trunk) and these effects could be confirmed in a replication study. Cortical thickness changes (i) linearly increased across the training session, (ii) occurred independent of alterations in resting cerebral blood flow and (iii) were not triggered by repetitive use of the lower limbs. Our findings show that motor learning triggers rapid and specific gray matter changes in M1. PMID:26994831

  3. Investigation of the relationship between the gray zone and the clock frequency of a Josephson comparator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Josephson comparator is one of the fundamental building blocks of rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. Within this circuit family it is the exclusive device which provides logical data processing. The Josephson comparator is also the basic decision element for very fast analog-to-digital converters and sampler circuits for low input power and high-bandwidth signals based on the RSFQ technique. The performance of those devices is fundamentally determined by the characteristics of the Josephson comparator. In this study the gray zone dependency on the clock frequency of a Josephson comparator is investigated by simulations concerning the influence of thermal noise. This investigation is performed for a series of operating points defined by the bias current and different noise levels defined by the operating temperature. In contrast to former investigations, we analyzed the comparator embedded in a realistic environment for output data processing. We identified a characteristic clock frequency fc for a comparator topology designed for a 1 kA cm-2 niobium fabrication technology. The gray zone of 8 μA remains constant for clock frequencies below fc = 15 GHz and starts to increase for larger frequencies. We also found out that this characteristic frequency is independent of the intensity of thermal noise and therefore independent of temperature.

  4. Using soil surface gray level to determine surface soil water content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    How to determine surface soil water content(SWC) quickly and accurately is fundamental in studying eco-hydrological processes and their modeling.Here we use laboratory experiments to determine surface SWC using soil surface gray level(SGL) values.A negatively exponential relationship exists between SGL and SWC,i.e.,SGL increases with the decrease of SWC.SGL can be estimated based on initial SGL value(surface gray level when SWC=0),SWC,and a surface roughness coefficient characterized by mean soil particle size.The variation range of SGL was larger than that of SWC,indicating that changes in SWC were enhanced in SGL,and that SGL would thus be sensitive to changes in soil water.At the 95% confidence level,SWC can be determined by using the relationship between SWC and SGL established by the experiments.The determination of SWC has a high precision when SWC was between dry and saturated.

  5. Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shi

    Full Text Available Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge and lower (hair bulb segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.

  6. Demographic and Component Allee Effects in Southern Lake Superior Gray Wolves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Stenglein

    Full Text Available Recovering populations of carnivores suffering Allee effects risk extinction because positive population growth requires a minimum number of cooperating individuals. Conservationists seldom consider these issues in planning for carnivore recovery because of data limitations, but ignoring Allee effects could lead to overly optimistic predictions for growth and underestimates of extinction risk. We used Bayesian splines to document a demographic Allee effect in the time series of gray wolf (Canis lupus population counts (1980-2011 in the southern Lake Superior region (SLS, Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan, USA in each of four measures of population growth. We estimated that the population crossed the Allee threshold at roughly 20 wolves in four to five packs. Maximum per-capita population growth occurred in the mid-1990s when there were approximately 135 wolves in the SLS population. To infer mechanisms behind the demographic Allee effect, we evaluated a potential component Allee effect using an individual-based spatially explicit model for gray wolves in the SLS region. Our simulations varied the perception neighborhoods for mate-finding and the mean dispersal distances of wolves. Simulation of wolves with long-distance dispersals and reduced perception neighborhoods were most likely to go extinct or experience Allee effects. These phenomena likely restricted population growth in early years of SLS wolf population recovery.

  7. Requirements and approaches to adapting laser writers for fabrication of gray-scale masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Victor P.; Shimansky, Ruslan; Poleshchuk, Alexander G.; Cherkashin, Vadim V.; Kharissov, Andrey A.; Denk, Dmitry

    2001-11-01

    The photolithography using gray-scale masks (GSM) with multilevel transmittance is now one of promising ways for manufacturing of high efficiency diffractive optical elements and microoptics. Such masks can be most effectively fabricated by laser or electron-beam writers on materials with a transmittance changing under influence of high-energy beams. The basic requirements for adaptation of existing and developed scanning laser writers are formulated. These systems create an image by continuous movement of a writing beam along one coordinate and overlapping of adjacent written tracks along another coordinate. Several problems must be solved at the GSM manufacturing: the calibration of the influence of the laser beam on a recording material without transferring the gray-scale structure into photoresist; the transmittance at the current exposed pixel depends on surrounding structures generated before recording of the current track and a character of the laser beam power modulation; essential increasing of the computed data in comparison with binary elements. The offered solutions are based on the results of investigations of the materials with variable transmittance (LDW-glass, a-Si film) and takes into account the specificity of diffractive blazed microstructures. The reduction of data amount for fabrication of multi-level DOEs is effectively performed using offered vector-gradient data format, which is based on piecewise-linear approximation of phase profile. The presented approaches to adaptation of laser writers are realized in software and hardware, and they allow to solve the basic problems of manufacturing GSMs.

  8. Patient dose, gray level and exposure index with a computed radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. R.; Yoshimura, E. M.

    2014-02-01

    Computed radiography (CR) is gradually replacing conventional screen-film system in Brazil. To assess image quality, manufactures provide the calculation of an exposure index through the acquisition software of the CR system. The objective of this study is to verify if the CR image can be used as an evaluator of patient absorbed dose too, through a relationship between the entrance skin dose and the exposure index or the gray level values obtained in the image. The CR system used for this study (Agfa model 30-X with NX acquisition software) calculates an exposure index called Log of the Median (lgM), related to the absorbed dose to the IP. The lgM value depends on the average gray level (called Scan Average Level (SAL)) of the segmented pixel value histogram of the whole image. A Rando male phantom was used to simulate a human body (chest and head), and was irradiated with an X-ray equipment, using usual radiologic techniques for chest exams. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (LiF, TLD100) were used to evaluate entrance skin dose and exit dose. The results showed a logarithm relation between entrance dose and SAL in the image center, regardless of the beam filtration. The exposure index varies linearly with the entrance dose, but the angular coefficient is beam quality dependent. We conclude that, with an adequate calibration, the CR system can be used to evaluate the patient absorbed dose.

  9. Information Causality is a Special Point in the Dual of the Gray-Wyner Region

    CERN Document Server

    Beigi, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Information Causality contributes to the program of deriving fundamentals of quantum theory from information theoretic principles. It puts restrictions on the amount of information learned by a party (Bob) from the other party (Alice) in a one-way communication scenario as follows. Bob receives an index b, and after a one-way communication from Alice, tries to recover a part of Alice's input. Because of the possibility of cloning, this game in its completely classical form is equivalent to one in which there are several Bobs indexed by b, who are interested in recovering different parts of Alice's input string, after receiving a public message from her. Adding a private message from Alice to each Bob, and assuming that the game is played many times, we obtain the Gray-Wyner problem for which a complete characterization of the achievable region is known. In this paper, we first argue that in the classical case Information Causality is only a single point in the dual of the Gray-Wyner region. Next, we show that...

  10. Neural and Neural Gray-Box Modeling for Entry Temperature Prediction in a Hot Strip Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Angel; Torres-Alvarado, Miguel; Cavazos, Alberto; Leduc, Luis

    2011-10-01

    In hot strip mills, initial controller set points have to be calculated before the steel bar enters the mill. Calculations rely on the good knowledge of rolling variables. Measurements are available only after the bar has entered the mill, and therefore they have to be estimated. Estimation of process variables, particularly that of temperature, is of crucial importance for the bar front section to fulfill quality requirements, and the same must be performed in the shortest possible time to preserve heat. Currently, temperature estimation is performed by physical modeling; however, it is highly affected by measurement uncertainties, variations in the incoming bar conditions, and final product changes. In order to overcome these problems, artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been proposed. In this article, neural network-based systems, including neural-based Gray-Box models, are applied to estimate scale breaker entry temperature, given its importance, and their performance is compared to that of the physical model used in plant. Several neural systems and several neural-based Gray-Box models are designed and tested with real data. Taking advantage of the flexibility of neural networks for input incorporation, several factors which are believed to have influence on the process are also tested. The systems proposed in this study were proven to have better performance indexes and hence better prediction capabilities than the physical models currently used in plant.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and size based on gray difference and autocorrelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The gray of two images of a same particle taken by a digital camera with different exposure times is different too. Based on the gray difference of particle images in a double-exposed photo and autocorrelation processing of digital images,this paper proposes a method for measuring particle velocities and sizes simultaneously. This paper also introduces the theoretical foundation of this method,the process of particle imaging and image processing,and the simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of a low speed flow field with 35 μm and 75 μm standard particles. The graphical measurement results can really reflect the flow characteristics of the flow field. In addition,although the measured velocity and size histograms of these two kinds of standard particles are slightly wider than the theoretical ones,they are all still similar to the normal distribution,and the peak velocities and diameters of the histograms are consistent with the default values. Therefore,this measurement method is capable of providing moderate measurement accuracy,and it can be further developed for high-speed flow field measurements.

  12. Texture Feature Extraction Method Combining Nonsubsampled Contour Transformation with Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan He

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM is an important method to extract the image texture features of synthetic aperture radar (SAR. However, GLCM can only extract the textures under single scale and single direction. A kind of texture feature extraction method combining nonsubsampled contour transformation (NSCT and GLCM is proposed, so as to achieve the extraction of texture features under multi-scale and multi-direction. We firstly conducted multi-scale and multi-direction decomposition on the SAR images with NSCT, secondly extracted the symbiosis amount with GLCM from the obtained sub-band images, then conducted the correlation analysis for the extracted symbiosis amount to remove the redundant characteristic quantity; and combined it with the gray features to constitute the multi-feature vector. Finally, we made full use of the advantages of the support vector machine in the aspects of small sample database and generalization ability, and completed the division of multi-feature vector space by SVM so as to achieve the SAR image segmentation. The results of the experiment showed that the segmentation accuracy rate could be improved and good edge retention effect could be obtained through using the GLCM texture extraction method based on NSCT domain and multi-feature fusion in the SAR image segmentation.

  13. Dungeness crab survey for the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington, June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, B.J.; Pearson, W.H. (Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01

    As part of the Grays Harbor Navigation Improvement Project, the Seattle District of the US Army Corps of Engineers has begun active use of the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site off Grays Harbor, Washington. This survey was to verify that the location of the area of high crab density observed during site selection surveys has not shifted into the Southeast Ocean Disposal Site. In June 1990, mean densities of juvenile Dungeness crab were 146 crab/ha within the disposal site and 609 crab/ha outside ad north of the disposal site. At nearshore locations outside the disposal site, juvenile crab density was 3275 crab/ha. Despite the low overall abundance, the spatial distribution of crab was such that the high crab densities in 1990 have remained outside the Southwest Ocean Disposal Site. The survey data have confirmed the appropriateness of the initial selection of the disposal site boundaries and indicated no need to move to the second monitoring tier. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Steganography Using Adaptive Pixel Value Differencing(APVD) of Gray Images Through Exclusion of Overflow/Underflow

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, J K

    2012-01-01

    In a gray scale image the pixel value ranges from 0 to 255. But when we use pixel-value differencing (pvd) method as image steganographic scheme, the pixel values in the stego-image may exceed gray scale range. An adaptive steganography based on modified pixel-value differencing through management of pixel values within the range of gray scale has been proposed in this paper. PVD method is used and check whether the pixel value exceeds the range on embedding. Positions where the pixel exceeds boundary has been marked and a delicate handle is used to keep the value within the range. From the experimental it is seen that the results obtained in proposed method provides with identical payload and visual fidelity of stego-image compared to the pvd method.

  15. A Study on the Temperature Correlation of B-mode Ultrasonic Image Gray for Noninvasive Temperature Monitoring in Hyperthermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shui-cai; Ren Xin-ying; Bai Yan-ping; Zeng Yi

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the temperature correlation of gray scale of Bmode ultrasound image from heated tissue. In this study, many in-vitro fresh pig livers are heated in a temperature range from 28℃ to 45℃, from which a series of B-mode ultrasonic images of livers were obtained. The gray-value is evaluated from the ultrasound images respectively. A correlation of the mean gray value of the selected regions (12×12 pixels) in B-mode ultrasonic images of liver and its temperature was pointed out. And the experiment results agreed the evaluation well. And it is possible to monitor the tissue temperature changing in hyperthermia using this correlation.

  16. Age structure of moose (Alces alces) killed by gray wolves (Canis lupus) in northeastern Minnesota, 1967-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Nelson, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    The age structure of Moose (Alces alces) killed by gray Wolves (Canis lupus) is available from only two national parks in the united States where hunting by people is not allowed and from three areas in Alaska where Moose are hunted (Mech 1966; Peterson et al.1984; Ballard et al. 1987; Mech et al. 1998). The samples of Moose killed by gray Wolves from each hunted area are relatively small (47–117), given that Moose live to 20 or more years (Passmore et al. 1955). This article adds age data from another 77 Moose killed by gray Wolves from a fourth (lightly) human-hunted area and assesses the age structure of all the samples.

  17. Impact of climate change on sustainable management of gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus populations: Whale-watching and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvadeo Christian J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some pods of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus breed every winter at three lagoons along the Baja California Peninsula and then migrate to feeding grounds on the Bering and Chukchi Seas. The number of whales arriving to the lagoons fluctuates yearly and is related to climate variability. We analyzed the documented climate effects on the whales over their distribution range and discuss the potential effects of global climate warming in their breeding areas. Our analysis indicates that global warming will be favorable for gray whale populations, but unfavorable for the Mexican whale-watching industry: favorable, because fluctuations in calf production have been positively correlated with the length of time that the primary feeding habitat was free of seasonal ice during the previous year. However, if gray whales change their breeding areas to northern bays, they will be exposed to new challenges, which will have repercussions on the whale-watching industry. We discuss these new challenges.

  18. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of tyrosinase gene in the skin of Jining Gray Goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Wang, Hui; Dong, Bin; Dong, Zhongdian; Zhou, Fenna; Fu, Yong; Zeng, Yongqing

    2012-07-01

    Tyrosinase is the key regulatory enzyme of melanogenesis and plays a major role in mammal coat color. For the first time, we have sequenced and characterized the tyrosinase (TYR) of Jining Gray Goat (Capra hircus), which is the world-famous fur-bearing animal with its special color and pattern. The full-length cDNA was cloned by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) method. As a result, one 2131-bp nucleotide sequence representing the full-length cDNA of TYR was obtained. The entire open reading frame (ORF) of the TYR is 1593 bp and encodes for 530 amino acids, which is well conserved compared with TYR of various species with higher degree of sequence similarity with other mammalian (74-99 %) than amphibian, aves, and fishes (56-73 %). The deduced amino acids contained one signal peptide, one transmembrane domain, five N-linked glycosylation sites, and two copper binding sites. The result of real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression level of TYR was the highest in the dark-gray goats and the lowest in the light-gray ones, while the goats of dark-gray individuals have more than 50 % black fiber and light-gray ones less than 30 %. During the whole life of Jining gray goat, TYR expression level changes with certain regularity and their coat color will change correspondingly by investigating the expression level in ten development stages. After comparing the result and the coat phenotype, we presume that it seems to have a positive relationship between the color depth of coat and the expression level of TYR. PMID:22407568

  19. Increased rCBF in gray matter heterotopias detected by SPECT using sup 99m Tc hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henkes, H. (Universitaetskliniken, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Radiologische Klinik mit Poliklinik); Hosten, N.; Cordes, M.; Neumann, K. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Radiologische Klinik mit Poliklinik); Hansen, M.L. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany). Abt. fuer Neurophysiologie)

    1991-08-01

    Imaging findings of morphology and regional cerebral blood flow in two patients suffering from epileptic seizures are presented. CT and MRI revealed heterotopic gray matter as a probable structural correlate, causing the seizure disorder. {sup 99m}Tc hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime (HM-PAO) SPECT demonstrated focally increased regional cerebral blood flow in both patients in the areas of their heterotopic lesions. Heterotopic and orthotopic gray matter seem to have similar features in terms of regional perfusion. A focally increased brain perfusion in interictal epileptic patients may indicate an underlying migration anomaly. (orig.).

  20. Structural differences in gray matter between glider pilots and non-pilots. A voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosif eAhamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full body rotations. In the present study we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction and oculomotor control.