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Sample records for baccharis boliviensis asteraceae

  1. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America

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    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe four new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis:...

  2. Microsculpture of cypselae surface of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae (Asteraceae from Brazil

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    Boldrini, Ilsi Iob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the microsculpture of the cypselae surface of the Brazilian species of Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. (Asteraceae, and to compare this data it with the taxonomy of the group. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the cypsela surface of 25 taxa of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae from Brazil. According to the micromorphology of the cypsela surface, the species can be classified into five distinct groups. The cypselae of the species of the Baccharis trimera species complex (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala, and B. trimera share the same micromorphological features.Para examinar la superficie de cipselas de 25 táxones de Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. de Brasil se ha utilizado la microscopía electrónica de barrido. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la microescultura de la superficie de cipselas de la sección y colaborar con la delimitación taxonómica a nivel específico. Las especies fueron clasificadas en cinco grupos distintos según la micromorfología y asignados a la terminología existente. El complejo Baccharis trimera (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala y B. trimera mostró afinidades micromorfológicas de las cipselas.

  3. EPIDERMAL CHARACTERS OF BACCHARIS (ASTERACEAE SPECIES USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

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    FREIRE SUSANA E.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A morphological study of 38 species of Baccharis used in traditional medicinewas carried out to provide some epidermal characters that will contribute to theknowledge of the genus. The present study revealed: 1 seven different types oftrichomes: conical, aseptate fl agellate, fi liform fl agellate, 1-armed, 2-4-armed,bulbiferous fl agellate, and glandular biseriate; 2 that 28 of the total of 38 specieshave trichomes in tufts; 3 six different types of stomata: anomocytic, anisocytic,cyclocytic, actinocytic, tetracytic, and staurocytic; 4 that some trichome types,such as 2-4-armed (B. dracunculifolia and aseptate fl agellate branched (B. trinervis,show a high diagnostic value; 5 that the stomata types can be used to differentiatespecies with similar trichomes type (e.g. B. trimera and B. articulata.Illustrations of the studied characters are provided.

  4. Estudo farmacobotânico de partes vegetativas aéreas de Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae Pharmacobotanical study of aerial vegetative parts of Baccharis anomala DC., Asteraceae

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    Jane M. Budel

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Baccharis pertence à família Asteraceae e se destaca por incluir espécies medicinais. Baccharis anomala DC., conhecida como "uva-do-mato" e "cambará-de-cipó", é utilizada popularmente como diurético e estudos fitoquímicos constataram a presença de taninos e saponinas. Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudo farmacobotânico de folha e caule dessa espécie. O material foi submetido a microtécnicas fotônica e eletrônica de varredura usuais. A lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada revestida por cutícula delgada e estriada. Estômatos anomocíticos ocorrem somente na face abaxial. Em ambas as faces aparecem dois tipos de tricomas tectores pluricelulares unisseriados, um com ápice agudo e outro com célula apical flageliforme. O mesofilo é isobilateral e a nervura central é plano-convexa, sendo percorrida por um feixe vascular colateral. O pecíolo mostra três feixes vasculares que se dispõem em arco aberto. O caule tem secção circular e epiderme unisseriada, com tricomas similares aos da folha. Colênquima angular e clorênquima alternam-se no córtex e fibras perivasculares apõem-se ao floema. Evidencia-se uma zona cambial, cujas células formam xilema no sentido centrípeto e floema, centrifugamente, e a medula compõe-se de células parenquimáticas. Dutos secretores acompanham o sistema vascular na folha e no caule.The genus Baccharis belongs to the family Asteraceae and includes medicinal species. Baccharis anomala DC., popularly known as "uva-do-mato" and "cambará-do-cipó" in Portuguese, is used as diuretic in folk medicine and phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of tannins and saponins. This work has aimed at studying the macro and microscopic aspects of the leaf and stem of this species. The botanical material was prepared according to standard light and scanning microtechniques. The leaf blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with a thin and striate cuticle. Anomocytic stomata are

  5. Germinação de aquênios de Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C.(Asteraceae Germination of Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. (Asteraceae achene

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    Vania Gomes

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia D. C. (Asteraceae é uma espécie arbustiva dióica que apresenta características invasoras e colonizadoras e potencial para recuperação de áreas degradadas. Estudou-se o comportamento germinativo de aquênios de Baccharis dracunculifolia recém coletados e estocados por um ano. Aquênios coletados em 1998 foram postos para germinar em quatro repetições de 25 aquênios nas temperaturas de 15º, 20º, 25º e 30ºC sob luz ou escuro contínuo, enquanto que os coletados em 1997 germinaram a 20º e a 25ºC. As médias de germinação e o índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE foram calculados para responder às seguintes perguntas: (a Como varia o comportamento germinativo dos aquênios de B. dracunculifolia sob diferentes condições de luz e temperatura? (b Existe relação entre o número total de aquênios germinados e o IVE? (c O armazenamento afeta as porcentagens de germinação? Os aquênios que germinaram a 15ºC na presença e na ausência de luz e a 20ºC na luz obtiveram porcentagens de germinação significativamente maiores que os aquênios que germinaram sob os demais tratamentos (p We studied the germination of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae, achene, a species that has colonizing traits, which makes it a potential candidate for forest rehabilitation. Achenes were collected in 1998 and were germinated at 15º, 20º, 25º and 30ºC under continuous light, and darkness conditions with four replicates with 25 achenes in each. We had also collected achenes in 1997, ând they were germinated at 20º and 25ºC, under the same conditions. The mean germination rate and emergency velocity index (EVI were calculated to answer the following questions: (a How does the germination behavior of B. dracunculifolia's achenes vary under different temperature and light conditions? (b Is there any relationship between the total number of germinated achenes and the EVI? (c How does achene storage affect the

  6. Atividades antiúlcera e antioxidante Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae Antiulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae

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    Larissa Funabashi de Toledo Dias

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A "carqueja", Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae, é uma espécie vegetal característica de regiões tropicais, muito utilizada na medicina popular como antiinflamatória, hipoglicemiante e em tratamento de problemas digestivos. A avaliação da atividade antiúlcera do extrato bruto liofilizado e do extrato liofilizado da "resina" (porção que durante a concentração dos extratos ficava depositada no fundo do recipiente com aspecto viscoso e pegajoso foi realizada através de indução aguda por etanol acidificado. O extrato bruto liofilizado, na dose de 400 mg/ kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 90%, 200 mg/kg, 87%, 100 mg/kg, 66% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 66%. O extrato liofilizado da "resina", administrado na dose de 400 mg/kg, reduziu a área de lesão em 82%, 200 mg/kg, 82%, 100 mg/kg, 53% e o fármaco controle (lansoprazol, 70%. A atividade antioxidante foi ensaiada com extrato bruto liofilizado, extrato liofilizado da "resina", pó da droga e frações clorofórmica, acetato de etila, etanol e etanol 50% através do método que reduz o radical 2,2'-difenil-1-picril-hidrazil (DPPH, permitindo após o equilíbrio da reação, calcular a quantidade de antioxidante gasta para reduzir 50% do DPPH, apresentando resultado evidente, comparado à vitamina E. Não foram verificados sinais de alteração aparente no ensaio de toxicidade na dose única de 5g/kg, em camundongos.Baccharis trimera (Less DC (Asteraceae is a medicinal Brazilian plant well-known by "carqueja". Natural from tropical regions, used as home-made medicine as anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemiant and for the treatment of digestive problems. The evaluation of the antiulcer activity of the extract and the "resin" (portion which during the extracts concentration was settled at the bottom of the recipient, showing a viscous and clammy aspect, was accomplished through the acute induction by acidified ethanol. The lyophilized extract, at a dose of 400 mg/kg, reduced the

  7. The first record of Baccharis L. (Asteraceae) as a host-plant genus for Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera), with description of new Stigmella species from South America.

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    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius; Remeikis, Andrius; Davis, Donald R; Solis, M Alma; Torres, Nixon Cumbicus

    2016-07-05

    We record the first Nepticulidae species found to feed on Baccharis L. (Asteraceae). Despite the high species richness of Baccharis in the Western Hemisphere, no nepticulid has ever been recorded feeding on Baccharis. In this paper we describe six new Stigmella Schrank species feeding on Baccharis: S. emarginatae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. bipartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. tripartita Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. latifoliae Remeikis, Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., S. baccharicola Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov., and S. confertae Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The remaining two taxa are left unnamed. All taxa are illustrated with photographs of adults, their genitalia, and their leaf-mines. Additionally, leaf-mines on Baccharis salicifolia are documented.

  8. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

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    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  9. Atividade antimicrobiana de óleos essenciais produzidos por Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. e Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae Antimicrobial activity of essential oils produced by Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. and Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

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    Regina Ferronatto

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais obtidos de plantas nativas de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella, também conhecido como óleo-de-vassoura, é utilizado na indústria de perfumaria, proporcionando um aroma exótico a diversos perfumes, além de muitos estudos sobre atividades biológicas dessas espécies destacam os efeitos alelopáticos, antioxidante, antimicrobianos, citotóxicos e antiinflamatórios. A vassoura é uma planta arbustiva de ocorrência espontânea no Brasil, assim como nos demais países do Mercosul. A composição do óleo depende da região geográfica e do processo de extração utilizado e a importância comercial está diretamente relacionada com a concentração de compostos oxigenados, destacando o nerolidol e o espatulenol. Óleos essenciais obtidos dessas duas espécies pelo processo de hidrodestilação, foram avaliados pelo método de difusão em disco de papel, em placas de Petri contendo meio de Müeller-Hinton, semeadas com suspensões bacterianas previamente ajustadas ao tubo 0,5 da escala de Mac Farland de quatro cepas provenientes da American Type Culture Colection: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 e Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. Discos contendo diferentes volumes dos óleos essenciais sem qualquer diluição (1, 3, 5 e 10 µL/disco foram adicionadas às placas e incubadas a 36 ºC por 24 a 48 horas. Discos de cloranfenicol (CLO e amoxicilina (AMO com volumes de 50 e 10 µg/disco respectivamente, foram utilizados como controle. Os resultados apresentados revelam que ambos os óleos avaliados apresentam atividade antimicrobiana sobre S. aureus, E. coli e P. aeruginosa.Essential oils obtained from the native plants Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella, known also as "óleo de vassoura", are used in the perfumery industry, providing diverse perfumes with exotic aromas. Besides several studies about the biological activities of these species highlight the allelopathic

  10. Gênero Baccharis (Asteraceae: aspectos químicos, econômicos e biológicos The Baccharis genus (Asteraceae: chemical, economic and biological aspects

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    Luiz Gonzaga Verdi

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The Baccharis genus is represented by more than 500 species distributed mainly in the tropical areas of South America. Many of them are extensively used in folk medicine in the treatment or prevention of anemias, inflammations, diabetes and stomach, liver and prostate diseases. Phytochemical and biological investigations in about 120 species resulted mainly in the isolation of clerodane and labdane diterpenes and flavonoid aglicones with the flavone unit being the most frequent.

  11. Combined treatment with caffeic and ferulic acid from Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) protects against metabolic syndrome in mice.

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    Bocco, B M; Fernandes, G W; Lorena, F B; Cysneiros, R M; Christoffolete, M A; Grecco, S S; Lancellotti, C L; Romoff, P; Lago, J H G; Bianco, A C; Ribeiro, M O

    2016-03-01

    Fractionation of the EtOH extract from aerial parts of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae) led to isolation of caffeic and ferulic acids, which were identified from spectroscopic and spectrometric evidence. These compounds exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and have been shown to be effective in the prevention/treatment of metabolic syndrome. This study investigated whether the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids exhibits a more significant beneficial effect in a mouse model with metabolic syndrome. The combination treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids was tested for 60 days in C57 mice kept on a high-fat (40%) diet. The data obtained indicated that treatment with caffeic and ferulic acids prevented gain in body weight induced by the high-fat diet and improved hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. The expression of a number of metabolically relevant genes was affected in the liver of these animals, showing that caffeic and ferulic acid treatment results in increased cholesterol uptake and reduced hepatic triglyceride synthesis in the liver, which is a likely explanation for the prevention of hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the combined treatment of caffeic and ferulic acids displayed major positive effects towards prevention of multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis in an obese mouse model.

  12. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina

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    Susana E. Freire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribu Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribu Senecioneae. Se citan además el hábitat de los taxones y las provincias fitogeográficas que integran. Se propone una nueva combinación, Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.The following Asteraceae are mentioned for the province of Catamarca: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribe Astereae, Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribe Eupatorieae, Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribe Heliantheae, Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribe Inuleae, Chuquiraga ruscifolia (Tribe Mutisieae, Senecio crepidifolius, S. subulatus var. subulatus, Xenophyllum incisum var. incisum (Tribe Senecioneae. The habitat and phytogeographic provinces of the taxa are mentioned. The following new combination is proposed: Baccharis glutinosa Pers. var. angustissima (DC. Giuliano.

  13. Influência dos processos de secagem sobre o teor de flavonoides e na atividade antioxidante dos extratos de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae

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    Jackson Borgo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o teor de quercetina obtido dos extratos de partes aéreas de Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers., Asteraceae, submetidas a diferentes técnicas de secagem, bem como a avaliação de sua atividade antioxidante in vitro. Foi verificada maior concentração deste flavonoide nas amostras secas em estufa, porém não houve diferença significativa na atividade farmacológica das amostras analisadas.

  14. PROMOCIÓN DEL CRECIMIENTO DE Baccharis macrantha (ASTERACEAE CON BACTERIAS SOLUBILIZADORAS DE FOSFATOS ASOCIADAS A SU RIZOSFERA

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    Luz Marina LIZARAZO FORERO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue aislar y caracterizar bacterias solubilizadoras de fosfatos (BSF asociadas a la rizosfera de Baccharis macrantha y Viburnum triphyllum, y evaluar su capacidad para solubilizar fosfatos en condiciones in vitro. Además se determinó el efecto de la inoculaciónde las cepas de BSF más eficientes sobre el crecimiento de B. macrantha. Las muestras de suelo rizosférico de B. macrantha y V. triphyllum fueron colectadas en los meses de mayo-período de lluvia y septiembre-período seco del 2012. Para la cuantificación de bacterias heterótrofas cultivables y BSF se empleó el método de recuento en placa en los medios Agar Tripticasa de Soya y Pikovskaya (PVK respectivamente. La capacidad de solubilización de fosfatos de las cepas aisladas se estimó a partir del diámetro de los halos formados alrededor de las colonias en el medio de cultivo PVK después de 7 días de incubación a 28 °C. Los ensayos de inoculación en B. macrantha se realizaron con las BSF más eficientes. La inoculación de las BSF B. firmus y P. fluorescens de forma individual y como inoculante combinado mostro un efecto benéfico, incrementando significativamente el porcentaje de germinación de semillas, la altura de la plántula, la longitud de la raíz y el peso seco de B. macrantha. La inoculación de BSF podría ser considerada una estrategia para mejorar el crecimiento y establecimiento de B. macrantha en pastizales abandonados.Growth Promotion of Baccharis macrantha (Asteraceae by Phosphate Solubilizing Rhizosphere Bacteria     The objectives of this research was to isolate and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria (BSF associated to the rhizosphere of Baccharis macrantha and Viburnum triphyllum, and to assess their ability to solubilize phosphate under conditions in vitro. Furthermore to determine the effect of inoculation of the strains BSF more efficient on the growth of B. macrantha. Rhizosphere soil samples of B

  15. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae): responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation.

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    Fagundes, Marcílio; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2011-09-01

    The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and micro-habitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders) associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae) along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having a geographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system.

  16. Nerolidol, an antiulcer constituent from the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae).

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    Klopell, Fernando Canani; Lemos, Marivane; Sousa, João Paulo Barreto; Comunello, Eros; Maistro, Edson Luis; Bastos, Jairo Kennup; de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the antiulcerogenic effect of essential oil from Baccharis dracunculifolia was evaluated using the model of acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol. The ulcerative lesion index (ULI) was significantly reduced by oral administration of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia at doses of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg which reduced the lesions by 42.79, 45.70 and 61.61%, respectively. The analysis of the chemical composition of the essential oil from B. dracunculifolia by GC showed that this was composed mainly of mono- and sesquiterpenes and the majority compound was nerolidol. Therefore, antiulcerogenic activity of nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) was investigated using ethanol-, indomethacin- and stress-induced ulcer models in rat. In the stress-induced ulcer model, a significant reduction of the ULI in animals treated with nerolidol (50, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) was observed, compared to the control group (p omeprazol (positive control), respectively. In indomethacin-ulcer the percentage of inhibition of ulcer was 34.69, 40.80, 51.02 and 46.93% in groups treated with 50, 250, 500 mg/kg of nerolidol and 100 mg/ kg of cimetidine (positive control), respectively. The results of this study show that nerolidol displays antiulcer activity, as it significantly inhibited the formation of ulcers induced in different animal models. However, further pharmacological and toxicological investigations, to delineate the mechanism(s) of action and the toxic effects, are required to allow the use of nerolidol for the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  17. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

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    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  18. Physicochemical characteristics of the essential oils of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae Características físico-químicas dos óleos essenciais de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella D.C. (Asteraceae

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    Kely Cristina Fabiane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Baccharis uncinella, which were obtained by hydrodistillation, were physically and chemically characterized for their yield, relative density (d20(20, refraction index, solubility in ethanol and chemical composition through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry (GC/MS. The results showed a yield of 1.5 and 1.65 mL/100g-1, relative density (d20(20 of 0.9151 and 0.9147, refraction index of 1.4593 and 1.4602, rotatory power of +1.99 and +2.18. Solubility in 70% ethanol was 3.0, in 80% ethanol was 1.0 and in 96.5% ethanol was 1.0, for the oils of B. dracunculifolia and B. uncinella respectively. The evaluations in gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrophotometry showed that the oils studied are similar, presenting 26 constituents among which β-pinene, ε-nerolidol, limonene and spathulenol are highlighted.Os óleos essenciais de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Baccharis uncinella, obtidos por hidrodestilação, foram caracterizados físico e quimicamente em relação ao seu rendimento, sua densidade relativa (d20(20, seu índice de refração, sua solubilidade em etanol e sua composição química por meio de cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas (CG/EM. Os resultados mostraram um rendimento de 1,5 e 1,65 mL/100g-1, uma densidade relativa (d20(20 de 0,9151 e 0,9147, um índice de refração de 1,4593 e 1,4602, um poder rotatório de +1,99 e +2,18, a sua solubilidade em etanol 70% foi 3,0, em etanol 80% foi 1,0 e em etanol 96,5% também foi de 1,0, para o óleo de B. dracunculifolia e B. uncinella, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que os óleos avaliados são semelhantes, apresentando 26 compostos, com destaque para β-pineno, ε-nerolidol, limoneno e espatulenol.

  19. Atividade antiproliferativa e mutagênica dos extratos aquosos de Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle e Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae sobre o sistema teste de Allium cepa Antiproliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous extract of Baccharis trimera (Less. A. P. de Candolle and Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. (Asteraceae on the Allium cepa test system

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    J.M. Fachinetto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As espécies medicinais Baccharis trimera e Baccharis articulata, nativas no sul do Brasil, são muito utilizadas na medicina popular. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o potencial efeito citotóxico destas infusões sobre o ciclo celular de Allium cepa. Ramos de duas populações de cada espécie coletados durante os estádios vegetativo e reprodutivo (floração foram usados para preparar infusões em duas concentrações: 15 mg mL-1 e 75 mg mL-1. Células das pontas de raízes Allium cepa são usadas como sistema teste in vivo. Foram preparadas lâminas através da técnica de esmagamento. As células foram analisadas em todo o ciclo celular de A. cepa, totalizando 4000 células para cada grupo de bulbos. O índice mitótico (IM foi calculado e realizado análise estatística através do teste Qui-quadrado (c² = 0,05. Os resultados mostraram que as infusões de B. trimera nas duas populações causaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, mas não entre as concentrações, em ambos estádios utilizados. Os extratos de B. articulata também apresentaram redução do IM em relação ao controle, sendo que uma das populações apresentou diferença do IM entre as concentrações nos dois estádios, o que não ocorreu na outra população. Com relação à presença de células com aberrações cromossômicas, esta ocorreu em todas as populações estudadas. Os resultados indicaram que os extratos dessas espécies apresentaram efeito antiproliferativo e mutagênico para as concentrações estudadas, não possuindo diferença nesses efeitos quanto ao estádio de desenvolvimento das plantas.The medicinal species Baccharis trimera and Baccharis articulata, which are native to the south of Brazil, are extensively used in popular medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic effect of these infusions on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. Branches of two populations of each species collected during the vegetative and reproductive

  20. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-02-20

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided.

  1. Estudo do óleo essencial de algumas espécies do gênero Baccharis (Asteraceae do sul do Brasil Studies on the essential oils from several Baccharis (Asteraceae from Southern Brazil

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    F. Agostini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Cerca de 15% das espécies de Baccharis têm sido analisadas do ponto de vista fitoquímico, mas trabalhos envolvendo estudos de óleos essenciais têm sido pouco informados. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar espécies deste gênero, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, e avaliar o potencial aromático de doze amostras coletadas em diferentes localidades do Estado. O óleo foi obtido por hidrodestilação em Clevenger por 1 hora a partir do material desidratado a 30°C por quatro dias. As análises em CG foram realizadas em equipamento HP6890 Series, equipado com processador de dados HP-Chemstation e coluna HP-Innowax, e, as análises em CG/EM foram realizadas em equipamento HP 6890/MSD5973, com software HP Chemstation e biblioteca Wiley 275 de espectros, com coluna de mesma polaridade. O melhor rendimento foi obtido em B. articulata com 0,5% p/v. beta-Pineno foi identificado nas amostras de B. articulata (41,4% a 52,8%, e em B. cogata (27,2%. Espatulenol esteve presente nas amostras de B. semiserrata (15,5% e 25,5% e nas amostras de B. uncinella (47,7% e 23,1%. B. oxyodonta apresentou limoneno (24,3%. Duas amostras de B. milleflora apresentaram espatulenol, enquanto que uma apresentou beta-pineno.About 15% of the known Baccharis species have been phytochemically studied, but few studies regarding their essential oils have been reported. The present work aims to identify native species of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, and to evaluate their aromatic potential. Twelve samples were collected in different sites within the State. The essential oils were obtained by an one hour hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus, using plant materials dried for four days at 30°C. The GC analyses were carried out with a HP6890 Series apparatus, equiped with a HP-Chemstation data processor and an HP-Innowax column. The GC/MS analyses were carried out with an HP 6890/MSD5973, equiped with an HP Chemstation and a Wiley 275 spectra library, using the same

  2. The diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plant Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae) from the Brazilian savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mariana L A; Johann, Susana; Hughes, Frederic M; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-12-01

    The fungal endophyte community associated with Baccharis trimera, a Brazilian medicinal plant, was characterized and screened for its ability to present antimicrobial activity. By using molecular methods, we identified and classified the endophytic fungi obtained into 25 different taxa from the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. The most abundant species were closely related to Diaporthe phaseolorum, Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, and Preussia pseudominima. The differences observed in endophytic assemblages from different B. trimera specimens might be associated with their crude extract activities. Plants that had higher α-biodiversity were also those that contributed more to the regional (γ) diversity. All fungal isolates were cultured and their crude extracts screened to examine the antimicrobial activities. Twenty-three extracts (12.8%) displayed antimicrobial activities against at least one target microorganism. Among these extracts, those obtained from Epicoccum sp., Pestalotiopsis sp. 1, Cochliobolus lunatus, and Nigrospora sp. presented the best minimum inhibitory concentration values. Our results show that the endophytic fungal community associated with the medicinal plant B. trimera included few dominant bioactive taxa, which may represent sources of compounds with antifungal activity. Additionally, the discovery of these bioactive fungi in association with B. trimera suggests that Brazilian plants used as folk medicine may shelter a rich fungal diversity as well as taxa able to produce bioactive metabolites with antimicrobial activities.

  3. Carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere enhances biomass accumulation and meristem production in the pioneer shrub Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

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    Camila Emiliane Mendes de Sá

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration predicted to the end of this century may cause several alterations on plant species development, which shall result in changes in the structure and function of plant communities. The present work aimed to investigate the effects of the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration on the development of Baccharis dracunculifolia, a key pioneer Neotropical shrub. Seedlings of B. dracunculifolia were exposed to 720 ppm of CO2 as well as to ambient concentration of CO2 (approximately 360 ppm during 120 days in open top chambers. Growth and dry biomass accumulation were higher under elevated CO2 concentrations. As a response to CO2 enrichment, there was an increase of 134% in total dry mass, 208% in root dry mass and 152% in stem dry mass. The shrubby habit of B. dracunculifolia and the larger number of meristems produced under high CO2 promoted the increase in 137% in the number of branches. The present study contributes to the knowledge about how pioneer tropical plants may respond to increased atmospheric [CO2] in environments with low nutrient limitation.

  4. Interferência de extratos da Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, sobre a atividade de antibióticos usados na clínica Interference from extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, on the activity of antibiotics used in the clinic

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    Marilde Canton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a interferência da fração polar e apolar, bem como do óleo essencial da Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, sobre o efeito de antibióticos utilizados na clínica médica. Os ensaios foram realizados com vinte e nove antibióticos em associação com os dois extratos [uma fração polar (HA 50% e uma da fração apolar (EA 25%] e com o óleo essencial. O método utilizado foi o método de difusão em meio sólido utilizando os discos de antibióticos, adquiridos comercialmente. Os resultados mostraram interferência na ação esperada do antibiótico quando associado aos extratos e ao óleo essencial da B. dracunculifolia. Em alguns casos não houve alteração da ação do antibiótico, no entanto, na maioria dos casos houve interferência sinérgica ou antagônica da ação do antibiótico. Estes resultados mostram que o uso de produtos derivados de plantas pode em algumas situações interferir sobre a efetividade de antibióticos de uso no tratamento clínico.The objective of this study was to investigate the interference of the polar and apolar fraction as well the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC., Asteraceae, about the antibiotics effects used in the medic clinic. The essays were accomplished with twenty nine antibiotics in association with two extracts [one polar fraction (HA 50% and one of apolar fraction (EA 25%] and with essential oil. The method used was the diffusion one in solid mean using the antibiotic discs, which were acquired commercially. The results showed interference in the hoped action of the antibiotic when associated to the extract and to the B. dracunculifolia essential oil. In some cases there was no alteration of the antibiotic action, however, in most of the cases there was either a synergic or an antagonic interference of the antibiotic action. These outcomes have showed that the use of derived products or plants can interfere on the effectiveness of

  5. Nuevas citas de Asteraceae para la provincia de Catamarca (Argentina) New records of Asteraceae for the province of Catamarca (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Susana E. Freire; Bayón, Néstor D.; Daniel A. Giuliano; Luis Ariza Espinar; Sáenz, Alcides A.; Claudia Monti; Gustavo Delucchi

    2011-01-01

    Se mencionan los siguientes nuevos registros de Asteráceas para la provincia de Catamarca, Argentina: Baccharis acaulis, B. boliviensis var. latifolia, B. flexuosa, B. glutinosa var. angustissima, B. stenophylla (Tribu Astereae), Eupatorium patens var. tomentosum (Tribu Eupatorieae), Cosmos bipinnatus, C. peucedanifolius var. peucedanifolius, Helianthus annuus (Tribu Heliantheae), Gamochaeta erythractis, G. longipedicellata, Gnaphalium lacteum, Tessaria integrifolia var. integrifolia (Tribu I...

  6. Etnobotánica, anatomía y caracterización físico-química del aceite esencial de Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae Ethnobotany, anatomy and physicochemical characterization of essential oil of Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. (Asteraceae: Astereae

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    Soledad Molares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. es una especie aromática conocida como "wautro", y forma parte destacada de la herbolaria Mapuche de la Patagonia Argentina. Los objetivos fueron investigar la etnobotánica, la anatomía del vástago, y caracterizar físicoquímicamente el aceite esencial presente en el mismo. Se realizaron entrevistas a pobladores de dos comunidades Mapuches del noroeste de la Patagonia Argentina, y se colectó material vegetal para su observación al microscopio óptico y de barrido ambiental, como así también, para la hidrodestilación del aceite esencial. Los informantes indicaron que la planta es utilizada en forma consensuada para el tratamiento de alopecia, caspa, diversas dermatitis, y cefaleas. Las principales características de la hoja son: mesofilo isobilateral, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas glandulares pluricelulares, y cavidades esquizógenas secretoras de aceites esenciales. El tallo primario presenta tricomas y cavidades secretoras semejantes a los de las hojas, colénquima en las costillas, clorénquima en los valles interrumpido por espacios de aire, cilindro vascular continuo, endodermis uniseriada y por sectores biseriada, esclerénquima discontinuo, y cristales aciculares en células periféricas de médula. Las determinaciones físico-químicas que se aportan son rendimiento medio anual, tiempo óptimo de destilación, densidad relativa, rotación específica e índice de refracción. B. obovata es una especie cosmecéutica de interés, este trabajo contribuye a su conocimiento general, aportando información para futuras tareas de control de calidad y para su conservación biocultural.Baccharis obovata Hook. et Arn. is an aromatic species known as "wautro", and is an important part of the Mapuche herbolarium of Patagonia Argentina. The objectives were to investigate its ethnobotany and shoot anatomy, as well as to characterize physically and chemically its essential oil. Rural informant-interviews were

  7. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto,M.R.; Zampini,I.C.; Isla, M. I.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida) that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level) and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts sh...

  8. Estudo quÃmico de asterÃceas do CearÃ: Baccharis trinervis, Eupatorium ballotaefolium, Eupatorium betonicaeforme, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Pectis apodocephala, Pectis oligocephala, Verbesina diversifolia, Vernonia chalybaea e Vernonia scorpioides

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rose Jane Ribeiro Albuquerque

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve a investigaÃÃo quÃmica de plantas da famÃlia Asteraceae nativas da flora cearense, pertencentes aos gÃneros Baccharis, Eupatorium, Pectis, Verbesina e Vernonia. Eupatorium ballotaefolium H.B.K. e E. betonicaeforme Baker foram selecionados para o estudo da composiÃÃo quÃmica volÃtil e nÃo-volÃtil, enquanto Baccharis trinervis (Lam.) Pers., E. pauciflorum Kunth, Pectis apodocephala Baker, P. oligocephala Baker, Verbesina diversifolia D.C., Vernonia chalybaea Mart. e V. sc...

  9. Baccharis Pteronioides Toxicity in Livestock and Hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the early 1900’s, Baccharis pteronioides DC has been intermittently associated with livestock poisoning in the southwestern United States. In 2004, nearly 100 free ranging cows were reported poisoned by B. pteronioides in southern New Mexico. Initial field studies and post mortem examination...

  10. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. (carqueja against bacteria of medical interest

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    Álan Alex Aleixo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (Less. (Asteraceae, popularly know as "carqueja", is a species commonly used in folk medicine for the treatment or prevention of diseases. In this context, the purpose of this work was to study the antibacterial activity of crude hydroalcoholic extract from Baccharis trimera against Gram-positive bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ATCC 15305, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli EHEC ATCC 43895, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 27736, Salmonella typhi ATCC 19430 of clinical interest. Antibacterial susceptibility was evaluated by broth microdilution assay following the CLSI (formerly the NCCLS guidelines. The extract from B. trimera showed antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and the most interesting result was obtained against S. epidermidis that presented Minimal Inhibitory Concentration of 250μg/mL. These results indicate that B. trimera have bacterisostatic potential against Gram-positive bacterial strains of medical interest and could serve as a base for further studies on the use of isolated compounds from this species as future antimicrobials.

  11. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna

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    M.R. Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL, mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL. The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2●-, OH-, H2O2. The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2 was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 µg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 µM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  12. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, M R; Zampini, I C; Isla, M I

    2009-09-01

    We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida) that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level) and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL), mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL). The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS) and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2-, OH-, H2O2). The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 microg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 microM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  13. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lm; Holmes, An; Williams, LE; Brosnan, Sf

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran "open diffusion" tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the "Slide-box"). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a 'ghost' display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys' learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this case, those

  14. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

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    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  15. Ectoine production by Halomonas boliviensis: optimization using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van-Thuoc, Doan; Guzmán, Héctor; Thi-Hang, Mai; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2010-10-01

    Two cultivation steps were used for production of biomass and ectoine by Halomonas boliviensis, respectively. The optimization of some nutrient parameters in each step was investigated by using response surface methodology. Twenty and 12 experiments were performed to attain optimal conditions for biomass and ectoine production, respectively. The model predicted a maximum biomass concentration of 3.34 g/L on optimization of NH(4)Cl, K(2)HPO(4), and MgSO(4)•7H(2)O concentrations during the first cultivation, while a maximum ectoine concentration of 1.27 g/L was predicted on optimizing NaCl and monosodium glutamate concentrations in the second cultivation. The experimental values obtained (3.36 g biomass/L and 1.25 g ectoine/L) were in good agreement with the predicted values. The optimized conditions were also used for two-step 1.5-L fed-batch fermentations. In the first step, biomass concentration of 28.7 g/L was obtained while in the second step biomass concentration increased to 63 g/L. Ectoine concentration of 9.2 g/L was obtained, and the overall ectoine productivity was 6.3 g/L/day, being among the highest reported so far.

  16. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mateus Freire; Tavares, Reisla Cristina; Sato, Sandra; do Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan

    2015-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae), popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t = 1), there was no difference between products (P = 0.602); that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t = 2), there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P = 0.674), so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test). It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care. PMID:25874255

  17. Herbal Mouthwash Containing Extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia as Agent for the Control of Biofilm: Clinical Evaluation in Humans

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    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae, popularly known as “alecrim-do-campo,” is largely distributed in South America, is shown to exhibit protective actions against gastric ulcers, has anti-inflammatory properties, and is hepatoprotective. Several essential oils obtained from Baccharis species possess biological activities, such as antimicrobial and antivirus activities. This randomized controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of B. dracunculifolia in the reduction of dental biofilm, comparing this natural product with other mouthwashes already known in the dental market. In measuring the time after use of mouthwash (t=1, there was no difference between products (P=0.602; that is, subjects in the study had a similar PI after the first use. After one week (t=2, there was no difference between the four products evaluated (P=0.674, so, all research individuals completed the study with a similar reduction in dental biofilm between themselves but it was different from initial state (Friedman test. It is possible to conclude that B. dracunculifolia had the same efficiency of the materials used to oral hygiene in reduction of dental plaque and, consequently, prevention of dental caries. Thus, we can consider B. dracunculifolia as a good candidate for new material to be implemented in dental care.

  18. Asteraceae de interés en la Melisopalinogía: Bosque montano de las yungas (Jujuy - Argentina Asteraceae of melissopalynological interest: Yungas montane forest (Jujuy, Argentina

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    A. C. Sánchez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la descripción polínica de 17 especies de la familia Asteraceae, con una clave para su identificación. Estos materiales corresponden a la flora melífera del Bosque Montano en la Provincia Fitogeográfica de las Yungas en Jujuy. El estudio constituye el primer aporte para lograr la determinación polínica de las especies de esta familia en las mieles del área. Las especies descriptas son: Ageratum conyzoides, Baccharis salicifolia, Bidens pilosa, Elephantopus mollis, Eupatorium arnottianum Eupatorium bupleurifolium, Eupatorium leavigatum, Mikania micrantha, Parthenium hysteriophorus, Senecio cremeiflorus, Senecio rudbeckiifolius, Stevia potreriensis, Tagetes terniflora, Verbesina lilloi, Vernonia squamulosa, Viguiera mollis, Viguiera pazensis, todas ellas nativas.The descriptions of 17 pollen types of the Asteraceae family with a key for its identification are presented. These materials correspond to the mellipherus flora of the Bosque Montano in the Phytogeographycal Province of the Yungas in Jujuy. This study constitutes the first contribution to obtain the determination of the pollen types of this family in the honeys of the area. The species are described: Ageratum conyzoides, Baccharis salicifolia, Bidens pilosa, Elephantopus mollis, Eupatorium arnottianum Eupatorium bupleurifolium, Eupatorium leavigatum, Mikania micrantha, Parthenium hysteriophorus, Senecio cremeiflorus, Senecio rudbeckiifolius, Stevia potreriensis, Tagetes terniflora, Verbesina lilloi, Vernonia squamulosa, Viguiera mollis, Viguiera pazensis, all native.

  19. Control and management of eastern baccharis in a recently established bottomland hardwood plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton Gann; Lynne Thompson; Jamie L. Schuler

    2012-01-01

    Eastern baccharis (Baccharis halimifolia L.) is a frequent invader in bottomland hardwood plantations established in southeastern Arkansas. This dioecious shrub can affect the survival and growth of newly planted stems. This study evaluated the utility of various herbicides and mechanical control treatments to manage eastern baccharis in an...

  20. Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in the Trinitrobenzenesulphonic Acid Model of Rat Colitis

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    Sílvia Helena Cestari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae is a Brazilian medicinal plant popularly used for its antiulcer and anti-inflammatory properties. This plant is the main botanical source of Brazilian green propolis, a natural product incorporated into food and beverages to improve health. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical profile and intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of B. dracunculifolia extract on experimental ulcerative colitis induced by trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid (TNBS. Colonic damage was evaluated macroscopically and biochemically through its evaluation of glutathione content and its myeloperoxidase (MPO and alkaline phosphatase activities. Additional in vitro experiments were performed in order to test the antioxidant activity by inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain membrane. Phytochemical analysis was performed by HPLC using authentic standards. The administration of plant extract (5 and 50 mg kg−1 significantly attenuated the colonic damage induced by TNBS as evidenced both macroscopically and biochemically. This beneficial effect can be associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status, since plant extract prevented glutathione depletion, inhibited lipid peroxidation and reduced MPO activity. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, aromadendrin-4-O-methyl ether, 3-prenyl-p-coumaric acid, 3,5-diprenyl-p-coumaric acid and baccharin were detected in the plant extract.

  1. Intestinal Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in the Trinitrobenzenesulphonic Acid Model of Rat Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestari, Sílvia Helena; Bastos, Jairo Kennup; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (Asteraceae) is a Brazilian medicinal plant popularly used for its antiulcer and anti-inflammatory properties. This plant is the main botanical source of Brazilian green propolis, a natural product incorporated into food and beverages to improve health. The present study aimed to investigate the chemical profile and intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of B. dracunculifolia extract on experimental ulcerative colitis induced by trinitrobenzenosulfonic acid (TNBS). Colonic damage was evaluated macroscopically and biochemically through its evaluation of glutathione content and its myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alkaline phosphatase activities. Additional in vitro experiments were performed in order to test the antioxidant activity by inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain membrane. Phytochemical analysis was performed by HPLC using authentic standards. The administration of plant extract (5 and 50 mg kg(-1)) significantly attenuated the colonic damage induced by TNBS as evidenced both macroscopically and biochemically. This beneficial effect can be associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status, since plant extract prevented glutathione depletion, inhibited lipid peroxidation and reduced MPO activity. Caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, aromadendrin-4-O-methyl ether, 3-prenyl-p-coumaric acid, 3,5-diprenyl-p-coumaric acid and baccharin were detected in the plant extract.

  2. Potencial antioxidante e antimicrobiano de espécies da família Asteraceae Antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Asteraceae species

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    R.L Fabri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Espécies da família Asteraceae são amplamente utilizadas na medicina popular para diversos fins terapêuticos. Neste contexto, este estudo teve por objetivo averiguar a atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante in vitro de extratos metanólicos de plantas pertencentes a Asteraceae, a maioria comumente utilizada na medicina tradicional. A prospecção química dos extratos também foi realizada. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de susceptibilidade em microdiluição em caldo e a atividade antioxidante determinada pelo ensaio com o radical DPPH. O extrato da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia apresentou significativa atividade antimicrobiana para Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Bacillus cereus e Cryptococcus neoformans (CIM = 0,005; 0,005 e 0,039 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Os extratos das folhas de Bidens segetum e Matricaria chamomilla foram seletivos para Shigella sonnei e P. aeruginosa (CIM = 0,005 e 0,078 mg mL-1, respectivamente. Já as folhas de Acanthospermun australe e Baccharis trimera apresentaram atividade significativa apenas para Candida albicans (CIM = 0,039 mg mL-1 enquanto as folhas de Taraxacum officinale foram ativos contra ambas leveduras com CIM 0,039 mg mL-1. Em relação à atividade antioxidante, os extratos das folhas de B. dracunculifolia, T. officinale e das inflorescências de B. segetum apresentaram significativa atividade com CI50 de 5, 5 e 4 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A prospecção química dos extratos identificou presença de compostos como flavonoides, terpenos e outros que podem ser responsáveis pelas atividades observadas.Asteraceae species have been largely used in folk medicine for several therapeutic purposes. Thus, the aim of this work was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of methanol extracts from plants belonging to the Asteraceae family, most of which are commonly used in traditional medicine. Chemical prospecting of extracts was also performed. The

  3. Pharmacology And Toxicology Of Peumus Boldus And Baccharis Genistelloides [farmacologia E Toxicologia De Peumus Boldus E Baccharis Genistelloides

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz A.L.T.G.; Taffarello D.; Souza V.H.S.; Carvalho J.E.

    2008-01-01

    There are a great number of medicinal plants without any scientific confirmation about their efficacy and safety. This paper is a short review about two medicinal plants, "boldo do chile" (Peumus boldus) and "carqueja" (Baccharis genistelloides). Pharmacological studies have confirmed several popular indications for P. boldus and B. genistelloides, besides have established a relationship between isolated compounds from these extracts and the pharmacological effects observed. On the other hand...

  4. Pharmacology And Toxicology Of Peumus Boldus And Baccharis Genistelloides [farmacologia E Toxicologia De Peumus Boldus E Baccharis Genistelloides

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz A.L.T.G.; Taffarello D.; Souza V.H.S.; De Carvalho J.E.

    2008-01-01

    There are a great number of medicinal plants without any scientific confirmation about their efficacy and safety. This paper is a short review about two medicinal plants, "boldo do chile" (Peumus boldus) and "carqueja" (Baccharis genistelloides). Pharmacological studies have confirmed several popular indications for P. boldus and B. genistelloides, besides have established a relationship between isolated compounds from these extracts and the pharmacological effects observed. On the other hand...

  5. Partial Characterization of Venom from the Colombian Spider Phoneutria Boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Gomez, Sebastian; Muñoz, Leidy Johana Vargas; Lanchero, Paula; Latorre, Cesar Segura

    2015-07-31

    We report on the first studies on the characterization of venom from Phoneutria boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae) (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897), done with Colombian species. After the electrostimulation extraction process, the venom showed physicochemical properties corresponding to a colorless and water-soluble liquid with a density of 0.86 mg/mL and 87% aqueous content. P. boliviensis venom and RP-HPLC fractions showed hemolytic activity and hydrolyzed the synthetic substrate 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy-benzoic acid, indicating the presence of phospholipases A2 enzymes. The electrophoretic profile showed an important protein content with molecular masses below 14 kDa, and differences between male and female protein content were also revealed. The RP-HPLC venom profile exposes differences between males and female content consistent with the electrophoretic profile. Five fractions collected from the RP-HPLC displayed significant larvicidal activity. Mass analysis indicates the presence of peptides ranging from 1047.71 to 3278.07 Da. Two peptides, Ctenitoxin-Pb48 and Ctenitoxin-Pb53, were partially identified using HPLC-nESI-MS/MS, which showed a high homology with other Ctenitoxins (family Tx3) from Phoneutria nigriventer, Phoneutria keyserlingi and Phoneutria reidyi affecting voltage-gated calcium receptors (Cav 1, 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3) and NMDA-glutamate receptors.

  6. Partial Characterization of Venom from the Colombian Spider Phoneutria Boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae

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    Sebastian Estrada-Gomez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the first studies on the characterization of venom from Phoneutria boliviensis (Aranae:Ctenidae (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1897, done with Colombian species. After the electrostimulation extraction process, the venom showed physicochemical properties corresponding to a colorless and water-soluble liquid with a density of 0.86 mg/mL and 87% aqueous content. P. boliviensis venom and RP-HPLC fractions showed hemolytic activity and hydrolyzed the synthetic substrate 4-nitro-3-octanoyloxy-benzoic acid, indicating the presence of phospholipases A2 enzymes. The electrophoretic profile showed an important protein content with molecular masses below 14 kDa, and differences between male and female protein content were also revealed. The RP-HPLC venom profile exposes differences between males and female content consistent with the electrophoretic profile. Five fractions collected from the RP-HPLC displayed significant larvicidal activity. Mass analysis indicates the presence of peptides ranging from 1047.71 to 3278.07 Da. Two peptides, Ctenitoxin-Pb48 and Ctenitoxin-Pb53, were partially identified using HPLC-nESI-MS/MS, which showed a high homology with other Ctenitoxins (family Tx3 from Phoneutria nigriventer, Phoneutria keyserlingi and Phoneutria reidyi affecting voltage-gated calcium receptors (Cav 1, 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3 and NMDA-glutamate receptors.

  7. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a mix

  8. Stomach Content of a Juvenile Bolivian River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis) from the Upper Madeira Basin, Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aliaga-Rossel, E.; Beerman, A.S.; Sarmiento, J.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents a study about the stomach content of a juvenile Bolivian river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis boliviensis), an endemic subspecies of the Amazon River dolphin, found in the upper Madeira River basin in Bolivia. The study finds that the stomach of Bolivian river dolphin contained a

  9. Intoxicação por Baccharis megapotamica var. weiriiem ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in sheep

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    Pedro M.O. Pedroso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As intoxicações por Baccharis coridifolia afetam especialmente animais de fazenda famintos ou curiosos e que não haviam tido contato prévio com a planta. B. coridifolia ocorre usualmente em terrenos secos de coxilhas no Rio Grande do Sul e estados ou países vizinhos. Uma forma indistinguível e esporádica da doença tem sido associada com a ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica que ocorre em áreas úmidas. Relata-se a intoxicação natural de quatro cordeiros após ingestão de Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii. A doença foi observada em uma propriedade localizada em Barra do Ribeiro, Rio Grande do Sul. O rebanho era composto por 220 ovinos, os quais eram mantidos em área de pastagem nativa sem qualquer suplementação. Uma rápida doença clínica caracterizada por anorexia, cólica, diarréia e desidratação causou a morte de três cordeiros em um período de 8 a 24 horas, o outro foi encontrado morto. A necropsia revelou alterações significativas no rúmen, no qual havia edema de serosa e hemorragias equimóticas na submucosa. Microscopicamente, o rúmen apresentou edema de submucosa, além de edema, tumefação, vacuolização e necrose de mucosa. O diagnóstico foi fundamentado nos achados clínicos, patológicos e epidemiológicos.Spontaneous poisoning of livestock by Baccharis coridifolia affects mostly hungry or curious animals that have not entered in contact with the plant previously. The plant occurs usually in dried hilly soils of Rio Grande do Sul and neighboring states or countries. An indistinguishable and sporadic form of the disease has been associated with the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica, a species occurring in moist areas. This communication reports the spontaneous poisoning of four lambs after ingestion of B. megapotamica var. weirii. Clinical signs were observed in three lambs, the other was found dead. A rapid clinical disease characterized by anorexia, colic, dehydration, and diarrhea resulted in death

  10. Farmacologia e Toxicologia de Peumus boldus e Baccharis genistelloides

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz,Ana Lúcia T. G.; Denise Taffarello; Souza,Vanessa H. S.; Carvalho, João E

    2008-01-01

    Um grande número de espécies com uso medicinal tradicional ainda continua sem comprovação da eficácia e da segurança de seu uso. Este artigo apresenta uma pequena revisão sobre os trabalhos publicados com boldo (Peumus boldus) e carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides). Os estudos farmacológicos realizados com P. boldus e B. genistelloides comprovam várias das atividades atribuídas popularmente a esses chás, além de correlacionarem esses efeitos a compostos puros, isolados a partir desses extratos...

  11. A process for the production of ectoine and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) by Halomonas boliviensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Héctor; Van-Thuoc, Doan; Martín, Javier; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni; Quillaguamán, Jorge

    2009-10-01

    The paper reports a study involving the use of Halomonas boliviensis, a moderate halophile, for co-production of compatible solute ectoine and biopolyester poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) in a process comprising two fed-batch cultures. Initial investigations on the growth of the organism in a medium with varying NaCl concentrations showed the highest level of intracellular accumulation of ectoine (0.74 g L(-1)) at 10-15% (w/v) NaCl, while at 15% (w/v) NaCl, the presence of hydroxyectoine (50 mg L(-1)) was also noted. On the other hand, the maximum cell dry weight and PHB concentration of 10 and 5.8 g L(-1), respectively, were obtained at 5-7.5% (w/v) NaCl. A process comprising two fed-batch cultivations was developed-the first culture aimed at obtaining high cell mass and the second for achieving high yields of ectoine and PHB. In the first fed-batch culture, H. boliviensis was grown in a medium with 4.5% (w/v) NaCl and sufficient levels of monosodium glutamate, NH (4) (+) , and PO (4) (3-) . In the second fed-batch culture, the NaCl concentration was increased to 7.5% (w/v) to trigger ectoine synthesis, while nitrogen and phosphorus sources were fed only during the first 3 h and then stopped to favor PHB accumulation. The process resulted in PHB yield of 68.5 wt.% of cell dry weight and volumetric productivity of about 1 g L(-1) h(-1) and ectoine concentration, content, and volumetric productivity of 4.3 g L(-1), 7.2 wt.%, and 2.8 g L(-1) day(-1), respectively. At salt concentration of 12.5% (w/v) during the second cultivation, the ectoine content was increased to 17 wt.% and productivity to 3.4 g L(-1) day(-1).

  12. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia em bovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia poisoning in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. Rissi; Rech, Raquel R.; Rafael A. Fighera; Didier Q. Cagnini; Glaucia D. Kommers; Claudio S.L. Barros

    2005-01-01

    São descritos dois surtos de intoxicação por Baccharis coridifolia em bovinos no Sul do Brasil. Os casos ocorreram quando bovinos estressados, com fome e sede, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, foram introduzidos em locais altamente infestados por essa planta tóxica. A morbidade nos dois surtos foi de 21,73% e 22,51%, e a letalidade foi virtualmente de 100%. Os sinais clínicos incluíam discreto timpanismo, instabilidade dos membros pélvicos, tremores musculares, focinho seco...

  13. Baccharis rufescens Spreng. var. tenuifolia (DC. Baker: contribuição ao estudo farmacognóstico

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    J.P Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis rufescens Spreng. var. tenuifolia (DC. Baker pertence à família Asteraceae e é usada na medicina tradicional como estomáquico e hepatoprotetor. Um estudo fitoquímico mostrou a presença de flavonoides e triterpenos, sendo que os extratos clorofórmico e metanólico de folhas apresentaram-se ativos no bioensaio de toxicidade sobre Artemia salina Leach. Além disso, extratos clorofórmicos evidenciaram a presença de peróxidos, sugerindo sua aplicação no tratamento da malária (Schenkel at al., 2002; Montanher et al., 2002; Moreira et al., 2003. Considerando a importância farmacológica de B. rufescens var. tenuifolia, o presente trabalho objetivou o estudo morfoanatômico e histoquímico do caule e da folha dessa espécie, a fim de fornecer subsídios farmacognósticos para o controle de qualidade. O material botânico foi submetido às técnicas usuais empregadas na microscopia de luz e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Folha anfiestomática, presença de estômatos anomocíticos, tricomas glandulares capitados bisseriados, tricomas tectores flageliformes simples unisseriados, dutos secretores associados ao floema, calota de fibras perivasculares e cristais de oxalato de cálcio do tipo estiloide e prismático na região medular do caule foram as principais características observadas que auxiliam na identificação do táxon.

  14. Germinação de sementes de Asteraceae nativas no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Germination of seeds of Asteraceae natives of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Alfredo Gui Ferreira

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Aquênios (sementes recém coletados, de treze espécies nativas de Asteraceae comuns nos ambientes abertos da região sul do Brasil foram testados quanto à germinação em temperaturas alternadas ( 20/10; 25/15; 30/20; 35/25°C e sob temperaturas constantes ( 20; 25 e 30°C com ou sem luz. A temperatura ótima para germinação varia entre as espécies, sendo que as espécies Elephantopus mobilis; Eupatorium laevigatum; Mikania cordifolia; Senecio oxyphyllus; Trixis prastens germinam de forma semelhante em todas temperaturas testadas. Eclipta alba tem sua germinação promovida a 30°C. Tagetes minuta tem a germinação das sementes promovida a 20°C. Em Senecio heterotrichius; S. selloi; Stenachaenium campestre; Symphyopappus casarettoi e Vernonia nudiflora as sementes germinam igualmente a 20 ou 25°C.. A luz promoveu a germinação de todas espécies exceto para Stenachaenium campestre e Tagetes minuta, sendo esta última espécie fotoblástica negativa. Quanto ao tempo médio de germinação, as espécies podem ser divididas em ; rápidas- menos de 5 dias (Baccharis trimera; Eclipta alba; Elephantopus mollis; Stenachaenium campestre e Vernonia nudiflora; intermediárias: entre 5 e 10 dias ( Eupatorium laevigatum; Mikania cordifolia e Tagetes minuta ; lentas: mais de 10 dias (Senecio heterotrichius; S.oxyphyllus; S.selloi; Symphyopappus casarettoi e Trixis praestans.Os resultados mostram que a germinação de sementes de Asteraceas variam com a temperatura e o regime de luz; podendo prover uma base inicial para interpretação de efeitos sazonais sobre a germinação e estabelecimento a campo. Em adição, comentários sobre o substrato ágar ou areia são feitos.Achenes of thirteen native Asteraceae species common to the natural grassland or weeds of the southern region of Brazil were tested for germination over a range of alternating temperatures ( 20/10; 25/15; 30/20 and 35/25°C, and under constant temperatures ( 20; 25 and 30°C with

  15. The family Asteraceae: General introduction

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    P. P. J. Herman

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The family Asteraceae (the daisy family is probably the largest plant family in the world. It is cosmopolitan in distribution and is economically important as many members are used for food, medicinal purposes, grazing for stock, or ornamentals, while some are troublesome weeds or poisonous to animals. The ‘flower ’is actually a collection of flowers grouped together to form a capitulum.

  16. A comparative study of two clerodane diterpenes from Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC. on the influx and mobilization of intracellular calcium in rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Francisca Adilfa de Oliveira; Tanae, Mirtes Midori; Torres, Luce Maria Brandão; Lapa, Antônio José; de Lima-Landman, Maria Teresa Riggio; Souccar, Caden

    2014-01-01

    Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal species native to South America and used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and liver diseases, kidney disorders and diabetes. The aqueous extract (AE) of the aerial parts of this species presented two mainly constituents: the ent-clerodane diterpene (Fig. 1) and the neo-clerodane diterpene (Fig. 2). The objective of this work was to study their activities on the blockade of Ca(2+)-induced contractions in KCL-depolarized rat portal vein preparations, and on the influx and mobilization of cytosolic calcium in rat cardiomyocytes by fluorescence measurements. The results showed that both the neo- and the ent-clerodane diterpenes reduced the maximal contractions induced by CaCl2, in KCl depolarized rat portal vein preparations, without modifying the EC50. The data on the concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca(2+)]c) showed that, while the neo-clerodane diterpene stimulates the mobilization of [Ca(2+)]c in rat cardiomyocytes, this effect was not observed with the ent-clerodane diterpene. On the other hand, the influx of calcium was not altered by the neo-clerodane diterpene, but was reduced in the presence of the ent-clerodane diterpene, indicating that this compound induces a blockade of the voltage-dependent calcium channels.

  17. Farmacologia e Toxicologia de Peumus boldus e Baccharis genistelloides Pharmacology and toxicology of Peumus boldus and Baccharis genistelloides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia T. G. Ruiz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Um grande número de espécies com uso medicinal tradicional ainda continua sem comprovação da eficácia e da segurança de seu uso. Este artigo apresenta uma pequena revisão sobre os trabalhos publicados com boldo (Peumus boldus e carqueja (Baccharis genistelloides. Os estudos farmacológicos realizados com P. boldus e B. genistelloides comprovam várias das atividades atribuídas popularmente a esses chás, além de correlacionarem esses efeitos a compostos puros, isolados a partir desses extratos. Já os estudos toxicológicos sugerem que o chá de boldo deve ser consumido com moderação e cuidado, principalmente no primeiro trimestre da gravidez (indícios de teratogenia e no uso por tempo prolongado (indícios de hepatotoxicidade, enquanto o consumo do chá de carqueja deve ser proibido para gestantes (risco comprovado de aborto e para pacientes que utilizam drogas para tratamento de problemas pressóricos (ação hipotensora. Estes relatos reforçam a necessidade de um maior conhecimento sobre as plantas medicinais utilizadas popularmente, não apenas para a confirmação das atividades descritas pelo uso tradicional, mas também para que o uso seguro seja estabelecido.There are a great number of medicinal plants without any scientific confirmation about their efficacy and safety. This paper is a short review about two medicinal plants, "boldo do chile" (Peumus boldus and "carqueja" (Baccharis genistelloides. Pharmacological studies have confirmed several popular indications for P. boldus and B. genistelloides, besides have established a relationship between isolated compounds from these extracts and the pharmacological effects observed. On the other hand, toxicological researches have pointed out that P. boldus tea should not be consumed during a long period (potential hepatotoxicity and by pregnant, especially during the first three months. Moreover, B. genistelloides tea must be prohibited for pregnant because of confirmed abortive

  18. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Oliveira-Filho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Five male 6-8 month-old Murrah buffalo calves were orally dosed with the fresh aerial parts of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii at doses of 1, 3, 4, 5 and 10g/kg body weight (bw (~1-10mg macrocyclic trichothecenes/kg/bw. The B. megapotamica used for the experiment was harvested on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness, laborious breathing and ruminal atony, and dehydration. The most consistent gross findings were restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI tract consisted of varying degrees of edema and reddening of the mucosa of the forestomach. Histopathological findings consisted of varying degrees of necrosis of the epithelial lining of the forestomach and of lymphocytes within lymphoid organs and aggregates. Fibrin thrombi were consistently found in sub-mucosal vessels of the forestomach and in the lumen of hepatic sinusoids. It is suggested that dehydration, septicemia and disseminated intravascular coagulation participate in the pathogenesis of the intoxication and play a role as a cause of death. A subsample of B. megapotamica var. weirii was frozen-dried and ground and analyzed using UHPLC (Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with high resolution Time of Flight mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry, it was shown that the plant material contained at least 51 different macrocyclic trichothecenes at a total level of 1.1-1.2mg/g. About 15-20% of the total trichothecenes contents was found to be monosaccharide conjugates, with two thirds of these being glucose conjugates and one third constituted by six aldopentose conjugates (probably xylose, which has never been reported in the literature.

  19. Apoptotic Potential of Artemsia sieberia Besser (Asteraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Asteraceae) Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines. Nael Abutaha*, Ashraf MA ... About 50 % of HepG2 cells were apoptotic when treated for 24 h with the .... phase-contrast microscopy. ... changes in the chromatin structure including.

  20. Wedelia chinenis (Asteraceae) - An overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameksha Koul; A Pandurangan; RL Khosa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The plant Wedelia chinensis (W. chinensis) belonging to family Asteraceae (sunflower family) has great importance in Ayurvedic, Sidhha and Unani systems of traditional medicine. Thorough screening of literature available on W. chinensis depicted the fact that it is a popular remedy among the various ethnic groups, Ayurvedic and traditional practitioners for treatment of various ailments. Extensive studies show presence of flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpene saponins and phytosteroids. W. chinensis is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, CNS depressant, anti-osteoporic, anticonvulsant, wound healing, sedative, antistress, antiulcerogenic and anticancer activity. This work gives an overview of the phytochemical and pharmacological evidence of W. chinensis. Although more studies are necessary to explore the therapeutic potential of this plant as, it has more therapeutic properties which are not known.

  1. Intoxicação experimental por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em bovinos Experimental poisoning by Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Suzan Varaschin

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Treze terneiros receberam Baccharis coridifolia recém-colhida ou dessecada, em doses únicas que variaram entre 0,5 e 5g/kg. Um terneiro recebeu quatro administrações diárias de 0,5g/kg da planta dessecada. Dois terneiros não receberam a planta e serviram como controles. A planta foi colhida mensalmente de julho de 1991 a maio de 1992 e em março de 1993, e foi analisada para seu conteúdo em tricotecenos macrocíclicos. Quando em floração, as amostras dos espécimes macho e fêmea da planta foram analisadas e administradas aos terneiros separadamente. Os níveis de tricotecenos macrocíclicos e seus glicosídeos foram muito maiores nas plantas fêmeas em floração do que os níveis observados nas plantas não em floração e nas plantas machos em floração. Dez bovinos morreram espontaneamente ou foram sacrificados devido à toxicose. Dois terneiros que receberam a planta fêmea em floração, adoeceram e morreram, enquanto que três terneiros que receberam a planta macho em floração não adoeceram. Os sinais clínicos nos terneiros intoxicados foram anorexia, desidratação, atonia ruminal, tensão e dores abdominais, diarréia líquida, focinho seco, instabilidade dos membros posteriores e decúbito esternal. Os achados patológicos incluiram lesões necróticas no tubo gastrintestinal, particularmente nos pré-estômagos, e nos tecidos linfóides com exceção do timo. Esse último achado sugere um efeito sobre as células B do tecido linfóide. A distribuição das lesões nos sistemas digestivo e linfóide foi sistematicamente determinada. Conclui-se que os tricotecenos macrocíclicos presentes na planta são responsáveis pelas lesões observadas na toxicose e que a planta fêmea em floração é substâncialmente mais tóxica que a planta macho em floração ou das plantas que não estão em floração. Essa diferença em toxicidade é devida à diferença no conteúdo de tricotecenos macrocíclicos.Thirteen calves were fed

  2. Poligalen, a new coumarin from Polygala boliviensis, reduces the release of TNF and IL-6 independent of NF-kB downregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Danielle F; Alves, Clayton Q; Brandão, Hugo N; David, Jorge M; David, Juceni P; Silva, Rangel L; Franchin, Marcelo; Cunha, Thiago M; Martins, Felipe T; Oliveira, Cecilia M A

    2016-09-01

    An unusually substituted coumarin, named poligalen, was isolated from a chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Polygala boliviensis. This coumarin was identified by one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, and the structure of the compound was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. Poligalen exhibits immunomodulatory effects, reducing the levels of IL-6 and TNF after LPS stimulation in peritoneal macrophages. However, poligalen potentiates NF-kB activation.

  3. Genotoxic activity and toxicity of Baccharis trimera Less. regarding the bioaccumulation of heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves da [UNESP; Oliveira, Vanessa Marques de [UNESP; Valadares, Fillipi; Mecina, Gustavo Franciscatti [UNESP; Silva, Luciana Pereira [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    Baccharis trimera Less. (“carqueja”) is a native plant from Brazil, used in folk medicine preparations such as infusions and/or decoctions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and genotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of B. trimera and quantify heavy metals bioaccumulated in this specie. The extracts were prepared with ultra pure water. The Allium cepa test was conducted to examine the genotoxic activity of the extracts. The toxicological activity was used as bio...

  4. Intoxicação natural por Baccharis megapotamica var.weirii em caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welden Panziera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intoxicações por plantas do gênero Baccharis representam uma importante causa de morte em animais de produção. Baccharis coridifolia e Baccharis megapotamica são as espécies mais comuns e importantes. Nesse trabalho, são descritos os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de um surto de intoxicação natural por Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii em caprinos. Onze caprinos jovens, de um total de 152, foram afetados por uma doença aguda fatal. Os casos ocorreram em uma pequena propriedade rural no município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Grande quantidade de exemplares de Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii em estágio de floração, foram encontrados onde os caprinos estavam. As plantas cresceram em áreas úmidas e alagadas. Os caprinos afetados tinham entre seis meses a um ano de idade e todos apresentaram sinais clínicos caracterizados por apatia, anorexia, prostração, diarreia, desidratação, desconforto abdominal, timpanismo, decúbito e morte. O curso clínico variou aproximadamente de 12 a 24 horas. Dos onze caprinos acometidos, três foram necropsiados. As alterações presentes em todas as necropsias incluíam desidratação, conteúdo líquido no rúmen, avermelhamento, erosões e úlceras da mucosa dos pré-estômagos, e avermelhamento na mucosa do abomaso e intestino. Um dos caprinos apresentou marcada hemorragia dos linfonodos mesentéricos. As lesões histológicas de todos os caprinos necropsiados incluíam hiperemia, hemorragia, alterações degenerativas, necróticas e ulcerativas variadas no revestimento epitelial do rúmen, retículo e omaso, e na mucosa do abomaso e de alguns segmentos do intestino delgado. Necrose do tecido linfoide foi observada em linfonodos mesentéricos e em agregados linfoides no intestino e folículos do baço.

  5. High temperature simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch from inedible wild cassava (Manihot glaziovii) to bioethanol using Caloramator boliviensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshi, Anselm P; Hosea, Ken M M; Elisante, Emrode; Mamo, G; Mattiasson, Bo

    2015-03-01

    The thermoanaerobe, Caloramator boliviensis was used to ferment starch hydrolysate from inedible wild cassava to ethanol at 60°C. A raw starch degrading α-amylase was used to hydrolyse the cassava starch. During fermentation, the organism released CO2 and H2 gases, and Gas Endeavour System was successfully used for monitoring and recording formation of these gaseous products. The bioethanol produced in stoichiometric amounts to CO2 was registered online in Gas Endeavour software and correlated strongly (R(2)=0.99) with values measured by HPLC. The organism was sensitive to cyanide that exists in cassava flour. However, after acclimatisation, it was able to grow and ferment cassava starch hydrolysate containing up to 0.2ppm cyanide. The reactor hydrogen partial pressure had influence on the bioethanol production. In fed-batch fermentation by maintaining the hydrogen partial pressure around 590Pa, the organism was able to ferment up to 76g/L glucose and produced 33g/L ethanol.

  6. Composição química do óleo essencial de duas amostras de carqueja (Baccharis sp. coletadas em Paty do Alferes - Rio de Janeiro Chemical composition of essential oil from two samples of carqueja (Baccharis sp. collected in Paty do Alferes - Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.S. Morais

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil possui em sua flora a maior diversidade genética do mundo, apresentando varias espécies nativas. Dentre as plantas nativas do Brasil encontra-se o gênero Baccharis (família Asteraceae que possui algumas espécies popularmente conhecidas como carqueja, carqueja amarga ou vassoura. Estas espécies são utilizadas na medicina popular como protetora e estimulante do fígado, para o controle da obesidade, diabetes, hepatite, gastroenterite, digestiva, diurética, depurativa, tônica, antianêmica e anti-reumática. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a composição química do óleo essencial de duas populações do gênero Baccharis coletadas em Paty do Alferes, visando encontrar novas fontes de carquejol e acetato de carquejila. Amostras de duas populações diferentes de carqueja foram coletadas em propriedades particulares Paty do Alferes - Rio de Janeiro em novembro de 2010. Estas foram secas a temperatura ambiente (28ºC +- 2 e à sombra. O óleo essencial das duas amostras de Baccharis sp. foi extraído por hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger modificado durante 4 horas. O mesmo foi analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada à espectrômetro de massas (CG-EM Shimadzu, QP 5050, coluna capilar DB-5 - 30 m x 0.25µm x 0.25mm. Utilizou-se o Helio como gás carreador (1.7mL/min; temperatura do injetor: 240ºC e detector: 230ºC, Split: 1:20, no seguinte programa de temperatura: 60º C - 240º C (3ºC/ min. A identificação da composição química dos óleos essenciais foi realizada pela comparação de seus espectros de massa e valores de índice de Kovats (IK com compostos conhecidos descritos na literatura. Foram identificados 19 compostos nestes óleos essenciais. Os principais compostos encontrados foram trans-cariofileno (22,0 % e 18,1%, seguido por germacreno-D (7,0%, biciclogermacreno (8,5%, ledol (13,7%, espatulenol (13,8% e 20,7% e óxido de cariofileno (8,3% e 12,0%. Carquejol e acetato de carquejila n

  7. Notas taxonómicas en Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Bartoli; Roberto D. Tortosa; Francisco Ratto; Darío J Schiavinato

    2012-01-01

    Se describe una nueva variedad para Grindelia anethifolia y se amplía el área de distribución de Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis y Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina.Taxonomic notes on Asteraceae. A new variety for Grindelia anethifolia is described, and the known area of Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis and Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina is extended.

  8. Estaquia de três espécies de Baccharis

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    Bona Claudine Maria de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo da carqueja é importante para o fornecimento de matéria prima de alta qualidade para a indústria de fitoterápicos, sendo necessária a definição de uma forma eficiente de produção de mudas. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes partes do ramo e substratos na estaquia de Baccharis articulata, Baccharis trimera e Baccharis stenocephala. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa-de-vegetação sob condição de nebulização intermitente, testando: 1diferentes partes do ramo (estaca basal, estaca mediana e estaca apical com delineamento em blocos ao acaso, quatro repetições de 15 estacas por parcela; e 2diferentes substratos (solo, areia, vermiculita, casca de arroz carbonizada e Plantmax®, com delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, quatro repetições de 15 estacas por parcela. A posição da estaca de B. trimera não afetou a porcentagem de enraizamento, massa seca de raízes e número de raízes emitidas por estaca, ocorrendo apenas maior porcentagem de estacas brotadas das partes mediana e basal. Para B. articulata e B. stenocephala, houve tendência das estacas apicais e medianas apresentarem maior enraizamento e desenvolvimento das raízes. Os substratos testados não apresentaram diferenças significativas para as variáveis analisadas em B. trimera, mas para B. stenocephala e B. articulata a areia foi o pior substrato.

  9. INTOXICAÇÃO EM BÚFALOS (Bubalus bubalis) POR Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Carlos de Oliveira Filho

    2012-01-01

    Na primeira parte dessa tese, relatamos a ocorrência natural de um surto de intoxicação por Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii em búfalos na Região Central do Rio Grande do Sul. Os animais haviam sido transportados de uma propriedade onde a planta não ocorria para uma propriedade infestada pela planta. Durante o transporte, os animais foram submetidos a um longo período de jejum e estresse. Como resultado, após o desembarque dos 50 búfalos transportados, dez morreram com doença de...

  10. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia em bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. Rissi; Rech, Raquel R.; Rafael A. Fighera; Didier Q. Cagnini; Glaucia D. Kommers; Claudio S.L. Barros

    2005-01-01

    São descritos dois surtos de intoxicação por Baccharis coridifolia em bovinos no Sul do Brasil. Os casos ocorreram quando bovinos estressados, com fome e sede, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, foram introduzidos em locais altamente infestados por essa planta tóxica. A morbidade nos dois surtos foi de 21,73% e 22,51%, e a letalidade foi virtualmente de 100%. Os sinais clínicos incluíam discreto timpanismo, instabilidade dos membros pélvicos, tremores musculares, focinho seco...

  11. Comparação entre os metais presentes em Croton floribundus Spreng. e Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia A.Telles Macari

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Metals are very important in the vegetal fisiology, if so, it's necessary their quantification. In the soil the plants are acumulatives and detectors of metals. The medicinal plants Croton floribundus Spreng. and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. were collected in the Floresta Nacional de Ipanema (FLONA - Iperó - SP. The analysis method used the Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

  12. (asteraceae nativas no rio grande do sul.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two species of wood are also provided.

  13. Notas taxonómicas en Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bartoli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe una nueva variedad para Grindelia anethifolia y se amplía el área de distribución de Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis y Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina.Taxonomic notes on Asteraceae. A new variety for Grindelia anethifolia is described, and the known area of Bidens andicola, Grindelia coronensis and Proustia cuneifolia var. mendocina is extended.

  14. Pantoporate pollen in the Asteraceae (Vernonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Robinson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pantoporate pollen, which occurs sporadically in the Monocots and Dicots, has now been found in Asteraceae in two apparently related genera of the tribe Vernonieae, Polydora Fenzl and Oocephala H.Rob. Disposition of pores in Polydora seems more asymmetric than in Oocephala. Based on the known relationships within the Vernonieae, some conjectures are made regarding development of the pantoporate condition in the group.

  15. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em ovinos Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela B. Rozza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se uma mortalidade de ovinos associada à intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia ("mio-mio". A intoxicação ocorreu no município de Caxias do Sul, RS, em novembro de 2004. De um lote de 212 ovinos, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, no município de Jaguarão, RS, morreram 35 ovinos em até 5 dias após serem liberadas para o pasto onde mio-mio era encontrado em abundância, apesar de terem sido removidos deste pasto 1 dia e meio após sua introdução. Ovinos que anteriormente estavam na propriedade não foram afetados. O quadro clínico iniciou-se 8 horas após a introdução dos animais na nova pastagem e incluiu anorexia, depressão, retração abdominal ou leve timpanismo, incoordenação de membros posteriores, fezes pastosas, corrimento nasal catarral, decúbito lateral com movimentos de pedalagem, coma e morte com evolução clínica entre 5 e 48 horas. Os principais achados de necropsia foram no trato digestivo com edema de serosa e da parede dos pré-estômagos principalmente na região retículo-ruminal e do abomaso, avermelhamento e desprendimento da mucosa ruminal e do retículo e intensa hemorragia na submucosa. No exame histológico havia degeneração e necrose do epitélio do pré-estômago, com infiltrado polimorfonuclear, congestão, hemorragia e edema, e necrose do tecido linfóide de linfonodos, baço e trato digestivo.An outbreak of Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in sheep is reported, which occurred in November 2004 in the county of Caxias do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul (RS, southern Brazil. From a herd of 212 sheep, coming from a Baccharis coridifolia free area, in the county of Jaguarão, RS, 35 sheep died until 5 days after the arrival in the new area where the plant was found with abundance. The clinical signs began 8 hours after introduction of the animals into the new pasture and included apathy, anorexia, abdominal retraction or mild distension, weakness of hind limbs

  16. Preparados homeopáticos e ambiente de cultivo na produção e rendimento de quercetina em carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Capra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A carqueja (Baccharis trimera é uma espécie da família Asteraceae muito utilizada na medicina popular por apresentar várias atividades biológicas relacionadas à seus metabólitos secundários, entre eles os flavonoides. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de preparados homeopáticos e do ambiente de cultivo na produção e rendimento de flavonoides totais expressos em quercetina por plantas de carqueja. Foi adotado o esquema fatorial 6 x 2 no delineamento inteiramente casualisado, sendo 5 tratamentos homeopáticos: Silicea CH6, CH12, CH30, D7 e Equisetum D7 e controle (etanol 70% x 2 ambientes de cultivo: estufa e tela de sombreamento 50%, com 4 repetições, totalizando 48 unidades experimentais. Os tratamentos homeopáticos foram aplicados na concentração de 25 gotas/500 mL de água destilada usando borrifadores manuais. Cada planta recebeu 10 mL da solução por aplicação, via foliar. As aplicações foram realizadas sempre pela manha, três vezes por semana, em dias alternados, durante dois meses (27/07/2010 a 27/09/2010. A interação entre os fatores, assim como os fatores independentes foram comparados pelo teste Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. O efeito dos preparados homeopáticos e dos dois ambientes de cultivo em plantas de carqueja foi avaliado pelas variáveis: massa fresca (MFPA, massa seca (MSPA e teor de quercetina (QCT na parte aérea das plantas. As variáveis MFPA e QCT foram influenciadas pelos ambientes de cultivo, pelos preparados homeopáticos e pela interação entre os dois fatores. A variável MSPA foi influenciada apenas pela interação dos fatores. Plantas cultivadas em ambiente com 50% de sombreamento associadas à aplicação dos preparados homeopáti-cos Silicea CH6 e D7, apresentaram maior rendimento em querceti-na. Plantas cultivadas na estufa associadas à aplicação do Equisetum D7 apresentaram menor rendimento em quercetina.

  17. Tipificación de "Arnica montana" L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer Gallego, Pedro Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Se designa un lectótipo para Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) a partir del material original de Linneo conservado en el herbario UPS-BURSER. A lectotype for Arnica montana L. (Asteraceae) is designated from Linnaeus’ original material preserved in the UPS-BURSER herbarium.

  18. Macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Manfron Budel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to study the macro and microscopic characters of the aerial vegetative organs of Baccharis usterii for quality control purposes. The plant was prepared for light and scanning electron microscopic analyses. The stem consisted of three-winged cladodes with small leaves. In the caulinar axis, these was a uniseriate epidermis, chlorenchyma alternating with angular collenchyma, perivascular fibre caps adjoining the phloem which was outside the xylem, and parenchymatic pith. The wings and the leaves were alike, presenting a uniseriate epidermis, palisade parenchyma next to the both sides of the epidermis and spongy parenchyma traversed by minor collateral vascular bundles in the central region. In the leaf midrib, a single collateral vascular bundle was embedded in the ground parenchyma. Secretory ducts and glandular trichomes occured in the stem and leaf.Caracteres macro e microscópicos dos órgãos vegetativos aéreos de carqueja: Baccharis usterii Heering. Este trabalho objetivou estudar os caracteres macro e microscópicos dos órgãos vegetativos aéreos de Baccharis usterii, com aplicação no controle de qualidade. O material botânico foi preparado de acordo com técnicas para microscopia óptica e de varredura. O caule consistiu de cladódios trialados, nos quais se inserem pequenas folhas. O eixo caulinar apresentou epiderme unisseriada, clorênquima em alternância com colênquima angular, calotas de fibras perivasculares apostas ao floema, o qual se forma externamente ao xilema, e medula parenquimática. As alas e as folhas mostraram-se semelhantes, apresentando epiderme unisseriada, parênquima paliçádico junto a ambas as faces epidérmicas e parênquima esponjoso na região central, atravessado por feixes vasculares de pequeno porte. Na nervura central da folha, um feixe vascular colateral encontrou-se mergulhado no parênquima fundamental. Dutos secretores e tricomas glandulares ocorreram no caule e na folha

  19. Plasticidade fenotípica de Baccharis genistelloides subsp. crispa (Spreng. Joch. Müll. (2006 - Asteraceae - sob manejo orgânico

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    L.A. Sousa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho, relacionado a produção orgânica, utilizou preparados homeopáticos visando incremento na biomassa e no teor de flavonóides em plantas dióicas de carqueja. Os tratamentos foram: controle com água, controle com álcool 70%, Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH, e a combinação destas homeopatias. Variações fenotípicas foram registradas a partir da análise de crescimento, realizada quinzenalmente durante 60 dias e dos caracteres morfológicos, tais como: como altura, número de ramificações, comprimento do ramo principal, diâmetro do caule e ala caulinar mediana. Na colheita foram medidos: a fitomassa fresca/seca e o volume de raiz. Posteriormente, foi quantificado o teor de flavonóides totais conforme as análises prescritas pela Farmacopéia Brasileira. O experimento foi avaliado em delineamento de blocos casualizados (2x5x2, sendo suas médias avaliadas pelo teste Tukey e o coeficiente de variação ambiental para estimar a plasticidade. Quanto ao estudo do crescimento da planta ao longo do tempo, verificou-se aumento linear simples para a maioria das variáveis nos dois sexos. Foram detectadas respostas plásticas na maioria dos caracteres avaliados. De acordo com os resultados, em ambos os sexos, 60 dias de cultivo são suficientes para obtenção de matéria prima com teor aceitável de flavonóides, bem como para verificação dos efeitos de patogenesia e similitude na aplicação de preparados homeopáticos Phosphorus 12CH, Sulphur 6CH e sua combinação Phosphorus 12CH + Sulphur 6CH. A fitomassa e o teor de flavonóides totais foram semelhantes entre plantas dióicas durante o período de estudo.

  20. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina

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    Moreira Francisco de Paula Madeira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The structure of these compounds were identified by IR, CG/MS, ¹H and 13C NMR spectral analysis and comparison with literature. In addition, the extracts were evaluated by means of Brine Shrimp Lethality test and the highier activity was observed in the chloroformic extract.

  1. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae) em ovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Rozza,Daniela B.; Djeison L. Raymundo; André M.R. Corrêa; Leal,Juliano; Anderson L. Seitz; Driemeier, David; Edson M. Colodel

    2006-01-01

    Descreve-se uma mortalidade de ovinos associada à intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia ("mio-mio"). A intoxicação ocorreu no município de Caxias do Sul, RS, em novembro de 2004. De um lote de 212 ovinos, provenientes de pastagens livres de B. coridifolia, no município de Jaguarão, RS, morreram 35 ovinos em até 5 dias após serem liberadas para o pasto onde mio-mio era encontrado em abundância, apesar de terem sido removidos deste pasto 1 dia e meio após sua introdução. Ovinos que a...

  2. Intoxicação experimental por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae) em bovinos

    OpenAIRE

    Varaschin,Mary Suzan; Claudio S.L. Barros; Jarvis, Bruce B.

    1998-01-01

    Treze terneiros receberam Baccharis coridifolia recém-colhida ou dessecada, em doses únicas que variaram entre 0,5 e 5g/kg. Um terneiro recebeu quatro administrações diárias de 0,5g/kg da planta dessecada. Dois terneiros não receberam a planta e serviram como controles. A planta foi colhida mensalmente de julho de 1991 a maio de 1992 e em março de 1993, e foi analisada para seu conteúdo em tricotecenos macrocíclicos. Quando em floração, as amostras dos espécimes macho e fêmea da planta foram ...

  3. In vitro antioxidant activities of Asteraceae Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaylakshmi, S; Nanjan, M J; Suresh, B

    2009-10-01

    Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallichi DC belonging to the family Asteraceae (Compositae) are important medicinal plants indigenous to Nilgiris. Since the related species Anaphalis morrisonicola and Cnicus benedictus were reported for its anti cancer activities, the above mentioned plants were screened for Invitro antioxidant activity. In vitro antioxidant studies were carried out by DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydrogen peroxide methods for the aerial part extracts of the plants. Different extracts were obtained from the aerial parts of the whole plant by successive solvent extraction and cold maceration process and subjected for Invitro antioxidant activity studies. Among the extracts tested, the ethyl acetate extract of Anaphalis neelgerriana DC and Cnicus wallchi DC showed significant anti oxidant activity in all the above methods. The potent ethyl acetate extract should be tested for anti oxidant activity in animal models.

  4. Melilotoside Derivatives from Artemisia splendens (Asteraceae

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    Fariba H. Afshar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of solid-phase-extraction (SPE and reversed-phase preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC of the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Artemisia splendens (common name: “Asia Minor Wormwood”, an endemic Iranian species, afforded Z- and E-melilotosides (1 and 2, Z- and E-4-methoxy-melilotosides (3 and 4, and a new dimer, bis-ortho-Z-melilotoside (5, named: splendenoside. Whilst the structures of these compounds (1-5 were elucidated unequivocally by spectroscopic means, the in vitro free-radical-scavenging property of 1-5 was determined by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. This is the first report on the occurrence of any melilotoside derivatives in the genus Artemisia. Artemisia splendens, Asteraceae, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, free-radical scavenger, melilotoside, splendenoside

  5. Hemiparasitism effect on Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. and consequences to its major galling herbivore

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    Thaise de Oliveira Bahia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMistletoes obtain nutrients and water from their hosts, with varying effects among those hosts. We assessed the factors that influence the colonization of the mistletoe Struthanthus flexicaulis on Baccharis dracunculifolia and the subsequent effects on host performance. We evaluated the incidence of S. flexicaulis according to size (height classes and architecture of the host as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the host. Furthermore, we assessed the occurrence of insect galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae(Psyllidae, including the number of leaves infected, and the mortality of infected and non-infected branches. Taller hosts had a higher abundance of mistletoes (60%, p> 0.05. Physiological parameters of hosts were not affected by parasitism, although galling occurred more often (p 0.05 on infected branches. Taller individuals are more colonized by mistletoes and more architecturally complex hosts support a greater number of mistletoes. Mistletoe causes a top-down effect on host-associated organisms on parasitized branches. Mistletoes had a strong top-downeffect on B. dracunculifolia due to a reduction in the number of leaves on parasitized branches and the replacement of the bush crown, as well as an increased incidence of insect galls. Furthermore, the occurrence of a heavy parasite load increased the mortality rate of the host branches.

  6. Atividade antimicrobiana e indutora de fitoalexinas do hidrolato de carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC.

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    G.S. Moura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hidrolato é o líquido resultante da extração de óleo essencial de plantas aromáticas por arraste a vapor apresentando em sua composição importantes metabólitos do vegetal de origem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade indutora de fitoalexinas, bem como as propriedades antifúngica e antibacteriana do hidrolato de carqueja (Baccharis trimera. Foram testadas as concentrações de 1, 10, 25, 50, 75 e 100%. A atividade indutora de fitoalexinas foi avaliada em mesocótilos estiolados de sorgo e em cotilédones de soja. A atividade antifúngica foi avaliada sobre a germinação de esporos de Pseudocercospora vitis, Cercospora kaki e Hemileia vastatrix. A atividade antibacteriana foi avaliada sobre a multiplicação de Xanthomonas campestris pv. passiflorae, Erwinia carotovora e Bacilllus subtilis. O hidrolato não induziu a produção de fitoalexinas em soja, mas promoveu esta atividade em sorgo a partir da concentração de 50%. Atividade antibacteriana ocorreu para os três isolados a partir da concentração de 75%, com inibição de até 87,9% sobre B. subtilis. O hidrolato não mostrou atividade antifúngica.

  7. Methods of inducing conditioned food aversion to Baccharis coridifolia (mio-mio in cattle

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    Milton Begeres de Almeida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were performed to determine the efficacy of various methods of averting naïve cattle to prevent Baccharis coridifolia poisoning: forced oral administration of 0.5g kg-1 body weight of fresh B. coridifolia; forced inhalation of the smoke from burning B. coridifolia and rubbing the plant on the animals' muzzles and mouths; and introducing the animals into paddocks with low invasion by B. coridifolia. Results demonstrated that cattle forced to ingest low doses become strongly averted if introduced into paddocks 23-26 hours after the aversion. In contrast, cattle introduced into the paddocks between 1-10 hours were not fully averted. Inhalation of B. coridifolia smoke, and rubbing the plant on the animals' muzzles and mouths were not efficient to induce an aversion. The introduction of cattle into paddocks with approximately 1% of B. coridifolia was efficient if the animals remained 5 months in the area, but not if they only remained for 60 hours, as cattle required sufficient time to learn to avoid the plant.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in planktonic cultures and biofilms of Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Cristiane A; Costa, Anna Carolina B Pereira; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane S; Rego, Marcos A; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic microorganism, and alternative methods for its elimination are required. Different concentrations of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil (EO) were tested to determine its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in planktonic cultures, and this concentration was used in S. mutans biofilms. Additionally, we assessed the effect of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and saline solution in S. mutans biofilms. The biofilms were grown in discs of composite resin for 48h and exposed to B. dracunculifolia, CHX or saline solution for 5min. The viability of the biofilms was determined by counting the colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) in agar, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The MIC of the B. dracunculifolia EO to planktonic growth of S. mutans was 6%. In biofilms of S. mutans clinical isolates, B. dracunculifolia EO (6%) and CHX resulted in reductions of 53.3-91.1% and 79.1-96.6%, respectively. For the biofilm formed by the S. mutans reference strain, the reductions achieved with B. dracunculifolia EO and CHX were, respectively, 39.3% and 88.1%. It was concluded that B. dracunculifolia EO showed antibacterial activity and was able to control this oral microorganism, which otherwise causes dental caries.

  9. Short and Long-Term Effects of Baccharis articulata on Glucose Homeostasis

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    Flávio H. Reginatto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vivo effect of the crude extract and n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions of Baccharis articulata (Lam. Pers. on serum glucose levels, insulin secretion and liver and muscle glycogen content, as well as in vitro action on serum intestinal disaccharidase activity and albumin glycation were investigated. Oral administration of the extract and fractions reduced glycemia in hyperglycemic rats. Additionally, the n-butanol fraction, which has high flavonoids content, stimulated insulin secretion, exhibiting an insulinogenic index similar to that of glipizide. Also, the n-butanol fraction treatment significantly increased glycogen content in both liver and muscle tissue. In vitro incubation with the crude extract and n-butanol and aqueous residual fractions inhibited maltase activity and the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs. Thus, the results demonstrated that B. articulata exhibits a significant antihyperglycemic and insulin-secretagogue role. These effects on the regulation of glucose homeostasis observed for B. articulata indicate potential anti-diabetic properties.

  10. Baccharis dracunculifolia-based mouthrinse alters the exopolysaccharide structure in cariogenic biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Carolina P; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Spadaro, Augusto C C; Cury, Jaime A

    2016-03-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia is a native plant from Brazil with antimicrobial activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a B. dracunculifolia-based mouthrinse (Bd) changes the structure of insoluble exopolysaccharides (IEPS) in Streptococcus mutans UA159 cariogenic biofilm. Biofilms were grown on glass slides and treated with Bd, its vehicle (VC), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), or saline solution (NaCl). Among the treatments, only CHX significantly reduced the biofilm biomass and bacterial viability (pIEPS from the four biofilm samples were α- glucans containing different proportions of (1→6) and (1→3) glycosidic linkages. The structural differences among the four IEPS were compared by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA analysis indicated that IEPS from VC- and NaCl-treated biofilms were structurally similar to each other. Compared with the control, IEPS from Bd- and CHX-treated biofilms were structurally different and had distinct chemical profiles. In summary, the fact that Bd changed the IEPS chemical composition indicates that this mouthrinse may affect the cariogenic properties of the S. mutans biofilm formed.

  11. Carqueja (Baccharis trimera Protects against Oxidative Stress and β-Amyloid-Induced Toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Franciny Aparecida Paiva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Carqueja (Baccharis trimera is a native plant found throughout South America. Several studies have shown that Carqueja has antioxidant activity in vitro, as well as anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, analgesic, antihepatotoxic, and antimutagenic properties. However, studies regarding its antioxidant potential in vivo are limited. In this study, we used Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to examine the antioxidant effects of a Carqueja hydroalcoholic extract (CHE on stress resistance and lifespan and to investigate whether CHE has a protective effect in a C. elegans model for Alzheimer's disease. Here, we show for the first time, using in vivo assays, that CHE treatment improved oxidative stress resistance by increasing survival rate and by reducing ROS levels under oxidative stress conditions independently of the stress-related signaling pathways (p38, JNK, and ERK and transcription factors (SKN-1/Nrf and DAF-16/Foxo tested here. CHE treatment also increased the defenses against β-amyloid toxicity in C. elegans, in part by increasing proteasome activity and the expression of two heat shock protein genes. Our findings suggest a potential neuroprotective use for Carqueja, supporting the idea that dietary antioxidants are a promising approach to boost the defensive systems against stress and neurodegeneration.

  12. Endophytic Microbiota Associated with the Root Tips and Leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia

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    Raiana S. M. Santana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although endophytic bacteria impact the health, and ultimately the fitness, of their hosts, our understanding of the diversity of endophytic species remains limited. Here we report on the endophytic microbiota inhabiting the roots, healthy leaves and leaves attacked by a gall-inducing insect of Baccharis dracunculifolia, a species of major economic relevance in South America, using 16S rRNA gene new generation sequencing. Rhodoplanes and Nitrospira were well represented in the communities of roots and leaves; known to be important for nitrogen cycling. The difference in bacterial diversity between healthy and galled leaves was not pronounced. The leaves seem to harbor specialized bacteria with high tolerances to abiotic stresses such as wide variation in temperature, low humidity, shallow and nutrient-poor soils and high solar irradiation. These findings suggest taxon-specific ecological niches in the leaves and roots, which may be the result of different physicochemical characteristics between these structures. This study provides a basis for further investigations and adds significant new information to the current knowledge of the endophytic bacterial composition in B. dracunculifolia.

  13. Specialist bees collect Asteraceae pollen by distinctive abdominal drumming (Osmia) or brushing (Melissodes, Svastra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of western US Osmia (Cephalosmia) bees that are Asteraceae specialists (oligoleges) were observed to employ a heretofore unappreciated, stereotypical means of collecting pollen, abdominal drumming, to gather pollen from 19 flowering species representing nine tribes of Asteraceae. Abdom...

  14. Aspectos morfo-anatômicos da folha de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae visando a identificação da origem botânica da própolis Morphological and anatomical aspects of the leaf of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. (Asteraceae as regards to the identification of the botanical origin of propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia del Carmen Oliveira

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a anatomia da folha, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, a partir do ápice caulinar, de B. dracunculifolia para caracterizar as estruturas secretoras e tricomas que podem ser utilizados como indicadores na determinação da origem botânica da própolis produzida por Apis mellifera. O material foi coletado no Município de Jaboticatubas, MG, onde estão instaladas colmeias experimentais. A espécie estudada apresenta primórdios foliares densamente recobertos por tricomas glandulares e tectores. Os tricomas glandulares são freqüentes em folhas jovens e raros em folhas adultas. A folha adulta é anfi-estomática. O mesofilo é composto por parênquima paliçádico, escasso parênquima lacunoso e canais secretores associados ao floema. Os fragmentos foliares, estômatos, tricomas glandulares e tricomas tectores encontrados em amostras de própolis são semelhantes aos observados em folhas de B. dracunculifolia.The leaf anatomy of B. dracunculifolia, in different developmental stages, was studied, with the purpose of characterizing the secretory structures that can be used as indicators for determining of the botanical origin of propolis produced by Apis mellifera. The material was collected in the Municipal district of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, where experimental hives were installed. The studied species are characterized by having the surface of the youngest leaves densely covered by glandular and non-glandular trichomes. The glandular trichomes are abundant in the early stages of leaf growth and uncommon in mature leaves. The mature leaf is amphistomatic. The mesophyll consists of palisade cells, scarce spongy parenchyma and secretory ducts associated to the phloem. The leaf fragments, stomata, glandular trichomes and non-glandular trichomes present in propolis samples are similar to those found in B. dracunculifolia leaves.

  15. Chemical and toxicological effects of medicinal Baccharis trimera extract from coal burning area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Paula S; da Silva, Juliana; Fisher, Camila; da Silva, Fernanda R; Reyes, Juliana M; Picada, Jaqueline N; Ferraz, Alice G; Corrêa, Dione S; Premoli, Suziane M; Dias, Johnny F; de Souza, Claudia T; Ferraz, Alexandre de B F

    2016-03-01

    The entire process of power generation, extraction, processing and use of coal strongly impact water resources, soil, air quality and biota leads to changes in the fauna and flora. Pollutants generated by coal burning have been contaminating plants that grow in area impacted by airborne pollution with high metal contents. Baccharis trimera is popularly consumed as tea, and is widely developed in Candiota (Brazil), one of the most important coal burning regions of the Brazil. This study aims to investigate the phytochemical profile, in vivo genotoxic and mutagenic potential of extracts of B. trimera collected from an exposed region to pollutants generated by coal burning (Candiota City) and other unexposed region (Bagé City), using the Comet assay and micronucleus test in mice and the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay. The HPLC analyses indicated higher levels of flavonoids and phenolic acids for B. trimera aqueous extract from Bagé and absence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for both extracts. The presence of toxic elements such as cobalt, nickel and manganese was statistically superior in the extract from Candiota. For the Comet assay and micronucleus test, the mice were treated with Candiota and Bagé B. trimera aqueous extracts (500-2000 mg/kg). Significant genotoxicity was observed at higher doses treated with B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota in liver and peripheral blood cells. Micronuclei were not observed but the results of the Salmonella/microsome short-term assay showed a significant increase in TA98 revertants for B. trimera aqueous extract from Candiota. The extract of B. trimera from Candiota bioacumulated higher levels of trace elements which were associated with the genotoxic effects detected in liver and peripheral blood cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ejemplares tipo de Asteraceae (= Compositae de A. L. Cabrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana E. Freire

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Freire, S. E. & Iharlegui, L. 2000. Ejemplares tipo de Asteraceae (= Compositae de A. L.Cabrera. Darwiniana 38(3-4: 307-364.El presente trabajo representa un catálogo de los ejemplares tipo de 426 especies y 82 variedades deAsteraceae descriptas por A. L. Cabrera entre los años 1931 y 1999. Los taxones se presentan en ordenalfabético. Para cada taxón se indica: diagnosis original, tipo nomenclatural, categoría del tipo, herbario,etiqueta original y nombre actualizado

  17. Warionia (Asteraceae: a relict genus of Cichorieae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katinas, Liliana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Warionia, with its only species W. saharae, is endemic to the northwestern edge of the African Sahara desert. This is a somewhat thistle-like aromatic plant, with white latex, and fleshy, pinnately- partite leaves. Warionia is in many respects so different from any other genus of Asteraceae, that it has been tentatively placed in the tribes Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae, and Mutisieae. Until now, a comprehensive study of Warionia to have a complete context for discussing its taxonomic position is lacking. The general morphology, anatomy, palynology and chromosome number of W. saharae are investigated here, and the species is described and illustrated. Laticifers in leaves and stems indicate a relationship with Cichorieae, and are associated with the phloem, in contact with it or with the surrounding sclerenchyma sheath. The pollen features indicate a strong relation with Cardueae, namely the structure with Anthemoid pattern where the columellae are joined to the foot layer, the ectosexine with thin columellae, the endosexine with stout and ramified columellae, the conspicuous spines with globose bases and conspicuous apical channels, and the tectum surface very perforate. Chromosomal counts resulted in 2n = 34. The morphological and palynological evidence positions Warionia between the tribes Cardueae and Cichorieae suggesting that it could be a remnant of the ancestral stock that gave rise to both tribes.El género Warionia, y su única especie, W. saharae, es endémico del noroeste del desierto africano del Sahara. Es una planta semejante a un cardo, aromática, con látex blanco y hojas carnosas, pinnatipartidas. Warionia es tan diferente de otros géneros de Asteraceae que fue ubicada en las tribus Cardueae, Cichorieae, Gundelieae y Mutisieae. Hasta ahora, no existía un estudio global de Warionia como contexto para discutir su posición taxonómica. Se ha investigado aquí su morfología, anatomía, palinología y n

  18. Um marcador químico de fácil detecção para a própolis de Alecrim-do-Campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia An easily detectable chemical marker for the Baccharis dracunculifolia propolis

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    Evandro A. Nascimento

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta um marcador químico (MQ volátil, de fácil detecção por cromatografia gasosa, para a própolis do alecrim-do-campo (Baccharis dracunculifolia. Trata-se do composto volátil mais abundante no extrato em diclorometano de própolis verdes dessa planta, mas que aparece, também, em diferentes concentrações, em extratos de diclorometano de própolis marrom, preta, vermelha e amarela, provenientes de regiões que contêm Baccharis dracunculifolia. O MQ está presente no extrato dos ápices vegetativos de alecrim em concentração significativa, mas sua concentração na folha de alecrim é baixa. Própolis de regiões sem alecrim não possuem o MQ. Este composto foi isolado recentemente e se trata do 3-prenilcinamato de alila. Amostras comerciais de extratos etanólicos de própolis verdes foram analisadas e a de primeira qualidade, tipo exportação, apresentou maior concentração de MQ. Tal descoberta facilita o rápido controle de qualidade de extratos etanólicos de própolis verdes.In the present work a volatile chemical marker (CM for the Baccharis dracunculifolia (Bd propolis is proposed, which is easily detectable by gas chromatography. It is the most abundant volatile compound in dichloromethane extracts of green propolis from this plant, but it appears also, in different concentrations, in dichloromethane extracts of brown, dark and red propolis from regions where Bd grows. The CM is present in significative concentration in the bud extract of Bd, in contrast to the leaf extract where its concentration is low. Propolis from regions without Bd does not contain the CM. This compound was recently isolated; it is the allyl 3-prenylcinnamate. Commercial samples of green propolis ethanol extract were analyzed and the first quality one (exportation standard presented the highest concentration on CM. This finding makes easier the quality control of green propolis extracts sold at the market.

  19. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  20. nature of ergastic substances in some nigerian asteraceae 160

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    There was no correlation between life forms and the ... substances in plant systematics has been stressed by various workers (Omoigui and Gill, 1988; Idu and Gill,. 1998) ... Table 1: Summary of the Locality, Habit and Nature of Ergastic Substances in the Seeds of Some Nigerian Asteraceae. Taxon ... Bank of River Kaduna,.

  1. Taxonomic novelties in Mikania (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) from Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borges, R.A.X.; Forzza, R.C.; Fraga, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    During studies of Brazilian Atlantic Forest Asteraceae, a new species and a replacement name were determined: Mikania amorimii from Bahia State and Mikania capixaba from Espírito Santo State. The former is a new species related to M. ternata but distinct by its leaves, involucral bracts and cypsela

  2. New species of Lessingianthus (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) from Brazil and Paraguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dematteis, M.; Angulo, M.B.

    2012-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Lessingianthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae) from Brazil and Paraguay are described and illustrated. Lessingianthus cipoensis is characterized by the presence of solitary heads disposed in short branches and ovate to elliptical leaves. It has a certain resemblance to L. vesti

  3. Hyurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Y.; Tan, K.; Yidirim, H.

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  4. Gnapholide: a new guaiac-dimer from Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Jahangir, Muhammad; Uzair, Syed Shah; Erian, Ayman Wahba; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh

    2002-06-01

    The ethyl acetate soluble part of the chloroform extract of Pulicaria gnaphalodes belonging to the family Asteraceae afforded a new sesquiterpene-dimer of guaiane class named as gnapholide and anabsinthin of the same skeleton. The structures of both the compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR.

  5. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stewart C. Sanderson

    1999-01-01

    The subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia (Asteraceae: Anthemideae) is composed of 11 species of various taxonomic and geographic complexities. It is centered on Artemisia tridentata with its three widespread common subspecies and two more geographically confined ones. Meiotic chromosome counts on pollen mother cells...

  6. Morphometric study of Euchiton traversii complex (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.; Breitwieser, I.; Ward, J.M.; Walsh, N.G.; Ladiges, P.Y.

    2008-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken into alpine and subalpine species of Euchiton Cass. (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae) in the Euchiton traversii species complex in south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. Phenetic analysis of both field-collected and herbarium specimens resolved the following six taxa in

  7. Pharmacognostical study of achenes of some plants from Asteraceae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.O. Bychkova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper are represented morphological studies on determination of weight of 1000 achenes, and sieve analysis of fruits of some plants from Asteraceae family (Arctium lappa L., Leuzea carthamoides (Willd. D.C, Inula helenium L., Echinacea purpurea Moench., Calendula officinalis L.. Lipid, alcohol-soluble and water-soluble complexes in fruits of C. officinalis were studied.

  8. Macroevolutionary dynamics in the early diversification of Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panero, Jose L; Crozier, Bonnie S

    2016-06-01

    Spatial and temporal differences in ecological opportunity can result in disparity of net species diversification rates and consequently uneven distribution of taxon richness across the tree of life. The largest eudicotyledonous plant family Asteraceae has a global distribution and at least 460 times more species than its South American endemic sister family Calyceraceae. In this study, diversification rate dynamics across Asteraceae are examined in light of the several hypothesized causes for the family's evolutionary success that could be responsible for rate change. The innovations of racemose capitulum and pappus, and a whole genome duplication event occurred near the origin of the family, yet we found the basal lineages of Asteraceae that evolved in South America share background diversification rates with Calyceraceae and their Australasian sister Goodeniaceae. Instead we found diversification rates increased gradually from the origin of Asteraceae approximately 69.5Ma in the late Cretaceous through the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum at least. In contrast to earlier studies, significant rate shifts were not strongly correlated with intercontinental dispersals or polyploidization. The difference is due primarily to sampling more backbone nodes, as well as calibrations placed internally in Asteraceae that resulted in earlier divergence times than those found in most previous relaxed clock studies. Two clades identified as having transformed rate processes are the Vernonioid Clade and a clade within the Heliantheae alliance characterized by phytomelanic fruit (PF Clade) that represents an American radiation. In Africa, subfamilies Carduoideae, Pertyoideae, Gymnarrhenoideae, Cichorioideae, Corymbioideae, and Asteroideae diverged in a relatively short span of only 6.5millionyears during the Middle Eocene.

  9. Avaliação do teor de óleo essencial de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. em diferentes embalagens durante o armazenamento Assessment of Baccharis trimera (Less. DC. essential oil content in different packages during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de plantas medicinais como fonte terapêutica é milenar e nos últimos anos o seu valor tem aumentado, tanto para a população quanto para a ciência. Várias empresas nacionais e internacionais empregam matéria-prima vegetal na elaboração de seus produtos, o que torna indispensável o cultivo comercial e o beneficiamento pós-colheita destas espécies. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor de óleo essencial de carqueja [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC.], em três embalagens diferentes ao longo de um ano de armazenamento. Observou-se que ao longo do armazenamento, a embalagem de papel Kraft foi a que melhor preservou a integridade de certas características físicas e químicas do produto, assim como, manteve o teor de óleo ao longo de um ano de armazenamento.The use of medicinal plants as therapeutic source is ancient and has increased in value in recent years for both the population and the science. Several national and international companies use raw plant material in the preparation of their products, making essential the commercial cultivation and the post-harvest processing of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil content of [Baccharis trimera (Less. DC.] in three different packages over one year of storage. During storage, Kraft-paper package best preserved the integrity of some physical and chemical characteristics of the product and maintained the oil content for one year of storage.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lychnophora passerina, Asteraceae (Brazilian Arnica).

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Patricia Capelari de; Paula, Carmem Aparecida de; Rezende, Simone Aparecida; Campos, Fernanda Torres; Guimarães, Andrea Grabe; Lombardi, Júlio Antônio; Guimarães, Dênia Antunes Saúde

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Lychnophora passerina (Asteraceae), popularly known as arnica, is used to treat inflammation, pain, rheumatism, contusions, bruises and insect bites in Brazilian traditional medicine. Materials and methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of crude ethanolic extract of aerial parts of L. passerina and its ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions had their abilities to modulate the production of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 inflammatory mediators in LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated J774...

  11. New species of Ophryosporus (Eupatorieae Asteraceae from Peru

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    Abundio Sagástegui Alva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ophryosporus marchii Sagást. & E. Rodr. is described as a new species of Ophryosporus Meyen (Eupatorieae: Asteraceae from the Department of Cajamarca, Peru. This new species is apparently endemic to the province of Contumaza and closest relative to O. sagasteguii H. Rob. It is critically compared with this species and data on its geographical distribution, ecology and conservation status are provided.

  12. Intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae em equinos no Rio Grande do Sul Spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia (Compositae poisoning in horses in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín L. de Alda

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um surto de intoxicação espontânea por Baccharis coridifolia em equinos PSI. A intoxicação ocorreu em julho de 2008, em três de quatro animais que haviam sido transportados do estado do Paraná para uma propriedade no município de Aceguá, Rio Grande do Sul. A intoxicação ocorreu três dias após a entrada dos animais em uma área onde havia Baccharis coridifolia em brotação. A égua que não foi afetada não havia sido colocada no potreiro invadido pela planta. Os equinos estavam recebendo um terço da ração que normalmente consumiam para adaptação e permaneciam durante a noite na cocheira. Os sinais clínicos se caracterizaram inicialmente por desconforto abdominal, aumento da freqüência cardíaca e movimentos respiratórios, anorexia, hipermotilidade do intestino delgado e cólon, presença de gás no ceco e diarréia. A evolução da enfermidade variou de 18-36 horas, sendo que um dos animais afetados sobreviveu após tratamento sintomático. As lesões macroscópicas caracterizaram-se por congestão acentuada e hemorragias da mucosa glandular do estômago e presença de úlceras e edema acentuado da parede. Havia também, congestão, edema e hemorragias nas mucosas do íleo, ceco e cólon maior. Histologicamente observou-se degeneração e necrose do epitélio da porção aglandular do estômago, gastrite e enterite com necrose do epitélio de revestimento do estômago glandular, íleo, ceco e cólon observando-se acentuado infiltrado de células mononucleares e polimorfonucleares, edema da submucosa e dilatação de vasos linfáticos. Um equino intoxicado experimentalmente com 1g/kg de peso corporal de planta verde apresentou sinais clínicos, lesões macroscópicas e histológicas similares aos casos espontâneos.An outbreak of spontaneous Baccharis coridifolia poisoning in horses in July 2008 is reported from southern Brazil. The poisoning affected three mares out of four that were transported from the state

  13. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas = Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasielle Soares Gusman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocaralterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanussativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can cause developmental changes in other plants or even in other organisms. Theobjective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of seedlings of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at 1g 10mL-1 (p/vconcentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations (100

  14. Panorama de la familia Asteraceae (= Compositae en la Republica Argentina An overview of the plant family Asteraceae ( = Compositae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Katinas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un panorama de la familia Asteraceae en la República Argentina , que incluye una breve historia taxonómica, datos numéricos de tribus, géneros y especies, ejemplos de endemismos y daptaciones ecológicas y una reseña sobre la hipótesis del origen de la familia en Patagonia. En la Argentina, las asteráceas representan la familia más numerosa con 227 géneros (cinco son endémicos y ca. 1400 especies (92 son adventicias y 382 son endémicas. En términos de taxones nativos, se hallan representadas en nuestro país todas las tribus de Asteraceae excepto Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Las tribus Arctoteae y Calenduleae están representadas por taxones adventicios exclusivamente y Cardueae posee sólo una especie nativa. Barnadesieae y Mutisieae son las únicas tribus con géneros endémicos de Argentina y también presentan el porcentaje más alto de géneros y especies en el país en comparación con el resto de las tribus. El mayor número de especies nativas, endémicas y no endémicas, se da en las provincias fitogeográficas Altoandina y Patagónica. La tribu más representada en número de géneros es Heliantheae, y en número de especies nativas es Senecioneae.An overview of the family Asteraceae in Argentina that includes a brief taxonomic history, numerical data of tribes, genera and species, examples of endemisms and ecological adaptations, and a discussion on the hypothesis on the origin of the family in Patagonia is given. Asteraceae is the most numerous family in Argentina , with 227 genera (five are endemic and ca. 1400 species (92 are adventitious and 382 are endemic. In relation to the native taxa, all tribes of Asteraceae occur in Argentina excepting Inuleae (sensu Bremer. Tribes Arctoteae and Calenduleae are represented exclusively by adventitious taxa, and Cardueae has only one native species. Barnadesieae and Mutisieae are the only tribes with endemic genera in Argentina and they also present the highest percentage of

  15. Screening the phytoremediation potential of desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) growing on mine tailings in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Nazmul; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Jones, Gary L.; Gill, Thomas E.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2008-01-01

    The metal concentrations in a copper mine tailings and Desert broom (Baccharis sarothroides Gray) plants were investigated. The metal concentrations in plants, soil cover, and tailings were determined using ICP-OES. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in tailings was 526.4, 207.4, 89.1, 84.5, 51.7, 49.6, 39.7, and 35.6 mg kg−1, respectively. The concentration of all elements in soil cover was 10~15% higher than that of the tailings, except for molybdenum. The concentration of copper, lead, molybdenum, chromium, zinc, arsenic, nickel, and cobalt in roots was 818.3, 151.9, 73.9, 57.1, 40.1, 44.6, 96.8, and 26.7 mg kg−1 and 1214.1, 107.3, 105.8, 105.5, 55.2, 36.9, 30.9, and 10.9 mg kg−1 for shoots, respectively. Considering the translocation factor, enrichment coefficient, and the accumulation factor, desert broom could be a potential hyperaccumulator of Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, and Ni. PMID:17964035

  16. Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC as genotoxicity indicator of exposure to coal and emissions from a thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Ana Paula Simões; Da Silva, Juliana; Roloff, Joice; Reyes, Juliana; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny F; Rohr, Paula; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    During coal combustion, hazardous elements are discharged that impair environmental quality. Plant cover is the first available surface for the atmospheric pollutants in terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity in the aqueous extract of the native plant, Baccharis trimera, exposed to coal and emissions from a thermal power plant (coal-fired power plant in Candiota, Brazil), correlating seasonality, wind tunnel predominance, and presence of inorganic elements. The presence of inorganic elements in the aerial parts of B. trimera was analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry, and genotoxicity was evaluated by ex vivo comet assay. The genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of B. trimera from four sites located in the area around power plant were analyzed by comet assay in peripheral human lymphocytes. Winter samples showed greater levels of metals than summer samples. Genotoxicity was detected in B. trimera extracts collected from the region exposed to extraction and burning coal. Extracts from the site impacted by the dominant wind induced more damage to DNA than those from other sites. Based on our data, we can suggest that in winter the inorganic elements from extraction and burning of coal and carried through the wind tunnel were responsible for the genotoxicity observed in aqueous extract of B. trimera.

  17. Baccharis Salicifolia development in the presence of high concentrations of uranium in the arid environment of San Marcos, Chihuahua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna P, M. Y.; Alarcon H, M. T.; Silva S, M.; Renteria V, M; Rodriguez V, M. A.; Herrera P, E.; Reyes C, M.; Montero C, M. E., E-mail: elena.montero@cimav.edu.m [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C., Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, 31109 Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    In humid zones and marine environments the bio indicator contaminants by trace elements are well established. However, in arid zones it is more difficult to find these tools because there is less biodiversity. The objective of this paper was to analyze the behavior of the Baccharis salicifolia plant in areas with high uranium concentration in arid zones, to determine the characteristics of tolerance and possible use as a bio monitor for the presence of such contaminants. For this project a uraniferous zone was selected in San Marcos, located northwest of the City of Chihuahua. A total of 8 sampling points of the plant and soil were located here. Each sample was divided into the root and the stem and leaves to determine the specific activity of the uranium in both parts of the plant and its sediments. The determination of the specific activities of the total uranium in the samples was obtained by liquid scintillation with alpha-beta separation. The results indicate a tendency for the plant to accumulate the uranium in its different parts, and to trans locate it to its stem and leaves. The plant is resistant to high concentrations of uranium, not showing any specific changes in relation to non contaminated areas that might indicate the presence of the contaminant. Therefore, its use as a bio monitor species is limited. (Author)

  18. Baccharis trimera (Less. DC Exhibits an Anti-Adipogenic Effect by Inhibiting the Expression of Proteins Involved in Adipocyte Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Souza Marinho do Nascimento

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (gorse is a plant popularly used for the treatment of obesity. In this study, we prepared three B. trimera extracts aqueous extract (AE, decoction (AE-D, and methanol extract (ME and investigated their antioxidant effects in six different tests and their anti-adipogenic effect in 3T3-L1 cells. The extracts showed a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in all tests. AE was the most potent antioxidant in copper and ferric ion chelation assays, whereas AE-D was the most potent in superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays, reducing power assay, and total antioxidant capacity analysis. Only ME showed a cytotoxic effect against 3T3-L1 cells. Lipid accumulation decreased in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the presence of AE and AE-D extracts (0.5 to 1.0 mg/mL. In addition, the extracts dramatically attenuated the levels of adipogenic transcriptional factors, including CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ, and gamma receptors by peroxisome proliferators (PPARγ, during adipogenesis. AE-D (1.0 mg/mL caused an approximately 90% reduction in the levels of these molecules. We propose that B. trimera has an anti-adipogenic effect and could be used in the development of functional foods.

  19. Artepillin C and phenolic compounds responsible for antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of green propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, R S; De Mendonça, S; Mendes, P B; Paulino, N; Mimica, M J; Lagareiro Netto, A A; Lira, I S; López, B G-C; Negrão, V; Marcucci, M C

    2017-04-01

    This study investigates the antimicrobial activity in Staphylococcus aureus isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA)) and antioxidant activity of green propolis, Baccharis dracunculifolia DC extracts and Artepillin C™. The amount of Artepillin C in different extracts was determined by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentration 90 (MIC90) was determined using 40 isolates of S. aureus inoculated in Müeller-Hinton agar culture medium containing the green propolis and B. dracunculifolia DC extracts. PVEE (green propolis ethanolic extract) and BDEH (B. dracunculifolia hexanic extract) showed the greatest antimicrobial activity with MIC90 values of 246·3 and 295·5 μg ml(-1) respectively. Green propolis ethanolic and hexanic extracts (PVEE and PVEH respectively) showed the greatest antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) with IC50 values of 13·09 and 95·86 μg ml(-1) respectively. Green propolis ethanolic displays better antimicrobial and antioxidant activities compared to other extracts. These activities may be related to the presence of Artepillin C in synergism with the other constituents of the extracts. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of green propolis and B. dracunculifolia DC demonstrated in MRSA and MSSA clinical isolates indicated that they can be important tools to treat infections caused by these bacteria. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Identification and quantification of flavonoids from Chuquiraga spinosa (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Amaya; Casado, Raquel; Calvo, M Isabel

    2009-10-01

    Nine flavonol glycosides (quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, kaemperol-3-O-glucuronide, kaemperol-3-O-rutinoside, kaempherol-3-O-glucoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucuronide, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside) were isolated from the aerial parts of Chuquiraga spinosa (R. et P.) D. Don (Asteraceae). The identification of the compounds was carried out by HPLC/DAD, HPLC/MS and NMR analysis. These compounds may be useful in the chemotaxonomy of the genus and species.

  1. Psephellus vanensis (Asteraceae, a new species from east Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Dogan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Psephellus vanensis A.Duran, Behçet & B.Dogan (Asteraceae from Anatolia, Turkey, is described and illustrated. The species grows on the serpentine stony field of the village of Çaldıran in the district of Başkale (Van province in eastern Anatolia. It is morphologically similar to Psephellus pyrrhoblepharus (Boiss. Wagenitz. Diagnostic characters are discussed, and a key to the most similar species is provided. Ecology, conservation status and notes on biogeography of the species are also presented. In addition, the geographical distribution of the new species and other related species in Turkey is mapped.

  2. Structural studies of chemical constituents of Thithonia Tagetiflora Desv (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngoc Huynh, Vinh; Nguyen Thi Hoai, Thu; Phi Phung Nguyen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Tithonia tagetiflora Desv. (Asteraceae) is a widespread plant in Vietnam, and the species of Tithonia are known as plants containing many biologically active compounds. However, T. tagetiflora's chemical composition remains mostly unknown. Therefore, we now report the structural elucidation of tw......)-roseoside (4), and one glutinane type triterpene, epi-glutinol (5), from the leaves of T. tagetiflora. Their structures are established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as ESI-MS analysis and comparison with literature data...

  3. The Rare Perennial Balduina atropurpurea (Asteraceae) at Fort Stewart, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    in Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae). Systematic Botany 3:403-407. Ewel, K.C. 1990. Swamps, pp 281-323 in R.L. Meyers and J.J. Ewel, eds. Ecosystems of...HQ FORSCOM, AFPI-ENE; and Linton L . Swindell, Fort Stewart Fish and Wildlife Branch, AFZP- DEV-W. Public Law 101-510 established SERDP as a multi...USACERL TR-98/75 21 A flowering genet. ^K^ l ^fl Kr*’ Si * ■ Two open inflorences: The top infloresecence with outer stigmas and one row of anthers

  4. Comparative leaf morphology and anatomy of three Asteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to describe and compare the morphology and anatomy of mature leaves of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. and Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae species that have different habits emphasizing their secretory structures. Longitudinal and transversal sections of mature leaf blades of the three species were analyzed at the apex, base, and medium third part of the midvein of the leaf blade and of the margin. M. glomerata had uniseriate glandular trichomes and secretory ducts; P. ruderale had hydathodes and secretory cavities; and V. condensata had idioblasts and uni-and biseriate glandular trichomes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo descrever e comparar a morfo-anatomia das folhas adultas de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Porophyllum ruderale Cass. e Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae, que possuem diferentes hábitos, enfatizando suas estruturas secretoras. Secções longitudinais e transversais dos limbos foliares foram analisadas nas regiões do ápice, da base e do terço médio na altura da nervura central, do limbo foliar e da margem. M. glomerata apresentou tricomas glandulares unisseriados e ductos secretores; P. ruderale tinha hidatódios e cavidades secretoras; e V. condensata apresentou idioblastos e tricomas glandulares uni- ou bisseriados.

  5. Variabilidade sazonal do teor de saponinas de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja e isolamento de flavona Seasonal variability in the content of saponins from Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja and isolation of flavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Borella

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a sazonalidade sobre o teor de saponinas e o isolamento e elucidação estrutural de constituinte químico (flavona de Baccharis trimera (Less. DC (Carqueja. O cultivo de indivíduos estaminados de B. trimera foi realizado no Campo Experimental da Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - Unaerp, em Ribeirão Preto, no período de janeiro a dezembro de 1998 e foi conduzido em três blocos, sendo que cada um deles era constituído de 48 mudas. As amostras foram colhidas após seis meses do plantio (durante o inverno, três meses após a primeira colheita (durante a primavera e três meses após a segunda colheita (durante o verão. Após processo de secagem e moagem, as drogas foram submetidas ao ensaio para obtenção do índice de espuma. Os resultados mostraram que não há variabilidade neste índice em função da época de colheita. Parte da droga colhida no verão sofreu análise química para isolamento e elucidação estrutural de componente químico. O isolamento a partir do extrato metanólico de partes aéreas de B. trimera foi realizado através de métodos cromatográficos (CC e CLAE e a identificação estrutural da substância isolada, através de métodos espectrométricos (UV, RMN ¹H e 13C. Foi identificada a flavona denominada 5,6-diidroxi-7,3’,4’-trimetoxiflavona.The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal effect on the foam index and the isolation and structural identification of a chemical constituent (flavone of Baccharis trimera. The culture staminate samples of B. trimera were realized in the experimental cultivation area of the Universidade de Ribeirão Preto - Unaerp, in Ribeirão Preto, state of São Paulo, Brazil from January to December/1998 and were conduced in three blocks, which received 48 seedlings. The samples were harvested six months after installation (during the winter, three months after the first harvest (during the spring and three months after the second harvest

  6. Terpenoids, flavonoids and other constituents of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R.; Pires, Andreza Maria L.; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica Organica]. E-mail: opessoa@ufc.br

    2006-01-15

    A new acylated kaurene diterpene, characterized as 15{alpha}-decanoyloxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, along with nine known compounds: pentacosanoic acid, 24{alpha}-ethyl-5{alpha}-cholesta-7,22E-dien-3{beta}-ol, 15{alpha}-hydroxy-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, 8{beta}-angeloyloxy-9{beta},10{beta}-dihydroxy-1-oxogermacra-4E,11(13)dien-12,6{alpha}-olide, 3{beta}-hydroxyeicosan-1,5{beta}-olide, taraxasteryl acetate, 7-Omethylkaempferol, kaempferol, and nepetin were isolated from the flowers of Eupatorium betonicaeforme (Asteraceae). In addition, from the aerial parts were isolated taraxasteryl acetate and {alpha}- and {beta}-amyrin, while the mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol, and 6-acetyl-2,2-dimethylchroman-4-one were isolated from the roots. The structure elucidation of all compounds was performed by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data from literature. (author)

  7. Die Plantfamilie Asteraceae: 4 Interessante groeivorme en ekonomies belangrike soorte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P.J. Herman

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Die plantfamilie Asteraceae bevat ’n ryke verskeidenheid en interessante groeivorme soos eenjarige en meerjarige kruide, dwergstruike, struike, bome, slingerplante, sukkulente, waterplante, rosetplante, kussingplante, heide-agtige plante, platgroeiend, grasagtig  en doringrig. Die blare vertoon ook baie variasie in vorm en ander kenmerke byvoorbeeld afwisselend, teenoorstaande, saamgepak, sittend, gesteeld, enkelvoudig, gaafrandig, getand, gelob of diep verdeeld, saamgesteld, met drie tot vyf hoofare, gereduseer of heeltemal afwesig, glad of baie harig op die boonste of onderste oppervlakke. Soms is melksap teenwoordig en sommiges is aromaties. Sommige verteenwoordigers van die familie is ekonomies belangrik; sommiges is eetbaar of word vir medisyne gebruik terwyl ander giftig is, sommiges word as veevoer benut maar ander is onkruide en die hout van sommiges is in die verlede gebruik.

  8. Research of polysaccharide complexes from asteraceae family plants

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    Світлана Михайлівна Марчишин

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Depth study of polysaccharides in some little-known plant species of Asteraceae family is pressing question, considering that polysaccharides are important biologically active compounds widely used in pharmaceutical and medical practice as remedies and preventive medications. The aim of research was to determinate both quantitative content and monomeric composition of polysaccharide complexes from Asteraceae family plant species – Tagetes genus, Arnica genus, and Bellis genus.Materials and methods. Determination of polysaccharides was carried out by the precipitation reaction, using 96 % ethyl alcohol P and Fehling's solution after acid hydrolysis; quantitative content of this group of compounds was determined by gravimetric analysis. On purpose to identify the monomeric composition hydrolysis under sulfuric acid conditions was conducted. Qualitative monomeric composition of polysaccharides after hydrolysis was carried out by paper chromatography method in n-Butanol – Pyridine – Distilled water P (6:4:3 system along with saccharides reference samples.Results. Polysaccharide complexes from Tagetes erecta, Tagetes patula, Tagetes tenuifolia, Arnica montana, Arnica foliosa, wild and cultivated Bellis perennis herbs were studied. Water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin fractions were isolated from studied objects; their quantitative content and monomeric composition were determined.Conclusion. The highest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was found in cultivated Bellis perennis herb (10,13 %, the highest amount of pectin compounds – in Tagetes tenuifolia herb (13,62 %; the lowest amount of water-soluble polysaccharides and pectin compounds was found in Arnica montana herb (4,61 % and Tagetes patula herb (3,62 %, respectively. It was found that polysaccharide complexes from all studied species include glucose and arabinose

  9. Phytochemistry and quantification of polyphenols in extracts of the Asteraceae weeds from Diamantina, Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Petacci,F.; Tavares,W.S.; Freitas,S. S.; Teles,A.M.; Serrão,J.E.; J. C. Zanuncio

    2012-01-01

    Asteraceae weeds are rich in chemicals that have biological and pharmaceutical activities. The aims of this work were to describe the phytochemistry and quantify the polyphenols in ethanol extracts from leaves of 12 species of Asteraceae weeds collected in Diamantina, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The screening of Asteraceae extracts revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, triterpenes, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. The total phenolic content was high in extracts of Lychnophora ericoides (14...

  10. Anthelmintic activity in vitro and in vivo of Baccharis trimera (Less) DC against immature and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rosimeire Nunes; Rehder, Vera Lúcia Garcia; Oliveira, Adriana Silva Santos; Jeraldo, Veronica de Lourdes Sierpe; Linhares, Arício Xavier; Allegretti, Silmara Marques

    2014-04-01

    Although its efficiency against all Schistosoma species, praziquantel (PZQ) shows low efficacy against schistosomula and juvenile stages. The potential for development of resistance to PZQ has justified the search for new alternative chemotherapies. In this scenario, studies to new formulations, more comprehensive and without adverse effects, are being conducted. One viable and promising treatment is the study of medicinal plants as a new approach to the experimental treatment for Schistosomiasis. Amongst all the variety of the medicinal species studied, we can highlight Baccharis trimera (Less) DC, known as "Carqueja-amarga". This paper not only describes the effect of crude dichloromethane extract (DE) and aqueous fraction (AF) obtained from B. trimera, in vitro but also is the first one that investigates the in vivo efficacy of B. trimera against schistosomula, juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni BH strain. In the experiment, mice were treated with DE, AF and PZQ (40 and 200mg/kg) over the period of larval development (3 and 30 post-infection; pi), and adult worms (60days post-infection; pi). The in vitro results show that the DE and AF effects are dose-dependents, being the 130μg/mL the most effective one in a shorter period of incubation. The exposure of the in vitro samples over adult parasites were able to inhibit 100% of the oviposition in females. Likewise caused the mortality of the parasites with morphological alterations on the tegument, on the suckers, oral and acetabulum, in both males and females after 6-72h of exposure. Additionally, the in vivo treatments against juvenile and adult infection were more effective compared to the control group untreated. Administrations of AF and DE in day 30pi (juvenile worms) show female worm total burden reductions of 75% and 68% respectively. At the same period of infection reductions of respectively 98% and 97% egg/g in the faeces were seen. In relation to the different egg developmental stages

  11. An extinct Eocene taxon of the daisy family (Asteraceae): evolutionary, ecological and biogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D.; Palazzesi, Luis; Katinas, Liliana; Crisci, Jorge V.; Tellería, María C.; Bremer, Kåre; Passala, Mauro G.; Bechis, Florencia; Corsolini, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Morphological, molecular and biogeographical information bearing on early evolution of the sunflower alliance of families suggests that the clade containing the extant daisy family (Asteraceae) differentiated in South America during the Eocene, although palaeontological studies on this continent failed to reveal conclusive support for this hypothesis. Here we describe in detail Raiguenrayun cura gen. & sp. nov., an exceptionally well preserved capitulescence of Asteraceae recovered from Eocene deposits of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. Methods The fossil was collected from the 47·5 million-year-old Huitrera Formation at the Estancia Don Hipólito locality, Río Negro Province, Argentina. Key Results The arrangement of the capitula in a cymose capitulescence, the many-flowered capitula with multiseriate–imbricate involucral bracts and the pappus-like structures indicate a close morphological relationship with Asteraceae. Raiguenrayun cura and the associated pollen Mutisiapollis telleriae do not match exactly any living member of the family, and clearly represent extinct taxa. They share a mosaic of morphological features today recognized in taxa phylogenetically close to the root of Asteraceae, such as Stifftieae, Wunderlichioideae and Gochnatieae (Mutisioideae sensu lato) and Dicomeae and Oldenburgieae (Carduoideae), today endemic to or mainly distributed in South America and Africa, respectively. Conclusions This is the first fossil genus of Asteraceae based on an outstandingly preserved capitulescence that might represent the ancestor of Mutisioideae–Carduoideae. It might have evolved in southern South America some time during the early Palaeogene and subsequently entered Africa, before the biogeographical isolation of these continents became much more pronounced. The new fossil represents the first reliable point for calibration, favouring an earlier date to the split between Barnadesioideae and the rest of Asteraceae than previously

  12. Extracto etanólico de Baccharis genistelloides (carqueja sobre el cáncer de colon inducido con 1,2-dimetilhidrazina en ratas

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    Hugo Justil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Se tiene conocimiento que el extracto etanólico de las hojas de Baccharis genistelloides puede reducir la aparición del cáncer gástrico y es marcador de estrés oxidativo. Objetivos: Determinar la eficacia quimioprotectora del extracto etanólico de las hojas de Baccharis genistelloides (EEBG en el cáncer de colon inducido por 1,2 - dimetilhidracina (DMH en ratas machos. Diseño: Experimental. Institución: Laboratorio de Farmacología, Facultad de Medicina, UNMSM, Lima, Perú. Material biológico: Carqueja recolectada en Huancayo, Junín, y ratas machos de 145 + 15 g. Intervenciones: Se indujo tumores intestinales con inyección subcutánea semanal de DMH durante 22 semanas, a 20 mg/kg. Se formó seis grupos: Grupo 1 suero fisiológico; Grupo 2 100 mg/kg EEBG; Grupo 3 DMH; Grupo 4 DMH más 100 mg/kg de EEBG; Grupo 5 DMH más 250 mg/kg de EEBG; y, Grupo 6 DMH más 500 mg/kg de EEBG. Finalmente, se extrajo muestra de sangre para determinar el nivel de malondialdehido y óxido nítrico. Principales medidas de resultados: Quimioprotección. Resultados: El estudio histopatológico mostró quimioprotección de los grupos que recibieron tratamiento con EEBG frente al grupo que no recibió tratamiento, presentando mejor quimioprotección a dosis de 500 mg/kg, donde el cáncer fue pobremente diferenciado, presentando adenomas, frente a adenocarcinoma in situ y adenocarcinoma a dosis de 250 mg/kg y 100 mg/kg; el potencial de oxidación de lipoproteínas fue reducido en los grupos que recibieron tratamiento con EEBG frente a los no tratados, mostrando mayor efecto la dosis de 500 mg/kg; los niveles de óxido nítrico también mostraron una mayor disminución a la dosis de 500 mg/kg. Conclusiones: En ratas, el extracto etanólico de Baccharis genistelloides tiene efecto quimioprotector sobre el cáncer de colon inducido con 1,2-dimetilhidracina.

  13. Evaluating the feasibility of using candidate DNA barcodes in discriminating species of the large Asteraceae family

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    Liu Chang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five DNA regions, namely, rbcL, matK, ITS, ITS2, and psbA-trnH, have been recommended as primary DNA barcodes for plants. Studies evaluating these regions for species identification in the large plant taxon, which includes a large number of closely related species, have rarely been reported. Results The feasibility of using the five proposed DNA regions was tested for discriminating plant species within Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants. Among these markers, ITS2 was the most useful in terms of universality, sequence variation, and identification capability in the Asteraceae family. The species discriminating power of ITS2 was also explored in a large pool of 3,490 Asteraceae sequences that represent 2,315 species belonging to 494 different genera. The result shows that ITS2 correctly identified 76.4% and 97.4% of plant samples at the species and genus levels, respectively. In addition, ITS2 displayed a variable ability to discriminate related species within different genera. Conclusions ITS2 is the best DNA barcode for the Asteraceae family. This approach significantly broadens the application of DNA barcoding to resolve classification problems in the family Asteraceae at the genera and species levels.

  14. Evaluation of the genotoxicity/mutagenicity and antigenotoxicity/antimutagenicity induced by propolis and Baccharis dracunculifolia, by in vitro study with HTC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Matheus Mantuanelli; Matsumoto, Sílvia Tamie; Jamal, Cláudia Masrouah; Malaspina, Osmar; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2016-06-01

    The ethanolic extract of propolis, especially the Brazilian green type, is widely and mainly used for therapeutic purposes despite the lack of knowledge about its effects and its cellular mode of action. This type of propolis, derived from Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim-do-campo), has been extensively commercialized and the consumers use it to enhance health. This work aimed to assess the genotoxic/mutagenic and antigenotoxic/antimutagenic potentials of the ethanolic extracts of Brazilian green propolis and of B. dracunculifolia, on mammalian cells. It was not observed genotoxic and mutagenic effects by both extracts. After evaluate the exposure of the cells to each extract with a recognized mutagen, simultaneously, the results showed a significant reduction on DNA damage. The experiment carried out with a pre-incubation period was more effective than without incubation test, showing that the tested extracts were able to inactivate the mutagen before it could react with the DNA.

  15. Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae: A Promising Source of Antioxidants

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    Jucélia Barbosa da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the antioxidant potential of Vernonia condensata Baker (Asteraceae. Dried and powdered leaves were exhaustively extracted with ethanol by static maceration followed by partition to obtain the hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and butanol fractions. Total phenols and flavonoids contents were determined through spectrophotometry and flavonoids were identified by HPLC-DAD system. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, TLC-bioautography, reducing power of Fe+3, phosphomolybdenum, and TBA assays. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids ranged from 0.19 to 23.11 g/100 g and from 0.13 to 4.10 g/100 g, respectively. The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin were identified in the ethyl acetate fraction. The IC50 of DPPH assay varied from 4.28 to 75.10 µg/mL and TLC-bioautography detected the antioxidant compounds. The reducing power of Fe+3 was 19.98 to 336.48 μg/mL, while the reaction with phosphomolybdenum ranged from 13.54% to 32.63% and 56.02% to 135.00% considering ascorbic acid and rutin as reference, respectively. At 30 mg/mL, the ethanolic extract and fractions revealed significant effect against lipid peroxidation. All these data sustain that V. condensata is an important and promising source of bioactive substances with antioxidant activity.

  16. Ovules anatomy of selected apomictic taxa from Asteraceae family

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    Krystyna Musiał

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on our observations on the ovule structure of autonomous obligatory apomicts. We analyzed two triploid species of Taraxacum: T. udum, T. alatum and two triploid species of Chondrilla: Ch. juncea, Ch. brevirostris . The ovules of all studied species show a structure typical for the members of Asteraceae. One basal ovule develops into an inferior and unilocular ovary. The ovule is anatropous, tenuinucellate and unitegmic. Structural changes were observed in the ovule at the time of the embryo sac maturation. The innermost layer of integument develops into an endothelium surrounding the female gametophyte. Moreover, considerable modifications occurred in the integumentary cell layers adjacent to the endothelium. These cells show signs of programmed cell death and their walls begin to thicken. Histological analysis revealed that the prominent thick cell walls were rich in pectins. Layers of thick-walled cells formed a special storage tissue which, most likely, is an additional source of nutrients necessary for the proper nourishment of a female gametophyte and then of a proembryo.

  17. Anatomy of ovary and ovule in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, K; Płachno, B J; Świątek, P; Marciniuk, J

    2013-06-01

    The genus Taraxacum Wigg. (Asteraceae) forms a polyploid complex within which there are strong links between the ploidy level and the mode of reproduction. Diploids are obligate sexual, whereas polyploids are usually apomictic. The paper reports on a comparative study of the ovary and especially the ovule anatomy in the diploid dandelion T. linearisquameum and the triploid T. gentile. Observations with light and electron microscopy revealed no essential differences in the anatomy of both the ovary and ovule in the examined species. Dandelion ovules are anatropous, unitegmic and tenuinucellate. In both sexual and apomictic species, a zonal differentiation of the integument is characteristic of the ovule. In the integumentary layers situated next to the endothelium, the cell walls are extremely thick and PAS positive. Data obtained from TEM indicate that these special walls have an open spongy structure and their cytoplasm shows evidence of gradual degeneration. Increased deposition of wall material in the integumentary cells surrounding the endothelium takes place especially around the chalazal pole of the embryo sac as well as around the central cell. In contrast, the integumentary cells surrounding the micropylar region have thin walls and exhibit a high metabolic activity. The role of the thick-walled integumentary layers in the dandelion ovule is discussed. We also consider whether this may be a feature of taxonomic importance.

  18. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

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    A. CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteraceae species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata Coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey and phytochemical screening of some medicinal Asteraceae from Algerian Sahara

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    A CHERITI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Asteracea species census of the Algerian folk medicine, currently used in Sahara for the treatment of illenes is presented. 11 Asteraceae species namely: Anvillea radiata coss, Artemisia herba-alba, Brocchia cinerea, Bubonium graveolens, Cotula anthemoides, Echinops spinosus, Launaea arborescens, Launaea nudicaulis, Launaea resedifolia, Scorzonera undulata and Warionia saharae were selected based on the survey through interviews with local inhabitant, herbalist in the Souk and old women according to our previous works. Ethnopharmacolgical potential and chemical constituents of this species are described.

  20. LA FAMILIA ASTERACEAE EN LA FLORA DEL BAJÍO Y DE REGIONES ADYACENTES

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Villaseñor; Enrique Ortiz

    2012-01-01

    Con base en ejemplares de herbario recolectados, identificados y georreferenciados provenientes del territorio considerado por el proyecto Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes, se analiza la riqueza de Asteraceae conocida en dicha región. Utilizando una división de la región en cuadros de 0.5° x 0.5°, el objetivo fue identificar los sitios de alta diversidad para la familia. La región tiene documentadas, con los ejemplares de herbario revisados, 681 especies de Asteraceae, distribuidas en...

  1. Pharmacological characterization of Cirsium ligulare Boiss. (Asteraceae herb decoction

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    Dobrić Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of genus Cirsium Mill. (Asteraceae are scarce. Some data suggest that decoctions or infusions prepared from these plants are used in folk medicine as tonics, particularly in inflammatory, liver and stomach diseases. So far there have been no pharmacological investigations related to Cirsium ligulare (C. ligulare Boiss. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to estimate antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb prepared as 5% and 10% decoctions. Methods. Antioxidative activity was determined using the method of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging. Investigations of anti-inflammatory (a model of systemic inflammatory response induced by endotoxin of Escherichia coli and carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model for local inflammatory response, as well as gastroprotective effects (a model of stress-ulcer induced by absolute ethanol, were conducted in adult female Wistar rats that were given the aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb per os. Indomethacin and ranitidine were used as reference drugs for evaluation of local anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects, respectively. Results. The results demonstrated that aqueous extracts of C. ligulare herb produced strong antioxidative activity, diminished body weight loss induced by endotoxin, significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and prevented the ulcerogenic action of absolute ethanol. Both anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of the extract tested were comparable to those of the reference drugs. Conclusion. Presented results justify the traditional use of C. ligulare herb decoctions and further phytochemical and pharmacological investigations are warranted. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 173021

  2. Estudo fitoquímico da espécie Pterocaulon interruptum DC. (Asteraceae Phytochemical study of Pterocaulon interruptum Dc., Asteraceae

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    Ana Carolina Winkler Heemann

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Pterocaulon interruptum DC. (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento de cinco compostos: uma cumarina, sabandinol, dois esteróides, estigmasterol e 3-O-acetil-taraxasterol e dois flavonóides, quercetina e taxifolina 7-O-prenilada. As estruturas destas substâncias foram estabelecidas por análises espectroscópicas, sendo que este é o primeiro trabalho sobre o isolamento destes compostos em Pterocaulon interruptum DC.Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Pterocaulon interruptum DC., Asteraceae, resulted in the isolation of five compounds: one coumarin, sabandinol, two steroids, stigmasterol and 3-O-acetyl taraxasterol and two flavonoids, quercetin (flavonol and 7-O-prenyl taxifolin (dihydroxyflavonol. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis. This paper deals with the first report of these compounds in Pterocaulon interruptum DC.

  3. On the distribution of Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) in the Balkan Peninsula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shuka, Lulezim; Tan, Kit

    2009-01-01

    Cerastium smolikanum (Caryophyllaceae) and Centaurea vlachorum (Asteraceae) are reported for the first () and () are reported for the first time in C and NE Albania. These two taxa were previously considered serpentine endemics restricted to a few localities in NW Greece and the extension...

  4. Helichrysum yurterianum (Asteraceae, Inuleae), a new species from NE Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemici, Yusuf; Tan, Kit; Yildirim, Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Helichrysum yurterianum Y. Gemici, Kit Tan, H. Yildirim & M. Gemici (Asteraceae, Inuleae) is described and illustrated. It is a serpentine endemic restricted to the province of Erzincan in NE Anatolia, Turkey. Its affinities are with H. arenarium and H. noeanum, which both have a wider distribution...

  5. Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from the Republic of Macedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir; Matevski, Vlado; Tan, Kit

    2010-01-01

    Jurinea micevskii (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated as a new species endemic to Mt Galicica in the southwestern Republic of Macedonia. It resembles J. taygetea, a narrow endemic of Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnese, southern Greece and J. bocconei from Mt Madoníe in north central Sicily...

  6. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos, D.B.

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morph

  7. Eupatorium rufescens y Vernonia oligactoides (Asteraceae, nuevas citas para la flora argentina

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    Álvaro J. Vega

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se mencionan por primera vez para la flora argentina a Eupatorium rufescens Lund ex DC. y Vernonia oligactoides Less. (Asteraceae. Ambas entidades son descriptas y se presenta una clave para diferenciarlas de taxones afines, junto con algunas informaciones ecológicas sobre las entidades

  8. Comparison of volatile and polyphenolic compounds in Brazilian green propolis and its botanical origin Baccharis dracunculifolia Comparação de volatilidade e compostos polifenólicos na própolis verde brasileira e sua origem botânica Baccharis dracunculifolia

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    Mário Roberto Maróstica Junior

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts and essential oils from Green Propolis from southeastern Brazil and leaf buds from its botanical origin Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC, Reversed Phase High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (RP-HPTLC and Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS. The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation. Both ethanolic extracts and essential oils showed similar chromatographic profiles. Thirteen flavonoids were identified by RP-HPLC and RP-HPTLC analyses in both samples. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS analyses. Seventeen were present in both essential oils. The major flavonoid compound in both extracts was artepillin C. The major volatile compound in both essential oils was nerolidol. The major compounds identified in this work could be used as chemical markers in order to classify and identify botanical origins of propolis.Extratos etanólicos e óleos essenciais de própolis verde do sudeste brasileiro e gemas de sua origem botânica (Baccharis dracunculifolia foram analisados por CLAE-FR (Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência em Fase Reversa, CCDAE (Cromatografia em Camada Delgada de Alta Eficiência e CG-EM (Cromatografia Gasosa acoplada a Espectrometria de Massas. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidro destilação. Extratos etanólicos e óleos essenciais de Baccharis dracunculifolia e de própolis mostraram perfis cromatográficos similares entre si. Treze flavonóides foram identificados por CLAE-FR e CCDAE em ambas as amostras. Vinte e três compostos voláteis foram identificados por CG EM, sendo dezessete deles presentes em ambos os óleos essenciais. Artepillin C foi o flavonóide encontrado em maiores concentrações em ambas as amostras, enquanto nerolidol foi o volátil majoritário em ambos os óleos essenciais. Os compostos majoritários identificados neste trabalho podem ser utilizados como

  9. Avaliação da qualidade das amostras comercias de Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja vendidas no Estado do Paraná - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050 Quality Evaluation of Commercial Samples of Baccharis trimera L. (Carqueja sold in Paraná State - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.3050

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    Airton Vicente Pereira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a avaliação da qualidade de 12 amostras comerciais de ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. que são empregadas na medicina tradicional como estomáquicas e diuréticas e são vendidas em estabelecimentos comerciais farmacêuticos no Estado do Paraná, visando ao preparo de chás. Foram avaliados parâmetros de qualidade preconizados na Farmacopéia Brasileira e na literatura específica: características dos rótulos e bulas, análise sensorial, autenticidade das amostras, material estranho e doseamento de marcadores químicos. Todos os produtos avaliados apresentaram algum tipo de irregularidade segundo os códigos oficiais, sendo necessária maior intensificação na vigilância de produtos à base de plantas medicinais.This study aimed to evaluate the quality of 12 samples prepared with ‘carqueja’ (Baccharis trimera L. used in traditional medicine as stomachic and diuretic medicines, and sold in commercial pharmacies in Paraná State. The analyses used parameters from the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia and specific literature. The methodology consisted in evaluating the product labels and instructions of the samples to verify their accordance to the specific legislation, sensorial analysis, authenticity of the samples, purity and dosage of chemical markers. All products showed some type of mistake or irregularity according to the official codes. These results showed that is necessary to intensify the inspection of medicinal plants in Brazil.

  10. Analysis of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS Análise de uma própolis verde brasileira da Baccharis dracunculifolia por CLAE-ICPA-EM e CG-EM

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    Roberto Chang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and dichloromethane extracts of a Brazilian green propolis from Baccharis dracunculifolia were analyzed by HPLC-APCI-MS and GC-MS, respectively. The HPLC-APCI-MS technique, at the positive mode, furnished a complete and unequivocal chemical composition of the green propolis sample. It serves as fingerprint for different propolis samples. The composition of the ethanol extract consisted mainly of cinnamic acid and derivatives, flavonoids, benzoic acid and a few benzoates, non-hydroxylated aromatics, and aliphatic acids and esters, which are normally not reported in the literature because they do not absorb UV light. The main constituents of the dichloromethane extract were prenylated compounds, alkanes and terpenoids.Os extratos em etanol e diclorometano de uma própolis verde de Baccharis dracunculifolia foram analisados por CLAE-ICPA-EM e CG-EM, respectivamente. A técnica de CLAE-EM-ICPA, no modo positivo, forneceu uma completa e inequívoca composição química da amostra de própolis verde. Ela serve como impressão digital para amostras diferentes de própolis. A composição do extrato em etanol consistiu fundamentalmente de ácido cinâmico e derivados, flavonóides, ácido benzóico e alguns benzoatos, aromáticos não hidroxilados, e ácidos e ésteres alifáticos, os quais são normalmente ignorados na literatura porque não absorvem luz UV. Os constituintes principais do extrato em diclorometano foram compostos prenilados, alcanos e terpenóides.

  11. [Fungistatic activity of a sesquiterpene lactone (tomentosin) isolated from fresh Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) flowers from the Puglia region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, C; De Laurentis, N; Milillo, M A; Losacco, V; Puccini, V

    2001-09-01

    A sesquiterpene lactone, tomentosin, has been isolated and identified form Inula viscosá Ait (Asteraceae) flowers. The molecule, at 1 mg/ml concentration, showed to be active in vitro against Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

  12. Asteraceae visited by honeybees in Argentina: a record from entomopalynological studies Asteraceae visitadas por abejas melíferas en Argentina: un registro a partir de estudios entomopalinológicos

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    María C. Telleria

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopalynological studies of Asteraceae in Argentina revealed that 64 taxa occurred in food stored by honeybees. The most visited plant tribes were classified according to both the type of reward provided by the different taxa and the intensity that such reward is collected by honeybees. Exotic plant taxa were intensely visited inside the disturbed areas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae tribes, whereas native taxa (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae and Eupatorieae were intensely visited in less disturbed areas. A large number of identified taxa of Asteraceae and the evaluation of its importance to honeybee nutrition were presented. The present study contributes to the knowledge of relationship between Asteraceae and honeybees.A partir de estudios entomopalinológicos se encontró que 64 taxa pertenecientes a la familia Asteraceae están presentes en los alimentos almacenados por las abejas melíferas. Los representantes exóticos fueron intensamente visitados en las áreas más alteradas (e.g. Cardueae and Cichorieae, mientras que algunos representantes nativos (e.g. Barnadesioideae, Mutisieae, Astereae y Eupatorieae fueron intensamente visitados en áreas menos alteradas. Se presenta un importante número de taxa de Asteraceae relevantes para la nutrición de las abejas melíferas. El presente trabajo contribuye a conocer la relación entre Asteraceae y abejas melíferas.

  13. Historical biogeography of Asteraceae from Tandilia and Ventania mountain ranges (Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Crisci V. Jorge

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Las sierras septentrionales, o de Tandilia y las australes, o de Ventania, caracterizadas por su gran diversidad orgánica y su alto número de endemismos, están ubicadas en la planicie bonaerense de pastizales denominada "pampa". Con el objeto de establecer las relaciones entre Tandilia y Ventania con otras áreas, se analizaron las distribuciones de los taxones específicos e infraespecíficos de Asteraceae que habitan estas sierras. Se delimitaron trece áreas: sur de América del Norte y América Central, sur de Brasil, Uruguay, Pampa, Tandilia, Ventania, Chaco, Sierras Pampeanas, Sierras Subandinas, Mahuidas, Patagonia, Chile Central, y Andes del Norte. Las unidades de estudio fueron 112 taxones de Asteraceae presentes en Tandilia y Ventania (taxones endémicos, adventicios y naturalizados no fueron incluidos en el análisis. Las distribuciones de estos taxones fueron analizadas utilizando dos métodos: panbiogeografía compatibilidad de trazos y análisis de simplicidad de endemismos. Ambos métodos conectan sur de Brasil, Uruguay, Pampa, Tandilia, Ventania y Sierras Pampeanas. Las Asteraceae de Tandilia y Ventania estarían más relacionadas con estas áreas que con la de las Sierras Subandinas, Andes del Norte, Chaco, Patagonia, Mahuidas y Chile Central. El área de América del Norte y América Central aparece menos relacionada a Tandilia y Ventania en relación a las otras áreas. La evolución de las Asteraceae de Tandilia y Ventania y las áreas relacionadas ha sido probablemente afectada por los eventos geológicos de los períodos Terciario y Cuaternario. La discontinuidad actual en el patrón de distribución de las Asteraceae, restringidas en general a las zonas elevadas, es explicada principalmente por eventos vicariantes debidos a condiciones áridas.Tandilia and Ventania are the only systems ofmountain ranges situated in a grassy steppe or "pampas" in the political province of Buenos Aires in Argentina. Tandilia and Ventania

  14. Atlas palinológico de la Amazonia Colombiana II. Familia Asteraceae

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    Jiménez Bulla Luis Carlos

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe pollen from 26 genera of Asteraceae which belong to six tribes: Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1 and Inulineae (1. Tricolporate grains were dominant, but tetracolporate grains also appears. All grains are tectate and the most common sculpture type was echinate.Se describen 26 palinomorfos pertenecientes a los géneros más importantes en cuanto a número de especies de la familia Asteraceae y dentro de esta a las tribus Heliantheae (10, Eupatorieae (6, Vernonieae (6, Senecioneae (2, Mutisieae (1, Inulineae (1. Las aberturas son tricolporadas o tetracolporadas, los granos son tectados y el tipo de escultura que más se repite es la equinada.

  15. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae: development of granules from spray dried powder

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovick,Gustavo F.; Pedro R. Petrovick; Valquiria L. Bassani

    2010-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae, is a herbal specie widely used in folk medicine in the south of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The technological characteristics of an Achyrocline satureioides spray dried extract powder, produced in semi-industrial scale, as well as the feasibility of the granules are reported in the present work. The spray dried powder was characterized as a fine powder consisting of small spherical particles with rough and porous surface. The Hausn...

  16. Distribution of the most common weeds from fam. Asteraceae in Srem

    OpenAIRE

    Igić Ružica S.; Konstantinović Branko; Polić Dubravka; Anačkov Goran T.

    2002-01-01

    Weeds fall into a specific ecological group of plants and man should play the key role in controlling the process of their formation and the rate of their spreading. Damage caused by weeds is significant in both the agricultural and natural ecosystems. Therefore, special care should be paid to the current rate of their spreading, ensuring that the caused environmental changes do not become irreversible. The paper summarizes the locations in which the most common weed types of the Asteraceae f...

  17. The Anthelmintic Activity of Vernonia Amygdalina (Asteraceae) and Alstonia Boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ketor, E.C.; Annan, K.; Koffuor, G. A.; Danquah, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal worms affect a host of individuals resulting in malnutrition, stunted growth, intellectual retardation and cognitive deficits. The aim of this study is to investigate the antihelminthic activity of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae) and Vernonia amygdalina (Asteraceae) using earth-worms (Lumbricus terretris). The worms were directly exposed to 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml of aque-ous and ethanolic bark extracts of Alstonia boonei and leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina and piperazine ...

  18. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Wróblewska Anna; Stawiarz Ernest; Masierowska Marzena

    2016-01-01

    Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans) as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass o...

  19. Eupatorium capilifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae, REKAMAN BARU UNTUK FLORA JAWA

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    Arifin Surya Dwipa Irsyam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Sebanyak 227 jenis tumbuhan Asteraceae terdapat di Pulau Jawa berdasarkan Flora of Java. Namun, suku Asteraceae di Pulau Jawa belum banyak ditinjau kembali sejak buku tersebut terbit 51 tahun yang lalu, sehingga memungkinkan adanya jenis-jenis tambahan yang belum terekam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memberikan informasi adanya jenis tambahan yang terdapat di Pulau Jawa. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode jelajah di Labuan (Banten, Bogor (Jawa Barat, Malang, dan Situbondo (Jawa Timur. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton merupakan rekaman baru yang dapat melengkapi flora Jawa. Jenis tersebut dikelompokkan ke dalam puak Eupatorieae. Abstract There are 227 species of Asteraceae in Java Island recorded in the Flora of Java. However, only few review of this family for Java since Flora of Java has published 51 years ago. Some possibilities of unrecorded species may occur after this Flora of Java published. This research was conducted to provide information on additional species in Java Island. This research was carried out using exploration method in Labuan (Banten, Bogor (West Java, Malang and Situbondo (East Java. Eupatorium capillifolium (Lam. Small ex Porter & Britton is a new record for completing the flora of Java Island. This species belongs to Eupatorieae tribe.   

  20. A Metabolomic Approach to Target Compounds from the Asteraceae Family for Dual COX and LOX Inhibition

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    Daniela A. Chagas-Paula

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of metabolomics in phytochemical analysis is an innovative strategy for targeting active compounds from a complex plant extract. Species of the Asteraceae family are well-known to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory (AI activity. Dual inhibition of the enzymes COX-1 and 5-LOX is essential for the treatment of several inflammatory diseases, but there is not much investigation reported in the literature for natural products. In this study, 57 leaf extracts (EtOH-H2O 7:3, v/v from different genera and species of the Asteraceae family were tested against COX-1 and 5-LOX while HPLC-ESI-HRMS analysis of the extracts indicated high diversity in their chemical compositions. Using O2PLS-DA (R2 > 0.92; VIP > 1 and positive Y-correlation values, dual inhibition potential of low-abundance metabolites was determined. The O2PLS-DA results exhibited good validation values (cross-validation = Q2 > 0.7 and external validation = P2 > 0.6 with 0% of false positive predictions. The metabolomic approach determined biomarkers for the required biological activity and detected active compounds in the extracts displaying unique mechanisms of action. In addition, the PCA data also gave insights on the chemotaxonomy of the family Asteraceae across its diverse range of genera and tribes.

  1. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential.

  2. AVALIAÇÃO DO POTENCIAL TERAPÊUTICO DE BACCHARIS DRACUNCULIFOLIA E PEUMUS BOLDUS NO PROCESSO FIBROSANTE HEPÁTICO

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    Caio Mateus da Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do fígado são consideradas um problema de saúde mundial e ainda terapias eficientes não foram desenvolvidas para a maioria dessas patologias. Mais especificamente, a fibrose hepática é característica comum do início de várias das anomalias no órgão. Dentro desse contexto, a busca por novos fármacos é necessária e o uso de plantas medicinais tem ganhado destaque. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado os efeitos dos extratos de Baccharis dracunculifolia e Peumus boldus em culturas de células hepáticas estreladas LX-2 em relação as alterações na morfologia dos filamentos de actina do citoesqueleto e no núcleo celular em ensaios de microscopia e na avaliação do padrão de expressão de genes relacionados à processos de apoptose e marcadores clássicos da fibrose hepática. Nos resultados, para as concentrações testadas o extrato de P. boldus altera o perfil de expressão de genes relacionados a apoptose causando maior estresse celular e quebrando a homeostase celular quando observados os filamentos de actina. Enquanto que a planta B. dracunculifolia apresentou uma grande melhora na reorganização do citoesqueleto e diminuição do estresse celular.

  3. Treatment with triterpenic fraction purified from Baccharis uncinella leaves inhibits Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis spreading and improves Th1 immune response in infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Eduardo Seiji; Campos, Bruno Luiz S; Laurenti, Márcia Dalastra; Lago, João H G; Grecco, Simone dos Santos; Corbett, Carlos E P; Passero, Luiz Felipe D

    2014-01-01

    The current medications used to treat leishmaniasis have many side effects for patients; in addition, some cases of the disease are refractory to treatment. Therefore, the search for new leishmanicidal compounds is indispensable. Recently, it was demonstrated that oleanolic- and ursolic-containing fraction from Baccharis uncinella leaves eliminated the promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and L. (Viannia) braziliensis without causing toxic effects for J774 macrophages. Thus, the aim of the present work was to characterize the therapeutic effect of the triterpenic fraction in L. (L.) amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. Oleanolic- and ursolic acid-containing fraction was extracted from B. uncinella leaves using organic solvents and chromatographic procedures. L. (L.) amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice were treated intraperitoneally with triterpenic fraction during five consecutive days with 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg of triterpenic fraction, or with 10.0 mg/kg of amphotericin B drug. Groups of mice treated with the triterpenic fraction, presented with decreased lesion size and low parasitism of the skin-both of which were associated with high amounts of interleukin-12 and interferon gamma. The curative effect of this fraction was similar to amphotericin B-treated mice; however, the final dose, required to eliminate amastigotes, was lesser than amphotericin B. Moreover, triterpenic fraction did not cause microscopic alterations in liver, spleen, heart, lung, and kidney of experimental groups. This work suggests that this fraction possesses compounds that are characterized by leishmanicidal and immunomodulatory activities. From this perspective, the triterpenic fraction can be explored as a new therapeutic agent for use against American Tegumentar Leishmaniasis.

  4. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity.

  5. Composition of essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus from 'campos de altitude' of the atlantic forest of Sao Paulo; Composicao quimica dos oleos essenciais das folhas de seis especies do genero Baccharis de 'campos de altitude' da Mata Atlantica Paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lago, Joao Henrique G.; Romoff, Paulete; Favero, Oriana A. [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias e Humanidades]. E-mail: joaolago@mackenzie.com.br; Soares, Marisi G.; Baraldi, Patricia T.; Correa, Arlene G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Souza, Fatima O. [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Curadoria do Herbario

    2008-07-01

    The essential oils from the leaves of six species of the Baccharis genus (B. dracunculifolia, B. microdonta, B. regnelli, B. schultzii, B. trimera, and B. uncinella), collected in the 'Campos de Altitude' of the Atlantic Forest (SP), were extracted using hydrodistillation procedures and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. There was a predominance of sesquiterpenes in all studied oils as {beta}-elemene in B. dracunculifolia and B. regnelli, {alpha}-humulene in B. trimera, {gamma}-gurjunene in B. schultzii, bicyclogermacrene in B. regnelli, {delta}-cadinene in B. regnelli and B. uncinella, spathulenol in B. schultzii, caryophyllene oxide in B. microdonta and guaiol in B. uncinella. However, a high amount of monoterpenes was also observed in B. uncinella ({alpha}-pinene), B. regnelli ({delta}-car-3-ene) and B. schultzii (limonene). The chemical compounds of the essential oils of B. schultzii, B. regnelli and B. microdonta are described for the first time in this work. (author)

  6. Morpho-anatomical features of underground systems in six Asteraceae species from the Brazilian Cerrado

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    Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Cerrado (neotropical savanna, the development of bud-bearing underground systems as adaptive structures to fire and dry periods can comprise an important source of buds for this ecosystem, as already demonstrated in the Brazilian Campos grasslands and North American prairies. Asteraceae species from both woody and herbaceous strata have subterranean organs that accumulate carbohydrates, reinforcing the adaptive strategy of these plants to different environmental conditions. This study aims to analyse the morpho-anatomy of underground systems of six species of Asteraceae (Mikania cordifolia L.f. Willd., Mikania sessilifolia DC, Trixis nobilis (Vell. Katinas, Pterocaulon alopecuroides (Lam. DC., Vernonia elegans Gardner and Vernonia megapotamica Spreng., to describe these structures and to verify the occurrence and origin of shoot buds, and to analyse the presence of reserve substances. Individuals sampled in Cerrado areas in São Paulo State showed thick underground bud-bearing organs, with adventitious or lateral roots and presence of fructans. Xylopodium was found in all studied species, except for Trixis nobilis, which had stem tuber. The presence of fructans as reserve, and the capacity of structures in the formation of buds indicate the potential of herbaceous species of Asteraceae in forming a viable bud bank for vegetation regeneration in the Brazilian Cerrado.No Cerrado brasileiro (savana neotropical, o desenvolvimento de sistemas subterrâneos que produzem gemas, como estruturas adaptativas contra o fogo e períodos de seca, pode compreender um importante suprimento de gemas para esse ecossistema, como já demonstrado nos campos brasileiros e nas pradarias norte-americanas. Espécies de Asteraceae tanto do estrato lenhoso, quanto do herbáceo têm órgãos que acumulam carboidratos, reforçando a estratégia adaptativa dessas plantas a diferentes condições ambientais. Este estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a morfo

  7. Achyrocline satureioides (lam.) dc., asteraceae : development of granules from spray dried powder

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovick, Gustavo Freire; Petrovick, Pedro Ros; Bassani, Valquiria Linck

    2010-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae, é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular no sul do Brasil, Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai. As características tecnológicas do extrato seco por aspersão de Achyrocline satureioides, produzido em escala semi-industrial, assim como a viabilidade da produção de granulados são relatadas no presente trabalho. O extrato seco por aspersão foi caracterizado como um pó fino, composto por pequenas partículas esféricas com superfície rugosa e p...

  8. New taxa of Cousinia Cass., Sect. Stenocephalae Bunge (Asteraceae from Iran

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    Farideh Attar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Six new species of genus Cousinia, sect. Stenocephalae (Asteraceae including Cousinia ginuae, C. shahuensis from Kurdestan region, C. minuticapitata, C. touchalensis, C. kandavanensis from Tehran region and C. golestanica from Golestan region were described and illustrated. These species which are endemic to Iran are placed in accordance with some characters such as the number of flowers (up to 20, shape of head, decurrent leaves (short- or longly decurrent and their habitat. Comments are also presented about their habitats and geographic distribution as well.

  9. Complete chloroplast genomes from apomictic Taraxacum (Asteraceae): Identity and variation between three microspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeský, Ľuboš; Schwarzacher, Trude; Gornall, Richard; Heslop-Harrison, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae. The chloroplast genomes of accessions O978 and S3 were identical and 151,322 bp long (where the nuclear genes are known to show variation), while A978 was 151,349 bp long. All three genomes contained 135 unique genes, with an additional copy of the trnF-GGA gene in the LSC region and 20 duplicated genes in the IR region, along with short repeats, the typical major Inverted Repeats (IR1 and IR2, 24,431bp long), and Large and Small Single Copy regions (LSC 83,889bp and SSC 18,571bp in O978). Between the two Taraxacum plastomes types, we identified 28 SNPs. The distribution of polymorphisms suggests some parts of the Taraxacum plastome are evolving at a slower rate. There was a hemi-nested inversion in the LSC region that is common to Asteraceae, and an SSC inversion from ndhF to rps15 found only in some Asteraceae lineages. A comparative repeat analysis showed variation between Taraxacum and the phylogenetically close genus Lactuca, with many more direct repeats of 40bp or more in Lactuca (1% larger plastome than Taraxacum). When individual genes and non-coding regions were for Asteraceae phylogeny reconstruction, not all showed the same evolutionary scenario suggesting care is needed for interpretation of relationships if a limited number of markers are used. Studying genotypic diversity in

  10. A new polyacetylene from Vernonia scorpioides (Lam.) Pers. (Asteraceae) and its in vitro antitumoral activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buskuhl, Humberto; Freitas, Rilton A.; Biavatti, Maique W. [Universidade do Vale do Itajai, Itajai, SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude], e-mail: maique@ccs.ufsc.br; Monache, Franco Delle [Universita ' La Sapienza' , Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Sostanze Biologicamente Attive; Barison, Andersson; Campos, Francinete R. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Dept. de Quimica; Corilo, Yuri E.; Eberlin, Marcos N. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    The dichloromethane fraction obtained from hydroalcoholic crude extract of leaves and flowers of Vernonia scorpioides (Asteraceae) was investigated, resulting in the isolation and structure elucidation of a new polyacetylene namely 5-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2(5H)-one. The structure of the isolated compound was determined based on IR, NMR (1D and 2D) and MS spectrometric data. The antitumor potential, including cytotoxicity to tumor cells and genotoxicity, was investigated. The results suggest that apoptotic cell death may have occurred, at least in part, via a caspase-dependent mechanism. (author)

  11. Complete chloroplast genomes from apomictic Taraxacum (Asteraceae): Identity and variation between three microspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Salih, Rubar Hussein; Majeský, Ľuboš; Schwarzacher, Trude; Gornall, Richard; Heslop-Harrison, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae. The chloroplast genomes of accessions O978 and S3 were identical and 151,322 bp long (where the nuclear genes are known to show variation), while A978 was 151,349 bp long. All three genomes contained 135 unique genes, with an additional copy of the trnF-GGA gene in the LSC region and 20 duplicated genes in the IR region, along with short repeats, the typical major Inverted Repeats (IR1 and IR2, 24,431bp long), and Large and Small Single Copy regions (LSC 83,889bp and SSC 18,571bp in O978). Between the two Taraxacum plastomes types, we identified 28 SNPs. The distribution of polymorphisms suggests some parts of the Taraxacum plastome are evolving at a slower rate. There was a hemi-nested inversion in the LSC region that is common to Asteraceae, and an SSC inversion from ndhF to rps15 found only in some Asteraceae lineages. A comparative repeat analysis showed variation between Taraxacum and the phylogenetically close genus Lactuca, with many more direct repeats of 40bp or more in Lactuca (1% larger plastome than Taraxacum). When individual genes and non-coding regions were for Asteraceae phylogeny reconstruction, not all showed the same evolutionary scenario suggesting care is needed for interpretation of relationships if a limited number of markers are used. Studying genotypic diversity in

  12. Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Toxicity of Thiophenes from Echinops transiliensis (Asteraceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae by Hiroshi Nakano*a)b)c), Abbas...larvicides against Aedes aegypti . Structural differences among compounds 3, 5, and 8 consisted in differing AcO and OH groups attached to C(3’’) and C(4...mg/ml), 4 (LC50 , 17.95 mg/ml), 6 (LC50 , 18.55 mg/ml), and 7 (LC50 , 19.97 mg/ml). These data indicated that A. aegypti larvicidal activities of

  13. Antioxidant activities and molecular mechanisms of the ethanol extracts of Baccharis propolis and Eucalyptus propolis in RAW64.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianglin; Shen, Xiaoge; Wang, Kai; Cao, Xueping; Zhang, Cuiping; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang

    2016-10-01

    Context Numerous studies have reported that propolis possesses strong antioxidant activities. However, their antioxidant molecular mechanisms are unclear. Objective We utilize ethanol extracts of Chinese propolis (EECP) as a reference to compare ethanol extracts of Eucalyptus propolis (EEEP) with ethanol extracts of Baccharis propolis (EEBGP) based on their antioxidant capacities and underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods HPLC and chemical analysis are utilized to evaluate compositions and antioxidant activities. ROS-eliminating effects of EEBGP (20-75 μg/mL), EEEP (1.25-3.75 μg/mL) and EECP (1.25-5 μg/mL) are also determined by flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, we compared antioxidant capacities by determining their effects on expressions of antioxidant genes in RAW264.7 cells with qRT-PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy analysis. Results EEBGP mainly contains chlorogenic acid (8.98 ± 0.86 mg/g), kaempferide (11.18 ± 8.31 mg/g) and artepillin C (107.70 ± 10.86 mg/g), but EEEP contains 10 compositions, whereas EECP contains 17 compositions. Meantime, although EEEP shows DPPH (IC50 19.55 ± 1.28), ABTS (IC50 20.0 ± 0.31) and reducing power (2.70 ± 0.08 mmol TE/g) better than EEBGP's DPPH (IC50 43.85 ± 0.54), ABTS (IC50 38.2 ± 0.33) and reducing power (1.53 ± 0.05 mmol TE/g), EEBGP exerts much higher ROS inhibition rate (40%) than EEEP (under 20%). Moreover, EEBGP strengthen antioxidant system by activating p38/p-p38 and Erk/p-Erk kinase via accelerating nucleus translocation of Nrf2. EEEP and EECP improve antioxidant gene expression only via Erk/p-Erk kinase-Nrf2 signalling pathway. Discussion and conclusion EEBGP and EEEP exert antioxidant activities via different molecular mechanisms, which may depend on chemical compositions.

  14. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae Plant Extracts for Larvicidal Activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Macêdo Maria E

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis - Diptera: Culicidae. The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l.

  15. Early evolution of the angiosperm clade Asteraceae in the Cretaceous of Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Viviana D; Palazzesi, Luis; Tellería, Maria C; Olivero, Eduardo B; Raine, J Ian; Forest, Félix

    2015-09-01

    The Asteraceae (sunflowers and daisies) are the most diverse family of flowering plants. Despite their prominent role in extant terrestrial ecosystems, the early evolutionary history of this family remains poorly understood. Here we report the discovery of a number of fossil pollen grains preserved in dinosaur-bearing deposits from the Late Cretaceous of Antarctica that drastically pushes back the timing of assumed origin of the family. Reliably dated to ∼76-66 Mya, these specimens are about 20 million years older than previously known records for the Asteraceae. Using a phylogenetic approach, we interpreted these fossil specimens as members of an extinct early diverging clade of the family, associated with subfamily Barnadesioideae. Based on a molecular phylogenetic tree calibrated using fossils, including the ones reported here, we estimated that the most recent common ancestor of the family lived at least 80 Mya in Gondwana, well before the thermal and biogeographical isolation of Antarctica. Most of the early diverging lineages of the family originated in a narrow time interval after the K/P boundary, 60-50 Mya, coinciding with a pronounced climatic warming during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, and the scene of a dramatic rise in flowering plant diversity. Our age estimates reduce earlier discrepancies between the age of the fossil record and previous molecular estimates for the origin of the family, bearing important implications in the evolution of flowering plants in general.

  16. COROTIPOS PRELIMINARES DE PERÚ BASADOS EN LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA FAMILIA ASTERACEAE

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    Berni Britto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se basa en el concepto de categorías corológicas o corotipos para formular una nueva hipótesis de clasificación biogeográfica del Perú basado en la distribución de la familia Astera - ceae. La información recabada dio como resultado que existen 1669 especies de Asteraceae registradas en Perú (hasta el año 2008, distribuidas en 255 géneros. El territorio peruano se dividió en 218 Distritos de Reporte que representan a los 24 departamentos divididos en franjas de 500 m de altitud. La base de datos biogeográficos de Asteraceae se obtuvo cruzando los registros de distribución actualizados con los Distritos de Reporte, expresándose en una matriz de presencia-ausencia. El análisis de datos dio como resultado un total de 14 corotipos preliminares para el Perú: Abiseo, Amotape, Andino, Apurímac-Huan - cavelica, Chachapoyas-Huánuco, Huancabamba, Huascarán, Ica, Lima-Piura, Loreto-Ucayali, Manu, Pasco, Sandia y Tacna.

  17. Phylogeny of Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae) inferred from DNA sequence data and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenstaeudl, Michael; Urtubey, Estrella; Jansen, Robert K; Samuel, Rosabelle; Barfuss, Michael H J; Stuessy, Tod F

    2009-06-01

    Subfamily Barnadesioideae (Asteraceae) consists of nine genera and 91 species endemic to South America. They include annual and perennial herbs, arching shrubs and trees up to 30m tall. Presumed sister to all other Asteraceae, its intergeneric relationships are key to understanding the early evolution of the family. Results of the only molecular study on the subfamily conflict with relationships inferred from morphology. We investigate inter- and intrageneric relationships in Barnadesioideae with novel DNA sequence data and morphological characters using parsimony, likelihood and Bayesian inference. All results verify Barnadesioideae as monophyletic and sister to the rest of the family. A basal split within the subfamily is recognized, with Chuquiraga, Doniophyton and Duseniella in one clade, and Arnaldoa, Barnadesia, Dasyphyllum, Fulcaldea, Huarpea and possibly Schlechtendalia in another. The largest genus, Dasyphyllum, is revealed as biphyletic with the two clades separating along subgeneric and geographic lines. Schlechtendalia, suggested as the earliest diverging lineage of the subfamily by morphological studies and parsimony analyses, is found in a more derived position under model-based inference methods. Competing phylogenetic hypotheses, both previous and present, are evaluated using likelihood-based tests. Evolutionary trends within Barnadesioideae are inferred: hummingbird pollination has developed convergently at least three times. An early vicariance in the subfamily's distribution is revealed. X=9 is supported as the ancestral base chromosome number for both Barnadesioideae and the family as a whole.

  18. Two New Labdane Diterpene Glycoside from Flowers of Bacchris Medulosa DC

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    D. A. Cifuente

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new labdane-type diterpene glycoside, were isolated from the flowers of Baccharis medulosa DC (Asteraceae. Structures of these compounds were established by application of various spectroscopic techniques.

  19. Ribosomal DNA, heterochromatin, and correlation with genome size in diploid and polyploid North American endemic sagebrushes (Artemisia, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia Garcia; Teresa Garnatje; Jaume Pellicer; E. Durant McArthur; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev; Joan Valles

    2009-01-01

    Subgenus Tridentatae (Artemisia, Asteraceae) can be considered a polyploid complex. Both polyploidy and hybridization have been documented in the Tridentatae. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome banding were used to detect and analyze ribosomal DNA changes linked to polyploidization in this group by studying four diploidpolyploid species pairs. In...

  20. Podospermic acid, 1,3,5-tri-O-(7,8-dihydrocaffeoyl) quinic acid from Podospermum laciniatum (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zidorn, Christian; Petersen, Bent O.; Udovicic ́, Vedrana

    2005-01-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) yielded the new quinic acid derivative podospermic acid (1,3,5-tridihydrocaffeoylquinic acid), which was named after the genus it was isolated from. The structure was established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D...

  1. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) based on ITS and cpDNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Marcus; Pornpongrungrueng, Pimwadee; Gustafsson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships in Inuleae subtribe Inulinae (Asteraceae) were investigated. DNA sequence data from three chloroplast regions (ndhF, trnL-F and psbA-trnH) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were analysed separately and in combination using parsimony...

  2. Hemijski sastav i antimikrobna aktivnost nekih sekundarnih metabolita biljaka Centaurea pannonica (Heuffel) Simonkai (Asteraceae) i Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević-Ifantis, Tanja S.

    2013-01-01

    Predmet doktorske disertacije je izolovanje i identifikacija sekundarnih metabolita iz ekstrakata nadzemnih delova biljaka Centaurea pannonica (Heuffel) Simonkai (Asteraceae) i Origanum scabrum Boiss. & Heldr. (Lamiacea), kao i ispitivanje obima njihove antimikrobne aktivnosti i hemotaksonomski značaj. Takođe, predmet ispitivanja je hemijski sastav etarskog ulja Centaurea pannonica i antimikrobna aktivnost. Primenom hromatografskih metoda izolovanja jedinjenja i spektroskopskih metod...

  3. The first description of the leaf-mining Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera) feeding on the South American plant genus Liabum, Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonis, Jonas R; Diškus, Arūnas; Remeikis, Andrius

    2015-11-13

    First Liabum Adans. (Asteraceae) feeding Nepticulidae are reported. Two new new species from the Andes (Ecuador) are described: Stigmella serpantina Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. and S. pangorica Diškus & Stonis, sp. nov. The male genitalia of both species and the female genitalia, as well the leaf-mines of S. serpantina sp. nov. are illustrated.

  4. Alelopatia de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. sobre a germinação e desenvolvimento de espécies cultivadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i2.3592 Allelopathy of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. on the germination and development of cultivated species - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i3.3592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Horácio Couto Bittencourt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Metabótitos secundários produzidos em algumas plantas podem provocar alterações no desenvolvimento de outras plantas ou até mesmo de outros organismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar possíveis efeitos alelopáticos de extratos aquosos de folhas de Baccharis dracunculifolia na germinação e no crescimento de plântulas de Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus e Zea mays L. Para a obtenção do extrato aquoso, foram utilizadas folhas previamente secas na concentração de 1 g 10 mL-1 (p/v e utilizadas sete concentrações deste extrato aquoso (100, 90, 70, 50, 30, 10 e 0%, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições de dez sementes das espécies cultivadas. Os extratos aquosos de B. dracunculifolia evidenciaram potencialidades alelopáticas sobre a germinação das sementes e no crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular de todas espécies testadas, sendo que a redução na germinação e no crescimento inicial elevaram-se com o aumento das concentrações dos extratos aquosos utilizados. Os resultados indicam a existência de potencial alelopático de B. dracunculifolia.Secondary metabolites produced in some plant species can provoke development changes in other plants or even in other organisms. The objective of this work was to identify the possible allelopathic effects of the aqueous extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia leaves in the germination and growth of Brassica campestris, B. oleracea cv. Capitata, Citrullus lanatus, Eruca sativa, Lactuca sativa cv. Branca Boston, L. sativa cv. Grand Rapids, L. sativa cv. Simpson, Lycopersicum esculentum, Raphanus sativus and Zea mays seedlings. The aqueous extracts were made out of dried leaves at a 1g 10 mL-1 (p/v concentration and by using seven of those aqueous extract concentrations

  5. Composição química e produtividade dos principais componentes do óleo essencial de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. em função da adubação orgânica Chemical composition and productivity of essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. as affected by organic compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a composição química e produtividade dos principais componentes do óleo essencial de Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. em função de doses de composto orgânico (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 e 50 t ha-1. Foi realizada uma colheita, aos 150 dias após o transplante das mudas. O óleo essencial, da massa seca útil da parte aérea, foi extraído por hidrodestilação e analisado em cromatógrafo a gás acoplado a espectrômetro de massas (Shimadzu, QP-5000. A identificação dos constituintes químicos foi realizada através da análise comparativa dos espectros de massas das substâncias com o banco de dados do sistema CG-EM (Nist 62.lib, literatura e índice de retenção. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo teste F, às médias obtidas foram submetidas à análise de regressão e o teste Tukey para o efeito das doses de composto orgânico. Os três componentes sesquiterpênicos, E-nerolidol, espatulenol e óxido de cariofileno, perfazem 58,44% da média relativa da composição química do óleo essencial de B. dracunculifolia, composto pela presença de 28 substâncias. Na produtividade dos componentes γ-muroleno, valenceno, δ-cadineno e E-nerolidol as dosagens estudadas influenciaram as plantas, que na dosagem 30 t ha-1 obtiveram os melhores resultados. Se o objetivo no cultivo de B. dracunculifolia for o componente espatulenol as dosagens 30 e 40 t ha-1 obtiveram os melhores resultados. Para a produtividade do componente óxido de cariofileno as dosagens estudadas influenciaram as plantas, que na dosagem 40 t ha-1 obtiveram os melhores resultados.The objective was to evaluate the chemical composition and productivity of the main components of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia DC. due to organic compound (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 t ha-1. We performed a harvest, 150 days after transplanting. The essential oil of the dry mass useful in the aerial part was extracted by hydrodistillation and

  6. Caracterização morfoanatômica de Ageratum fastigiatum (Asteraceae Morpho-anatomical characterization of Ageratum fastigiatum (Asteraceae

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    Glauciemar Del-Vechio-Vieira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardn. R. M. King et H. Rob. (Asteraceae, conhecido como "matapasto", é uma planta usada na medicina popular como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar caracterização morfoanatômica da folha, dos ramos e da raiz de A. fastigiatum. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas; a inflorescência é constituída de capítulos; as flores com corola lilás; ausência de pápus. A raiz apresenta crescimento secundário na zona de ramificação com estruturas secretoras. O caule possui epiderme uniestratificada, estômatos, tricomas tectores simples e tricomas glandulares capitados. O pecíolo exibe contorno côncavo-convexo e a epiderme é unisseriada. A lâmina foliar é anfiestomática e o mesófilo dorsiventral. A epiderme possui células de contorno sinuoso e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico. Os caracteres morfoanatômicos permitiram estabelecer parâmetros para identificação do A. fastigiatum.Ageratum fastigiatum (Gardn. R. M. King et H. Rob. (Asteraceae, known as "matapasto", is a plant used in the popular medicine as cicatrizant and antimicrobial. The aim of this work was to perform a morpho-anatomical characterization of the leaves, the stems and the roots from A. fastigiatum. Transversal and paradermic sections, stained with astra safranin/blue and toluidine blue were analyzed under a microscope. The leaves are alternate or fasciculate; the inflorescence is constituted of chapters; the flowers with lilac corolla; papus is absence. The root presents secondary growth in the ramification area with secretor structures. The stem possesses epidermis unistratified, stomata, simple non-glandular trichomes and capitates glandular trichomes. The petiole exhibits concave-convex outline and the epidermis is uniseriate. The blade leaf is hypostomatic; the mesophyll

  7. Pollen morphology of the genus Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae Morfologia polínica de espécies do gênero Eremanthus Less. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

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    BenoÎt Loeuille

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the significance of the pollen morphology for generic and infrageneric taxonomy of the genus Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, and to provide additional data for its phylogenetic reconstruction, the pollen of 20 of the 23 species of the genus was examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Acetolysed pollen grains were measured, described, and illustrated using light microscopy, while non-acetolysed pollen grains were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Pollen grains of these species are isopolar, oblate-spheroidal in most of the species, more rarely prolate spheroidal or suboblate, subtriangular amb, tricolporate and subechinolophate. The variation among quantitative characters does not correlate with the macromorphological subdivision of the genus or with the generic or specific limits.Com a finalidade de avaliar a importância da morfologia polínica para a taxonomia de Eremanthus (Vernonieae, Asteraceae em nível genérico e infragenérico e fornecer dados adicionais para a sua reconstrução filogenética, os grãos de pólen de 20 das 23 espécies do gênero foram examinados usando a microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscópio de luz. Para a análise em microscópio eletrônico de varredura foram utilizados grãos de pólen com e/ou sem tratamento químico. As espécies apresentaram grãos de pólen isopolares, oblato-esferoidais, na maioria dos táxons, mais raramente prolato-esferoidais ou suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, tricolporados e subechinolofados. A variação entre os caracteres quantitativos não se correlacionam com a subdivisão macromorfológica do gênero nem com os limites genéricos ou específicos.

  8. A Comparison of the First Two Sequenced Chloroplast Genomes in Asteraceae: Lettuce and Sunflower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timme, Ruth E.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Jansen, Robert K.

    2006-01-20

    Asteraceae is the second largest family of plants, with over 20,000 species. For the past few decades, numerous phylogenetic studies have contributed to our understanding of the evolutionary relationships within this family, including comparisons of the fast evolving chloroplast gene, ndhF, rbcL, as well as non-coding DNA from the trnL intron plus the trnLtrnF intergenic spacer, matK, and, with lesser resolution, psbA-trnH. This culminated in a study by Panero and Funk in 2002 that used over 13,000 bp per taxon for the largest taxonomic revision of Asteraceae in over a hundred years. Still, some uncertainties remain, and it would be very useful to have more information on the relative rates of sequence evolution among various genes and on genome structure as a potential set of phylogenetic characters to help guide future phylogenetic structures. By way of contributing to this, we report the first two complete chloroplast genome sequences from members of the Asteraceae, those of Helianthus annuus and Lactuca sativa. These plants belong to two distantly related subfamilies, Asteroideae and Cichorioideae, respectively. In addition to these, there is only one other published chloroplast genome sequence for any plant within the larger group called Eusterids II, that of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae, 156,318 bps, AY582139). Early chloroplast genome mapping studies demonstrated that H. annuus and L. sativa share a 22 kb inversion relative to members of the subfamily Barnadesioideae. By comparison to outgroups, this inversion was shown to be derived, indicating that the Asteroideae and Cichorioideae are more closely related than either is to the Barnadesioideae. Later sequencing study found that taxa that share this 22 kb inversion also contain within this region a second, smaller, 3.3 kb inversion. These sequences also enable an analysis of patterns of shared repeats in the genomes at fine level and of RNA editing by comparison to available EST sequences. In addition, since

  9. Antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of eight Asteraceae and two Rubiaceae plants from colombian biodiversity Atividades antibactariana, antifúngica e citotóxica de oito plantas Asteraceae e duas Rubiaceae da biodiversidade colombiana

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    Jaime Niño

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crude extracts of eight plants belonging to Asteraceae and two to Rubiaceae families collected at different places from the Regional Natural Park Ucumarí (RNPU, Colombia, were tested for their antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria and three fungi. Both the antibacterial and the antimycotic activities were tested by the agar well diffusion method. The cytotoxic activity on the same plant extracts was determined through the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The extracts from the Asteraceae family were more bioactive against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The extracts of both families studied were bioactive against the fungi Candida albicans and Fusarium solani. In addition, the extracts of Asteraceae species displayed the greatest cytotoxic activities. However, the most important specie in this research was Gonzalagunia rosea Standl (Rubiaceae because of the strong and moderate activities of the methanol and dichloromethane extracts against C. albicans and F. solani, respectively; as well as the strong cytotoxic activity of the methanol extract. None of these ten plants has previously been reported for their biological activities.Trinta extratos crus de oito plantas da família Asteraceae e a duas plantas da família Rubiaceae, coletadas em diferentes lugares do Parque Natural Regional Ucumarí (PNRU, Colombia, foram avaliadas quanto à atividade contra duas bactérias Gram-positivas, duas Gram-negativas e três fungos. As atividades antibacteriana e antimicótica foram determinadas pelo método de difusão em agar. A atividade citotóxica dos mesmos extratos foi determinada através do bioensaio de Artemia salina. Os extratos da família Asteraceae foram os mais bioativos contra Bacillus subtilis e Staphylococcus aureus. Os extratos de ambas famílias estudadas foram bioativos contra os fungos Candida albicans e Fusarium solani. Os extratos da família Asteraceae exibiram maior

  10. Caffeoyl-D-Glucaric Acid Derivatives in the Genus Gnaphalium (Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae

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    Serhat Sezai Cicek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A chemosystematic survey was carried out to specify whether leontopodic acid and leontopodic acid B, two unique caffeoyl-D-glucaric acid derivatives, recently identified in the emblematic alpine edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum Cass. are also found in members of the genus Gnaphalium from the Alps. Gnaphalium is closely related to Leontopodium and both genera are assigned to the Gnaphaliinae subtribe (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae. In all investigated Gnaphalium species, G. hoppeanum W.D.J.Koch, G. norvergicum Gunnerus, G. supinum L., G. sylvaticum L., and G. uliginosum L., both leontopodic acid and leontopodic acid B were detected. Moreover, a number of related compounds were detected by HPLC/MS and their assumed structures are discussed. The chemosystematic data reported here are of interest to explore new sources for the biologically active compounds leontopodic acid and leontopodic acid B and they also hint to the occurrence of novel caffeoyl-D-glucaric acid derivatives in Gnaphalium not detected in Leontopodium, yet.

  11. Taxonomic value of histochemical features of the style in early lineages of Asteraceae

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    Marcelo Paulo Hernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine lipophilic substances, tannins, proteins, reducing carbohydrates, starch, and oxalate salts in early lineages of Asteraceae to test if they are a useful complement to classification studies. Styles of mature flowers of 44 species were processed according to plant histochemical techniques and observed by means of a light microscope. Lipophilic compounds were always present in the cuticle and cell walls, and in some species were located inside the cells. Proteins were located in the style cell walls and cell interior of most of the analyzed species. No tannins were found. In general, there is a correlation in the presence of reducing sugars and proteins. Starch granules and oxalate salts were found in the style parenchyma of a few species. Cytoplasmic content of lipophilic compounds, proteins, and reducing sugars predominates in Barnadesioideae and Nassauvieae (Mutisioideae, and histochemical similarities were found among members of Gochnatioideae

  12. Synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae), including a new species from northern Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael O; Luebert, Federico

    2014-01-01

    A synopsis of Plazia Ruiz & Pav. (Onoserideae, Asteraceae) is presented, including the description of a new species, Plazia robinsonii M.O.Dillon & Sagást., from a locality c. 20 kms west of Huamachuco, Department of La Libertad in northern Peru. It most closely resembles Plazia conferta Ruiz & Pav., a narrow endemic from central Peru some 450 km to the south; however, the latter species has larger leaves and smaller capitula. Plazia is a small genus of four species confined to the Andean Cordillera of Peru, Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. A distribution map of the four species, an illustration of the new species, a photograph of the holotype, and a key to species are provided.

  13. Antifungal activity of essential oils from leaves and flowers of Inula viscosa (Asteraceae) by Apulian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, C; De Laurentis, N; Milillo, M A; Losacco, V; Puccini, V

    2002-12-01

    Some essential oils from several plants (Artemisia verlotorum, Lavandula augustifolia, Ocimum gratissimum) have proved to have acaricidal, antifungal and antibacterial activity. Inula viscosa Ait. (Asteraceae), a plant growing spontaneously in the Mediterranean area, is currently used by popular medicine for its therapeutic effects. Flavonoids, azulenes, sesquiterpenes, and essential oils have been isolated and identified from its leaves. This paper reports the results of the composition and antifungal activity in vitro against dermatophytes and Candida spp. of the four essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the leaves, flowers, whole plant and whole plants without flower extracts of I. viscosa. All the extracts proved to have a significant antifungal activity against dermatophytes even at low concentrations (0.01 mg/ml). The leaf extracts exhibited the greatest antifungal efficacy. The high concentration of the sesquiterpene (carboxyeudesmadiene), occurring in the leaf extracts, may explain its greater antifungal activity.

  14. Othonna sonchifolia L. is an earlier name for Senecio cymbalarifolius L. (Asteraceae: Senecioneae

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    Luvo Magoswana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ongoing systematic studies in the African flora necessitate periodic nomenclatural adjustments and corrections.Objectives: To effect requisite nomenclatural changes.Method: Relevant literature was surveyed and type material located and examined.Results: A nomenclatural correction is necessary in Othonna L. and Senecio L. (Asteraceae.Conclusions: Othonna sonchifolia L. is recognised as the earliest name for Senecio cymbalarifolius (L. Less. and the new combination Senecio sonchifolius (L. J.C. Manning & Magoswana is provided for the species. Othonna cymbalarifolia is lectotypified and Senecio hastifolius (L. Less. is reinstated from synonymy as a species distinct from S. sonchifolius.

  15. Prenanthes violaefolia Decne. (Asteraceae)-a new report from Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaiz Ahmad Lone; Ajay Kumar Bhardwaj; Kunwar Wajahat Shah

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To enumerate the diversity of important medicinal plants used traditionally by the local populace in biodiversity rich and temperate Himalayan ranges of Bandipora district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods:Methods used to explore the plants with medicinal value and to record associated ethnomedicinal knowledge included semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and walk-in-the-woods with local knowledgeable persons, traditional practitioners called“Bhoeris”and tribals (Gujjars and Bakkerwals). Results:During plant exploration in this floristically rich Himalayan region, a very interesting and less-known species of the genus Prenanthes L., (Asteraceae) was recorded. On examination, the species was identified as Prenanthes violaefolia Decne., which represents a first report from Kashmir Himalaya, India. Conclusions: Prenanthes violaefolia could serve as an important source of new potent compounds provided that it is subjected to thorough phytochemical and pharmacological investigations.

  16. Prenanthes violaefolia Decne.(Asteraceae)-a new report from Kashmir Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parvaiz; Ahmad; Lone; Ajay; Kumar; Bhardwaj; Kunwar; Wajahat; Shah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To enumerate the diversity of important medicinal plants used traditionally by the local populace in biodiversity rich and temperate Himalayan ranges of Bandipora district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Methods: Methods used to explore the plants with medicinal value and to record associated ethnomedicinal knowledge included semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and walk-in-the-woods with local knowledgeable persons, traditional practitioners called "Bhoeris" and tribals(Gujjars and Bakkerwals). Results: During plant exploration in this floristically rich Himalayan region, a very interesting and less-known species of the genus Prenanthes L.,(Asteraceae) was recorded. On examination, the species was identified as Prenanthes violaefolia Decne., which represents a first report from Kashmir Himalaya, India. Conclusions: Prenanthes violaefolia could serve as an important source of new potent compounds provided that it is subjected to thorough phytochemical and pharmacological investigations.

  17. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  18. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) from South Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubée, Daniel B Montesinos

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) belonging to Senecio ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morphological similarities with other species of Senecio, a distribution map, conservation status assessments, and a key to the caespitose Peruvian species of Senecio subser. Caespitosi are provided. The new species are Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio pucapampaensis Beltrán, Senecio sykorae Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio gamolepis Cabrera, and Senecio tassaensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered) which most closely resembles Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos.

  19. Three new caespitose species of Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae from South Peru

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    Daniel Montesinos Tubée

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the genus Senecio (Asteraceae, Senecioneae belonging to S. ser. Suffruticosi subser. Caespitosi were discovered in the tributaries of the upper Tambo River, Moquegua Department, South Peru. Descriptions, diagnoses and discussions about their distribution, a table with the morphological similarities with other species of Senecio, a distribution map, conservation status assessments, and a key to the caespitose Peruvian species of S. subser. Caespitosi are provided. The new species are Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered which most closely resembles Senecio pucapampaensis Beltrán, Senecio sykorae Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered which most closely resembles Senecio gamolepis Cabrera, and Senecio tassaensis Montesinos, sp. nov. (Critically Endangered which most closely resembles Senecio moqueguensis Montesinos.

  20. Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae: a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands

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    Vicki Funk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia. This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidens saint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidens meyeri may be distinguished from B. saint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm, apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent, smaller leaves (2.0–2.3 cm vs. 5–6 cm, and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidens meyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française,

  1. Bidensmeyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae): a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Vicki A; Wood, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Bidensmeyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae) is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia). This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidenssaint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidensmeyeri may be distinguished from Bidenssaint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm), apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent), smaller leaves (2.0-2.3 cm vs. 5-6 cm), and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidensmeyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française.

  2. ISOLATION AND ANALYTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF STEVIOSIDE FROM LEAVES OF STEVIA REBAUDIANA BERT; (ASTERACEAE

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    Inamake M.R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Stevioside a natural non caloric sweetener isolated from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Asteraceae or compositae. It has been widely used in many countries, including Japan, Korea, China, Brazil and Paraguay, either as a substitute for sucrose in beverages and foods or as a household sweetening agent isolated from the dried leaves of Stevia. In the present work attempt was made to isolate stevioside from the dried leaves of Stevia in its purest form. Isolated stevioside was purified, analyzed & characterized by using various chromatographic & analytical methods including TLC, UV, FTIR, NMR and HPLC methods. The Rf value for TLC was 0.32, λmax of UV spectra was obtained at 333 nm and HPLC showed the sharp peak with 1.958 min retention time. The isolated stevioside was also compared with standard stevioside with all analytical methods.

  3. Chemical constituents of Pseudobrickellia brasiliensis leaves(Spreng. R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

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    M.L.L. DE AMORIM

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pseudobrickelliabrasiliensisis aspecies endemic toBrazil, popularlyknown as “arnica”/ “arnica-do-campo”/ “arnica-do-mato” and used for itsanalgesicand anti-inflammatoryproperties. The objective of this research was thephytochemical studyof the essential oilandhexaneandethyl acetateextracts of the leaves of this species. The essential oilwasextracted byhydrodistillation using a Clevengerapparatusand was analyzed byGC/MS, 25components were identified, with a predominance ofmonoterpenes. The extractswere subjected toclassicalchromatographyand the fractionswere analyzed byGC/MS, 1D 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 13C-NMR-DEPT 135.α-amyrin, α-amyrin acetate, β-amyrin, β-amyrin acetate, lupeol, lupeolacetate, pseudotaraxasterol andtaraxasterol (triterpenes, andkaurenoicacid (diterpene were identified.Theseterpenesarechemo-taxonomicallyrelated to theEupatorieaetribe(Asteraceae and may be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity attributed to the plant.

  4. Anatomia e histoquímica dos órgãos vegetativos de Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Siegesbeckia orientalis (Asteraceae

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    D.B. Aguilera

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Descreveu-se a anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis, em estrutura primária, enfatizando a caracterização e histoquímica de suas estruturas secretoras. Folhas, caules e raízes foram fixados em FAA50 e em sulfato ferroso e estocados em etanol 70%. Cortes transversais e longitudinais foram submetidos ao azul-de-toluidina pH 4,0, ao vermelho-de-rutênio, à reação de PAS, ao reativo Xylidine Ponceau, ao Sudan Black B e ao reativo Dragendorff. Anatomicamente, os órgãos vegetativos de S. orientalis são semelhantes aos caracteres descritos para Asteraceae. As raízes laterais são triarcas e o caule, um eustelo. Ductos estão ausentes na raiz e presentes no caule e na folha. Estas estruturas são de pequeno diâmetro, sendo delimitadas por quatro a cinco células epiteliais. No caule, os ductos estavam presentes no córtex, próximos à endoderme e na medula; nas folhas, associados aos feixes vasculares, tanto para o lado do xilema quanto para o do floema. As folhas são dorsiventrais e anfiestomáticas. Três tipos de estruturas secretoras foram observados: ductos, hidatódios e tricomas glandulares. Os testes histoquímicos aplicados demonstraram a presença de compostos fenólicos e alcalóides nos ductos e, nos tricomas, de compostos lipofílicos e fenólicos. Esses resultados indicam a complexidade da secreção produzida pelas estruturas secretoras na espécie.The anatomy of the vegetative organs of S. orientalis in primary structure was described, emphasizing the characterization and histochemistry of its secretory structures. Leaves, stems and roots were fixed in FAA50 and ferrous sulphate and stored in 70% ethanol. Cross and longitudinal sections were submitted to toluidine blue pH 4.0, ruthenium red, PAS reaction, Ponceau Xylidine reactive, Sudan Black B and Dragendorff reactive. Anatomically, S. orientalis vegetative organs are similar to the characters described for the Asteraceae. The lateral roots are triarches and

  5. WOOD ANATOMY OF TWO SPECIES OF THE GENUS Heterothalamus Lessing (ASTERACEAE FROM RIO GRANDE DO SUL (BRAZIL

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    Anabela Silveira de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the wood anatomy of Heterothalamus alienus and Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae - Asteraceae, as part of the secondary xylem study in the named genus. For the two species it was recorded some features usually mentioned in the literature for the Asteraceae, as typically small vessels, grouped in a dendritic pattern, the presence of only simple perforation plates and of paratracheal parenchyma. Heterothalamus alienus shows spiral thickenings in the wood vessels and storied vasicentric axial parenchyma. Heterothalamus rupestris differs itself by the absence of spiral thickenings in wood vessels and by no storied axial parenchyma, in paratracheal vasicentric to unilateral patterns. Photomicrographs, quantitative data of anatomical features and a comparison between the two  species of wood are also provided.

  6. Antipsychotic and sedative effects of the leaf extract of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae) in rodents.

    OpenAIRE

    Sotoing Taïwe, Germain; Ngo Bum, Elisabeth; Talla, Emmanuel; Dawe, Amadou; Okomolo Moto, Fleur Clarisse; Temkou Ngoupaye, Gwladys; Sidiki, Neteydji; Dabole, Bernard; Djomeni Dzeufiet, Paul Désiré; Dimo, Théophile; De Waard, Michel

    2012-01-01

    International audience; ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae) has been used as a medicine for the treatment of epilepsy, insomnia, dementia and psychotic disorders in Cameroonian traditional medicine. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to examine whether the aqueous extract and the alkaloid fraction prepared from the leaves of Crassocephalum bauchiense possess antipsychotic and sedative properties in rodents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T...

  7. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  8. Evolutionary Co-Option of Floral Meristem Identity Genes for Patterning of the Flower-Like Asteraceae Inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yafei; Zhang, Teng; Broholm, Suvi K; Tähtiharju, Sari; Mouhu, Katriina; Albert, Victor A; Teeri, Teemu H; Elomaa, Paula

    2016-09-01

    The evolutionary success of Asteraceae, the largest family of flowering plants, has been attributed to the unique inflorescence architecture of the family, which superficially resembles an individual flower. Here, we show that Asteraceae inflorescences (flower heads, or capitula) resemble solitary flowers not only morphologically but also at the molecular level. By conducting functional analyses for orthologs of the flower meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) in Gerbera hybrida, we show that GhUFO is the master regulator of flower meristem identity, while GhLFY has evolved a novel, homeotic function during the evolution of head-like inflorescences. Resembling LFY expression in a single flower meristem, uniform expression of GhLFY in the inflorescence meristem defines the capitulum as a determinate structure that can assume floral fate upon ectopic GhUFO expression. We also show that GhLFY uniquely regulates the ontogeny of outer, expanded ray flowers but not inner, compact disc flowers, indicating that the distinction of different flower types in Asteraceae is connected with their independent evolutionary origins from separate branching systems. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Parasitoid Wasps in Flower Heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian Cerrado: Taxonomical Composition and Determinants of Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, A R; Almeida-Neto, M; Almeida, A M; Fonseca, C R; Lewinsohn, T M; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2014-08-01

    This study provides the first survey of the parasitoid fauna reared in flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. We investigated the relative importance of herbivore richness and plant species commonness to differences in parasitoid species richness among the plant species. A total of 15,372 specimens from 192 morphospecies belonging to 103 genera of Hymenoptera were reared from the flower heads of 74 Asteraceae species. Chalcidoidea and Ichneumonoidea were the most common superfamilies, with Eulophidae and Braconidae as the main families of parasitoid wasps. Singletons and doubletons accounted for 45% of total parasitoid species richness. The number of parasitoid species per plant species ranged from 1 to 67, and the variation in parasitoid species richness among plants was mainly explained by the number of sites in which the plants were recorded. This study shows that there is a highly diversified fauna of Hymenoptera parasitoids associated with flower heads of Asteraceae in the Brazilian cerrado. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of parasitoid species on plants is mainly determined by the regional commonness of plant species rather than the number of herbivore species associated with the plants.

  10. Primer reporte de empleo de marcadores AFLP en Asteraceae en Cuba

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    Grecia Montalvo Fernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: First report of the employment of AFLP markers in Asteraceae in Cuba. Resumen: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., es una especie vegetal de la familia Asteraceae, que se encuentra en peligro crítico de extinción. Es endémico de la provincia Villa Clara en la región central de Cuba. Habita en el matorral xeromorfo sub espinoso sobre serpentina. Existen solo cinco poblaciones naturales dentro de un área protegida, la principal causa de amenaza es la fragmentación de su hábitat por acciones antrópicas. Debido a su situación de conservación, se hace necesario realizar estudios de la diversidad genética de las poblaciones naturales para así generar información básica y diseñar una estrategia de conservación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar de manera preliminar la diversidad genética de cuatro poblaciones de esta especie utilizando marcadores AFLP (Polimorfismo de Longitud de Fragmentos Amplificados. Se emplearon dos combinaciones de iniciadores y se evaluó el porcentaje de polimorfismo así como la similitud entre los individuos.  Se obtuvieron 165 loci de los cuales el 78,7 % fueron polimórficos. La población de mayor polimorfismo fue Corojito con 85,2%, de manera general el polimorfismo fue alto con valores entre 75 y  87%. La similitud entre los individuos también fue alta con un promedio de 0,74. El agrupamiento genético fue independiente a la población de procedencia, lo que sugiere que existe intercambio genético entre las poblaciones y que estas comparten más del 80 % de los alelos que fueron analizados. Los resultados obtenidos son importantes para el mantenimiento in situ de la especie y para tomar decisiones en aras de su conservación. Palabras clave: Rhodogeron coronopifolius, peligro de extinción, polimorfismo, conservación. Abstract: Rhodogeron coronopifolius Griseb., is a specie of Asteraceae family, in critical danger of extinction. It is an endemic of Villa Clara city in the

  11. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau endemic Nannoglottis (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Quan; Gao, Tian-Gang; Chen, Zhi-Duan; Lu, An-Ming

    2002-06-01

    All taxa endemic to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are hypothesized to have originated in situ or from immediately adjacent areas because of the relatively recent formation of the plateau since the Pliocene, followed by the large-scaled biota extinction and recession caused by the Quaternary ice sheet. However, identification of specific progenitors remains difficult for some endemics, especially some endemic genera. Nannoglottis, with about eight species endemic to this region, is one such genus. Past taxonomic treatments have suggested its relationships with four different tribes of Asteraceae. We intend to identify the closest relatives of Nannoglottis by evaluating the level of monophyly, tribal delimitation, and systematic position of the genus by using molecular data from ndhF gene, trnL-F, and ITS region sequences. We find that all sampled species of Nannoglottis are a well-defined monophyly. This supports all recent taxonomic treatments of Nannoglottis, in which all sampled species were placed in one broadly re-circumscribed genus. Nannoglottis is most closely related to the Astereae, but stands as an isolated genus as the first diverging lineage of the tribe, without close relatives. A tentative relationship was suggested for Nannoglottis and the next lineage of the tribe was based on the ITS topology, the "basal group," which consists of seven genera from the Southern Hemisphere. Such a relationship is supported by some commonly shared plesiomorphic morphological characters. Despite the very early divergence of Nannoglottis in the Astereae, the tribe must be regarded to have its origin in Southern Hemisphere rather than in Asia, because based on all morphological, molecular, biogeographical, and fossil data, the Asteraceae and its major lineages (tribes) are supposed to have originated in the former area. Long-distance dispersal using Southeast Asia as a steppingstone from Southern Hemisphere to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most likely explanation for this

  12. Phytochemistry and quantification of polyphenols in extracts of the Asteraceae weeds from Diamantina, Minas Gerais state, Brazil Fitoquímica e quantificação de polifenóis em extratos de plantas daninhas Asteraceae de Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brasil

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    F. Petacci

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Asteraceae weeds are rich in chemicals that have biological and pharmaceutical activities. The aims of this work were to describe the phytochemistry and quantify the polyphenols in ethanol extracts from leaves of 12 species of Asteraceae weeds collected in Diamantina, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The screening of Asteraceae extracts revealed the presence of tannins, steroids, triterpenes, anthocyanins, and flavonoids. The total phenolic content was high in extracts of Lychnophora ericoides (147.97 ± 2.66, Lepidaploa lilacina (141.11 ± 1.99, and Eremanthus elaeagnus (134.61 ± 7.81 and low in extracts of Lychnophora ramosissima (32.65 ± 0.70, and Lychnophora sp. (54.03 ± 0.73. Extracts of Asteraceae weeds from Diamantina could have potential for biological studies that are searching for new pesticides and drugs.Plantas daninhas Asteraceae são ricas em substâncias químicas com atividades biológicas e farmacêuticas. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram descrever a fitoquímica e quantificar os polifenóis em extratos etanólicos de folhas de 12 espécies de plantas daninhas Asteraceae coletadas em Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A triagem de extratos de Asteraceae revelou a presença de taninos, esteroides, triterpenos, antocianinas e flavonoides. O conteúdo de fenóis totais foi alto para extratos de Lychnophora ericoides (147,97 ± 2,66, Lepidaploa lilacina (141,11 ± 1,99 e Eremanthus elaeagnus (134,61 ± 7,81 e baixo em extratos de Lychnophora ramosissima (32,65 ± 0,70 e Lychnophora sp. (54,03 ± 0,73. Extratos de plantas daninhas Asteraceae de Diamantina podem ter potencial em estudos biológicos que estão à procura para pesticidas e drogas.

  13. Leaf and stem microscopic identification of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray (Asteraceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray is an Asteraceae shrub, popularly known as Mexican sunflower and cultivated for ornamental and therapeutic uses in different countries. In folk medicine, it is of value for treating diabetes, malaria and infectious diseases. These indications have been corroborated by various pharmacological assays. Given the lack of data on anatomical aspects of T. diversifolia, this work aimed to investigate the leaf and stem microscopic characters of this medicinal plant and potential vegetal drug. Samples of mature leaves and young stems were sectioned and stained. Histochemical tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The leaf has anomocytic stomata on both sides, dorsiventral mesophyll and several collateral vascular bundles arranged as a ring in the midrib. The stem shows angular-tangential collenchyma, an evident endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The main characters for anatomical identification are the different types of trichome (non-glandular, capitate and non-capitate glandular, the midrib features and the localization of the secretory ducts near the vascular system.Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray é um arbusto da família Asteraceae, popularmente conhecido como girassol-mexicano e cultivado como ornamental e medicinal em vários países. Tradicionalmente, é usado no tratamento de diabetes, malária e doenças infecciosas. Essas indicações têm sido corroboradas por diversos ensaios farmacológicos. Em razão das escassas informações sobre aspectos anatômicos de T. diversifolia, este trabalho objetivou investigar os caracteres microscópicos foliares e caulinares dessa planta medicinal e potencial droga vegetal. Amostras de folhas adultas e caules jovens foram fixadas, seccionadas e coradas. Testes histoquímicos e microscopia eletrônica de varredura foram também realizados. A folha apresenta estômatos anomocíticos em ambas as superfícies, mesofilo

  14. Anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Asteraceae

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    Adriana Hissae Hayashi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work dealt with the anatomy of the underground system in Vernonia grandiflora Less. and V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, two perennial geophytes, to elucidate their ability to sprout in the Brazilian Cerrado conditions. V. grandiflora, a subshrubby species, possessed a thickened underground system constituted by a xylopodium and many tuberous roots. The xylopodium had stem and root structure and its buds were axillary or originated from the cortical parenchyma proliferation. The tuberous roots produced by this organ were adventitious and accumulated inulin-type fructans mainly in the cortical parenchyma. The thickened underground system of V. brevifolia, an herbaceous species, was a tuberous primary root whose buds originated from the proliferated pericycle. The occurrence of these bud-forming underground systems, which stored reserve compounds, enabled these plants to survive throughout unfavourable environmental conditions in the Cerrado, such as dry season and frequent fires in the winter.Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a anatomia dos sistemas subterrâneos de Vernonia grandiflora Less. e V. brevifolia Less. (Vernonieae; Asteraceae, duas geófitas perenes, a fim de esclarecer sua capacidade para brotar em condições de Cerrado. O sistema subterrâneo espessado de V. grandiflora, uma espécie subarbustiva, é constituído pelo xilopódio e por várias raízes tuberosas. O xilopódio possui estrutura mista (radicular e caulinar e suas gemas são de origem axilar ou se originam a partir da proliferação do parênquima cortical. As raízes tuberosas produzidas por este órgão são adventícias e acumulam frutanos do tipo inulina, principalmente no parênquima cortical. Em V. brevifolia, uma espécie herbácea, o sistema subterrâneo espessado é constituído pela raiz primária cujas gemas são originadas a partir do periciclo proliferado. A ocorrência destes sistemas subterrâneos gemíferos, que armazenam compostos

  15. In vitro effect of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae extracts on Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites

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    LC Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan widely distributed in the environment, occurring in vegetative trophozoite and resistance cyst stages during its life cycle. It constitutes an etiological agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a disease that may cause severe ocular inflammation and blindness. New drugs can be developed from molecules found in plants and thus help in its difficult treatment. Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae, a plant used in folk medicine, had its effect tested on Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. austral were obtained from aerial parts for infusion and static maceration, respectively. Concentrations of 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 mg/ml of the extract were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts was tested in mammalian cells using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: The 10 mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract was lethal to 100% of the A. polyphaga trophozoites in 24 h and both extracts presented cytotoxic effect against mammalian cells. These findings suggest that the A. austral ethanolic extract may have compounds with relevance to the development of new amoebicidal drugs.

  16. Two new species of Asteraceae from Northern and Western Cape, South Africa and a new synonym

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    J. C. Manning

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We recognize two new species of Asteraceae from the winter rainfall belt of South Africa and reduce a third to synonomy.  Senecio speciosissimus sp. nov. has been confused with  S. coleophyllus Turcz. in the past but is distinguished by its taller stature, larger and more finely serrated leaves, and congested synflorescences containing (6-l 5-40 flowerheads. The two species are also geographically separated:  S. speciosissimus occurs in the Hottentots Holland and Franschhoek Mountains of the southwestern Cape, whereas S.  coleophyllus is endemic to the Riviersonderend Mountains.  Chrysocoma hantamensis sp. nov. is a distinctive new species endemic to the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Plateaus. It is distinguished by its resprouting habit. 3-5-fid leaves and large capitula, 12-15 mm in diameter, with lanceolate. 3-veined involucral bracts, the largest 9 - 1 0 x 2 mm. Investigation of the variation in leaf morphology of the two radiate species of Oncosiphon, O. africanum (PJ.Bergius Kallersjo and  O. glabratum (Thunb. Kallersjo. reveals that only one species can be maintained, and O. glabratum is accordingly reduced to synonomy in O. africanum.

  17. Polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family as potential radioprotectors.

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    Zbikowska, Halina Malgorzata; Szejk, Magdalena; Saluk, Joanna; Pawlaczyk-Graja, Izabela; Gancarz, Roman; Olejnik, Alicja Klaudia

    2016-05-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecular, water-soluble glycoconjugates, isolated from the selected medicinal plants of Rosaceae/Asteraceae family: from leaves of Fragaria vesca L., Rubus plicatus Whe. et N. E., and from flowering parts of Sanguisorba officinalis L., and Erigeron canadensis L., were investigated for their ability to protect proteins and lipids of human plasma against γ-radiation-induced oxidative damage. Treatment of plasma with plant conjugates (6, 30, 150 μg/ml) prior exposure to 100 Gy radiation resulted in a significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation, evaluated by TBARS levels; conjugates isolated from E. canadensis and R. plicatus and a reference flavonoid quercetin showed similar high potential (approx. 70% inhibition, at 6 μg/ml). The conjugates prevented radiation-induced oxidation of protein thiols and significantly improved plasma total antioxidant capacity, estimated with Ellman's reagent and ABTS(.+) assay, respectively. The results demonstrate by the first time a significant radioprotective capability of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates isolated from E. canadensis, R. plicatus, S. officinalis and to the less extent from F. vesca. The abilities of these substances to inhibit radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation in plasma seems to be mediated, but not limited to ROS scavenging activity.

  18. Antioxidant activities of extracts from Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae).

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    Domínguez, Mariana; Nieto, Antonio; Marin, Juan C; Keck, Anna-Sigrid; Jeffery, Elizabeth; Céspedes, Carlos L

    2005-07-27

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Barkleyanthus salicifolius (Asteraceae) and Penstemon gentianoides (Scrophulariaceae) have been used in folk medicine to treat many ailments, particularly inflammation and migraine. Neither the bioactive components responsible nor the mechanisms involved have been evaluated. Here are reported antioxidant activities of their methanol, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. Samples were evaluated for oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and inhibition of the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), a measure of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant activities were strongly correlated with total polyphenol content. The most active extracts from P. gentianoides in scavenging DPPH radicals and inhibiting TBARS formation were the methanol extract (A) and a further ethyl acetate extract of this (E). Partition E was further divided into eight fractions, and both E and the fractions were compared for activity against butylated hydroxytoluene, quercetin, and tocopherol. Partition E and the most active fractions, 5 and 6, were found to have I(50) values of 14.1, 38.6, and 41.8 ppm, respectively, against DPPH and 18.5, 26.0, and 12.7 ppm, respectively, against TBARS formation. Consistent with this finding, partition E and fractions 4-6 had the greatest ORAC and FRAP values. These results show that these plants could be useful antioxidant sources.

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activity of various leaf extracts of Amphoricarpos vis. (Asteraceae taxa

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    Gavrilović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of diethyl ether, 80% methanol and 50% acetone extracts of the leaves of three Amphoricarpos taxa (Asteraceae; A. neumayerianus, A. autariatus ssp. autariatus and A. autariatus ssp. bertisceus from the Balkan Peninsula were investigated. The antimicrobial activity was determined by the broth microdilution assay against eight bacterial and eight fungal species. The in vitro antioxidative activity was assessed by the DPPH assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also determined. The most sensitive bacterial species were Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The best antibacterial potential was obtained for the methanol extract of A. neumayerianus, while the diethyl ether extract of this species showed the lowest effect. In general, the tested extracts showed higher activity than the commercial antibiotics streptomycin and ampicillin. Also, all micromycetes were sensitive to the tested extracts. The most sensitive was Trichoderma viride. The highest and lowest antifungal effect was determined in A. a. ssp. autariatus for the diethyl ether and acetone extracts, respectively. The highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined in the methanol extract of A. a. autariatus. The best antioxidative activity was demonstrated by the methanol extract of A. a. ssp. autariatus as comparing to matching extracts from the other two taxa.

  20. [Occupational contact allergy to feverfew Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schultz-Bip.; Asteraceae].

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    Hausen, B M

    1981-01-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis due to Feverfew Tanacetum parathenium, Asteraceae. After breeding and selling a new ornamental form of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Schulz-Bip. = Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh.), sold the flower markets under the misleading name, "chamomile", a 40 year old female florist developed after a half year handling recurrent dermatitis of the face, neck, hands and forearms. Epicutaneous tests revealed positive reactions to 10 species of the Compositae family, including chrysanthemums, aster Gaillardia. Arnica and truc chamomile. However, the strongests results were seen with petals and leaves of feverfew. Renewed strong reactions to parthenolid, the main sesquiterpene lactonic constitutent of European feverfew demonstrated that this compound was the responsible contact allergen. The sensitizing capacity of parthenolid has been shown in previous investigations in guina pigs. Furthermore, cross-reactionsto parthenolid were frequently observed in chrysanthemum sensitive persons. Mexican samples of feverfew contain the eudesmanolid santamarin and traces of other sesquiterpene lactones, but parthenolid is lacking. Further studies are needed to clarify the sensitizing potency of this related compound.

  1. Protein hydrolysate as a component of salinized soil in the cultivation of Ageratum houstonianum Mill. (Asteraceae

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    Renata Matraszek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using a protein hydrolysate, Hemozym N-K 4.5-6, as a component of salinized soil in the cultivation of flossflower (Ageratum houstonianum Mill., Asteraceae. The experiment was focused on the yield and decorative value of A. houstonianum, grown under different concentrations of NaCl and/or Hemozym. Ageratum houstonianum plants were grown in the soil under different NaCl salinity (EC: 0.28 – as control or 3.25 dS m−1 – salt stress or/and Hemozym dose (0, 0.07 or 0.14 ml kg−1. The results of the experiment imply that A. houstonianum is sensitive to salinity. The application of Hemozym to both unsalinized and salinized soils caused an increase in the yield of the plant organs (roots, stems, leaves, and inflorescence, the number of leaves, and the chlorophyll content without significant changes in the carotenoids. Moreover, an increase in the number and size of first-order inflorescences (heads as well as more intensive flower color were observed. Thus, it can be stated that the protein hydrolysate studied can be a beneficial component of both salinized and unsalinized soils in the cultivation of A. houstonianum.

  2. Embryology of Ageratum conyzoides L. and A. fastigiatum R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae

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    Rafael de Oliveira Franca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ageratum has a complex circumscription, and recent studies have indicated its polyphyletism. The genus has been placed in the tribe Eupatorieae whose embryology is not fully known. Embryological data are conservative and important indicators of phylogenetic relationships and can improve family relationships. This study presents, for the first time in Eupatorieae, embryological data for Ageratum conyzoides and A. fastigiatum. Both species have common features of the family such as a unitegmic anatropous ovule, basal placentation, secretory tapetum, Polygonum megagametophyte, and Asterad embryogenesis. The data obtained reinforce the heterogeneity of the family embryology and show, for the first time, the anther wall development of the monocotyledonous type for Asteraceae. The species studied show also differences between themselves. A. conyzoides has bisporangiated and introrse anthers, conspicuous pappus, and cypselae with trichomes on the ribs, whereas A. fastigiatum has tetrasporangiate and latrorse anthers, pappus absent at maturity, and glabrous cypselae. The data presented support recent phylogenetic molecular studies, suggesting the replacement of A. fastigiatum to another genus along with Gyptidinae.

  3. Patterns of MADS-box gene expression mark flower-type development in Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae

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    Teeri Teemu H

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inflorescence of the cut-flower crop Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae consists of two principal flower types, ray and disc, which form a tightly packed head, or capitulum. Despite great interest in plant morphological evolution and the tractability of the gerbera system, very little is known regarding genetic mechanisms involved in flower type specification. Here, we provide comparative staging of ray and disc flower development and microarray screening for differentially expressed genes, accomplished via microdissection of hundreds of coordinately developing flower primordia. Results Using a 9K gerbera cDNA microarray we identified a number of genes with putative specificity to individual flower types. Intrestingly, several of these encode homologs of MADS-box transcription factors otherwise known to regulate flower organ development. From these and previously obtained data, we hypothesize the functions and protein-protein interactions of several gerbera MADS-box factors. Conclusion Our RNA expression results suggest that flower-type specific MADS protein complexes may play a central role in differential development of ray and disc flowers across the gerbera capitulum, and that some commonality is shared with known protein functions in floral organ determination. These findings support the intriguing conjecture that the gerbera flowering head is more than a mere floral analog at the level of gene regulation.

  4. Polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity of some wild Saudi Arabian asteraceae plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdelaaty A Shahat; Abeer Y Ibrahim; Mansour S Elsaid

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the antioxidant properties of crude extract of differentAsteraceae plants. Methods:The antioxidant properties of six extracts were evaluated using different antioxidant tests, including free radical scavenging, reducing power, metal chelation, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activities.Results:Picris cyanocarpa(P. cyanocarpa) andAnthemis deserti(A. deserti) had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger while Achillia fragrantissima(A. fragrantissima) andArtemissia monosperma(A. monosperma) were the most efficient as ion chelator(100% at100,200 and400 μg/mL)A. fragrantissima and Rhantarium appoposum(R. appoposum) showed100% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at200 and400 μg/mL, while butylatedhydroxy toluene and ascorbic acid showed100 and95% inhibition percentage at400 μg/mL, respectively.Those various antioxidant activities were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyl toluene and ascorbic acid. Conclusions:In most testsP. cyanocarpa andA. deserti had powerful antioxidant properties as radical scavenger, reducing agent and superoxide anion radical scavenger.

  5. Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in native and invasive Senecio pterophorus (Asteraceae): implications for toxicity.

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    Castells, Eva; Mulder, Patrick P J; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam

    2014-12-01

    Changes in plant chemical defenses after invasion could have consequences on the invaded ecosystems by modifying the interactions between plants and herbivores and facilitating invasion success. However, no comprehensive biogeographical studies have yet determined the phenotypic levels of plant chemical defenses, as consumed by local herbivores, covering large distributional areas of a species. Senecio pterophorus is a perennial shrub native to Eastern South Africa, expanded into Western South Africa and introduced into Australia and Europe. As other Asteraceae, S. pterophorus contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) toxic to vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores. Here we analyzed S. pterophorus PAs by LC-MS/MS on foliage sampled across its entire distributional range, including the native and all non-native areas. PA concentrations and diversity was very high: we found 57 compounds belonging to 6 distinct necine base-types, including the highly toxic 1,2-unsaturated PAs (retronecine and otonecines) and the less toxic 1,2-saturated PAs (platynecine and rosmarinecines). Plants from different origins diverged in their PA absolute and relative concentrations. Rosmarinine was the most abundant compound in Australia and South Africa, but it was nearly absent in Europe. We characterized three plant chemotypes: retrorsine-senkirkine chemotype in Eastern South Africa, rosmarinine chemotype in Australia and Western South Africa, and acetylseneciphylline chemotype in Europe. PA absolute concentrations were highest in Australia. The increased absolute and relative concentrations of retronecine PAs from Australia and Europe, respectively, indicate that S. pterophorus is potentially more toxic in the invasive range than in the native range.

  6. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae

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    Frederico Severino Martins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods : The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA and maceration dynamic (MD showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin.

  7. Identification and quantification of hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the Ethiopian medicinal plant Solanecio gigas (Asteraceae).

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    Asres, K; Sporer, F; Wink, M

    2007-09-01

    The pyrrolizidine alkaloid content of Solanecio gigas (Vatke) C. Jeffrey (Asteraceae), an Ethiopian medicinal plant widely used for the treatment of colic, diarrhea, gout, otitis media, typhoid fever, and noted for its wound dressing and antiabortifacient activities was studied. The flower and leaf extracts contained 0.19% and 0.14% alkaloids (dry weight), respectively. GLC-MS analysis indicated that all the alkaloids in the flowers are pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), whereas the leaves contain other type of alkaloids with PAs occurring in low concentrations. Roughly, 80% and 90% of the total PAs in the flowers and the leaves, respectively, were shown to occur as N-oxides. Eighteen alkaloids were detected in the flower extract with the retronecine type twelve-membered macrocyclic diesters integerrimine, senecionine and usaramine comprising 82% of the total PA content. Analysis of the PA profile of the leaves indicated that it has a simpler pattern than the one observed for the flowers. Only five PAs were detected in the leaves with integerrimine making up about 50% of the total PAs. Quantification of the PA content by GLC showed that the flowers and leaves contain 3321.21 and 84.84 microg per 10 g of dried plant material, respectively. These results indicate that users of this herb are at high risk of poisoning since the most toxic twelve membered macrocyclics of the retronecine type are the dominant PAs in the plant.

  8. Piptocarpha angustifolia (VernonIeae, Asteraceae, nueva cita para la flora argentina

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    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Piptocarpha R. Br. posee 46 especies distribuidas ampliamente desde el sur de Mexico hasta el noreste de Argentina y sur de Brasil. Las especies son arbustos apoyantes o raramente árboles, con inflorescencias axilares formadas generalmente por glomérulos globosos. Para Argentina solamente se ha citado a P. sellowii (Sch. Bip. Baker como único representante del género. En el presente trabajo se cita por primera vez para Argentina a P. angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, que se diferencia de la otra especie de Piptocarpha por tener hábito arbóreo y glomérulos con menor número de capítulos, entre otros caracteres.Piptocarpha angustifolia (Vernonieae, Asteraceae, a new cite for the Argentinean flora. The genus Piptocarpha R. Br. contains 46 species widely distributed from southern Mexico to northeastern Argentina and southern Brasil. The species are scandent shrubs or rarely trees, with axilary inflorescences composed of globose clusters. For Argentina has been only reported to P. sellowii (Sch. Bip. Baker as the single member of the genus. In the present paper is reported for the first time for Argentina to P. angustifolia Dusén ex Malme, which can be distinguished from the remaining species of Piptocarpha by the tree habit and the inflorescence clusters having a lesser number of heads, among other features.

  9. Aspectos de la biología reproductiva de Stevia rebaudiana (Asteraceae

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    Irene Caponio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El género SteviaCav. (Asteraceae presenta alrededor de 200 especies en el continente americano. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, originaria de Paraguay, es la única especie cultivada. Ha sido ampliamente estudiada desde el punto de vista químico, por los principios activos que poseen sus hojas. Sin embargo existe controversia respecto a su sistema reproductivo, ya que es considerada apomíctica obligada por algunos autores, mientras otros la consideran de reproducción sexual. A los efectos de clarificar esta cuestión se realizaron estudios de: megasporogénesis, megagametogénesis, fenología de la floración, viabilidad de polen y receptividad estigmática en tres ecotipos en condiciones de autopolinización y polinización cruzada. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, las plantas analizadas se reproducen sexualmente y poseen un sistema de autoincompatibilidad que impide la autofertilización.

  10. Control of Three Stored−Product Beetles with Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae Essential Oil

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of the essential oil of aerial parts from Artemisia haussknechtii (Boiss (Asteraceae was investigated against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab., the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L., and the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Dry ground plants were subjected to hydro−distillation using a Clevenger−type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil was studied by gas chromatography−mass spectrometry (GC−MS. The major components of the oil were camphor (29.24%, 1, 8−cineol (27.62%, yomogi alcohol (5.23%, and camphene (4.80%. The essential oil in same concentrations was assayed against (1−7 days old adults of insect species and percentage mortality was recorded after 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. LC50 values were varied between 19.84 and 103.59 μL L-1 air, depending on insect species and exposure time. Callosobruchus maculatus was more susceptible than other species. These results suggested that A. haussknechtii oil might have potential as a control agent against C. maculatus, S. oryzae and T. castaneum.

  11. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

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    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  12. Biotechnological potential of endophytic actinomycetes associated with Asteraceae plants: isolation, biodiversity and bioactivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Sajid, Imran; Hasnain, Shahida

    2014-04-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from five Asteraceae plants were isolated and evaluated for their bioactivities. From Parthenium hysterophorus, Ageratum conyzoides, Sonchus oleraceus, Sonchus asper and Hieracium canadense, 42, 45, 90, 3, and 2 isolates, respectively, were obtained. Of the isolates, 86 (47.2 %) showed antimicrobial activity. Majority of the isolates were recovered from the roots (n = 127, 69.7 %). The dominant genus was Streptomyces (n = 96, 52.7 %), while Amycolatopsis, Pseudonocardia, Nocardia and Micromonospora were also recovered. Overall, 36 of the 86 isolates were significantly bioactivity while 18 (20.9 %) showed strong bioactivity. In total, 52.1 and 66.6 % showed potent cytotoxicity and antioxidant activities. The LC50 for 15 strains was <20 μg/ml. Compared to the ascorbate standard (EC50 0.34 μg/ml), all isolates gave impressive results with notable EC50 values of 0.65, 0.67, 0.74 and 0.79 μg/ml.

  13. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae

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    Lizzeth Torres

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. Materials and Methods: All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Results: Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Conclusion: Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  14. Insecticide Activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lizzeth; Rojas, Janne; Rondón, Maritza; Morales, Antonio; Nieves, Elsa

    2017-01-01

    Insects are mostly pathogens transmitters, thus the necessity of finding effective bioinsecticides to combat them. In the present investigation, the insecticide activity of Ageratina jahnii and Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) essential oils, methanol, and aqueous extracts was evaluated against Lutzomyia migonei (Diptera: Psychodidae) females, Leishmania transmitters, a wide distributed parasitosis in Latin America. All extracts were prepared by maceration at room temperature, and essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation process. Females of L. migonei were used in the bioassays using the adulticide test in pots. Essential oils from both assayed plant species showed 100% of L. migonei mortality at 48 h of exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/ml. A. jahnii essential oil exhibited the following values, LD50 = 0.39 mg/ml, LD90 = 1.57 mg/ml, LD95 = 2.31 mg/ml, and LD99 = 4.80 mg/ml while for A. pichinchensis essential oil values were LD50 = 0.31 mg/ml, LD90 = 0.99 mg/ml, LD95 = 1.38 mg/ml, and LD99 = 2.55 mg/ml. Higher toxicity was observed with A. pichinchensis essential oil against L. migonei, comparing to A. jahnii oil. Two new plant species are being reported, showing bioactive properties against common tropical disease vectors such as L. migonei, hence, opening possibilities to a more environmental friendly control.

  15. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Longo, Frida; Djomeni, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet; Kouam, Siméon Fogue; Spiteller, Michael; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Savineau, J P

    2014-04-01

    Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to assess the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of leaves of Bidens pilosa at the gradual doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic properties of Bidens pilosa were investigated using the acetic acid writhing, hot plate, capsaicin and formalin-induced pain models. This was followed by a study of the antiinflammatory properties using carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin to induce acute inflammation in rat hind paw. The extract provided a significant (p antiinflammatory activity in all four models of acute inflammation. These results show that the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) of Bidens pilosa has both analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. The qualitative analysis of the fraction by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint revealed the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin and iso-okanin, known to have antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties, which could be responsible for the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects observed.

  16. Evaluation of inflorescence visitors as pollinators of Echinacea angustifolia (Asteraceae): comparison of techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wist, Tyler J; Davis, Arthur R

    2013-10-01

    Inflorescences (heads or capitula) of the putative self-incompatible species, purple coneflower (Echinacea angustifolia (DC) Cronq. (Asteraceae)), were visited by insects representing the Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera, in accordance with a generalist pollination syndrome. Measurement of the effectiveness of insect species as pollinators was accomplished by permitting solitary visits to receptive, central disc florets of virgin (previously bagged) heads. Four parameters were quantified: total stigmatic pollen load and proportion of pollen grains germinated, numbers of pollen tubes at style bases, and percentages of total receptive florets that had retracted (shrivelled) styles. Quantifying total and germinated pollen grains proved ineffective, partly owing to the tendency of self-pollen to initiate pollen tubes. The most effective pollinators were Apidae, especially bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and the European honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) (mean: 39 - 61% of styles retracted). Other noteworthy pollinators were cloudless sulfur butterflies (Phoebis sennae L.--Pieridae; mean 47% of style bases with pollen tubes), golden blister beetles (Epicauta ferruginea Say--Meloidae; 44%), and grasshopper bee flies (Systoechus vulgaris Loew--Bombyliidae; 22%). Sunflower leafcutter bees (Megachile pugnata Say) were less effective (4% of styles retracted). Promisingly, analysis of the proportion of retracted styles provided similar results to the established technique of pollen-tube quantification, but had the significant advantages of being completed more rapidly, without a microscope, and in the field. The quantitative technique of retracted-style analysis appears well suited for prompt measurement of inflorescence-visiting insects as pollinators of many asteraceans.

  17. Evolutionary history and phylogeography of Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) from the Sonoran, Mojave, and Peninsular Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehlberg, Shannon D; Ranker, Tom A

    2009-02-01

    Pleistocene glaciations have had a profound influence on the genetic structure of plant species throughout the Northern Hemisphere because of range contractions, fragmentations, and expansions. Phylogeographic studies have contributed to our knowledge of this influence in several geographic regions of North America, however, very few phylogeographic studies have examined plant species in the Sonoran, Mojave, and Peninsular deserts. In this study, we used sequence data from the chloroplast DNA psbA-trnH intergenic spacer to obtain information on phylogeographic patterns among 310 individuals from 21 populations of Encelia farinosa ("brittlebush"; Asteraceae) across its range. We applied several population and spatial genetic analyses that allowed us to interpret our data with respect to Pleistocene climate change. These analyses indicate that E. farinosa displays patterns of genetic differentiation and geographic structuring consistent with postglacial range expansion. Populations of E. farinosa are characterized by distinct haplotype lineages significantly associated with geography. Centers of genetic diversity for the species occur in southwestern Arizona, the plains of Sonora, and Baja California Sur, all of which are putative sites of glacial refugia as predicted by analyses of macrofossil and pollen data. Nested clade analysis suggests that genetic structure in E. farinosa has been affected by past fragmentation followed by range expansion. Range expansion in several locations is further supported by significant departures from neutrality for values of Fu's F(S) and Tajima's D, and mismatch analyses.

  18. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) in TNBS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramón; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Trigo, José Roberto; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2013-03-07

    In Brazilian traditional medicine, Arctium lappa (Asteraceae), has been reported to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lactone sesquiterpene onopordopicrin enriched fraction (ONP fraction) from Arctium lappa in an experimental colitis model induced by 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and performed experiments to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms involved in that effect. ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis and 24 h after. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 protein expressions by western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. TNBS group was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration, increased MPO activity and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic inflammation scores (pArctium lappa exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, confirming and justifying, at least in part, the popular use of this plant to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Dengue vector control using ether fractions from two plants (Asteraceae) as larvicide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Londoño, Juan C; Duarte-Gandica, Irene; Aguirre-Obando, Oscar A; Jiménez-Montoya, Jorge A

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the larvicidal activity of two ether factions from Asteraceae (the aster, daisy or sunflower family, i.e. Heli opsisoppositifolia (L.) Druce (oxeye, sunflower-like) and Jaegeria hirta (Lag.) Less (weed-like)) on Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) final third instar or initial fourth instar larvae near the town of Armenia in the Quindío Department in Colombia. H. oppositifolia and J. hirta plants were collected and submitted to phytochemical analysis. Ether fractions were prepared form both species to assess 11 concentrations for determining LC50, LC90 and LC95 lethal concentrations after 24 and 48 h. The LC50, LC90 and LC95 results were used to create a mathematical model for describing lethal population-concentration dynamics. Phytochemical analysis identified tannins, flavonoids, quinones, cardiac glycosides, sterols, lactones, terpenes, courmarins and alkaloids in H. oppositifolia and J. hirta. LC after 48 h regarding J. hirta (LC50 24, LC90 70 and LC95 93 ppm) was lower than those for H. oppositifolia (LC50 39, LC90 77 and LC95 94 ppm). A factorial ANOVA test confirmed this trend: 66 %, F=18.5 and pbioinsecticide for controlling A. Aegypti immature states.

  20. Intoxicação espontânea e experimental por Eupatorium tremulum (Asteraceae em bovinos Spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Eupatorium tr tremulum emulum (Asteraceae in cattle cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma Lucioli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se a intoxicação natural e experimental por Eupatorium tremulum em bovinos. Um surto de intoxicação espontânea por esta planta foi diagnosticado no município de Lages, Santa Catarina. Em um lote de 19 bovinos, três morreram após a transferência para uma invernada aonde havia grande quantidade de E. tremulum. Os animais foram encontrados mortos, e dois foram necropsiados e coletado amostras de vísceras para exame histológico. Experimentalmente, folhas verdes de E. tremulum foram administradas a cinco bovinos, em doses únicas de 23 a 32g/kg de peso animal. Destes, três adoeceram e dois morreram. Os principais sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, apatia, atonia ruminal, micção freqüente e em pequenos jatos, fezes pastosas e ventre flácido. As lesões macroscópicas restringiram-se aos pré-estômagos e foram idênticas, tanto para intoxicação natural como para a experimental. O rúmen e retículo externamente mostravam tonalidade levemente avermelhada, a camada córnea da mucosa estava frouxamente aderida e a mucosa tinha coloração vermelha acentuada. Ao exame histológico observou-se no rúmen e retículo, tanto na intoxicação espontânea, como experimental, necrose do epitélio da mucosa com formações de pequenas vesículas e em alguns segmentos, desprendimento da camada epitelial e leve infiltrado de neutrófilos. A intoxicação por E. tremulum tem curso clínico, lesões macro e microscópicas muito semelhantes àquelas produzidas pela intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium, Baccharis coridifolia (mio-mio e Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii (mio-mio do banhado. O diagnóstico diferencial entre essas quatro intoxicações deve ser feito pela presença da planta e pelos dados epidemiológicos. O diagnóstico dos casos espontâneos foram confirmados pelos dados epidemiológicos e reprodução experimental das lesões macro e microscópicas.The spontaneous and experimental poisoning by Eupatorium

  1. Self-organizing maps of molecular descriptors for sesquiterpene lactones and their application to the chemotaxonomy of the Asteraceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Marcus T; Emerenciano, Vicente; Ferreira, Marcelo J P; Scotti, Luciana; Stefani, Ricardo; da Silva, Marcelo S; Mendonça Junior, Francisco Jaime B

    2012-04-20

    The Asteraceae, one of the largest families among angiosperms, is chemically characterised by the production of sesquiterpene lactones (SLs). A total of 1,111 SLs, which were extracted from 658 species, 161 genera, 63 subtribes and 15 tribes of Asteraceae, were represented and registered in two dimensions in the SISTEMATX, an in-house software system, and were associated with their botanical sources. The respective 11 block of descriptors: Constitutional, Functional groups, BCUT, Atom-centred, 2D autocorrelations, Topological, Geometrical, RDF, 3D-MoRSE, GETAWAY and WHIM were used as input data to separate the botanical occurrences through self-organising maps. Maps that were generated with each descriptor divided the Asteraceae tribes, with total index values between 66.7% and 83.6%. The analysis of the results shows evident similarities among the Heliantheae, Helenieae and Eupatorieae tribes as well as between the Anthemideae and Inuleae tribes. Those observations are in agreement with systematic classifications that were proposed by Bremer, which use mainly morphological and molecular data, therefore chemical markers partially corroborate with these classifications. The results demonstrate that the atom-centred and RDF descriptors can be used as a tool for taxonomic classification in low hierarchical levels, such as tribes. Descriptors obtained through fragments or by the two-dimensional representation of the SL structures were sufficient to obtain significant results, and better results were not achieved by using descriptors derived from three-dimensional representations of SLs. Such models based on physico-chemical properties can project new design SLs, similar structures from literature or even unreported structures in two-dimensional chemical space. Therefore, the generated SOMs can predict the most probable tribe where a biologically active molecule can be found according Bremer classification.

  2. Herbivoria em Erechtites valerinaefolia DC. (Asteraceae) : distribuição de ataque dos herbivoros e respostas compensatorias da planta

    OpenAIRE

    Yuriko Yanagizawa de Almeida Nogueira Pinto

    2000-01-01

    Resumo: As interações entre Erechtites valerianaefolia De. (Asteraceae) e herbívoros a ela associados foram estudadas de julho de 1991 a maio de 1993, na Serra do Japi, Jundiaí, SP, e de julho de 1992 a maio de 1993 na Fazenda Lageado, Botucatu, SP. Os principais objetivos foram testar as hipóteses que versam sobre a preferência dos herbívoros quanto ao tipo de plantas dentro de uma mesma população vegetal (Hipótese da Planta Vigorosa e Hipótese da Planta Estressada) e sobre as respostas comp...

  3. Novel anthraquinone derivatives produced by Phoma sorghina, an endophyte found in association with the medicinal plant Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Warley de Souza; Pupo, Monica Tallarico [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: mtpupo@fcfrp.usp.br

    2006-09-15

    Three known anthraquinones (1,7-dihydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone, 1,6-dihydroxy- 3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone and 1-hydroxy-3-methyl-9,10-anthraquinone), one new anthraquinone (1,7-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-9,10-anthraquinone), and two new hexahydro anthraquinone derivatives, dendryols E and F, were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Phoma sorghina, found in association with Tithonia diversifolia (Asteraceae). Their structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly 1D and 2D NMR. (author)

  4. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae: development of granules from spray dried powder

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    Gustavo F. Petrovick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae, is a herbal specie widely used in folk medicine in the south of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The technological characteristics of an Achyrocline satureioides spray dried extract powder, produced in semi-industrial scale, as well as the feasibility of the granules are reported in the present work. The spray dried powder was characterized as a fine powder consisting of small spherical particles with rough and porous surface. The Hausner's factor, Carr's index, and densification index of the spray dried powder were, respectively, 1,23, 18,9%, and 27,2 mL, characterizing it as a poor flow and low density powder. The preparation of granules from this spray dried powder, through dry disaggregation method, yielded irregularly shaped granules, with a rough surface, but with better flow and compactability characteristics. These granules presented a Hausner's factor, a Carr's index, and a densification index of, respectively, 1,09, 8,16%, and 12,33 mL. The LC assay of the main polyphenols, quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin revealed that the granulation process did not changed the quantitative and qualitative profile of these constituents originally present in the spray dried powder. The comparative evaluation of the physical stability of both the spray dried powder and the granules, under relative humidity conditions of 65% and 99%, showed an expressive reduction in the humidity sorption on the granules as compared to the spray dried powders.Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae, é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular no sul do Brasil, Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai. As características tecnológicas do extrato seco por aspersão de Achyrocline satureioides, produzido em escala semi-industrial, assim como a viabilidade da produção de granulados são relatadas no presente trabalho. O extrato seco por aspersão foi caracterizado como um pó fino, composto por

  5. Ficus sur (Moraceae and Gymnanthemum coloratum (Asteraceae: Vernonieae – first distribution records for Namibia

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    Wessel Swanepoel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The distribution of Ficus sur includes most of tropical Africa, but whilst this species was suspected to occur in Namibia, this has not been verified. Gymnanthemum coloratum is a tropical African savannah shrub or tree that has been recorded for Botswana, Swaziland and South Africa, but which has not previously been recorded for Namibia.Objectives: To formally document the first records of two plant species from Namibia and provide habitat details of the localities from which these species were recorded.Method: The data presented have resulted from botanical expeditions to the poorly known Baynes Mountains in the Koakoveld region of Namibia. Specimens of the two species in the National Herbarium, Pretoria were examined to verify the identity in the case of G. coloratum, and to document additional records in Namibia for F. sur.Results: Ficus sur was recorded from two localities, and a third locality based on a specimen in the National Herbarium, Pretoria, was verified. Gymnanthemum coloratum, a member of the Asteraceae, was recorded from a single locality.Conclusion: The fact that F. sur was collected at more than one location in the Kaokoveld suggests that it is probably more widespread in suitable microhabitats. Ficus sur also occurs further north in Angola, suggesting that the Kaokoveld plants represent a cross-border outlier of the much more widespread Angolan population. Gymnanthemum coloratum was only recorded from the one locality in the Koakoveld. The species also occurs in Angola, which suggests that the Kaokoveld plant represents a cross-border outlier of the population in that country.

  6. Origins and recent radiation of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) in the eastern Cerrado and Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Vanessa Lopes; Panero, Jose L; Schilling, Edward E; Crozier, Bonnie S; Moraes, Marta Dias

    2016-04-01

    The remarkable diversity of Eupatorieae in the Brazilian flora has received little study, despite the tribe's very high levels of endemism and importance in the threatened Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest biodiversity hotspots. Eupatorieae are one of the largest tribes in Asteraceae with 14 of 19 recognized subtribes occurring in Brazil. We constructed the largest phylogeny of Brazilian Eupatorieae to date that sampled the nrITS and ETS, chloroplast ndhI and ndhF genes, and the ndhI-ndhG intergenic spacer for 183 species representing 77 of the 85 Brazilian genera of the tribe. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses showed that these species are not collectively monophyletic, so their distribution reflects multiple introductions into Brazil. A novel clade was found that includes 75% of the genera endemic to Brazil (Cerrado-Atlantic Forest Eupatorieae, "CAFE" clade). This radiation of at least 247 species concentrated in the Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes of central eastern Brazil is <7 my old and exhibits several ecologically diverse life forms. Eight subtribes of Brazilian Eupatorieae (Ageratinae, Alomiinae, Ayapaninae, Critoniinae, Disynaphiinae, Eupatoriinae, Gyptidinae and Hebecliniinae) and 16 genera (Ageratum, Agrianthus, Austroeupatorium, Bejaranoa, Chromolaena, Critonia, Disynaphia, Grazielia, Hatschbachiella, Heterocondylus, Koanophyllon, Lasiolaena, Neocabreria, Praxelis, Stylotrichium, and Symphyopappus) were found to be polyphyletic. We attribute incongruities between the molecular phylogenetic results and the current classification of the tribe mostly to convergent evolution of morphological characters traditionally used in the classification of the tribe. We used these phylogenetic results to suggest changes to the classification of some subtribes and genera of Eupatorieae that occur in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

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    Wróblewska Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans to 60.7 g (D. pinnata. Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

  8. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

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    MILUTIN STEFANOVIC

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  9. Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae.

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    Abigail J Moore

    Full Text Available Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae. We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

  10. Genetic and ecotypic differentiation in a Californian plant polyploid complex (Grindelia, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Abigail J; Moore, William L; Baldwin, Bruce G

    2014-01-01

    Studies of ecotypic differentiation in the California Floristic Province have contributed greatly to plant evolutionary biology since the pioneering work of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey. The extent of gene flow and genetic differentiation across interfertile ecotypes that span major habitats in the California Floristic Province is understudied, however, and is important for understanding the prospects for local adaptation to evolve or persist in the face of potential gene flow across populations in different ecological settings. We used microsatellite data to examine local differentiation in one of these lineages, the Pacific Coast polyploid complex of the plant genus Grindelia (Asteraceae). We examined 439 individuals in 10 different populations. The plants grouped broadly into a coastal and an inland set of populations. The coastal group contained plants from salt marshes and coastal bluffs, as well as a population growing in a serpentine grassland close to the coast, while the inland group contained grassland plants. No evidence for hybridization was found at the single location where adjacent populations of the two groups were sampled. In addition to differentiation along ecotypic lines, there was also a strong signal of local differentiation, with the plants grouping strongly by population. The strength of local differentiation is consistent with the extensive morphological variation observed across populations and the history of taxonomic confusion in the group. The Pacific Clade of Grindelia and other young Californian plant groups warrant additional analysis of evolutionary divergence along the steep coast-to-inland climatic gradient, which has been associated with local adaptation and ecotype formation since the classic studies of Clausen, Keck, and Hiesey.

  11. A volatolomic approach for studying plant variability: the case of selected Helichrysum species (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Claudia; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Calamassi, Roberto; Calamai, Luca; Romoli, Riccardo; Fico, Gelsomina; Foggi, Bruno; Mariotti Lippi, Marta

    2016-10-01

    The species of Helichrysum sect. Stoechadina (Asteraceae) are well-known for their secondary metabolite content and the characteristic aromatic bouquets. In the wild, populations exhibit a wide phenotypic plasticity which makes critical the circumscription of species and infraspecific ranks. Previous investigations on Helichrysum italicum complex focused on a possible phytochemical typification based on hydrodistilled essential oils. Aims of this paper are three-fold: (i) characterizing the volatile profiles of different populations, testing (ii) how these profiles vary across populations and (iii) how the phytochemical diversity may contribute in solving taxonomic problems. Nine selected Helichrysum populations, included within the H. italicum complex, Helichrysum litoreum and Helichrysum stoechas, were investigated. H. stoechas was chosen as outgroup for validating the method. After collection in the wild, plants were cultivated in standard growing conditions for over one year. Annual leafy shoots were screened in the post-blooming period for the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by means of headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS). The VOC composition analysis revealed the production of overall 386 different compounds, with terpenes being the most represented compound class. Statistical data processing allowed the identification of the indicator compounds that differentiate the single populations, revealing the influence of the geographical provenance area in determining the volatile profiles. These results suggested the potential use of VOCs as valuable diacritical characters in discriminating the Helichrysum populations. In addition, the cross-validation analysis hinted the potentiality of this volatolomic study in the discrimination of the Helichrysum species and subspecies, highlighting a general congruence with the current taxonomic treatment of the genus. The consistency

  12. Clonal variation in floral stage timing in the common dandelion Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae).

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    Collier, Matthew H; Rogstad, Steven H

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that dandelion clones (Taraxacum officinale Weber, sensu lato; Asteraceae) differ in their floral stage timing characteristics under a constant set of environmental conditions. To test this hypothesis, plants representing nine different dandelion clones (identified by DNA fingerprinting) were grown in groups of five (N = 45) in a growth chamber for a period of 8 mo, with chamber settings similar to environmental conditions at peak dandelion flowering time for their population sites. Five flowering phenology parameters were monitored daily for a total of 301 buds developing during this time: (1) time to bud; (2) time to full opening and inflorescence maturation (i.e., first anthesis); (3) time to re-closure of an inflorescence; (4) time to fruit (full re-opening of the inflorescence); and (5) total flowering time. Scape length at the appearance of a fully expanded infructescence was also measured for each individual. Significant differences in mean time to inflorescence, mean time to re-closure, mean time to fruit, and mean total flowering time were revealed among some dandelion clones (Kruskal-Wallis, P ≤ 0.0005). No differences in mean number of inflorescence buds per plant (P = 0.2217), mean time to bud (P = 0.2396), or mean scape length (P = 0.3688) were detected among the nine clones. These results suggest that differences in floral stage timing may in part involve varying genotypic environmental response characteristics and that these differences may have potential fitness effects. Further research is needed to determine if such clonal differences are observed under a broader range of uniform environmental conditions.

  13. Effects of origin, seasons and storage under different temperatures on germination of Senecio vulgaris (Asteraceae) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plants colonize new environments, become pests and cause biodiversity loss, economic loss and health damage. Senecio vulgaris L. (Common groundsel, Asteraceae), a widely distributing cosmopolitan weed in the temperate area, is reported with large populations in the north–eastern and south–western part, but not in southern, central, or north-western parts of China. We studied the germination behavior of S. vulgaris to explain the distribution and the biological invasion of this species in China. We used seeds originating from six native and six invasive populations to conduct germination experiments in a climate chamber and under outdoor condition. When incubated in a climate chamber (15 °C), seeds from the majority of the populations showed >90% germination percentage (GP) and the GP was equal for seeds with a native and invasive origin. The mean germination time (MGT) was significantly different among the populations. Under outdoor conditions, significant effects of origin, storage conditions (stored at 4 °C or ambient room temperature, ca. 27 °C) and seasons (in summer or autumn) were observed on the GP while the MGT was only affected by the season. In autumn, the GP (38.6%) was higher and the MGT was slightly longer than that in summer. In autumn, seeds stored at 4 °C showed higher GP than those stored at ambient room temperature (ca.27 °C), and seeds from invasive populations revealed higher GP than those from native populations. The results implied that the high temperature in summer has a negative impact on the germination and might cause viability loss or secondary dormancy to S. vulgaris seeds. Our study offers a clue to exploring what factor limits the distribution of S. vulgaris in China by explaining why, in the cities in South-East China and central China such as Wuhan, S. vulgaris cannot establish natural and viable populations. PMID:27602303

  14. Study of the antitumor potential of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) used in Brazilian folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kviecinski, Maicon Roberto; Felipe, Karina Bettega; Schoenfelder, Tatiana; de Lemos Wiese, Luiz Paulo; Rossi, Maria Helena; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Felicio, Joana D'arc; Filho, Danilo Wilhelm; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi

    2008-04-17

    Bidens pilosa (L.) (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used in Brazil for treating conditions that can be related to cancer. Therefore the present study was carried out to evaluate the antitumor activity of extracts obtained from the aerial parts of this plant species. The crude hydroalcoholic extract (HAE) (water:alcohol, 6:4) and solvent fractions (chloroform=CHCl3,ethyl acetate=EtOAc, methanol=MeOH) were assessed for cytotoxicity assay by the brine shrimp and hemolytic, MTT and NRU assays. The antiproliferative potential of the crude extract and fractions was investigated in vivo using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in isogenic Balb/c mice that were administered intraperitoneally 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight per day for nine days beginning 24 h after tumor inoculation. In in vitro cytotoxicity using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell line assay CHCl3 extract proved to be more toxic than the crude HAE with an IC(50) of 97+/-7.2 and 83+/-5.2 microg/mL to NRU and MTT, respectively. Histomorphological evaluations indicated that the treatment with CHCl3 and HAE extracts significantly reduced (P<0.05) body weight, abdominal circumference, tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count, when compared to EAC control group. Furthermore, nonviable tumor cell count increased significantly (P<0.01) only under treatment with CHCl3 or HAE, and this was accompanied by a marked percentage increase in life span (54.2 and 41.7%, respectively). Biochemical assays revealed that CHCl3 and HAE extracts were also able to decrease serum LDH activity (39.5 and 30.6%) and GSH concentration (94.6 and 50.7%) in ascitic fluid, respectively. The chloroform fraction showed the best and methanolic the worst antitumor activity.

  15. Ficus sur (Moraceae and Gymnanthemum coloratum (Asteraceae: Vernonieae – first distribution records for Namibia

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    Wessel Swanepoel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The distribution of Ficus sur includes most of tropical Africa, but whilst this species was suspected to occur in Namibia, this has not been verified. Gymnanthemum coloratum is a tropical African savannah shrub or tree that has been recorded for Botswana, Swaziland and South Africa, but which has not previously been recorded for Namibia.Objectives: To formally document the first records of two plant species from Namibia and provide habitat details of the localities from which these species were recorded.Method: The data presented have resulted from botanical expeditions to the poorly known Baynes Mountains in the Koakoveld region of Namibia. Specimens of the two species in the National Herbarium, Pretoria were examined to verify the identity in the case of G. coloratum, and to document additional records in Namibia for F. sur.Results: Ficus sur was recorded from two localities, and a third locality based on a specimen in the National Herbarium, Pretoria, was verified. Gymnanthemum coloratum, a member of the Asteraceae, was recorded from a single locality.Conclusion: The fact that F. sur was collected at more than one location in the Kaokoveld suggests that it is probably more widespread in suitable microhabitats. Ficus sur also occurs further north in Angola, suggesting that the Kaokoveld plants represent a cross-border outlier of the much more widespread Angolan population. Gymnanthemum coloratum was only recorded from the one locality in the Koakoveld. The species also occurs in Angola, which suggests that the Kaokoveld plant represents a cross-border outlier of the population in that country.

  16. Antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones and a sucrose ester from Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Krause, Michael A.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Tane, Pierre; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Aqueous preparations of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) are used in Cameroonian folk medicine as a general stimulant and to treat various illnesses and conditions including malaria, bacterial infections and helminthic infestations. Materials and methods 10-g samples of the leaf and tuber powders of V. guineensis were extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used in bioassays. These extracts and three compounds previously isolated from V. guineensis [vernopicrin (1), vernomelitensin (2) and pentaisovalerylsucrose (3)] were screened for antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (Hb3) and CQ-resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum lines. Results Crude extracts and pure compounds from V. guineensis showed antiplasmodial activity against both Hb3 and Dd2. The IC50 values of extracts ranged from 1.64 – 27.2 μg/ml for Hb3 and 1.82 – 30.0 μg/ml for Dd2; those for compounds 1, 2 and 3 ranged from 0.47 – 1.62 μg/ml (1364 – 1774 nM) for Hb3 and 0.57 – 1.50 μg/ml (1644 – 2332 nM) for Dd2. None of the crude extracts or pure compounds was observed to exert toxic effects on the erythrocytes used to cultivate the P. falciparum lines. Conclusion In Cameroonian folk medicine, V. guineensis may be used to treat malaria in part due to the antiplasmodial activity of sesquiterpene lactones (1, 2), a sucrose ester (3) and perhaps other compounds present in crude plant extracts. Exploring the safety and antiplasmodial efficacy of these compounds in vivo requires further study. PMID:23542146

  17. Inaccessible Biodiversity on Limestone Cliffs: Aster tianmenshanensis (Asteraceae, a New Critically Endangered Species from China.

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    Guo-Jin Zhang

    Full Text Available Aster tianmenshanensis G. J. Zhang & T. G. Gao, a new species of Asteraceae from southern China is described and illustrated based on evidence from morphology, micromorphology and molecular phylogeny. The new species is superficially similar to Aster salwinensis Onno in having rosettes of spatulate leaves and a solitary, terminal capitulum, but it differs by its glabrous leaf margins, unequal disc floret lobes and 1-seriate pappus. The molecular phylogenetic analysis, based on nuclear sequences ITS, ETS and chloroplast sequence trnL-F, showed that the new species was nested within the genus Aster and formed a well supported clade with Aster verticillatus (Reinw. Brouillet et al. The new species differs from the latter in having unbranched stems, much larger capitula, unequal disc floret lobes, beakless achenes and persistent pappus. In particular, A. tianmenshanensis has very short stigmatic lines, only ca. 0.18 mm long and less than 1/3 of the length of sterile style tip appendages, remarkably different from its congeners. This type of stigmatic line, as far as we know, has not been found in any other species of Aster. The very short stigmatic lines plus the unequal disc floret lobes imply that the new species may have a very specialized pollination system, which may be a consequence of habitat specialization. The new species grows only on the limestone cliffs of Mt. Tianmen, Hunan Province, at the elevation of 1400 m. It could only be accessed when a plank walkway was built across the cliffs for tourists. As it is known only from an area estimated at less than 10 km2 and a walkway passes through this location, its habitat could be easily disturbed. This species should best be treated as Critically Endangered based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List Categories and Criteria B2a.

  18. Effectiveness of Asteraceae extracts on Trichostrongylidae eggs development in sheep Eficácia de extratos da família Asteraceae no desenvolvimento dos ovos de Trichostrongilídeos de ovinos

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    Silvana Krychak-Furtado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Data on in vitro evaluation of extracts of three species of the Asteraceae family on the development of Trichostrongylidae eggs in sheep are presented. Egg hatchability was tested using herbal extracts prepared in a Soxhlet extractor, and using hydrolate prepared by means of hydrodistillation. The laboratory tests showed that the ethanol extract from flowers of the species Aster lanceolatus presented high activity against Trichostrongylidae eggs development in sheep, inhibiting larva formation by 91% within 48 hours, and maintaining similar rates after 72 hours.Apresentam-se dados da avaliação in vitro de três espécies vegetais da família Asteraceae sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovos de Trichostrongilídeos de ovinos. Realizou-se o teste de eclodibilidade com extratos vegetais preparados por aparelho de Soxhlet e hidrolato preparado por hidrodestilação. Os testes laboratoriais evidenciaram que o extrato etanólico das flores da espécie Aster lanceolatus apresenta alta atividade sobre o desenvolvimento dos ovos de Trichostrongilídeos de ovinos, inibindo em 91% a formação da larva em 48 horas, mantendo-se índices próximos em 72 horas.

  19. Tipificación y estatus raxonómico de Centaurea resupinata subsp. virens (sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae [Typification and taxonomic status of Centaurea resupinata subsp. virens comb. et stat. nov. (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae

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    P. Pablo FERRER GALLEGO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se reivindica el valor taxonómico y lectotipifica el nombre de Centaurea incana Lag. (non auct. β virens (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae propuesto por Carlos Pau para describir una planta presente en la sierra litoral valenciana de Carcaixent (Valencia. Esta variedad se recombina con rango subespecífico dentro C. resupinta Coss., acorde con la actual sistemática propuesta para este complejo grupo de plantas. Morfológicamente esta planta se caracterizada por la ausencia o el pequeño tamaño de las fimbrias en el ápice de las brácteas involucrales del capítulo. ABSTRACT: We both propose the taxonomic value and lectotypify the name of Centaurea incana Lag. (non auct. β virens (Sect. Willkommia Blanca, Asteraceae proposed by Carlos Pau to describe a plant taxa living in the Valencian litoral range of Carcaixent (Valencia, Spain. This variety is recombined with subspecific rank inside C. resupinata Coss., following the current systematics proposed for this plant group. As main morphological trait, this subspecies is characterised by the absence or very low size of fimbriae under the involucral bract ápex.

  20. Genetic analysis of floral symmetry in Van Gogh's sunflowers reveals independent recruitment of CYCLOIDEA genes in the Asteraceae.

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    Mark A Chapman

    Full Text Available The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry, such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC-like gene (HaCYC2c that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae.

  1. Genetic analysis of floral symmetry in Van Gogh's sunflowers reveals independent recruitment of CYCLOIDEA genes in the Asteraceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mark A; Tang, Shunxue; Draeger, Dörthe; Nambeesan, Savithri; Shaffer, Hunter; Barb, Jessica G; Knapp, Steven J; Burke, John M

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of floral symmetry is a topic of great interest because of its effect on pollinator behavior and, consequently, plant diversification. The Asteraceae, which is the largest family of flowering plants, is an ideal system in which to study this trait, as many species within the family exhibit a compound inflorescence containing both bilaterally symmetric (i.e., zygomorphic) and radially symmetric (i.e., actinomorphic) florets. In sunflower and related species, the inflorescence is composed of a single whorl of ray florets surrounding multiple whorls of disc florets. We show that in double-flowered (dbl) sunflower mutants (in which disc florets develop bilateral symmetry), such as those captured by Vincent van Gogh in his famous nineteenth-century sunflower paintings, an insertion into the promoter region of a CYCLOIDEA (CYC)-like gene (HaCYC2c) that is normally expressed specifically in WT rays is instead expressed throughout the inflorescence, presumably resulting in the observed loss of actinomorphy. This same gene is mutated in two independent tubular-rayed (tub) mutants, though these mutations involve apparently recent transposon insertions, resulting in little or no expression and radialization of the normally zygomorphic ray florets. Interestingly, a phylogenetic analysis of CYC-like genes from across the family suggests that different paralogs of this fascinating gene family have been independently recruited to specify zygomorphy in different species within the Asteraceae.

  2. Type specimens of taxa of Artemisia L. (Asteraceae from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Insitute

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    A. A. Korobkov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Typification of 97 Artemisia (Asteraceae taxa from Siberia and the Far East kept in the Herbarium of V.L. Komarov Botanical Institute was carried out. Holotypes for 39 taxa, lectotypes for 48 taxa, 28 syntypes and 4 isotypes are given.

  3. Intoxicação experimental pelos frutos de Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae em ovinos Experimental poisoning by the burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae in sheep

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    Alexandre Paulino Loretti

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Os frutos moídos de Xanthium cavanillesii foram administrados por via oral, em doses únicas ou fracionadas, a 15 ovinos adultos. Nove ovinos morreram. Doses a partir de 2 g/kg em uma única administração foram letais para os ovinos. Doses únicas de 1,25 g/kg e doses de 2,5 g/kg subdivididas em duas administrações diárias (1,25 g/kg em dois dias consecutivos não causaram a intoxicação. Sinais clínicos foram observados apenas nos animais que morreram. Iniciavam entre 5 horas e 20 horas após o início da administração dos frutos. A evolução do quadro clínico foi superaguda (90 minutos a 3 horas ou aguda (9 a 13 horas. Sinais clínicos incluíam apatia, anorexia, hipomotilidade ruminal, tremores musculares generalizados, incoordenação motora, andar rígido, relutância em caminhar, instabilidade, quedas e decúbito. Muitos animais apresentavam corrimento nasal seromucoso que dificultava a respiração. Nas fases terminais havia tiques, sialorréia, convulsões, nistagmo, movimentos de pedalagem e períodos de apnéia seguidos de morte. Os principais achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular do fígado acompanhada de petéquias distribuídas aleatoriamente na superfície capsular e de corte, distensão da vesícula biliar associada a edema e hemorragias na parede, ascite, hidrotórax, edema gelatinoso e translúcido da região perirrenal, conteúdo do ceco e alça proximal do cólon ascendente ressequido, compactado, recoberto por muco e estrias de sangue coagulado. Havia petéquias e sufusões disseminadas. A principal lesão microscópica consistia em acentuada necrose coagulativa hepatocelular centrolobular ou massiva acompanhada de congestão e hemorragia e vacuolização ou tumefação dos hepatócitos remanescentes.The ground burs of Xanthium cavanillesii (Asteraceae were force fed to 15 adult sheep in single doses or divided in two doses. Nine sheep died. Doses of 2 g/kg and above were lethal for the

  4. CHROMOSOME STUDIES IN VERNONIA CINCTA AND V. SCORPIOIDES (ASTERACEAE, VERNONIEAE ESTUDIOS CROMOSÓMICOS EN VERNONIA CINCTA y V. SCORPIOIDES (ASTERACEAE, VERNONIEAE

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    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Vernonia eineta Griseb. and V. seorpioides (Lam. Pers. (Asteraeeae, Vernonieae are two closely related taxa which have been considered by different authors either the same species or two varieties of the same species or two different species. In the present study a detailed chromosome analysis was carried out in an attempt to clarify the status and relationships of these two taxa. The cytological study revealed that Vernonia eineta has 2n=60 chromosomes and a
    karyotype formula composed of 36m + 16sm + St, whereas V. seorpioides presents 2n=66 and a karyotype with 34m + 20sm + 12t. Besides, V. eineta showed two chromosome pairs bearing satellites on the short arms, one m pair with linear satellite and one t pair with macrosatellite; while V. seorpioides presented one mchromosome pair carrying a linear satellite in the long armo In addition to the chromosome number, these species showed certain other karyotypic differences, mainly in theirformula, total chromosome length and asymmetry leve!. Chromosomal information here reported supports the specific status of both taxa. The presence of telocentric chromosomes in V. cincta and V. seorpioides would distinguish them from the remainder New World species of Vernoniawhich commonly have metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes.
    The karyotypic differences between V. cincta and V. seorpioides may be explained by the occurrence of structural rearrangements such as centric fusions or traslocations. This hypothesis is well supported by the similar total karyotype length of both taxa and the higher mean chromosome length of V. cincta, which presents a lower number of telocentric chromosomes than V. seorpioides.
    Vernonia cincta Griseb. y V. seorpioides V. (Lam. Pers.. (Asteraceae, Vernonieae son dos taxones estrechamente relacionados que han sido considerados por diferentes

  5. Chromosomal organization and phylogenetic relationships in Hypochaeris species (Asteraceae from Brazil

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    Claudete de Fátima Ruas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The association of cytogenetic and molecular techniques has contributed to the analysis of chromosome organization and phylogeny in plants. The fluorochrome GC-specific CMA3, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers were used to investigate chromosome structure and genetic relationships in Hypochaeris (Asteraceae. Seven species native to South America, and two species introduced from Europe (H. glabra and Hypochaeris sp were studied. FISH with rDNA probes identified one or two loci of 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA in the South American Hypochaeris species and one locus in the European species. Only one 5S rDNA locus was seen in all species studied. Blocks of GC-rich heterochromatin (CMA-positive bands associated to 18S-5.8S-25SrDNA loci were detected in all species investigated. Co-location of 5S rDNA and CMA bands was also observed, except for three South American species and Hypochaeris sp. In two South American species, additional CMA bands not related to rDNA were observed on the long arm of chromosome 2, near to the centromere. Hypochaeris glabra exhibited additional CMA-positive signals distributed at pericentromeric regions, on the short arms of all chromosomes. A total of 122 RAPD markers were used to determine the genetic relationships among species. The level of polymorphism was very high, revealing two genetic groups comprising the South American and the European species, thus supporting a previous hypothesis of monophyly of the South American Hypochaeris species. The coefficients of genetic similarity between European and South American species were 0.35, on average. Polymorphism was also high within the two groups. The genetic associations observed with RAPD markers were consistent with chromosome characteristics. Species carrying similar distribution of 45S rDNA loci and CMA-positive signals were included in the same group revealed by RAPDs. Cytogenetic and molecular data support the view that

  6. Mexican Arnica (Heterotheca inuloides Cass. Asteraceae: Astereae): Ethnomedical uses, chemical constituents and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Egas, Verónica; Linares, Edelmira; Bye, Robert; Hernández, Tzasna; Espinosa-García, Francisco J; Delgado, Guillermo

    2017-01-04

    Heterotheca inuloides Cass. (Asteraceae) has been traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases in Mexico in the treatment of rheumatism, topical skin inflammation, muscular pain colic, and other painful conditions associated with inflammatory processes, additionally has been used to treat dental diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. This species has also been used for the treatment of cancer and diabetes. This review provides up-to-date information on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, chemical constituents, as well as the biolological activities of H. inuloides. A literature search was conducted by analyzing the published scientific material. Information related to H. inuloides was collected from various primary information sources, including books, published articles in peer-reviewed journals, monographs, theses and government survey reports. The electronic search of bibliographic information was gathered from accepted scientific databases such as Scienfinder, ISI Web of Science, Scielo, LILACS, Redalyc, Pubmed, SCOPUS and Google Scholar. To date, more than 140 compounds have been identified from H. inuloides, including cadinane sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, phytosterols, triterpenes, benzoic acid derivatives, and other types of compounds. Many biological properties associated with H. inuloides. Many studies have shown that the extracts and some compounds isolated from this plant exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and chelating activities, as well as insecticidal and phytotoxic activity. To date, reports on the toxicity of H. inuloides are limited. A comprehensive analysis of the literature obtained through the above-mentioned sources confirmed that ethnomedical uses of H. inuloides have been recorded in Mexico to treat rheumatism, pain, and conditions associated with inflammatory processes. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated the activity of certain

  7. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE MICROSITIOS PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE PLÁNTULAS DE Espeletia uribei (Asteraceae

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    Angélica María Gallego Maya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de determinar si los micrositios de establecimiento están limitando el reclutamiento de las plántulas y la regeneración de Espeletia uribei, un frailejón endémico y valor objeto de conservación del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza, se evaluaron diez variables bióticas y abióticas dentro de micrositios con plántulas y micrositios vacíos. Las variables que más se relacionaron con el establecimiento fueron: la distancia al adulto reproductivo más cercano, el tipo de zona de luz “abierta” y la estructura de vegetación “herbácea” asociada. La distancia al adulto reproductivo más cercano dificulta que las semillas alcancen micrositios más alejados debido al tipo de dispersión primaria barócora de la especie. Zonas de luz “abiertas” y vegetación asociada herbácea condicionaron la capacidad de germinación y establecimiento de la especie. Los resultados mostraron que el reclutamiento de E. uribei está limitado por la disponibilidad de micrositios que reúnan estas condiciones, un factor que es importante considerar para el planteamiento de futuros proyectos de manejo para la conservación y restauración de las poblaciones de la especie.Characterization of Microsites for Seedling Establishment of Espeletia uribei (AsteraceaeIn order to determine whether microsites are limiting seedling recruitment and regeneration of Espeletica uribei (an endemic frailejon, a valuable species subject to conservation in the Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza ten biotic and abiotic variables were evaluated from E. uribei seedling microsites as well as from sites without seedlings. The variables associated with seedling establishment were distance from the nearest reproductive adult, the quality of exposure to light, and associated herbaceous structure. Reduced distances from the nearest reproductive adult made it difficult for the seeds to reach distant microsites due to the principle wind dispersal type (anemochory. Open gaps and

  8. Revisión taxonómica del género sudamericano Chrysolaena (Vernonieae, Asteraceae

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    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El género Chrysolaena H. Rob. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae se diferencia de los restantes miembros sudamericanos de la tribu por la presencia de indumento seríceo o velutino, anteras con apéndice apical glanduloso, estilo sin nódulo basal y cipselas glandulares. También se puede separar de otros grupos americanos por la morfología de los granos de polen y el número de cromosomas. Esta última es una de las diferencias más importantes, dado que Chrysolaena es el único miembro americano de la tribu con número básico x=10, un guarismo presente principalmente en las Vernonieae del Viejo Mundo. Hasta la actualidad, este género comprende 12 especies distribuidas principalmente en el sur de Brasil, Paraguay y nordeste de Argentina. En el presente trabajo se describen e ilustran todas las especies reconocidas hasta ahora y se incorporan otras seis entidades, dos de las cuales son nuevas para la ciencia. También se discuten las posibles relaciones filogenéticas del género y se amplía la distribución geográfica de la mayoría de las especies.A revision of the South American genus Chrysolaena (Vernonieae, Asteraceae.The genus Chrysolaena H. Rob. (Vernonieae, Asteraceae can be distinguished from the remaining South American members of the tribe by its sericeous to velvety indumentum, anthers with glandular apical appendages, styles lacking a basal nodule and glandular cypselas. It can also be separated from other American genera of the tribe by the pollen morphology and the chromosome number. The last constitutes one of the most important features, because Chrysolaena is the single American member of the tribe with basic number x=10, a number widespread in Old World Vernonieae. At the present, this genus comprises 12 species mainly distributed in southern Brazil, Paraguay and northeastern Argentina. In this paper, all the species recognized until now are described and illustrated and six entities are added to the group, two of which are new

  9. ALELOPATIA DE Arctium minus BERNH (ASTERACEAE NA GERMINAÇÃO E CRESCIMENTO RADICULAR DE SORGO E PEPINO

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    Valdenir José Belinelo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were identified and characterize the allelopatic activity of extracts obtained from Arctium minus (Hill Bernh (Asteraceae. The fitotoxic activity of organic extracts (1 e 100 mg.L-1 and aqueous extract (5,00 e 0,05% m/v on the germination and radicular growth of the monocotyledon Sorghum bicolor L. (sorghum, and the dicotyledon Cucumis sativus L. (cucumber were evaluated. The results showed the presence of allelopatic activity variable in according to the extract concentration and with the target plant. The intensity of induced inhibitory effect was higher for the ethanolic extract in concentration of 100 mg.L-1 for Sorghum bicolor L. The results also indicates the existence of the potential use of Arctium minus (Hill Bernh ethanolic extract as a natural herbicide and open perspectives for the research of the constituent(s with higher allelopatic activity.

  10. Cytological study on the genus Syncalathium (Asteraceae-Lactuceae), an endemic taxon to alpine scree of the Sino-Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Wen ZHANG; Ze-Long NIE; Hang SUN

    2009-01-01

    Cytological characters of four species in Syncalathium (Asteraceae: Lactuceae), a small genus with six identified species endemic to alpine scree of the Sino-Himalayan region, are surveyed in this report. Three species ( Syncalathium pilosum, Syncalathium chrysocephalum, and Syncalathium disciforme ) are examined for the first time. Combined with our previous counts, five species have been cytologically investigated from the genus and the results indicated that all species are diploid with the basic somatic chromosome number of x=8. The karyotype asymmetry of Syncalathium souliei is 2A, distinct from the other four species of 1 A, and the remaining species are divided into two subgroups with different karyotypes, consistent with their morphological features. The significance of the cytological evolution of Syncalathium is briefly discussed.

  11. Systematic of genera Pulicaria Gaertn. and Platycheteae Boiss. from tribe Inuleae s.str (Asteraceae in Iran

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    Peyman Zarin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Pulicaria Gaertn belongs to the tribe Inuleae (Asteraceae. This genus includes five species in Iran (P. dysenterica, P. vulgaris, P. Arabica, P. gnaphalodes and P. salvifolia. The most diagnostic morphological characteristics were kind of pappus, achene, corolla, phyllaries and form of leafs. In the recent study by Anderberg, focusing on the close relationship between the genus Pulicaria and platychaete, they have been announced synonymous. Platychaete includes five species in Iran (P. glucescens, P. carnosa, P. velutina, P. mucronifolia and P. aucheri. In this study the relationships between them were confirmed and therefore, the Anderberg’s view of convergence of the two genera was attested. Also, species identification key, phenogram and distribution map in Iran were provided and discussed.

  12. Contemporary inter-specific hybridization between Cirsium aduncum and C. haussknechtii (Asteraceae: Evidence from molecular and morphological data

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    Sheidai Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirsium aduncum Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Ex DC. and C. haussknechtii Boiss., (Asteraceae are important medicinal plant species that grow in different geographical regions of Iran. We had no knowledge about population genetic structure, intra-specific and inter-specific gene flow and the presence of hybrid zone for this two species in Iran. Therefore, in order to provide data for conservation of these two medicinally important species, the population genetic analysis and morphometric studies were performed in 18 geographical populations of these species. ANOVA and MDS analyses revealed significant morphological difference among the studied populations in either species, while MDS plot showed morphological overlap in plants of these two species. AMOVA test revealed significant genetic difference among the studied populations. Mantel test showed positive significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances and the occurrence of isolation by distance. Population assignment test and STRUCTURE plot of genetic data revealed inter-specific introgression between these species.

  13. Distribución geográfica y riqueza del género Cosmos (Asteraceae: Coreopsideae)

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina Vargas-Amado; Arturo Castro-Castro; Mollie Harker; José Luis Villaseñor; Enrique Ortiz; Aarón Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Cosmos es uno de los géneros monofiléticos más diversos de la tribu Coreopsideae (Asteraceae). El grupo incluye 35 especies y 4 taxa infraespecíficos restringidos al continente americano. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la distribución geográfica y la riqueza de Cosmos a través de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG). Se estimó el área de distribución geográfica de los taxa con más de un registro. También se evaluó la riqueza de las especies de Cosmos por región política, p...

  14. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tori, Motoo

    2016-01-01

    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  15. Evaluation of antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal activities of Artemisia scoparia and A. Spicigera, Asteraceae

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    Fariba H. Afshar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia species (Asteraceae, widespread throughout the world, are a group of important medicinal plants. The extracts of two medicinal plants of this genus, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. and A. spicigera C. Koch, were evaluated for potential antimalarial, free-radical-scavenging and insecticidal properties, using the heme biocrystallisation and inhibition assay, the DPPH assay and the contact toxicity bioassay using the pest Tribolium castaneum, respectively. The methanol extracts of both species showed strong free-radical-scavenging activity and the RC50 values were 0.0317 and 0.0458 mg/mL, respectively, for A. scoparia and A. spicigera. The dichloromethane extracts of both species displayed a moderate level of potential antimalarial activity providing IC50 at 0.778 and 0.999 mg/mL for A. scoparia and A. spicigera, respectively. Both species of Artemisia showed insecticidal properties. However, A. spicigera was more effective than A. scoparia.

  16. Anatomia da madeira de duas espécies do gênero Heterothalamus Lessing (Asteraceae nativas no Rio Grande do Sul

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    Luciano Denardi

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve a anatomia da madeira de Heterothalamus alienus e Heterothalamus rupestris (Astereae – Asteraceae, como parte do estudo do xilema secundário do referido gênero. Para ambas as espécies, foram confirmados detalhes anatômicos mencionados na literatura para a família Asteraceae, como vasos tipicamente pequenos e agrupados em padrão dendrítico, placas de perfuração invariavelmente simples e parênquima paratraqueal. Heterothalamus alienus possui espessamentos espiralados nos vasos lenhosos e parênquima axial vasicêntrico estratificado. Heterothalamus rupestris distingue-se pela ausência de espessamentos espiralados nos vasos e pelo parênquima paratraqueal vasicêntrico a unilateral. São fornecidas fotomicrografias, dados quantitativos de características anatômicas e uma comparação entre a madeira das duas espécies.

  17. Clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae presentes en la reserva municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

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    Gómez Juan Carlos

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo científico y práctico con plantas, identificar las especies es fundamental. Esta identificación se realiza con el uso de claves, las cuales proporcionan la identidad correcta de una especie a través de un proceso de eliminación por contraste. En este trabajo se planteó elaborar una clave interactiva para los géneros de la familia Asteraceae (Compositae reportados en la Reserva Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia, como herramienta para el reconocimiento de la flora local. Se obtuvo una clave interactiva en formato DELTA para los 31 géneros de la familia Asteraceae registrados en la reserva, con un listado de 173 caracteres diagnósticos para la familia, que engloban la variabilidad de las 57 especies estudiadas. Además, fue ilustrada con fotografías y dibujos de las especies y de los caracteres para facilitar el proceso de identificación, y se preparó para ser publicada en Internet de manera que pueda ser utilizada desde la red o quemada en un CD sin necesidad de conexión. La clave demostró ser eficiente para identificar los géneros de
    Asteraceae presentes en la reserva, utilizando solamente los caracteres de tipo vegetativo, con escaso uso de los caracteres de inflorescencia, y nulo requerimiento de caracteres florales. Esto es un resultado asombroso y no esperado para la familia Asteraceae, cuyas claves tradicionales requieren, desde el comienzo caracteres reproductivos. Es posible apreciar así la alta efectividad de la clave y la gran utilidad del programa DELTA.

  18. Revisión taxonómica del complejo Centaurea alba L. (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    López, Eusebio; Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Asteraceae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- A taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea) in the Iberian Peninsula is presented, which is represented by two species, C. alba and C. costae Willk. Three subspecies of C. alba with reasonably well-defined areas are recognized: C. alba subsp. alba, with three varieties –alba, macrocephala Pau and latronum (Pau) E. López & Devesa-, C. alba subsp. aris...

  19. Revisión taxonómica del complejo Centaurea alba L. (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa, J. A.; López, E.

    2011-01-01

    Taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Asteraceae) in the Iberian Peninsula.- A taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea) in the Iberian Peninsula is presented, which is represented by two species, C. alba and C. costae Willk. Three subspecies of C. alba with reasonably well-defined areas are recognized: C. alba subsp. alba, with three varieties –alba, macrocephala Pau and latronum (Pau) E. López & Devesa-, C. alba subsp. aristifera (Pau...

  20. Use of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) and Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae) to treat intestinal mucositis in mice: Toxico-pharmacological evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Caroline Cunha Bastos; Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila; Edvande Xavier dos Santos Filho; Renato Ivan de Ávila; Aline Carvalho Batista; Simone Gonçalves Fonseca; Eliana Martins Lima; Ricardo Neves Marreto; Elismauro Francisco de Mendonça; Marize Campos Valadares

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies towards the development of an effective treatment for intestinal mucositis have been reported, since this condition represents a major problem in clinical oncology practice due to cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy. However standardized protocols and universally accepted treatment options are yet to be established. Objectives: Given above, this study evaluated the protective effects of a mucoadhesive formulation containing both Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) (BP...

  1. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  2. QUALITATIVE COMPOSITION AND ORGANI C ACIDS CONTENT IN THE ABOVEGROUN D PART OF PLANTS FRO M FAMILIES LAMIACEAE, ASTERACEAE, APIACEAE AND CHENOPODIACEAE

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    S. M. Marchyshyn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Organic acids are the compounds of aliphatic or aromatic orders, which are widespread in flora and have a wide range of biological activity. We studied the qualitative composition and quantitative contents of organic acids in the aboveground part of some unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae is relevant. Objective. The objects of the research are the aboveground part of unofficial medicinal plants from families Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Chenopodiaceae. Methods. Identification of organic acids was performed by means of thin-layer and paper chromatography, their content was determined by means of gas chromatography, the quantitative amount of organic acids was defined by titrimetric analysis. Results. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total contents were determined (in terms of malic acid. It is established that the maximum content of organic acids is accumulated in the grass Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae, and the minimal is in the leaves of Chrysánthemum xhortorum L. variety Apro (Asteraceae. In all studied raw plants the dominance of aliphatic acids (citric, malic, oxalic and malonic was determined by means of gas chromatography. Benzoic is predominant among the aromatic acids. Conclusions. In the studied raw plants the quality of organic acids and their total content were determined. The following results can be used in developing the methods of quality control of the studied raw plants and during the study of new bioactive substances.

  3. Concomitant chemopreventive and antibacterial effects of some Iranian plants from the genus Cousinia (Asteraceae Efeitos quimiopreventivo e antibacteriano concomintantes de algumas plantas iranianas do gênero Cousinia (Asteraceae

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    Ahmad Reza Shahverdi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available During the past several years, various species of Cousinia (Asteraceae have been authenticated in Iran. However, data concerning their biological activities remain limited. The main purpose of this research was to assess potential cytotoxicity and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP inhibitory effects of seven ethanol extracts of Cousinia using a cell line model (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. We further investigated the antibacterial activity of these Cousinia ethanol extracts, using disk diffusion method. Among the ethanol extracts, the total extract of C. sulabadensis elicited significant inhibition of MMP activity in a dose-response fashion (49.2 ± 0.51, p Durante os últimos anos, várias espécies de Cousinia (Asteraceae têm sido identificadas no Irã. No entanto, dados acerca de suas atividades biológicas permanecem limitados. O principal propósito desta pesquisa foi avaliar a potencial citotoxidade e os efeitos inibitórios de metaloproteinases da matriz (MMP de sete extratos etanólicos de Cousinia utilizando um modelo de linhagem celular (Fibrosarcoma-WEHI 164. Além disso, investigamos a atividade antibacteriana destes extratos etanólicos de Cousinia, utilizando o método de difusão em disco. Dentre os extratos etanólicos, o extrato total de C. sulabadensis promoveu inibição significativa da atividade de MMP de maneira dose-resposta (49,2 ± 0,51, p < 0,05. Todavia, este extrato exibiu o menor efeito de citotoxicidade em todas as concentrações testadas. A concentração necessária para produzir uma taxa de 50% de morte celular (IC50 com C. shulabadensis foi 304,5 ± 0,61 µg/mL. A IC50 calculada para a citotoxicidade dos outros extratos de espécies de Cousinia situou-se entre 18,4 ± 0,59 e 87,9 ± 0,58 µg/mL. A maior atividade antibacteriana foi observada para o extrato total de Cousinia phyllocephala. Em conclusão, este estudo corrobora que espécies de Cousinia mostram uma notável inibição da atividade de metaloproteinases da

  4. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae Actividad antibacteriana y antioxidante del aceite esencial extraído de Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae

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    A. Laciar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae is commonly known in Argentina as “ajenjo”. Many studies report high efficacy of essential oils against food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The antimicrobial activity and minimal inhibitory concentration of A. echegarayi essential oil were evaluated against seven bacterial species of significant importance in food hygiene, by using the disc diffusion assay and the micro-well dilution method, respectively. Volatile components of the extract were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and major components were determined. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested for its antioxidant activity. The essential oil inhibited the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative tested bacteria, with the exception of Proteus mirabilis. A. echegarayi essential oil presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentration against Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus. Two terpenes, thujone and camphor, were identified from this essential oil as the principal constituents responsible for antibacterial activity. The oil showed a free radical scavenging activity equivalent to 50% of the reference compound. These preliminary studies showed promising results since this essential oil may provide an alternative to promote its use as a natural food additive.Artemisia echegarayi Hieron. (Asteraceae, conocida como “ajenjo”, es una planta típica de la región de Cuyo (Argentina. En este trabajo se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana in vitro y la concentración inhibitoria mínima del aceite esencial extraído de sus partes aéreas frente a especies bacterianas que con frecuencia contaminan los alimentos. Se utilizaron las técnicas de difusión con discos en agar y microdilución en placa respectivamente. Además, se determinó la actividad antioxidante de este aceite esencial in vitro por espectrofotometría. En general, tanto las bacterias gram-positivas como las gram-negativas fueron inhibidas por este aceite, con

  5. Meiotic analysis of the germoplasm of three medicinal species from Asteraceae family Análise meiótica do germoplasma de três espécies medicinais da família Asteraceae

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    Denise Olkoski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic characterization was carried out on 12 accessions from Aster squamatus (Spreng. Hieron., Pterocaulon polystachyum DC, and Solidago microglossa DC by studying their meiotic behavior and pollen viability. These species are from the Asteraceae family, native to Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and are important for medicinal use. Young inflorescences with four accessions of each species were collected, fixed in ethanol-acetic acid (3:1, and conserved in ethanol 70% until use. The method used was that of squashing the anthers and coloring with acetic orcein 2%. Meiosis was regular in all accessions, presenting chromosomal associations preferentially bivalent, where n=10 was found for Aster squamatus and n=9 for Pterocaulon polystachyum, and Solidago microglossa. The studied accessions presented a Meiotic Index (MI that varied from 65% to 87% in Aster squamatus, 85% to 92% in Pterocaulon polystachyum, and 64% to 92% in Solidago microglossa, indicating meiotic stability, although irregularities appeared during the cellular division. The pollen viability estimative was high in all studied accessions. These results indicate that the studied species can be included in future studies of genetic breeding.Foi realizada a caracterização citogenética de doze acessos de Aster squamatus, Pterocaulon polystachyum e Solidago microglossa, espécies da família Asteraceae, nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio do estudo do comportamento meiótico e da viabilidade polínica, que possuem grande importância para uso medicinal. Inflorescências jovens de quatro acessos de cada espécie foram fixadas em álcool-ácido acético (3:1 e conservadas em álcool 70% até o uso. O método utilizado foi o de esmagamento de anteras e a coloração com orceína acética 2%. A meiose foi regular em todos os acessos, apresentando associações cromossômicas preferencialmente em bivalentes, encontrando-se n=10 para Aster squamatus e n=9 para Pterocaulon

  6. Elisa de captura com IgY para quantificação de acetato de lupeol em Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae Capture IgY-elisa to quantify lupeol acetate in Vernonia scorpioides lam. Pers (asteraceae

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    Ronald Bastos Freire

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento descreve, pela primeira vez, a elaboração de um ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA de captura com anticorpos IgY para a detecção e quantificação de acetato de lupeol (LAc em Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Anticorpos anti-LAc, obtidos partir do soro das aves e gemas de seus ovos, após imunização com o conjugado acetato de lupeol-cBSA, foram concentrados em coluna contendo LAc-BSA acoplado a sepharose. A eficácia da metodologia de detecção imunológica foi de 97%, com índices de sensibilidade e especificidade de 99% e 95%, respectivamente com limites de detecção do ensaio entre 0,02µg.g-1 (inferior e 10 µg.g-1 (superior. A robustez do método foi atestada pela sua elevada reprodutibilidade (entre 94,75% e 96,81%, e pelo baixo coeficiente de variação interna (4,22 ± 1,03% nas condições de execução descritas.For the first time, a yolk immunoglobulins-based immunenzymatic assay (capture IgY-ELISA was carried out to detect Lupeol acetate (LAc from Vernonia scorpioides Lam. Pers (Asteraceae. Antibodies (IgY against lupeol acetate (anti-LAc antibodies were raised in White Leghorn hens immunized with LAc conjugated to the bovine serum albumin (LAc-BSA. The anti-LAc antibodies were recovered by cleanup columns containing LAc-BSA coupled to sepharose. The capture IgY-ELISA efficacy was of 97% when the predictive indices of sensitivity and specificity were 99.0% and 95%, respectively. The lowest and highest detection limits were of 0.02µg g-1 and 10µg.g-1 of plant extract, respectively. The strength of this method was attested by its high reproducibility (between 94.75% and 96.81%, and a low internal variation (4.22 ± 1.03%, under the described conditions.

  7. Germinación de Grindelia ventanensis (Asteraceae, una especie endémica del sistema de Ventania (Buenos Aires Germination of Grindelia ventanensis (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Ventania Mountains (Buenos Aires

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    Vanesa Lorena Negrin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo evalúa la capacidad de propagación por semillas de Grindelia ventanensis (Asteraceae, un subarbusto endémico del sistema de Ventania (provincia de Buenos Aires. La especie es considerada en peligro crítico de extinción y presenta potencial económico como ornamental. Se estimaron el porcentaje y tiempo medio de germinación de semillas de poblaciones cultivadas y silvestres, tratadas o no con frío y se evaluó el efecto del almacenamiento sobre estas variables. El porcentaje de germinación de semillas de poblaciones silvestres (67% resultó mayor que el de las cultivadas (16%, pero no se hallaron diferencias asociadas al tratamiento con frío. Tampoco se observaron cambios en el tiempo medio de germinación teniendo en cuenta el origen de las semillas ni la aplicación de frío. El tiempo de almacenamiento testeado (nueve a diez meses reduce significativamente el porcentaje y la velocidad de germinación. La reducción del porcentaje de germinación asociada al almacenamiento podría atribuirse a una pérdida de viabilidad o a la inducción de una segunda dormancia. Nuestros resultados indican que G. ventanensis es una especie con buen potencial para el cultivo a través de semillas. Esta información puede contribuir a su conservación.In this paper the potential for sexual propagation of Grindelia ventanensis (Asteraceae is evaluated. It is an endemic shrub of Ventania Mountains (Buenos Aires province considered critically endangered and with potential economic value as ornamental species. Percentage and media term of germination of seeds were estimated from cultivated and wild populations, exposed and not exposed to cold conditions, and the effect of storage on these variables was determined. Percentage of germination of seeds from wild populations was greater (67% than that of seeds from cultivated populations (16%, and no effect of cold was detected. Changes in the media term of germination were neither detected when

  8. Phenotypic and functional characterization of lymphocytes from different age groups of Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis.

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    Pramod N Nehete

    Full Text Available Due to many physiological and genetic characteristic similarities to humans, squirrel monkeys provide an ideal animal model specifically for studying malaria, and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease. While squirrel monkeys three years and older are generally considered adult subjects suitable for use in medical research studies, little is known about the functional properties of lymphocytes in relation to the age of these animals, which could significantly impact the quality and quantity of innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we investigated differences in the phenotype and function of lymphocytes subsets of young (3-4 years, adult (8-10 years and aged (16-19 years squirrel monkeys. In general, animals in all three age groups exhibited comparable numbers of different lymphocyte subsets except for CD20+ B cells that were significantly lower in aged relative to young animals and T cells subsets expressing both CD4 and CD8 (double positive were significantly higher in aged relative to young animals. With increasing age, phenotypic differences in central and effector memory T cells subsets were observed, that were more pronounced for the CD8+ T cells. Despite equal proportions of CD3+ T cells among the three age groups, responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to T cell mitogens PHA and Con A showed lower IFN-γ producing cells in the aged group than that in the young group. Furthermore, aged animals showed significantly higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12. These findings suggest that while the squirrel monkeys in general share phenotypic and functional similarities of lymphocyte subsets with humans in relation to age, specific differences exist in immune function of lymphocytes between young and old animals that could potentially impact experimental outcomes for which the measurement of immunologic endpoints are critical.

  9. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) in the Asteraceae family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA) and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae), a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing), gene copy number (quantitative PCR) and chromosomal position (FISH) of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in ~200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Results Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases), tribe Gnaphalieae (100%) and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%). The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic structure of rDNA units

  10. Repeated reunions and splits feature the highly dynamic evolution of 5S and 35S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA in the Asteraceae family

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    Garcia Sònia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In flowering plants and animals the most common ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA organisation is that in which 35S (encoding 18S-5.8S-26S rRNA and 5S genes are physically separated occupying different chromosomal loci. However, recent observations established that both genes have been unified to a single 35S-5S unit in the genus Artemisia (Asteraceae, a genomic arrangement typical of primitive eukaryotes such as yeast, among others. Here we aim to reveal the origin, distribution and mechanisms leading to the linked organisation of rDNA in the Asteraceae by analysing unit structure (PCR, Southern blot, sequencing, gene copy number (quantitative PCR and chromosomal position (FISH of 5S and 35S rRNA genes in ~200 species representing the family diversity and other closely related groups. Results Dominant linked rDNA genotype was found within three large groups in subfamily Asteroideae: tribe Anthemideae (93% of the studied cases, tribe Gnaphalieae (100% and in the "Heliantheae alliance" (23%. The remaining five tribes of the Asteroideae displayed canonical non linked arrangement of rDNA, as did the other groups in the Asteraceae. Nevertheless, low copy linked genes were identified among several species that amplified unlinked units. The conserved position of functional 5S insertions downstream from the 26S gene suggests a unique, perhaps retrotransposon-mediated integration event at the base of subfamily Asteroideae. Further evolution likely involved divergence of 26S-5S intergenic spacers, amplification and homogenisation of units across the chromosomes and concomitant elimination of unlinked arrays. However, the opposite trend, from linked towards unlinked arrangement was also surmised in few species indicating possible reversibility of these processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that nearly 25% of Asteraceae species may have evolved unusual linked arrangement of rRNA genes. Thus, in plants, fundamental changes in intrinsic

  11. Análise de amostras de flores de Calêndula (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae comercializadas na grande Curitiba

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    Lais Mondadori Otramario Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Calendula officinalis L. é uma planta herbácea pertencente à família Asteraceae, suas flores apresentam propriedades antimicrobianas, emolientes, antiinflamatórias e tonificantes da pele. Os flavonoides são utilizados como marcadores para avaliar a qualidade da droga vegetal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a identidade e qualidade de seis amostras de flores de C. officinalis L. comercializadas na Grande Curitiba (PR. Foram realizados os ensaios de identificação macroscópica e de pureza, determinação de flavonoides, perfil do extrato etanólico em cromatografia em camada delgada, avaliação das atividades antioxidante e atividade antibacteriana sobre Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Todas as seis amostras analisadas foram identificadas como C. officinalis L. e foram aprovadas no perfil cromatográfico, porém não atenderam aos requisitos farmacopeicos de pureza e teor de flavonoides, fatores que contribuíram para a diminuição da atividade antioxidante e antibacteriana. A má qualidade de plantas medicinais, decorrente de processos produtivos inadequados, pode ocasionar ausência ou diminuição do efeito terapêutico esperado, além de possíveis efeitos tóxicos.Palavras chaves: Calendula officinalis L. Flavonoides. Controle da Qualidade. Cromatografia em camada delgada. Atividade Antioxidante. Atividade Antibacteriana. ABSTRACT Calendula officinalis L., is an herbaceous plant belonging to the family Asteraceae, its flowers have antimicrobial, emollient, anti-inflammatory and toning of the skin properties. Flavonoids are used as chemical markers to evaluate the quality of plant drug. The aim of this study was to evaluate the identity and quality of six samples of C. officinalis L. flowers commercialized in Curitiba City and Metropolitan Area (State of Paraná, Brazil. Tests of macroscopic identification, purity, determination of flavonoids were performed, in addition to the profile of the ethanolic

  12. Anatomical characters of the medicinal leaf and stem of Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae, better known by its former name Vernonia amygdalina Delile, is a small shrub used in folk medicine as an antipyretic, laxative, antimalarial and anthelmintic. Studies have demonstrated that different vegetal extracts possess antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activities. Among the bioactive metabolites, there are sesquiterpene lactones, saponins, polyphenols and flavonoids. This study investigated the leaf and stem microscopic characters of G. amygdalinum, aiming to expand the knowledge on this medicinal species and indicate anatomical structures. Plant material was fixed and sectioned by freehand and using a microtome. The sections were either stained or underwent standard histochemical tests. Scanning electron microscopy was performed to investigate epidermal relief. The leaf is amphistomatic with anomocytic stomata. There are striate cuticle, glandular and non-glandular trichomes and dorsiventral mesophyll. In transverse section, the midrib and the petiole have a plano-convex shape. Both show several collateral vascular bundles and few crystals of calcium oxalate. In the stem, the epidermis persists and the phellogen has a peripheral origin. It presents typical endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps adjoining the phloem. The aspects that contribute to characterizing the species are stomata on both leaf surfaces, midrib and petiole features, the endodermis and sclerenchymatic caps in the stem, as well as the different types of trichome on both aerial organs.

  13. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

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    Loyana Silva Godinho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV and the essential oil (TV-EO from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13% as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL. Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds.

  14. Biosynthesis of anthecotuloide, an irregular sesquiterpene lactone from Anthemis cotula L. (Asteraceae) via a non-farnesyl diphosphate route.

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    van Klink, John; Becker, Hans; Andersson, Susannah; Boland, Wilhelm

    2003-05-07

    Retrobiosynthetic analysis of the allergenic sesquiterpene lactone, anthecotuloide, suggested that this natural product could be formed either by head to head condensation of geranyl diphosphate with dimethylallyl diphosphate, or from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), the accepted regular sesquiterpene precursor via the rearrangement of a germacranolide precursor. Isotopic labelling of anthecotuloide has now been achieved by feeding [1-(13)C]-glucose, [U-13C6]-glucose and [6,6-(2)H2]-glucose to aseptically grown plantlets of Anthemis cotula(family Asteraceae). Analysis of labelling patterns and absolute 13C abundances using quantitative 13C NMR spectroscopy showed that the isoprene building blocks of this sesquiterpene are formed exclusively via the MEP terpene biosynthetic pathway. This was supported by results from an experiment using [U-13C6]-glucose. A deuterium labelling experiment using [6,6-(2)H2]-glucose supported the original proposal and showed that anthecotuloide is formed from a non FPP precursor. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry suggested that there were two pathways for sesquiterpene biosynthesis in A. cotula.

  15. A New Alkamide with an Endoperoxide Structure from Acmella ciliata (Asteraceae and Its in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity

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    Narjara Silveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Acmella ciliata (H.B.K. Cassini (basionym Spilanthes ciliata Kunth; Asteraceae, three alkamides were isolated and identified by mass- and NMR spectroscopic methods as (2E,6E,8E-N-isobutyl-2,6,8-decatrienamide (spilanthol, (1, N-(2-phenethyl-2E-en-6,8-nonadiynamide (2 and (2E,7Z-6,9-endoperoxy-N-isobutyl-2,7-decadienamide (3. While 1 and 2 are known alkamides, compound 3 has not been described until now. It was found that the unusual cyclic peroxide 3 exists as a racemate of both enantiomers of each alkamide; the 6,9-cis- as well as the 6,9-trans-configured diastereomers, the former represents the major, the latter the minor constituent of the mixture. In vitro tests for activity against the human pathogenic parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Plasmodium falciparum revealed that 1 and 3 possess activity against the NF54 strain of the latter (IC50 values of 4.5 and 5.1 µM, respectively while 2 was almost inactive. Compound 3 was also tested against multiresistant P. falciparum K1 and was found to be even more active against this parasite strain (IC50 = 2.1 µM with considerable selectivity (IC50 against L6 rat skeletal myoblasts = 168 µM.

  16. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

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    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  17. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae, False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

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    R. Estrada-Reyes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg, an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td, or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg, Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  18. Linkage of 35S and 5S rRNA genes in Artemisia (family Asteraceae): first evidence from angiosperms.

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    Garcia, Sònia; Lim, K Yoong; Chester, Michael; Garnatje, Teresa; Pellicer, Jaume; Vallès, Joan; Leitch, Andrew R; Kovarík, Ales

    2009-02-01

    Typically in plants, the 5S and 35S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) encoding two major ribosomal RNA species occur at separate loci. However, in some algae, bryophytes and ferns, they are at the same locus (linked arranged). Southern blot hybridisation, polymerase chain reactions (PCR), fluorescent in situ hybridisation, cloning and sequencing were used to reveal 5S and 35S rDNA genomic organisation in Artemisia. We observed thousands of rDNA units at two-three loci containing 5S rDNA in an inverted orientation within the inter-genic spacer (IGS) of 35S rDNA. The sequenced clones of 26-18S IGS from Artemisia absinthium appeared to contain a conserved 5S gene insertion proximal to the 26S gene terminus (5S rDNA-1) and a second less conserved 5S insertion (5S rDNA-2) further downstream. Whilst the 5S rDNA-1 showed all the structural features of a functional gene, the 5S-rDNA-2 had a deletion in the internal promoter and probably represents a pseudogene. The linked arrangement probably evolved before the divergence of Artemisia from the rest of Asteraceae (>10 Myrs). This arrangement may have involved retrotransposons and once formed spread via mechanisms of concerted evolution. Heterogeneity in unit structure may reflect ongoing homogenisation of variant unit types without fixation for any particular variant.

  19. Crystal structure of a mixture of lupeol-acetate tautomers isolated from Hieracium plumulosum A. Kerner, Asteraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argay, Gy.; Kálmán, A.; Kapor, A.; Ribár, B.; Petrović, S.; Gorunović, M.

    1997-11-01

    Transparent single crystals obtained from the purified extract of the plant Hieracium plumulosum A. Kerner, Asteraceae were submitted to spectroscopic and X-ray studies. The spectroscopic (infra-red, mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance) investigations suggested the presence of two isomers of lupeol acetate (C 32H 52O 2) with tautomeric relationship. Their mixture crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P2 1: a = 19.170(2) Å, b = 8.128(1) Å, c = 21.832(2) Å, β = 90.24(1)°, V = 3401.7(6) Å3, Z = 4 (two molecules in the asymmetric unit), Dx = 1.095 gcm-3, μ(Cu Kα) = 0.488 mm -1. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined to a final R = 0.071 for 6636 reflections with I > 2 σ( I). The bond lengths around {C20 }/{( C60) } are between single and double bonds indicating the superposition of the tautomers, i.e., lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol and lup-19(20)-en-3β-ol acetates. They are distributed with different ratio in the symmetry-independent positions. In addition, the difference maps revealed that toluene solvent molecules are also captured in the lattice. They substantially hindered the refinement of atomic positions in particular for the {C19 }/{( C59) } functions.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Emilia sonchifolia DC., Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L. of Asteracea Family: Potential as Food Preservatives.

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    Yoga Latha, L; Darah, I; Sasidharan, S; Jain, K

    2009-09-01

    Chemical preservatives have been used in the food industry for many years. However, with increased health concerns, consumers prefer additive-free products or food preservatives based on natural products. This study evaluated antimicrobial activities of extracts from Emilia sonchifolia L. (Common name: lilac tassel flower), Tridax procumbens L. (Common name: tridax daisy) and Vernonia cinerea L. (Common name: Sahadevi), belonging to the Asteracea family, to explore their potential for use against general food spoilage and human pathogens so that new food preservatives may be developed. Three methanol extracts of these plants were tested in vitro against 20 bacterial species, 3 yeast species, and 12 filamentous fungi by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The V. cinerea extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms and the methanol fraction showed the most significant (p extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 1.56 to 100.00mg/mL. The MIC of methanol fraction was the lowest in comparison to the other four extracts. The study findings indicate that bioactive natural products from these plants may be isolated for further testing as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals in food preservation as well as natural plant-based medicine.

  1. On the road to diploidization? Homoeolog loss in independently formed populations of the allopolyploid Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae

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    Soltis Pamela S

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyploidy (whole-genome duplication is an important speciation mechanism, particularly in plants. Gene loss, silencing, and the formation of novel gene complexes are some of the consequences that the new polyploid genome may experience. Despite the recurrent nature of polyploidy, little is known about the genomic outcome of independent polyploidization events. Here, we analyze the fate of genes duplicated by polyploidy (homoeologs in multiple individuals from ten natural populations of Tragopogon miscellus (Asteraceae, all of which formed independently from T. dubius and T. pratensis less than 80 years ago. Results Of the 13 loci analyzed in 84 T. miscellus individuals, 11 showed loss of at least one parental homoeolog in the young allopolyploids. Two loci were retained in duplicate for all polyploid individuals included in this study. Nearly half (48% of the individuals examined lost a homoeolog of at least one locus, with several individuals showing loss at more than one locus. Patterns of loss were stochastic among individuals from the independently formed populations, except that the T. dubius copy was lost twice as often as T. pratensis. Conclusion This study represents the most extensive survey of the fate of genes duplicated by allopolyploidy in individuals from natural populations. Our results indicate that the road to genome downsizing and ultimate genetic diploidization may occur quickly through homoeolog loss, but with some genes consistently maintained as duplicates. Other genes consistently show evidence of homoeolog loss, suggesting repetitive aspects to polyploid genome evolution.

  2. The potential for genetic assimilation of a native dandelion species, Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), by the exotic congener T. officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Marcus T

    2004-05-01

    Exotic plant species can threaten closely related native congeners through asymmetric hybridization and subsequent backcrossing, the process known as genetic assimilation. I explore the initial stages of this process in Taraxacum ceratophorum (Asteraceae), the native alpine dandelion, and the invasive apomict T. officinale. In central Colorado, seven T. ceratophorum populations all occur in sympatry with T. officinale. In one large population on Pennsylvania Mountain, surveys further revealed that flowering phenologies and visiting insect taxa overlap almost completely for both Taraxacum species. Together these results indicated that heterospecific pollen transfer is likely. Crossing experiments showed that T. ceratophorum is an obligate outcrosser, and interspecific hand pollinations resulted in 37.3% seed set. However, molecular analysis of the F1 offspring indicated that only 33.2% of germinating seeds were hybrids; the remainder were selfed offspring produced from a breakdown in self-incompatibility (the mentor effect). Although the mentor effect helps reduce the production of hybrids, the asymmetrical direction of hybridization creates the potential for genetic assimilation of T. ceratophorum by T. officinale.

  3. Water-use efficiency and nitrogen-use efficiency of C(3) -C(4) intermediate species of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae).

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    Vogan, Patrick J; Sage, Rowan F

    2011-09-01

    Plants using the C(4) pathway of carbon metabolism are marked by greater photosynthetic water and nitrogen-use efficiencies (PWUE and PNUE, respectively) than C(3) species, but it is unclear to what extent this is the case in C(3) -C(4) intermediate species. In this study, we examined the PWUE and PNUE of 14 species of Flaveria Juss. (Asteraceae), including two C(3) , three C(4) and nine C(3) -C(4) species, the latter containing a gradient of C(4) -cycle activities (as determined by initial fixation of (14) C into C-4 acids). We found that PWUE, PNUE, leaf ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) content and intercellular CO(2) concentration in air (C(i) ) do not change gradually with C(4) -cycle activity. These traits were not significantly different between C(3) species and C(3) -C(4) species with less than 50% C(4) -cycle activity. C(4) -like intermediates with greater than 65% C(4) -cycle activity were not significantly different from plants with fully expressed C(4) photosynthesis. These results indicate that a gradual increase in C(4) -cycle activity has not resulted in a gradual change in PWUE, PNUE, intercellular CO(2) concentration and leaf Rubisco content towards C(4) levels in the intermediate species. Rather, these traits arose in a stepwise manner during the evolutionary transition to the C(4) -like intermediates, which are contained in two different clades within Flaveria.

  4. Branching responses in Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae) following mechanical or gall damage to apical meristems and neighbor removal.

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    Fay, Philip A; Throop, Heather L

    2005-06-01

    Branching in plants increases plant access to light and provides pathways for regrowth following damage or loss of the apical meristem. We conducted two experiments in an eastern Kansas tallgrass prairie to determine how apical meristem loss (by clipping), apical meristem damage (by insect galling), and increased light availability affected growth, reproduction, and branching in Silphium integrifolium (Asteraceae). The first experiment compared clipping with galling. Clipping increased axillary shoot numbers, while galling increased axillary shoot lengths, reflecting different allocation responses among damage types and inhibition of branching by galls. However, total capitulum production was less in all gall/clip treatments than in intact shoots. The second experiment compared clipping with mowing the surrounding vegetation to increase light availability. Mowing increased total leaf, total capitulum, and axillary shoot length and axillary capitulum production in clipped and unclipped plants and in large vs. small shoots. The presence of the neighboring canopy, not of an intact apical meristem, was therefore the stronger limitation on leaf and capitulum production. These experiments suggest that damage and light competition affected both branching frequency and the partitioning of resources among shoots, branches, and leaves. Because Silphium's growth form is widespread, similar responses may occur in other grassland forbs.

  5. Selfing ability and dispersal are positively related, but not affected by range position: a multispecies study on southern African Asteraceae.

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    de Waal, C; Rodger, J G; Anderson, B; Ellis, A G

    2014-05-01

    Dispersal and breeding system traits are thought to affect colonization success. As species have attained their present distribution ranges through colonization, these traits may vary geographically. Although several theories predict associations between dispersal ability, selfing ability and the relative position of a population within its geographic range, there is little theoretical or empirical consensus on exactly how these three variables are related. We investigated relationships between dispersal ability, selfing ability and range position across 28 populations of 13 annual, wind-dispersed Asteraceae species from the Namaqualand region of South Africa. Controlling for phylogeny, relative dispersal ability--assessed from vertical fall time of fruits--was positively related to an index of autofertility--determined from hand-pollination experiments. These findings support the existence of two discrete syndromes: high selfing ability associated with good dispersal and obligate outcrossing associated with lower dispersal ability. This is consistent with the hypothesis that selection for colonization success drives the evolution of an association between these traits. However, no general effect of range position on dispersal or breeding system traits was evident. This suggests selection on both breeding system and dispersal traits acts consistently across distribution ranges. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Multiple introductions and gene flow in subtropical South American populations of the fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis(Asteraceae

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    Geraldo Mäder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Non-indigenous plants exhibit different attributes that make them aggressive competitors with indigenous plants and serious threats to biodiversity.Senecio madagascariensis (fireweed, Asteraceae, a native from southern Africa, is a strong competitor in agricultural activities and has toxic alkaloids that may result in high cattle mortality. In Brazil, this weed was collected for the first time in 1995 and has since spread quickly throughout the Pampas region. To better understand the invasion of the fireweed in South America, we used a genetic characterization with internal transcribed spacer (ITS and microsatellite markers. Based on the ITS data, the southern Brazil populations of S. madagascariensis shared genetic homology with samples taken from the Hawaiian Islands and South Africa. Microsatellite analysis showed the genetic diversity split in two clusters, perhaps intimating the independent introduction of each species into South America. Although fireweed was introduced recently in southern Brazil, the considerable levels of genetic diversity, gene flow, and inbreeding may indicate success in the species establishment in this environment.

  7. Análise morfoanatômica das partes aéreas de Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Asteraceae Morphoanatomic analysis of aerial parts of Wedelia paludosa DC. (Acmela brasiliensis, Sphagneticola trilobata, Asteraceae

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    Thaisa Baccarin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo o estabelecimento de parâmetros para análise morfo-anatômica das partes aéreas (caule e folhas da planta Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. A droga vegetal e o respectivo pó foram submetidos às análises macro e microscópica após preparação de lâminas semi-permanentes de cortes transversais e paradérmicos. O pó foi analisado após diafanização com cloral hidratado. É uma planta herbácea com caule castanho-avermelhado, folhas opostas, curto-pecioladas e membranáceas, apresentando pêlos nas duas faces, estreitada em direção à base acima do meio provida de dois pequenos lobos laterais e um terminal, maior e denteado. A planta apresenta secção circular de caule, que em crescimento primário, possui epiderme, colênquima angular, parênquima cortical e cilindro vascular, assim como oxalato de cálcio (várias drusas e alguns cristais prismáticos. A folha é simples, contendo tricomas tectores e estômato anomocítico. O mesofilo possui organização dorso-ventral e a nervura central, em corte transversal, apresenta-se côncavo-convexo com três feixes colaterais e presença de drusas de oxalato de cálcio nas células parenquimáticas. No pó obtido da droga vegetal foram verificadas as mesmas estruturas microscópicas observadas na droga vegetal rasurada. Os parâmetros morfo-anatômicos estabelecidos neste trabalho permitem o controle de qualidade macro e microscópico da planta tanto rasurada como na forma de pó.This study aimed to establish parameters for morphoanatomical analysis of the aerial parts (stem and leaves of the plant Wedelia paludosa DC., Asteraceae. The drug and its respective powder were characterized by macro and microscopic analysis after obtaining semi-permanent lamina of transverse and paradermal sections. The powder was analyzed after being cleared with chloral hydrate. It is an herbaceous plant with reddish-brown stems, opposite leaves, short-petiolated and

  8. Caracterização morfoanatômica das folhas de Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae Leaf morpho-anatomical characterization of Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch, Asteraceae

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    Rafael C. Dutra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, popularmente conhecida como "candeia-da-serra", é uma espécie utilizada na medicina tradicional como cicatrizante e antimicrobiano. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar o número de tricomas glandulares nas folhas jovens e adultas de E. erythropappus, assim como realizar a caracterização morfoanatômica destas folhas. Secções transversais e paradérmicas das folhas foram submetidas às microtécnicas fotônicas e à microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A quantificação dos tricomas glandulares foi realizada em folhas jovens e adultas com auxílio de câmara clara. As folhas são alternas ou fasciculadas e a lâmina foliar possui epiderme uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula delgada e lisa e mesofilo dorsiventral. Em ambas as faces da epiderme, ocorrem estômatos predominantemente anomocíticos e tricomas glandulares inseridos em depressões. Na face abaxial observam-se numerosos tricomas tectores. O parênquima paliçádico é uniestratificado e o parênquima voltado para a face abaxial é formado por três a cinco camadas de células com disposição compacta. As folhas jovens e adultas apresentam respectivamente 21,78±5,83 e 17,80±6,69 tricomas glandulares na face adaxial. A análise morfoanatômica das folhas de E. erythropappus mostra-se um método rápido e prático para a identificação e controle de qualidade de espécies vegetais utilizadas na terapêutica.Eremanthus erythropappus (DC. MacLeisch (Asteraceae, commonly known as 'candeia-da-serra', is a plant used in folk medicine as wound healing and antimicrobial. The aim of this study was to compare the number of glandular trichomes between the young and the mature leaves, as well as to perform the morpho-anatomical characterization of E. erythropappus leaves. Transverse and paradermal sections of the leaves were prepared according to light and scanning microtechniques for the morpho-anatomical characterization

  9. Interaction between Tephritidae (Insecta, Diptera and plants of the family Asteraceae: new host and distribution records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Marcoandre Savaris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty species of Tephritidae (Diptera are recorded in association with capitula of plants in the family Asteraceae. The Tephritidae genus Tetreuaresta is registered for Rio Grande do Sul for the first time. Five species of Tephritidae are newly recorded for Rio Grande do Sul, and new hosts are recorded for the following fly species: Dioxyna chilensis (Macquart, Plaumannimyia dolores (Hering, Plaumannimyia imitatrix (Hering, Plaumannimyia miseta (Hering, Plaumannimyia pallens Hering, Tomoplagia incompleta (Williston, Tomoplagia matzenbacheri Prado, Norrbom & Lewinsohn, Tomoplagia reimoseri Hendel, Xanthaciura biocellata (Thomson and Xanthaciura chrysura (Thomson.

  10. Efeito na sobrevivência, crescimento e reservas corporais de Episyrphus balteatus (De Geer) (Diptera: Syrphidae), de cinco espécies da família Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A dependência dos sirfídeos adultos por pólen e néctar aumenta o potencial para o estabelecimento de flores no ecossistema olivícola e, desta forma, contribui para o incremento da luta biológica contra o algodão-da-oliveira, Euphyllura olivina Costa. A família das Asteraceae é uma das mais referenciadas em termos de preferências alimentares por parte dos sirfídeos, sendo a facilidade de acesso ao recurso floral e a sua fisionomia as principais responsáveis desta atração. Nes...

  11. In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of Bidens Pilosa L. (Asteraceae) Leaf Aqueous and Ethanol Extracts on Primed-Oestrogenized Rat Uterine Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Frida, Longo; Rakotonirina, Silvíre; Rakotonirina, Alice; Savineau, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Bidens pilosa L. is an Asteraceae growing in tropical zones, and traditionally utilized worldwide in herbal medicine. The present work is based on its traditional use during child birth as a labour facilitator. In vivo tests of acute toxicity showed a weak toxic effect for both extracts but the toxicity of the ethanol extract (LD50=6.15g/kg) was upper than that of the aqueous extract (LD50=12.30g/kg). The three-days uterotrophic assay on immature mice showed body weight gain followed by a con...

  12. Assessment of plant development, morphology and flavonoid content in different cultivation treatments of Calendula officinalis L: , Asteraceae

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    Luis Fernando Nunes Alves Paim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cultivation treatments on plant development, morphology and flavonoid content in Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae. The cultivation treatments were liming (LIM, liming + organic fertilizer (LORG and liming + NPK chemical fertilizer (LCHEM. The experiment was completely randomized with sixty repetitions and the means were compared by ANOVA and Duncan's test (significance of 95%. The results show that LORG and LCHEM produced greater plant development compared with LIM treatment. The LORG treatment also produced plants with greater homogeneity, fresh mass, and higher numbers of flowers per plant, but lower biomass of flower produced by each individual. Morphoanatomical variations were also observed with tubular flowers with yellow centres (TCA and tubular flowers with brown centres (TAC that produced a higher content of flavonoids (1.41 and 1.44% respectively, compared with ligulate flowers with yellow centres (LCA and ligulate flowers with brown centres (LAC (0.89 and 0.95% respectively. The chemical compounds in the flowers of calendula viewed by thin-layer chromatography showed that the treatments did not have any influence on the qualitative chemical profile of the plant. However, cultivars of calendula that underwent treatment LCHEM produced a greater quantity of total flavonoids (1.14% against 1.04% for LORG and 1.03% for LIM.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência dos tratos culturais no desenvolvimento vegetal, morfologia e teor de flavonóides para Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae. Os tratos culturais foram: calagem (CA, calagem + adubação orgânica (CAO e calagem + adubação química NPK (CAQ. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado com sessenta repetições e a comparação das médias realizada por ANOVA e teste de Duncan (significância de 95%. Os resultados apontam que CAO e CAQ apresentaram maior desenvolvimento vegetal comparados com tratamento CA. O

  13. [Efficacy of a kaurenic acid extracted from the Venezuelan plant Wedelia trilobata (Asteracea) against Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Solanny; Crescente, Oscar; Fernández, Alexis; Coronado, Aura; Rodriguez, Noris

    2006-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is a global public health problem without adequate treatment options, hence requiring research on new drug development. Our main objective was the evaluation of a kaurenic acid (ent-kaur-16-in-19-oico), isolated from the Venezuelan plant Wedelia trilobata (Asteracea), on Leishmania (V) braziliensis both in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro assay was performed using axenic amastigotes and promastigotes as well as infected and uninfected macrophages. Parasites and macrophages were treated with concentrations of the compound varying between 10 and 250 microg/ml. The effect of the compound on cellular viability was evaluated by counting dead and living cells in a hemocytometer and by the colorimetric method using MTT (Methylthiazoletetrazolium). For the in vivo assay, Balb/c mice were infected subcutaneously with 1 x 10(6) promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis and afterwards treated with a daily dose of 30 mg/kg in 100 microl of kaurenic acid administered by intraperitoneal injection for one week. The compound had a lethal effect on axenic amastigotes and promastigotes with DL50 of 0.25 and 0.78 microg/ml, respectively, in 24 hours. Low toxicity was observed for J774-G8 macrophages with a DL50 of 25 microg/ml and high viability (70-92%), while a moderate viability was observed for infected macrophages (37-81%), with concentrations of 25 microg/ml or less. Additionally, a 70% reduction was observed in the size of the skin lesions in Balb/c mice with no evident toxic effect. The results indicate that this compound has a potent leishmanicidal effect on L. (V.) braziliensis.

  14. Bioactivity of the extracts and isolation of lignans and a sesquiterpene from the aerial parts of Centaurea pamphylica (Asteraceae

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    Shoeb M.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Centaurea pamphylica Boiss. & Heldr. (Family: Asteraceae, commonly known as ‘pamphylia daisy', is a Turkish endemic species of the genus Centaurea that comprises ca. 500 species, many of which have been used as traditional medicines.  The n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of C. pamphylica were assessed for antioxidant activity and general toxicity using, respectively, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and the brine shrimp lethality assays. The reversed-phase preparative HPLC and PTLC were used to isolate compounds from the extracts.  The structures of these compounds [1-4] were elucidated by spectroscopic means, and also by direct comparison with the respective published data.  Both the DCM and the MeOH extract showed significant levels of antioxidant activities with the RC50 values of 72.6 x 10-2 and 47.3 ´ 10-2 mg/mL, respectively. The MeOH extract exhibited low levels of toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = 125.0 ´ 10-2 mg/mL. Three major bioactive components of the MeOH extract were matairesinoside [1], arctiin [2] and matairesinol [3]. An eudesmane-type sesquiterpene, pterodontriol [4], was also isolated from the DCM extract.  Since reactive oxygen species are important contributors to various ailments, the antioxidant properties of the extracts as well as the isolated compounds may be of medicinal significance. This is the first report on the occurrence of 1-4 in C. pamphylica, and 4 in the genus Centaurea.  

  15. In and out of Madagascar: dispersal to peripheral islands, insular speciation and diversification of Indian Ocean daisy trees (Psiadia, Asteraceae.

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    Joeri S Strijk

    Full Text Available Madagascar is surrounded by archipelagos varying widely in origin, age and structure. Although small and geologically young, these archipelagos have accumulated disproportionate numbers of unique lineages in comparison to Madagascar, highlighting the role of waif-dispersal and rapid in situ diversification processes in generating endemic biodiversity. We reconstruct the evolutionary and biogeographical history of the genus Psiadia (Asteraceae, a plant genus with near equal numbers of species in Madagascar and surrounding islands. Analyzing patterns and processes of diversification, we explain species accumulation on peripheral islands and aim to offer new insights on the origin and potential causes for diversification in the Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot. Our results provide support for an African origin of the group, with strong support for non-monophyly. Colonization of the Mascarenes took place by two evolutionary distinct lineages from Madagascar, via two independent dispersal events, each unique for their spatial and temporal properties. Significant shifts in diversification rate followed regional expansion, resulting in co-occurring and phenotypically convergent species on high-elevation volcanic slopes. Like other endemic island lineages, Psiadia have been highly successful in dispersing to and radiating on isolated oceanic islands, typified by high habitat diversity and dynamic ecosystems fuelled by continued geological activity. Results stress the important biogeographical role for Rodrigues in serving as an outlying stepping stone from which regional colonization took place. We discuss how isolated volcanic islands contribute to regional diversity by generating substantial numbers of endemic species on short temporal scales. Factors pertaining to the mode and tempo of archipelago formation and its geographical isolation strongly govern evolutionary pathways available for species diversification, and the

  16. Mucoadhesive formulation of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae reduces intestinal injury from 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis in mice

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    Paulo Henrique Marcelino de Ávila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal mucositis induced during cancer treatment is considered a serious dose-limiting side effect of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Frequently, interruption of the cancer treatment due to this pathology leads to a reduction in cure rates, increase of treatment costs and decrease life quality of the patient. Natural products such as Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae, represent a potential alternative for the treatment of mucositis given its anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, B. pilosa glycolic extract was formulated (BPF with poloxamer, a mucoadhesive copolymer, was used for treatment of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU-induced mucositis in mice. As expected, animals only treated with 5-FU (200 mg/kg presented marked weight loss, reduction of intestinal villi, crypts and muscular layer, which was associated with severe disruption of crypts, edema, inflammatory infiltrate and vacuolization in the intestinal tissue, as compared to the control group and healthy animals only treated with BPF. On the other hand, the treatment of intestinal mucositis-bearing mice with BPF (75, 100 or 125 mg/kg managed to mitigate clinical and pathologic changes, noticeably at 100 mg/kg. This dose led to the restoration of intestinal proliferative activity through increasing Ki-67 levels; modulated the expression of Bax, Bcl2 and p53 apoptotic markers protecting intestinal cells from cell death. Moreover, this treatment regulated lipid peroxidation and inflammatory infiltration. No acute toxic effects were observed with this formulation. This work demonstrated that BPF was safe and effective against 5-FU-induced intestinal mucositis in mice. Additional studies are already in progress to further characterize the mechanisms involved in the protective effects of this technological formulation toward the development of a new medicine for the prevention and treatment of intestinal injury in patients undergoing chemotherapy/radiotherapy.

  17. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae.

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    Clemens Pachschwöll

    Full Text Available Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene, polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae, whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid. Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s. and the Carpathians and (iii the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps; each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale

  18. Polyploidisation and geographic differentiation drive diversification in a European High Mountain Plant Group (Doronicum clusii Aggregate, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachschwöll, Clemens; Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Range shifts (especially during the Pleistocene), polyploidisation and hybridization are major factors affecting high-mountain biodiversity. A good system to study their role in the European high mountains is the Doronicum clusii aggregate (Asteraceae), whose four taxa (D. clusii s.s., D. stiriacum, D. glaciale subsp. glaciale and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum) are differentiated geographically, ecologically (basiphilous versus silicicolous) and/or via their ploidy levels (diploid versus tetraploid). Here, we use DNA sequences (three plastid and one nuclear spacer) and AFLP fingerprinting data generated for 58 populations to infer phylogenetic relationships, origin of polyploids-whose ploidy level was confirmed by chromosomally calibrated DNA ploidy level estimates-and phylogeographic history. Taxonomic conclusions were informed, among others, by a Gaussian clustering method for species delimitation using dominant multilocus data. Based on molecular data we identified three lineages: (i) silicicolous diploid D. clusii s.s. in the Alps, (ii) silicicolous tetraploid D. stiriacum in the eastern Alps (outside the range of D. clusii s.s.) and the Carpathians and (iii) the basiphilous diploids D. glaciale subsp. glaciale (eastern Alps) and D. glaciale subsp. calcareum (northeastern Alps); each taxon was identified as distinct by the Gaussian clustering, but the separation of D. glaciale subsp. calcareum and D. glaciale subsp. glaciale was not stable, supporting their taxonomic treatment as subspecies. Carpathian and Alpine populations of D. stiriacum were genetically differentiated suggesting phases of vicariance, probably during the Pleistocene. The origin (autopolyploid versus allopolyploid) of D. stiriacum remained unclear. Doronicum glaciale subsp. calcareum was genetically and morphologically weakly separated from D. glaciale subsp. glaciale but exhibited significantly higher genetic diversity and rarity. This suggests that the more widespread D. glaciale subsp

  19. Relationship between seed bank expression, adult longevity and aridity in species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) in central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, M T K; Chacon, P; Cavieres, L A

    2006-09-01

    Broad surveys have detected inverse relationships between seed and adult longevity and between seed size and adult longevity. However, low and unpredictable precipitation is also associated with seed bank (SB) expression in semi-arid and arid areas. The relationship between adult longevity, SB formation, seed mass and aridity is examined in annual and perennial herbs of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae) from the Chilean Mediterranean-type climate and winter-rainfall desert areas over a precipitation range of one order of magnitude. Seeds of 18 species and subtaxa (32 populations) were buried in field locations, and exhumed after two successive germination periods. Seeds not germinating in the field were tested in a growth chamber, and remnant intact seed tested for viability. Seed banks were classed as transient or persistent. The effect of life form, species, population and burial time on persistent SB size was assessed with factorial ANOVA. Persistent seed bank size was compared with the Martonne aridity index (shown to be a surrogate for inter-annual variation in precipitation) and seed size using linear regression. ANCOVA assessed the effect of life-form on SB size with aridity as covariate. Three species had a transient SB and 15 a persistent SB. ANOVA revealed a significant effect of life-form on SB size with annuals having larger SB size and greater capacity to form a persistent SB than perennials. Significant inter-population variation in SB size was found in 64% of cases. Seed mass was negatively correlated with persistent SB size. Persistent seed bank size was significantly correlated with the Martonne aridity index in the perennial and annual species, with species from more arid areas having larger persistent SBs. However, when aridity was considered as a covariate, ANCOVA revealed no significant differences between the annual and perennial herbs. Persistent seed bank size in Chaetanthera appears to reflect environmental selection rather than any trade-off with

  20. Actividad fagodisuasiva de las plantas Tithonia diversifolia y Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae sobre adultos del insecto plaga Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae

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    Gina Bagnarello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae es una plaga polífaga, cosmopolita y de gran relevancia mundial, sobre todo como vector de virus en numerosos cultivos, por lo que sería deseable un enfoque preventivo para su manejo. En tal sentido, podría recurrirse a la utilización de sustancias repelentes o disuasivas, algunas de ellas presentes en plantas tropicales, lo cual contribuiría al aprovechamiento de la rica biodiversidad mesoamericana. Por tanto, se evaluó la posible actividad fagodisuasiva sobre los adultos de B. tabaci de dos especies silvestres de la familia Asteraceae: titonia (Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray y tora (Montanoa hibiscifolia Benth.. Para ello, en condiciones de invernadero se evaluaron los extractos crudos y cuatro fracciones (hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo y metanol de ambas especies, a los cuales se les hizo un análisis fitoquímico (tamizaje el cual permitió determinar cuáles metabolitos presentes en T. diversifolia y M. hibiscifolia podrían causar fagodisuasión en B. tabaci. Se realizaron dos tipos de experimentos: de escogencia restringida y de escogencia irrestricta. En los primeros, cada fracción se evaluó a cuatro dosis (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 y 1.5% v/v, y se comparó con cuatro tratamientos testigo: aceite agrícola, endosulfán, un emulsificante (Citowett y un testigo absoluto (agua. Se asperjaron plantas de tomate colocadas dentro de jaulas de manga, donde se liberaron 50 adultos de B. tabaci. Para determinar si existía fagodisuasión se utilizó como criterio el número de adultos posados a las 48h. Para el experimento de escogencia irrestricta se utilizaron las dos concentraciones más altas (1.0 y 1.5% del extracto crudo de cada especie y se compararon con el aceite agrícola y agua. Los extractos crudos de titonia y tora causaron fagodisuasión, y para ambas especies la fracción de metanol fue la que más sobresalió. En conclusión, los resultados obtenidos en los bioensayos

  1. Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Majeský, Ľuboš; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Stolarczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the species that were examined, the micropylar canal was completely filled with ovule transmitting tissue and the matrix that was produced by these cells. The ovule transmitting tissue was connected to the ovarian transmitting tissue. The micropyle was asymmetrical because the integument epidermis that forms the transmitting tissue was only on the funicular side. There was a cuticle between the obturator cells and epidermal cells on the other side of integument. The micropylar transmitting tissue cells and theirs matrix reached the synergid apex. The cytoplasm of the transmitting tissue cells was especially rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes, and mitochondria. No major differences were detected between the micropyle structure of the amphimictic and apomictic species; thus, a structural reduction of obturator does not exist. The ovule transmitting tissue is still active in apomictic dandelions despite the presence of the embryo and endosperm. Differences and similarities between the micropyle structure in the Asteraceae that have been studied to date are discussed.

  2. Taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic lslands

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    Benedí i González, Carles

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review of the genus Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae in the Iberian peninsula and the Balearic Islands is carried out. Two changes in nomenclature are proposed: Chamaemelum nobile ( L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. and C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. For each taxon the correct name as well as the corresponding synonyms are given. A dichotomic key of the recognized taxa and a list of the herharium sheets studied are provided.

    Se realiza una revisión taxonómica del género Chamaemelum Miller (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se proponen dos cambios nomenclaturles: Chamaemelum nobile (L. All. forma discoideum (Willk. comb. & stat. nov. y C. fuscatum (Brot. Vasc. forma minor (Hoffmanns. & Link comb. & stat. nov. Para cada taxon se da el nombre correcto, así como las correspondientes sinonimias. Se adjunta una clave dicotómica de los táxones reconocidos y una relación de los testimonios de herbario estudiados.

  3. Radiation and diversification within the Ligularia-Cremanthodium-Parasenecio complex (Asteraceae) triggered by uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Quan; Wang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Ai-Lan; Hideaki, Ohba; Abbott, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    The Ligularia-Cremanthodium-Parasenecio (L-C-P) complex of the Tussilagininae (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) contains more than 200 species that are endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in eastern Asia. These species are morphologically distinct; however, their relationships appear complex. A phylogenetic analysis of members of the complex and selected taxa of the tribe Senecioneae was conducted using chloroplast (ndhF and trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from individual and combined datasets of the three different sequences. All analyses suggested that Doronicum, a genus that has been included in the Tussilagininae, should be excluded from this subtribe and placed at the base of the tribe Senecioneae. In addition, the Tussilagininae should be broadly circumscribed to include the Tephroseridinae. Within the expanded Tussilagininae containing all 13 genera occurring in eastern Asia, Tussilago and Petasites diverged early as a separate lineage, while the remaining 11 genera comprise an expanded L-C-P complex clade. We suggest that the L-C-P clade, which is largely unresolved, most likely originated as a consequence of an explosive radiation. The few monophyletic subclades identified in the L-C-P clade with robust support further suggest that some genera of Tussilagininae from eastern Asia require generic re-circumscriptions given the occurrence of subclades containing species of the same genus in different parts of the phylogentic tree due to homoplasy of important morphological characters used to delimit them. Molecular-clock analyses suggest that the explosive radiation of the L-C-P complex occurred mostly within the last 20 million years, which falls well within the period of recent major uplifts of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau between the early Miocene to the Pleistocene. It is proposed that significant increases in geological and ecological diversity that accompanied such uplifting, most likely promoted rapid and continuous

  4. In vitro schistosomicidal and antiviral activities of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) against Schistosoma mansoni and Herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Mirna Meana; Zuza, Ohana; Riani, Lorena R; de Faria Pinto, Priscila; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; Silva, Marcos P; de Moraes, Josué; Ataíde, Ana Caroline Z; de Oliveira Silva, Fernanda; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A

    2017-10-01

    Schistosomiasis and herpes diseases represent serious issues to the healthcare systems, infecting a large number of people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae), known as "bardana" and "burdock", is a medicinal plant popularly used for several purposes, including as antiseptic. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of the crude extract of A. lappa, which have not yet been described. Fruits of A. lappa L. were extracted by maceration with ethanol: H2O (96:4 v/v) in order to obtain the hydroalcoholic extract of A. lappa (AL). In vitro schistosomicidal assays were assessed against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni, while the in vitro antiviral activity of AL was evaluated on replication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Cell viability was measured by MTT assay, using Vero cells and chemical composition of AL was determined by qualitative UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS analysis of AL revealed the presence of dibenzylbutyrolactone lignans, such as arctiin and arctigenin. Results showed that AL was not cytotoxic to Vero cells even when tested at 400μg/mL. qPCR results indicated a significant viral load decreased for all tested concentrations of AL (400, 50, and 3.125μg/mL), which showed similar antiviral effect to acyclovir (50μg/mL) when tested at 400μg/mL. Also, AL (400, 200, and 100μg/mL) caused 100% mortality and significantly reduction on motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with AL. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro schistosomicidal and antiherpes activities of AL, opening the route to further schistosomicidal and antiviral studies with AL and their compounds, especially lignans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Regionalización biogeográfica de Zacatecas, México, con base en los patrones de distribución de la familia Asteraceae The biogeographical regions of the state of Zacatecas, Mexico, based on distribution patterns of the family Asteraceae

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    José de Jesús Balleza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución de 456 especies de Asteraceae (Magnoliophyta nativas de Zacatecas, con el fin de proponer una regionalización biogeográfica estatal. Para ello su territorio se dividió en 28 unidades geográficas operativas (UGOs y se determinó el número de especies y el número de ejemplares recolectados en cada UGO, así como los tipos de vegetación y el intervalo altitudinal. Utilizando el coeficiente de Jaccard, se determinaron las similitudes florísticas entre las UGOs. La distribución del total de especies de Asteraceae varió desde 190 en la UGO más diversa (UGO 28 hasta 32 en la menos diversa (UGO 5; por su parte, la distribución de las especies endémicas de México también varió, desde 98 (UGO 28 hasta ocho (UGOs 5 y 6. Las UGOs con más tipos de vegetación y con intervalo altitudinal más amplio son también las que registran el número mayor de especies. El 34% de las especies se consideraron como raras, pues se registran en sólo una UGO. Los resultados indican que las Asteraceae se pueden dividir en dos grupos de especies: i aquellas que prosperan preferentemente en las condiciones de aridez que se presentan en la Altiplanicie y ii aquellas que se distribuyen básicamente en hábitats con climas templados y cálidos de la Sierra Madre Occidental. El análisis permite identificar dos «distritos» biogeográficos, subordinados a las provincias florísticas propuestas por Rzedowski (1978.The geographic distribution patterns of 456 species of Asteraceae (Magnoliophyta native to Zacatecas were analysed. The aim was to propose a state's biogeographic zonation. The state was divided in 28 operational geographic units (OGUs and for each one the number of species, the number of specimens collected, the vegetation types and the altitudinal range were determined. Floristic similarities among OGUs were obtained by using a classificatory procedure and the Jaccard's similarity coefficient. The richest OGU

  6. Atividade antibacteriana e a preditividade do condimento Artemisia dracunculus Linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora - estragão -, frente à Salmonella sp Antimicrobial activity and preditivity of Artemisia acunculus (Asteraceae, var. inodora - tarragon -, as condiment, against Salmonella sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a atividade antibacteriana de extrato aquoso do condimento estragão - Artemisia dracunculus linn. (Asteraceae, variedade inodora -, frente à Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, por meio do sistema de tubos múltiplos e pelo emprego de desinibidores bacterianos, determinando-se a Intensidade de Inibição/Inativação (IINIB/IINAB, observando-se expressiva inibição, bem como ausência de inativação sobre esta salmonela. Na presença do fator matéria orgânica/sujeira representada pelo leite, estes atributos repetiram-se, embora com menor intensidade de inibição. Posteriormente, avaliou-se a preditividade de uma técnica oficial de isolamento desta bactéria, utilizando uma solução experimental de leite e caldo BHI (Brain Heart Infusion, contaminada com 10(4 UFC/mL da salmonela em estudo. Verificou-se a ausência de isolamento desta bactéria em alíquotas de 25 mL, após períodos de 24, 48 e 72 h de incubação a 36ºC, comprometendo a Validade Preditiva dos Resultados Negativos (VPR- do teste. Sugere-se que, nas investigações epidemiológicas de surtos toxiinfectivos alimentares, devem-se ser acrescidas informações sobre condimentação vegetal, entre outras, pertinentes à complexidade crescente do sistema de alimentação e nutrição.It was evaluated antibacterial activity of watery extract of the condiment tarragon - Artemisia dracunculus linn., var. inodora -, against the Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 11076, through the system of multiple pipes and the job of bacterial inhibitors, it was determined Intensity of inhibition/inativation (IINIB/IINAB, observing expressive inhibition, as well as absence of inativation on this salmonela. In presence of the organic substance, represented by skimmed barren milk, these attributes if had repeated, even so with lesser intensity of inhnibition. Later, it was evaluated preditividade of one official technique of isolation of this bacterium, using an experimental solution of milk

  7. Potencial alelopàtico do óleo essencial de espécies de Heterothalamus Less.(Asteraceae) nativas do Rio Grande do Sul

    OpenAIRE

    Valeri Schmidt da Silva

    2012-01-01

    As Asteraceae constituem o taxon mais numeroso dentro das angiospermas eudicotiledôneas, compreendendo cerca de 1.100 gêneros e de 25.000 espécies. São plantas de hábito extremamente variado, incluindo principalmente pequenas ervas ou arbustos e, raramente, árvores. Esta família possui um enorme sucesso na produção de metabólitos que atuam na defesa química e esse seria um dos motivos de sua distribuição cosmopolita. As plantas dessa família são extensivamente estudadas quanto à sua composiçã...

  8. Three New Exotic Plant Species of Asteraceae in Xinjiang%新疆菊科3种新的外来植物种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜珍珠; 阎平; 任姗姗; 曹婷; 黄刚

    2014-01-01

    近几年,通过对新疆北部地区杂草的野外调查研究,在准确鉴定的基础上,发现菊科(Asteraceae)新的外来植物3种及新记录属1属,分别为一年蓬Erigeron annuus(L.)Pers.、大狼把草Bidens frondosa L.和粗毛牛膝菊Galinsoga quadriradiata Ruiz et Pav..其中,牛膝菊属Galinsoga Ruiz et Pav.为新疆菊科新记录属.在此基础上,详细描述了它们的形态特征,并初步分析了它们在我国的地理分布.

  9. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  10. Antimalarial activity of Bidens pilosa L. (Asteraceae) ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in various localities or plants cultivated in humus soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Neto, Valter F; Brandão, Maria G L; Oliveira, Francielda Q; Casali, Vicente W D; Njaine, Brian; Zalis, Mariano G; Oliveira, Luciana A; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2004-08-01

    Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae), a medicinal plant used worldwide, has antimalarial activity as shown in previous work. This study tested ethanol extracts from wild plants collected in three different regions of Brazil and from plants cultivated in various soil conditions. The extracts were active in mice infected with P. berghei: doses of humus enriched soil, were active; but the wild plants were the most active. Analysis using thin layer chromatography demonstrated the presence of flavonoids (compounds considered responsible for the antimalarial activity) in all plants tested, even though at different profiles. Because B. pilosa is proven to be active against P. falciparum drug-resistant parasites in vitro, and in rodent malaria in vivo, it is a good candidate for pre-clinical tests as a phytotherapeutic agent or for chemical isolation of the active compounds with the aim of finding new antimalarial drugs.

  11. Revisión taxonómica del complejo Centaurea alba L. (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica

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    Devesa, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Asteraceae in the Iberian Peninsula.- A taxonomic revision of the Centaurea alba L. complex (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea in the Iberian Peninsula is presented, which is represented by two species, C. alba and C. costae Willk. Three subspecies of C. alba with reasonably well-defined areas are recognized: C. alba subsp. alba, with three varieties –alba, macrocephala Pau and latronum (Pau E. López & Devesa-, C. alba subsp. aristifera (Pau E. López & Devesa and C. alba subsp. tartesiana Talavera, two of them are proposed as new nomenclatural combinations. Centaurea costae is segregated from C. alba and three varieties are recognized: costae, montsicciana Pau & Font Quer and maluqueri Font Quer. In the case of C. alba var. latronum, C. alba var. macrocephala and C. alba subsp. aristifera, the chromosome number was also studied (2n = 18.Revisión taxonómica del complejo Centaurea alba L. (Asteraceae en la Península Ibérica.- Se efectúa la revisión taxonómica del complejo de Centaurea alba L. (Centaurea L. sect. Centaurea en la Península Ibérica, representado por dos especies, C. alba y C. costae Willk. Para C. alba se reconocen tres subespecies con áreas bien definidas: C. alba subsp. alba, con tres variedades –alba, macrocephala Pau y latronum (Pau E. López & Devesa-, C. alba subsp. aristifera (Pau E. López & Devesa y C. alba subsp. tartesiana Talavera, proponiéndose dos nuevas combinaciones. Se segrega Centaurea costae de C. alba, y se reconocen para ella tres variedades: costae, montsicciana Pau & Font Quer y maluqueri Font Quer. En el caso de C. alba var. latronum, C. alba var. macrocephala y C. alba subsp. aristifera se ha estudiado además el número cromosómico (2n = 18.

  12. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  13. Geography shapes the phylogeny of frailejones (Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae): a remarkable example of recent rapid radiation in sky islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Janet C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The páramo ecosystem, located above the timberline in the tropical Andes, has been the setting for some of the most dramatic plant radiations, and it is one of the world’s fastest evolving and most diverse high-altitude ecosystems. Today 144+ species of frailejones (subtribe Espeletiinae Cuatrec., Asteraceae) dominate the páramo. Frailejones have intrigued naturalists and botanists, not just for their appealing beauty and impressive morphological diversity, but also for their remarkable adaptations to the extremely harsh environmental conditions of the páramo. Previous attempts to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this group failed to resolve relationships among genera and species, and there is no agreement regarding the classification of the group. Thus, our goal was to reconstruct the phylogeny of the frailejones and to test the influence of the geography on it as a first step to understanding the patterns of radiation of these plants. Methods Field expeditions in 70 páramos of Colombia and Venezuela resulted in 555 collected samples from 110 species. Additional material was obtained from herbarium specimens. Sequence data included nrDNA (ITS and ETS) and cpDNA (rpl16), for an aligned total of 2,954 bp. Fragment analysis was performed with AFLP data using 28 primer combinations and yielding 1,665 fragments. Phylogenies based on sequence data were reconstructed under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. The AFLP dataset employed minimum evolution analyses. A Monte Carlo permutation test was used to infer the influence of the geography on the phylogeny. Results Phylogenies reconstructed suggest that most genera are paraphyletic, but the phylogenetic signal may be misled by hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting. A tree with all the available molecular data shows two large clades: one of primarily Venezuelan species that includes a few neighboring Colombian species; and a second clade of only Colombian species

  14. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

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    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  15. The Principal Component Analysis of Trace Elements in Asteraceae Chinese Medicinal Herbs with Anti-HIV Activity%五种抗HIV活性菊科中草药微量元素主成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云华; 殷彩霞; 彭莉; 张仙; 黄红苹

    2013-01-01

    对具有抗HIV活性的菊科中草药艾叶、紫茎泽兰、臭灵丹、叶下花、辣子草进行微量元素含量测定、含量间相关性分析和主成分分析,找出微量元素主成分的影响.再根据主成分值和综合评价值进行二维聚类,发现微量元素含量与抗HIV活性呈一定正相关.为药用菊科资源的开发与利用提供了理论依据.%Folium artemisiac Argri.,Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng.,Laggera pterodonta (DC)Benth.,Ainsliaea pertyoides Franch.and Galinsoga payviflora Cav.belong to asteraceae with anti-HIV activity.The content determination,content correlation analysis and principal component analysis of trace elements were carried out to find the action of the principal components of trace elements in the five asteraceae herbs.Then,a dimensional clustering analysis was done on the grounds of principal component values and comprehensive evaluation values.The results showed that there was a positive correlation between trace elements content and anti-HIV activity.This paper provided a reference for the development and utilization of the resources of asteraceae herbs.

  16. Isolation and Evolution of BRC1-like Genes in Asteraceae%菊科BRC1-like基因片段的克隆与进化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓丽; 刘勇; 赵瑞艳; 郗琳; 李俊香; 刘凤栾; 赵梁军

    2013-01-01

    Diversity of branching types is produced during the evolution of Asteraceae,which is originated by the diversity of branching genes.BRC1 (BRANCHED1) genes,as the member of TCP family,are proved to play important roles in inhibition of lateral branches.BRC1-like genes were replicated during evolution,and different members were through different selective pressures,both of which may lead to the large family and diverse functions.Twenty-one BRC1-like gene fragments were isolated from 16 Asteraceae species,which contained the conserved TCP domain,R domain and ECE motif,and were in the CYCLOIDEA1 (CYC1)subclade of TCP family.With the sequences we cloned and sequences from gerbera (Gerbera hybrid) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus)(downloaded from NCBI),phylogenetic tree were constructed.All the BRC1-like genes from Asteraceae were clustered into two groups,BRC1a and BRC1b,which indicated that CYC1 subclade replicated and expanded during evolution.Maximum likelihood (ML) branch test was performed to detect the selective pressure,the results indicated that BRC1b group evoloved under a strong purifying selection,while the BRC1a group had experienced a decrease in evolutionary constrains.Results in the ML branch-site test showed that,relaxation of selective constrains rather than positive selection was the process associated with the evolution of BRC1a group.The amino acid residue targets of selection in all BRC1-like genes were identified with ML site test model.The results indicated that,residues evolved under strong purifying selections were located in the TCP domain,R domain and ECE motif,inferred that important domains were fixed during evolution.The evolution of BRC1-like gene in Asteraceae indicates that two groups were clustered through replication,then these two groups underwent different selective pressures,which may lead to different functions of genes.%菊科(Asteraceae)植物在进化中产生了丰富的分枝类型,而分枝类型的多样性源于分

  17. Palinologia de espécies de Asteraceae de utilidade medicinal para a comunidade da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, RJ, Brasil Pollen morpology of species of Asteraceae with medicinal utility for the community from Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Neto Galvão

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata da morfologia polínica e de descrições taxonômicas de 12 espécies de Asteraceae correspondentes em 12 diferentes gêneros, distribuídos em nove tribos. Todas as espécies estudadas são utilizadas como medicamentos pelos moradores da Vila Dois Rios, Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. Neste estudo objetivou-se caracterizar os tipos polínicos das espécies usadas por esta comunidade e fornecer chaves diagnósticas de caracteres macromorfológicos e micromorfológicos que auxiliem a identificação das mesmas. A identificação taxonômica e palinológica correta é pré-requisito para estudos que validem a eficácia e segurança terapêutica dessas espécies. Deve-se considerar, ainda, que a utilização desses conhecimentos é importante para a comunidade, como por exemplo, na melissopalinologia. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, medidos, descritos e ilustrados sob microscopia de luz. Para observar detalhes da superfície e abertura, grãos de pólen não acetolisados foram analisados em microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Foram estudadas as características dos grãos de pólen como forma, tamanho, constituição da sexina e abertura. Os resultados mostraram que a morfologia polínica é bem definida entre as espécies estudadas, podendo ser usada para sua identificação e sustenta o caráter euripalinológico de Asteraceae.This study is a palynologycal characterization and taxonomic description of 12 species within 12 genera, distributed in nine tribes from Asteracaeae. All studied species are used as medicines by people from Vila Dois Rios and they occur in Ilha Grande. This work aimed to characterize the pollen grains of medicinal species of Asteraceae from Vila Dois Rios and provide diagnostic keys based on macromorphological and pollen characters to help their identification, since the correct taxonomic and palynological recognition of these species is necessary for further studies on therapeutic

  18. Insecticidal and acetylcholine esterase inhibition activity of Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adults of the German cockroach (Blattella germanica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hwa-Jeong; Jung, Chan-Sik; Kang, Jaesoon; Kim, Junheon; Lee, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Park, Pil-Sun; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2015-03-04

    The fumigant and contact toxicities of 16 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against adult male and female Blattella germanica were examined. In a fumigant toxicity test, tarragon oil exhibited 100% and 90% fumigant toxicity against adult male German cockroaches at 5 and 2.5 mg/filter paper, respectively. Fumigant toxicities of Artemisia arborescens and santolina oils against adult male German cockroaches were 100% at 20 mg/filter paper, but were reduced to 60% and 22.5% at 10 mg/filter paper, respectively. In contact toxicity tests, tarragon and santolina oils showed potent insecticidal activity against adult male German cockroaches. Components of active oils were analyzed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer. Among the identified compounds from active essential oils, estragole demonstrated potent fumigant and contact toxicity against adult German cockroaches. β-Phellandrene exhibited inhibition of male and female German cockroach acetylcholinesterase activity with IC50 values of 0.30 and 0.28 mg/mL, respectively.

  19. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Flávio Augusto Sanches; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Araújo, Andréa Mendez; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Vilegas, Wagner; Pietro, Rosemeire Cristina Linhari Rodrigues

    2012-12-17

    The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae) is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using direct injection of sample. Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus.

  20. The Effect of the Acetone Extract of Arctotis arctotoides (Asteraceae on the Growth and Ultrastructure of Some Opportunistic Fungi Associated with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfred M. Otang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of the acetone extract of Arctotis arctotoides (L.f. O. Hoffm. (Asteraceae on the growth and ultrastructure of some opportunistic fungi associated with HIV/AIDS was analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM. Remarkable morphological alterations in the fungal mycelia which were attributed to the loss of cell wall strength ranged from loss of turgidity and uniformity, collapse of entire hyphae to evident destruction of the hyphae. The elements responsible for giving the fungi their characteristic virulence were detected and quantified by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis techniques. X-ray microanalysis showed the specific spectra of sodium, potassium and sulfur as the principal intersection of the four pathogenic fungi studied. Since these ions have the potential of fostering fungal invasion by altering the permeability of hosts’ membranes, their presence was considered inherent to the pathogenicity of the opportunistic fungi. Hence, these findings indicate the potential of the crude extract of A. arctotoides in preventing fungal invasion and subsequent infection of host’s membranes.

  1. The Impact of Reconstruction Methods, Phylogenetic Uncertainty and Branch Lengths on Inference of Chromosome Number Evolution in American Daisies (Melampodium, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Jamie; Stuessy, Tod F.; Villaseñor, Jose L.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome number change (polyploidy and dysploidy) plays an important role in plant diversification and speciation. Investigating chromosome number evolution commonly entails ancestral state reconstruction performed within a phylogenetic framework, which is, however, prone to uncertainty, whose effects on evolutionary inferences are insufficiently understood. Using the chromosomally diverse plant genus Melampodium (Asteraceae) as model group, we assess the impact of reconstruction method (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian methods), branch length model (phylograms versus chronograms) and phylogenetic uncertainty (topological and branch length uncertainty) on the inference of chromosome number evolution. We also address the suitability of the maximum clade credibility (MCC) tree as single representative topology for chromosome number reconstruction. Each of the listed factors causes considerable incongruence among chromosome number reconstructions. Discrepancies between inferences on the MCC tree from those made by integrating over a set of trees are moderate for ancestral chromosome numbers, but severe for the difference of chromosome gains and losses, a measure of the directionality of dysploidy. Therefore, reliance on single trees, such as the MCC tree, is strongly discouraged and model averaging, taking both phylogenetic and model uncertainty into account, is recommended. For studying chromosome number evolution, dedicated models implemented in the program ChromEvol and ordered maximum parsimony may be most appropriate. Chromosome number evolution in Melampodium follows a pattern of bidirectional dysploidy (starting from x = 11 to x = 9 and x = 14, respectively) with no prevailing direction. PMID:27611687

  2. 百能葳属--江西省菊科一新记录属%Blainvillea Cass.(Asteraceae), a newly recorded genus in Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪锋; 邱贺媛

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨赣南地区的植物区系特点.[方法]在赣南地区采集、鉴定了大批植物标本.[结果和结论]报道了江西省菊科一新记录属---百能葳属Blainvillea Cass.及一新记录种---百能葳Blainvillea acmella (Linn.) Phillip-son.标本存放于华南农业大学林学院树木标本室( CANT).%[Objective]To study the nature of flora in South jiangxi .[Method]Plant specimens were col-lected and identified.[Result and conclusion]The genus Blainvillea Cass.(Asteraceae) and the species Blainvillea acmella (Linn.) Phillipson were reported as new records in Jiangxi Province , China.Vouch-er specimens are deposited in Dendrological Herbarium of the Forestry College , South China Agricultural University ( CANT) .

  3. Short-term effects of dimethoate on metabolic responses in Chrysolina pardalina (Chrysomelidae) feeding on Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae), a hyper-accumulator of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustyniak, M.; Migula, P. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Tarnawska, M.; Nakonieczny, M. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Babczynska, A. [Department of Animal Physiology and Ecotoxicology, University of Silesia, Bankowa 9, PL 40-007 Katowice (Poland)], E-mail: ababczyn@us.edu.pl; Przybylowicz, W. [Materials Research Group, iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Augustyniak, M.G. [Faculty of Earth Sciences, University of Silesia, Bedzinska 60, PL 41-200 Sosnowiec (Poland)

    2007-11-15

    Berkheya coddii Roessler (Asteraceae) is a hyper-accumulator of nickel, which can be used in phytomining and phytoremediation. Chrysolina pardalina Fabricius (Chrysomelidae) is a phytophagous leaf beetle, which may be useful in controlling population levels of B. coddii after it has been introduced into a new habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of C. pardalina to topical application of dimethoate. Data recorded included the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the concentration of glutathione (GSH), and the activity of selected enzymes connected with GSH metabolism. Assays were carried out several times during the first 24 h after exposure to dimethoate. At the dosages used in this study, dimethoate was not as toxic as expected. AChE activity was significantly decreased 14 and 24 h after application. GST activity was significantly decreased 24 h after application. GSTPx activity was significantly decreased 2, 14 and 24 h after application. GR activity was significantly increased 4 h after application. GSH concentration was significantly increased 24 h after application. Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable C. pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides. - Long-term exposure to high levels of nickel may have caused adaptive changes in the enzymes that enable Chrysolina pardalina to deal with other stressors, including organophosphate pesticides.

  4. Ecological differentiation, lack of hybrids involving diploids, and asymmetric gene flow between polyploids in narrow contact zones of Senecio carniolicus (syn. Jacobaea carniolica, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülber, Karl; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Suda, Jan; Krejčíková, Jana; Schönswetter, Peter; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Winkler, Manuela

    2015-03-01

    Areas of immediate contact of different cytotypes offer a unique opportunity to study evolutionary dynamics within heteroploid species and to assess isolation mechanisms governing coexistence of cytotypes of different ploidy. The degree of reproductive isolation of cytotypes, that is, the frequency of heteroploid crosses and subsequent formation of viable and (partly) fertile hybrids, plays a crucial role for the long-term integrity of lineages in contact zones. Here, we assessed fine-scale distribution, spatial clustering, and ecological niches as well as patterns of gene flow in parental and hybrid cytotypes in zones of immediate contact of di-, tetra-, and hexaploid Senecio carniolicus (Asteraceae) in the Eastern Alps. Cytotypes were spatially separated also at the investigated microscale; the strongest spatial separation was observed for the fully interfertile tetra- and hexaploids. The three main cytotypes showed highly significant niche differences, which were, however, weaker than across their entire distribution ranges in the Eastern Alps. Individuals with intermediate ploidy levels were found neither in the diploid/tetraploid nor in the diploid/hexaploid contact zones indicating strong reproductive barriers. In contrast, pentaploid individuals were frequent in the tetraploid/hexaploid contact zone, albeit limited to a narrow strip in the immediate contact zone of their parental cytotypes. AFLP fingerprinting data revealed introgressive gene flow mediated by pentaploid hybrids from tetra- to hexaploid individuals, but not vice versa. The ecological niche of pentaploids differed significantly from that of tetraploids but not from hexaploids.

  5. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties.

  7. Chemical Composition of the Leaf and Branch Oils of Perymenium grande Hemsl. var. nelsonii (Robins. & Greenm. Fay (Asteraceae-Heliantheae from Costa Rica

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    José F. Cicció

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oils of Perymenium grande Hemsl. var nelsonii (Robins. & Greenm. Fay (Asteraceae growing wild in Costa Rica was analyzed by capillary GC-FID and GC-MS. One hundred and two and one hundred and seven compounds were identified in the leaf and branch oils, respectively, corresponding to about 94.9% and 79.3% of the total amount of the oils. The leaf oil consists mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (50.3% and monoterpene hydrocarbons (33.8%. The major components of the leaf oil were b -caryophyllene (30.5%, b -pinene (12.4%, germacrene D (10.0%, b -phellandrene (9.8% and a -pinene (8.9%. The branch oil consists mainly of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (38.3%, monoterpene hydrocarbons (21.6% and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (20.4%. The major components of the branch oil were a -isocomene (13.8%, a -pinene (7.4%, b -isocomene (5.2%, b -pinene (4.3% and b -caryophyllene (4.3%. This is the first report of the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from this species.

  8. Análise da interação ecoquímica entre a lagarta-do-girassol Chlosyne lacinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) e as Asteraceae Tithonia diversifolia e Vernonia polyanthes utilizando cromatografia líquida acoplada à espectrometria de massas

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A lagarta da borboleta Chlosyne lacinia utiliza como plantas hospedeiras quase exclusivamente espécies da família Asteraceae, tais como Vernonia sp e Tithonia diversifolia. V. polyanthes e T. diversifolia apresentam lactonas sesquiterpênicas (LST) em sua constituição química foliar, as quais, entre outras atividades biológicas, podem ser deterrentes e tóxicas para lepidópteras. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram investigar se os metabólitos secundários das Asteraceae V. polyanthes e T. diversi...

  9. Embriologia de Stifftia chrysantha J. C. Mikan e S. fruticosa (Vell.) D. J. N. Hind & Semir e suas implicações na sistemática dos grupos basais de Asteraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Bonifacio, Stephani Karoline de Vasconcelos

    2015-01-01

    (Embriologia de Stifftia chrysantha J. C. Mikan e S. fruticosa (Vell.) D. J. N. Hind & Semir e suas implicações na sistemática dos grupos basais de Asteraceae) - Estudos que enfoquem caracteres embriológicos são importantes para o entendimento das relações filogenéticas por se tratarem de características conservativas e pouco suscetíveis a alterações fenotípicas. Trabalhos desse cunho em grupos basais são significantes por ampliarem o conhecimento dos táxons contribuindo para a compreensão a ...

  10. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

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    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.This work describes the chemical composition of the essential oils and the isolation of eleven substances from Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC/MS and evaluated towards the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The oils yield was of 0.11% for the leaves and 0.03% for the stems. The main constituents of the oils were the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (24.9 and 22.2%, spathulenol (17.7 and 12.4% and epoxy-allo-aromadendrene (23.0 and 23.6%. From the hexane extract of the aerial part were isolated a mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol, its glucosides, and the triterpenes taraxasteryl acetate and taraxasterol, while from the ethanol extract were obtained the flavonoids nepetin and 3-O-glucoside-quercetin. The triterpenes epi-friedelanol and dammara-20,24-dien-3

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and generic delimitation of Eurasian Aster (Asteraceae: Astereae) inferred from ITS, ETS and trnL-F sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Ping; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Jivkova, Todorka; Yin, Gen-Shen

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The classification and phylogeny of Eurasian (EA) Aster (Asterinae, Astereae, Asteraceae) remain poorly resolved. Some taxonomists adopt a broad definition of EA Aster, whereas others favour a narrow generic concept. The present study aims to delimit EA Aster sensu stricto (s.s.), elucidate the phylogenetic relationships of EA Aster s.s. and segregate genera. Methods The internal and external transcribed spacers of nuclear ribosomal DNA and the plastid DNA trnL-F region were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of EA Aster through maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. Key Results The analyses strongly support an Aster clade including the genera Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding Kalimeris longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron. Many well-recognized species of Chinese Aster s.s. lie outside of the Aster clade. Conclusions The results reveal that EA Aster s.s. is both paraphyletic and polyphyletic. Sheareria, Rhynchospermum, Kalimeris (excluding K. longipetiolata), Heteropappus, Miyamayomena, Turczaninowia, Rhinactinidia, eastern Asian Doellingeria, Asterothamnus and Arctogeron should be included in Aster, whereas many species of Chinese Aster s.s. should be excluded. The recircumscribed Aster should be divided into two subgenera and nine sections. Kalimeris longipetiolata, Aster batangensis, A. ser. Albescentes, A. series Hersileoides, a two-species group composed of A. senecioides and A. fuscescens, and a six-species group including A. asteroides, should be elevated to generic level. With the Aster clade, they belong to the Australasian lineages. The generic status of Callistephus should be maintained. Whether Galatella (including Crinitina) and Tripolium should remain as genera or be merged into a single genus remains to be determined. In addition, the taxonomic status of A. auriculatus and the A. pycnophyllus–A. panduratus clade remains

  12. Extensive range persistence in peripheral and interior refugia characterizes Pleistocene range dynamics in a widespread Alpine plant species (Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar García, Pedro; Winkler, Manuela; Flatscher, Ruth; Sonnleitner, Michaela; Krejčíková, Jana; Suda, Jan; Hülber, Karl; Schneeweiss, Gerald M; Schönswetter, Peter

    2012-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that survival of arctic-alpine organisms in peripheral or interior glacial refugia are not mutually exclusive and may both be involved in shaping an organism's Pleistocene history, yet potentially at different time levels. Here, we test this hypothesis in a high-mountain plant (diploid lineage of Senecio carniolicus, Asteraceae) from the Eastern European Alps, in which patterns of morphological variation and current habitat requirements suggest survival in both types of refugia. To this end, we used AFLPs, nuclear and plastid DNA sequences and analysed them, among others, within a graph theoretic framework and using novel Bayesian methods of phylogeographic inference. On the basis of patterns of genetic diversity, occurrence of rare markers, distribution of distinct genetic lineages and patterns of range connectivity both interior refugia in the formerly strongly glaciated central Alps and peripheral refugia along the southern margin of the Alps were identified. The presence of refugia congruently inferred by markers resolving at different time levels suggests that these refugia acted as such throughout several glacial cycles. The high degree of range persistence together with gradual range expansion, which contrasts with the extent of range shifts implied for other Alpine species, is likely responsible for incipient lineage differentiation evident from the genetic data. Replacing a simplistic peripheral vs. interior refugia dualism by more complex models involving both types of refugia and considering different time levels will help identifying common phylogeographic patterns with respect to, for instance, location of refugia and colonization routes and elucidating their underlying genetic and/or ecological causes. DNA sequences have been deposited in GenBank under accession nos. FR796701–FR797793 and nos. HE614296–HE614583.

  13. The validity of the Asteraceae: Poaceae fossil pollen ratio in discrimination of the southern African summer- and winter-rainfall zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitchett, Jennifer M.; Bamford, Marion K.

    2017-03-01

    Situated at the transition between the mid-latitudes and the sub-tropics, southern Africa has a climatic dichotomy between winter- and summer-rainfall zones (WRZ and SRZ). The latitudinal extent of the winter-rainfall zone during the late Pleistocene remains contentiously debated within the regional palaeoscience literature. One method posited to reflect the seasonality of rainfall at a given location throughout late Pleistocene records for South Africa is the ratio of fossil pollen Asteraceae to Poaceae. Although adopted for a range of southern African locations, the veracity of this method has not been tested. This study explores the extent to which this ratio can discriminate between the SRZ and WRZ, and the extent of the region subject to fluctuation during the late Quaternary. The ratio is found to successfully discriminate regions which are, and would have remained during the past 20,000 cal yr BP, in the SRZ and WRZ exclusively. On the basis of these statistics, it appears that WRZ conditions can be inferred from ratio scores >0.6 and SRZ conditions from scores <0.2. For locations situated between 28 and 32°S, no clear discrimination can be made. It is argued that this region has been subjected to fluctuations in the latitudinal extent of the Westerlies and consequently in the influence of mid-latitude cyclones over the past 20,000 cal yr BP, with the rugged topography of the Drakensberg Mountains resulting in a complex precipitation climatology controlled by both frontal and orographic uplift.

  14. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants—Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae

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    Nara O. dos Santos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species—leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae, leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae—were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves—42.61% and branches—23.41% as well as (−-α-bisabolol (leaves—24.80% and stem bark—66.16% as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z-caryophyllene (17.98%, germacrene D (17.35%, and viridiflorol (14.13%; whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%, γ-terpinene (14.74%, carvacrol (37.70%, and (Z-caryophyllene (14.07%. The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (−-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (−-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  15. Assessing the Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from Brazilian Plants-Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), Plectrantuns barbatus, and P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nara O Dos; Mariane, Bruna; Lago, João Henrique G; Sartorelli, Patricia; Rosa, Welton; Soares, Marisi G; da Silva, Adalberto M; Lorenzi, Harri; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C

    2015-05-11

    The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from three Brazilian plant species-leaves and branches of Eremanthus erythropappus (Asteraceae), leaves of Plectranthus barbatus, and leaves of P. amboinicus (Lamiaceae)-were determined. Analysis by GC/MS and determination of Kovats indexes both indicated δ-elemene (leaves-42.61% and branches-23.41%) as well as (-)-α-bisabolol (leaves-24.80% and stem bark-66.16%) as major constituents of E. erythropappus essential oils. The main components of leaves of P. barbatus were identified as (Z)-caryophyllene (17.98%), germacrene D (17.35%), and viridiflorol (14.13%); whereas those of leaves of P. amboinicus were characterized as p-cymene (12.01%), γ-terpinene (14.74%), carvacrol (37.70%), and (Z)-caryophyllene (14.07%). The antimicrobial activity against yeasts and bacteria was assessed in broth microdilution assays to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) necessary to inhibit microbial growth. In addition, the crude oil of branches of E. erythropappus was subjected to chromatographic separation procedures to afford purified (-)-α-bisabolol. This compound displayed biological activity against pathogenic yeasts, thus suggesting that the antimicrobial effect observed with crude oils of E. erythropappus leaves and branches may be related to the occurrence of (-)-α-bisabolol as their main component. Our results showed that crude oils of Brazilian plants, specifically E. erythropappus, P. barbatus, and P. amboinicus and its components, could be used as a tool for the developing novel and more efficacious antimicrobial agents.

  16. Elemental distribution in reproductive and neural organs of the Epilachna nylanderi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a phytophage of nickel hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asterales: Asteraceae) by micro-PIXE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Augustyniak, Maria; Nakonieczny, Mirosław; Tarnawska, Monika; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech; Migula, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal hyperaccumulation by plants is often explained by a pathogen or herbivore defense hypothesis. However, some insects feeding on metal hyperaccumulating plants are adapted to the high level of metals in plant tissues. Former studies on species that feed on the leaves of Berkheya coddii Roessler 1958 (Asteraceae), a nickel-hyperaccumulating plant, demonstrated several protective mechanisms involved in internal distribution, immobilization, and elimination of Ni from the midgut and Malpighian tubules. These species are mainly coleopterans, including the lady beetle, Epilachna nylanderi (Mulsant 1850) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), collected from the ultramafic ecosystem near Barberton in South Africa. By performing particle-induced X-ray emission microanalysis elemental microanalysis (PIXE), this study examined whether Ni may be harmful to internal body systems that decide on insect reactivity (central nervous system [CNS]), their reproduction, and the relationships between Ni and other micronutrients. Data on elemental distribution of nine selected elements in target organs of E. nylanderi were compared with the existing data for other insect species adapted to the excess of metals. Micro-PIXE maps of seven regions of the CNS showed Ni mainly in the neural connectives, while cerebral ganglia were better protected. Concentrations of other bivalent metals were lower than those of Ni. Testis, compared with other reproductive organs, showed low amounts of Ni. Zn was effectively regulated at physiological dietary levels. In insects exposed to excess dietary Zn, it was also accumulated in the reproductive organs. Comparison of E. nylanderii with other insects that ingest hyperaccumulating plants, especially chrysomelid Chrysolina clathrata (Clark) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), showed lower protection of the CNS and reproductive organs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  17. Acaricidal activity of ethanolic extract from aerial parts of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806

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    Politi Flávio Augusto Sanches

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus is the species with the largest worldwide distribution and is proven to be involved in the transmission of pathogens such as Babesia canis, Ehrlichia canis, Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia ricketsii, Rickettsia conorii, among others. Studies have demonstrated acquisition of resistance to some of the active principles used in commercial formulations of acaricides. Tagetes patula (Asteraceae is a plant with highlighted economic and commercial importance due to the production of secondary metabolites with insecticide and acaricide potential, mainly flavonoids, thiophenes and terpenes. Methods The in vitro acaricide action of the ethanolic 70% extract from aerial parts of T. patula, obtained by percolation, was evaluated against larvae and engorged adult females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus by immersion test for 5 minutes. The chemical characterization of this extract was done by liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS, using direct injection of sample. Results Despite T. patula not proving lethal to adults in any of the concentrations tested, at 50.0 mg/mL oviposition rate decreased by 21.5% and eliminated 99.78% of the larvae. Also it was determined that the best results were obtained with 5 minutes of immersion. From the chromatographic analysis twelve O-glycosylated flavonoids were identified. Conclusions This is the first report on the acaricidal activity of T. patula extract against Rh. sanguineus. If we consider the application of the product in the environment, we could completely eliminate the larval stage of development of the ixodid Rh. sanguineus.

  18. Cloning and functional analysis of a high DP fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferase from Echinops ritro (Asteraceae): comparison of the native and recombinant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Ende, Wim; Clerens, Stefan; Vergauwen, Rudy; Boogaerts, David; Le Roy, Katrien; Arckens, Lutgarde; Van Laere, André

    2006-01-01

    Inulin-type fructans are the simplest and most studied fructans and have become increasingly popular as prebiotic health-improving compounds. A natural variation in the degree of polymerization (DP) of inulins is observed within the family of the Asteraceae. Globe thistle (Echinops ritro), artichoke (Cynara scolymus), and Viguiera discolor biosynthesize fructans with a considerably higher DP than Cichorium intybus (chicory), Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke), and Dahlia variabilis. The higher DP in some species can be explained by the presence of special fructan:fructan 1-fructosyl transferases (high DP 1-FFTs), different from the classical low DP 1-FFTs. Here, the RT-PCR-based cloning of a high DP 1-FFT cDNA from Echinops ritro is described, starting from peptide sequence information derived from the purified native high DP 1-FFT enzyme. The cDNA was successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. A comparison is made between the mass fingerprints of the native, heterodimeric enzyme and its recombinant, monomeric counterpart (mass fingerprints and kinetical analysis) showing that they have very similar properties. The recombinant enzyme is a functional 1-FFT lacking invertase and 1-SST activities, but shows a small intrinsic 1-FEH activity. The enzyme is capable of producing a high DP inulin pattern in vitro, similar to the one observed in vivo. Depending on conditions, the enzyme is able to produce fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) as well. Therefore, the enzyme might be suitable for both FOS and high DP inulin production in bioreactors. Alternatively, introduction of the high DP 1-FFT gene in chicory, a crop widely used for inulin extraction, could lead to an increase in DP which is useful for a number of specific industrial applications. 1-FFT expression analysis correlates well with high DP fructan accumulation in vivo, suggesting that the enzyme is responsible for high DP fructan formation in planta.

  19. [Phagodeterrent activity of the plants Tithonia diversifolia and Montanoa hibiscifolia (Asteraceae) on adults of the pest insect Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnarello, Gina; Hilje, Luko; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Cartín, Victor; Calvo, Marco

    2009-12-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and worldwide relevant pest, mainly acting as a virus vector on many crops. A sound preventive approach to deal with it would be the application of repellent or deterrent substances hopefully present in tropical plants, which in turn may contribute to take advantage of the remarkable rich Mesoamerican biodiversity. Therefore, extracts of two wild plants belonging to family Asteraceae, titonia (Tithonia diversifolia) and "tora" (Montanoa hibiscifolia), were tested for phagodeterrence to B. tabaci adults. The crude leaf extract of each one, as well as four fractions thereof (hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) were tested under greenhouse conditions; in addition, the extracts were submitted to a phytochemical screening to determine possible metabolites causing phagodeterrence. Both restricted-choice and unrestricted-choice experiments were conducted. In the former ones, each fraction was tested at four doses (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v), which were compared with four control treatments: distilled water, endosulfan, an agricultural oil (Aceite Agricola 81 SC), and the emulsifier Citowett. Tomato plants were sprayed and placed inside sleeve cages, where 50 B. tabaci adults were released. The criterion to appraise phagodeterrence was the number of landed adults on plants at 48h. For the unrestricted-choice experiments, only the two highest doses (1.0 and 1.5%) of the crude extracts of each species were tested, and compared to distilled water and the agricultural oil. The titonia and "tora" crude extracts caused phagodeterrence, and for both plant species the methanol fraction stood out. Results suggest that metabolites causing phagodeterrence are several sesquiterpenic lactones, polyphenolic compounds (flavonoids and tannins) and saponins.

  20. Identificação de espécies da família Asteraceae, revisão sobre usos e triagem fitoquímica do gênero Eremanthus da Reserva Boqueirão, Ingaí-MG Asteraceae species identification, use revision and phytochemical screening of Eremanthus genus in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, Ingaí - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

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    A.O. Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar espécies da família Asteraceae, revisar seus usos e realizar triagem fitoquímica preliminar do gênero Eremanthus procederam-se coletas botânicas semanais de espécimes na Reserva Boqueirão, localizada em Ingaí, Minas Gerais. As amostras foram herborizadas e identificadas utilizando-se bibliografia especializada e comparação com espécimes disponíveis no Herbário ESAL, da Universidade Federal de Lavras. A revisão dos usos foi feita através de consulta a obras clássicas e artigos científicos contendo relatos sobre levantamentos etnobotânicos realizados na área de estudo. Para triagem fitoquímica empregaram-se reagentes específicos para cada grupo de metabólito. Foram levantadas 102 espécies da família Asteraceae, sendo 32 delas úteis para o homem. A triagem fitoquímica dos extratos hidroalcoólicos indicaram a presença de açúcares redutores, carboidratos, aminoácidos, taninos, flavonóides, glicosídeos cardiotônicos, carotenóides, esteróides e triterpenóides, depsídeos e depsidonas, derivados de cumarina, saponinas espumídicas, alcalóides, purinas, polissacarídeos e antraquinonas. Não foram detectados ácidos orgânicos, catequinas, lactonas sesquiterpênicas e azulenos.To identify Asteraceae species, review the utilization and perform a preliminary phytochemical screening of some species of Eremanthus genus, plants were weekly collected in Boqueirão Ecological Reserve, located in Ingaí, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The samples were herborized and identified by using a specialized bibliography and comparison with the species available in the Herbarium ESAL of the Federal University of Lavras. The utilization review was carried out by means of bibliographical research and ethnobotanical surveys in the sampling area. Specific reagents for each group of compounds were used for phytochemical screening. From the 102 Asteraceae species investigated, 32 were reported to be of use to

  1. Avaliação do efeito de polietilenoglicóis no perfil de extratos de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, e Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae Evaluation of PEG effects on the extracts obtaining from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de Medeiros

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Os polietilenoglicóis (PEG são polímeros hidrossolúveis capazes de reduzir a constante dielétrica de solventes como a água, e assim são utilizados como cossolventes para solubilização de diferentes fármacos. Atualmente, o PEG tem sido empregado satisfatoriamente na obtenção de extratos de matérias-primas vegetais por favorecer a extração de substâncias com polaridades semelhantes às extraídas pelos solventes hidroetanólicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da concentração e da massa molar de PEG (400 e 4000 g/mol sobre a extração de flavonoides totais a partir de Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, (maracujá e de cumarina a partir da Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco. Este estudo revelou que o aumento da concentração de PEG promoveu um aumento na capacidade extrativa de flavonoides totais e cumarina a partir da Passiflora edulis e Mikania glomerata respectivamente, comportamento atribuído a alterações da constante dielétrica. Apesar de elevar a capacidade extrativa, os líquidos extratores contendo PEG exigiram elevada relação planta:solvente para alcançar teores extrativos semelhante ao solvente hidroetanólico utilizado, com exceção da extração de flavonoides totais com PEG 4000 g/mol a partir da Passilfora edulis.Polyethylene glycols (PEG are hydrosoluble polymers able to reducing dielectric constant of solvents like water and thus are used as cosolvents to enhance the aqueous solubility of several drugs. Actually, the PEG have been successful applied to obtain extracts of plant raw material once can facilitate the extraction of substances with polarities similar to those extracted by hydroethanol solvents. In this study, the objective was to evaluate the effect of PEG concentration and molecular weight (400 and 4000 g/mol on the extraction of total flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims, Passifloraceae, and coumarin from Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae. The results

  2. Anatomia de raiz, caule e folha e identificação de estruturas secretoras de Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163 Anatomy of root, stem and leaf and identification of secretory structures of Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.163

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismar Sebastião Moscheta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo anatômico dos órgãos vegetativos raiz, caule e folha, e extraíram-se os óleos essenciais das diferentes partes da planta, identificando-se as possíveis estruturas secretoras desses óleos. Utilizou-se material fresco para a realização dos testes histoquímicos e para a confecção de lâminas semipermanentes, as quais se coraram com Safrablau. Para a confecção de lâminas permanentes, utilizou-se material fixado em FAA 50%, incluído em historesina. Observaram-se pêlos tectores no escapo e na folha, enquanto que pêlos glandulares foram encontrados no escapo e na flor. Canais secretores de origem esquizógena acompanham os feixes vasculares no rizoma, no escapo, na folha e na bráctea da flor. Na raiz, esses canais estão ausentes. Na folha e na inflorescência fechada, observouse maior quantidade de óleos essenciais. A folha é anfistomática e os estômatos, do tipo anomocítico, estão presentes também no escapo. A estrutura geral de Achillea millefolium é semelhante à de outras espécies da família Asteraceae.An anatomic study of the vegetative organs: root, stem and leaf was made. The essential oils were extracted from the plant identifying the possible secretory structures. Fresh material was used in order to perform histochemical tests and to prepare semi-permanent slides, which were colored with Safrabau. For the preparation of the semi-permanent slides, material fixed in FAA 50% was used including historesina. Tector hairs can be observed in the scape and flower. Secretory channels of schizogeneous origin follow the vascular bundles in the rhizome, scape, leaf and bract of the flower. In the root, these channels are absent. In the leaf and in the unopened inflorescence there is a greater quantity of the essential oils. The leaf is amphistomatic and the stomata of anomocytic type are present in the scape as well. The general structure of the Achillea millefolium is similar to the structures of the

  3. Grindelia, A New Naturalized Genus of the Tribe Astereae, Asteraceae in China%胶菀属——中国菊科紫菀族的一个新归化属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范香媛; 张淑梅; 高天刚

    2011-01-01

    报道中国东北辽宁省发现的菊科(Asteraceae)紫菀族(Astereae)一个新归化属胶菀属(Grindelia).它在外形上接近于旋覆花属(Inula),但区别在于胶菀属花药基部钝,花柱分枝顶端附属物呈披针形或三角形,冠毛鳞片状.依据在中国所采集的标本描述了该属在中国的唯一代表种胶菀(Grindelia squarrosa)的形态特征,并讨论了其自然分布和进入中国的可能途径.%Grindelia, a new naturalized genus of the tribe Astereae, Asteraceae in China, was found in Liaoning,Nortestem China.Morpholopcally it is related to the genus Inula, but differs in the obtuse anther base, lanceolate to deltate style-branch appendages, pappi of scales.GrindeLia squarrosa , the only one represented species of the genus is described based on the specimens collected in China.Its natural distribution and possible pathways into China are also discussed.

  4. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  5. A new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae from northern Chile Uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae do norte do Chile

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    Héctor A. Vargas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female adults of a new species of Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae are described and illustrated. Immature stages are associated with Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. The species was collected in two localities of northern Chile: near sea level in the Azapa valley, in the coastal desert of Arica Province and at 3000 m elevation in Socoroma, Parinacota Province.Os adultos macho e fêmea de uma nova espécie de Lioptilodes Zimmerman (Lepidoptera, Pterophoridae são descritos e ilustrados. Os estágios imaturos estão associados com Baccharis scandens (Ruiz & Pav. Pers. (Asteraceae. A espécie foi coletada em duas localidades do norte do Chile: vale de Azapa, perto do nível do mar, no deserto litoral da Província de Arica, e aos 3000 m de altitude em Socoroma, na Província de Parinacota.

  6. Anti-plasmodial activity of Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae and identification of urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the main active compound

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    Jansen Olivia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural products could play an important role in the challenge to discover new anti-malarial drugs. In a previous study, Dicoma tomentosa (Asteraceae was selected for its promising anti-plasmodial activity after a preliminary screening of several plants traditionally used in Burkina Faso to treat malaria. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the anti-plasmodial properties of this plant and to isolate the active anti-plasmodial compounds. Methods Eight crude extracts obtained from D. tomentosa whole plant were tested in vitro against two Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2 using the p-LDH assay (colorimetric method. The Peters’ four-days suppressive test model (Plasmodium berghei-infected mice was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-plasmodial activity. An in vitro bioguided fractionation was undertaken on a dichloromethane extract, using preparative HPLC and TLC techniques. The identity of the pure compound was assessed using UV, MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity against WI38 human fibroblasts (WST-1 assay and haemolytic activity were also evaluated for extracts and pure compounds in order to check selectivity. Results The best in vitro anti-plasmodial results were obtained with the dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts, which exhibited a high activity (IC50 ≤ 5 μg/ml. Hot water and hydroethanolic extracts also showed a good activity (IC50 ≤ 15 μg/ml, which confirmed the traditional use and the promising anti-malarial potential of the plant. The activity was also confirmed in vivo for all tested extracts. However, most of the active extracts also exhibited cytotoxic activity, but no extract was found to display any haemolytic activity. The bioguided fractionation process allowed to isolate and identify a sesquiterpene lactone (urospermal A-15-O-acetate as the major anti-plasmodial compound of the plant (IC50 Conclusions The present study

  7. Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhua, Aitebiremen G; McGaw, Lyndy J; Finnie, Jeffrey F; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-05-13

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) is a scrambling perennial shrub that originated in the Americas, but is now common in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Oceania, where it has become a serious weed. The species, particularly the biotype found in Asia and West Africa, has many ethnopharmacological uses, including treatment of malaria, wounds, diarrhoea, skin infection, toothache, dysentery, stomach ache, sore throat, convulsions, piles, coughs and colds. Furthermore, no attempt has been made to synthesise and review the available literature on the usefulness of the plant in the sub-Saharan African region, hence this paper examines the beneficial attributes of C. odorata in sub-Saharan Africa. Published information on the species was gathered by the use of different database platforms, including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder and Scopus. Records indicate that two biotypes of C. odorata are present in sub-Saharan Africa viz. the more widespread Asian/West African C. odorata biotype (AWAB) and the southern African biotype (SAB). While the usefulness of the former is well elucidated in the literature, such information on the latter is still scarce. Although the importance of AWAB C. odorata as a fallow species and as a soil fertility improvement plant in the slash and burn rotation system of agriculture in West Africa is increasingly being recognised, its usage in traditional medicinal practice is far more appreciated. The species has a wide range of ethnopharmacological uses, possibly because of the presence of flavonoids, essential oils, phenolics, tannins and saponins. The plant is reported to have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anthelminthic, antifungal, cytotoxic, anticonvulsant, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antipyretic and analgesic properties. While the results of this review suggest that the AWAB plant can be exploited as an alternative to other threatened plant species known to possess similar medicinal potential

  8. In vivo antiprostate tumor potential of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) tuber extract (VGDE) and the cytotoxicity of its major compound pentaisovaleryl sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) root decoction is used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat some ailments including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to validate the claimed antiprostate cancer activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. in vivo and to investigate the cytotoxicity of a pentaisovaleryl sucrose isolated from Vernonia guineensis on some cancer cell lines. Materials and methods A crude dichloromethane extract of Vernonia guineensis (VGDE) was used for this study. For in vivo antiprostate cancer efficacy, nude mice (n = 16) were injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Upon the formation of the xenograft tumors, the mice were divided into two equal groups with approximately the same mean tumor volume per group. One group was treated with VGDE orally (500 mg/kg) and the other with a vehicle control for 30 days. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured 2 × a week and on the 33rd day, the mice were euthanized and tumors harvested and weighed. For the cytotoxicity study, the WST-1 assay was used to determine the activity of pentaisovaleryl sucrose previously isolated from VGDE. The cancer cell lines used in the cytotoxicity study included breast, colon, leukemia, lung, melanoma, ovarian and prostate. Results Prostate cancer (PC-3) xenograft tumors treated with VGDE showed a significant decrease in tumor size (P = 0.0295) compared to control. Pentaisovaleryl sucrose also demonstrated cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines with IC50 values as follows: MDA-MD-231—6.66 µM; MCF-7—7.50 µM; HCT116—14.12 µM; A549—5.76 µM; HL60—6.43 µM; A375—8.64 µM; OVCAR3—9.53 µM; Capan1—7.13 µM; Mia-Paca 6.47 µM. Conclusion VGDE does possess in vivo activity against prostate tumor and has potential for development into a natural product for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study thus provides preliminary validation for the folk use of Vernonia guineensis against prostate

  9. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira; Giuseppina Negri; Meira,Renata M. S. A.; Dejair Message; Antonio Salatino

    2005-01-01

    Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis bota...

  10. Brazilian Red Propolis—Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Daugsch; Moraes, Cleber S.; Patricia Fort; Park, Yong K.

    2007-01-01

    Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae) and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea), but scientific information a...

  11. Reubicación de plantas de Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae como estrategia para el enriquecimiento de áreas de páramo alteradas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia

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    Oscar Rojas-Zamora

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia. Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs

  12. Experimental poisoning by Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii in buffalo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C.; Carmo, Priscila M.S.; Iversen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    on a farm where a recent spontaneous outbreak of poisoning caused by such plant had occurred. Clinical signs appeared 4-20 hours and 4 buffaloes died 18-49 hours after the ingestion of the plant. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and watery diarrhea, fever, colic, drooling, muscle tremors, restlessness...

  13. Eficiência nutricional do Nitrogênio e produção de biomassa em Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae em condições de casa de vegetação Nitrogen nutritional efficiency and biomass production in Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Serra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação de diferentes doses de nitrogênio no solo e de épocas de coleta sobre a eficiência nutricional do nitrogênio e a produção de biomassa em Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae em condições de casa de vegetação. O substrato utilizado foi a camada de 0 - 20 cm de Latossolo Vermelho Distroférrico. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de quatro doses de N (0, 21, 42 e 84mg dm-3 e cinco épocas de colheita (15, 30, 45, 60 e 90 dias após o transplante. O teor de N na inflorescência de calêndula reduziu com as épocas de coleta, redução essa que ocorreu possivelmente devido à menor eficiência da absorção desse elemento pela planta e menor translocação do N para as inflorescências. Pode se concluir que as épocas de avaliação influenciaram na resposta da planta à eficiência de absorção (EFA, sendo a máxima EFA de N aos 51 dias após o transplante das mudas. Observou-se aumento na translocação de N da parte aérea (folhas e caules para as inflorescências, tendo como consequência a redução do N na parte aérea. Houve incremento na produção de biomassa de calêndula em função das épocas de coleta , e do aumento das doses de N aplicadas no solo. A eficiência nutricional do N foi influenciada pelas épocas de avaliação e pelo teor de N presente no solo.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both the application of different nitrogen levels on the soil and the harvest periods on nitrogen nutritional efficiency and biomass production in Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae under greenhouse conditions. The employed substrate was 0-20cm layer of Oxisol. Experimental design was completely randomized, with four replicates. Treatments consisted of four N levels (0, 21, 42 and 84 mg dm-3 and five harvest periods (15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after transplanting. N levels in

  14. Behavioral sleep in captive owl monkey (Aotus azarae) and squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri Kantha, Sachi; Suzuki, Juri; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activity-behavioral sleep parameters differ between nocturnallyactive owl monkeys and diurnally-active squirrel monkeys which are sympatric and of Bolivian origin. The total sleep time (TST) and sleep episode length (SEL) of 7 adult owl monkey siblings and 4 adult squirrel monkeys were quantitated by actigraphy for 7 days under captive conditions. The higher TST/24 h values and longer SEL/12 h quiescent phase quantitated for owl monkeys in comparison to that of squirrel monkeys clearly indicate that the behavioral sleep is markedly different between these two groups, though they are sympatric in wild. Significant differences noted in the sleep architecture between squirrel monkeys and owl monkeys can be attributed to the influences in the selected sleep niche, threat perception from predators, and disturbances from natural elements (especially rain) in the natural habitat.

  15. Laryngeal biomechanics and vocal communication in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles H.; Alipour, Fariborz; Berry, David A.; Montequin, Douglas

    2003-04-01

    The larynges of eight squirrel monkeys were harvested, dissected, mounted on a pseudotracheal tube, and phonated using compressed air. Patterns of vocal fold oscillation were compared with sound spectrograms of calls recorded from monkeys in our colony. Four different regimes of vocal fold activation were identified. Regime 1 resembled typical human vowel production, with regular vocal-fold vibration, a prominent fundamental frequency, and an accompanying series of harmonic overtones. This regime is likely to give rise to squirrel monkey ``cackles,'' as well as a variety of other harmonically structured calls. In regime 2, the pattern of vibrations exhibited the presence of two or more unrelated frequencies (biphonation). This regime of glottal activity resembled the biphonation observed in many exemplars of ``twitter'' and ``kecker'' calls. The vocal folds oscillated continuously in regime 3, but produced glottal pulses whose amplitudes waxed and waned rhythmically. This phenomenon resulted in the percept of a series of discrete pulses, and may give rise to ``errs,'' ``churrs,'' and other calls composed of a rapid sequence of acoustic elements. In regime 4, the period of each oscillation was quasi-irregular. Shrieks and other broadband calls or call elements that lack an apparent fundamental frequency may be produced in this manner.

  16. 青海省海北州菊科风毛菊属植物种类的开发利用%Development and Utilization of Plant Species in Saussurea of Asteraceae in Haibei State of Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍建青

    2012-01-01

    There were tow kinds of Saussurea plants of Asteraceae with higher medicinal values in Haibei State of Qinghai Province.They were Saussurea medusa Maxim.and Saussurea hypsipeta Diels,which were both snow lotuses.The species morphological characteristics,biological characteristics,identification method and development foreground of Saussurea plants were introduced.%青海省海北州境内具有较高药用价值的菊科风毛菊属植物有2种,即水母雪兔子和黑毛雪兔子,这2种雪兔子统称为雪莲。介绍了风毛菊属植物的分种形态特征、生物学特性、鉴别方法及发展前景。

  17. Camchaya Gagnep., a newly recorded genus of Asteraceae from Guangxi and its Biogeographical significance%凋缨菊属在广西的首次记录及其生物地理学意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周广明; 刘演; 侯元同; 高天刚

    2012-01-01

    报道了广西菊科斑鸠菊族的1个新记录属——凋缨菊属,描述了凋缨菊的分类学特征,给出了详细的图解,绘制了整个凋缨菊属的分布图.这一发现表明了我国桂西南热带地区与滇南以及中南半岛在植物区系上的紧密联系.%Camchaya Gagnep. ,a genus of the tribe Vernonieae, Asteraceae,was newly recorded from Guangxi,southern China. We provided a taxonomic description,detailed photographs of the only one representative species C. loloana Kerr, a distribution map of the whole genus. This finding indicated the close floristic affinity between southern Yunnan, Indo-China Peninsula and the tropical areas of southwestern Guangxi.

  18. 石河子绿洲-荒漠区菊科植物物种多样性研究%Biodiversity of Asteraceae from Oasis and Desert of Shihezi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜珍珠; 阎平; 黄刚; 任姗姗

    2013-01-01

    在野外实地调查和室内标本整理鉴定的基础上,对石河子绿洲-荒漠区菊科植物物种多样性进行了初步研究.结果表明:(1)石河子绿洲-荒漠区菊科植物(不包括栽培)有45属90种,其中菊苣族、飞廉族、春黄菊族较多,共30属(占总属数的66.7%),67种(占总种数的74.4%);而且单种属和寡种属在该区菊科区系中占有很大比例,共42属(占总属数的99.33%),70种(占总种数的77.78%).(2)该区菊科植物属的地理成分可划分为8个类型和5个变型,以旧世界温带及其变型成分(35.90%)与地中海区、西亚至中亚成分(28.21%)为主.(3)该区菊科植物生活型有5个类型,以一、二年生植物(27.78%)和地面芽植物(40%)为主,且短命(16.67%)、类短命(8.89%)、地上芽(6.67%)植物也为重要组成者;其生境较为多样,且各生境间相互渗透密切相关.%In this paper,the research was based on field investigation and indoor specimen identification.The species diversity of Asteraceae in Oasis and Desert of Shihezi was preliminary studied.It shows that:(1)90 species (don't include the cultivated species) discovered by investigation fall into 45 genera.The number of species is more about Tribe Cichorieae,Tribe Cardueae,Tribe Anthemideae of Asteraceae.Containing 30 genera accounting for 66.7%,67 species accounting for 74.4%;The single species,fewer species is large proportion of flora of the area Asteraceae.They are a total of 42 genera (93.33%),70 species (77.78%).(2)The geographical elements of genera are divided into 8 types and 5 variants,which are dominated by Old World Temperate and variants (35.90%) and Medit.,W.to C.Asia (28.21%).(3)The life forms are divided into 5 styles,which are dominated by hemicryptophytes (27.78 %) and therophytes (40 %).Meanwhile,ephemeral plants (16.67%),ephemeroid plants (8.89%) and chamaephytcs (6.67%) are also important components.The Asteraceae plant habitat is more

  19. Spittlebugs in the genus Sphenorhina (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) associated with weedy composite host plants (Asteraceae) that may represent unusual cases of nitrogen fixation%与特殊固氮模式草本菊科寄主植物有关的Sphenorhina属沫蝉(半翅目:沫蝉科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinton THOMPSON

    2013-01-01

    观察了沫蝉科Sphenorhina属与固氮植物有关的热带木本菊科植物Crassocephalum cerpidioides 和Chromolaena ordorata的3种沫蝉.沫蝉可能作为菊科一些固氮植物的间接指示物,该科的固氮作用尚未得到很好研究.%Three species of the spittlebug genus Sphenorhina (Hemiptera:Cercopidae) have been observed in association with Crassocephalum crepidioides and Chromolaena ordorata,weedy tropical species in the family Asteraceae that have been implicated as nitrogen-fixing plants.The spittlebugs may be serving as indirect indicators of nitrogen fixation in some species of Asteraceae,a group in which nitrogen fixation has not been well established.

  20. Anatomia dos órgãos vegetativos e histolocalização de compostos fenólicos e lipídicos em Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae Vegetative organ anatomy and histolocalization of lipids and phenolics compounds in Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.M. Fonseca

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Porophyllum ruderale (Asteraceae é uma erva ruderal e aromática conhecida popularmente como couve-cravinho. Na medicina popular, é utilizada como cicatrizante e antiinflamatória, antifúngica, antibacteriana, calmante, no combate à hipertensão arterial, no tratamento de leishmaniose, no tratamento de edemas e traumatismos, no tratamento de picada de cobra, doenças reumáticas e dores em geral. A atividade cicatrizante tem sido relacionada à presença de teores variáveis de compostos fenólicos do tipo taninos. Os objetivos do trabalho foram caracterizar as estruturas secretoras quanto à histolocalização dos compostos fenólicos e lipídicos e descrever a anatomia da raiz, do caule e da folha de couve-cravinho. De cinco plantas cultivadas, em fase de prefloração, foram coletadas a raiz, o caule e a folha, os quais foram fixados em FAA 50 ou em sulfato ferroso em formalina neutra tamponada (para observação de compostos fenólicos e submetidos ao teste com Sudan III, visando a observação de compostos lipídicos. O laminário foi obtido utilizando-se metodologia tradicional. As raízes são tetrarcas, desenvolvem estrutura secundária e apresentam ductos secretores, os quais estavam presentes no córtex. O caule possui epiderme unisseriada recoberta por cutícula relativamente espessa; o parênquima cortical é intercalado com o colênquima subepidérmico; a medula é parenquimática; e os feixes são colaterais. Nos caules, os ductos também estavam presentes, porém somente nos jovens a reação para compostos fenólicos foi positiva. Nas folhas, o contorno das células epidérmicas é sinuoso e a epiderme é unisseriada e recoberta por cutícula delgada. São evidentes duas a três camadas de colênquima subepidérmico, e imerso no parênquima fundamental está o feixe colateral. No limbo foliar, foram observados ductos delimitados por várias camadas de células epiteliais, cujo conteúdo reagiu positivamente, indicando a

  1. Phylogeny of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng in Asteracea Basing on Chloroplast Sequences%基于叶绿体序列分析紫茎泽兰在菊科的系统发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭秀芳; 杜向红; 牛善策; 聂小军; 张迎新; 万方浩; 宋卫宁

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze the taxonomic status of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng in Asteracea,the chloroplast rpl16 , psbA-trnH and trnL-F of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng were amplified and sequenced. All the sequences were analyzed basing on sequence alignment with other chloroplast genes of Asteracea species in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted with Mega 4. 0 software. Phylogenetic relationships were estimated by neighbor-joining method. The results indicated that,The Composite plants can be classified as two classes in the phylogenetic systematic. The class contained Chrysanthemum indicum and Leucanthemum vulgare was far related to Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng; Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng had the closest taxonomic status with other plants of the genus Eupatorium and Guizotia abyssinica, and it was much closer than that between Helianthus annuus and Parthenium argentatum and the relation between Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng and Lactuca sativa, Leucanthemum vulgare and Chrysanthemum indicum was far. So our molecular evidences indicate that Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng belongs to the genus Eupatorium; The sequences of the combined dataset (rpl16 + psbA-trnH + trnL-F)ranged from 2 140 bp to 2 203 bp in length. The sequences were aligned and final sequences were 2 399 bp in length,including 381 variable sites and 190 parsim-info sites. Analyses of three separate and combined datasets provided a good amount of informative characters and resolved the systematical relationships of Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng well.%为研究紫茎泽兰(Eupatorium adentophorum spreng)在菊科的系统发育,利用通用引物对紫茎泽兰叶绿体DNA的rpl16内含子及psbA-trnH与trnL-F两个基因间隔区进行PCR扩增并测序,将其序列分别与GenBank中部分菊科(Asteraceae)植物的基因序列进行比对分析.应用Mega 4.0软件进行分子遗传进化分析,采用邻接法构建系统进化树.结果表明,菊科植物在系统分类上呈现出两大类

  2. Lactonas sesquiterpénicas de las plantas Viguiera sylvatica y Decachaeta thieleana (Asteraceae modulan la producción de óxido nítrico y la fagocitosis de macrófagos RAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Dupuy L

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas de la familia Asteraceae son una fuente potencial de lactonas sesquiterpénicas con propiedades antiinflamatorias. Los macrófagos son células que desempeñan una función central en la regulación de la respuesta inmune. Este estudio evaluó el efecto in vitro de dos lactonas sesquiterpénicas, un millerenólido y thieleanina, sobre la producción de óxido nítrico (NO en una línea celular de macrófagos de ratón (RAW, utilizando el reactivo de Griess. Además, se estudió el efecto sobre la capacidad fagocítica de RAW, evaluando al microscopio la fagocitosis de partículas inertes de látex y la reducción de nitroazul de tetrazolio (NBT. Se observó que los macrófagos tratados con lactona sesquiterpénica (>2.5 µg/ml disminuyeron la producción de NO. Además, se observó una disminución de la cantidad de macrófagos capaces de reducir NBT, después que fueron tratados con millerenólido (3 µg/ml o thieleanina (7.5 µg/ ml. Por otro lado, la exposición a 4 µg/ml de millerenólido ó 7.5 µg/ml de thieleanina redujo la cantidad promedio de partículas de látex fagocitadas. No se observaron diferencias entre tratamientos y control en cuanto al porcentaje de células fagocíticas. Sólo se observaron efectos citotóxicos sobre los macrófagos, cuando la concentración de millerenólido se incrementó a 8 µg/ml o la de thieleanina se aumentó a 25 µg/ml. Estos resultados sugieren que el millerenólido y la thieleanina podrían ser compuestos útiles en la elaboración de drogas antiinflamatorias.Sesquiterpene lactones of the plants Viguiera sylvatica and Decachaeta thieleana (Asteraceae modulate nitric oxide production and phagocytosis of macrophages cell line RAW. Different species of the Asteraceae family are a potential source of sesquiterpene lactones with anti-inflammatory properties. Macrophages play a central role in the regulation of immune responses. In the present study, the in vitro effect of two sesquiterpene

  3. Toxicological screening of Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, extract in male Wistar rats reproductive system, sperm production and testosterone level after chronic treatment Triagem toxocológica do extrato de Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, no sistema reprodutor, produção espermática e nível de testosterona em machos de ratos Wistar após tratamento crônico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia da Silveira e Sá

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Some compounds present in therapeutic plants may be responsible for the occurrence of adverse side effects. Coumarin and flavonoids are substances found in many plant species that showed antifertility activity in female rats and dogs, respectively. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, known as guaco in Brazil, is a plant largely used in folk medicine and its leaves are reported to have coumarin and flavonoids. This work analyzes the effect of chronic administration of M. glomerata on the reproductive system of male rats. Thirty-day-old Wistar rats were treated with M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract at a dose of 3.3 g/kg of body weight for ninety days. Body and organ weights, gamete concentration on the epididymis cauda, serum testosterone level and food consumption were evaluated. No significant alteration was observed in any of the variables analyzed, suggesting the absence of toxic action or antifertility activity of the M. glomerata hydroalcoholic extract.As plantas medicinais podem apresentar na sua constituição compostos capazes de causar efeitos adversos no organismo. Cumarina e flavonoides são substâncias encontradas em muitas espécies vegetais, cuja interferência na fertilidade de ratas e cadelas, respectivamente, foi evidenciada em estudos prévios. Mikania glomerata Spreng., Asteraceae, (guaco é uma planta usada no tratamento de doenças respiratórias e em suas folhas foi detectada a presença de cumarina e flavonoides. Neste estudo, avaliou-se o efeito do extrato hidroalcoólico, preparado com partes aéreas de guaco, no sistema reprodutor de ratos submetidos a tratamento crônico. Ratos Wistar (trinta dias de idade foram tratados com extrato hidroalcoólico de guaco na dose de 3,3 g/kg de peso corporal durante noventa dias. O peso corporal e de órgãos, a produção de espermatozoides, a concentração de testosterona plasmática e o consumo de ração foram avaliados. Não foi observada nenhuma alteração significativa

  4. The potential of the extracts of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae, Acalypha fruticosa Forssk (Euphorbiaceae and Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. (Compositae against Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu Lemaire (Diptera: Psychodidae, the vector for Leishmania major Yakimoff and Schokhor

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    Laban N. Ireri, Jedida Kongoro, Peter Ngure, Charles Mutai, Bernard Langat, Willy Tonui, Albert Kimutai, Obadiah Mucheru

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Harmful effects of synthetic chemical insecticides including vectorresistance, environmental pollution and health hazards have necessitated the current significancein the search for plant-based insecticide products that are environmentally safe and effective toleishmaniases control. The insecticidal activity of Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae, Acalyphafruticosa Forssk (Euphorbiaceae and Tarchonanthus camphoratus L. (Compositae extracts wereinvestigated against Phlebotomus duboscqi Neveu Lemaire (Diptera: Psychodidae.Methods: The extracts were prepared from dried aerial parts soaked in methanol and ethyl acetatetwice until the filtrates became clear, filtered and dried out by rotary evaporation at 30–35oC. Thesolid extracts obtained were later prepared into 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/ml. Two millilitres of the solutionswere blotted on filter papers, which were dried overnight and placed into jars where adult sandflieswere aspirated. Males and females were assayed separately.Results & conclusion: The extracts had significant mortality (p<0.05 in both males and femalesbioassays but were not significantly different between sexes. The extracts of Acalypha fruticosaand Tagetes minuta had significantly higher mortality rates than those of Tarchonanthuscamphoratus and the different concentrations used showed significantly different mortality ratesand 10 mg/ml was the most effective concentration. Cent percent mortality was obtained at 96 hof exposure to 5 and 10 mg/ml concentrations except for Tarchonanthus camphoratus which had amortality of only 46.7% in 10 mg/ml bioassay. These extracts were found to be insecticidal to adultsandflies.

  5. Phylogeny and putative hybridization in the subtribe Paranepheliinae (Liabeae, Asteraceae), implications for classification, biogeography, and Andean orogeny%Paranepheliinae亚族(菊科,Liabeae族)的系统发育和可能的属间杂交

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akiko SOEJIMA; 文军; Mario ZAPATA; Michael O. DILLON

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear ribosomal ITS region and the chloroplast trnL-trnF (trnLF) intergenic region were sequenced for 45 accessions of Paranephelius and six accessions of Pseudonoseris, the two genera of the subtribe Paranepheliinae (Liabeae, Asteraceae) distributed in the alpine regions of the Andes. This data set was used to estimate relationships between these genera and within each genus to aid in evaluating morphological variation and classification. Our results with both ITS and trnLF markers support the monophyly of subtribe Paranepheliinae, and place Pseudonoseris discolor as the first diverged taxon sister to the clade containing Paranephelius. Pseudonoseris szyszylowiczii exhibited intraspecific divergence supporting intergeneric hybridization between Pseudonoseris and Paranephelius. Within Paranephelius, genetic divergence is low and not adequate to fully resolve phylogenetic relationships at the species level, but two genetically and morphologically recognizable groups were revealed by the ITS data. Several accessions possessing multiple ITS sequences represent putative hybrids between the two groups. These putative hybrids have caused some taxonomic confusion and difficulties in establishing species boundaries in Paranephelius. The divergence time estimates based on ITS sequences indicated that the stem of subtribe Paranepheliinae dates to 13 million years ago, but the diversification of the crown clade of the extant members began in the early Pleistocene or late Pliocene, perhaps associated with the uplift of the Andes and the climatic changes of global cooling.

  6. Two Newly Recorded Species of Synotis (Asteraceae-Senecioneae) in China%中国合耳菊属(菊科-千里光族)两新记录种

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐明; 杨亲二

    2014-01-01

    Two species of the genus Synotis (Asteraceae-Senecioneae), S. rufinervis (DC.) C. Jeffrey&Y. L. Chen and S. kunthiana (Wall. ex DC.) C. Jeffrey&Y. L. Chen, are reported from China for the ifrst time. In China, both species are currently known only from southern Xizang (Tibet). We provide descriptions, illustrations and distributional map in China for the two species. Two important lforal micromorphological characters, anther-collar conifguration and anther endothecial tissue cell wall thickenings, are also given for the two species.%首次报道了红脉合耳菊[Synotis rufinervis (DC.) C. Jeffrey&Y. L. Chen]和须弥合耳菊[S. kunthiana (Wall. ex DC.) C. Jeffrey&Y. L. Chen](菊科-千里光族)在中国的分布记录。两种植物都在中国西藏南部有分布。提供了它们的详细形态描述、形态特征图及其在中国的地理分布,同时报道了两种植物的花药领构型和花药内壁细胞增厚方式。

  7. Desenvolvimento de forma farmacêutica líquida de uso oral, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, com extrato fluido de Mikania glomerata Sprengel - Asteraceae (guaco

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    N.C. Lubi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco é tradicionalmente empregado como expectorante na forma de infusão, extrato fluido, tintura e xarope. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma forma farmacêutica líquida, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, veiculando o extrato fluido desta, como substituto do xarope de guaco para pessoas, que por alguma restrição não possam ingerir sacarose ou açúcar invertido, componente dos xaropes em geral. Desenvolveu-se uma formulação líquida, definindo-se as concentrações de conservantes, agentes umectantes, edulcorantes e flavorizantes, testaram-se polímeros, espessantes usuais em processos tecnológicos, para reproduzir a viscosidade fornecida pelos xaropes. Analisou-se o comportamento reológico e uma avaliação preliminar das características físicas do produto. Dos polímeros testados, o alginato de sódio (1% foi o que apresentou melhores resultados frente aos parâmetros analisados, com comportamento reológico semelhante ao dos fluidos Newtonianos, e pH adequado ao uso oral, além da compatibilidade frente ao extrato fluido de guaco.

  8. LAS PRÁCTICAS DE CAMPO UNA ESTRATEGIA DIDÁCTICA PARA CONSERVAR EL ECOSISTEMA DE PÁRAMO DESDE ELESTUDIO ECOFISIOLÓGICO DEL FRAILEJÓN (ASTERACEAE: ESPELETIA.

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    Maryury Fernanda Gómez Barrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación destaca la importancia del maestro de ciencias como promotor de actitudes, conocimientos y prácticas hacia la conservación del ecosistema páramo a través de las prácticas de campo, en estudiantes de secundaria del Colegio Siervas de San José, como un acercamiento a la conservación de los ecosistemas Colombianos. Recurriendo para ello al estudio ecofisiológico de una planta concreta, endémica y de gran significado ecológico y social para el ecosistema páramo, el  frailejón (Asteraceae: Espeletia. La investigación presenta un enfoque  mixto o multimodal, recurriendo a la IEP (Investigación como Estrategia Pedagógica como metodología  central y fundamental para el desarrollo de esta investigación, se logran describir las nociones de las estudiantes en cuanto a la conservación, la ecofisiología, el páramo y el frailejón; y se caracterizaron algunas  actitudes, prácticas y conocimientos conservacionistas de las estudiantes en cuanto al páramo evidenciando las transformaciones durante el proceso.

  9. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oils from the Aerial Parts of Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC.: Two Asteraceae Herbs Growing Wild in the Hoggar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaib, Faiza; Allali, Hocine; Bennaceur, Malika; Flamini, Guido

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, antimicrobial activities of essential oils have been intensively explored, mainly in researching and developing new antimicrobial agents to overcome microbial resistance. The present study investigates the chemical composition and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from two Asteraceae: Asteriscus graveolens (Forssk.) Less. and Pulicaria incisa (Lam.) DC. Chemical analysis was performed using a combination of capillary GC-FID and GC/MS analytical techniques. The major component of Asteriscus graveolens were cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (31.1%), myrtenyl acetate (15.1%), and kessane (11.5%), while for Pulicaria incisa the main components were chrysanthenone (45.3%) and 2,6-dimethylphenol (12.6%). The oils obtained from the aerial parts were tested against sixteen microbial strains by agar well diffusion technique and dilution methods and showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 19 - 1250 μg/ml. A good antibacterial activity against a common nosocomial pathogen, Acinetobacter baumanniiATCC 19606 was observed, especially from Pulicaria incisa essential oil, with a MIC value up to 19 μg/ml. These results give significant information about the pharmacological activity of these essential oils, which suggest their benefits to human health, having the potential to be used for medical purposes. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  10. Relationships and genetic consequences of contrasting modes of speciation among endemic species of Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, based on AFLPs and SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses and compares the genetic signatures of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation in six species of the genus Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae), endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile. Population genetic structure was analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers from 286 and 320 individuals, respectively, in 28 populations. Each species is genetically distinct. Previous hypotheses of classification among these species into subgenera and sections, via morphological, phytochemical, isozymic and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data, have been confirmed, except that R. saxatilis appears to be related to R. gayana rather than R. evenia. Analysis of phylogenetic results and biogeographic context suggests that five of these species have originated by cladogenesis and adaptive radiation on the older Robinson Crusoe Island. The sixth species, R. masafuerae, restricted to the younger Alejandro Selkirk Island, is closely related to and an anagenetic derivative of R. evenia from Robinson Crusoe. Microsatellite and AFLP data reveal considerable genetic variation among the cladogenetically derived species of Robinsonia, but within each the genetic variation is lower, highlighting presumptive genetic isolation and rapid radiation. The anagenetically derived R. masafuerae harbors a level of genetic variation similar to that of its progenitor, R. evenia. This is the first direct comparison of the genetic consequences of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation in plants of an oceanic archipelago.

  11. The In Vitro Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of the Leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae on Three Life Cycle Stages of the Parasitic Nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wabo Poné

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative in vitro study was carried out to determine the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae leaves on the eggs (unembryonated and embryonated, first and second larval stages of Heligmosomoides bakeri. Four different concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 3.75 mg·mL−1 of both aqueous and ethanolic extracts were tested. Distilled water and 5% tween were used as negative controls in the bioassay. In fact, they did not affect development of eggs, hatching, and larval survival. The extract activities were dose dependent. The ethanolic extract was more potent against embryonation (39.6 ± 2.9% than the aqueous extract (53.3 ± 10.9% at the highest concentration (3.75 mg·ml−1. Both types of extracts killed larvae. Mebendazole proved more lethal (EC50 of 0.745 and 0.323 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae. The aqueous extracts were the least lethal (EC50 of 4.76 and 2.29 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae. The ethanolic extracts showed intermediate activity (EC50 of 1.323 and 1.511 mg·mL−1, resp., for L1 and L2 larvae. It is concluded that the ovicidal and larvicidal properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides leaves are demonstrated in this work.

  12. Propriedades físicoquímicas e avaliação da toxicidade aguda do extrato etanólico padronizado a 70% das folhas de Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae

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    L.C.L.R. Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mikania glomerata (Asteraceae é bastante utilizada na medicina popular devido às suas ações broncodilatadora, antiasmática, expectorante e antitussígena. O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar propriedades físicoquímicas do pó obtido a partir das folhas de M. glomerata, bem como avaliar a toxicidade em camundongos após tratamento agudo com doses repetidas do extrato etanólico padronizado a 70% preparado durante 30 dias consecutivos. No estudo das propriedades físicoquímicas fez-se a determinação da densidade bruta e de compactação, do teor de cinzas totais, do teor de umidade e da granulometria. De acordo com os resultados obtidos o pó pode ser usado na formulação de uma forma farmacêutica sólida, uma vez que suas propriedades físico-químicas são compatíveis com o desenvolvimento desse tipo de formulação. Na segunda parte do estudo foi determinada a dose letal 50% (DL50 em camundongos, e na análise morfológica macroscópica dos principais órgãos e avaliada a toxicidade aguda com doses repetidas em parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos de camundongos. Os resultados sugerem que o extrato etanólico padronizado a 70% pode ser usado de forma segura, uma vez que apresentou um valor para a DL50 (~3000 mg kg-1 que pode ser classificado na categoria nociva, e não produziu nenhuma alteração morfológica nos principais órgãos e em parâmetros bioquímicos e hematológicos de camundongos.

  13. Isolamento químico e validação analítica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência de quercitrina em Solidago chilensis Meyen (Asteraceae

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    C.A.D. VECHIA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A espécie Solidago chilensis Meyen, Asteraceae é conhecida como erva-lanceta ou arnica-brasileira, sendo utilizada popularmente como antimicrobiana e para o tratamento de inflamações tópicas. No entanto, estudos fitoquímicos e farmacológicos para as partes aéreas são escassos. Neste trabalho, realizou-se a determinação de flavonoides por espectrofotometria de UV/Vis, prospecção fitoquímica da fração acetato de etila visando o isolamento do constituinte químico majoritário e validação analítica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE. O teor de flavonoides totais foi de 5,42%, representados como hiperosídeo. O fracionamento químico utilizando métodos cromatográficos (cromatografia líquida em coluna gel de sílica; CHCl3:EtOH; 8:2 v/v e espectroscópicos (1H RMN,13C RMN e ESI-MS revelou o isolamento de quercetina-3-O-α-L-ramnosídeo(quercitrina. A sensibilidade e a linearidade (r = 0,999 da validação analítica, utilizando a quercitrina isolada do extrato hidroalcoólico da planta, revelaram um rendimento de 5,29% do analito em relação à droga vegetal. Precisão, recuperação e robustez, além dos valores estabelecidos para os limites de detecção (LOD e de quantificação (LOQ, poderão ser utilizados como parâmetros de qualidade para extratos à base de S. chilensis.

  14. Plantae a Th. Herzogio in itinere Eius Boliviensi Altero annis 1910 et 1911 collectae. Pars X. Compositae (Continuatio)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lulio Cabrera, Angel

    1952-01-01

    Frutex volubilis ramulis teretibus, costatis, glabris, inferne nudis cicatricosis, superne dense foliosis, 4—5 mm crassis. Folia chartacea, alterna (internodiis 2—3 mm longis), brevissime petiolata, lanceolata, apice acuta mucronulataque, basi cuneata, margine integerrima vel subdentata, utrinque gl

  15. The effect of biobased plastic resins containing chichen feather fibers on the growth and flowering of Begonia boliviensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate growth and flowering of Begoniaboliviensis A. DC. 'Bonfire' when grown in medium mixed with pellets made from biobased plastic resins containing chicken feather fibers. We also analyzed macro- and macro-elements in soil and leaf tissues during different develope...

  16. Кристаллы в тканях семянок видов Asteraceae

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    E. V. Boyko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Представлены результаты морфо- логических и анатомических исследований, а также сканирующей электронной микроскопии семянок 48 видов из 30 родов, относящихся к 7 трибам семейства Asteraceae. Карпологическое изучение семя- нок выявило наличие нескольких типов кристаллов (крупных одиночных, мелких многочисленных, друз, рафид в клетках и межклеточном пространстве раз- ных тканей покровов семени и в чешуйках хохолка семянки. Впервые выявлены кристаллы в семянках: крупные одиночные во всех клетках экзокарпия (Anacyclus pyrethrum, Pyrethrum poteriifolium, Helenium aromaticum, H. autumnale, Gaillardia aristata; крупные одиночные во всех клетках эндокарпия (Gaillardia aristata; крупные одиночные в клетках нижней части чешуек хохолка (Balduina multiflora, Gaillardia aristata; мелкие многочисленные во многих клетках экзокарпия (Argyranthemum pinnatifidum; мелкие многочисленные во всех клетках экзокарпия (Psilostrophe bakeri; мелкие многочисленные во многих клетках экзокарпия (Baileya pleniradiata; друзы в клетках экзокарпия (Gynura aurantiaca, Pyrethrum parthenifolium, Synedrella nodiflora; друзы в клетках карпоподиума (Stokesia laevis. Полученных данные могут быть использованы при таксономических построениях в

  17. Distribution,Morphology of Aster sinianus Hand .-Mazz . (Asteraceae:Astereae)and Its Karyotypic Study%岳麓紫菀(菊科)的分布及其形态学与核型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志; 刘雷; 谢驰; 熊一唱; 黎维平

    2016-01-01

    岳麓紫菀(Aster sinianus Hand .-Mazz .,菊科紫菀族)为多年生草本,特产于中国湘赣毗邻地区。在对其整个分布区进行野外采集和生境观察时,发现了2个新的分布地点,同时确认其已在模式产地湖南省长沙市岳麓山灭绝。该研究将岳麓紫菀从浏阳市沙市镇回迁至岳麓山,以期恢复模式产地的居群。形态学研究表明,现有文献对该种的描述多处不准确,如对基生叶、株高、茎下部叶、托片和海拔等的记载。基于形态性状,讨论了岳麓紫菀的系统学地位,并首次报道了该种的核型特征:岳麓紫菀为二倍体,核型为2n=2x=16m+2m(SAT),属于1A型。该研究结果为岳麓紫菀的分类地位的修订和物种保护提供了重要的资料。%Aster sinianus Hand .-Mazz .( Asteraceae:Astereae ) is a perennial endemic herb in the adjacent areas of Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces ,where two new distributions of A .sinianus Hand .-Mazz were found through the field acquisition and habitat observation .And this species has been confirmed further to have become extinct in its type-locality ,the Yuelu Mountain of Changsha ,capital of Hunan Province . Hence ,to recover the populations in the type-locality ,several A .sinianus plants were transplanted back to the Yuelu Mountain from Shashi Town of Liuyang City .The morphological studies show that in previ-ous literatures there are some inaccurate descriptions of this species ,such as the descriptions of its basilar leaves ,plant height ,stem leaves ,paleates and altitude ,etc .Based on the observation of its morphological traits ,this paper studied the systematic status of A .sinianus ,and its karyotype was reported for the first time as well .The research results show that A .sinianus is diploids with a karyotype formula 2n=2x=16m+2m(SAT) ,belonged to 1A type .The paper provides some valuable information for the revision of its taxonomic status and the species

  18. Nocturnal petal movements in the Asteraceae

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    C. H. Stirton

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Nocturnal petal movements were recorded from 48 genera and 106 species growing in cultivation at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew and in the wild in Canada, Great Britain, France, Italy, Greece, Canary Islands and South Africa. Seven different night positions of petals, as distinct from day positions, are recognized and discussed.

  19. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  20. Bioactivity of Centaurea persica boiss. (Asteraceae

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    Sarker Satyajit D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging property, antibacterial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of Centaurea persica, a Turkish medicinal plant, were assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay, the resazurin microtiter plate based assay, and the brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. Additionally, the disc diffusion assay was also used to assess antibacterial activity. Only the MeOH extract of C. persica exhibited a significant free-radical-scavenging property in the DPPH assay, with an RC50 value of 0.025 mg/mL. However, in the TLC-based qualitative assay, petroleum ether and DCM extracts showed an extremely low level of free-radical-scavenging property. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, the fractions eluted with 60% and 80% MeOH in water exhibited the highest level of free-radicalscavenging activity (RC50 = 0.010 and 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. While DCM extract showed reasonable antibacterial activity against five out of the nine test strains both in the disc diffusion assay and in the resazurin assay, the MeOH extract was highly active against both Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, fractions eluted with 80% MeOH in water and 100% MeOH displayed significant antibacterial potencies against both E. coli species. None of the extracts showed any significant toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = >1.00 mg/mL.

  1. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes.

  2. Morphometric study of Euchiton (Gnaphalieae: Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flann, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    A morphometric study was undertaken to survey taxa in the genus Euchiton Cass., distributed across Australia, New Zealand and South-east Asia. Phenetic analyses of herbarium specimens showed several taxa to be well delimited, including E. brassii (Mattf.) Anderb., E. breviscapus (Mattf.) Anderb., E.

  3. Pharmacological evaluation of Vernonia elaeagnifolia (Asteraceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2017; 16 (5): 1077-1083 ... Science, Nutrition and Home Ecnomics, 4Department of Physiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan ... disorder. It plays an important role in the progression of life threatening ... tract infections, stomach ulceration and skin.

  4. Chemical constituents of Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae); Constituintes quimicos de Vernonia scorpioides (Lam) Pers. (Asteraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Adalva Lopes; Aragao, Fabiana Martins; Bandeira, Paulo N.; Santos, Helcio Silva dos; Albuquerque, Maria Rose Jane R., E-mail: rjane_7@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual Vale do Acarau, Sobral, CE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologia. Coordenaco de Quimica; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia L.; Silveira, Edilberto R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias. Departamento de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Nunes, Edson Paula [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), Fortaleza (Brazil). Departamento de Biologia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica

    2013-09-01

    The chemical investigation of hexane and ethanol extracts from the aerial parts of Vernonia scorpioides resulted in the isolation and characterization of a new polyacetylene lactone, rel-4-dihydro-4{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-octa-2,4,6-triynyl-furan-2-(5H)-one, along with the new ethyl 3,4-dihydroxy-6,8,10-triynyldodecanoate, and seven known compounds: taraxasteryl acetate, lupeyl acetate, lupeol, lupenone, {beta}-sitosterol, stigmasterol and luteolin. The structure of all compounds was determined by spectrometric techniques (HR-ESI-MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR and IV) and comparison with published spectral data. (author)

  5. Anatomia foliar de Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae Leaf anatomy of Richterago Kuntze (Mutisieae, Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Flávia de A. Melo-de-Pinna

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura interna da folha de espécies de Richterago mostrou-se bastante variável em relação à organização do mesofilo e à distribuição dos estômatos. Como caráter de valor taxonômico, apenas o tipo de tricoma tector foi utilizado nas relações entre R. arenaria e R. lanata,R. conduplicata e R. radiata, cujas folhas são morfologicamente semelhantes. Caracteres relacionados com adaptações ao ambiente xérico, como a ocorrência de extensões da bainha das unidades vasculares e traqueídes terminais, foram encontrados em todas as espécies. Hidatódios foram observados apenas nas duas espécies ribeirinhas (R. polymorpha e R. riparia, sendo o primeiro registro de hidatódios em representantes da tribo Mutisieae.Leaf anatomy of Richterago species revealed rather variability concerning mesophyll organization and stomata arrangement. As a character of taxonomic value, only non-glandular thricomes were used to compare R. arenaria and R. lanata,R. conduplicata and R. radiata, whose leaves are morphologically similar. Anatomical xeromorphic characters, e.g. the bundles sheath extensions and terminal tracheids were observed in all species. The waterside species (R. polymorpha e R. riparia showed hydathodes in the leaves, which represent the first record in Mutisieae.

  6. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition.

  7. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Elizabete S; Toledo, Vagner A A; Caxambu, Marcelo G; Chmura, Suzane; Takashiba, Eliza H; Sereia, Maria Josiane; Marchini, Luís C; Moreti, Augusta C C C

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean) and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  8. Ethnopharmacological study of medicinal plants used in Rosário da Limeira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine B. de Oliveira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the popular knowledge on the use of medicinal plants and the contribution in the preservation of medicinal flora, the present work aims to rescue and organize such knowledge on medicinal species and its relation with therapeutic uses, in the city of Rosario de Limeira, MG. Data were collected January to March, 2007. Fifteen informants, all resident in urban and agricultural communities, were asked about their knowledge on medicinal plants. The current survey revealed the use of 66 species belonging to 33 families (Asteraceae with the major number of species, followed by Lamiaceae, Rutaceae, and Bignoniaceae used in the treatment of various diseases. 44,3% of them grow spontaneously and 55,7% are cultivated. The main vegetal part used in the preparation of the phytotherapy was the leaf, and the most common preparation was the infusion. The most used species were: Baccharis trimera, Mentha sp., Plantago major, Chenopodium ambrosioides and Symphytum officinale.

  9. Melliferous flora and pollen characterization of honey samples of Apis mellifera L., 1758 in apiaries in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.

  10. Repellence of essential oils of aromatic plants growing in Argentina against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiser, Raquel M; Bonino, Maria A; Zygadlo, Julio A

    2011-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens to humans and domestic animals and may also have economical impacts. One approach to prevent mosquito-borne diseases is bite deterrence through the application of repellents. Currently, there is an interest to search for alternative bioactive products to the synthetic active ingredients most widely used in insect repellents. Repellence against Aedes aegypti of essential oils extracted from Acantholippia salsoloides, Aloysia catamarcensis, Aloysia polystachya, Lippia integrifolia, Lippia junelliana (Verbenaceae), Baccharis salicifolia, Euphatorium buniifolium, and Tagetes filifolia (Asteraceae) were assessed. Tests were conducted by alternatively exposing untreated and treated forehand to the mosquitoes and counting probing attempts. All essential oils tested were significantly repellent against A. aegypti when compared to untreated controls; L. junelliana was the most repellent and T. filifolia was the least based on the response of the mosquitoes to different concentrations of the essential oils (EO). Repellence may be attributed to the respective main components of each EO.

  11. Protective Effect of Baccharis trimera Extract on Acute Hepatic Injury in a Model of Inflammation Induced by Acetaminophen

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    Bruno da Cruz Pádua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acetaminophen (APAP is a commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. When administered in high doses, APAP is a clinical problem in the US and Europe, often resulting in severe liver injury and potentially acute liver failure. Studies have demonstrated that antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents effectively protect against the acute hepatotoxicity induced by APAP overdose. Methods. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of B. trimera against APAP-induced hepatic damage in rats. The liver-function markers ALT and AST, biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant parameters, and histopathological changes were examined. Results. The pretreatment with B. trimera attenuated serum activities of ALT and AST that were enhanced by administration of APAP. Furthermore, pretreatment with the extract decreases the activity of the enzyme SOD and increases the activity of catalase and the concentration of total glutathione. Histopathological analysis confirmed the alleviation of liver damage and reduced lesions caused by APAP. Conclusions. The hepatoprotective action of B. trimera extract may rely on its effect on reducing the oxidative stress caused by APAP-induced hepatic damage in a rat model. General Significance. These results make the extract of B. trimera a potential candidate drug capable of protecting the liver against damage caused by APAP overdose.

  12. Phylogeny and evolution of Perezia (Asteraceae: Mutisieae: Nassauviinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beryl B. SIMPSON; Mary T. K. ARROYO; Sandra SIPE; Marta DIAS de MORAES; Joshua McDILL

    2009-01-01

    A molecular phylogenetic analysis of most of the species of Perezia reveals that, as traditionally defined, the genus is not monophyletic with two species more closely related to Nassauvia than to Perezia. In addition, our results show that Burkartia (Perezia) lanigera is related to Acourtia and is the only member of that clade in South America. The remaining species are monophyletic and show a pattern of an early split between a western temperate and an eastern subtropical clade of species. Within the western clade, the phylogeny indicates a pattern of diversification that proceeded from southern, comparatively low-elevation habitats to southern high-elevation habitats, and ultimately into more northern high-elevation habitats. The most derived clades are found in the high central Andes, where significant radiation has occurred.

  13. Flavonoids and coumarins from Hieracium pilosella L. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Krzaczek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typical chromatographic methods were successfully applied to isolate nine flavonoid compounds and two coumarin glycosides from the inflorescences and the herb of Hieracium pilosella L. Repeated column chromatography, occasionally paper chromatography and recrystallization made the separation of three flavonoid aglycones and six glycosides - possible. Coumarin glycosides were isolated by preparative thin layer chromatography. Subsequent UV, NMR and MS analyses have led to identification of the following flavonoid derivatives: known for the species - apigenin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O- ß-glucopyranoside, luteolin 4’-O-ß-glucopyranoside, isoetin 7-O-ß- -glucopyranoside, isoetin 4’-O-ß-glucuronide and new for the species – kaempferol 3-methyl ether and apigenin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside. Third isoetin glycoside contained two different sugar moieties: xylose and glucose, probably attached to the hydroxyl groups at C-4’ or C-4’ and C-2’(or 5’ of an aglycone. Umbelliferone 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (skimmin and new for the genus Hieracium esculetin 7-O-ß-glucopyranoside (cichoriin were determined by NMR and MS methods.

  14. Genetic diversity and evolution in Lactuca L. (Asteraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an important leafy vegetable worldwide. However, the phylogenetic relationships between domesticated lettuce and its wild relatives are still not clear. In this thesis, I focus on the phylogenetic relationships within Lactuca L., including an analysis of the

  15. Achene slime content in some taxa of Matricaria L. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Inceer, Huseyin

    2011-01-01

    The achenes of Matricaria aurea and two varieties of M. chamomilla (var. chamomilla and var. recutita) have slime cells on the surface and they are characterized by slime envelope formation during hydration. The slime in these taxa is composed of pectins and cellulose. The slime could play important role in the distribution and colonisation of new habitats in Matricaria taxa.

  16. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  17. New species and nomenclatural action in Saussurea DC.(Asteraceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Sheng CHEN; Qi-Liang GAN

    2011-01-01

    @@ Saussurea zhuxiensis Y.S.Chen & Q.L.Gan, sp.nov. 竹溪风毛菊 (S1-1.Figs.1, 2) Type: China.Hubei: Zhuxi County, Shuangqiao, rock crevices along stream, alt.900 m, 2006-08-09, Q.L.Gan 1508 (PE). Latin diagnosis: Species Saussurea salicifoliae DC.similis, a qua radicibus numerosis fibrosis, foliis inferioribus parce dentatis vel incisis, laminis abaxialibus pallidis viridibus, capitulis laxioribus differt.

  18. Natural hybridization and introgression in sympatric Ligularia species (Asteraceae, Senecioneae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao-Jun YU; Chiaki KURODA; Xun GONG

    2011-01-01

    The difficulty in clarifying species of genus Ligularia Cass.has been attributed to rapid and continuous allopatric speciation in small and isolated populations,combined with interspecific diploid hybridization in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent areas.However,no concrete example has been reported to prove this hypothesis.We studied a natural mixed population of six species of Ligularia in which some individuals were morphologically intermediate between L.subspicata and L.nelumbifolia.Based on DNA sequences (trnC-E trnL-rpL32,trnQ5'rpsl6,trnK-rpsl6,and internal transcribed spacer) and inter-simple sequence repeat data,we concluded that putative hybrids are primarily products of hybridization between L.nelumbifolia and L.subspicata.The other four species or additional,unknown species may also be involved in hybridization.This hybridization is bidirectional but asymmetrical.Hybrid individuals were mostly the first generation,but F2 and later-generation hybrids were also present.Moreover,the backcrossed individuals detected indicate that natural gene flow occurs among at least three Ligularia species.Hybrids may become stabilized to form new species or may function as intermediates in evolutionary diversification.

  19. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  20. CROMOSOMAS EN VERNONIA PLATENSIS Y ESPECIES AFINES (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fueron analizados los cromosomas somáticos de Vernonia platensis y otras tres especies estrechamente relacionadas. Todas éstas especies pertenecen a la subsección o serie Flexuosae, que es el único grupo americano con el número básico de cromosomas x = 10. En el presente trabajo se analizan los cromosomas somáticos de cuatro especies del grupo Flexuosae; se dan a conocer dos nuevos citotipos para V. platensis y se presentan por primera vez los cariotipos de V. verbascifolia y V. platensis. Los resultados del análisis de los cromosomas son los siguientes: V.flexuosa, 2n = 40 (28m + 12sm; V.lepidifera, 2n = 20 (8m + 2m-sm + 10sm, V. platensis, 2n = 20 (10m + 2m-sm + 8sm, 2n=40, 2n=60, 2n=80 y V.verbascifolia, 2n=20 (8m + 4m-sm + 8sm. El citotipo 4x, 6x y 8x de V.platensis presenta el mismo cariotipo diploide lo que sugiere un origen autopoliploide.  Los cariotipos de las especies aquí reportadas difieren principalmente en longitud total, asimetría y número de metacéntricos y submetacéntricos. Muestran también variación en el número, forma y ubicación de los satélites. Los resultados se discuten en relación a la posición taxonómica de las especies y los estudios cromosómicos previos en el grupo.

  1. Phylogenetic and Population Genetic Studies in Grindelia (Asteraceae: Astereae)

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Abigail Jane

    2010-01-01

    Grindelia is among the most taxonomically challenging groups of North American composites. The genus as a whole has an amphitropical distribution, with approximately half of the species native to North America and Mexico and the remainder native to South America. I used DNA sequence data from the nuclear ribosomal ITS and ETS and chloroplast psaI-accD regions to revisit hypotheses on biogeographic history across the genus. Grindelia as a whole is well-supported and is composed of two siste...

  2. A bis-bithiophene from Tridax procumbens L. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Jahangir, Muhammad

    2002-08-01

    The ethyl acetate soluble part of hexane extract of Tridax procumbens yielded a new bis-bithiophene named tridbisbithiophene along with four known terpenoids: taraxasteryl acetate, beta-amyrenone, lupeol and oleanolic acid, which have never been reported so far from Tridax procumbens. The structures of all the isolated constituents were elucidated with the aid of 1D-NMR spectroscopy whereas, the structure of new constituent tridbisbithiophene was confirmed via COSY and HMBC interactions.

  3. 7 CFR 201.56-2 - Sunflower family, Asteraceae (Compositae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) General description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and... epicotyl usually does not show any development within the test period. (iv) Root system: A long primary... description. (i) Germination habit: Epigeal dicot. (ii) Food reserves: Cotyledons which expand and become...

  4. ESTUDIOS CROMOSOMICOS EN ESPECIES ARGENTINAS DE VERNONIA (ASTERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Dematteis

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se estudian los cromosomas de once especies de Vernonia de Argentina. Los resultados incluyen el recuento en siete especies que nunca se han investigado citológicamente. Los cariotipos de seis taxones son analizados, cinco de ellos se describen por primera vez sobre: V. chamaedrys n = 17, 2n = 34 = 22m + 12 sm; V.loretensis n= 17, 2n = 34 = 20 m + 14 sm; V.rubricaulis n = 16, 2n = 32 = 20m + 12sm; V.remotiflora n = 14, 2n = 28 = 16m + 12sm y V.lepidifera n= 10, 2n = 20 = 8 m + 12sm. El registro de 2n = 4x = 28 para V.remotiflora apoya la existencia del número cromosómico básico x = 7. En un inoforme previo un conteo de cromosomas muestra que Vernonia es multibasic con x = 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 15, 17 y 19. La importancia de los resultados se discuten en relación a los datos cromosómicos disponibles para el género

  5. Parthenium Hysterophorus. L. (Asteraceae : A Boon or Curse? (A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Joshi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Parthenium hysterophorus (Linn. is violent every where annual, herbivorous weed, commonly found in America but presently invaded in four continents. It shows hazardous effect on human health, livestock as well as it reduces the crop production due to its allelopathic effect. Partheniun with other constituents discussed are the cause behind the intimidating role of this weed. In spite of these drawbacks the weed is traditionally known for the treatment of wounds, fever, ulcerated sores and malaria. It can also be used to increase the agricultural productivity and for the elimination of heavy metals from soil as well as from water to reduce pollution. The main aim of this review article is to summarise the main positive and negative effects of the Parthenium hysterophorus.

  6. Arbutin in Serratula quinquefolia M.B. (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard Nowak; Joanna Nawrot; Karol Latowski

    2011-01-01

    Genus Serratula is known for the presence of steroid compounds which belong to the group of ecdysones. Former phytochemical works from the late sixties and early seventies indicate, in some Serratula species, the occurrence of a phenolic glycoside-arbutin. This has been confirmed in the present work through finding an α,β-arbutin anomer in Serratula quinquefolia M.B. New botanical data concerning the classification of genus Serratula suggest that the species in question should be regarded as ...

  7. Arbutin in Serratula quinquefolia M.B. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Genus Serratula is known for the presence of steroid compounds which belong to the group of ecdysones. Former phytochemical works from the late sixties and early seventies indicate, in some Serratula species, the occurrence of a phenolic glycoside-arbutin. This has been confirmed in the present work through finding an α,β-arbutin anomer in Serratula quinquefolia M.B. New botanical data concerning the classification of genus Serratula suggest that the species in question should be regarded as belonging to genus Klasea (currently a section of genus Serratula. There has been an attempt to find a key to the chemical division within the taxons.

  8. Rapid chromosome evolution in recently formed polyploids in Tragopogon (Asteraceae.

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    K Yoong Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyploidy, frequently termed "whole genome duplication", is a major force in the evolution of many eukaryotes. Indeed, most angiosperm species have undergone at least one round of polyploidy in their evolutionary history. Despite enormous progress in our understanding of many aspects of polyploidy, we essentially have no information about the role of chromosome divergence in the establishment of young polyploid populations. Here we investigate synthetic lines and natural populations of two recently and recurrently formed allotetraploids Tragopogon mirus and T. miscellus (formed within the past 80 years to assess the role of aberrant meiosis in generating chromosomal/genomic diversity. That diversity is likely important in the formation, establishment and survival of polyploid populations and species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Applications of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH to natural populations of T. mirus and T. miscellus suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and other chromosomal changes are common in both allotetraploids. We detected extensive chromosomal polymorphism between individuals and populations, including (i plants monosomic and trisomic for particular chromosomes (perhaps indicating compensatory trisomy, (ii intergenomic translocations and (iii variable sizes and expression patterns of individual ribosomal DNA (rDNA loci. We even observed karyotypic variation among sibling plants. Significantly, translocations, chromosome loss, and meiotic irregularities, including quadrivalent formation, were observed in synthetic (S(0 and S(1 generations polyploid lines. Our results not only provide a mechanism for chromosomal variation in natural populations, but also indicate that chromosomal changes occur rapidly following polyploidisation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data shed new light on previous analyses of genome and transcriptome structures in de novo and establishing polyploid species. Crucially our results highlight the necessity of studying karyotypes in young (<150 years old polyploid species and synthetic polyploids that resemble natural species. The data also provide insight into the mechanisms that perturb inheritance patterns of genetic markers in synthetic polyploids and populations of young natural polyploid species.

  9. Efectos embriotóxicos de Picrosia longifolia Don (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Benavides

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha evaluado los probables efectos tóxicos del extracto acuoso de Picrosia longifolia Don “Achicoria” sobre el desarrollo de embriones preimplantacionales de ratón. Extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 20%, 10% y 0% fue suministrado a ratonas preñadas hasta las 86 horas postcópula (hpc. Al evaluar el estadio embrionario se encontró que el extracto acuoso de P. longifolia al 10% y 20% causó retraso en el desarrollo embrionario. También se observó una disminución en la viabilidad embrionaria en los grupos tratados. Tanto la disminución de viabilidad como el retraso en el desarrollo se produjo en una forma dosis dependiente.

  10. Gutierrezia mendocina (Asteraceae, Astereae, a new South American species

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    Ratto, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic revision of the South American species of Gutierrezia has revealed a new species from Argentina, characterised by its stems with the base prostrate and rooting, turbinate heads and white ray florets. This species, found in the Department of Tunuyán of Mendoza Province (Argentina, is described and illustrated and a key to differentiate it from allied species is given.En el marco de la revisión taxonómica del género Gutierrezia para Sudamérica fue hallada una nueva especie de Argentina, caracterizada por sus tallos con la porción basal postrada, enraizante en los nudos, capítulos con involucro turbinado y flores liguladas blancas. Se describe e ilustra la especie encontrada en el Departamento de Tunuyán de la Provincia de Mendoza (Argentina, y se incluye una clave para diferenciarla de las especies afines.

  11. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

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    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  12. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunwong, Sukhonthip; Chantaranothai, Pranom; Keeley, Sterling C

    2012-01-01

    Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailandis described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to Camchaya gracilis (Gagnep.) Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ in having ovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  13. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae) from Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sukhonthip Bunwong; Pranom Chantaranothai; Stirling Keeley

    2012-01-01

    Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep.) Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  14. Ethnobotany, chemistry, and biological activities of the genus Tithonia (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Paula, Daniela A; Oliveira, Rejane B; Rocha, Bruno A; Da Costa, Fernando B

    2012-02-01

    The genus Tithonia is an important source of diverse natural products, particularly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. The collected information in this review attempts to summarize the recent developments in the ethnobotany, biological activities, and secondary metabolite chemistry of this genus. More than 100 structures of natural products from Tithonia are reported in this review. The species that has been most investigated in this genus is T. diversifolia, from which ca. 150 compounds were isolated. Biological studies are described to evaluate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antiviral, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, vasorelaxant, cancer-chemopreventive, cytotoxic, toxicological, bioinsecticide, and repellent activities. A few of these studies have been carried out with isolated compounds from Tithonia species, but the majority has been conducted with different extracts. The relationship between the biological activity and the toxicity of compounds isolated from the plants of this genus as well as T. diversifolia extracts still remains unclear, and mechanisms of action remain to be determined. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae Biologia reprodutiva em espécies de Bidens L. (Asteraceae

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    Maria Tereza Grombone-Guaratini

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies about reproductive biology of weed species can have implications on the establishment of controlling practices that minimize the effects of these weed populations on agricultural fields. The pollination biology of Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L., and Bidens subalternans DC., was studied at different sites and climatic seasons. Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans are widely distributed in agricultural areas, in disturbed habitats, and along road sides. Bidens alba occur only along the coast. The three species are self-compatible and non agamospermous. The composition of the pollinator community changes during the year and between sites. Hymenopterans and lepidopterans are the most frequent visitors to Bidens species in both areas studied. Although the species are self-compatible, the presence of pollinators may affect the levels of inbreeding. The attraction of insects by Bidens species may be benefical to agricultural crop and may also have important implications for conservation biology.Estudos de biologia reprodutiva de espécies invasoras podem ter implicações sobre o estabelecimento de práticas de controle que minimizem o efeito das populações destas espécies em áreas agrícolas. A biologia da polinização de Bidens alba (L. DC., B. pilosa L. e Bidens subalternans DC. foi estudada em diferentes locais e estações climáticas. Bidens pilosa e B. subalternans são espécies amplamente distribuídas em áreas agrícolas, em habitats perturbados e em margens de estradas. Bidens alba ocorre somente em regiões litorâneas. As três espécies são auto-compatíveis e não são agamospérmicas. A composição da comunidade de polinizadores apresenta diferenças durante o ano e entre locais. Himenópteros e lepidópteros são os visitantes mais freqüentes nas espécies de Bidens. Embora as espécies sejam auto compatíveis, a presença de polinizadores pode afetar os níveis de endocruzamento. A atração de insetos por espécies de Bidens pode beneficiar as culturas agrícolas e apresentar importantes implicações para a biologia da conservação.

  16. Intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae) em bovinos Poisoning in cattle by Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    É descrito um surto de intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium em bovinos do Paraná, Brasil. A doença ocorreu no início do verão, durante um período de forte estiagem. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram dois dias após a introdução de 50 vacas e 8 novilhas em uma pastagem com alta densidade de B. triplinervium, que apresentava sinais de ter sido consumido pelos animais. Adoeceram 15 bovinos (9 vacas e 6 novilhas). Desses, morreram duas vacas e quatro novilhas após um curso clínico de 12 a 60 h...

  17. Intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae em bovinos Poisoning in cattle by Baccharidastrum triplinervium (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um surto de intoxicação por Baccharidastrum triplinervium em bovinos do Paraná, Brasil. A doença ocorreu no início do verão, durante um período de forte estiagem. Os sinais clínicos iniciaram dois dias após a introdução de 50 vacas e 8 novilhas em uma pastagem com alta densidade de B. triplinervium, que apresentava sinais de ter sido consumido pelos animais. Adoeceram 15 bovinos (9 vacas e 6 novilhas. Desses, morreram duas vacas e quatro novilhas após um curso clínico de 12 a 60 horas. O quadro clínico incluía prostração, atonia ruminal, timpanismo moderado, desidratação acentuada, diarréia e anorexia. Os animais ficavam inquietos, se deitavam e se levantavam constantemente, permanecendo cada vez mais tempo deitados em decúbito esternal. Uma vez nessa posição, manifestavam gemidos e mantinham a cabeça estendida ou voltada para o flanco. Adicionalmente, observou-se nas vacas queda abrupta da produção de leite. Os demais bovinos afetados apresentaram sinais clínicos mais leves, voltando a ingerir um pouco de alimento já no dia seguinte ao aparecimento dos sinais clínicos; a produção de leite voltou aos níveis normais uma semana após. As principais lesões macroscópicas, em dois animais necropsiados, foram observadas principalmente nos compartimentos gástricos. Consistiam de edema da parede do rúmen, e de avermelhamento difuso da mucosa do rúmen, do retículo, do abomaso e de algumas folhas do omaso. Histologicamente, as lesões mais importantes incluíam degeneração balonosa e necrose multifocal com infiltrado neutrofílico discreto no epitélio de revestimento do rúmen. O diagnóstico foi baseado em dados epidemiológicos e na reprodução experimental com as partes aéreas superiores (20 e 30g/kg de B. triplinervium em três bovinos. A análise química de material seco de B. triplinervium, colhido no local do surto, foi negativa para tricotecenos macrocíclicos.An outbreak of poisoning by Baccharidastrum triplinervium in cattle from Paraná, Brazil, is described. The disease occurred during a severe drought in early summer. The onset of clinical signs was two days after 50 cows and 8 heifers had been introduced into a pasture with high density of B. triplinervium that showed signs of having been consumed by the animals. Fifteen animals (9 cows and 6 heifers got sick. Of these 15, two cows and four heifers died after a clinical course of 12-60 hours. Clinical signs included depression, ruminal atony, moderate bloat, marked dehydration, mild diarrhea and anorexia. The animals were restless, laying down and getting up constantly, remaining progressively longer periods in sternal recumbency. Once in that position, the animals had an extended head or the head turned to one of the sides of the body, and were groaning. Additionally, the cows had an abrupt fall in milk yield. The remaining affected cattle presented milder clinical signs and were partially back to their feed on the day following the onset of the clinical signs. The milk production was back to normal values within one week. The main gross lesions observed in two necropsied cows were in the forestomachs and abomasum, consisting of edema of the ruminal wall, as well as of diffuse reddening of the mucosae of the rumen, reticulum, abomasum and of some of the omasal folds. The main histological lesions included multifocal ballooning degeneration and necrosis of the lining epithelium of the rumen, associated with neutrophilic infiltrate. The diagnosis was based on the epidemiological data and on the experimental reproduction of the disease by force-feeding 3 bovine with the aeral fresh parts (20 and 30g/kg of B. triplinervium. Chemical analysis of dried material from B. triplinervium harvested at the site of the outbreak was negative for macrocyclic trichothecenes.

  18. Palynotaxonomy of Brazilian Viguiera (Asteraceae Species Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Viguiera (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

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    Mara Angelina Galvão Magenta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving inter-specific delimitation of the genus Viguiera Kunth in Brazil, a palynological analysis was undertaken with 27 taxa, representing around 77% of all occurring species. Samples were obtained from herbarium specimens and the pollen grains were analyzed through light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics, including the shape of the pollen grains, polar and equatorial diameter, aperture measurements, surface ornamentation and exine thickness, were registered and compared. The pollen grains were medium-sized (25 - 50 mm, isopolar and oblate spheroidal (prolate spheroidal in V. aspilioides Baker. The observed values corroborated the synonymity of some species and also highlighted certain micro-morphological differences, such as polar diameter and the dimensions of the colpus and endoaperture, thus confirming the groups of species delimitation obtained by morphologic and phylogenetic analyses.Com a finalidade de obter subsídios para a delimitação interespecífica do gênero Viguiera Kunth no Brasil, foi efetuado um estudo palinológico com 27 táxons, representando cerca de 77% das espécies ocorrentes. As amostras foram obtidas de material herborizado e o grão de pólen foi analisado sob microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram caracterizados quanto à forma, às dimensões e tipo da abertura, à ornamentação da superfície e à espessura da exina. Os grãos de pólen são médios (25 - 50mm, isopolares, oblato-esferoidais (prolato-esferoidais em V. aspilioides Baker, tricolporados, endoabertura lalongada, sexina espinhosa. Os valores obtidos corroboraram a sinonimização de algumas espécies e diferenças micro-morfológicas, tais como os valores do diâmetro polar, as dimensões do colpo e da endoabertura confirmaram algumas delimitações de grupos de espécies obtidas em análises filogenéticas de morfologia.

  19. Biodiversidad de la flora del flanco oriental del Cordón del Plata (Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina. Catálogo florístico Biodiversity of the flora of the eastern slope of the Cordón del Plata (Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Méndez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La biodiversidad de la flora de la vertiente oriental del Cordón del Plata, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina se analizó a lo largo de un gradiente altitudinal, entre los 1200 y 4500 m s.n.m. Para ello se utilizó la lista florística de las especies de 89 comunidades vegetales distribuidas en 14 unidades de vegetación, 5 pisos de vegetación y 3 unidades fitogeográficas. Para cada especie se consideró su distribución en los grupos de comunidades vegetales, ubicación fitogeográfica, formas de vida, origen y registro de colección. La flora examinada contiene 667 especies vegetales que se corresponden con 338 géneros y 82 familias. Las familias están representadas por 8 Pteridophyta, 1 Gymnospermae y 73 Angiospermae, con 12 Monocotyledoneae y 61 Dicotyledoneae. Las familias mejor representadas son Asteraceae y Poaceae que tienen en conjunto 110 géneros y 249 especies. Los géneros Senecio, Baccharis y Adesmia son los más ricos en especies. Aproximadamente el 20 % de las especies son endémicas de Argentina. La flora del área se la compara con la del país, la provincia y la de otras áreas.Floristic catalogue. The floristic biodiversity of the eastern slope of the Cordón del Plata, Luján de Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina, was studied along an altitudinal gradient, between 1200 and 4500 m a.s.l. For this we used a floristic list of 89 plant communities, distributed in 14 vegetation types, 5 vegetation belts and 3 phytogeographic units. For each of the species, its distribution in the groups of plant communities, phytogeographic position, life form, biogeographical origin, and registration of each collection was considered. The studied flora has 667 species, corresponding to 338 genera and 82 families. There are 8 Pteridophyta, 1 Gymnospermae, and 73 Angiospermae, of which 12 are Monocotyledons and 61 Dicotyledons. The most represented families are Asteraceae and Poaceae, which in total have 110 genera and 249 species. The most species

  20. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIZABETE S. SEKINE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out a survey of the flora with potential for beekeeping in the counties of Ubiratã and Nova Aurora-PR through the collection of plants and pollen analyses in honey samples collected monthly. 208 species of plants were recorded, distributed in 66 families. The families that showed the major richness of pollen types were: Asteraceae, Myrtaceae and Solanaceae. Approximately 80 pollen types were found in honey samples, most of them were characterized as heterofloral. Cultivated plants, such as Glycine max (soybean and Eucalyptus spp., were representative in some months of the year. Exotic species, such as Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach, were also frequent. However, over than 50% of the pollen types belong to native species of the region, such as Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp. Alchornea triplinervia, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp. and Serjania spp., indicating the importance of the native vegetation for the survival of the colonies.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um levantamento da flora com potencial apícola nos municípios de Ubiratã e Nova Aurora-PR, por meio da coleta de plantas e análises polínicas em amostras de mel coletadas mensalmente. Foram registradas 208 espécies de plantas, distribuídas em 66 famílias. As famílias que apresentaram maior riqueza de tipos polínicos foram Asteraceae, Myrtaceae e Solanaceae. Aproximadamente 80 tipos polínicos foram encontrados nas amostras de mel e, na maioria, foram caracterizados como heteroflorais. Plantas cultivadas, como Glycine max (soja e Eucalyptus spp. foram representativas em alguns meses do ano. Espécies exóticas, tais como Ricinus communis and Melia azedarach também foram frequentes. No entanto, mais de 50% dos tipos polínicos pertencem a espécies nativas da região, tais como Schinus terebinthifolius, Baccharis spp., Alchornea triplinervea, Parapiptadenia rigida, Hexaclamys edulis, Zanthoxylum sp

  1. Gall inducing arthropods from a seasonally dry tropical forest in Serra do Cipó, Brazil Artrópodes indutores de galhas em Floresta Sazonal Tropical Seca da Serra do Cipó, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Serra Coelho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly diverse forms of galling arthropods can be identified in much of southeastern Brazil's vegetation. Three fragments of a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (SDTF located in the southern range of the Espinhaço Mountains were selected for study in the first survey of galling organisms in such tropical vegetation. Investigators found 92 distinct gall morphotypes on several organs of 51 host plant species of 19 families. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the most prolific gall-inducing species, responsible for the largest proportion of galls (77% observed. Leaves were the most frequently galled plant organ (63%, while the most common gall morphotype was of a spherical shape (30%. The two plant species, Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae and Celtis brasiliensis (Cannabaceae, presented the highest number of gall morphtypes, displaying an average of 5 gall morphotypes each. This is the first study of gall-inducing arthropods and their host plant species ever undertaken in a Brazilian SDTF ecosystem. Given the intense human pressure on SDTFs, the high richness of galling arthropods, and implied floral host diversity found in this study indicates the need for an increased effort to catalogue the corresponding flora and fauna, observe their intricate associations and further understand the implications of such rich diversity in these stressed and vulnerable ecosystems.Artrópodes indutores de galhas são muito ricos em espécies nas formações vegetais no sudeste do Brasil. Três fragmentos de Floresta Sazonal Tropical Seca (FSTS foram selecionados nas montanhas do sudeste da cadeia do Espinhaço para a primeira pesquisa de organismos indutores de galhas nesse tipo de vegetação. Encontramos 92 morfotipos distintos de galhas em vários órgãos de 51 espécies de plantas hospedeiras pertencentes à 19 famílias. A maioria das galhas (77% foi induzida pela família Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. A folha foi o órgão mais atacado (63%, enquanto o morfotipo mais

  2. Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.3206 Medicinal plants used by Ponta Porã community, Mato Grosso do Sul State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i3.3206

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    Andréia Sangalli

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The academic interest regarding the knowledge that people in general have about plants and their uses has increased significantly. Therefore, aiming to understand it better, this present work studied parts of the plant used by residents from Jardim Aeroporto, in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul State, to prepare and use these medicinal plants. This city shares borders with Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguay, a place where many people use these herbs. The residents use different kinds of plants which are planted around their houses. The leaf was the most used part to prepare the medicines. The plants used by this community belong to 17 families, 28 genera and 30 species, and the women from 30-40 age group with junior high school degree who know the plants, their usage and the preparation of the medicines. These women are responsible to cultivate the plants in the backyards and around their houses. The botanical families which presented higher number of species were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Leguminosae. Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., Mentha piperita L. and Aloe vera (L. Burm. f. were the most used plants by the interviewees, which were prepared in form of tea or plasters.The academic interest regarding the knowledge that people in general have about plants and their uses has increased significantly. Therefore, aiming to understand it better, this present work studied parts of the plant used by residents from Jardim Aeroporto, in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul State, to prepare and use these medicinal plants. This city shares borders with Pedro Juan Caballero (Paraguay, a place where many people use these herbs. The residents use different kinds of plants which are planted around their houses. The leaf was the most used part to prepare the medicines. The plants used by this community belong to 17 families, 28 genera and 30 species, and the women from 30-40 age group with junior high school degree who know the plants, their usage and the preparation of

  3. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Construction of a Base Civil Engineer Complex at Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-26

    plant ( Grindelia camporum), Italian thistle (Carduus tenuiflorus) and various other weed species; however, no California tiger salamanders were...Taeniatherum caputmedusae), coyote baccharis (Baccharis pilularis), valley gum plant ( Grindelia camporum), Italian thistle (Carduus tenuiflorus) and

  4. Atividade bacteriostática e bactericida do decocto de Baccharis trimera (Less.) D.C., Compositae, carqueja, como desinfetante ou anti-séptico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C.A.M. Avancini; J.M. Wiest; E. Mundstock

    2000-01-01

    ...-se a concentração inibitória mínima e a concentração bactericida mínima do decocto frente a várias diluições de inóculos. Os resultados sugerem a possibilidade de se utilizar o decocto de B...

  5. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY KINETICS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS EXTRACTS AGAINST CINÉTICA DA ATIVIDADE ANTIBACTERIANA IN VITRO DE EXTRATOS NATURAIS FRENTE A MICRORGANISMOS RELACIONADOS À MASTITE BOVINA

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    Letícia De Toni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is to test antimicrobials activities by medicinal plants extracts against more important contagious bovine mastitis pathogens. Disinfectants solutions was made from Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteracea, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteracea plants by hidroalcoholic extraction (EHA or decoction (DEC. S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and P. aeruginosa were used. To test for in vitro efficacy, each solution disinfectant was mixed with bacterial suspension containing 105 CFU.mL-1, by 30 seconds, two, 10 ant 30 minutes, with and without 20% of integral milk. Viable bacteria were evaluated by directed plating of neutralized aliquots. The worked included chlorhexidine 0,18% by control and it was executed in duplicate. EHA Eucalytpus spp and EHA T. minuta were as effective as control chlorhexidine against S. aureus. This solutions plus EHA B. trimera, were as effective as control against S. agalactiae. DEC Eucalyptus and DEC B. trimera also inactivated S. agalactiae in more prolongated time. Chlorhexidine was the best against P. multocida in milk absence, although the EHA were effective at ten or thirty minutes. All solutions, inclusive control, it was sensibility to organic load. The observations from the in vitro studies presented here need to be substantiated by in vivo studies by to confirm the potentiality use of plants medicinal extracts as disinfectants/antisepsis in livestock health. O presente trabalho busca avaliar a cinética da atividade antimicrobiana de extratos de plantas medicinais frente a bactérias relacionadas com mastite bovina. Para tal, foram produzidas soluções desinfetantes a partir de folhas e talos de Baccharis trimera (Less D.C., Compositae (Asteraceae, Eucalyptus spp Labill., Myrtaceae e Tagetes minuta (Linn., Compositae (Asteraceae, através de extração hidroalcoólica (EHA e decocto (DEC. Os microrganismos utilizados foram S. aureus, S

  6. Senecio rosmarinus y S. spegazzinii: Sinónimos de S. volckmannii (Asteraceae, Senecioneae Senecio rosmarinus and S. spegazzinii synonyms of S. volckmannii (Asteraceae, Senecioneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto D. Tortosa

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se incluyen a Senecio rosmarinus Phil. y a S. spegazzinii Cabrera en la sinonimia de S. volckmannii Phil.(sección Suffrutecius Cabrera subsección Candidi Cabrera, especie con capítulos discoides, normalmente solitarios en los extremos de los tallos, con involucro anchamente acampanado y con 15-24 filarios. El indumento de la planta, la forma de las hojas y la pubescencia de los aquenios son caracteres variables dentro de la especie.Senecio rosmarinus Phil. and S. spegazzinii Cabrera are included as synonyms of S. volckmannii Phil. (section Suffrutecius Cabrera subsection Candidi Cabrera, species with discoid heads generally solitary at the end of stems, involucre broadly campanulate, with 15-24 phyllaries. The hair covering of plants, the shape of leaves and the pubescence of achenes are variable within this species.

  7. In vitro activity of Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae extracts against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus Atividade in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua L (Asteraceae sobre Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of plant extracts on parasites may indicate groups of substances that are potentially useful for controlling Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro action of Artemisia annua extracts on this tick. The concentrations of the sesquiterpene lactones artemisinin and deoxyartemisinin present in plant extracts were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography. Four extracts produced from the concentrated crude extract (CCE were evaluated on larvae using the impregnated paper method, with readings after 24 hours of incubation. The engorged females were immersed in the CCE and in its four derived extracts for five minutes, with incubation for subsequent analysis of biological parameters. The extracts were not effective on the larvae at the concentrations tested (3.1 to 50 mg.mL-1. The CCE showed greater efficacy on engorged females (EC50 of 130.6 mg.mL-1 and EC90 of 302.9 mg.mL-1 than did the derived extracts. These results tend to confirm that the action of artemisinin on engorged females of R.(B. microplus is conditional to their blood intake. In this case, in vitro methods would be inadequate for effective evaluation of the action of A. annua on R. (B. microplus.A atividade de extratos vegetais sobre parasitas pode indicar grupos de substâncias de uso potencial no controle de Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar a ação in vitro de extratos de Artemisia annua sobre esta espécie. A concentração das lactonas sesquiterpênicas artemisinina e deoxiartemisinina presentes nos extratos vegetais, foi quantificada via cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Quatro extratos produzidos a partir do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC foram avaliados sobre larvas pela metodologia do papel impregnado, com leitura após 24 horas de incubação. As fêmeas ingurgitadas foram imersas por cinco minutos no EBC e nos seus quatro extratos derivados, e incubadas para posterior análise dos parâmetros biológicos. Os extratos não tiveram eficácia sobre as larvas nas concentrações avaliadas (de 3,1 a 50 mg.mL-1. O EBC apresentou melhor eficácia sobre as fêmeas ingurgitadas (CE 50 de 130,6 mg.mL-1 e CE 90 de 302,9 mg.mL-1 que os extratos derivados. Esses resultados tendem a confirmar que a ação da artemisinina sobre as fêmeas ingurgitadas de R. (B. microplus estaria condicionada à sua ingestão através do sangue. Nesse caso, os métodos in vitro seriam inadequados para a efetiva avaliação da ação de A. annua R.(B. microplus.

  8. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata, tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens, marigold (Tagetes patula, Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana was studied in vitro and in vivo on Meloidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts were applied as irrigation on the soil.

  9. Youngia japonica (Asteraceae, Lactuceae), una novedad para la Flora adventicia de Argentina Youngia japonica (Asteraceae, Lactuceae), a novelty for the adventitious Flora of Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Se menciona por primera vez para Argentina la presencia de Youngia japonica, una maleza nativa del Sudeste de Asia. Fue observada como ruderal e invasora de jardines en las provincias de Tucumán y Entre Ríos. Se estima que la llegada de la especie al país es reciente. Se presenta una descripción e ilustraciones de la planta.The presence of Youngia japonica, a weed native of Southeastern Asia, is reported for the first time in Argentina. It was observed as ruderal and invading gardens in Tucum...

  10. Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae): perspectives for a phytotherapeutic product Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae): perspectivas para um produto fitoterápico

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo,Evani de L.; Karina P. Randau; José G. Sena-Filho; Rejane M. Mendonça Pimentel; Haroudo S. Xavier

    2008-01-01

    The "Espinho-de-cigano" plant (Acanthospermum hispidum DC) is used throughout northeastern (NE) Brazil as a folk medicine for asthma. Although little is actually known about the effectiveness and safety of this plant extract product, it is possible to find numerous medicines prepared from it in public health services or in stores selling natural products. This study aimed to undertake a literature review relative to Acanthospermum hispidum covering the period between 1926-2006 within the area...

  11. Biosystematic and chemosystematic studies in five South American species of Conyza (Asteraceae Estudios biosistemáticos en cinco especies sudamericanas de Conyza (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Urdampilleta

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the essentials oils of five species of Conyza Less from Argentina was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer. This composition is associated to morphological and cytogenetic characters. The monoterpenes constitute more than 60% of the essential oils in C. blakei, C glandulitecta, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, in which limonene is the predominant compound. In C. bonariensis and C. primulaefolia the monoterpene content constitute less than the 40%. C. bonariensis presents only 13% limonene, while in C. primulaefolia it is absent. The similarity analysis of monoterpenes showed a relationship between the morphological and cytogenetic analysis, and the monoterpene content character seems to be important in biosystematic studies of the group studied. In general, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis is the species with more ancestral characters, while C. bonariensis and C. primulaefolia show more derived ones.Fueron determinados mediante Cromatografía Gaseosa - Espectrómetro de Masa los componentes de los aceites esenciales de seis especies de Conyza Less. de Argentina. Esta composición es asociada a caracteres morfológicos y citogenéticos. Los monoterpenos constituyen mas de 60% de aceites esenciales en C. blakei, C glandulitecta, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis, C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, en las cuales limoneno es el componente predominante. En C. bonariensis y C. primulaefolia el contenido de monoterpenos constituye menos de 40%. C. bonariensis presenta solo 13% limoneno, mientras que en C. primulaefolia este compuesto esta ausente. El análisis de similitud utilizando monoterpenos muestra relación con el análisis dado por caracteres morfológicos y citogenéticos, por lo que el carácter contenido de monoterpeno resulta importante en estudios biosistemáticos en el grupo estudiado. En general, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis es la especie que presenta un mayor numero de caracteres ancestrales, mientras que C. bonariensis y C. primulaefolia revelarían caracteres derivados.

  12. Visitantes florales nocturnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Nocturnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Torretta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus es un cultivo oleaginoso, polinizado por Apis mellifera L. y otras abejas en distintas regiones del mundo. Sin embargo, sus flores también son visitadas por insectos de actividad nocturna. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinó la diversidad de los visitantes nocturnos de capítulos de girasol, en cinco sitios de Argentina. También se estudió el comportamiento de forrajeo de los principales visitantes y la variación de la receptividad estigmática a lo largo del día, con el fin de establecer si estos visitantes contribuyen a la polinización. Al menos 67 especies o morfoespecies pertenecientes a cuatro órdenes de visitantes nocturnos fueron colectadas. El orden más rico y abundante fue Lepidoptera (44 especies o morfoespecies, cinco familias, seguido por Coleoptera (18 especies o morfoespecies, nueve familias, Orthoptera (tres morfoespecies, una familia y Blattaria (dos especies, una familia. Los lepidópteros forrajearon exclusivamente por néctar, mientras que los individuos de los demás órdenes consumieron polen y/o partes florales. El estigma se encontró receptivo durante las horas de luz, con una receptividad máxima al mediodía (12:00 - 14:00. Llamativamente, las flores del girasol son visitadas por mayor número de polillas que de abejas. Debido a que las polillas consumen néctar y potencialmente transportan polen entre flores, en un momento del día en que los estigmas se encuentran menos receptivos, es improbable que polinicen efectivamente el cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus is an oilseed crop pollinated by Apis mellifera L. and other diurnal bees in different regions of the world. However, their flowers are also visited by insects active at night. During three agricultural years, the diversity of nocturnal visitors to sunflower heads was assessed in five different sites in Argentina. The foraging behavior of the main visitors as well as the stigmatic receptivity variations along the day were also studied in order to determine whether or not these visitors contribute to pollination. At least 67 species or morpho-species belonging to four nocturnal visitor orders were recorded. The richest and most abundant order was Lepidoptera (44 species or morpho-species, five families, followed by Coleoptera (18 species or morpho-species, nine families, Orthoptera (three morpho-species, one family and Blattaria (two species, one family. Lepidopterans foraged exclusively for nectar while species in other orders consumed pollen and/or floral parts. However, stigma receptivity was greater during the day, peaking at midday (12:00 - 14:00. Unexpectedly, moth species widely outnumbered bee species as sunflower visitors. Since moths potentially transfer pollen at a time of the day when stigmas are least receptive, it is unlikely that they do effectively pollinate sunflowers.

  13. Visitantes florales diurnos del girasol (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae en la Argentina Diurnal floral visitors of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, Asterales: Asteraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Torretta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El girasol (Helianthus annuus L. es un importante cultivo oleaginoso en la Argentina. Durante tres campañas agrícolas, se determinaron la diversidad y la abundancia del elenco de los visitantes florales diurnos de capítulos de girasol, en ocho sitios que cubren gran parte del área cultivada en Argentina. Setenta y seis morfo-especies de visitantes florales, pertenecientes a ocho órdenes, fueron capturados sobre capítulos de este cultivo. El principal orden fue Hymenoptera, con 37 especies o morfoespecies, de las cuales 32 fueron abejas (Apoidea. Las familias de abejas más representadas fueron Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 y Halictidae (7. La abeja doméstica (Apis mellifera L. realizó el 93% de las visitas. La composición del elenco de visitantes no mostró un patrón de variación identificable a lo largo del día, ni con respecto a la distancia al borde del cultivo, pero varió entre sitios de muestreo. Se concluye que la abeja doméstica es el principal polinizador del girasol en la Argentina, aunque varias especies nativas de abejas (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, y Megachile spp. podrían ser consideradas como potenciales polinizadores del cultivo.Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. is an important oilseed crop in Argentina. During three agricultural years, the diversity and abundance of diurnal floral visitors of sunflower heads were determined in eight sites spanning much of this crop's cultivation area in Argentina. Seventysix morpho-species of floral visitors, belonging to eight orders, were captured on sunflower. The principal order was Hymenoptera, with 37 species or morpho-species, of which 32 were bees (Apoidea. The most represented bee families were Apidae (13, Megachilidae (11 and Halictidae (7. The domestic bee (Apis mellifera L. accounted for 93% of the visits. Floral visitor composition did not show an identifiable variation pattern either throughout the day or with respect to the distance to the edge of the crop, but varied among sites. It is concluded that the domestic bee is the main sunflower pollinator in Argentina, although several native bee species (Melissodes tintinnans (Holmberg, M. rufithorax Brèthes, Melissoptila tandilensis Holmberg, and Megachile spp. could be considered as potential crop pollinators.

  14. Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae: perspectives for a phytotherapeutic product Acanthospermum hispidum DC (Asteraceae: perspectivas para um produto fitoterápico

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    Evani de L. Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The "Espinho-de-cigano" plant (Acanthospermum hispidum DC is used throughout northeastern (NE Brazil as a folk medicine for asthma. Although little is actually known about the effectiveness and safety of this plant extract product, it is possible to find numerous medicines prepared from it in public health services or in stores selling natural products. This study aimed to undertake a literature review relative to Acanthospermum hispidum covering the period between 1926-2006 within the areas of ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology. The objective was to contribute to a better knowledge of this species and its uses, as well as to aid in improving its performance as a natural medicine. The species is easily identifiable and grows abundantly during the rainy seasons in NE Brazil; is amenable to cultivation without lose of its phytochemical profile, and toxicological studies have showed its safety as a medicine (although more studies will be required in that direction. As such, the compilation of the accumulated knowledge concerning this species will aid in evaluating its pharmacological value, guaranteeing quality control of the final product, and in preparing recommendations for usages and dosages that offer both safety and efficiency to the user.A planta "Espinho-de-cigano" (Acanthospermum hispidum DC é amplamente usada no nordeste do Brasil como medicamento popular para a asma. Embora muito pouco seja conhecido atualmente sobre a eficácia e segurança deste extrato vegetal, é possível encontrar numerosos medicamentos preparados com ele nos serviços públicos ou em lojas que vendem produtos naturais. Este estudo visa proceder a uma revisão de literatura relativa à A. hispidum, no período entre 1926-2006, nas áreas de etnobotânica, fitoquímica e farmacologia. O objetivo foi contribuir para um melhor conhecimento desta espécie e seus usos, assim como auxiliar na melhora de seu desempenho como um medicamento natural. A espécie é facilmente identificável e cresce abundantemente durante a estação chuvosa no nordeste do Brasil; é possível cultivá-la sem perda de seu perfil fitoquímico e os estudos toxicológicos têm mostrado sua segurança como um medicamento (embora mais estudos sejam requeridos nestes aspectos. Assim sendo, a compilação do conhecimento acumulado relativo a esta espécie auxiliará na avaliação de seu valor farmacológico, garantindo o controle de qualidade do produto final, e no preparo das recomendações para usos e dosagens que ofereçam segurança e eficiência ao usuário.

  15. Biogeografia do gênero Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Biogeography of the genus Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Mara Rejane Ritter

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A distribuição geográfica das 39 espécies nativas de Mikania Willd. no Rio Grande do Sul foi estudada em duas escalas: uma escala regional, utilizando regiões fisiográficas como unidades, e uma escala continental, considerando regiões político-geográficas como unidades. A riqueza específica e a amplitude de distribuiçãoforam obtidas diretamente de matrizes de presença e ausência, relacionando espécies e regiões. A matriz regional foi analisada por dois métodos multivariados, uma análise de agrupamentos e uma análise de coordenadas principais, utilizando o complemento do coeficiente de Jaccard como elemento de comparação (dissimilaridade. Na escala regional as regiões mais ricas foram o Litoral e a Depressão Central, enquanto na escala continental, a maioria das espécies sul-rio-grandenses foram também encontradas no Sudeste do Brasil e no Sul da América do Sul. A análise multivariada evidenciou dois grupos principais no Estado, um oriental e outro ocidental. Em cada um desses grupos foram evidenciados dois subgrupos relacionados a características climáticas e geológicas do Estado.Os padrões de distribuição de Mikania confirmam o caráter tropical do gênero e as principais rotas de migração descritas para a flora do Sul do Brasil.The geographical distribution of the 39 species of Mikania Willd. native in Rio Grande do Sul was studied at two scales: a state-regional scale, using physiographic regions as units, and an american-continental scale, considering politic-geographic regions as units. Specific richness and distribution amplitude were obtained directly from presence and absence matrixes, relating species and regions. The state-regional matrix was also analysed by two multivariate methods, a cluster analysis and a principal coordinate analysis, using the complement of the Jaccard coefficient as a measure of dissimilarity. At the state-regional scale, the richest regions were the Coastal Plain and the Central Depression, whereas at the american-continental scale, most of the South Riograndean species were also found in Southeastern Brazil and Southern South America. The multivariate analysis evidenced two main groups in Rio Grande do Sul, one eastern and another western. Within each of these groups, two subgroups related to climatic and geological features were evidenced. The distribution patterns of Mikania confirm the tropical character of the genus, and the main migration routes described for the southern Brazilian vascular flora.

  16. Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae em eqüinos Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis (Asteraceae in horses

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    Célso Pilati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available As partes aéreas dessecadas de Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. colhidas em estágio de brotação foram administradas a 14 eqüinos de raça mista, com idades de 4-22 anos e pesos de 230-475 kg. Um eqüino de 15 anos, que não recebeu a planta, serviu de controle. Pequenas quantidades da planta eram misturadas à ração oferecida aos eqüinos; quantidades maiores eram moídas, misturadas em água e administradas por sonda nasogástrica. Biópsias hepáticas foram periodicamente realizadas em 11 eqüinos. Nove eqüinos morreram com sinais ou lesões da intoxicação após receberem quantidades da planta correspondente a 0,87%, 1,5% (administrações únicas, 1,74% (duas administrações semanais, 3.0% (três administrações diárias, 7.42% (17 administrações semanais, 8.9% (284 administrações diárias, 9.66% (82 administrações diárias e 9,30% (43 administrações semanais de seus pesos corporais. Dois eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 15,0% (30 e 60 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais morreram durante o experimento por causas não relacionadas à intoxicação. Três eqüinos que receberam quantidades da planta correspondentes a 0,5% e 1.0% (administrações únicas, 15.0% (240 administrações diárias de seus pesos corporais e o eqüino controle sobreviveram sem apresentar sinais clínicos. A doença clínica induzida pela planta teve uma evolução de 1-30 dias e foi caracterizada por anorexia, icterícia, e sinais neurológicos de encefalopatia hepática. Perda de peso foi observada nos casos de evolução clínica mais longa. Os achados de necropsia incluíam acentuação do padrão lobular na superfície natural e de corte dos fígados ou eram firmes e vermelho-escuros. Hemorragias disseminadas eram freqüentes, mas mais conspícuas no tecido subcutâneo, superfícies serosa e mucosa do trato gastrintestinal. Edema era observado na submucosa do trato gastrintestinal e nas cavidades orgânicas. Microscopicamente, o fígado dos eqüinos que ingeriram quantidades maiores da planta por períodos relativamente curtos mostrava necrose coagulativa e hemorragia com cuja distribuição variava de centrolobular a massiva. Hepatomegalocitose moderada ou acentuada e fibrose discreta a moderada foi observada em 4 eqüinos que ingeriram pequenas quantidades da planta por períodos mais prolongados. Colestase e hemossiderose foram observadas no fígado de 8 eqüinos, agregados de neutrófilos no de 6, e pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranucleares ocorreram nos hepatócitos do fígado de 3 eqüinos. Alterações sugestivas de encefalopatia hepática foram observadas no encéfalo de 6 eqüinos. A lesão mais precoce observada nas biópsias hepáticas foi vacuolização dos núcleos de hepatócitos seguida por perda de hepatócitos por apoptose, hepatomegalocitose, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose centrolobular. Ocasionalmente, observavam-se pseudo-inclusões acidofílicas intranu-cleares nos hepatócitos e, em casos mais crônicos, leve fibrose. Não foram observadas alterações nas biópsias hepáticas dos 4 eqüinos que receberam a planta e que sobreviveram, nem nas biópsias hepáticas dos 2 eqüinos que morreram de causas não relacionas à intoxicação. O eqüino controle não apresentou sinais clínicos.Fourteen 4 to 22-year-old mixed breed horses weighing 230-475 kg were experimentally fed the dried aerial parts of Senecio brasiliensis (Spreng. collected in its sprouting stage. A 15-year-old horse served as non-plant-fed control. Small amounts of the dried plant material were admixed in the ration given to the horses; larger amounts were grounded, admixed with water and force fed through nasogastric intubation. Liver biopsies were periodically performed in 11 horses. Nine horses died with signs or lesions of the poisoning after having received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.87%, 1.5% (single administrations, 1.74% (two weekly administrations, 3.0% (three daily administrations, 7.42% (17 weekly administrations, 8.9% (284 daily administrations, 9.66% (82 daily administrations and 9.30% (43 weekly administrations of their body weight. Two horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 15.0% (30 and 60 daily administrations of their body weight died during the experiments due to unrelated causes. Three horses which received amounts of the plant corresponding to 0.5% and 1.0% (single administrations, and 15.0% (240 daily administrations of their body weight, and the control horse survived without any clinical signs. The disease induced by the plant had a clinical course of 1-30 days and was characterized by anorexia, jaundice and neurological signs of hepatic encephalopathy. Weight loss was observed in the more protracted cases. Necropsy findings included marked enhancement of the lobular pattern of the livers or those were firm and dark-red. Hemorrhages were frequent and more conspicuous on the subcutis, serosal surfaces and in the gastrointestinal mucosa. Edema occurred in the submucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and in body cavities. Histologically, the livers of horses that ingested relatively larger amounts of the plant for short periods of time had zonal coagulative necrosis and centrilobular to massive hemorrhages. Moderate to marked hepatomegalocytosis and mild to moderate fibrosis were seen in 4 horses which ingested small amounts of the plant for longer periods. Cholestasis and hemosiderosis were observed in the liver of 8 horses, neutrophilic aggregates in 6 and acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies in hepatocytes of 3 horses. Changes suggestive of hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the brain of 6 horses. The earliest detected change in the liver biopsies was vacuolization of hepatocyte nuclei followed by apoptotic loss of hepatocytes, hepatomegalocytosis, infiltration of neutrophils and centrolobular necrosis. Occasionally hepatocellular acidophilic intranuclear pseudo-inclusion bodies and, in more protracted cases, slight fibrosis were seen. No changes were observed in the liver biopsies of the 3 plant-fed horses that survived, nor on the 2 horses that died of unrelated causes. The control horse had no clinical signs.

  17. Dicty_cDB: SHC181 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e sequence. 44 2.1 1 AC152894 |AC152894.3 Saimiri boliviensis boliviensis clone CH254-450C11, complete sequence. 42 5.9 2 AL713919... |AL713919.11 Mouse DNA sequence from clone RP23-41F14 on c

  18. Brazilian Red Propolis—Chemical Composition and Botanical Origin

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    Andreas Daugsch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea, but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L Taub. (Leguminosae to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity.

  19. Seasonal Activity and Foraging Preferences of the Leaf-Cutting Ant Atta sexdens piriventris (Santschi) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesel, A; Boff, M I C; Boff, P

    2013-12-01

    Leaf-cutting ants are known for their habit of foraging. These habits can be influenced by several factors, including variations in topography, soil, and climate among others. The objective of this research was to study the seasonal activity and foraging preferences of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens piriventris (Santschi). The study was carried out from January to October of 2007 in grasslands of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Nests of A. sexdens piriventris were randomly selected and the forager's activities were recorded. Damaged plant species, soil fertility, and climatic conditions were recorded. The maximum foraging activity in the summer was recorded during periods of darkness or low light (between 7 p.m. and 5 a.m.). In autumn and spring, foraging was the highest in the morning, but during winter time the foraging activity was high in the afternoon. Fourteen plant species were frequently visited during our study with the lowest foraging activity being recorded at very low (1 to 4°C) or very high temperatures (above 26°C). The number of exploited plant species was higher in winter (13) than in summer (9). Baccharis trimera (Asteraceae) (43%) and Paspalum spp. (Poaceae) (33%) were the most exploited plants among the identified species.

  20. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed. PMID:15841282

  1. Extracts from plants used in Mexican traditional medicine activate Ca(2+)-dependent chloride channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Moreno, J; Arellano, R O

    2003-01-01

    The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effects of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from five medicinal plants on Xenopus laevis oocytes. When evaluated at concentrations of 1 to 500 microg/ml, the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Baccharis heterophylla H.B.K (Asteraceae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae) and Solanum rostratum Dun (Solanaceae) produced concentration-dependent oscillatory inward currents in the oocytes, while the extract of Gentiana spathacea did not induce any response. The reversal potential of the currents elicited by the active extracts was -17 +/- 2 mV and was similar to the chloride equilibrium potential in oocytes. These ionic responses were independent of extracellular calcium. However, they were eliminated by overnight incubation with BAPTA-AM (10 microM), suggesting that the currents were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ increase. Thus the plant extracts activate the typical oscillatory Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- currents generated in the Xenopus oocyte membrane more probably via a mechanism that involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular reservoirs. These observations suggest that Xenopus oocyte electrophysiological recording constitutes a suitable assay for the study of the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines.

  2. Macrocyclic trichothecenes as antifungal and anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Maira Peres; Weich, Herbert; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by fungi and species of the plant genus Baccharis, family Asteraceae. They comprise a tricyclic core with an epoxide at C-12 and C-13 and can be grouped into non-macrocyclic and macrocyclic compounds. While many of these compounds are of concern in agriculture, the macrocyclic metabolites have been evaluated as antiviral, anti-cancer, antimalarial and antifungal compounds. Some known cytotoxic responses on eukaryotic cells include inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA syntheses, interference with mitochondrial function, effects on cell division and membranes. These targets however have been elucidated essentially employing non-macrocyclic trichothecenes and only one or two closely related macrocyclic compounds. For several macrocyclic trichothecenes high selectivity against fungal species and against cancer cell lines have been reported suggesting that the macrocycle and its stereochemistry are of crucial importance regarding biological activity and selectivity. This review is focused on compounds belonging to the macrocyclic type, where a cyclic diester or triester ring binds to the trichothecane moiety at C-4 and C- 15 leading to natural products belonging to the groups of satratoxins, verrucarins, roridins, myrotoxins and baccharinoids. Their biological activities, cytotoxic mechanisms and structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed. From the reported data it becomes evident that even small changes in the molecules can lead to pronounced effects on biological activity or selectivity against cancer cells lines. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may help to design highly specific drugs for cancer therapy.

  3. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

  4. Brazilian red propolis--chemical composition and botanical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugsch, Andreas; Moraes, Cleber S; Fort, Patricia; Park, Yong K

    2008-12-01

    Propolis contains resinous substances collected by honey bees from various plant sources and has been used as a traditional folk medicine since ca 300 BC. Nowadays, the use of evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing rapidly and so is the use of propolis in order to treat or support the treatment of various diseases. Much attention has been focused on propolis from Populus sp. (Salicaceae) and Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteracea), but scientific information about the numerous other types of propolis is still sparse. We gathered six samples of red propolis in five states of Northeastern Brazil. The beehives were located near woody perennial shrubs along the sea and river shores. The bees were observed to collect red resinous exudates on Dalbergia ecastophyllum (L) Taub. (Leguminosae) to make propolis. The flavonoids of propolis and red resinous exudates were investigated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography. We conclude that the botanical origin of the reddish propolis is D. ecastophyllum. In areas where this source (D. ecastophyllum) was scarce or missing, bees were collecting resinous material from other plants. Propolis, which contained the chemical constituents from the main botanical origin, showed higher antimicrobial activity.

  5. Cytotype distribution at a diploid–hexaploid contact zone in Aster amellus (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S.; Loureiro, J.; Procházka, T.; Münzbergová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The present study aims to assess the diversity and distribution of cytotypes of Aster amellus in central and eastern Europe, contributing with data to improve understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the contact zone between diploids and hexaploids of this polyploid complex. Methods Large-scale cytotype screening of 4720 individuals collected in 229 populations was performed using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) flow cytometry. Fine-scale cytotype screening was performed in the mixed-ploidy population. Reproductive variables, such as number of florets per flower head, seed set and seedling emergence, as well as ploidy level of seeds and seedlings were recorded in this population. Key Results The diploid–hexaploid contact zone is large and complex, reaching the Czech Republic in the west, Austria in the south, Poland in the north-east and Romania in the extreme east of the surveyed areas. Most populations presented only one cytotype, either diploid or hexaploid. In several areas of the contact zone both cytotypes were found to grow in parapatry. One mixed-ploidy population of diploids and hexaploids was detected for the first time, but no signs of hybridization were detected. In this population, diploids had a significantly lower reproductive success, and significantly higher production of intercytotype offspring, being in reproductive disadvantage in comparison with hexaploids. Conclusions The contact zone of diploid and hexaploid A. amellus in central and eastern Europe seems to be highly dynamic and diffuse, with both primary and secondary contacts being possible. The obtained results suggest the origin of hexaploids through diploids, overall supporting previous hypotheses that this species is autopolyploid. Data from the only mixed-ploidy population detected so far suggest that the minority cytotype exclusion is an important evolutionary mechanisms driving the prevalence of single-cytotype populations, and thus contributing to the current distributional patterns of the cytotypes of A. amellus. PMID:22887024

  6. New synonyms and a new name in Asteraceae: Senecioneae from the southern African winter rainfall region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the genera Othonna and Senecio undertaken for the forthcoming Greater Cape plants 2: Namaqualand-southern Namib and western Karoo (Manning in prep. led to a re-examination of the taxonomic status of several species. This was facilitated by the recent availability of high-resolution digital images on the Aluka website (www.aluka.org of the Drege isotypes in the Paris Herbarium that formed the basis of many species described by De Candolle in his Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis. These images made it possible to identify several names whose application had remained uncertain until now. Each case is briefly discussed, with citation of additional relevant herbarium specimens. The following species are reduced to synonomy: O. incisa Harv. is included in O. rosea Harv.; O. spektakelensis Compton and O. zeyheri Sond. ex Harv. are included in O. retrorsa DC.; S. maydae Merxm. is included in S. albopunctatus Bolus, which is now considered to include forms with radiate and discoid capitula; S. cakilefolius DC. is included in  O. arenarius Thunb.; S. pearsonii Hutch, is included in O. aspertdus DC.; S. parvifolius DC. is included in S. carroensis DC.; S. eriobasis DC. is included in S. erosus L.f.; and S. lobelioides DC. is included in S. flavus (Decne. Sch.Bip. The name S. panduratus (Thunb. Less, is identified as a synonym of S. erosus L.f. and plants that are currently know n under this name should be called S. robertiifolius DC. The confusion in the application o f the names O. perfoliata (L.f. Jacq. and O. filicaulis Jacq. is examined. O. perfoliata is lecto- typified against a specimen in the Linnaean Herbarium (LINN  w ith radiate capitula. The name O. filicaulis correctly applies to a radiate species and is treated as a synonym of O. perfoliata. The vegetatively similar taxon with disciform capitula that is currently known as O. filicaulis should be known as (  undulosa (DC. J.C.Manning  & Goldblatt, comb. nov. The new name O. daucifolia J.C.Manning & Goldblatt is provided to replace the later homonym O. abrotanifolia (Harv. Druce.

  7. Toxicity, antimicrobial and anthelmintic activities of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) crude extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyang, Ngeh J; Ateh, Eugene N; Keiser, Jennifer; Vargas, Mireille; Bach, Horacio; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B; Davis, Harry; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2012-12-18

    This study examined the antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties of extracts obtained from the plant Vernonia guineensis, a plant commonly used in traditional Cameroonian medicine. For in vitro studies, 10 g of leaf and tuber powder from V. guineensis was extracted separately using dichloromethane, methanol and distilled water. The extracts were dried in vacuo and used for antimicrobial and anthelmintic activity studies. In the antimicrobial assay, extracts were tested against bacterial and fungal organisms including; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter baumannii, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. In the anthelmintic assay, larval and adult stages of the hookworm Ancylostoma ceylanicum and the mouse nematode Trichuris muris were used. For the acute toxicity test, male and female rats of 150-200 g body weight were used in the experiment. The aqueous extract of V. guineensis tubers was administered in 4 doses of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg per group (n=6), respectively, and the control group received distilled water. The crude extracts exhibited weak antibacterial and antifungal activity except for the dichloromethane extract, which showed moderate activity against A. fumigatus (MIC=200 μg/ml). In the anthelmintic assay, the organic extracts of the tubers had 100% killing efficacy against T. muris at 2mg/ml in 48 h, while the aqueous extract showed no activity. The organic leaf extracts demonstrated potent activity killing 100% of the adult worms 1mg/ml in 24h. The aqueous leaf extract was active at 2mg/ml in 72 h, killing 100% of the adult worms. In the acute toxicity test, V. guineensis did not produce any toxic signs or death at the maximum concentration of 4000 mg/kg. Crude extracts from V. guineensis possess anthelmintic activity against T. muris with only weak antibiotic activity. Acute administration of aqueous extract from V. guineensis tubers did not produce toxic effects in rats. The absence of acute toxicity at the highest concentration tested indicates that the tea decoction from V. guineensis extract is safe at concentrations ≤ 4000 mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Espeletia praesidentis, a new species of Espeletiinae (Millerieae, Asteraceae) from northeastern Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diazgranados, Mauricio; Sánchez, Luis Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A new species of Espeletia from the Páramo de Presidente in northeastern Colombia is described. The species is named Espeletia praesidentis after the name of the páramo, and it is dedicated to the President Juan Manuel Santos, for his persistent efforts in working for peace for Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletia dugandii, but differs in the shape and colour of the leaves and arrangements of the capitulescences. A large population was found, but its total extension is yet to be determine.

  9. Espeletia praesidentis, a new species of Espeletiinae (Millerieae, Asteraceae from northeastern Colombia

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    Mauricio Diazgranados

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Espeletia from the Páramo de Presidente in northeastern Colombia is described. The species is named Espeletia praesidentis after the name of the páramo, and it is dedicated to the President Juan Manuel Santos, for his persistent efforts in working for peace for Colombia. The new species is closely related to Espeletia dugandii, but differs in the shape and colour of the leaves and arrangements of the capitulescences. A large population was found, but its total extension is yet to be determine.

  10. Morfología del polen de especies de Gongylolepis (Mutisieae: Asteraceae de la Guayana venezolana

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    Torrecilla, Pedro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Gongylolepis is composed for 15 species, endemic to the Guyana region. This is the largest genus of tribe Mutiseae in the area. Palynological features have been studied for some members of the Mutiseae, but not for Gongylolepis. We studied the pollen morphology of nine species of the genus, using samples from herbarium material. The observations were made in 10 to 15 pollen grains for species and features of the spines, colpus, polar axis, equatorial diameter, exine structure, pollen type, apertures, perforations and P/E ratio to determinate pollen shape, were analyzed. Observations and pictures were made with light microscope and scanning electron microscope. With this information, a matrix and conglomerate analysis was made. Gongylolepis pollen is tricolporate, spheroidal and mainly of great size. Differences in exine ornamentation were enough to discriminate the studied species. Spines are conical, with perforations near of the base, but with differences in the apex shape. The dendogram showed four groups, where the size, shape, exine ornamentation, spines, colpus and perforations were of importance to the classification of the species considered.Gongylolepis está constituido por 15 especies, circunscritas a la región de Guayana, al norte de Suramérica. Es el género más numeroso de la tribu Mutisieae en dicha región, representado en su flora por especies endémicas. Aunque algunas especies de Mutisieae han sido estudiadas palinológicamente por varios investigadores, no hay estudios de las especies de Gongylolepis. En este trabajo se analizan los caracteres morfológicos del polen de nueve especies de Gongylolepis, de la Guayana venezolana. Las muestras de polen provienen de material de distintas colecciones de herbario. Para la observación de los caracteres de polen se usaron de 10 a 15 granos por especie, se analizaron caracteres de las espinas, colpos, eje polar, diámetro ecuatorial, ornamentación y grosor de la exina, tipo de polen, apertura, presencia de perforaciones, y la relación P/E para determinar forma de los granos. Las observaciones y fotografías se realizaron mediante MEB y MEL. Con la información obtenida, se elaboró una matriz y se realizó un análisis de conglomerados. Como resultado, se encontró que el polen de Gongylolepis es tricolporado, con aspecto esferoidal y principalmente de gran tamaño. Presentó diferencias en la ornamentación de la exina, lo cual permitió separar las especies estudiadas. Las espinas son cónicas, sin embargo se encontraron diferencias en cuanto a la forma del ápice, además se observaron perforaciones cercanas a la base de éstas. El dendrograma obtenido mostró cuatro agrupamientos, donde los caracteres analizados, como tamaño, forma, ornamentación, espinas, colpos y perforaciones, fueron de gran importancia para clasificar las especies bajo estudio.

  11. Metal concentrations of insects associated with the South African Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii (Asteraceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD; MICHEAL A. DAVIS; MICHAEL A. WALL; KEVIN BALKWILL

    2006-01-01

    The high levels of some metals in metal hyperaccumulator plants may be transferred to insect associates. We surveyed insects collected from the South African Ni hyperaccumulator Berkheya coddii to document whole-body metal concentrations (Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). We also documented the concentrations of these metals in leaves, stems and inflorescences, finding extremely elevated levels of Ni (4 700-16 000 μg/g) and high values (5-34 μg/g) for Co, Cr, and Pb. Of 26 insect morphotypes collected from B. coddii, seven heteropterans, one coleopteran, and one orthopteran contained relatively high concentrations of Ni (> 500 μg/g). The large number of high-Ni heteropterans adds to discoveries of others (from California USA and New Caledonia) and suggests that members of this insect order may be particularly Ni tolerant. Nymphs of the orthopteran (Stenoscepa) contained 3 500 μg Ni/g, the greatest Ni concentration yet reported for an insect. We also found two beetles with elevated levels of Mg (> 2 800 μg/g), one beetle with elevated Cu (> 70 μg/g) and one heteropteran with an elevated level of Mn (> 200 μg/g). Our results show that insects feeding on a Ni hyperaccumulator can mobilize Ni into food webs, although we found no evidence of Ni biomagnification in either herbivore or carnivore insect taxa. We also conclude that some insects associated with hyperaccumulators can contain Ni levels that are high enough to be toxic to vertebrates.

  12. Floral phenology, secondary pollen presentation and pollination mechanism in Inula racemosa (Angiosperms: Asteraceae

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    P.A. Shabir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Inula racemosa Hook. f. is protandrous, discharges pollen grains inside the anther tube and presents pollen secondarily onto the sweeping hairs of the style. The style and stigmatic branches present the yellow clumped pollen grains for pollination. This study describes floral functional morphology and phenology, anther dehiscence and pollen presentation, growth and behaviour of style during anthesis and pollination mechanism of I. racemosa. The species is entomophilous and is characterized by a highly asynchronous sexual phase. A large degree of asynchrony from floret to floret in a capitulum, and capitulum to capitulum in a plant, keeps the pollen dispersed for a longer duration. Two insect families were represented in the pollinator survey: Hymenoptera and Diptera. A significant correlation was observed between the number of capitula visited per bout and foraging time. We discuss morphological features of the ?owers which may enhance the pollen removal rate per bee visit and consequently cause a high visitation and pollination rate.

  13. Taxonomic revision of the genus Logfia (Asteraceae, Gnaphalieae in the Mediterranean region

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    Andrés-Sánchez, Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Logfia Cass. was described by Cassini in 1819 and has always been considered closely related to Filago L. The species of Logfia have been frequently included within Filago but, recently, based on morphological characters and DNA sequence analysis it has been demostrated that Logfia is more closely related to the American representatives of the tribe Filagininae than to the genus Filago and the idea that Filago and Logfia should be considered independent genera has been resurrected. In this work, the first complete taxonomic account for the western Mediterranean taxa belonging to Logfia is presented, based on the revision of more than 3400 sheets lodged at 32 herbaria. A detailed description of the genus and a key for the four species present in the study area are proposed. Descriptions of all species together with a complete nomenclatural treatment, as well as indications about habitat preferences, phenology, and geographic distribution are also provided. Additionally nine nomenclatural types are designated, among them, the lectotypes for the accepted names Logfia clementei (Willk. Holub and Logfia minima (Sm. Dumort. and the neotype of Logfia heterantha (Raf. Holub.El género Logfia Cass. fue descrito por Cassini en 1819 y siempre se ha considerado muy relacionado con el género Filago L., incluso en ocasiones ha sido incluido en este género. Recientemente se ha demostrado, sobre la base de caracteres morfológicos y secuencias de ADN, que Logfia es un género independiente, más relacionado con los representantes americanos de la subtribu Filagininae que con el género Filago. Se ha llevado a cabo el primer estudio taxonómico completo del género Logfia en la región mediterránea, basado en la revisión de más de 3400 pliegos conservados en 32 herbarios. En este trabajo se presenta una descripción detallada del género y una clave de identificación de las cuatro especies presentes en el área de estudio. Se proporciona, además, una descripción para cada una de las especies junto con una completa revisión nomenclatural y un resumen acerca de su hábitat, fenología, distribución geográfica y los mapas correspondientes elaborados sobre la base del material estudiado. Asimismo se designan nueve tipos nomenclaturales, entre ellos los de los nombres aceptados Logfia clementei (Willk. Holub y Logfia minima (Sm. Dumort. y el neotipo Logfia heterantha (Raf. Holub.

  14. Development of microsatellite loci for the invasive weed Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhou, Ren-Chao; Huang, Hui-Run; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2010-11-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed to help elucidate the population genetics of the invasive species Wedelia trilobata. • Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences COntaining (FIASCO) repeats protocol, 23 sets of primers for amplifying microsatellite loci were identified in W. trilobata, 10 of which showed polymorphism (two to five alleles per locus) in samples of two populations of W. trilobata, one from China and one from Peru. Six of these loci were successfully amplified from samples of the native congener W. chinensis, with expected sizes. • These markers may be useful for further investigation of population genetics of Wedelia trilobata and other congener species.

  15. Toxicological study of Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) extracts as alternative control strategies for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhirun, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L)) is an economically important pest in Thailand and the indiscriminant use of chemical pesticides against this pest has been responsible for environmental hazards. Present research, therefore, is trying to develop alternative strategies by using plant based-products for the control of this pest. Wedelia trilobata (L) Hitchc extracts prepared in hexane, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol were used initially against the second instars of P. xylostella by topical application to determine the dose dependent toxicity. The highest yield of the extracts was obtained with EtOH extract followed by hexane, EtOAc and dichloroethane. However, the EtOAc extract exhibited the highest toxicity (24h-LC50 = 442.8 ppm) that became more prominent after 48 h (LC50 = 376.71 ppm). This suggests there was an increase in toxicity with the duration of exposure to the treatment. With the exception of the hexane extract, all other treatments were significantly correlated, which suggests that W. trolobata contains a varied profile of anti-insect allelochemicals that can be exploited in any integrated pest management strategy. The identification of the active ingredients is in progress.

  16. Efecto a largo plazo del consumo de Stevia rebaudiana (Magnoliopsida, Asteraceae en la fertilidad de ratones

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    Juan C. Gil

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo fue realizado con el objetivo de conocer los efectos a largo plazo del consumo de extractos acuosos de hojas de Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni sobre el número de crías, la micromorfología de los órganos genitales, niveles de testosterona y estrógeno totales, de ratones albinos. Se Trabajó con cuatro grupos de ratones, cada grupo estuvo conformado por seis macho y seis hembras. Un grupo control (C y tres tratamientos, el primero consumió alimento y agua mientras que los grupos tratamientos consumieron el mismo alimento pero en vez del agua un extracto de S. rebaudiana a concentraciones de (g/Kg 3,75 (I, 7,5 (II y 15 (III, por 120 días. Las crías fueron contadas y pesadas después de cada nacimiento, la histología de los órganos genitales entre los grupos fue comparada, se midió los niveles séricos de testosterona y estrógeno total por inmunoquimio-luminiscencia, así mismo se observó el comportamiento sexual. Los niveles de testosterona total (ng/mL fueron significativamente diferentes entre los grupos (C= 1,02±0,03; I= 1,12±0,01; II= 1,16±0,02; III= 1,21±0,01. Así mismo los niveles de estrógeno total (pg/mL también mostraron diferencias significativas (C= 20,77±7,22; I= 30,58±2,07; II= 33,08±3,45; III= 43,58±10,3. Sin embargo no se observaron diferencias significativas entre los pesos (g de los úteros, trompas y ovarios (C= 0,065±0,005; I= 0,058±0,007; II= 0,058±0,007; III= 0,056±0,005. El peso (g de testículos mostró diferencias significativas solamente con el tratamiento III (C= 0,153±0,005; I= 0,155±0,005; II= 0,145±0,005; III= 0,110±0,008. No se detectaron diferencias histológicas en los órganos genitales del grupo control y de los grupos tratamientos. La libido en los ratones machos tratados con SrB estuvo aumentada. Finalmente, el peso de las crías (g fue mayor y estadísticamente diferente en los grupos II y III (C= 7,53±0,26; I= 7,86±0,47; II= 9,37±0,66; III= 9,35±0,45, mientras que el número de crías fue menor y significativamente diferente para los tratamientos II y III (C= 10,83±0,75; I= 11,83±1,17; II= 8,66±0,52; III= 9,17±0,98. Se concluye que el consumo a largo plazo de SrB no afectó la fertilidad de los ratones pero sí disminuyó notablemente el peso y el tamaño de los testículos. Sin embargo los niveles de testosterona y estrógenos aumentaron notablemente.

  17. Integument cell differentiation in dandelions (Taraxacum, Asteraceae, Lactuceae) with special attention paid to plasmodesmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Kurczyńska, Ewa; Świątek, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the paper is to determine what happens with plasmodesmata when mucilage is secreted into the periplasmic space in plant cells. Ultrastructural analysis of the periendothelial zone mucilage cells was performed on examples of the ovule tissues of several sexual and apomictic Taraxacum species. The cytoplasm of the periendothelial zone cells was dense, filled by numerous organelles and profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum and active Golgi dictyosomes with vesicles that contained fibrillar material. At the beginning of the differentiation process of the periendothelial zone, the cells were connected by primary plasmodesmata. However, during the differentiation and the thickening of the cell walls (mucilage deposition), the plasmodesmata become elongated and associated with cytoplasmic bridges. The cytoplasmic bridges may connect the protoplast to the plasmodesmata through the mucilage layers in order to maintain cell-to-cell communication during the differentiation of the periendothelial zone cells.

  18. Chromosomal and morphological studies of diploid and polyploid cytotypes of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni (Eupatorieae, Asteraceae

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    Vanessa M. de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the chromosome number and some morphological features of strains of Stevia rebaudiana. The chromosomes were analyzed during mitosis and diakinesis, and the tetrad normality and pollen viability were also assessed. In addition, stomata and pollen were measured and some plant features were studied morphometrically. All of the strains had 2n = 22, except for two, which had 2n = 33 and 2n = 44. Pairing at diakinesis was n = 11II for all of the diploid strains, whereas the triploid and tetraploid strains had n = 11III and n = 11IV, respectively. Triploid and tetraploid plants had a lower tetrad normality rate than the diploids. All of the strains had inviable pollen. Thus, the higher the ploidy number, the greater the size of the pollen and the stomata, and the lower their number per unit area. The triploid strain produced the shortest plants and the lowest number of inflorescences, whereas the tetraploid strain had the largest leaves. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences among the strains, with a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and all of the morphological features examined.

  19. Lactuca tatarica (Asteraceae in embryonic dunes on Wolin Island (NW Poland

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    W. A. Wojciech Kowalski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 19th century, Lactuca tatarica was reported for the first time from an adventive occurrence on the North Sea and Baltic Sea coasts. In Wolin Island, the species has become established in the natural habitat and is clearly spreading in recent years. The community with L. tatarica was studied currently on the western point of Wolin Island along the stretch between the mouth of the Świna (Swine River and a newly constructed breakwater of the external harbour. The taxon occupies relatively low parts of the sandy elevations of dune ridges, in patches of the Honckenyo-Agropyretum juncei association (habitat 2110. Furthermore, L. tatarica has been reported in recent years from some locations in Świnoujście (Usedom (Uznam Island, Międzyzdroje, Wisełka and Międzywodzie.

  20. [Research on antifungal activity of flowers and leaves of Inula viscosa (Asteraceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchia, C; De Laurentis, N; Milillo, M A; Losacco, V; Puccini, V

    1999-12-01

    The authors carried out a preliminary screening about the in vitro antifungal activity of some extracts of flowers and leaves of Inula viscosa obtained with different solvents. All extracts showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes and Candida species. The best results were obtained with Inula viscosa flowers extracts. These results may be ascribed to the different flavonoids and different flavonoid concentrations in our samples.

  1. Dispersal Pathways and Genetic Differentiation among Worldwide Populations of the Invasive Weed Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Renée L.; Hierro, José L.; Eren, Özkan; Andonian, Krikor; Török, Katalin; Becerra, Pablo I.; Montesinos, Daniel; Khetsuriani, Liana; Diaconu, Alecu; Kesseli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of introduced species is often unclear due to a lack of historical records. Even when historical information is readily available, important factors of the invasions such as genetic bottlenecks, hybridiz