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Sample records for bac-happy mapping bap

  1. BAC-HAPPY mapping (BAP mapping): a new and efficient protocol for physical mapping.

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    Vu, Giang T H; Dear, Paul H; Caligari, Peter D S; Wilkinson, Mike J

    2010-02-08

    Physical and linkage mapping underpin efforts to sequence and characterize the genomes of eukaryotic organisms by providing a skeleton framework for whole genome assembly. Hitherto, linkage and physical "contig" maps were generated independently prior to merging. Here, we develop a new and easy method, BAC HAPPY MAPPING (BAP mapping), that utilizes BAC library pools as a HAPPY mapping panel together with an Mbp-sized DNA panel to integrate the linkage and physical mapping efforts into one pipeline. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as an exemplar, a set of 40 Sequence Tagged Site (STS) markers spanning approximately 10% of chromosome 4 were simultaneously assembled onto a BAP map compiled using both a series of BAC pools each comprising 0.7x genome coverage and dilute (0.7x genome) samples of sheared genomic DNA. The resultant BAP map overcomes the need for polymorphic loci to separate genetic loci by recombination and allows physical mapping in segments of suppressed recombination that are difficult to analyze using traditional mapping techniques. Even virtual "BAC-HAPPY-mapping" to convert BAC landing data into BAC linkage contigs is possible.

  2. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Suggests the Novel Membrane Topology of B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31 on the Cell Surface of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Novel Membrane Topology of BAP31.

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    Won-Tae Kim

    Full Text Available When located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER membrane, B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31 is involved in the export of secreted proteins from the ER to the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs, 297-D4 and 144-A8, that bound to surface molecules on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs, but not to surface molecules on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. Subsequent studies revealed that the mAbs recognized BAP31 on the surface of hESCs. To investigate the membrane topology of BAP31 on the cell surface, we first examined the epitope specificity of 297-D4 and 144-A8, as well as a polyclonal anti-BAP31 antibody (α-BAP31. We generated a series of GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins in which BAP31 was serially deleted at the C- terminus. GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitopes targeted by the antibodies. Both 297-D4 and 144-A8 recognized C-terminal residues 208-217, while α-BAP31 recognized C-terminal residues 165-246, of BAP31 on hESCs, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is exposed on the cell surface. The polyclonal antibody α-BAP31 bound to mESCs, which confirmed that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is also exposed on the surface of these cells. Our results show for the first time the novel membrane topology of cell surface-expressed BAP31 as the extracellular exposure of the BAP31 C-terminal domain was not predicted from previous studies.

  3. Epitope Mapping of Antibodies Suggests the Novel Membrane Topology of B-Cell Receptor Associated Protein 31 on the Cell Surface of Embryonic Stem Cells: The Novel Membrane Topology of BAP31.

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    Kim, Won-Tae; Choi, Hong Seo; Hwang, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Han-Sung; Ryu, Chun Jeih

    2015-01-01

    When located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, B-cell receptor associated protein 31 (BAP31) is involved in the export of secreted proteins from the ER to the plasma membrane. In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), 297-D4 and 144-A8, that bound to surface molecules on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but not to surface molecules on mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Subsequent studies revealed that the mAbs recognized BAP31 on the surface of hESCs. To investigate the membrane topology of BAP31 on the cell surface, we first examined the epitope specificity of 297-D4 and 144-A8, as well as a polyclonal anti-BAP31 antibody (α-BAP31). We generated a series of GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins in which BAP31 was serially deleted at the C- terminus. GST-fused BAP31 mutant proteins were then screened to identify the epitopes targeted by the antibodies. Both 297-D4 and 144-A8 recognized C-terminal residues 208-217, while α-BAP31 recognized C-terminal residues 165-246, of BAP31 on hESCs, suggesting that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is exposed on the cell surface. The polyclonal antibody α-BAP31 bound to mESCs, which confirmed that the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is also exposed on the surface of these cells. Our results show for the first time the novel membrane topology of cell surface-expressed BAP31 as the extracellular exposure of the BAP31 C-terminal domain was not predicted from previous studies.

  4. SarA positively controls bap-dependent biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Trotonda, María Pilar; Manna, Adhar C; Cheung, Ambrose L; Lasa, Iñigo; Penadés, José R

    2005-08-01

    The biofilm-associated protein Bap is a staphylococcal surface protein involved in biofilm formation. We investigated the influence of the global regulatory locus sarA on bap expression and Bap-dependent biofilm formation in three unrelated Staphylococcus aureus strains. The results showed that Bap-dependent biofilm formation was diminished in the sarA mutants by an agr-independent mechanism. Complementation studies using a sarA clone confirmed that the defect in biofilm formation was due to the sarA mutation. As expected, the diminished capacity to form biofilms in the sarA mutants correlated with the decreased presence of Bap in the bacterial surface. Using transcriptional fusion and Northern analysis data, we demonstrated that the sarA gene product acts as an activator of bap expression. Finally, the bap promoter was characterized and the transcriptional start point was mapped by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. As expected, we showed that purified SarA protein binds specifically to the bap promoter, as determined by gel shift and DNase I footprinting assays. Based on the previous studies of others as well as our work demonstrating the role for SarA in icaADBC and bap expression, we propose that SarA is an essential regulator controlling biofilm formation in S. aureus.

  5. BAP1 (BRCA1-associated protein 1) is a highly specific marker for differentiating mesothelioma from reactive mesothelial proliferations.

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    Cigognetti, Marta; Lonardi, Silvia; Fisogni, Simona; Balzarini, Piera; Pellegrini, Vilma; Tironi, Andrea; Bercich, Luisa; Bugatti, Mattia; Rossi, Giulio; Murer, Bruno; Barbareschi, Mattia; Giuliani, Silvia; Cavazza, Alberto; Marchetti, Gianpietro; Vermi, William; Facchetti, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    protein is frequently lost in mesothelioma, especially of epithelioid/biphasic subtype and is commonly associated with homozygous BAP1 deletion. BAP1 immunostain represents an excellent biomarker with an unprecedented specificity (100%) in the distinction between benign and malignant mesothelial proliferations. Finding BAP1 loss in mesothelial cells should prompt to immediately reevaluate the patient; moreover, it might be useful in mapping tumor extent and planning surgical resection.

  6. Comparison of several methods for BAP measurement.

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    Nakajima, J; Murata, Y; Sakamoto, M

    2006-01-01

    It has been more important for management of water quality to estimate the amount of bioavailable phosphorus (BAP) in suspended solids (SS) entering lakes and estuaries. AGP test or extraction by 0.1 mol l(-1) NaOH (C-BOD) is widely used. Recently, highly bioavailable phosphorus (HBAP) was introduced to indicate a more easily soluble and bioavailable fraction using successive extraction by 0.1 mol l(-1) HCl and 0.1 mol l(-1) NaOH. New biologically measured BAP (B-BAP) using bacterial respiration activity was introduced in this paper. B-BAP was estimated from oxygen uptake rate (OUR), which was measured by a respiratory meter for BOD measurement using a pressure sensor. B-BAP is useful for a rapid and direct measurement of phosphorus bioavailability. B-BAP, HBAP and C-BAP in river SS were measured and compared with each other. The percentages of HBAP and B-BAP to PP were large in the urban river, while the percentage of NaOH-P or C-BAP was large in the rivers flowing in agricultural areas. By comparison with phosphorus fractions in paddy soil and activated sludge it was suggested that SS in the rivers flowing in agricultural areas mainly consisted of clay, silt or sand, while the SS in the urban river consisted of a large percentage of organic particles as well. Phosphorus in SS was suggested to be more easily bioavailable in the urban river than the rivers in agricultural areas. The ratio of C-BAP/B-BAP was large in the rivers in agricultural areas and small in the urban river. As HBAP contents were almost similar to B-BAP contents in the river SS, HBAP can be a suitable index of phosphorus indicating easily and rapidly the bioavailable fraction in SS.

  7. Structural and biophysical characterization of the cytoplasmic domains of human BAP29 and BAP31.

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    Quistgaard, Esben M; Löw, Christian; Moberg, Per; Guettou, Fatma; Maddi, Karthik; Nordlund, Pär

    2013-01-01

    Two members of the B-cell associated 31 (BAP31) family are found in humans; BAP29 and BAP31. These are ubiquitously expressed receptors residing in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAP31 functions in sorting of membrane proteins and in caspase-8 mediated apoptosis, while BAP29 appears to mainly corroborate with BAP31 in sorting. The N-terminal half of these proteins is membrane-bound while the C-terminal half is cytoplasmic. The latter include the so called variant of death effector domain (vDED), which shares weak sequence homology with DED domains. Here we present two structures of BAP31 vDED determined from a single and a twinned crystal, grown at pH 8.0 and pH 4.2, respectively. These structures show that BAP31 vDED forms a dimeric parallel coiled coil with no structural similarity to DED domains. Solution studies support this conclusion and strongly suggest that an additional α-helical domain is present in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region, probably forming a second coiled coil. The thermal stability of BAP31 vDED is quite modest at neutral pH, suggesting that it may assemble in a dynamic fashion in vivo. Surprisingly, BAP29 vDED is partially unfolded at pH 7, while a coiled coil is formed at pH 4.2 in vitro. It is however likely that folding of the domain is triggered by other factors than low pH in vivo. We found no evidence for direct interaction of the cytoplasmic domains of BAP29 and BAP31.

  8. Structural and biophysical characterization of the cytoplasmic domains of human BAP29 and BAP31.

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    Esben M Quistgaard

    Full Text Available Two members of the B-cell associated 31 (BAP31 family are found in humans; BAP29 and BAP31. These are ubiquitously expressed receptors residing in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAP31 functions in sorting of membrane proteins and in caspase-8 mediated apoptosis, while BAP29 appears to mainly corroborate with BAP31 in sorting. The N-terminal half of these proteins is membrane-bound while the C-terminal half is cytoplasmic. The latter include the so called variant of death effector domain (vDED, which shares weak sequence homology with DED domains. Here we present two structures of BAP31 vDED determined from a single and a twinned crystal, grown at pH 8.0 and pH 4.2, respectively. These structures show that BAP31 vDED forms a dimeric parallel coiled coil with no structural similarity to DED domains. Solution studies support this conclusion and strongly suggest that an additional α-helical domain is present in the C-terminal cytoplasmic region, probably forming a second coiled coil. The thermal stability of BAP31 vDED is quite modest at neutral pH, suggesting that it may assemble in a dynamic fashion in vivo. Surprisingly, BAP29 vDED is partially unfolded at pH 7, while a coiled coil is formed at pH 4.2 in vitro. It is however likely that folding of the domain is triggered by other factors than low pH in vivo. We found no evidence for direct interaction of the cytoplasmic domains of BAP29 and BAP31.

  9. Limited caspase cleavage of human BAP31.

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    Määttä, J; Hallikas, O; Welti, S; Hildén, P; Schröder, J; Kuismanen, E

    2000-11-10

    Human BAP31 was cleaved at both of its two identical caspase cleavage sites in two previously reported models of apoptosis. We show here that only the most carboxy-terminal site is cleaved during apoptosis induced in HeLa cells by tunicamycin, tumor necrosis factor and cycloheximide, or staurosporine. Similar results were obtained in HL-60 cells using Fas/APO-1 antibodies, or cycloheximide. This limited cleavage, which is inhibited by several caspase inhibitors, removes eight amino acids from human BAP31 including the KKXX coat protein I binding motif. Ectopic expression of the resulting cleavage product induces redistribution of mannosidase II from the Golgi and prevents endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport of virus glycoproteins.

  10. Monoclonal antibodies against human BAP31 for immunocytochemistry.

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    Song, Chaojun; Wang, Fuli; Xu, Zhuwei; Hu, Jintao; Tao, Haiqiang; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2009-06-01

    Human BAP31 is a 28 kDa polytopic integral protein of the ER and part of a large BAP hetero-oligomeric complex that includes the related BAP29 protein and connections to actomyosin. BAP31 interacts with mIgD, cellubrevin, major histocompatibility complex class I, and BCL-2/BCL-X(L), and plays an important role in regulating the egress of these proteins and in apoptosis. Northern blot analyses have revealed BAP31 RNA transcripts in many tissues, including thymus, spleen, brain, kidney, testis, liver, and lung. However, prominent BAP31 protein expression analyzed by immunohistochemistry is restricted to a minority of cells in normal human tissue. Further studies should be made to verify the expression profiles of BAP31 in the protein level. Production of high affinity MAbs suitable for immunohistochemical staining has lagged. Here we generate a set of MAbs that could be used in Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and immunocytochemistry, providing a new powerful tool for investigation of expression profile of BAP31 protein and furthers the study of BAP31 functions.

  11. Calcium inhibits bap-dependent multicellular behavior in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Arrizubieta, María Jesús; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Amorena, Beatriz; Penadés, José R; Lasa, Iñigo

    2004-11-01

    Bap (biofilm-associated protein) is a 254-kDa staphylococcal surface protein implicated in formation of biofilms by staphylococci isolated from chronic mastitis infections. The presence of potential EF-hand motifs in the amino acid sequence of Bap prompted us to investigate the effect of calcium on the multicellular behavior of Bap-expressing staphylococci. We found that addition of millimolar amounts of calcium to the growth media inhibited intercellular adhesion of and biofilm formation by Bap-positive strain V329. Addition of manganese, but not addition of magnesium, also inhibited biofilm formation, whereas bacterial aggregation in liquid media was greatly enhanced by metal-chelating agents. In contrast, calcium or chelating agents had virtually no effect on the aggregation of Bap-deficient strain M556. The biofilm elicited by insertion of bap into the chromosome of a biofilm-negative strain exhibited a similar dependence on the calcium concentration, indicating that the observed calcium inhibition was an inherent property of the Bap-mediated biofilms. Site-directed mutagenesis of two of the putative EF-hand domains resulted in a mutant strain that was capable of forming a biofilm but whose biofilm was not inhibited by calcium. Our results indicate that Bap binds Ca2+ with low affinity and that Ca2+ binding renders the protein noncompetent for biofilm formation and for intercellular adhesion. The fact that calcium inhibition of Bap-mediated multicellular behavior takes place in vitro at concentrations similar to those found in milk serum supports the possibility that this inhibition is relevant to the pathogenesis and/or epidemiology of the bacteria in the mastitis process.

  12. The bioartificial pancreas (BAP): Biological, chemical and engineering challenges.

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    Iacovacci, Veronica; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The bioartificial pancreas (BAP) represents a viable solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). By encapsulating pancreatic cells in a semipermeable membrane to allow nutrient, insulin and glucose exchange, the side effects produced by islets and whole organ transplantation-related immunosuppressive therapy can be circumvented. Several factors, mainly related to materials properties, capsule morphology and biological environment, play a key role in optimizing BAP systems. The BAP is an extremely complex delivery system for insulin. Despite considerable efforts, in some instances meeting with limited degree of success, a BAP capable of restoring physiological pancreas functions without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and of controlling blood glucose levels especially in large animal models and a few clinical trials, does not exist. The state of the art in terms of materials, fabrication techniques and cell sources, as well as the current status of commercial devices and clinical trials, are described in this overview from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. In addition, challenges to the creation of effective BAP systems are highlighted including future perspectives in terms of component integration from both a biological and an engineering viewpoint.

  13. NeuCode Proteomics Reveals Bap1 Regulation of Metabolism

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    Joshua M. Baughman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce neutron-encoded (NeuCode amino acid labeling of mice as a strategy for multiplexed proteomic analysis in vivo. Using NeuCode, we characterize an inducible knockout mouse model of Bap1, a tumor suppressor and deubiquitinase whose in vivo roles outside of cancer are not well established. NeuCode proteomics revealed altered metabolic pathways following Bap1 deletion, including profound elevation of cholesterol biosynthetic machinery coincident with reduced expression of gluconeogenic and lipid homeostasis proteins in liver. Bap1 loss increased pancreatitis biomarkers and reduced expression of mitochondrial proteins. These alterations accompany a metabolic remodeling with hypoglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hepatic lipid loss, and acinar cell degeneration. Liver-specific Bap1 null mice present with fully penetrant perinatal lethality, severe hypoglycemia, and hepatic lipid deficiency. This work reveals Bap1 as a metabolic regulator in liver and pancreas, and it establishes NeuCode as a reliable proteomic method for deciphering in vivo biology.

  14. Bap: a family of surface proteins involved in biofilm formation.

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    Lasa, Iñigo; Penadés, José R

    2006-03-01

    A group of surface proteins sharing several structural and functional features is emerging as an important element in the biofilm formation process of diverse bacterial species. The first member of this group of proteins was identified in a Staphylococcus aureus mastitis isolate and was named Bap (biofilm-associated protein). As common structural features, Bap-related proteins: (i) are present on the bacterial surface; (ii) show a high molecular weight; (iii) contain a core domain of tandem repeats; (iv) confer upon bacteria the capacity to form a biofilm; (v) play a relevant role in bacterial infectious processes; and (vi) can occasionally be contained in mobile elements. This review summarizes recent studies that have identified and assigned roles to Bap-related proteins in biofilm biology and virulence.

  15. From the Eyes of the Front Line: BCBAs Evaluate BAP.

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    Dixon, Mark R; Reed, Derek; Smith, Tristam

    2013-01-01

    Master's-level Board Certified Behavior Analysts(®) were emailed an anonymous webbased survey regarding the journal Behavior Analysis in Practice (BAP). Following a 96-hour response window, 284 completed surveys were obtained. Data revealed that many participants regard the journal as beneficial to their profession, yet considered it too expensive and in need of a sharper focus on practitioner issues. Most supported BAP's emphasis on empirical research, and many recommended additional content areas such as clinical case formulations, objective product information, and a layout that blends the features of an empirical journal and a popular magazine. In summary, this survey indicates that, as a practitioner-oriented journal, BAP has the potential to occupy a valuable niche for master's-level behavior analysts and that journal leaders might enhance its value by modifying its marketing, content, and structure.

  16. BAP31, a promising target for the immunotherapy of malignant melanomas

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    Yu, Shaojuan; Wang, Fuli; Fan, Li; Wei, Yuying; Li, Haitao; Sun, Yuanjie; Yang, Angang; Jin, Boquan; Song, Chaojun; Yang, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Malignant melanoma’s (MM) incidence is rising faster than that of any other cancer in the US and the overall survival at 5 years is less than 10%. B cell associated protein 31 (BAP31) is overexpressed in most MMs and might be a promising target for immunotherapy of this disease. Experimental design Firstly, we investigated the expression profiles of human BAP31 (hBAP31) and mouse BAP31 (mBAP31) in human and mouse normal tissues, respectively. The expression level of hBAP31 in human MM...

  17. The specificity of association of the IgD molecule with the accessory proteins BAP31/BAP29 lies in the IgD transmembrane sequence.

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    Adachi, T; Schamel, W W; Kim, K M; Watanabe, T; Becker, B; Nielsen, P J; Reth, M

    1996-04-01

    Mature B cells co-express on their cell surface two classes of antigen receptor, the IgM and IgD immunoglobulins. The structural and functional differences between the two receptor classes are poorly understood. Recently two proteins of 29 and 31 kDa (BAP29 and BAP31) have been described that are preferentially associated with membrane IgD but only weakly with membrane IgM. We describe here the cloning of full-length murine and human BAP31 cDNAs encoding proteins of 245 and 246 amino acids respectively. The two BAP31 proteins are 95% identical. The BAP31 gene is ubiquitously expressed in murine tissues and is located on the X chromosome in both mouse and man. The murine BAP31 protein has 43% sequence identity to murine BAP29. Both proteins have a hydrophobic N-terminus and an alpha-helical C-terminus which ends with a KKXX motif implicated in vesicular transport. By a mutational analysis we have identified amino acids in the transmembrane sequence of the delta m chain that are critical for binding to BAP31/BAP29. A structural model of the BAPs and their potential functions are discussed.

  18. A recurrent germline BAP1 mutation and extension of the BAP1 tumor predisposition spectrum to include basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, K A W; Aoude, L G; Johansson, P;

    2015-01-01

    We report four previously undescribed families with germline BAP1 mutations and expand the clinical phenotype of this tumor syndrome. The tumor spectrum in these families is predominantly uveal malignant melanoma (UMM), cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and mesothelioma, as previously reported f...

  19. Dispersal of Bap-mediated Staphylococcus aureus biofilm by proteinase K.

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    Kumar Shukla, Sudhir; Rao, Toleti Subba

    2013-02-01

    The dominant role of biofilm-associated protein (Bap) in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm development prompted us to investigate Bap as a potential target for proteinase-mediated biofilm dispersion. Biofilm assay in microtitre plates showed that proteinase K hampered the early adhesion of cells as well as biofilm development. Proteinase K treatment of 24- and 48-h-old biofilms showed enhanced dispersion of bap-positive S. aureus biofilm; however, proteinase K did not affect the bap-negative S. aureus biofilm. When antibiotics were used in combination with proteinase K, significant enhancement in antibiotic action was noticed against bap-positive S. aureus biofilm. This study establishes that antibiotics in combination with proteinase K can be used for controlling S. aureus biofilms in whose development Bap surface protein has a major role. We propose that Bap protein could be a potential target for therapeutic control of S. aureus infections (for example, bovine mastitis).

  20. Protection against Acinetobacter baumannii infection via its functional deprivation of biofilm associated protein (Bap).

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    Fattahian, Yaser; Rasooli, Iraj; Mousavi Gargari, Seyed Latif; Rahbar, Mohammad Reza; Darvish Alipour Astaneh, Shakiba; Amani, Jafar

    2011-12-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii, a major nosocomial pathogen, has remarkable capacity to acquire antimicrobial resistance attributable to its biofilm formation ability. Biofilm associated protein (Bap), a specific cell surface protein, is directly involved in biofilm formation by A. baumannii and plays a major role in bacterial infectious processes. In the present study we cloned, expressed and purified a 371 amino acid subunit of Bap. Mice were immunized using recombinant Bap subunit. They were then challenged with A. baumannii to evaluate the immunogenicity and protectivity of Bap subunit. Humoral immune response to Bap was determined by ELISA. Injection of Bap subunit resulted in high antibody titers. Decrease in bacterial cell counts of the immunized mice was evident 18 h after challenge. Reaction of antibodies against Bap with several strains suggests that not only immunodominant regions of Bap in A. baumannii strains are conserved but also have the same epitope presenting pattern in different strains. Immunodominant region of Bap possesses target sites for a protective humoral immune response to A. baumannii. This seems to be a conserved region erecting efficacy of Bap as an appropriate vaccine candidate.

  1. A novel BAP1 mutation is associated with melanocytic neoplasms and thyroid cancer.

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    McDonnell, Kevin J; Gallanis, Gregory T; Heller, Kathleen A; Melas, Marilena; Idos, Gregory E; Culver, Julie O; Martin, Sue-Ellen; Peng, David H; Gruber, Stephen B

    2016-03-01

    Germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, BRCA-1 associated protein (BAP1), underlie a tumor predisposition syndrome characterized by increased risk for numerous cancers including uveal melanoma, melanocytic tumors and mesothelioma, among others. In the present study we report the identification of a novel germline BAP1 mutation, c.1777C>T, which produces a truncated BAP1 protein product and segregates with cancer. Family members with this mutation demonstrated a primary clinical phenotype of autosomal dominant, early-onset melanocytic neoplasms with immunohistochemistry (IHC) of these tumors demonstrating lack of BAP1 protein expression. In addition, family members harboring the BAP1 c.1777C>T germline mutation developed other neoplastic disease including thyroid cancer. IHC analysis of the thyroid cancer, as well, demonstrated loss of BAP1 protein expression. Our investigation identifies a new BAP1 mutation, further highlights the relevance of BAP1 as a clinically important tumor suppressor gene, and broadens the range of cancers associated with BAP1 inactivation. Further study will be required to understand the full scope of BAP1-associated neoplastic disease.

  2. A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin; Bojesen, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual......Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1) have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor...... development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family...

  3. Absence of germline mutations in BAP1 in sporadic cases of malignant mesothelioma.

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    Sneddon, Sophie; Leon, Justine S; Dick, Ian M; Cadby, Gemma; Olsen, Nola; Brims, Fraser; Allcock, Richard J N; Moses, Eric K; Melton, Phillip E; de Klerk, Nicholas; Musk, A W Bill; Robinson, Bruce W S; Creaney, Jenette

    2015-05-25

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a uniformly fatal tumour caused predominantly by exposure to asbestos. It is not known why some exposed individuals get mesothelioma and others do not. There is some epidemiological evidence of host susceptibility. BAP1 gene somatic mutations and allelic loss are common in mesothelioma and recently a BAP1 cancer syndrome was described in which affected individuals and families had an increased risk of cancer of multiple types, including MM. To determine if BAP1 mutations could underlie any of the sporadic mesothelioma cases in our cohort of patients, we performed targeted deep sequencing of the BAP1 exome on the IonTorrent Proton sequencer in 115 unrelated MM cases. No exonic germline BAP1 mutations of known functional significance were observed, further supporting the notion that sporadic germline BAP1 mutations are not relevant to the genetic susceptibility of MM.

  4. BAP1 facilitates diagnostic objectivity, classification, and prognostication in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

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    McGregor, Stephanie M; Dunning, Ryan; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Vigneswaran, Wickii; Husain, Aliya N; Krausz, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1) has emerged as a promising biomarker for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Loss of BAP1 expression can occur by a variety of mechanisms, but reports on incidence are variable and the clinical significance is unclear. In order to investigate the diagnostic and prognostic significance of BAP1, we constructed a tissue microarray consisting of 111 MPM cases and performed BAP1 immunohistochemistry. BAP1 was lost in 77% of epithelioid cases (n=58) but was retained in all sarcomatoid cases (n=10); 49% of biphasic cases showed loss (n=43), and BAP1-negative cases demonstrated loss of staining in both the epithelioid and sarcomatoid components. All non-neoplastic mesothelial tissues (n=20) retained BAP1, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 61%, 100%, 100%, and 32%, respectively. Moreover, BAP1 expression in spindled mesothelium enabled discrimination of reactive and malignant cells, thus providing a more objective means of distinguishing epithelioid from biphasic morphology compared to histology alone. Nonetheless, BAP1 staining was patchy in some benign mesothelial neoplasms, which raises concern for using BAP1 in small biopsies. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival with BAP1 loss, but this did not reach significance in multivariate analysis accounting for histologic subtype. When only epithelioid cases were analyzed there was a trend toward increased survival, but it did not reach significance. We conclude that BAP1 loss is frequent in epithelioid MPM, which is in turn associated with improved survival, and that it can have additional clinical significance by facilitating histologic classification.

  5. Bap-dependent biofilm formation by pathogenic species of Staphylococcus: evidence of horizontal gene transfer?

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    Tormo, M Angeles; Knecht, Erwin; Götz, Friedrich; Lasa, Iñigo; Penadés, José R

    2005-07-01

    The biofilm-associated protein (Bap) is a surface protein implicated in biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from chronic mastitis infections. The bap gene is carried in a putative composite transposon inserted in SaPIbov2, a mobile staphylococcal pathogenicity island. In this study, bap orthologue genes from several staphylococcal species, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus simulans and Staphylococcus hyicus, were identified, cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis comparison of the bap gene from these species revealed a very high sequence similarity, suggesting the horizontal gene transfer of SaPIbov2 amongst them. However, sequence analyses of the flanking region revealed that the bap gene of these species was not contained in the SaPIbov2 pathogenicity island. Although they did not contain the icaADBC operon, all the coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates harbouring bap were strong biofilm producers. Disruption of the bap gene in S. epidermidis abolished its capacity to form a biofilm, whereas heterologous complementation of a biofilm-negative strain of S. aureus with the Bap protein from S. epidermidis bestowed the capacity to form a biofilm on a polystyrene surface. Altogether, these results demonstrate that Bap orthologues from coagulase-negative staphylococci induce an alternative mechanism of biofilm formation that is independent of the PIA/PNAG exopolysaccharide.

  6. Phase-variable expression of the biofilm-associated protein (Bap) in Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Tormo, M Angeles; Ubeda, Carles; Martí, Miguel; Maiques, Elisa; Cucarella, Carme; Valle, Jaione; Foster, Timothy J; Lasa, Iñigo; Penadés, José R

    2007-06-01

    A process of phase variation is described that affects the expression of Bap (biofilm-associated protein) in Staphylococcus aureus. Upon subculture of the Bap-positive S. aureus strain V329 on Congo red agar, spontaneous smooth biofilm-negative colonies appeared at a low frequency (5 x 10(-4)). Northern blot analysis of these variants with a bap-specific gene probe showed that transcription of the bap gene did not occur. However, DNA typing, Southern blot hybridization and DNA sequencing did not show any differences between the parent V329 strain and the biofilm-negative variants. The biofilm-negative phenotype reverted to wild-type at a similar frequency upon subculture of Bap-negative variants in liquid media. Experimental infection of ovine mammary glands with Bap-negative variants showed that phase variation occurred in vivo, because Bap-expressing, biofilm-positive revertants were isolated from infected mammary glands. The absence of Bap correlated with increased adherence to fibrinogen and fibronectin. It is possible that S. aureus can detach from a biofilm by switching to a Bap-negative state.

  7. Loss of BAP1 function leads to EZH2-dependent transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFave, Lindsay M.; Béguelin, Wendy; Koche, Richard; Teater, Matt; Spitzer, Barbara; Chramiec, Alan; Papalexi, Efthymia; Keller, Matthew D.; Hricik, Todd; Konstantinoff, Katerina; Micol, Jean-Baptiste; Durham, Benjamin; Knutson, Sarah K.; Campbell, John E.; Blum, Gil; Shi, Xinxu; Doud, Emma H.; Krivtsov, Andrei V.; Chung, Young Rock; Khodos, Inna; de Stanchina, Elisa; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Thomas, Paul M.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Luo, Minkui; Keilhack, Heike; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Melnick, Ari; Armstrong, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Introductory Paragraph BAP1 and ASXL1 interact to form a polycomb deubiquitinase complex that removes monoubiquitin from histone H2A lysine 119 (H2AK119Ub). However, BAP1 and ASXL1 are mutated in distinct cancer types, consistent with independent roles in regulating epigenetic state and malignant transformation. Here we demonstrate that Bap1 loss results in increased trimethylated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), elevated Ezh2 expression, and enhanced repression of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) targets. These findings contrast with the reduction in H3K27me3 seen with Asxl1 loss. Conditional deletion of Bap1 and Ezh2 in vivo abrogates the myeloid progenitor expansion induced by Bap1 loss alone. Loss of Bap1 results in a marked decrease in H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1). Consistent with a role for H4K20me1 in EZH2 transcriptional regulation, expression of SETD8, the H4K20me1 methyltransferase, reduces EZH2 expression and abrogates the proliferation of BAP1-mutant cells. Further, mesothelioma cells that lack BAP1 are sensitive to EZH2 pharmacologic inhibition, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach for BAP1-mutant malignancies. PMID:26437366

  8. CDIP1-BAP31 complex transduces apoptotic signals from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria under ER stress

    OpenAIRE

    Namba, Takushi; Tian, Fang; Chu, Kiki; Hwang, So-Young; Yoon, Kyoung Wan; Byun, Sanguine; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Mandinova, Anna; Lee, Sam W.

    2013-01-01

    Resolved ER stress response is essential for intracellular homeostatic balance, but unsettled ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we show that a pro-apoptotic p53 target, CDIP1, acts as a key signal transducer of ER stress-mediated apoptosis. We identify BAP31, B-cell receptor-associated protein 31, as an interacting partner of CDIP1. Upon ER stress, CDIP1 is induced and enhances an association with BAP31 at the ER membrane. We also show that CDIP1 binding to BAP31 is required for BAP31 cl...

  9. Isolation of marine benzo[a]pyrene-degrading Ochrobactrum sp. BAP5 and proteins characterization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yirui; HE Tengteng; ZHONG Mingqi; ZHANG Yueling; LI Enmin; HUANG Tongwang; HU Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A bacterial strain BAP5 with a relatively high degradation ability of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) was isolated from marine sediments of Xiamen Western Sea, China and identified as Ochrobactrum sp. according to 16S rRNA gene sequence as well as biolog microbial identification system. Strain BAP5 could grow in mineral salt medium with 50 mg/L of BaP and degrade about 20% BaP after 30 d of incubation. Ochrobactrum sp. BAP5 was able to utilize other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (such as phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene) as the sole carbon source and energy source, suggesting its potential application in PAHs bioremediation. The profile of total soluble protein from Ochrobactrum sp. BAP5 was also investigated. Some over- and special-expressed proteins of strain BAP5 when incubated with the presence of BaP were detected by using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and found to be related with PAHs metabolism, DNA translation, and energy production based on peptide fingerprint analysis through matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

  10. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Quistgaard, Esben M. [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Nordlund, Par [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Thanabalu, Thirumaran [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore); Torres, Jaume, E-mail: jtorres@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-08-15

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target. - Highlights: • A yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) detected BAP31 as a binder of RSV SH protein. • Transfected SH and BAP31 co-localize in lung epithelial cells. • Endogenous BAP31 is pulled down by RSV SH protein. • BAP31 endodomain interacts with the N-terminal α-helix of SH protein in micelles. • This interaction is proposed to be a potential drug target.

  11. The specificity of association of the IgD molecule with the accessory proteins BAP31/BAP29 lies in the IgD transmembrane sequence.

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, T.; Schamel, W W; Kim, K. M.; Watanabe, T; Becker, B.; Nielsen, P J; Reth, M

    1996-01-01

    Mature B cells co-express on their cell surface two classes of antigen receptor, the IgM and IgD immunoglobulins. The structural and functional differences between the two receptor classes are poorly understood. Recently two proteins of 29 and 31 kDa (BAP29 and BAP31) have been described that are preferentially associated with membrane IgD but only weakly with membrane IgM. We describe here the cloning of full-length murine and human BAP31 cDNAs encoding proteins of 245 and 246 amino acids re...

  12. BAP1 cancer syndrome: malignant mesothelioma, uveal and cutaneous melanoma, and MBAITs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbone Michele

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRCA1–associated protein 1 (BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 3p21. Germline BAP1 mutations have been recently associated with an increased risk of malignant mesothelioma, atypical melanocytic tumors and other neoplasms. To answer the question if different germline BAP1 mutations may predispose to a single syndrome with a wide phenotypic range or to distinct syndromes, we investigated the presence of melanocytic tumors in two unrelated families (L and W with germline BAP1 mutations and increased risk of malignant mesothelioma. Methods Suspicious cutaneous lesions were clinically and pathologically characterized and compared to those present in other families carrying BAP1 mutations. We then conducted a meta-analysis of all the studies reporting BAP1-mutated families to survey cancer risk related to the germline BAP1 mutation (means were compared using t-test and proportions were compared with Pearson χ2 test or two-tailed Fisher’s exact test. Results Melanocytic tumors: of the five members of the L family studied, four (80% carried a germline BAP1 mutation (p.Gln684* and also presented one or more atypical melanocytic tumors; of the seven members of W family studied, all carried a germline BAP1 mutation (p.Pro147fs*48 and four of them (57% presented one or more atypical melanocytic tumors, that we propose to call “melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumors” (MBAITs. Meta-analysis: 118 individuals from seven unrelated families were selected and divided into a BAP1-mutated cohort and a BAP1-non-mutated cohort. Malignant mesothelioma, uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma, and MBAITs prevalence was significantly higher in the BAP1-mutated cohort (p ≤ 0.001. Conclusions Germline BAP1 mutations are associated with a novel cancer syndrome characterized by malignant mesothelioma, uveal melanoma, cutaneous melanoma and MBAITs, and possibly by other cancers. MBAITs provide physicians with a

  13. Role of biofilm-associated protein bap in the pathogenesis of bovine Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucarella, Carme; Tormo, M Angeles; Ubeda, Carles; Trotonda, M Pilar; Monzón, Marta; Peris, Critòfol; Amorena, Beatriz; Lasa, Iñigo; Penadés, José R

    2004-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of intramammary infections, which frequently become chronic, associated with the ability of the bacteria to produce biofilm. Here, we report a relationship between the ability to produce chronic bovine mastitis and biofilm formation. We have classified bovine mastitis S. aureus isolates into three groups based on the presence of particular genetic elements required for biofilm formation: group 1 (ica(+) bap(+)), group 2 (ica(+), bap negative), and group 3 (ica negative, bap negative). Overall, animals naturally infected with group 1 and 2 isolates had a lower milk somatic cell count than those infected with isolates of group 3. In addition, Bap-positive isolates were significantly more able to colonize and persist in the bovine mammary gland in vivo and were less susceptible to antibiotic treatments when forming biofilms in vitro. Analysis of the structural bap gene revealed the existence of alternate forms of expression of the Bap protein in S. aureus isolates obtained under field conditions throughout the animal's life. The presence of anti-Bap antibodies in serum samples taken from animals with confirmed S. aureus infections indicated the production of Bap during infection. Furthermore, disruption of the ica operon in a bap-positive strain had no effect on in vitro biofilm formation, a finding which strongly suggested that Bap could compensate for the deficiency of the PIA/PNAG product (a biofilm matrix polysaccharide). Altogether, these results demonstrate that, in the bovine intramammary gland, the presence of Bap may facilitate a biofilm formation connected with the persistence of S. aureus.

  14. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q F; Wang, J H; Pulkkinen, P; Kong, L S

    2015-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM) of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM). A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM), up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars). These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability.

  15. Changes in the Metabolome of Picea balfouriana Embryogenic Tissues That Were Linked to Different Levels of 6-BAP by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q F Li

    Full Text Available Embryogenic cultures of Picea balfouriana, which is an important commercial species for reforestation in Southern China, easily lose their embryogenic ability during long-term culture. Embryogenic tissue that proliferated at lower concentrations (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP were more productive, and generated 113 ± 6 and 89 ± 3 mature embryos per 100 mg embryogenic tissue, respectively. A metabolomic approach was used to study the changes in metabolites linked to embryogenic competence related to three different 6-BAP concentrations (2.5 μM, 3.6 μM, and 5 μM. A total of 309 compounds were obtained, among which 123 metabolites mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and genomes (KEGG pathways. The levels of 35 metabolites were significantly differentially regulated among the three 6-BAP treatments, and 32 metabolites differed between the 2.5 μM and 5 μM treatments. A total of 17 metabolites appeared only once among the three comparisons. The combination of a score plot and a loading plot showed that in the samples with higher embryogenic ability (3.6 μM and 2.5 μM, up-regulated metabolites were mostly amino acids and down-regulated metabolites were mostly primary carbohydrates (especially sugars. These results suggested that 6-BAP may influence embryogenic competence by nitrogen metabolism, which could cause an increase in amino acid levels and higher amounts of aspartate, isoleucine, and leucine in tissues with higher embryogenic ability. Furthermore, we speculated that 6-BAP may affect the amount of tryptophan in tissues, which would change the indole-3-acetic acid levels and influence the embryogenic ability.

  16. Effect of Commercial Synthappret BAP Treatment on the Tailorabilitv of Light-Weight Worsted Wool Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gehui(王革辉); Zhang Weiyuan(张渭源); Postle, R.; Phillips, D.

    2001-01-01

    By means of measurement with the FAST instruments,the effect of commercial Synthappret BAP treatment on the tailorability of light-weight wool worsted fabrics has been investigated. It was found that the commercial Synthappret BAP treatment improved the tailorability of the light-weight wool fabrics mainly by increasing the bending stiffness of the light-weight wool fabrics.

  17. Bap31 enhances the endoplasmic reticulum export and quality control of human class I MHC molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladasky, John J; Boyle, Sarah; Seth, Malini; Li, Hewang; Pentcheva, Tsvetelina; Abe, Fumiyoshi; Steinberg, Steven J; Edidin, Michael

    2006-11-01

    The assembly of class I MHC molecules and their export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is governed by chaperones and accessory proteins. We present evidence that the putative cargo receptor protein Bap31 participates in the transport and the quality control of human class I molecules. Transfection of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa with yellow fluorescent protein-Bap31 chimeras increased surface levels of class I in a dose-dependent manner, by as much as 3.7-fold. The increase in surface class I resulted from an increase in the rate of export of newly synthesized class I molecules to the cell surface and from an increase in the stability of the exported molecules. We propose that Bap31 performs quality control on class I molecules in two distinct phases: first, by exporting peptide-loaded class I molecules to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment, and second, by retrieving class I molecules that have lost peptides in the acidic post-ER environment. This function of Bap31 is conditional or redundant, because we find that Bap31 deficiency does not reduce surface class I levels. Overexpression of the Bap31 homolog, Bap29, decreases surface class levels in HeLa, indicating that it does not substitute for Bap31.

  18. Novel immunohistochemical monoclonal antibody against rat B cell receptor Associated Protein 31 (BAP31).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chaojun; Yan, Binyuan; Chen, Lihua; Li, Yongming; Wei, Yuying; Sun, Yuanjie; Yang, Angang; Yang, Kun; Jin, Boquan

    2009-10-01

    BAP31 is an evolutionarily conserved polytopic integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane implicated in regulating the export of selected membrane proteins from the ER to downstream compartments of the secretory pathway. BAP31 interacts with mIgD, cellubrevin, major histocompatibility complex class I, and BCL-2/BCL-X(L) and plays an important role in regulating the egress of these proteins and in apoptosis. Although BAP31 RNA is ubiquitous, the protein's anatomic localization in rat tissues has not been determined. This is partially because production of high affinity antibodies, especially monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) suitable for immunohistochemical staining, has lagged. To gain further insight into its possible functions, we generated a novel MAb specific for rat BAP31 in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry and localized BAP31 in some rat tissues. Immunoreactivity of BAP31 was prominent in fundic glands, colon, pancreatic acinuses, and liver but not in skeleton muscle and lung. Thus, successful production of rat BAP31 monoclonal antibodies provides a new powerful tool for investigation of BAP31 function in the rat model.

  19. Binding of B(a)P diol epoxide to chromosomal histone proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kootstra, A.; Cronen, M. C.; Slaga, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    In order to understand how a chemical such as benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) exerts its carcinogenic effect, a fundamental knowledge is required concerning the interaction of metabolites of B(a)P with the macromolecules of the eukaryotic cell and the consequences of such interaction at the molecular level. Since current evidence suggests that the DNA is an important target of the ultimate carcinogenic form of B(a)P, the B(a)P diol epoxide, we have studied the binding of B(a)P diol epoxide (anti) to chromatin in vitro, in order to obtain some information about the interaction of this carcinogen with the various components of chromatin.

  20. Export of cellubrevin from the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by BAP31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annaert, W G; Becker, B; Kistner, U; Reth, M; Jahn, R

    1997-12-15

    Cellubrevin is a ubiquitously expressed membrane protein that is localized to endosomes throughout the endocytotic pathway and functions in constitutive exocytosis. We report that cellubrevin binds with high specificity to BAP31, a representative of a highly conserved family of integral membrane proteins that has recently been discovered to be binding proteins of membrane immunoglobulins. The interaction between BAP31 and cellubrevin is sensitive to high ionic strength and appears to require the transmembrane regions of both proteins. No other proteins of liver membrane extracts copurified with BAP31 on immobilized recombinant cellubrevin, demonstrating that the interaction is specific. Synaptobrevin I bound to BAP31 with comparable affinity, whereas only weak binding was detectable with synaptobrevin II. Furthermore, a fraction of BAP31 and cellubrevin was complexed when each of them was quantitatively immunoprecipitated from detergent extracts of fibroblasts (BHK 21 cells). During purification of clathrin-coated vesicles or early endosomes, BAP31 did not cofractionate with cellubrevin. Rather, the protein was enriched in ER-containing fractions. When BHK cells were analyzed by immunocytochemistry, BAP31 did not overlap with cellubrevin, but rather colocalized with resident proteins of the ER. In addition, immunoreactive vesicles were clustered in a paranuclear region close to the microtubule organizing center, but different from the Golgi apparatus. When microtubules were depolymerized with nocodazole, this accumulation disappeared and BAP31 was confined to the ER. Truncation of the cytoplasmic tail of BAP31 prevented export of cellubrevin, but not of the transferrin receptor from the ER. We conclude that BAP31 represents a novel class of sorting proteins that controls anterograde transport of certain membrane proteins from the ER to the Golgi complex.

  1. Efeito do BAP no cultivo in vitro de Ocimum selloi Benth Effect of BAP on in vitro culture of Ocimum selloi Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E.F. Monfort

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando promover a proliferação de brotações em segmentos apicais e nodais de Ocimum selloi em diferentes concentrações de BAP, plantas jovens de 60 dias serviram de doadoras de segmentos apicais e nodais. Os segmentos foram inoculados em meio MS preparado com a metade da concentração dos sais, e acrescido de 1,5% de sacarose e diferentes concentrações de BAP. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento fatorial, 3 x 4, sendo 3 as posições dos segmentos de O. selloi (segmento apical, primeiro e segundo segmentos nodais e 4 concentrações de BAP (0 - controle; 2; 4 e 6 mg L-1. Aos 30 dias, foram avaliados o número, comprimento e biomassa fresca e seca de brotos e raízes. Os primeiros e segundos segmentos apresentaram melhores resultados na indução de brotos de O. selloi, 7 e 8 brotos/explante, nas diferentes concentrações de BAP; porém, não houve formação de raízes na presença da citocinina. Nas condições testadas, recomenda-se o uso do primeiro e segundo segmento nodal suplementando o meio de cultivo com BAP para a proliferação in vitro de brotações de O. selloi.The present study was undertaken to develop the proliferation of sprouts in apical and nodal segments of Ocimum selloi with different BAP levels. Young plants aged 60 days were used as donors of nodal and apical segments. The segments were inoculated in MS medium at half the concentration of salts supplemented with 1.5% of sucrose and different BAP levels. The experiment was in 3 x 4 factorial arrangement, 3 positions of O. selloi segments (apical segment; first and second nodal segment and 3 BAP levels (0 - control; 2; 4 and 6 mg L-1. After 30 days, the number, the length, and the fresh and dry biomass of sprouts and roots were evaluated. The first and the second segments showed better results in inducing O. selloi sprouts, 7 and 8 sprouts/explant, at the different BAP levels, but there was not root formation in the presence of the cytokinin. Under the

  2. Bap29/31 influences the intracellular traffic of MHC class I molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Marie-Eve; Cohen-Doyle, Myrna; Shore, Gordon C; Williams, David B

    2004-06-15

    In this study, we examine the role of the putative cargo receptor B cell-associated protein (Bap)29/31 in the export of MHC class I molecules out of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that Bap31 binds to two allotypes of mouse class I molecules, with the interaction initiated at the time of H chain association with beta(2)-microglobulin and maintained until the class I molecule has left the ER. We also show that Bap31 is part of the peptide-loading complex, although is not required for its formation. Bap31 binds not only to class I molecules, but can bind to tapasin in the absence of class I. Consistent with an important role in recruiting class I molecules to transport vesicles, we show that in the absence of Bap29/31, there is a loss of class I colocalization with mSec31 (p137), a component of mammalian coat protein complex II coats. This observation is also associated with a delay in class I traffic from ER to Golgi. Our results are consistent with the view that class I molecules are largely recruited to ER exit sites by Bap29/31, and that Bap29/31 is a cargo receptor for MHC class I molecules.

  3. A BAP1 mutation in a Danish family predisposes to uveal melanoma and other cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G Aoude

    Full Text Available Truncating germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA-1 associated protein-1 (BAP1 have been reported in families predisposed to developing a wide range of different cancer types including uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. There has also been an association between amelanotic tumor development and germline BAP1 mutation suggesting a possible phenotypic characteristic of BAP1 mutation carriers. Though there have been many types of cancer associated with germline BAP1 mutation, the full spectrum of disease association is yet to be ascertained. Here we describe a Danish family with predominantly uveal melanoma but also a range of other tumor types including lung, neuroendocrine, stomach, and breast cancer; as well as pigmented skin lesions. Whole-exome sequencing identified a BAP1 splice mutation located at c.581-2A>G, which leads to a premature truncation of BAP1 in an individual with uveal melanoma. This mutation was carried by several other family members with melanoma or various cancers. The finding expands on the growing profile of BAP1 as an important uveal and cutaneous melanoma tumor suppressor gene and implicates its involvement in the development of lung, and stomach cancer.

  4. Identification of an amyloidogenic peptide from the Bap protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembré, Pierre; Vendrely, Charlotte; Martino, Patrick Di

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm associated proteins (Bap) are involved in the biofilm formation process of several bacterial species. The sequence STVTVT is present in Bap proteins expressed by many Staphylococcus species, Acinetobacter baumanii and Salmonella enterica. The peptide STVTVTF derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein from Staphylococcus epidermidis was selected through the AGGRESCAN, PASTA, and TANGO software prediction of protein aggregation and formation of amyloid fibers. We characterized the self-assembly properties of the peptide STVTVTF by different methods: in the presence of the peptide, we observed an increase in the fluorescence intensity of Thioflavin T; many intermolecular β-sheets and fibers were spontaneously formed in peptide preparations as observed by infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy analyses. In conclusion, a 7 amino acids peptide derived from the C-repeat of the Bap protein was sufficient for the spontaneous formation of amyloid fibers. The possible involvement of this amyloidogenic sequence in protein-protein interactions is discussed.

  5. 26. V avatakse kunstiakadeemia galeriis näitus "BAP vs. CAPO"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Näitusel alapealkirjaga "Kujutav kunst versus kujuteldamatu" näeb maale, graafikat, fotosid, propagandaplakateid, taustaks rahustav muusika (BAP). Osaleb grafitikunstnike rühmitus CAPO, plakatimeister KORK, minimalist Samot Mint

  6. Export of Cellubrevin from the Endoplasmic Reticulum Is Controlled by BAP31

    OpenAIRE

    Annaert, Wim G.; Becker, Bernd; Kistner, Ute; Reth, Michael; Jahn, Reinhard

    1997-01-01

    Cellubrevin is a ubiquitously expressed membrane protein that is localized to endosomes throughout the endocytotic pathway and functions in constitutive exocytosis. We report that cellubrevin binds with high specificity to BAP31, a representative of a highly conserved family of integral membrane proteins that has recently been discovered to be binding proteins of membrane immunoglobulins. The interaction between BAP31 and cellubrevin is sensitive to high ionic strength and appears to require ...

  7. [Effects of BaP exposure on ultrastructures of hepatic cells of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Zheng, Weiyun; Ouyang, Gaoliang; Hong, Wanshu

    2003-10-01

    The changes of ultrastructures of hepatic cells of Boleophthalmus pectinirostris were investigated after the fish were exposed under benzo(a) pyrene in different concentrations under experimental condition. The results showed that the organelles in hepatic cells of B. pectinirostris were damaged to different extents after the fish was exposed under lower concentration of BaP (0.5 mg.L-1) for up to 7 d, in which, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum were the chief organelles affected by BaP exposure. While the fish was exposed under higher concentration of BaP (5 mg.L-1) for 2 h, almost all of the organelles including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in hepatic cells of B. pectinirostr were affected by BaP exposure. The structures of liver cells were seriously damaged. It was demonstrated that BaP could produce multiorganalle lesions in hepatic cells of B. pectinirostris, and the severity extent of such lesions was dependent on the concentration level of BaP.

  8. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialegna, Agustina; Navarro, Susanna; Ventura, Salvador; Garnett, James A; Matthews, Steve; Penades, José R; Lasa, Iñigo; Valle, Jaione

    2016-06-01

    Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Loss of expression of BAP1 predicts longer survival in mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Mahtab; Toon, Christopher W; Clarkson, Adele; Sioson, Loretta; Watson, Nicole; Andrici, Juliana; Gill, Anthony J

    2015-06-01

    BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1) is a tumour suppressor gene frequently inactivated in mesothelioma, rarely also in association with germline mutation. BAP1 mutations have been associated with improved prognosis and distinct clinicopathological features. We sought to determine the clinicopathological significance of BAP1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) in mesothelioma.We performed IHC on a tissue microarray (TMA) cohort comprising all available thoracic mesotheliomas encountered during the period 1991-2014 at our institution (n = 229). All cases were independently reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and subclassify as epithelioid, sarcomatoid or biphasic. The median age at diagnosis was 72 years; 188 (82.1%) were male; 120 (52.4%) were epithelioid (median survival 13.0 months), 67 (29.3%) sarcomatoid (median survival 5.6 months) and 42 (18.3%) biphasic (median survival 10.6 months). Negative staining for BAP1 (defined as completely absent nuclear staining in the presence of positive internal controls in non-neoplastic cells) occurred in 106 (46.3%) mesotheliomas. There was complete interobserver concordance for BAP1 IHC status. BAP1 loss was strongly associated with younger age at onset (p mesothelioma.

  10. Staphylococcal Bap Proteins Build Amyloid Scaffold Biofilm Matrices in Response to Environmental Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglialegna, Agustina; Navarro, Susanna; Ventura, Salvador; Garnett, James A.; Matthews, Steve; Penades, José R.; Lasa, Iñigo; Valle, Jaione

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are communities of bacteria that grow encased in an extracellular matrix that often contains proteins. The spatial organization and the molecular interactions between matrix scaffold proteins remain in most cases largely unknown. Here, we report that Bap protein of Staphylococcus aureus self-assembles into functional amyloid aggregates to build the biofilm matrix in response to environmental conditions. Specifically, Bap is processed and fragments containing at least the N-terminus of the protein become aggregation-prone and self-assemble into amyloid-like structures under acidic pHs and low concentrations of calcium. The molten globule-like state of Bap fragments is stabilized upon binding of the cation, hindering its self-assembly into amyloid fibers. These findings define a dual function for Bap, first as a sensor and then as a scaffold protein to promote biofilm development under specific environmental conditions. Since the pH-driven multicellular behavior mediated by Bap occurs in coagulase-negative staphylococci and many other bacteria exploit Bap-like proteins to build a biofilm matrix, the mechanism of amyloid-like aggregation described here may be widespread among pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27327765

  11. Control of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator expression by BAP31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, G; Becker, B; Schreiber, R; Boucherot, A; Reth, M; Kunzelmann, K

    2001-06-08

    Expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is stringently controlled by molecular chaperones participating in formation of the quality control system. It has been shown that about 75% of all CFTR protein and close to 100% of the [DeltaPhe(508)] CFTR variant are rapidly degraded before leaving the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). B cell antigen receptor-associated proteins (BAPs) are ubiquitously expressed integral membrane proteins that may control association with the cytoskeleton, vesicular transport, or retrograde transport from the cis Golgi to the ER. The present study delivers evidence for cytosolic co-localization of both BAP31 and CFTR and for the control of expression of recombinant CFTR in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and Xenopus oocytes by BAP31. Antisense inhibition of BAP31 in various cell types increased expression of both wild-type CFTR and [DeltaPhe(508)]CFTR and enabled cAMP-activated Cl(-) currents in [DeltaPhe(508)]CFTR-expressing CHO cells. Coexpression of CFTR together with BAP31 attenuated cAMP-activated Cl(-) currents in Xenopus oocytes. These data therefore suggest association of BAP31 with CFTR that may control maturation or trafficking of CFTR and thus expression in the plasma membrane.

  12. Bap31 is a novel target of the human papillomavirus E5 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jennifer A; Laimins, Laimonis A

    2008-10-01

    The E5 proteins of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small hydrophobic proteins that are expressed in the early and late stages of the viral life cycle; however, their role in HPV pathogenesis is not clearly understood. In this study, a split-ubiquitin yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid system was used to identify B-cell-associated protein 31 (Bap31) as a binding partner of HPV E5 proteins. The association of these proteins was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of complexes of Bap31 with either HPV type 16 (HPV16) or HPV31 E5. In addition, Bap31 and E5 were found to colocalize in perinuclear patterns consistent with localization to the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutational analysis of E5 identified amino acids in the extreme C terminus as important for stabilizing the interaction with Bap31. Deletion of these C-terminal amino acids of E5 in the context of complete HPV31 genomes resulted in impaired proliferative capacity of HPV-positive keratinocytes following differentiation. When small interfering RNAs were used to reduce the levels of Bap31, the proliferative ability of HPV-positive keratinocytes upon differentiation was also reduced, implicating Bap31 as a regulator of this process. These studies identify a novel binding partner of the high-risk HPV E5 proteins and provide insight into how the E5 proteins may modulate the life cycle in differentiating cells.

  13. A high-molecular-weight complex of membrane proteins BAP29/BAP31 is involved in the retention of membrane-bound IgD in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamel, Wolfgang W A; Kuppig, Stephan; Becker, Bernd; Gimborn, Kerstin; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Reth, Michael

    2003-08-19

    B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprising membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mIgs) and Ig-alpha/Ig-beta heterodimers. In most cases, transport of mIgs from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface requires assembly with the Ig-alpha/Ig-beta subunits. In addition to Ig-alpha/Ig-beta, mIg molecules also bind two ER-resident membrane proteins, BAP29 and BAP31, and the chaperone heavy chain binding protein (BiP). In this article, we show that neither Ig-alpha/Ig-beta nor BAP29/BAP31 nor BiP bind simultaneously to the same mIgD molecule. Blue native PAGE revealed that only a minor fraction of intracellular mIgD is associated with high-molecular-weight BAP29/BAP31 complexes. BAP-binding to mIgs was found to correlate with ER retention of chimeric mIgD molecules. On high-level expression in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, mIgD molecules were detected on the cell surface in the absence of Ig-alpha/Ig-beta. This aberrant transport was prevented by coexpression of BAP29 and BAP31. Thus, BAP complexes contribute to ER retention of mIg complexes that are not bound to Ig-alpha/Ig-beta. Furthermore, the mechanism of ER retention of both BAP31 and mIgD is not through retrieval from a post-ER compartment, but true ER retention. In conclusion, BAP29 and BAP31 might be the long sought after retention proteins and/or chaperones that act on transmembrane regions of various proteins.

  14. Yet1p and Yet3p, the Yeast Homologs of BAP29 and BAP31, Interact with the Endoplasmic Reticulum Translocation Apparatus and Are Required for Inositol Prototrophy*

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Joshua D.; Barlowe, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian B-cell receptor-associated proteins of 29 and 31 kDa (BAP29 and BAP31) are conserved integral membrane proteins that have reported roles in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control, ER export of secretory cargo, and programmed cell death. In this study we investigated the yeast homologs of BAP29 and BAP31, known as Yet1p and Yet3p, to gain insight on cellular function. We found that Yet1p forms a complex with Yet3p (Yet complex) and that complex assembly was important for subu...

  15. Jumping the gun: Smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Pye, V. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); Nixon, B.; Roman, S.D. [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); McLaughlin, E.A., E-mail: eileen.mclaughlin@newcastle.edu.au [Reproductive Science Group, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence in Biotechnology and Development, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW2308 (Australia)

    2012-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5 mg/kg/daily) and high (3 mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility. -- Highlights: ► BaP exposure up-regulates canonical pathways linked with follicular growth/atresia. ► BaP causes primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia. ► BaP causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation, impairing fertilisation. ► Short term neonatal BaP exposure compromises adult oocyte quality.

  16. Caspase-Resistant BAP31 Inhibits Fas-Mediated Apoptotic Membrane Fragmentation and Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Mai; Breckenridge, David G.; Ducret, Axel; Shore, Gordon C

    2000-01-01

    BAP31 is a 28-kDa integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum whose cytosolic domain contains two identical caspase recognition sites (AAVD.G) that are preferentially cleaved by initiator caspases, including caspase 8. Cleavage of BAP31 during apoptosis generates a p20 fragment that remains integrated in the membrane and, when expressed ectopically, is a potent inducer of cell death. To examine the consequences of maintaining the structural integrity of BAP31 during apoptosis, the ...

  17. Current management of bipolar affective disorder: is it reflective of the BAP guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, N; Dibben, C; Hunt, N

    2006-01-01

    In October 2003 the British Association of Psychopharmacology (BAP) published evidence-based guidelines on the management of bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to assess whether the guidelines could provide the basis for examining clinical decisions and the extent to which practice accords with these guidelines. Case notes of out patients with bipolar disorder were reviewed. Demographic details, and treatment recommendations were determined. The management of affective episodes was evaluated and compared with BAP guidelines. In 84 subjects, 224 affective episodes were identified. Treatment was consistent with BAP guidelines in 72% of episodes. Mania was more likely to be managed in accordance with guidelines than depression or mixed episodes. The use of antidepressant medication was the most likely intervention to deviate from recommendations. Reasons for treatments at odds with the guidelines were identified. Our study demonstrates that clinical practice among a range of psychiatrists broadly reflects the guidelines that have been issued by the British Association of Psychopharmacology (BAP). The BAP guidelines offer a practical and auditable basis for the short- and long-term treatment of bipolar affective disorder.

  18. [Research on the degradation of BaP with potassium ferrate characterized by fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Zhe; He, Qiang; Yu, Dan-Ni; Li, Si; Tan, Xue-Mei

    2012-07-01

    The degradation of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by potassium ferrate was researched by means of multiple fluorescence spectroscopic methods such as synchronous, time-scan, excitation emission matrix (EEM) and photometry, under the optimal condition. Within the degradation process, the characteristics of the BaP's concentration at different time-intervals, and the kinetics of the degradation of BaP by potassium ferrate were discussed. From the experimental data, both synchronous and EEM spectra's results showed that the concentration of BaP was reduced 90% by potassium ferrate within 20 s after degradation, and the reaction process was very slow after 60 s. The degradation kinetic equation, ln(F0/Ft) = 0.563 2t + 0.171 2, (R2 = 0.994 2), was obtained through a convenient and fast way combining the time-scan fluorescence data and photometry data, and the photometry included the synchronous photometry and emission photometry. According to the kinetic equation, the degradation of BaP by potassium ferrate was in accord with the order of the first order reaction. So this article could provide a very useful conference for the research on the pollutant degradation by potassium ferrate, especially for the degradation process and the degradation mechanisms.

  19. Biophotonics determination of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) plant growth regulator using OFRR biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gilmo; Kang, Sukwon; Lee, Kangjin; Kim, Giyoung; Son, Jaeryong; Mo, Changyeun

    2010-04-01

    The identification of pesticide and 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BAP) plant growth regulator was carried out using a label-free opto-fluidic ring resonator (OFRR) biosensor. The OFRR sensing platform is a recent advancement in opto-fluidic technology that integrates photonic sensing technology with microfluidics. It features quick detection time, small sample volume, accurate quantitative and kinetic results. The most predominant advantage of the OFRR integrated with microfluidics is that we can potentially realize the multi-channel and portable biosensor that detects numerous analytes simultaneously. Antisera for immunoassay were raised in rabbits against the 6-BAP-BSA conjugate. Using the immunization protocol and unknown cytokinin reacting with same antibody, comparable sensitivity and specificity were obtained. 6-BAP antibody was routinely used for cytokinin analysis. A sensitive and simple OFRR method with a good linear relationship was developed for the determination of 6-BAP. The detection limit was also examined. The biosensor demonstrated excellent reproducibility when periodically exposed to 6-BAP.

  20. Structural and functional studies of BapC protein of Bordetella pertussis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, Muhammad Rizwan; Siddiqi, Abdul Rauf; Bokhari, Habib

    2015-05-01

    Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough, attaches to mucosal surface in upper respiratory tract, where it produces a variety of surface associated and secreted autotransporter molecules among others. In this study we have cloned newly identified member of autotransporter family BapC (B. pertussis autotransporter protein C); expressed it in Escherichia coli and characterized it for its different properties. We have also raised antisera to BapC protein; the antisera were used in immunofluorescence assay to determine the surface association of the protein. Results suggest that BapC in B. pertussis Taberman parent is surface exposed when compared with the respective BapC mutant. The neutralizing effect of anti-BapC serum was also evaluated in the presence of active complement proteins and results suggest that antiserum can potentiate the killing of B. pertussis cells in the presence of added source of complement. Structure of the protein was also studied, both α and β domains of the protein were modeled, β domain exhibits typical transmembrane β-barrel porin topology whereas α domain behaves as a characteristic bacterial autotransporter passenger domain.

  1. GERMINATION AND MULTIPLICATION OF CARNATION USING BAP AND KIN IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Restelatto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to establish a system of in vitro multiplication for the harpsichord, the seeds were sterilized in sodium hypochlorite and inoculated in MS. The induction of axillary buds used the BAP and Kinetin (KIN at concentrations of 0; 2,0 and 4,0 mg/L. Was added, 3% (w/v sucrose, 0,6 (w/v agar and the pH ± 5.8. 40 days after the inoculation of seeds, germination was evaluated. The best average germination occurred in T1 (0 min in hypochlorite and T3 (10 min in hypochlorite (9,0 and 8,75 treatments, respectively, differing T2 (5 min in hypochlorite (3,75. In the formation of axillary buds, treatment T1 (2,0 mg / L BAP presented (7,1 buds /explant. Have the treatment T3 (4,0 mg /L BAP presented (5,5 buds / explant, and T1 (zero BAP statistically had the lowest bud formation (3,73 buds / explant. For CIN, it was observed that the best response (5,6 and 5,1 buds/explants were in the T1 (0 CIN and T3 (4.0 mg /L KIN treatments whereas in T2 (2,0 mg /L CIN had the lowest bud formation (2,7 buds /explant . Thus, sodium hypochlorite was effective in decontaminating and BAP and KIN hormones were effective for inducing gems

  2. Interaction between human BAP31 and respiratory syncytial virus small hydrophobic (SH) protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jain, Neeraj; Limpanawat, Suweeraya; To, Janet; Quistgaard, Esben M; Nordlund, Par; Thanabalu, Thirumaran; Torres, Jaume

    2015-08-01

    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein is a short channel-forming polypeptide encoded by the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). Deletion of SH protein leads to the viral attenuation in mice and primates, and delayed apoptosis in infected cells. We have used a membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system (MbY2H) and a library from human lung cDNA to detect proteins that bind SH protein. This led to the identification of a membrane protein, B-cell associated protein 31 (BAP31). Transfected SH protein co-localizes with transfected BAP31 in cells, and pulls down endogenous BAP31. Titration of purified C-terminal endodomain of BAP31 against isotopically labeled SH protein in detergent micelles suggests direct interaction between the two proteins. Given the key role of BAP31 in protein trafficking and its critical involvement in pro- and anti-apoptotic pathways, this novel interaction may constitute a potential drug target.

  3. BAP31 and its caspase cleavage product regulate cell surface expression of tetraspanins and integrin-mediated cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Marina; Germain, Marc; Nguyen, Mai; Shore, Gordon C

    2005-08-26

    BAP31, a resident integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, regulates the export of other integral membrane proteins to the downstream secretory pathway. Here we show that cell surface expression of the tetraspanins CD9 and CD81 is compromised in mouse cells from which the Bap31 gene has been deleted. CD9 and CD81 facilitate the function of multiprotein complexes at the plasma membrane, including integrins. Of note, BAP31 does not appear to influence the egress of alpha5beta1 or alpha(v)beta3 integrins to the cell surface, but in Bap31-null mouse cells, these integrins are not able to maintain cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix in the presence of reduced serum. Consequently, Bap31-null cells are sensitive to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Reconstitution of wild-type BAP31 into these Bap31-null cells restores integrin-mediated cell attachment and cell survival after serum stress, whereas interference with the functions of CD9, alpha5beta1, or alpha(v)beta3 by antagonizing antibodies makes BAP31 cells act similar to Bap31-null cells in these respects. Finally, in human KB epithelial cells protected from apoptosis by BCL-2, the caspase-8 cleavage product, p20 BAP31, inhibits egress of tetraspanin and integrin-mediated cell attachment. Thus, p20 BAP31 can operate upstream of BCL-2 in living cells to influence cell surface properties due to its effects on protein egress from the endoplasmic reticulum.

  4. Bap31 enhances the ER export and quality control of human class I MHC molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Ladasky, John J.; Boyle, Sarah; Seth, Malini; Li, Hewang; Pentcheva, Tsvetelina; ABE, FUMIYOSHI; Steinberg, Steven J.; Edidin, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The assembly of class I MHC molecules and their export from the endoplasmic reticulum is governed by chaperones and accessory proteins. We present evidence that the putative cargo receptor protein Bap31 participates in the transport and the quality control of human class I molecules. Transfection of the human adenocarcinoma cell line HeLa with YFP-Bap31 chimeras increased surface levels of class I in a dose-dependent manner, by as much as 3.7-fold. The increase in surface class I resulted fro...

  5. Bap, a biofilm matrix protein of Staphylococcus aureus prevents cellular internalization through binding to GP96 host receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Jaione; Latasa, Cristina; Gil, Carmen; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Solano, Cristina; Penadés, José R; Lasa, Iñigo

    2012-01-01

    The biofilm matrix, composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, plays a well-known role as a defence structure, protecting bacteria from the host immune system and antimicrobial therapy. However, little is known about its responsibility in the interaction of biofilm cells with host tissues. Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of biofilm-associated chronic infections, is able to develop a biofilm built on a proteinaceous Bap-mediated matrix. Here, we used the Bap protein as a model to investigate the role that components of the biofilm matrix play in the interaction of S. aureus with host cells. The results show that Bap promotes the adhesion but prevents the entry of S. aureus into epithelial cells. A broad analysis of potential interaction partners for Bap using ligand overlayer immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation with purified Bap and pull down with intact bacteria, identified a direct binding between Bap and Gp96/GRP94/Hsp90 protein. The interaction of Bap with Gp96 provokes a significant reduction in the capacity of S. aureus to invade epithelial cells by interfering with the fibronectin binding protein invasion pathway. Consistent with these results, Bap deficient bacteria displayed an enhanced capacity to invade mammary gland epithelial cells in a lactating mice mastitis model. Our observations begin to elucidate the mechanisms by which components of the biofilm matrix can facilitate the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of persistent infections.

  6. Evaluation of the presence of the bap gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from human and animals species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautor, E; Abadie, G; Pont, A; Thiery, R

    2008-03-18

    The implication of biofilm in chronic bacterial infection in many species has triggered an increasing interest in the characterization of genes involved in biofilm formation. The bap gene is a newly identified gene that encodes the biofilm-associated protein, BAP, which is involved in biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus. So far the bap gene has only been found in a small proportion of S. aureus strains from bovine mastitis in Spain. In order to study the presence of the bap gene in S. aureus isolates obtained from other species and various locations, a collection of 262 isolates was tested by PCR, using published primers and dot-blot. The results indicated that none of the isolates carried the bap gene suggesting that the prevalence of this gene among S. aureus isolates should be very low.

  7. [Study on continued degradation of BaP and its metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Shu-yan; Li, Pei-Jun; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin; Lin, Gui-feng; Wang, Juan

    2006-12-01

    Two metabolites, cis-BP4, 5-dihydrodiol and cis-BP7, 8-dihydrodiol, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) during the degradation of BaP by Bacillus-07 (BA-07). The two metabolites were hardly further metabolized for their toxicity to microorganism. To promote degradation of BaP and decrease accumulation of cis-BP4, 5-dihydrodiol and cis-BP7, 8-dihydrodiol, two methods (degradation only by BA-07, degradation by coupling the BA-07 and KMnO4) were compared. In addition, parameters of continued degradation of BaP and the two metabolites were optimized under the experiment conditions. The results showed that (1)the method of coupling the chemical oxidation and biodegradation (BA-07 and KMnO4) was better than only biodegradation (BA-07); (2) residue rate of cis-BP4, 5-dihydrodiol was higher than that of cis-BP7, 8-dihydrodiol when the samples were determined in the same time; (3)the effect of continued degradation was the best when the initial concentration of BaP was 40 microg/mL, pH value of the culture was 7.0, co-metabolic substrates was sodium succinate. Meanwhile, it was put forward that the method of coupling the chemical oxidation and biodegradation was effective on continued degradation of persistent organic contaminants in the environment.

  8. The gene bap, involved in biofilm production, is present in Staphylococcus spp. strains from nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Amina; Ceotto, Hilana; Giambiagi-Demarval, Marcia; dos Santos, Kátia Regina Netto; Nes, Ingolf F; Bastos, Maria do Carmo de Freire

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed ten strains of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) involved in nosocomial infections in three Brazilian hospitals. Their antibiotic susceptibility profile showed that most strains exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance and possessed the mecA gene. The ability of these strains to adhere to polystyrene microtiter plates was also tested and nine of them proved to be biofilm producers at least in one of the three conditions tested: growth in TSB, in TSB supplemented with NaCl, or in TSB supplemented with glucose. The presence of the bap gene, which codes for the biofilm-associated protein (Bap), was investigated in all ten strains by PCR. AU strains were bop-positive and DNA sequencing experiments confirmed that the fragments amplified were indeed part of a bap gene. The presence of the icaA gene, one of the genes involved in polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) formation, was also detected by PCR in eight of the ten strains tested. The two icaA-negative strains were either weak biofilm producer or no biofilm producer, although they were bop-positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of the bap gene in nosocomial isolates of CNS, being also the first report on the presence of this gene in Staphylococcus haemolyticus and S. cohnii.

  9. A cryptic BAP1 splice mutation in a family with uveal and cutaneous melanoma, and paraganglioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, K.; Choi, J.; Chung, J.Y.;

    2012-01-01

    as paraganglioma, breast cancer, and suspected mesothelioma cases in the family. Bioinformatic analysis and splicing assays demonstrated that this mutation creates a strong cryptic splice donor, resulting in aberrant splicing and a truncating frameshift of the BAP1 transcript. Somatic loss of the wild-type allele...

  10. PENGARUH NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP EKSPLAN PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L. Urb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Sudrajad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. representing one of theplant which good of as drug. Plantof pegagan (Centella asiática (L. Urb. good of  to launch the urine, degrading blood pressure and quicken to heal the hurt. Ready of the seed for the crop of drug which require to be paid attention by quality from itself seed. One of the alternative to get the uniform seed and a flash in the pan is with the technique of tissue culture. Tissue culturelaboratory research was conducted Researchand Development Center for Medicinal Plantsand Traditional MedicineTawangmangu. Research Method use the Random Device of Complete Group at MS (Murashige Skoog media with the treatment ofplant growth regulator the NAA concentration 0, 1, 3 and 5 mg / l and BAP concentration 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 mg / l. Result of research show the combination of  giving of NAA 1 until 3 mg / l and BAP 1 until 5 mg / l of is condition of explan experience of the change become the callus. Treatment of combination NAA 3 mg / l and BAP 4 mg / l give the best result to callus forming with the quicker callus forming time that is 25 day. Keywords : Pegagan, Centella asiática (L. Urb., tissue culture, NAA, BAP

  11. Removals of non-analogous OTC and BaP in AMCBR with and without primary substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Hakan; Gök, Oğuzhan; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of mixed non-analogous two substrates was studied in a binary system with and without the primary substrate using an anaerobic multichamber bed (AMCBR). In the binary mixture, the biodegradation of less-degradable oxytetracycline (OTC) was restarted in the presence of more degradable benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the initial runs of the AMCBR, but enhanced biodegradation of the more recalcitrant OTC occurs in the later runs of the AMCBR due to enhanced biomass growth on dual substrates without the primary carbon source. The biodegradation yields of the OTC, BaP were discussed with sole-substrate systems and with the dual substrate system in the presence of the primary substrate. The maximum OTC and BaP yields were 93% in Run 3 with the primary substrate, while the maximum BaP and OTC yields were 95%, 98% in Run 3 without the primary substrate. A dual form of the Monod was found to adequately predict the substrate interactions in the binary mixture of OTC and BaP using only the parameters derived from batch experiments. At low BaP (4 mg L(-1)) and OTC (40 mg L(-1)) concentrations, a non-competitive inhibition does not affect the binding of the substrate and so the K(s) were was not affected while the µ(max) was lowered. At high BaP (10 mg L(-1)) and OTC (100 mg L(-1)) concentrations, the BaP and OTC were biodegraded according to competitive inhibition with increased K(s) while µ(max) was not affected. BaP and OTC were biodegraded according to Haldane at high concentrations (>10 mg L(-1) for BaP, 100 mg L(-1) OTC) where they were used as the sole substrate.

  12. BAP31 is involved in the retention of cytochrome P450 2C2 in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesna-Skorupa, Elzbieta; Kemper, Byron

    2006-02-17

    Microsomal cytochrome P450 2C2 is an integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein that is directly retained in the ER and excluded from transport vesicles. We have used bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation to show that a ubiquitous ER membrane protein (BAP31) interacts with P450 2C2 in transfected COS-1 cells. A chimera containing only the N-terminal signal anchor of P450 2C1 (P450 2C1-(1-29)) also interacted with BAP31, which is consistent with interaction of the two proteins via their transmembrane domains. Down-regulation of BAP31 expression with small interfering RNA resulted in redistribution of green fluorescent protein-tagged P450 2C2 or P450 2C1-(1-29) from the ER into the nuclear membrane and compact perinuclear compartment structures as well as the cell surface in a small fraction of the cells. In Bap31-null embryonic stem cells, a significant fraction of P450 2C2 or P450 2C1-(1-29) was detected at the cell surface and nuclear envelope, but was redistributed to the ER by expression of BAP31. The expression level of P450 2C2 was significantly increased in COS-1 cells with repressed levels of BAP31. Formation of the pro-apoptotic p20 fragment of BAP31 was detected in transfected COS-1 cells expressing P450 2C2, and annexin V staining was consistent with the activation of an apoptotic pathway in these cells. Down-regulation of BAP31 with small interfering RNA partially reversed the apoptosis. These results suggest that interaction of P450 2C2 with BAP31 is important for its ER retention and expression level and that BAP31 may be involved in the regulation of apoptosis induced by the ER overload response to increased expression of P450.

  13. Molecular characteristics of bap-positive Staphylococcus aureus strains from dairy cow mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snel, Gustavo G M; Monecke, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf; Piccinini, Renata

    2015-08-01

    The biofilm-associated protein (Bap) of Staphylococcus aureus is a high molecular weight cell-wall-anchored protein involved in biofilm formation, first described in bovine mastitis strains from Spain. So far, studies regarding Bap were mainly based on the Spanish strain V329 and its mutants, but no information on the genetic variability of bap-positive Staph. aureus strains is yet available in the literature. The present study investigated the molecular characteristics of 8 bap-positive Staph. aureus strains from subclinical bovine mastitis, isolated in 5 herds; somatic cell counts (SCC) of milk samples were also registered. Strains were characterised using MLST, SPA typing and microarray and the results were compared with V329. All isolates from this study and V329 were assigned to ST126, t605, but some molecular differences were observed. Only herd A and B strains harboured the genes for β-lactams resistance; the leukocidin D/E gene, a type I site-specific deoxyribonuclease subunit, 3rd locus gene and serin-protease A and B were carried by all strains, but not by V329, while serin-protease E was absent in V329 and in another isolate. Four isolates and V329 harboured the fibronectin-binding protein B gene. SCC showed the highest value in the milk sample affected by the only strain carrying all the virulence factors considered. Potential large variability of virulence was evidenced among V329 and all bap-positive Staph. aureus strains considered: the carriage of fnb could enhance the accumulation of biofilm, but the lack of lukD/E and splA, B or E might decrease the invasiveness of strain.

  14. Uncleaved BAP31 in association with A4 protein at the endoplasmic reticulum is an inhibitor of Fas-initiated release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Nguyen, Mai; Breckenridge, David G; Stojanovic, Marina; Clemons, Paul A; Kuppig, Stephan; Shore, Gordon C

    2003-04-18

    BAP31 is a polytopic integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and, like BID, is a preferred substrate of caspase-8. Upon Fas/CD95 stimulation, BAP31 is cleaved within its cytosolic domain, generating proapoptotic p20 BAP31. In human KB epithelial cells expressing the caspase-resistant mutant crBAP31, Fas stimulation resulted in cleavage of BID and insertion of BAX into mitochondrial membrane, but subsequent oligomerization of BAX and BAK, egress of cytochrome c to the cytosol, and apoptosis were impaired. Bap31-null mouse cells expressing crBAP31 cannot generate the endogenous p20 BAP31 cleavage product, yet crBAP31 conferred resistance to cellular condensation and cytochrome c release in response to activation of ectopic FKBPcasp8 by FK1012z. Full-length BAP31, therefore, is a direct inhibitor of these caspase-8-initiated events, acting independently of its ability to sequester p20, with which it interacts. Employing a novel split ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid screen for BAP31-interacting membrane proteins, the putative ion channel protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, A4, was detected and identified as a constitutive binding partner of BAP31 in human cells. Ectopic A4 that was introduced into A4-deficient cells cooperated with crBAP31 to resist Fas-induced egress of cytochrome c from mitochondria and cytoplasmic apoptosis.

  15. CDIP1-BAP31 Complex Transduces Apoptotic Signals from Endoplasmic Reticulum to Mitochondria under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Namba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response is essential for intracellular homeostatic balance, but unsettled ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we show that a proapoptotic p53 target, CDIP1, acts as a key signal transducer of ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. We identify B-cell-receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31 as an interacting partner of CDIP1. Upon ER stress, CDIP1 is induced and enhances an association with BAP31 at the ER membrane. We also show that CDIP1 binding to BAP31 is required for BAP31 cleavage upon ER stress and for BAP31-Bcl-2 association. The recruitment of Bcl-2 to the BAP31-CDIP1 complex, as well as CDIP1-dependent truncated Bid (tBid and caspase-8 activation, contributes to BAX oligomerization. Genetic knockout of CDIP1 in mice leads to impaired response to ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the CDIP1/BAP31-mediated regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway represents a mechanism for establishing an ER-mitochondrial crosstalk for ER-stress-mediated apoptosis signaling.

  16. CDIP1-BAP31 complex transduces apoptotic signals from endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria under endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, Takushi; Tian, Fang; Chu, Kiki; Hwang, So-Young; Yoon, Kyoung Wan; Byun, Sanguine; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Mandinova, Anna; Lee, Sam W

    2013-10-31

    Resolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is essential for intracellular homeostatic balance, but unsettled ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we show that a proapoptotic p53 target, CDIP1, acts as a key signal transducer of ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. We identify B-cell-receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) as an interacting partner of CDIP1. Upon ER stress, CDIP1 is induced and enhances an association with BAP31 at the ER membrane. We also show that CDIP1 binding to BAP31 is required for BAP31 cleavage upon ER stress and for BAP31-Bcl-2 association. The recruitment of Bcl-2 to the BAP31-CDIP1 complex, as well as CDIP1-dependent truncated Bid (tBid) and caspase-8 activation, contributes to BAX oligomerization. Genetic knockout of CDIP1 in mice leads to impaired response to ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. Altogether, our data demonstrate that the CDIP1/BAP31-mediated regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathway represents a mechanism for establishing an ER-mitochondrial crosstalk for ER-stress-mediated apoptosis signaling.

  17. Fis1 and Bap31 bridge the mitochondria-ER interface to establish a platform for apoptosis induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, Ryota; Mahul-Mellier, Anne-Laure; Datler, Christoph; Pazarentzos, Evangelos; Grimm, Stefan

    2011-02-02

    The mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are two organelles that critically contribute to apoptosis induction. While it is established that they communicate, how cell death signals are transmitted from the mitochondria to the ER is unknown. Here, we show that the mitochondrial fission protein Fission 1 homologue (Fis1) conveys an apoptosis signal from the mitochondria to the ER by interacting with Bap31 at the ER and facilitating its cleavage into the pro-apoptotic p20Bap31. Exogenous apoptosis inducers likewise use this signalling route and induce the procession of Bap31. Moreover, we show that the recruitment of procaspase-8 to the Fis1-Bap31 platform is an early event during apoptosis induction. The association of procaspase-8 with the Fis1-Bap31 complex is dependent on the variant of death effector domain (vDED) in Bap31 and is required for the activation of procaspase-8. This signalling pathway establishes a feedback loop by releasing Ca(2+) from the ER that activates the mitochondria for apoptosis. Hence, the Fis1-Bap31 complex (ARCosome) that spans the mitochondria-ER interface serves as a platform to activate the initiator procaspase-8, and thereby bridges two critical organelles for apoptosis signalling.

  18. Interaction of Bap31 and MHC class I molecules and their traffic out of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Fumiyoshi; Van Prooyen, Nancy; Ladasky, John J; Edidin, Michael

    2009-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Bap31 associates with nascent class I MHC molecules. It appears to mediate the export of class I MHC molecules from the ER and may also be involved in their quality control. In this study, we use Förster resonance energy transfer and quantitative fluorescence imaging to show that in human, HeLa cells, Bap31 clusters with MHC class I (HLA-A2) molecules in the ER, and traffics via export vesicles to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment. Förster resonance energy transfer between Bap31 and HLA-A2 and forward traffic increases when MHC class I molecules are loaded with a pulse of peptide. The increased forward traffic is blocked by overexpression of Bap29, a partner protein for Bap31, which localizes to the ER. Thus, in HeLa cells, Bap31 is involved in the exit of peptide-loaded MHC class I from the ER, and its function is regulated by its interaction with its homologue, Bap29.

  19. The procaspase-8 isoform, procaspase-8L, recruited to the BAP31 complex at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, David G; Nguyen, Mai; Kuppig, Stephan; Reth, Michael; Shore, Gordon C

    2002-04-02

    BAP31 is an integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and a substrate of caspase-8. Here, we describe the procaspase-8 isoform, procaspase-8L, which is ubiquitously expressed and selectively recruited to the BAP31 complex in response to apoptotic signaling by E1A. Procaspase-8L is characterized by the N-terminal extension (Nex) domain, which extends procaspase-8/a at the N terminus and is required for selective association of procaspase-8L with the BAP31 complex. Gene deletion identified BAP31 and related BAP29 as required for processing of procaspase-8L in response to E1A, by a FADD-independent mechanism that was blocked by BCL-2. Further, Bap29,31 deletion, as well as a Nex-domain dominant-negative mutant, curtailed the activation of downstream caspases (IETDase and DEVDase) and cell death in response to E1A. Preferential recruitment of procaspase-8L by the BAP31 complex at the endoplasmic reticulum suggests an additional pathway for regulating initiator caspase-8 during apoptosis.

  20. BAP31 interacts with Sec61 translocons and promotes retrotranslocation of CFTRDeltaF508 via the derlin-1 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Heath-Engel, Hannah; Zhang, Donglei; Nguyen, Nhi; Thomas, David Y; Hanrahan, John W; Shore, Gordon C

    2008-06-13

    BAP31 is an endoplasmic reticulum protein-sorting factor that associates with newly synthesized integral membrane proteins and controls their fate (i.e., egress, retention, survival, or degradation). BAP31 is itself an integral membrane protein and a constituent of several large protein complexes. Here, we show that a part of the BAP31 population interacts with two components of the Sec61 preprotein translocon, Sec61beta and TRAM. BAP31 associates with the N terminus of one of its newly synthesized client proteins, the DeltaF508 mutant of CFTR, and promotes its retrotranslocation from the ER and degradation by the cytoplasmic 26S proteasome system. Depletion of BAP31 reduces the proteasomal degradation of DeltaF508 and permits a significant fraction of the surviving protein to reach the cell surface. Of note, BAP31 also associates physically and functionally with the Derlin-1 protein disclocation complex in the DeltaF508 degradation pathway. Thus, BAP31 operates at early steps to deliver newly synthesized CFTRDeltaF508 to its degradation pathway.

  1. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI NAA DAN BAP TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TUNAS EKSPLAN TANAMAN PISANG CAVENDISH (Musa paradisiaca L. MELALUI KULTUR IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saktiyono Sigit Tri Pamungkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find the optimized combination micropropagation technique of Pisang “Cavendish” using Napthaleneacetic acid (NAA and Benzylaminopurin (BAP on culture in vitro. The research was conducted in Balai Benih Induk Hortikultura laboratorium (270 m upper sea level Salaman, Magelang, Central Java from November 2008 - Januari 2009. Design used was Complete Randomized Design. Experimental factor were concentration of NAA and BAP. NAA concentration comparised four levels (0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm. BAP concentration comparised four levels (0, 3, 6, and 9 ppm. Obtained data was analyzed by F test, when significantly different then followed by LSD test with 5% level. Observed variables is longest roots, total of buds, and total of roots. Statistic analysis result showed that concentration of BAP have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 0 ppm of BAP (B0 yielding optimalized on longest root ( 8,3 cm. Concentration of NAA have significant effect on longest roots. Concentration 2 ppm of NAA (N2 yielding optimalized on longest root (6,0 cm. Concentration of BAP have significant effect on total buds. Concentration 9 ppm of BAP (B3 yielding optimalized on total of buds (2,5.

  2. Multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa': efeito da citocinina BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogalski Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' apresenta alta produtividade, ótimo sabor e aparência dos frutos para a comercialização. No entanto, por ser altamente suscetível à escaldadura das folhas (Xylella fastidiosa Wells, esta variedade apresenta problemas de cultivo no sul do Brasil. As técnicas de cultura in vitro permitem propagar e rapidamente espécies de interesse, além de permitir a limpeza de patógenos e a produção de matrizes com qualidade genética e sanitária comprovada. Porém, o uso prático da propagação in vitro requer a otimização das condições de cultura para cada espécie e/ou variedade. Dentre os fatores que mais influenciam a micropropagação, estão as citocininas, com destaque para o BAP. O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' sob diferentes concentrações de BAP. Após três subculturas em meio MA1, segmentos nodais com 0,5-1,0 cm foram submetidos a diferentes concentrações de BAP (0,5; 1,0; 2,0 e 3,0 mg.L-1. Os resultados mostraram que não ocorreram diferenças significativas no número de brotos para as diferentes concentrações de BAP testadas. No entanto, o maior número de brotos por explante (3,6 obteve-se na concentração de 2,0 mg.L-1 e a maior altura média dos brotos foi obtido na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP. Concentrações maiores que a 0,5 mg.L-1 de BAP inibiram o crescimento dos brotos. A micropropagação da ameixeira 'Santa Rosa' a partir de ápices caulinares e gemas laterais em meio de cultura MA1 mostrou-se eficaz.

  3. Synergistic effect of BAP and GA3 on in vitro flowering of Guizotia abyssinica Cass.-A multipurpose oil crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, S; Bansal, Y K

    2014-04-01

    Apical and axillary buds of Guizotia abyssinica Cass., isolated from seedlings raised in vitro, were cultured. High frequency of shoot regeneration was achieved on MS medium with BAP (1 mgl(-1)). Effect of BAP, Kn and GA3 applied successively in culture on shoot regeneration and flower bud formation has been studied. The shoots differentiated in cultures elongated on this medium. These rooted subsequently on half strength MS medium. The shoots flowered in vitro on MS medium with a combination of BAP (0.1mgl(-1)) + GA3 (0.1 mgl(-1)). The plantlets thus formed were successfully hardened with 90 % survival.

  4. CDIP1-BAP31 Complex Transduces Apoptotic Signals from Endoplasmic Reticulum to Mitochondria under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Takushi Namba; Fang Tian; Kiki Chu; So-Young Hwang; Kyoung Wan Yoon; Sanguine Byun; Masatsugu Hiraki; Anna Mandinova; Sam W. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Resolved endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is essential for intracellular homeostatic balance, but unsettled ER stress can lead to apoptosis. Here, we show that a proapoptotic p53 target, CDIP1, acts as a key signal transducer of ER-stress-mediated apoptosis. We identify B-cell-receptor-associated protein 31 (BAP31) as an interacting partner of CDIP1. Upon ER stress, CDIP1 is induced and enhances an association with BAP31 at the ER membrane. We also show that CDIP1 binding to BAP31 i...

  5. Preliminary structural studies on the leucine-zipper homology region of the human protein Bap31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukasa, Takashi; Santelli, Eugenio; Reed, John C; Pascual, Jaime

    2007-04-01

    B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31) is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that participates in the transport and quality control of membrane proteins and plays a role in determining cell sensitivity to ER stress and apoptosis. Its cytoplasmic region contains two target sites for caspase cleavage in certain apoptotic pathways. Here, the subcloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the Homo sapiens Bap31 leucine-zipper C-terminal fragment, which spans residues Gly160-Glu246, are reported. An N-terminally His-tagged protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.5 A resolution. Crystals belong to space group P6(1)22/P6(5)22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 70.7, c = 80.6 A. Data analysis indicates the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  6. Mesothelioma: Identification of the Key Molecular Events Triggered by BAP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Models . Springer, New York; 2005. 6. Dey A, Seshasayee D, Noubade R, French DM, Liu J, Chaurushiya MS, Kirkpatrick DS, Pham VC, Lill JR, Bakalarski CE...by using a mouse model . 15. SUBJECT TERMS mesothelioma, BAP1, asbestos, mechanisms 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...process of MM development and progression in vivo, as proposed in Aim 3, we performed animal experiment using transgenic mice model . As we know, in some

  7. Palaeoenvironmental history of Bap-Malar and Kanod playas of western Rajasthan, Thar desert

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B C Deotare; M D Kajale; S N Rajaguru; S Kusumgar; A J T Jull; J D Donahue

    2004-09-01

    Two playas in the arid core of the western margin of the Thar desert viz., Bap-Malar and Kanod, have been investigated using palynology, geomorphology, archaeology, AMS-radiocarbon dating, stable isotopes, evaporite mineralogy and geoarchaeology. The principal objective was to obtain a reliable lithostratigraphy of the playa sediments. These are about 7m thick in the Bap-Malar and < 2.5 to 3m thick in the Kanod. AMS 14C dates of < 15 ka BP on pollen from sediment layers indicates that the Bap-Malar playa possibly existed even during the LGM. These playas were full of water during the early Holocene (8 ka BP — 5.5 ka BP) and were ephemeral during the Pleistocene- Holocene transition and early to mid to late Holocene. The playas dried almost 1000 years earlier than those occurring on the eastern margin. Pollen of graminaceae, chenopodiaceae / amaranthaceae, cyperaceae etc. and evaporite minerals like gypsum, halite in the profiles indicate that the playas were surrounded by vegetation dominated by grass and that, they remained brackish to saline even during the mid Holocene, lake full stage. Stable dune surfaces, pediments with regoliths, and gravelly channels of ephemeral streams provided a favorable geomorphic niche for nomadic human activity since ∼7 ka BP. Though local ecological factors have played an important role in the evolution of the playas, the winter rains, connected with northwesterly depressions, most likely played a vital role in maintaining these playas.

  8. EROD activity and genotoxicity in the seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri exposed to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Rocha, Arthur José; Gomes, Vicente; Rocha Passos, Maria José de Arruda Campos; Hasue, Fabio Matsu; Alves Santos, Thaís Cruz; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Taniguchi, Satie; Van Ngan, Phan

    2012-11-01

    Seabob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri is a marine species that lives in shallow waters of coastal environments, often impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) pollution. In the present study, seabob shrimp were exposed for 96 h to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) at the nominal concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 800 microg-L(-1). Animals of the control groups were exposed either to clean water or to the BaP-carrier (DMSO). At the end of the exposures, muscle tissues were sampled for BaP uptake assessment and hepatopancreas and hemolymph for EROD enzyme activity and hemocytes DNA damage, respectively. EROD activity and DNA damage increased significantly as a function of BaP exposure concentrations. Significant correlations between BaP uptake and both EROD activity and DNA damage suggest that they can be used as suitable tools for integrated levels of study on the biomarkers of PAH exposure.

  9. Preparation of BAP Composite Particles and Their Effects on Rheological Properties of HTPB/B/AP Slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun-Fei, Liu; Yu, Chen; Liang, Shi; Wei-Shang, Yao

    2014-04-01

    Composite particles (BAP) of boron (B) coated with ammonium perchlorate (AP) were prepared by recrystallization and their structures were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and laser particle size analyses. The results indicated that AP was well coated on the boron surface. The effects of different contents of BAP coated with different amounts of AP on the rheological properties of HTPB/B/AP composite slurries were also studied. The results show that addition of BAP distinctly decreased the slurries' viscosities and improved their processing properties, which were more obvious when 9.73% AP was coated on the surface of boron and the amount of BAP was 20%.

  10. BAP-65 and CURB-65 scores in prediction need for mechanical ventilation in patients with AECOPD%BAP-65和CURB-65评分预测AECOPD患者行机械通气的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋云; 崔妙玲; 杨祺; 刘小英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the scores of BAP-65 and CURB-65 in predicting need for mechanical venti-lation (MV)in patients with AECOPD.Methods A total of 1 71 patients with AECOPD were selected,and the scores of BAP-65 and CURB-65 were compared between MV patients and non-MV patients.The prediction value of the scores on mechanical ventilation was evaluated through ROC curve.Results The scores of BAP-65 and CURB-65 were higher in the MV group than in the non-MV group (P<0.01 ).The area under ROC curve of BAP-65 and CURB-65 was both higher than 0.7,but BAP-65 was superior to CURB-65 in the prediction of MV need.Conclu-sion The scores of BAP-65 and CURB-65 show strong capability of predicting MV need,and BAP-65 is more accu-rate and suitable than CURB-65 is.%目的:探讨BAP-65及CURB-65评分在预测慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(AECOPD)患者行机械通气的应用。方法以呼吸内科、内科ICU病区的171例AECOPD患者为研究对象,比较机械通气患者(MV组)和非机械通气患者(非MV组)的BAP-65和CURB-65评分;构建ROC曲线分析BAP-65和CURB-65评分对AECOPD患者行机械通气的预测价值。结果 MV组患者的BAP-65评分的风险等级和CURB-65评分的分值显著高于非MV组(P<0.01);BAP-65和CURB-65评分的ROC曲线下面积(AUROC)均大于0.7,能较好预测 AECOPD 患者行机械通气,但 BAP-65评分(AUROC =0.843)优于 CURB-65评分(AUROC =0.728)。结论 BAP-65和CURB-65评分均具有较好的分辨度,BAP-65评分准确性高于CURB-65评分,更适用于AECOPD患者行机械通气的预测。

  11. Jumping the gun: smoking constituent BaP causes premature primordial follicle activation and impairs oocyte fusibility through oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobinoff, A P; Pye, V; Nixon, B; Roman, S D; McLaughlin, E A

    2012-04-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is an ovotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke associated with pre-mature ovarian failure and decreased rates of conception in IVF patients. Although the overall effect of BaP on female fertility has been documented, the exact molecular mechanisms behind its ovotoxicity remain elusive. In this study we examined the effects of BaP exposure on the ovarian transcriptome, and observed the effects of in vivo exposure on oocyte dysfunction. Microarray analysis of BaP cultured neonatal ovaries revealed a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving a small cohort of genes associated with follicular growth, cell cycle progression, and cell death. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analysis supported these results, with BaP exposure causing increased primordial follicle activation and developing follicle atresia in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of oocytes obtained from adult Swiss mice treated neonatally revealed significantly increased levels of mitochondrial ROS/lipid peroxidation, and severely reduced sperm-egg binding and fusion in both low (1.5mg/kg/daily) and high (3mg/kg/daily) dose treatments. Our results reveal a complex mechanism of BaP induced ovotoxicity involving developing follicle atresia and accelerated primordial follicle activation, and suggest short term neonatal BaP exposure causes mitochondrial leakage resulting in reduced oolemma fluidity and impaired fertilisation in adulthood. This study highlights BaP as a key compound which may be partially responsible for the documented effects of cigarette smoke on follicular development and sub-fertility.

  12. Identification of bap and icaA genes involved in biofilm formation in coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from feline conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płoneczka-Janeczko, Katarzyna; Lis, Paweł; Bierowiec, Karolina; Rypuła, Krzysztof; Chorbiński, Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Bap and icaA genes are commonly known to be involved in the biofilm formation. The prevalence of bap and icaA genes and biofilm formation was determined in conjunctival isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) collected from cats. The study was conducted on 90 archival CNS isolates collected from feline conjunctiva obtained from clinically healthy cats and cats with ocular problems. Biofilm formation was examined using the microtiter plate (MTP) method. The prevalence of icaA and bap genes was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Genetic profiles of the bap-positive isolates were examined using the modified random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method. Of the 90 CNS isolates investigated, 58.9% (53/90) were confirmed to form biofilms on a polystyrene plate after 24 h, and the intensity of the biofilm production varied strongly between positive strains. Among the biofilm-producing isolates, 24.5% (13/53) carried the icaA gene and 3.8% (2/53) carried the bap gene. Among the isolates that did not produce biofilms, the icaA gene and bap gene were detected in 8.1% (3/37) and 2.7% (1/37) of isolates, respectively. This is the first report demonstrating that CNS isolated from feline conjunctiva can potentially be a bap gene reservoir. Preliminary comparison of the genetic profiles of three bap-positive isolates collected from cats showed that each of the isolates has a different genetic background with a high similarity with the human strain of S. epidermidis.

  13. Caspase-resistant BAP31 inhibits fas-mediated apoptotic membrane fragmentation and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, M; Breckenridge, D G; Ducret, A; Shore, G C

    2000-09-01

    BAP31 is a 28-kDa integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum whose cytosolic domain contains two identical caspase recognition sites (AAVD.G) that are preferentially cleaved by initiator caspases, including caspase 8. Cleavage of BAP31 during apoptosis generates a p20 fragment that remains integrated in the membrane and, when expressed ectopically, is a potent inducer of cell death. To examine the consequences of maintaining the structural integrity of BAP31 during apoptosis, the caspase recognition aspartate residues were mutated to alanine residues, and Fas-mediated activation of caspase 8 and cell death were examined in human KB epithelial cells stably expressing the caspase-resistant mutant crBAP31. crBAP31 only modestly slowed the time course for activation of caspases, as assayed by the processing of procaspases 8 and 3 and the measurement of total DEVDase activity. As a result, cleavage of the caspase targets poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase and endogenous BAP31, as well as the redistribution of phosphatidylserine and fragmentation of DNA, was observed. In contrast, cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and fragmentation and apoptotic redistribution of actin were strongly inhibited, cell morphology was retained near normal, and the irreversible loss of cell growth potential following removal of the Fas stimulus was delayed. Of note, crBAP31-expressing cells also resisted Fas-mediated release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the mitochondrial electrochemical potential was only partly reduced. These results argue that BAP31 cleavage is important for manifesting cytoplasmic apoptotic events associated with membrane fragmentation and reveal an unexpected cross talk between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum during Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo.

  14. The resident endoplasmic reticulum protein, BAP31, associates with gamma-actin and myosin B heavy chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducret, Axel; Nguyen, Mai; Breckenridge, David G; Shore, Gordon C

    2003-01-01

    BAP31 is a 28-kDa integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum whose cytosolic domain contains two caspase recognition sites that are preferentially cleaved by initiator caspases, such as caspase-8. Recently, we reported that the caspase-resistant BAP31 inhibited Fas-mediated apoptotic membrane fragmentation and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria in KB epithelial cells (Nguyen M., Breckenridge G., Ducret A & Shore G. (2000) Mol. Cell. Biol.20, 6731-6740). We describe here the characterization by capillary liquid chromatography microelectrospray tandem MS of a BAP31 immunocomplex isolated from a HepG2 cell lysate in the absence of a death signal. We show that BAP31 specifically associates with nonmuscle myosin heavy chain B and nonmuscle gamma-actin, two components of the cytoskeleton actomyosin complex. Collectively, these data confirm that BAP31, in addition to its potential role as a chaperone, may play a fundamental role in the structural organization of the cytoplasm. Here we also show that Fas stimulation of apoptosis releases BAP31 associations with these motor proteins, a step that may contribute to extranuclear events, such as membrane remodelling, during the execution phase of apoptosis.

  15. Contiguous deletion of SLC6A8 and BAP31 in a patient with severe dystonia and sensorineural deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Hitoshi; Takagi, Atsushi; Tsuyusaki, Yu; Wada, Takahito; Iai, Mizue; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Shimbo, Hiroko; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Salomons, Gajja S; Jakobs, Cornelis; Aida, Noriko; Toshihiro, Shinka; Kuhara, Tomiko; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2012-05-01

    We report here a 6-year-old boy exhibiting severe dystonia, profound intellectual and developmental disability with liver disease, and sensorineural deafness. A deficient creatine peak in brain (1)H-MR spectroscopy and high ratio of creatine/creatinine concentration in his urine lead us to suspect a creatine transporter (solute carrier family 6, member 8; SLC6A8) deficiency, which was confirmed by the inability to take up creatine into fibroblasts. We found a large ~19 kb deletion encompassing exons 5-13 of SLC6A8 and exons 5-8 of the B-cell receptor-associated protein (BAP31) gene. This case is the first report in which the SLC6A8 and BAP31 genes are both deleted. The phenotype of BAP31 mutations has been reported only as a part of Xq28 deletion syndrome or contiguous ATP-binding cassette, sub-family D, member 1 (ABCD1)/DXS1375E (BAP31) deletion syndrome [MIM ID #300475], where liver dysfunction and sensorineural deafness have been suggested to be attributed to the loss of function of BAP31. Our case supports the idea that the loss of BAP31 is related to liver dysfunction and hearing loss.

  16. Kultur Daun Pucuk Tanaman Kemenyan (Styrax benzoin Dryander) Pada Media Ms Dengan Pemberian Atonik Dan BAP

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Rico Pranata

    2010-01-01

    The research about “The Leaf Tissue Culture Of Benzoin (Styrax Benzoin Dryander) In MS Media With Atonik And BAP” has been done in Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory of Biology Department at Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, University of Sumatera Utara from Januari 2010 until May 2010. The aim of the research was to obtain the effect of combination Atonik and BAP to the growth of the leaf tissue culture of benzoin (Styrax benzoin Dryander) using Complete Randomized Design and two fact...

  17. BAP1 immunohistochemistry has limited prognostic utility as a complement of CDKN2A (p16) fluorescence in situ hybridization in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M McGregor, Stephanie; McElherne, James; Minor, Agata; Keller-Ramey, Jennifer; Dunning, Ryan; Husain, Aliya N; Vigneswaran, Wickii; Fitzpatrick, Carrie; Krausz, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    BRCA-associated protein 1 (BAP1) immunohistochemistry (IHC) and CDKN2A (p16) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have shown clinical utility in confirming the diagnosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), but the role for using these 2 markers to guide clinical management is not yet clear. Although p16 loss is predictive of poor prognosis, there is controversy as to whether BAP1 loss is predictive of a more favorable prognosis; how these results interact with one another has not been explored. We performed CDKN2A FISH on a previously published tissue microarray on which we had performed BAP1 IHC, revealing combined BAP1/p16 status for 93 MPM cases. As expected, BAP1 IHC in combination with CDKN2A FISH resulted in high sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) for MPM, and p16 loss was an independent predictor of poor survival (hazard ratio, 2.2553; P = .0135). There was no association between BAP1 loss and p16 loss, as 26%, 28%, 30%, and 16% of overall cases demonstrated loss of BAP1 alone, loss of p16 alone, loss of both BAP1 and p16, or neither abnormality, respectively. Although multivariate analysis demonstrated that BAP1 IHC is not an independent predictor of prognosis, when viewed in combination with homozygous CDKN2A deletion, risk stratification was evident. More specifically, patients with CDKN2A disomy and loss of BAP1 expression had improved outcomes compared with those with CDKN2A disomy and retained BAP1 expression (hazard ratio, 0.2286; P = .0017), and this finding was notably evident among epithelioid cases. We conclude that BAP1 IHC provides prognostic information within the context of CDKN2A FISH that may have clinical utility beyond diagnosis.

  18. BaP (PAH) air quality modelling exercise over Zaragoza (Spain) using an adapted version of WRF-CMAQ model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José, Roberto; Pérez, Juan Luis; Callén, María Soledad; López, José Manuel; Mastral, Ana

    2013-12-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is one of the most dangerous PAH due to its high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. Because of this reason, the Directive 2004/107/CE of the European Union establishes a target value of 1 ng/m(3) of BaP in the atmosphere. In this paper, the main aim is to estimate the BaP concentrations in the atmosphere by using last generation of air quality dispersion models with the inclusion of the transport, scavenging and deposition processes for the BaP. The degradation of the particulated BaP by the ozone has been considered. The aerosol-gas partitioning phenomenon in the atmosphere is modelled taking into a count that the concentrations in the gas and the aerosol phases. If the pre-existing organic aerosol concentrations are zero gas/particle equilibrium is established. The model has been validated at local scale with data from a sampling campaign carried out in the area of Zaragoza (Spain) during 12 weeks.

  19. Investigations on critical parameters, growth, structural and spectral studies of beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, D.; Selvarajan, P.; Perumal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Beta-alaninium picrate (BAP) salt has been synthesized and the solubility of the synthesized sample in double distilled water was determined at different temperatures. Solution stability was studied by observing the metastable zone width by employing the polythermal method. Induction period values for different supersaturation ratios at room temperature were determined based on the isothermal method. The nucleation parameters such as critical radius, critical free energy change, interfacial tension, and nucleation rate have been estimated for BAP salt on the basis of the classical nucleation theory. The lattice parameters of the grown BAP crystal were determined using the x-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The reflection planes of the sample were confirmed by the powder XRD study and diffraction peaks were indexed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Fourier transform-Raman studies were used to confirm the presence of various functional groups in the BAP crystal. The nonlinear optical property of the grown crystal was studied using the Kurtz-Perry powder technique. UV-visible spectral studies were carried out to understand optical transparency and the type of band gap of the grown BAP crystal.

  20. BAP31在结直肠癌中的表达及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董令仪; 姜可伟; 张彦斌; 张辉; 禚洪庆; 崔志荣; 叶颖江; 王杉

    2011-01-01

    采用组织芯片技术和免疫组织化学染色法检测B细胞受体相关蛋白31(B cell receptorassociated protein 31,BAP31)在120例结直肠癌组织及其配对远端正常组织中的表达情况,并分析其与临床病理特征之间的关系.结果显示,BAP31主要定位于胞浆,正常黏膜上皮呈阴性或弱阳性表达.在结直肠癌组织中阳性表达率为64.17%,明显高于正常黏膜上皮中的6.67%,差异具有统计学意义(P=0.000).BAP31阴性表达与结直肠癌的低分化程度(P=0.001)及远处转移相关(P=0.036).BAP31阴性患者总体生存率明显低于阳性患者(P=0.003).因此,BAP31可能是判断结直肠癌预后的潜在指标,并与肿瘤的侵袭性行为有关.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane-sorting protein of lymphocytes (BAP31) is highly expressed in neurons and discrete endocrine cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, H A; Lennon, V A

    2001-10-01

    BAP31 is a transmembrane protein that associates with nascent membrane proteins in transit between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and cis-Golgi. Its C-terminal dilysine (KKEE) motif, mediating return to the ER, is consistent with a role in early sorting of membrane proteins. An initiator caspase-binding site in the C-terminal domain of BAP31 is implicated in cytoplasmic membrane fragmentation events of apoptosis. Although BAP31 RNA is ubiquitous, the protein's anatomic localization has not been determined. To gain further insight into its possible functions, we localized BAP31 in primate tissues using monoclonal antibodies. Immunoreactivity was prominent in T- and B-lymphocytes in blood and in thymus, in cerebellar Purkinje neuron bodies and dendrites, in gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary, ovarian thecal and follicular cells, active but not quiescent thyroid epithelium, adrenal cortex more than medulla, and proximal more than distal renal tubules. Blood vessels and skeletal muscle were nonreactive. The anatomic distribution of BAP31 and the nature of proteins identified thus far as its cargo exiting the ER, suggest an interaction with proteins assembling in macromolecular complexes en route to selected sites of exocytotic and signaling activities. Apoptotic associations in mature tissues could be physiological (lymphocytes, endocrine cells) or pathological (Purkinje neurons, renal tubules).

  2. Diodos emissores de luz e concentrações de BAP na multiplicação in vitro de morangueiro Light-emitting diodes and BAP concentrations in the in vitro strawberry multiplication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Gomes da Rocha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo para avaliar o efeito de fontes de luz na micropropagação de morangueiro, com níveis crescentes de BAP no meio de cultivo. Para tanto, inocularam-se gemas de brotações da cultivar 'Sabrosa' em meio MS com 30g L-1 de sacarose, 100mg L-1 de mio-inositol, 7g L-1 de ágar e BAP (0; 0,3; 0,6; 0,9; e 1,5mg L-1, em pH 5,8. Os explantes foram cultivados a 25+2°C, com 16 horas de fotoperíodo e luminosidade de 20µmol m-2 s-1, esta última fornecida por diferentes fontes de luz (LED azul-EDEB 3LA1, LED verde-EDET 3LA1, LED vermelho-EDER 3LA3, lâmpada fluorescente Growlux e lâmpada fluorescente branca. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em um fatorial 5x5 (concentrações de BAP x fontes de luz, com seis repetições. O experimento foi repetido em três subcultivos sucessivos de 35 dias cada. Nestes avaliaram-se o número de brotações por explante e a altura das brotações. Ao final do terceiro subcultivo, determinaram-se, ainda, as concentrações de carotenoides e de clorofilas a e b, independentemente do nível de BAP. Maior número de brotações por explante foi obtido sob LEDs vermelhos e verdes. Concentrações de BAP no meio de cultura entre 0,82 e 1,22mg L-1, dependendo da fonte de luz, proporcionaram maior multiplicação in vitro de brotações. Sob todas as fontes de luz foram obtidas brotações de maior comprimento em meio isento de BAP. Brotações cultivadas sob LEDs vermelhos apresentaram maior quantidade de pigmentos fotossintéticos, enquanto aquelas sob LEDs verdes e lâmpadas Growlux apresentaram a menor.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different sources of light in strawberry micropropagation, under increasing levels of BAP in culture medium. 'Sabrosa' shoots were inoculated in MS medium supplemented with 30g L-1 sucrose, 100mg L-1 myo-inositol, 7 agar g L-1 and BAP (0; 0.3; 0.6; 0.9; e 1.5mg L-1, pH 5.8. The explants were cultivated at 25

  3. Trans-membrane transport of fluoranthene by Rhodococcus sp. BAP-1 and optimization of uptake process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Hongqi; Hua, Fei; Su, Mengyuan; Zhao, Yicun

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of transport of (14)C-fluoranthene by Rhodococcus sp. BAP-1, a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from crude oil-polluted soil, was examined. Our finding demonstrated that the mechanism for fluoranthene travel across the cell membrane in Rhodococcus sp. BAP-1 requires energy. Meanwhile, the transport of fluoranthene involves concurrent catabolism of (14)C, that leading to the generation of significant amount of (14)CO2. Combined with trans-membrane transport dynamic and response surface methodology, a significant influence of temperature, pH and salinity on cellular uptake rate was screened by Plackett-Burman design. Then, Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize and enhanced the trans-membrane transport process. The results predicted by Box-Behnken design indicated that the maximum cellular uptake rate of fluoranthene could be achieve to 0.308μmolmin(-1)mg(-1)·protein (observed) and 0.304μmolmin(-1)mg(-1)·protein (predicted) when the initial temperature, pH and salinity were set at 20°C, 9% and 1%, respectively.

  4. Systematic comparisons between PRISM version 1.0.0, BAP, and CSMIP ground-motion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A series of benchmark tests was run by comparing results of the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software version 1.0.0 to Basic Strong-Motion Accelerogram Processing Software (BAP; Converse and Brady, 1992), and to California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) processing (Shakal and others, 2003, 2004). These tests were performed by using the MatLAB implementation of PRISM, which is equivalent to its public release version in Java language. Systematic comparisons were made in time and frequency domains of records processed in PRISM and BAP, and in CSMIP, by using a set of representative input motions with varying resolutions, frequency content, and amplitudes. Although the details of strong-motion records vary among the processing procedures, there are only minor differences among the waveforms for each component and within the frequency passband common to these procedures. A comprehensive statistical evaluation considering more than 1,800 ground-motion components demonstrates that differences in peak amplitudes of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series obtained from PRISM and CSMIP processing are equal to or less than 4 percent for 99 percent of the data, and equal to or less than 2 percent for 96 percent of the data. Other statistical measures, including the Euclidian distance (L2 norm) and the windowed root mean square level of processed time series, also indicate that both processing schemes produce statistically similar products.

  5. Preliminary structural studies on the leucine-zipper homology region of the human protein Bap31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukasa, Takashi; Santelli, Eugenio [Program on Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Infectious Diseases, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Reed, John C. [Program on Apoptosis, Cancer Center, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Pascual, Jaime, E-mail: pascual@burnham.org [Program on Infectious Diseases, Center for Inflammation and Infectious Diseases, The Burnham Institute for Medical Research, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2007-04-01

    A leucine-zipper with properties as apoptotic regulator in the ER has been crystallized. X-ray data to 2.5 Å resolution were collected, molecular replacement solutions were identified and refinement has been started. B-cell receptor-associated protein 31 (Bap31) is an integral membrane protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that participates in the transport and quality control of membrane proteins and plays a role in determining cell sensitivity to ER stress and apoptosis. Its cytoplasmic region contains two target sites for caspase cleavage in certain apoptotic pathways. Here, the subcloning, expression, purification and crystallization of the Homo sapiens Bap31 leucine-zipper C-terminal fragment, which spans residues Gly160–Glu246, are reported. An N-terminally His-tagged protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by chromatographic methods. X-ray diffraction data were collected in-house to 2.5 Å resolution. Crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}22/P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 70.7, c = 80.6 Å. Data analysis indicates the presence of one molecule per asymmetric unit.

  6. Concentrações de BAP sobre a proliferação in vitro de brotos de Lippia alba [(Mill.N.E.Brown] BAP concentrations on in vitro proliferation of Lippia alba [(Mill. N.E.Brown] shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Asmar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia alba é uma planta de origem brasileira, pertencente à família Verbenaceae. É conhecida por combater a insônia e a asma, além de possuir ação anticonvulsivante e antifúngica. A micropropagação tem sido utilizada para multiplicação de várias espécies com propriedades medicinais, e o BAP é a citocinina sintética mais utilizada para a multiplicação in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estabelecer a concentração adequada de BAP na multiplicação in vitro de L. alba. Explantes constituídos de segmentos nodais provenientes de plântulas já estabelecidas in vitro com aproximadamente 0,5 cm foram inoculados em meio MS, suplementado com 0,0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 mg L-1 de BAP em adição de 30 g L-1 de sacarose. A utilização de 1,5 mg L-1 de BAP promove a multiplicação in vitro de L. alba. A ausência deste regulador propicia maior número de folhas e o uso na concentração de 0,5 mg L-1 aumentou as massas fresca e seca de parte aérea nesta espécie.Lippia alba is a Brazilian plant, belonging to the Verbenaceae family. It is known to combat insomnia and asthma, also has antifungal and anticonvulsant actions. Micropropagation has been used for propagation of various species with medicinal properties, and BAP is the most widely used synthetic cytokinin for in vitro multiplication. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate concentration of BAP on in vitro multiplication of L. alba. Explants consisting of nodal segments from seedlings already established in vitro with approximately 0.5 cm were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP and 30 g L-1 of sucrose. The use of 1.5 mg L-1 of BAP promotes the in vitro multiplication of L. alba. The absence of this regulator provides a greater number of leaves and its use at the concentration of 0.5 mg L-1 increased shoots' fresh and dry weights in this specie.

  7. Influência da concentração de BAP e AG3 no desenvolvimento in vitro de mandioquinha-salsa Influence of BAP and GA3 concentration on the in vitro development of arracacha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno R. Madeira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito das concentrações de BAP e de AG3 no desenvolvimento in vitro de mandioquinha-salsa. Foram avaliadas as concentrações de 0,0; 0,2 e 0,4 mg L-1 de BAP e de 0,0; 0,125 e 0,250 mg L-1 de AG3 no desenvolvimento de ápices caulinares com cerca de 2 mm das cultivares Amarela de Senador Amaral e Amarela Comum. A interação cultivares x concentração de BAP não foi significativa para nenhuma das características avaliadas (P>0,0617. O aumento na concentração de BAP reduziu a formação de calos; entretanto, promoveu proporcionalmente redução no desenvolvimento da parte aérea. A concentração de BAP que apresentou os melhores resultados foi em torno de 0,3 mg L-1 de BAP, conciliando diâmetro de calo relativamente reduzido e bom desenvolvimento da parte aérea, cerca de 4,5 brotos com altura média de 43 mm. A interação cultivares x concentração de AG3 não foi significativa para nenhuma das características avaliadas (P>0,4310. O aumento na concentração de AG3 promoveu elevação significativa na altura média e máxima das brotações e aumento no tamanho de calos. Nos dois experimentos, observou-se maior número de brotações na cultivar Amarela Comum.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of BAP and GA3 concentrations on the in vitro arracacha development. The concentrations tested were 0.0; 0.2 and 0.4 mg L-1 of BAP and 0.0; 0.125 and 0.250 mg L-1 of GA3 in the shoot tips with about 2 mm of arracacha, cultivars Amarela de Senador Amaral and Amarela Comum. The interaction of cultivars x BAP concentration was not significant for any one of the evaluated variables (P>0,0617. The increase in the BAP concentration reduced the callus formation; however, promoted larger reduction in the shoot development. The best BAP concentration was around 0.3 mg L-1, with relatively reduced callus diameter and good development of shoot, with a mean of 4.5 shoots

  8. Callus cell proliferation from broccoli leaf slice using IBA and BAP in vitro culture: Its biochemical and antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif Hossain, A B M; Haq, Imdadul; Ibrahim, Nasir A; Aleissa, Mohammed Saad

    2016-03-01

    Plant tissue or cell culture keeps a significant role in micro-propagation in the plant production industry. Combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and other plant growth regulators like 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was used in the most of the research in tissue culture. The study was carried out to investigate the optimization of the concentration of IBA and BAP combination (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.50, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 mg/l) for the root, callus and leaf proliferation from the leaf cutting slice. The highest number (6.75) of root proliferation was observed in the concentration of 2.0 mg/l IBA+0.25 mg/l BAP combination. The callus initiation was found in the concentration of IBA 1.0-3.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0-2.0 mg/l. However, the highest callus weight was observed at the concentration of IBA 1.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0 mg/l combination than other combination of concentrations. Positively leaf initiation and formation was better in the concentration of IBA 1-3.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0-2.0 mg/l combination. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging potential was higher (70.1%) in leaves extract than in callus extracts (46.3%) at the concentration of 10 mg/ml though both extracts had lower DPPH free radical scavenging activity compared to the positive control, vitamin C and BHT. Theresults conclude that the optimum concentration was IBA 1.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0 mg/l combination to produce callus cell proliferation and concentration of 2.0 mg/l IBA+0.25 mg/l BAP combination was the optimum for root proliferation of broccoli in vitro.

  9. The B.A.P. PACOCHA (SS-48) Collision: The Escape and Medical Recompression Treatment of Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-30

    eqxivalent. The air flow is independent of the volume of the compartment, and assumes good mixing. A few calculations show: 54 + 33 x 2 x 22 - 116...scfm - Air flow required for 2 scfm/man 54 + 33 x 4 x 22 - 232 scfm - Air flow required for 4 scfm/man No figures are available for the manifolu...406), sister ship of PACOCEA B.A.P. DOS DE RAYO initial sub sent to search B.A.P. ABTAO, connected to supply salvage air to PACOCHA KIOWA MARU, 412 ton

  10. Interaction of Bap31 and MHC class I molecules and their traffic out of the endoplasmic reticulum1

    OpenAIRE

    ABE, FUMIYOSHI; Van Prooyen, Nancy; Ladasky, John J.; Edidin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Bap31 associates with nascent class I MHC molecules. It appears to mediate the export of class I MHC molecules from the ER and may also be involved in their quality control. Here we use Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and quantitative fluorescence imaging to show that in human, HeLa, cells Bap31 clusters with MHC class I (HLA-A2) molecules in the ER, and traffics via export vesicles to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment, ERGIC. FRET between B...

  11. Callus cell proliferation from broccoli leaf slice using IBA and BAP in vitro culture: Its biochemical and antioxidant properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.M. Sharif Hossain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant tissue or cell culture keeps a significant role in micro-propagation in the plant production industry. Combination of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP and other plant growth regulators like 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA or Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA was used in the most of the research in tissue culture. The study was carried out to investigate the optimization of the concentration of IBA and BAP combination (0, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.50, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 mg/l for the root, callus and leaf proliferation from the leaf cutting slice. The highest number (6.75 of root proliferation was observed in the concentration of 2.0 mg/l IBA+0.25 mg/l BAP combination. The callus initiation was found in the concentration of IBA 1.0–3.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0–2.0 mg/l. However, the highest callus weight was observed at the concentration of IBA 1.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0 mg/l combination than other combination of concentrations. Positively leaf initiation and formation was better in the concentration of IBA 1–3.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0–2.0 mg/l combination. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydarzyl (DPPH free radical scavenging potential was higher (70.1% in leaves extract than in callus extracts (46.3% at the concentration of 10 mg/ml though both extracts had lower DPPH free radical scavenging activity compared to the positive control, vitamin C and BHT. Theresults conclude that the optimum concentration was IBA 1.5 mg/l+BAP 1.0 mg/l combination to produce callus cell proliferation and concentration of 2.0 mg/l IBA+0.25 mg/l BAP combination was the optimum for root proliferation of broccoli in vitro.

  12. BAP1 immunohistochemistry and p16 FISH results in combination provide higher confidence in malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis: ROC analysis of the two tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hida, Tomoyuki; Hamasaki, Makoto; Matsumoto, Shinji; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Iwasaki, Akinori; Okamoto, Tatsuro; Oda, Yoshinao; Honda, Hiroshi; Nabeshima, Kazuki

    2016-10-01

    Differentiation of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) from benign mesothelial proliferation remains problematic. Loss of nuclear staining of BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1; detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC)) and homozygous deletion (HD) of p16 (detected using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)) are useful for differentiation of MPM from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia (RMH), but the correlation between BAP1 expression loss and p16 HD has not been fully described. We performed BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH for 40 MPM and 20 RMH cases, and measured proportions of cells showing BAP1 expression and p16 HD for each case. The diagnostic accuracy for MPM and the cut-off values of the two methods were assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. BAP1 expression loss, p16 HD and coexistence of both were present in 27 (67.5 %), 27 (67.5 %) and 17 (42.5 %) MPM cases, respectively. Three MPM cases (7.5 %) and all 20 RMH cases had neither BAP1 loss nor p16 HD. There was no correlation between the results of the two methods. Their combination showed higher sensitivity (92.5 %, 37/40) and estimated probability than BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH used alone. BAP1 IHC and p16-specific FISH have independent diagnostic value, and have increased reliability when used in combination, for MPM diagnosis.

  13. Bcl-XL cooperatively associates with the Bap31 complex in the endoplasmic reticulum, dependent on procaspase-8 and Ced-4 adaptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, F W; Shore, G C

    1998-02-06

    Bap31 is a polytopic integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum and forms a complex with Bcl-2/Bcl-XL and procaspase-8 (Ng, F. W. H., Nguyen, M., Kwan, T., Branton, P. E., Nicholson, W. D., Cromlish, J. A., and Shore, G. C. (1997) J. Cell Biol. 139, 327-338). In co-transfected human cells, procaspase-8 is capable of interacting with Ced-4, an important adaptor molecule in Caenorhabditis elegans that binds to and activates the C. elegans procaspase, proCed-3. Here, we show that the predicted death effector homology domain within the cytosolic region of Bap31 interacts with Ced-4 and contributes to recruitment of procaspase-8. Bcl-XL, which binds directly but weakly to the polytopic transmembrane region of Bap31, indirectly and cooperatively associates with the Bap31 cytosolic domain, dependent on the presence of procaspase-8 and Ced-4. Ced-4Deltac does not interact with Bcl-XL but rather displaces it from Bap31, suggesting that an endogenous Ced-4-like adaptor is a normal constituent of the Bap31 complex and is required for stable association of Bcl-XL with Bap31 in vivo. These findings indicate that Bap31 is capable of recruiting essential components of a core death regulatory machinery.

  14. Immunological evaluation of OMV(PagL)+Bap(1-487aa) and AbOmpA(8-346aa)+Bap(1-487aa) as vaccine candidates against Acinetobacter baumannii sepsis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badmasti, Farzad; Ajdary, Soheila; Bouzari, Saeid; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Shahcheraghi, Fereshteh; Siadat, Seyed Davar

    2015-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen that causes a high morbidity and mortality rate in infected patients with sepsis form. The surface exposed virulence proteins and serum resistance factors helping to dissemination of this bacterium to bloodstream are the most promising vaccine candidates against this microorganism. In this project we immunologically evaluated OMV(PagL)+Bap(1-487aa) and AbOmpA (8-346aa)+Bap(1-487aa) as combination forms as well as Bap(1-487aa), AbOmpA(8-346aa) and OMV(PagL) singly, with addition of alum adjuvant as vaccine candidates. The titers of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2c as well as concentration of IL-4 and IFN-γ and survival rates were measured in a C57BL/6 murine model with disseminated sepsis. The ratio of IgG1/IgG2c and profile of IL-4/IFN-γ in OMV (PagL)+Bap (1-487aa) formulation shows the humoral and cellular immune responses have been induced robustly and have created a full protection against A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and MDR AB-44 strains. We found that the two combination vaccine candidates were protective and induced both Th1 and Th2 responses.

  15. Ozone pollution affects flower numbers and timing in a simulated BAP priority calcareous grassland community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Felicity; Williamson, Jennifer; Mills, Gina

    2012-04-01

    Mesocosms representing the BAP Priority habitat 'Calcareous Grassland' were exposed to eight ozone profiles for twelve-weeks in two consecutive years. Half of the mesocosms received a reduced watering regime during the exposure periods. Numbers and timing of flowering in the second exposure period were related to ozone concentration and phytotoxic ozone dose (accumulated stomatal flux). For Lotus corniculatus, ozone accelerated the timing of the maximum number of flowers. An increase in mean ozone concentration from 30ppb to 70ppb corresponded with an advance in the timing of maximum flowering by six days. A significant reduction in flower numbers with increasing ozone was found for Campanula rotundifolia and Scabiosa columbaria and the relationship with ozone was stronger for those that were well-watered than for those with reduced watering. These changes in flowering timing and numbers could have large ecological impacts, affecting plant pollination and the food supply of nectar feeding insects.

  16. Genetic evolution of nevus of Ota reveals clonal heterogeneity acquiring BAP1 and TP53 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivancos, Ana; Caratú, Ginevra; Matito, Judit; Muñoz, Eva; Ferrer, Berta; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Bodet, Domingo; Pérez-Alea, Mileidys; Cortés, Javier; Garcia-Patos, Vicente; Recio, Juan A

    2016-03-01

    Melanoma presents molecular alterations based on its anatomical location and exposure to environmental factors. Due to its intrinsic genetic heterogeneity, a simple snapshot of a tumor's genetic alterations does not reflect the tumor clonal complexity or specific gene-gene cooperation. Here, we studied the genetic alterations and clonal evolution of a unique patient with a Nevus of Ota that developed into a recurring uveal-like dermal melanoma. The Nevus of Ota and ulterior lesions contained GNAQ mutations were c-KIT positive, and tumors showed an increased RAS pathway activity during progression. Whole-exome sequencing of these lesions revealed the acquisition of BAP1 and TP53 mutations during tumor evolution, thereby unmasking clonal heterogeneity and allowing the identification of cooperating genes within the same tumor. Our results highlight the importance of studying tumor genetic evolution to identify cooperating mechanisms and delineate effective therapies.

  17. Promoting the use of BaP as a marker for PAH exposure in UK soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Sarah; Collins, Chris

    2013-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that frequently accumulate in soils. There is therefore a requirement to determine their levels in contaminated environments for the purposes of determining impacts on human health. PAHs are a suite of individual chemicals, and there is an ongoing debate as to the most appropriate method for assessing the risk to humans from them. Two methods predominate: the surrogate marker approach and the toxic equivalency factor. The former assumes that all chemicals in a mixture have an equivalent toxicity. The toxic equivalency approach estimates the potency of individual chemicals relative to the usually most toxic Benzo(a)pyrene. The surrogate marker approach is believed to overestimate risk and the toxic equivalency factor to underestimate risk. When analysing the risks from soils, the surrogate marker approach is preferred due to its simplicity, but there are concerns because of the potential diversity of the PAH profile across the range of impacted soils. Using two independent data sets containing soils from 274 sites across a diverse range of locations, statistical analysis was undertaken to determine the differences in the composition of carcinogenic PAH between site locations, for example, rural versus industrial. Following principal components analysis, distinct population differences were not seen between site locations in spite of large differences in the total PAH burden between individual sites. Using all data, highly significant correlations were seen between BaP and other carcinogenic PAH with the majority of r (2) values > 0.8. Correlations with the European Food Standards Agency (EFSA) summed groups, that is, EFSA2, EFSA4 and EFSA8 had even higher correlations (r (2) > 0.95). We therefore conclude that BaP is a suitable surrogate marker to represent mixtures of PAH in soil during risk assessments.

  18. Farmacokinetiek en biologische beschikbaarheid van benzo(a)pyreen (BaP) in de RIV:tox rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lusthof KJ; Olling M; Kroese ED; Beenen J; Poelen MJ; Vaessen HAMG; Kamp CG van de

    1993-01-01

    Eight groups of six male RIV:tox rats received oral and intravenous doses of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in a parallel study plan. Intravenously and orally four dose levels were administered. BaF was dissolved in soybean oil for oral administration, and in glycofurol for intravenous administration. The dos

  19. Persistence of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates Harboring blaOXA-23 and bap for 5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ji Youn; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kim, Semi; Kwon, Gye Cheol

    2016-08-28

    The emergence and dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Acinetobacter baumannii isolates have been reported worldwide, and A. baumannii isolates harboring blaOXA-23 are often resistant to various antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial resistance can be particularly strong for biofilm-forming A. baumannii isolates. We investigated the genetic basis for carbapenem resistance and biofilm-forming ability of multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. Ninety-two MDR A. baumannii isolates were collected from one university hospital located in the Chungcheong area of Korea over a 5-year period. Multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to characterize carbapenemase and bap genes. Clonal characteristics were analyzed using REP-PCR. In addition, imaging and quantification of biofilms were performed using a crystal violet assay. All 92 MDR A. baumannii isolates involved in our study contained the blaOXA-23 and bap genes. The average absorbance of biomass in Bap-producing strains was much greater than that in non-Bap-producing strains. In our study, only three REP-PCR types were found, and the isolates showing type A or type B were found more than 60 times among unique patients during the 5 years of surveillance. These results suggest that the isolates have persisted and colonized for 5 years, and biofilm formation ability has been responsible for their persistence and colonization.

  20. Biological apatite (BAp) crystallographic orientation and texture as a new index for assessing the microstructure and function of bone regenerated by tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takayoshi; Kaibara, Kazuhiro; Ishimoto, Takuya; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Umakoshi, Yukichi

    2012-10-01

    Recently, there have been remarkable advances in medical techniques for regenerating bone defects. To determine the degree of bone regeneration, it is essential to develop a new method that can analyze microstructure and related mechanical function. Here, quantitative analysis of the orientation distribution of biological apatite (BAp) crystallites by a microbeam X-ray diffractometer system is proposed as a new index of bone quality for the evaluation of regenerated bone microstructure. Preferential alignment of the BAp c-axis in the rabbit ulna and skull bone, regenerated by controlled release of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was investigated. The BAp c-axis orientation was evaluated by the relative intensity between the (002) and (310) diffraction peaks, or the three-dimensional texture for the (002) peak. It was found that new bone in the defects was initially produced without preferential alignment of the BAp c-axis, and subsequently reproduced to recover towards the original alignment. In other words, the BAp density recovered prior to the BAp orientation. Perfect recovery of BAp alignment was not achieved in the ulna and skull defects after 4 weeks and 12 weeks, respectively. Apparent recovery of the macroscopic shape and bio-mineralization of BAp was almost complete in the ulna defect after 4 weeks. However, an additional 2 weeks was required for complete repair of BAp orientation. It is finally concluded that orientation distribution of BAp crystallites offers an effective means of evaluating the degree of microstructural regeneration, and also the related mechanical function, in regenerated hard tissues.

  1. Evaluation of anti-cancer and anti-oxidative potential of Syzygium Cumini against benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) induced gastric carcinogenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, P K; Verma, Preeti; Sharma, Priyanka; Parmar, Jyoti; Agarwal, Annapurna

    2010-01-01

    Syzygium cummini extract (SCE) was used in the present study to explore anti-tumor promoting activity in a stomach carcinogenesis model in mice. For this purpose, Swiss albino mice were administered with 1 mg of benzo-a-pyrene (BaP) in 100?l sesame oil by oral gavage twice a week for 4 consecutive weeks. The animals were sacrificed 14 weeks after the last administration of BaP. Oral administration of the extract to pre-treated (i.e. SCE as 25mg/kg b. wt./ day before BaP application for 2 weeks), post-treated (i.e. SCE after BaP application for 8 weeks) and pre-post treated (i.e. SCE for 2 weeks before treatment of BaP followed by the concomitant treatment with SCE and BaP for 4 weeks during and 2 weeks after the last dose of BaP) groups provided a significant reduction in tumor incidence, tumor burden and cumulative number of gastric carcinomas along with a significant elevation of phase II detoxifying enzymes, and inhibition of lipid per oxidation in the stomach. Thus, the present data suggest that the Syzygium cummini extract has anti-tumor and anti-oxidative potential against chemical induced stomach carcinogenesis.

  2. Toxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis, larval growth, survival and metamorphosis of the bivalve Meretrix meretrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Baozhong; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2012-08-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls on the early development of Meretrix meretrix, the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis and larval development were investigated using static laboratory toxicity tests at nominal concentrations of 6.25-1,600 μg/L. Even at 1,600 μg/L, Bap and Aroclor1254 only caused minor reductions in embryo development rates. The 96 h LC(50) values for D-shaped larvae were 156 μg/L for Bap and 132 μg/L for Aroclor1254, respectively. The most sensitive toxicity endpoint in this study was metamorphosis, with an EC(50) value of 20 μg/L for Bap and 35 μg/L for Aroclor1254. Aroclor1254 was more toxic than Bap to embryos and larvae. Our results indicate that Bap and Aroclor1254 do not show extreme toxicity to M. meretrix embryos and larvae. These data provide information for evaluating the toxicity of Bap and Aroclor1254 on bivalve embryos, especially over the entire larval stages.

  3. BAP, a mammalian BiP-associated protein, is a nucleotide exchange factor that regulates the ATPase activity of BiP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyung Tae; Shen, Ying; Hendershot, Linda M

    2002-12-01

    We identified a mammalian BiP-associated protein, BAP, using a yeast two-hybrid screen that shared low homology with yeast Sls1p/Sil1p and mammalian HspBP1, both of which regulate the ATPase activity of their Hsp70 partner. BAP encoded an approximately 54-kDa protein with an N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) targeting sequence, two sites of N-linked glycosylation, and a C-terminal ER retention sequence. Immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that BAP co-localized with GRP94 in the endoplasmic reticulum. BAP was ubiquitously expressed but showed the highest levels of expression in secretory organ tissues, a pattern similar to that observed with BiP. BAP binding was affected by the conformation of the ATPase domain of BiP based on in vivo binding studies with BiP mutants. BAP stimulated the ATPase activity of BiP when added alone or together with the ER DnaJ protein, ERdj4, by promoting the release of ADP from BiP. Together, these data demonstrate that BAP serves as a nucleotide exchange factor for BiP and provide insights into the mechanisms that control protein folding in the mammalian ER.

  4. Diodos emissores de luz e concentrações de BAP na multiplicação in vitro de morangueiro Light-emitting diodes and BAP concentrations in the in vitro strawberry multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Sérgio Gomes da Rocha; Roberto Pedroso de Oliveira; Walkyria Bueno Scivittaro; Ulisses Lyra dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Realizou-se um estudo para avaliar o efeito de fontes de luz na micropropagação de morangueiro, com níveis crescentes de BAP no meio de cultivo. Para tanto, inocularam-se gemas de brotações da cultivar 'Sabrosa' em meio MS com 30g L-1 de sacarose, 100mg L-1 de mio-inositol, 7g L-1 de ágar e BAP (0; 0,3; 0,6; 0,9; e 1,5mg L-1), em pH 5,8. Os explantes foram cultivados a 25+2°C, com 16 horas de fotoperíodo e luminosidade de 20µmol m-2 s-1, esta última fornecida por diferentes fontes de luz ...

  5. Yet1p and Yet3p, the yeast homologs of BAP29 and BAP31, interact with the endoplasmic reticulum translocation apparatus and are required for inositol prototrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua D; Barlowe, Charles

    2010-06-11

    The mammalian B-cell receptor-associated proteins of 29 and 31 kDa (BAP29 and BAP31) are conserved integral membrane proteins that have reported roles in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) quality control, ER export of secretory cargo, and programmed cell death. In this study we investigated the yeast homologs of BAP29 and BAP31, known as Yet1p and Yet3p, to gain insight on cellular function. We found that Yet1p forms a complex with Yet3p (Yet complex) and that complex assembly was important for subunit stability and proper ER localization. The Yet complex was not efficiently packaged into ER-derived COPII vesicles and therefore does not appear to act as an ER export receptor. Instead, a fraction of the Yet complex was detected in association with the ER translocation apparatus (Sec complex). Specific mutations in the Sec complex or Yet complex influenced these interactions. Moreover, associations between the Yet complex and Sec complex were increased by ER stress and diminished when protein translocation substrates were depleted. Surprisingly, yet1Delta and yet3Delta mutant strains displayed inositol starvation-related growth defects. In accord with the biochemical data, these growth defects were exacerbated by a combination of certain mutations in the Sec complex with yet1Delta or yet3Delta mutations. We propose a model for the Yet-Sec complex interaction that places Yet1p and Yet3p at the translocation pore to manage biogenesis of specific transmembrane secretory proteins.

  6. BAP Position Statement: Off-label prescribing of psychotropic medication to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aditya N; Arango, Celso; Coghill, David; Gringras, Paul; Nutt, David J; Pratt, Peter; Young, Allan H; Hollis, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The off-label use of medicines for children and adolescents remains a common and important issue for prescribing practice across child and adolescent psychiatry, paediatrics and primary care. This editorial focusses on psychotropic drug treatment, which plays an essential part in the comprehensive management of a range of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Despite a growing evidence base for drug treatment in child and adolescent psychiatric disorders, much psychotropic medication continues to be prescribed off-label (i.e. outside the limits of the marketing authorisation or product license). The reasons for and implications of off-label prescribing, including the potential clinical benefits/risks and medico-legal implications, are often poorly understood by both patients and prescribers. An important unintended consequence of the uncertainties and confusion surrounding the status of off-label prescribing for children and adolescents may be that effective drug treatments are being withheld or underused. This BAP Position Statement aims to clarify these issues, challenge some of the myths surrounding off-label prescribing for children and adolescents and offer practical guidance for prescribers.

  7. Determination of respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in soil profile using BaPS system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu-tao; HUANG Yao

    2006-01-01

    A facility of BaPS (Barometric Process Separation) was used to determine soil respiration, gross nitrification and denitrification in a winter wheat field with depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. N2O production was determined by a gas chromatograph. Crop root mass and relevant soil parameters were measured. Results showed that soil respiration and gross nitrification decreased with the increase of soil depth, while denitrification did not change significantly. In comparison with no-plowing plot, soil respiration increased significantly in plowing plot, especially in the surface soil of 0-7 cm, while gross nitrification and denitrification rates were not affected by plowing. Cropping practice in previous season was found to affect soil gross nitrification in the following wheat-growing season. Higher gross nitrification rate occurred in the filed plot with preceding crop of rice compared with that of maize for all the three depths of 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm. A further investigation indicated that the nitrification for all the cases accounted for about 76% of the total nitrogen transformation processes of nitrification and denitrification and the N2O production correlated with nitrification significantly, suggesting that nitrification is a key process of soil N2O production in the wheat field. In addition, the variations of soil respiration and gross nitrification were exponentially dependent on root mass (P<0.001).

  8. Somatic embryo-like structures of strawberry regenerated in vitro on media supplemented with 2,4-D and BAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Genesia F; Mohamed, Fouad H; Haensch, Klaus-Thomas; Sarg, Sawsan H; Morsey, Mohamed M

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryo-like structures (SELS) were produced in vitro from leaf disk and petiole explants of two cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch) on Murashige and Skoog medium with different concentrations and combinations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and sucrose to check the embryonic nature of these structures histologically. A large number of SELS could be regenerated in both cultivars on media with 2-4 mg L(-1) 2,4-D in combination with 0.5 -1 mg L(-1) BAP and 50 g x L(-1) sucrose. Histological examination of SELS revealed the absence of a root pole. Therefore these structures cannot be strictly classified as somatic embryos. The SELS formed under the tested culture conditions represent malformed shoot-like and leaf-like structures. The importance of these results for the propagation of strawberries via somatic embryogenesis is discussed.

  9. The stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests on stored horse blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, P; Sullivan, M; Evans, D

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in the role of oxidative stress (OS) in equine medicine has highlighted the need to develop reliable methods to quantify it. In this study we describe the effect of refrigeration (at 4 degrees C) on the stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests carried out on 15 healthy horses. Blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were immediately placed on ice and analysed using both the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Samples were also refrigerated at 4 degrees C and tested after 3, 7 and 24 h. The average results were similar for up to 24 h and minimal variations were found for each horse. The findings suggest that refrigeration is suitable for preserving equine blood samples for these assays and this approach will provide veterinarians with a technically simple, reliable test to measure OS under field conditions.

  10. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for nutraceutical application based upon toxicological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwack, Seung Jun; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Young Woo; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Gwak, Hyo-Min; Park, Hyun Jong; Roh, Taehyun; Shin, Min Kyung; Lim, Seong Kwang; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Aloe has been used in versatile herbal medications and nutraceuticals throughout history. Aloe is widely considered to be generally safe for humans and used globally. The effectiveness and pharmacological properties of aloe are dependent upon when the plant is collected. However, little is known about the toxicology of whole-body aloe collected within less than 1 yr. Based upon widespread exposure to aloe, it is important to determine a daily intake level of this chemical to ensure its safety for humans. To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of baby aloe powder (BAP) for clinical application, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were treated orally for 4 wk with 4 different concentrations: 0, 0.125, 0.5, and 2 g/kg body weight (bw). In this study, no significant or dose-dependent toxicological effects of BAP were observed in biochemical or hematological parameters, urinalysis, clinical signs, body weight, and food and water consumption. There were changes in some biomarkers in certain treated groups compared to controls; however, all values were within their reference ranges and not dose-dependent. Based on these results, the NOAEL of BAP was estimated to be greater than 2 g/kg bw in male and 2 g/kg bw in female SD rats. Collectively, these data suggest that BAP used in this study did not produce any marked subacute toxic effects up to a maximum concentration of 2 g/kg bw, and thus use in nutraceuticals and in pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications at a concentration of >2 g/kg is warranted.

  11. 无线局域网安全协议BAP研究%Research of Wireless LAN Security Protocol BAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚会娟; 周祥

    2016-01-01

    随着无线局域网的普及,它的安全性备受人们的关注,文章就此问题提出了一种新的安全协议BA P。%With the popularity of wireless LAN, its security has attracted people's attention. In this paper, we propose a new security prot ocol BAP.

  12. MACROPROPAGATION OF PLANTAIN (MUSA SPP. CULTIVARS PITA 3, FHIA 21, ORISHELE AND CORNE 1: EFFECT OF BENZYLAMINOPURINE (BAP CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deless Edmond Fulgence THIEMELE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, plantain is one of the most important starchy food and cash crops. Nonetheless, one of the major constraints for its production was the unavailability of healthy planting materials at planting time. This constraint could be lifted using the cloning of planting materials via the in vitro micropropagation or in vivo macropropagation techniques. Shelled corms from four cultivars, known as PITA 3, FHIA 21, ORISHELE and CORNE 1, were used. Three treatments differing in three hormonal concentrations, especially 20.0, 30.0 and 40.0 mg L-1 were tested. The control one was hormone free. Tested treatments were laid out in a split plot design. The decorticated banana corms were sprayed twofold at 2 weeks interval with BAP solution when placed in sterilized soil in high humidity plastic tunnel. It emerged from results, regarding BAP concentration effect, that BAP treatment with 40 mg L-1 significantly reduced the emergence time of shoots at 20 days as against 25.1, 28.3 and 28.5 for the 2 tested other treatments as well as control, respectively. Likewise, the concentrations 40.0 mg L-1 both recorded the largest number of sprouted buds per corm and number of shoots per corm. With respect to banana cultivar effect, PITA 3 showed the largest number of shoots per corm. Basing on such findings, it is concluded that MSD technique combined with BAP at 40.0 mg L-1 is a suitable technique for improving of the in vivo macropropagation of plantain. This concentration increased at least 50 % of sucker production compared to control.

  13. INDUKSI KALUS JERUK KASTURI (CITRUS MICROCARPA) MENGGUNAKAN HORMON 2,4-D DAN BAP DENGAN METODE IN VITRO

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Calamansi fruits (Citrus microcarpa) or musk lime is one horticulture crops has been known as beverage and food flavorings. This research aimed to determine the effect of 2,4-D and BAP on callus induction of explants calamansi fruits (Citrus microcarpa). Parameters observed is percentage of explants, time appeared callus, callus width, and texture of the callus. Research results and a growing percentage of the width callus explants were analyzed by ANOVA and a further test DMRT at 5% level. T...

  14. Hepcidin gene expression induced in the developmental stages of fish upon exposure to Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Jian; Bo, Jun; Yang, Ming; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Hong; Chen, Fang-Yi; Yuan, Jian-Jun

    2009-04-01

    Hepcidin is known to be expressed in fish with bacterial challenge and iron overload. Here we first report the hepcidin expression induced in the developmental stages from embryo to fry of red sea bream (Pagarus major) and in juvenile black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegelii B.) upon continuous waterborne exposure to BaP. The gene expression of CYP1A1 and IgL (immunoglobulin light chain) were both measured. Expression of the Pagarus major hepcidin gene (PM-hepc) was increased in post hatch fry at 24 h and 120 h exposure to BaP at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 microg/l, respectively. The gene expression pattern was comparable to that of CYP1A1 but different from that of IgL. In addition, a high number of AS-hepc2 transcripts (Acanthopagrus schlegelii B. hepcidin gene) were detected in the liver upon exposure to 1.0 microg/l BaP. This study demonstrates that hepcidin gene expression is significantly induced in BaP-exposed red sea bream and black porgy.

  15. Serum BAP as the clinically useful marker for predicting BMD reduction in diabetic hemodialysis patients with low PTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Misako; Inaba, Masaaki; Okuno, Senji; Maeno, Yoshifumi; Ishimura, Eiji; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki

    2005-07-22

    With decrease of serum PTH in hemodialysis (HD) patients, other factors besides parathyroid hormone (PTH) become important in regulating bone metabolism. We investigated which serum bone metabolic marker is the best to predict the bone mineral density (BMD) reduction in HD patients with serum PTHBAP), intact osteocalcin (OC), and N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), and the bone resorption markers, deoxypyridinoline (DPD), pyridinoline (PYD), and beta-crossLaps (beta-CTx) were measured in serum from 137 HD patients. BMD of all patients was measured twice, approximately 1.5 years before and 1.5 years after measurement of their markers of bone metabolism. In all 137 HD patients, serum BAP was the only marker significantly higher in those with BMD reduction than in those without. In 42 diabetes mellitus (DM) HD patients with serum PTHBAP was again the only marker to discriminate those with BMD reduction from those without. At serum PTHBAP retained tendency toward higher value. These findings suggest that serum BAP might be the most sensitive to identify small changes of bone metabolism in low bone turnover state. Retrospective study confirmed the usefulness of serum BAP in clinical practice by significantly higher values in those with bone loss at PTHBAP is a clinically useful bone formation marker to predict the BMD reduction in DM HD patients with low level of PTH.

  16. Occurrence of genes coding for MSCRAMM and biofilm-associated protein Bap in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis and relationship with somatic cell counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Eveline; Melville, Priscilla A; Saidenberg, André B S; Laes, Marco A; Gonsales, Fernanda F; Salaberry, Sandra R S; Gregori, Fabio; Brandão, Paulo E; dos Santos, Franklin G B; Lincopan, Nilton E; Benites, Nilson R

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate aspects of the epidemiology of bovine subclinical mastitis through the assessment of genes encoding MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules - a group of adhesins) and protein Bap (implicated in biofilm formation), in coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative (CNS) Staphylococcus isolated from subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were collected for microbiological exams, somatic cell count (SCC) and a survey of the genes coding for MSCRAMM (cna, eno, ebpS, fnbA, fnbB and fib) and biofilm-associated protein Bap (bap) in 106 Staphylococcus spp. isolates using PCR. The frequencies of occurrence of eno (82.1%), fnbA (72.6%), fib (71.7%) and bap (56.6%) were higher (P Staphylococcus without the assessed genes (P < 0.05) and negative samples (P < 0.01), which indicated that the presence of these MSCRAMM may be related to a higher intensity of the inflammatory process.

  17. ORGANOGÊNESE IN VITRO DE Citrus EM FUNÇÃO DE CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BAP E SECCIONAMENTO DO EXPLANTE CITRUS IN VITRO ORGANOGENESIS RELATED TO BAP CONCENTRATIONS AND EXPLANT SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS LACAVA DE MOURA

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso de técnicas biotecnológicas no melhoramento in vitro de Citrus depende diretamente do desenvolvimento de protocolos eficientes para regeneração de plantas. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de concentrações de 6-benzilaminopuria (BAP na organogênese in vitro de limão-'Cravo' e laranja-'Pêra', bem como o efeito do seccionamento do explante em laranja-'Valência'. Para o limão-'Cravo', foram utilizados como explante, segmentos internodais de plântulas germinadas in vitro, cultivados em meio MT e variando-se as concentrações de BAP em 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 e 10 mg.L-1. Nas laranjas-'Pêra' e 'Valência' os explantes foram segmentos do epicótilo de plântulas germinadas in vitro. Os explantes de laranja-'Pêra' foram cultivados em meio MT variando-se as concentrações de BAP em 0; 1; 2; 3 e 4 mg.L-1. Para a laranja-'Valência', metade dos explantes foram seccionados e cultivados em meio MT acrescido de 1,0 mg.L-1 de BAP. Todas as brotações obtidas foram alongadas no meio de cultura MT + 25 g.L-1 de sacarose + 1 mg.L-1 de ácido giberélico (GA3 e enraizadas no meio MT + 25 g.L-1 de sacarose + 0,5 g.L-1 de carvão ativado + 1 mg.L-1 de ácido naftaleno acético (ANA. O melhor resultado para o número de brotações adventícias foi obtido na concentração 2,5 mg.L-1 de BAP para limão-'Cravo', e nas concentrações 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 de BAP para laranja-'Pêra'. O seccionamento dos explantes favoreceu a organogênese in vitro da laranja-'Valência', porém as brotações apresentaram menor índice de enraizamento.The establishment of efficient plant regeneration protocols is essential for the success and application of in vitro breeding biotechnologies in Citrus. The objective of this work was to verify the effect of 6-benzilaminopurine (BAP on the in vitro organogenesis of Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia (L. Osbeck and 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck, and the effect of cutting the explant on the in vitro organogenesis of

  18. Combined genotoxic effects of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (B(aP and an heterocyclic amine (PhIP in relation to colorectal carcinogenesis.

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    Emilien L Jamin

    Full Text Available Colorectal neoplasia is the third most common cancer worldwide. Environmental factors such as diet are known to be involved in the etiology of this cancer. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that specific neo-formed mutagenic compounds related to meat consumption are an underlying factor involved in the association between diet and colorectal cancer. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are known mutagens and possible human carcinogens formed at the same time in meat during cooking processes. We studied the genotoxicity of the model PAH benzo(apyrene (B(aP and HCA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, alone or in mixture, using the mouse intestinal cell line Apc(Min/+, mimicking the early step of colorectal carcinogenesis, and control Apc(+/+ cells. The genotoxicity of B(aP and PhIP was investigated using both cell lines, through the quantification of B(aP and PhIP derived DNA adducts, as well as the use of a genotoxic assay based on histone H2AX phosphorylation quantification. Our results demonstrate that heterozygous Apc mutated cells are more effective to metabolize B(aP. We also established in different experiments that PhIP and B(aP were more genotoxic on Apc (Min/+ cells compared to Apc (+/+ . Moreover when tested in mixture, we observed a combined genotoxicity of B(aP and PhIP on the two cell lines, with an increase of PhIP derived DNA adducts in the presence of B(aP. Because of their genotoxic effects observed on heterozygous Apc mutated cells and their possible combined genotoxic effects, both B(aP and PhIP, taken together, could be implicated in the observed association between meat consumption and colorectal cancer.

  19. Rapid cytochrome c release, activation of caspases 3, 6, 7 and 8 followed by Bap31 cleavage in HeLa cells treated with photodynamic therapy.

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    Granville, D J; Carthy, C M; Jiang, H; Shore, G C; McManus, B M; Hunt, D W

    1998-10-16

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a clinical approach that utilizes light-activated drugs for the treatment of a variety of pathologic conditions. The initiating events of PDT-induced apoptosis are poorly defined. It has been shown for other proapoptotic stimuli that the integral endoplasmic reticulum protein Bap31 is cleaved by caspases 1 and 8, but not by caspase-3. Further, a 20 kDa Bap31 cleavage fragment is generated which can induce apoptosis. In the current report, we sought to determine whether Bap31 cleavage and generation of p20 is an early event in PDT-induced apoptosis. The mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, involvement of caspases 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 10 and the status of several known caspase substrates, including Bap31, were evaluated in PDT-treated HeLa cells. Cytochrome c appeared in the cytosol immediately following light activation of the photosensitizer benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A. Activation of caspases 3, 6, 7, and 8 was evident within 1-2 h post PDT. Processing of caspases 1, 2, 4, and 10 was not observed. Cleavage of Bap31 was observed at 2-3 h post PDT. The caspase-3 inhibitor DEVD-fmk blocked caspase-8 and Bap31 cleavage suggesting that caspase-8 and Bap31 processing occur downstream of caspase-3 activation in PDT-induced apoptosis. These results demonstrate that release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytoplasm is a primary event following PDT, preceding caspase activation and cleavage of Bap31. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a chemotherapeutic agent inducing caspase-8 activation and demonstrates that caspase-8 activation can occur after cytochrome c release.

  20. Combined Genetic and Genealogic Studies Uncover a Large BAP1 Cancer Syndrome Kindred Tracing Back Nine Generations to a Common Ancestor from the 1700s.

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    Carbone, Michele; Flores, Erin G; Emi, Mitsuru; Johnson, Todd A; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Behner, Dusty; Hoffman, Harriet; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Napolitano, Andrea; Powers, Amy; Minaai, Michael; Baumann, Francine; Bryant-Greenwood, Peter; Lauk, Olivia; Kirschner, Michaela B; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Pass, Harvey I; Gaudino, Giovanni; Pastorino, Sandra; Yang, Haining

    2015-12-01

    We recently discovered an inherited cancer syndrome caused by BRCA1-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1) germline mutations, with high incidence of mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and other cancers and very high penetrance by age 55. To identify families with the BAP1 cancer syndrome, we screened patients with family histories of multiple mesotheliomas and melanomas and/or multiple cancers. We identified four families that shared an identical BAP1 mutation: they lived across the US and did not appear to be related. By combining family histories, molecular genetics, and genealogical approaches, we uncovered a BAP1 cancer syndrome kindred of ~80,000 descendants with a core of 106 individuals, whose members descend from a couple born in Germany in the early 1700s who immigrated to North America. Their descendants spread throughout the country with mutation carriers affected by multiple malignancies. Our data show that, once a proband is identified, extended analyses of these kindreds, using genomic and genealogical studies to identify the most recent common ancestor, allow investigators to uncover additional branches of the family that may carry BAP1 mutations. Using this knowledge, we have identified new branches of this family carrying BAP1 mutations. We have also implemented early-detection strategies that help identify cancers at early-stage, when they can be cured (melanomas) or are more susceptible to therapy (MM and other malignancies).

  1. Identification of bapA in Strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Isolated from Wild Animals Kept in Captivity in Sinaloa, Mexico

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    Gabriela Silva-Hidalgo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available bapA, previously named stm2689, encodes the BapA protein, which, along with cellulose and fimbriae, constitutes biofilms. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms that grow in a matrix of exopolysaccharides and may adhere to living tissues or inert surfaces. Biofilm formation is associated with the ability to persist in different environments, which contributes to the pathogenicity of several species. We analyzed the presence of bapA in 83 strains belonging to 17 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica from wildlife in captivity at Culiacan’s Zoo and Mazatlán’s Aquarium. Each isolate amplified a product of 667 bp, which corresponds to the expected size of the bapA initiator, with no observed variation between different serovars analyzed. bapA gene was found to be highly conserved in Salmonella and can be targeted for the genus-specific detection of this organism from different sources. Since bapA expression improves bacterial proliferation outside of the host and facilitates resistance to disinfectants and desiccation, the survival of Salmonella in natural habitats may be favored. Thus, the risk of bacterial contamination from these animals is increased.

  2. Association of BAP31 with CD11b/CD18. Potential role in intracellular trafficking of CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils.

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    Zen, Ke; Utech, Markus; Liu, Yuan; Soto, Illena; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A

    2004-10-22

    The beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18 is an integral membrane protein that is present in the plasma membrane and secondary granules of neutrophils and functions as a major adhesion molecule. Upon cellular activation, there is translocation of intracellular pools of CD11b/CD18 to the plasma membrane in concert with enhanced cellular adhesion. Although much is known about the function of CD11b/CD18, how this protein is transported within the cell is less well defined. Here we report that CD11b/CD18 specifically binds to BAP31, a member of a novel class of sorting proteins regulating cellular anterograde transport. Through experiments aimed at identifying CD11b/CD18-binding proteins, we produced a monoclonal antibody termed E1B2 that recognizes a 28-kDa membrane protein that co-precipitates with CD11b/CD18. Microsequence analysis of the E1B2 antigen revealed that it is BAP31. Co-association of CD11b/CD18 and BAP31 was confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation and protein binding assays. Additional experiments revealed that the binding of BAP31 to CD11b/CD18 was not dependent on divalent cations nor mediated by the I-domain of CD11b. Using glutathione S-transferase fusion chimeras, we determined that binding of CD11b/CD18 to BAP31 is mediated through interactions with the cytoplasmic tail of BAP31. Immunolocalization studies revealed colocalization of BAP31 and CD11b/CD18 within neutrophil secondary granules. Subcellular fractionation studies in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) revealed similar patterns of redistribution of BAP31 and CD11b/CD18 from fractions enriched in secondary granules to the plasma membrane following stimulation with formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP). Given the known sorting properties of BAP31, these findings suggest that BAP31 may play a role in regulating intracellular trafficking of CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils.

  3. Benzilaminopurina (BAP e thidiazuron (TDZ na propagação in vitro de Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen Benzylaminopurine (BAP and thidiazuron (TDZ on in vitro propagation of Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen

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    R. Flores

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, conhecida como ginseng brasileiro, é muito utilizada pela medicina popular devido suas propriedades fitoterápicas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de concentrações de BAP e de TDZ na propagação in vitro de dois acessos (BRA e JB-UFSM desta espécie. Segmentos nodais, provenientes de plantas assépticas, foram cultivados em meio Murashige e Skoog (MS suplementado com 0, 1 e 5 μM de BAP ou TDZ. Após 30 dias, as plantas foram transferidas para meio MS não suplementado com citocinina. Observou-se que a organogênese in vitro de P. glomerata é genótipo-dependente. O acesso BRA mostrou um maior potencial para a propagação in vitro em relação ao JB-UFSM. O cultivo dos segmentos nodais do acesso BRA em meio com 1 μM de TDZ, seguido pelo subcultivo dos brotos para meio isento de citocininas mostrou ser um método viável para a propagação in vitro devido à alta taxa de multiplicação e o bom desenvolvimento das plantas. No acesso JB-UFSM, o cultivo dos segmentos nodais em meio não acrescido de citocinina mostrou ser o método mais adequado para a produção de um grande número de plantas com alta qualidade.The plant Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen, known as Brazilian ginseng, is extensively used in folk medicine due to its phytotherapic characteristics. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of BAP and TDZ concentrations on the in vitro propagation of two sources (BRA and JB-UFSM of this species. Nodal segments originated from aseptically grown plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0, 1 and 5 μM BAP or TDZ. After 30 days, the plants were transferred to MS medium without cytokinin. The in vitro organogenesis of P. glomerata is genotype-dependent. The source BRA had greater potential for in vitro propagation than JB-UFSM. The culture of BRA nodal segments on medium with 1 μM TDZ, followed by subcultivation of sprouts on cytokinin

  4. The combined effects of BDE47 and BaP on oxidatively generated DNA damage in L02 cells and the possible molecular mechanism.

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    An, Jing; Yin, Lingling; Shang, Yu; Zhong, Yufang; Zhang, Xinyu; Wu, Minghong; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Huang, Yuecheng

    2011-04-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) coexist widely in the environment and have generated adverse effects on the environment and human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined toxic effects of these chemicals and the related mechanism. L02 cells were exposed to BDE47 (5, 10μmol/L) or/and BaP (50μmol/L) in different administration order. The cell growth and survival, DNA strand breaks, oxidative stress index (ROS, SOD, GSH, and MDA), LDH release and the expression level of CYP1 family members were measured. The result showed that BDE47 or/and BaP had no effect on the cell growth and survival under the present conditions. However, compared with the groups treated with BDE47 or BaP alone, the combined-treated groups induced significantly elevated DNA strand breaks, ROS production, and MDA level. Especially, pretreatment with BDE47 followed by BaP led to the strongest effects. Addition of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) markedly reduced the ROS level and partly suppressed the DNA strand breaks induced by BDE47 or/and BaP. Meanwhile, the combined treatment groups also markedly increased the SOD activity, GSH content, and LDH release level compared with the control group. The real-time PCR results showed that BaP could significantly induce the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, however, the pre-treatment with BDE47 appeared to attenuate the BaP-induced CYP1 expression. All of above findings indicated that BDE47 and BaP had a synergistic effect on oxidatively generated DNA damage in L02 cells via regulation on the oxidative stress response and the expression of CYP1 metabolism enzymes.

  5. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) model: applicability for investigating the immunosuppressive effects of the aquatic pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, E A; Li, Y; Zelikoff, J T

    2002-01-01

    Despite the fact that BaP is a carcinogen, mammalian immunosuppressant, and ubiquitous aquatic pollutant, knowledge regarding the effects of BaP on the immune system of fish is still lacking. To begin to fill this gap, studies were conducted in medaka to examine the effects and mechanisms by which BaP exposure might alter host immunocompetence. Fish, exposed by IP injection of BaP (2-600 microg/g BW), were examined after 48 h for effects upon immune function and CYP1A expression/activity. Benzo[a]pyrene, at a concentration below that which increased levels of CYPIA expression/activity (2 microg BaP/g BW) suppressed lymphocyte proliferation. Concentrations of BaP at 20 and 200 microg/g BW. suppressed antibody-forming cell (AFC) numbers, superoxide production, and host resistance against bacteria. In contrast, exposure to the low affinity aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, benzo[e]pyrene (BeP), neither induced CYP1A expression nor altered immune function. Given the lack of immunosuppressive effects produced by BeP, and the fact that exposure to the AhR antagonist (and CYP1A inhibitor) alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF) ameliorated the suppressive effects of BaP upon AFC numbers, the AhR pathway (including CYP1A-mediated production of reactive BaP metabolites) appears important in mediating BaP-induced immunotoxicity in fish, as in mammals. In the past, the medaka has proven a successful model for assessing carcinogenic agents. These studies have demonstrated its utility for also determining the immunosuppressive effects of an important aquatic contaminant.

  6. PCB126 enhanced the genotoxicity of BaP in HepG2 cells by modulating metabolic enzyme and DNA repair activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Chen, Xue-Min; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2009-09-10

    Both of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are ubiquitous and persistent environmental pollutants. These two chemicals coexist in various environmental media and human samples and thus may have combined effects on human health. However, the toxic effects and related mechanism of co-exposure to BaP and PCB126 remain unknown. In a series of experiments using the HepG2 cells exposed to BaP (50microM) or/and PCB126 (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10nM), we measured the rate of micronucleus (MN) formation, CYP1A1 activity and expression of nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins (XPA and XPC). We found that the exposure to BaP or PCB126 alone could effectively increase the CYP1A1 activity and the XPA expression. BaP alone had a profound enhancement of MN formation. Compared with BaP alone, co-exposure to both BaP and PCB126 significantly enhanced the CYP1A1 activity and the formation of MN but reduced the expression of both XPA and XPC. The synergistic effect of PCB126 on BaP-induced MN formation was inhibited by alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), an inhibitor of CYP1A1. Our findings suggest that PCB126 may enhance BaP-induced DNA damage and genotoxicity by increasing cytochrome P450 1A activity and decreasing the NER capacity.

  7. Toxic effects of male Perna viridis gonad exposed to BaP, DDT and their mixture: A metabolomic and proteomic study of the underlying mechanism.

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    Song, Qinqin; Zheng, Pengfei; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-01-05

    Benzo(a)pyrene and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane are typical persistent organic pollutants, and also the widespread environmental estrogens with known toxicity towards green mussels Perna viridis. In this study, the toxicological effects of BaP and DDT and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gonads using proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolomics by NMR spectroscopy revealed that BaP did not show obvious metabolite changes in the gonad of male green mussel. DDT mainly caused some disturbance of osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by changing BCAAs, alanine, threonine, arginine, etc., unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, homarine and ATP at different levels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT mainly caused some disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differentially altering branched chain amino acids, glutamate, alanine, arginine, unknown metabolite (3.53 ppm), glycine, 4-aminobutyrate, dimethylglycine, homarine and ATP. The results suggest that DDT alone may cause most of metabolites changes in the mixture exposed male mussel gonad, and the results also show that the male P. viridis gonad was more sensitive to DDT than BaP exposures. Proteomic study showed that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced signal transduction, oxidative stress, spermatogenesis, etc. in the male green mussel gonad; whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with signal transduction, oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, cellular organization, energy metabolism, etc. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to cytoskeleton and cell structure, oxidative stress, cellular organization, etc. This research demonstrated that metabolomic and proteomic approaches could better elucidate the underlying mechanism of environmental pollutants gonad toxicity.

  8. Source apportionment of elevated BaP concentrations in PM10 aerosols in an alpine valley in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans; Jankowski, Nicole; Sampaio Cordeiro Wagner, Lylian

    2010-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: In a village situated at 1215 m a.s.l. in a natural preserve in an Austrian alpine valley elevated BaP concentrations have been measured in the last years. A highly frequented highway leading from Italy to Germany passes near the village. Monthly means of particulate BaP concentrations show a clear seasonal trend with values below 1 ng/m³ during the warmer months and with concentrations up to 9 ng/m³ in the cold season. Annual averages in the years 2000 - 2005 ranged between 1.4 and 2.8 ng/m³ - much higher than the EU target value of 1 ng/m³. We used a macrotracer model developed at the Vienna University of Technology to determine the contributions of the sources for BaP emissions, which were mainly space heating with wood and traffic from the highway. EXPERIMENTAL: The macrotracer concept is a nine component model to derive source contribution and explains 80-100% of PM10 aerosols in Austria. The amount of traffic exhaust is derived by using EC as tracer, whereas EC produced by wood burning is subtracted, the amount of wood smoke is derived by the anhydro-sugar levoglucosan and the ratio between the anhydro-sugars levoglucosan and mannosan. For the source apportionment of BaP the applied factors reflect on the one hand the composition of the automotive fleet in Austria and on the other hand the composition of the fire wood in the region. Filter samples collected with a high volume sampler in winter were analyzed for PM10 aerosol mass, total, organic, elemental and carbonate carbon, HULIS, anhydro-sugars, polyols and ions (major ions and organic acids) and PAHs. In the same way emission samples taken at a motor test stand and at a test stand for wood combustion were analyzed (Schmidl et al. 2008). The saccharides were determined using high pH anion exchange and pulsed amperometry (HPAE-PAD). Details of the analytical method are given in Iinuma et al., 2009. Elemental and organic carbon were determined with a thermal-optical instrument (Sunset lab

  9. Exome sequencing identifies frequent inactivating mutations in BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selaru, Florin M; Streppel, Mirte M; Lucas, Donald J; Niknafs, Noushin; Guthrie, Violeta Beleva; Maitra, Anirban; Argani, Pedram; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Roa, Juan Carlos; Roberts, Lewis R; Gores, Gregory J; Popescu, Irinel; Alexandrescu, Sorin T; Dima, Simona; Fassan, Matteo; Simbolo, Michele; Mafficini, Andrea; Capelli, Paola; Lawlor, Rita T; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Tortora, Giampaolo; de Braud, Filippo; Scarpa, Aldo; Jarnagin, William; Klimstra, David; Karchin, Rachel; Velculescu, Victor E; Hruban, Ralph H; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Wood, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Through exomic sequencing of 32 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, we discovered frequent inactivating mutations in multiple chromatin-remodeling genes (including BAP1, ARID1A and PBRM1), and mutation in one of these genes occurred in almost half of the carcinomas sequenced. We also identified frequent mutations at previously reported hotspots in the IDH1 and IDH2 genes encoding metabolic enzymes in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. In contrast, TP53 was the most frequently altered gene in a series of nine gallbladder carcinomas. These discoveries highlight the key role of dysregulated chromatin remodeling in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. PMID:24185509

  10. Modulation of adult rat benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) metabolism and DNA adduct formation by neonatal diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Aramandla; Inyang, Frank; Knuckles, Maurice E

    2004-12-01

    This study seeks to elucidate the role of diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) metabolism in the male rat reproductive tissues. Offspring of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were neonatally treated on days 2, 4, and 6 post-partum with 1.45 micromol/kg of DES. Ten weeks after birth, the adult rats were challenged with radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene (3H BaP) (10 micromol/kg) and the rats were sacrificed 2 h after BaP exposure. Prostrate, testis, lung, liver, urine and feces samples were collected and extracted using a mixture of H2O, MeOH and CHCl3. The extracts were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. The concentrations of BaP organic metabolites in DES rats were lower compared to controls (vehicle-treated rats). On the other hand, concentrations of aqueous metabolites were significantly increased in DES treated animals. The toxication to detoxication ratios were significantly decreased in DES rats compared to controls. This trend is also reflected in the decreased concentrations of BaP-DNA adducts in DES rats. Collectively these results suggest that DES is capable of modulating the metabolic pathway of BaP towards detoxification thereby preventing the manifestation of toxicity.

  11. P-glycoprotein and CYP1A protein expression patterns in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) tissues after waterborne exposure to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana; Reis-Henriques, Maria Armanda; Wilson, Jonathan M; Ferreira, Marta

    2013-09-01

    The protein levels and tissue distribution patterns of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP1A) were investigated in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after waterborne exposure to different benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations, using immunochemical approaches. The Pgp mammalian monoclonal antibody (mAb) C219 cross reacted with a ∼170kDa protein, almost exclusively localized to the bile canaliculi, while probing with the Pgp mammalian mAb C494, resulted in a positive reaction in liver, gills and intestine of Nile tilapia and covered a wider set of cell types. Levels of Pgp expression were not altered after in vivo exposure to BaP. CYP1A, detected with the mAb C10-7, reacted positively in liver, gills and intestine and followed a BaP dose-dependent fold induction. Taken together, these results indicate that CYP1A is involved in BaP metabolism in liver, gills and intestine, however, further studies are needed to elucidate the possible interaction of the efflux protein Pgp with BaP and/or its metabolites.

  12. A fluorescence enhancement-based label-free homogeneous immunoassay of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taihua; Choi, Yo Han; Shin, Yong-Beom; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Kim, Min-Gon

    2016-05-01

    A fluorescence enhancement-based immunoassay has been developed for the detection of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), in aqueous solutions. The results of this study show that BaP, which inefficiently fluoresces in aqueous solution, displays enhanced fluorescence when bound to the anti-BaP antibody (anti-BaP), as part of a label-free immunoassay system. Binding to anti-BaP results in a 3.12-fold increase in the fluorescence intensity of BaP, which emits at 435 nm when excited at 280 nm, due to the hydrophobic interaction and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between antibody and antigen. As result of this phenomenon, the antibody-based fluorescence immunoassay system can be used to detect BaP specifically with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.06 ng mL(-1). Finally, extraction recoveries of BaP from spiked wheat and barley samples were found to be in the range of 80.5-87.0% and 92.9-92.1%, respectively.

  13. Loss of BAP1 expression is very rare in peritoneal and gynecologic serous adenocarcinomas and can be useful in the differential diagnosis with abdominal mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrici, Juliana; Jung, Jason; Sheen, Amy; D'Urso, Lisa; Sioson, Loretta; Pickett, Justine; Parkhill, Thomas R; Verdonk, Brandon; Wardell, Kathryn L; Singh, Arjun; Clarkson, Adele; Watson, Nicole; Toon, Christopher W; Gill, Anthony J

    2016-05-01

    Gynecologic and primary peritoneal serous carcinoma may be difficult to distinguish from abdominal mesotheliomas clinically, morphologically, and immunohistochemically. BAP1 double-hit inactivation and subsequent loss of protein expression have been reported in more than half of all abdominal mesotheliomas. We therefore sought to investigate the expression of BAP1 in serous carcinoma and explore its potential utility as a marker in the differential diagnosis with mesothelioma. We searched the computerized database of the Department of Anatomical Pathology, Royal North Shore Hospital, Australia, for all cases of gynecologic and peritoneal serous carcinomas and mesotheliomas diagnosed between 1998 and 2014. Immunohistochemistry for BAP1 was then performed on tissue microarray sections. Cases with completely absent nuclear staining in the presence of a positive internal control in nonneoplastic cells were considered negative. If staining was equivocal (eg, absent nuclear staining but no internal control), staining was repeated on whole sections. Loss of BAP1 expression was found in only 1 of 395 (0.3%) serous carcinomas but in 6 of 9 (67%) abdominal mesotheliomas (P diagnosis of mesothelioma, loss of BAP1 expression can be used to very strongly support a pathological diagnosis of abdominal mesothelioma over serous carcinoma.

  14. Effects of different concentrations of 2,4-D and BAP on somatic embryogenesis induction in saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabpoor, Sh; Azghandi, A V; Saboora, A

    2007-11-01

    To optimize an in vitro protocol for propagation of saffron through somatic embryogenesis, effects of various concentrations of 2,4-D ( 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg L(-1)) in combination with BAP (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg L(-1)) were studied. Surface-sterilized corms were cut transversally into equal portions and the upper or lower parts were used separately as explants. All treatments were maintained in the darkness at 24 +/- 2 degrees C. After 70 days, the first globular embryos were observed and the number of embryos on each explant reached to its maximum 3 months after culture. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences between treatments regarding the number of embryos induced on each explant. The most effective treatment was 2.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D + 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP for both types of explant (inducing 6.5 +/- 1.3 and 35.95 +/- 4.9 embryos on each explant for the upper and lower parts, respectively). The average percentages of explants showing embryogenic response were 33.3 and 93.3% for the upper and the lower part of corm tissue respectively in this treatment. Complementary studies are in progress to optimize maturation and germination stages of these somatic embryos.

  15. INDUKSI KALUS JERUK KASTURI (CITRUS MICROCARPA MENGGUNAKAN HORMON 2,4-D DAN BAP DENGAN METODE IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Mahadi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Calamansi fruits (Citrus microcarpa or musk lime is one horticulture crops has been known as beverage and food flavorings. This research aimed to determine the effect of 2,4-D and BAP on callus induction of explants calamansi fruits (Citrus microcarpa. Parameters observed is percentage of explants, time appeared callus, callus width, and texture of the callus. Research results and a growing percentage of the width callus explants were analyzed by ANOVA and a further test DMRT at 5% level. The next to appear callus timing parameters and texture of callus analyzed in description. The result shows that a combination of hormones D4B1 and D4B2 produces a callus emerged fastest of 3.3 days after culture. The highest percentage of callus formation that is 100% contained in the treatment of D2B0, D2B0.5-D4B0. The mean width of callus was highest in treatment D4B2with a width of 0.97 cm. Embryogenic callus resulting by treatment of D2B1, D2B2, and D3B0. However, the best a combination of hormones is treatment D2B2 (2 mg/l, 2,4-D, dan 2 mg/l BAP producing embryogenic callus edvanced to suspension cultures.

  16. Membrane-Associated RING-CH proteins associate with Bap31 and target CD81 and CD44 to lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Bartee

    Full Text Available Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH proteins represent a family of transmembrane ubiquitin ligases modulating intracellular trafficking and turnover of transmembrane protein targets. While homologous proteins encoded by gamma-2 herpesviruses and leporipoxviruses have been studied extensively, limited information is available regarding the physiological targets of cellular MARCH proteins. To identify host cell proteins targeted by the human MARCH-VIII ubiquitin ligase we used stable isotope labeling of amino-acids in cell culture (SILAC to monitor MARCH-dependent changes in the membrane proteomes of human fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of Bap31, a chaperone that predominantly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. We demonstrate that Bap31 associates with the transmembrane domains of several MARCH proteins and controls intracellular transport of MARCH proteins. In addition, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of the hyaluronic acid-receptor CD44 and both MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV sequestered the tetraspanin CD81 in endo-lysosomal vesicles. Moreover, gene knockdown of MARCH-IV increased surface levels of endogenous CD81 suggesting a constitutive involvement of this family of ubiquitin ligases in the turnover of tetraspanins. Our data thus suggest a role of MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV in the regulated turnover of CD81 and CD44, two ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional proteins.

  17. Membrane-Associated RING-CH proteins associate with Bap31 and target CD81 and CD44 to lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartee, Eric; Eyster, Craig A; Viswanathan, Kasinath; Mansouri, Mandana; Donaldson, Julie G; Früh, Klaus

    2010-12-02

    Membrane-associated RING-CH (MARCH) proteins represent a family of transmembrane ubiquitin ligases modulating intracellular trafficking and turnover of transmembrane protein targets. While homologous proteins encoded by gamma-2 herpesviruses and leporipoxviruses have been studied extensively, limited information is available regarding the physiological targets of cellular MARCH proteins. To identify host cell proteins targeted by the human MARCH-VIII ubiquitin ligase we used stable isotope labeling of amino-acids in cell culture (SILAC) to monitor MARCH-dependent changes in the membrane proteomes of human fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of Bap31, a chaperone that predominantly resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We demonstrate that Bap31 associates with the transmembrane domains of several MARCH proteins and controls intracellular transport of MARCH proteins. In addition, we observed that MARCH-VIII reduced the surface expression of the hyaluronic acid-receptor CD44 and both MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV sequestered the tetraspanin CD81 in endo-lysosomal vesicles. Moreover, gene knockdown of MARCH-IV increased surface levels of endogenous CD81 suggesting a constitutive involvement of this family of ubiquitin ligases in the turnover of tetraspanins. Our data thus suggest a role of MARCH-VIII and MARCH-IV in the regulated turnover of CD81 and CD44, two ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional proteins.

  18. Intercambio de gases y relaciones hídricas durante el retraso de la senescencia foliar de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) por la citocinina bap

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Martínez-Gutiérrez; Zavaleta-Mancera, Hilda A.; Lucero del Mar Ruíz-Posadas; Adriana Delgado-Alvarado; Rocío Vaca-Paulín

    2008-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto de la citocinina 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP) en el intercambio de gases y relaciones hídricas de Triticum aestivum L. durante el retraso de la senescencia foliar en invernadero. Plántulas de 21 días después de la siembra (DDS) fueron asperjadas con BAP 0,1mM o agua (testigo) cada 3 días por 20 días. El retraso de senescencia foliar en las plantas tratadas con BAP fue monitoreado mediante cuantificación de clorofila y proteína soluble total. El intercambio de gases se estimó...

  19. Multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis sob estímulo com benzilaminopurina In vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis under BAP pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirifran Fernandes de Andrade

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do estímulo com benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de Eucalyptus grandis. Foram avaliadas as interações entre concentrações de BAP (0, 200, 400 e 600 mg L-1, tempo de exposição (1, 2 e 3 horas, pH (3 e 5,8 da solução e alterações morfológicas dos explantes. Semanalmente, foi determinada a massa da matéria fresca dos explantes. Aos 21 dias de cultura, foram avaliados: o número de brotações por tratamento, o número de brotações obtidas por explante (taxa de multiplicação, e foi realizado o resgate das plântulas para avaliação histológica. O pH não apresentou interação com os demais fatores estudados. Os tratamentos com BAP a 200 mg L-1, durante 1 e 2 horas, apresentaram-se como os mais indicados na multiplicação do E. grandis. Houve intensificação da divisão celular, no parênquima cortical e no procâmbio, representada pelo surgimento de meristemóides, em resposta aos tratamentos com 200 mg L-1 de BAP, durante 1 e 2 horas. O estímulo com BAP na multiplicação in vitro de E. grandis é viável.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pulse on in vitro multiplication of Eucalyptus grandis. Interactions were evaluated among BAP concentrations (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg L-1, exposure time (1, 2 and 3 hours, pH values (3 and 5.8, and explant morphological changes. Fresh weight of the explants was determined weekly. At 21 days of culture, valuations were made of the number of shootings per treatment, number of shootings obtained per explant (multiplication rate, and seedlings rescue was accomplished for histological analysis. The pH values did not present any interaction with the other factors. The most significant treatments on E. grandis shoot multiplications were 200 mg L-1 of 6-BAP during 1 and 2 hours. There was an intensification of cell division in the cortical parenchyma and procambium, represented by the arising of meristems in

  20. MULTIPLICAÇÃO IN VITRO DE PORTA-ENXERTOS DO GÊNERO PRUNUS SOB DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇÕES DE BAP EM DOIS MEIOS DE CULTURA IN VITRO MULTIPLICATION OF PRUNUS ROOTSTOCKS IN DIFFERENT BAP CONCENTRATIONS IN TWO CULTURE MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS AUGUSTO POSSER SILVEIRA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a melhor concentração de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina e meio de cultura para a multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus sp., recentemente introduzidos no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos G x N22, GF 677, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna e Mirabolano foram testados em dois meios de cultura, meio MS e meio MS ¾ (reduzido em 25% dos sais do meio inteiro, combinados com quatro concentrações da citocinina BAP: 0,1; 0,3; 0,5 e 0,7 mg.L-1. Observou-se que os genótipos apresentaram comportamentos diferentes entre si em relação às concentrações de BAP e aos meios. Concluiu-se que, para os porta-enxertos G x N22 e Mr.S 2/5, o melhor meio de multiplicação é o MS ¾ com BAP na concentração de 0,7 mg.L-1; para o porta-enxerto Marianna, o meio MS com BAP na concentração de 0,7 mg.L-1; para o porta-enxerto Mirabolano, o meio MS ¾ com BAP na concentração de 0,5 mg.L-1, sendo que, para este porta-enxerto, o BAP exerce efeito negativo sobre o tamanho das brotações, independentemente do tipo de meio. Já para o porta-enxerto G x N22, este efeito se fez notar apenas no meio MS. O porta-enxerto GF 677 não apresentou bons resultados na propagação in vitro.The purpose of this work was to determine the best BAP concentration and culture media for the in vitro multiplication of Prunus rootstocks starting from nodal segments. The rootstocks G x N22, GF 677, Mr.S 2/5, Marianna and Mirabolano were tested in two culture media (MS and MS ¾ combined with four BAP concentrations (0.1; 0.3; 0.5 and 0.7 mg.L-1. It was observed that the genotypes had different performance as the two media and BAP concentrations are concerned. BAP provided better results in the MS ¾ for the rootstocks G x N22 and Mr.S 2/5. For 'Marianna', the best results were found in the MS at 0.7 mg.L-1 BAP. 'Mirabolano', showed better results in the MS ¾ at 0.5 mg.L-1 BAP and in the two tested media, the shoot length decreased with the increase for

  1. Prokaryotic expression, purification and identification of truncated BAP31/GST fusion protein%截短型BAP31/GST基因重组质粒的构建及融合蛋白的表达、纯化和鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛; 杨琨; 宋朝君; 孙元杰; 魏玉英; 李永明; 刘飞; 刘志佳; 张葵; 金伯泉

    2011-01-01

    目的 构建编码截短型肿瘤抗原BAP31(△BAP31)与GST融合基因的原核表达载体,在大肠杆菌中表达并对融合蛋白(△BAP31/GST)进行纯化和初步鉴定.方法 PCR扩增编码△BAP31的基因片段,上下游分别引入EcoR Ⅰ及Xho Ⅰ酶切位点,亚克隆至含有GST标签的原核表达载体pGEX4T-1中,构建重组表达载体pGEX4T1-△BAP31,将该载体转化大肠杆菌DH5α,IPTG诱导表达△BAP31/GST,用GST亲和层析分离纯化原核表达的△BAP31/GST,表达产物分别用SDS-PAGE和West-ern blot进行鉴定.结果 重组质粒经限制性内切酶EcoR Ⅰ和Xho Ⅰ双酶切鉴定和IPTG诱导表达△BAP31/GST的SDS-PAGE分析表明,表达产物的相对分子质量为40 000,与理论值相符,并主要以可溶性蛋白形式存在;经过对融合蛋白表达条件的优化,在IPTG浓度为1 mmol/L,诱导6 h目的蛋白表达量最高;灰度扫描分析发现,融合蛋白表达量占菌体蛋白总量的70.6%,纯化产物的纯度最高可达94.5%,Western blot证实该△BAP31/GST可与抗GST单克隆抗体(mAb)发生特异性结合反应,分子量为△BAP31与GST分子量之和,提示为融合蛋白.结论 成功构建了编码△BAP31基因原核表达载体pGEX4T1-△BAP31,利用大肠杆菌表达系统和GST亲和层析,获得了较高纯度的△BAP31/GST融合蛋白,为进一步研究肿瘤抗原BAP31的功能及开发以BAP31作为靶点的肿瘤疫苗提供了试验基础.%In this study, we aimed to construct a expression plasmid forΔBAP31 gene and identify the recombinant protein expression. Firstly, the ΔBAP31 coding sequence was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and subcloned into pGEX-4Tlvector. After the target gene was sequenced, the plasmid was transformed into E coil DH5o and induced with IPTG to express fusion protein ΔBAP31/GST which was then proved by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that a novel protein with the expected molecular mass about 40 000 was

  2. p28 Bap31, a Bcl-2/Bcl-XL- and procaspase-8-associated protein in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, F W; Nguyen, M; Kwan, T; Branton, P E; Nicholson, D W; Cromlish, J A; Shore, G C

    1997-10-20

    We have identified a human Bcl-2-interacting protein, p28 Bap31. It is a 28-kD (p28) polytopic integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum whose COOH-terminal cytosolic region contains overlapping predicted leucine zipper and weak death effector homology domains, flanked on either side by identical caspase recognition sites. In cotransfected 293T cells, p28 is part of a complex that includes Bcl-2/Bcl-XL and procaspase-8 (pro-FLICE). Bax, a pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, does not associate with the complex; however, it prevents Bcl-2 from doing so. In the absence (but not presence) of elevated Bcl-2 levels, apoptotic signaling by adenovirus E1A oncoproteins promote cleavage of p28 at the two caspase recognition sites. Purified caspase-8 (FLICE/MACH/Mch5) and caspase-1(ICE), but not caspase-3 (CPP32/apopain/ Yama), efficiently catalyze this reaction in vitro. The resulting NH2-terminal p20 fragment induces apoptosis when expressed ectopically in otherwise normal cells. Taken together, the results suggest that p28 Bap31 is part of a complex in the endoplasmic reticulum that mechanically bridges an apoptosis-initiating caspase, like procaspase-8, with the anti-apoptotic regulator Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL. This raises the possibility that the p28 complex contributes to the regulation of procaspase-8 or a related caspase in response to E1A, dependent on the status of the Bcl-2 setpoint within the complex.

  3. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles provide protection against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon BaP and chrysene-induced perturbation of DNA repair machinery: A computational biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Anupam; Jamal, Qazi Mohd Sajid; Gupta, Richa; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Wadhwa, Gulshan; Khan, Saif; Haque, Shafiul; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2016-07-01

    We examined the interaction of polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like benzo-α-pyrene (BaP), chrysene, and their metabolites 7,8-dihydro-7,8-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene,9,10-oxide (BPDE) and chrysene 1,2-diol-3,4-epoxide-2 (CDE), with the enzymes involved in DNA repair. We investigated interaction of 120 enzymes with PAHs and screened out 40 probable targets among DNA repair enzymes, on the basis of higher binding energy than positive control. Out of which, 20 enzymes lose their function in the presence of BaP, chrysene, and their metabolites, which may fetter DNA repair pathways resulting in damage accumulation and finally leading to cancer formation. We propose the use of nanoparticles as a guardian against the PAH's induced toxicity. PAHs enter the cell via aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). TiO2 NP showed a much higher docking score with AHR (12,074) as compared with BaP and chrysene with AHR (4,600 and 4,186, respectively), indicating a preferential binding of TiO2 NP with the AHR. Further, docking of BaP and chrysene with the TiO2 NP bound AHR complex revealed their strong adsorption on TiO2 NP itself, and not on their original binding site (at AHR). TiO2 NPs thereby prevent the entry of PAHs into the cell via AHR and hence protect cells against the deleterious effects induced by PAHs.

  4. Burial effects of organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of particle-borne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) toward ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S; Lee, A K Y; McWhinney, R D; Abbatt, J P D

    2012-07-05

    With an aerosol flow tube coupled to an Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), room temperature (296 ± 3 K) kinetics studies have been performed on the reaction of gas-phase ozone with benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) adsorbed in submonolayer amounts to dry ammonium sulfate (AS) particles. Three organic substances, i.e., bis(2-ethylhexyl)sebacate (BES, liquid), phenylsiloxane oil (PSO, liquid), and eicosane (EC, solid), were used to coat BaP-AS particles to investigate the effects of such organic coatings on the heterogeneous reactivity of PAHs toward ozone. All the reactions of particle-borne BaP with excess ozone exhibit pseudo-first-order kinetics in terms of BaP loss, and reactions with a liquid organic coating proceed by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) mechanism. Liquid organic coatings did not significantly affect the kinetics, consistent with the ability of reactants to rapidly diffuse through the organic coating. In contrast, the heterogeneous reactivity of BaP was reduced substantially by a thin (4-8 nm), solid EC coating and entirely suppressed by thick (10-80 nm) coatings, presumably because of slow diffusion through the organic layer. Although the heterogeneous reactivity of surface-bound PAHs is extremely rapid in the atmosphere, this work is the first to experimentally demonstrate a mechanism by which the lifetime of PAHs may be significantly prolonged, permitting them to undergo long-range transport to remote locations.

  5. Significance of measuring oxidative stress in lifestyle-related diseases from the viewpoint of correlation between d-ROMs and BAP in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Mie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Kohno, Masakazu; Abe, Youichi

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been postulated to be an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), as an index of antioxidant potential. We also investigated the associations between d-ROMs or BAP and the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases or metabolic syndrome-associated factors to evaluate their usefulness in preventive medicine. There were 442 subjects who underwent health checkup examination in our facilities. In addition to standard medical checkup items, we analyzed d-ROMs, BAP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and visceral fat area (VFA) visualized on a computed tomography scan. The mean d-ROM value in females was significantly higher than that in males. There was a positive correlation between the d-ROM and VFA levels. On correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the d-ROM and creatinine levels. As factors that influence d-ROMs, the level of VFA was selected, suggesting the significance of oxidative stress measurement with d-ROMs. In addition, there was a positive correlation between d-ROMs and BAP values. Further research is required to resolve whether increased production of ROS or the antioxidant potential that can compensate for such an increase of ROS is more important in vivo.

  6. Bap31 is an itinerant protein that moves between the peripheral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a juxtanuclear compartment related to ER-associated Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakana, Yuichi; Takai, Sawako; Nakajima, Ken-Ichi; Tani, Katsuko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Watson, Peter; Stephens, David J; Hauri, Hans-Peter; Tagaya, Mitsuo

    2008-05-01

    Certain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates with transmembrane domains are segregated from other ER proteins and sorted into a juxtanuclear subcompartment, known as the ER quality control compartment. Bap31 is an ER protein with three transmembrane domains, and it is assumed to be a cargo receptor for ER export of some transmembrane proteins, especially those prone to ERAD. Here, we show that Bap31 is a component of the ER quality control compartment and that it moves between the peripheral ER and a juxtanuclear ER or ER-related compartment distinct from the conventional ER-Golgi intermediate compartment. The third and second transmembrane domains of Bap31 are principally responsible for the movement to and recycling from the juxtanuclear region, respectively. This cycling was blocked by depolymerization of microtubules and disruption of dynein-dynactin function. Overexpression of Sar1p and Arf1 mutants affected Bap31 cycling, suggesting that this cycling pathway is related to the conventional vesicular transport pathways.

  7. Caspase cleavage product of BAP31 induces mitochondrial fission through endoplasmic reticulum calcium signals, enhancing cytochrome c release to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenridge, David G; Stojanovic, Marina; Marcellus, Richard C; Shore, Gordon C

    2003-03-31

    Stimulation of cell surface death receptors activates caspase-8, which targets a limited number of substrates including BAP31, an integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recently, we reported that a caspase-resistant BAP31 mutant inhibited several features of Fas-induced apoptosis, including the release of cytochrome c (cyt.c) from mitochondria (Nguyen, M., D.G. Breckenridge, A. Ducret, and G.C. Shore. 2000. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20:6731-6740), implicating ER-mitochondria crosstalk in this pathway. Here, we report that the p20 caspase cleavage fragment of BAP31 can direct pro-apoptotic signals between the ER and mitochondria. Adenoviral expression of p20 caused an early release of Ca2+ from the ER, concomitant uptake of Ca2+ into mitochondria, and mitochondrial recruitment of Drp1, a dynamin-related protein that mediates scission of the outer mitochondrial membrane, resulting in dramatic fragmentation and fission of the mitochondrial network. Inhibition of Drp1 or ER-mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling prevented p20-induced fission of mitochondria. p20 strongly sensitized mitochondria to caspase-8-induced cyt.c release, whereas prolonged expression of p20 on its own ultimately induced caspase activation and apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptosome stress pathway. Therefore, caspase-8 cleavage of BAP31 at the ER stimulates Ca2+-dependent mitochondrial fission, enhancing the release of cyt.c in response to this initiator caspase.

  8. Noncovalent interactions of a benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with DNA base pairs: insight into the formation of adducts of (+)-BaP DE-2 with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargis, Jacqueline C; Schaefer, Henry F; Houk, K N; Wheeler, Steven E

    2010-02-01

    Noncovalent complexes of a tumorigenic benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide with the guanine-cytosine (GC) and adenine-thymine (AT) base pairs have been examined computationally. (+)-BaP DE-2 forms covalent adducts with DNA via nucleophilic attack on the (+)-BaP DE-2 epoxide. Computational results predict five thermodynamically accessible complexes of AT with (+)-BaP DE-2 that are compatible with intact DNA. Among these, two are expected to lead to adenine adducts. In the lowest energy AT...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, which has a gas-phase interaction energy of -20.9 kcal mol(-1), the exocyclic NH(2) of adenine is positioned for backside epoxide attack and formation of a trans adduct. The most energetically favorable complex leading to formation of a cis ring-opened adduct lies only 0.6 kcal mol(-1) higher in energy. For GC...(+)-BaP DE-2, there are only two thermodynamically accessible complexes. The higher-lying complex, bound in the gas phase by 24.4 kcal mol(-1) relative to separated GC and (+)-BaP DE-2, would lead to a trans ring-opened N(2)-guanine adduct. In the global minimum energy GC...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, bound by 27.3 kcal mol(-1), the exocyclic NH(2) group of cytosine is positioned for cis epoxide addition. However, adducts of (+)-BaP DE-2 with cytosine are rarely observed experimentally. The paucity of cytosine adducts, despite the predicted thermodynamic stability of this GC...(+)-BaP DE-2 complex, is attributed to the electrostatic destabilization of the benzylic cation intermediate thought to precede cis addition.

  9. Seasonal variation of benzo(a)pyrene in the Spanish airborne PM10. Multivariate linear regression model applied to estimate BaP concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callén, M S; López, J M; Mastral, A M

    2010-08-15

    The estimation of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air is very important from an environmental point of view especially with the introduction of the Directive 2004/107/EC and due to the carcinogenic character of this pollutant. A sampling campaign of particulate matter less or equal than 10 microns (PM10) carried out during 2008-2009 in four locations of Spain was collected to determine experimentally BaP concentrations by gas chromatography mass-spectrometry mass-spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). Multivariate linear regression models (MLRM) were used to predict BaP air concentrations in two sampling places, taking PM10 and meteorological variables as possible predictors. The model obtained with data from two sampling sites (all sites model) (R(2)=0.817, PRESS/SSY=0.183) included the significant variables like PM10, temperature, solar radiation and wind speed and was internally and externally validated. The first validation was performed by cross validation and the last one by BaP concentrations from previous campaigns carried out in Zaragoza from 2001-2004. The proposed model constitutes a first approximation to estimate BaP concentrations in urban atmospheres with very good internal prediction (Q(CV)(2)=0.813, PRESS/SSY=0.187) and with the maximal external prediction for the 2001-2002 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.679 and PRESS/SSY=0.321) versus the 2001-2004 campaign (Q(ext)(2)=0.551, PRESS/SSY=0.449).

  10. Influence of dietary fat type on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] biotransformation in a B(a)P-induced mouse model of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggs, Deacqunita L; Myers, Jeremy N; Banks, Leah D; Niaz, Mohammad S; Hood, Darryl B; Roberts, L Jackson; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2013-12-01

    In the US alone, around 60,000 lives/year are lost due to colon cancer. Diet and environment have been implicated in the development of sporadic colon tumors. The objective of this study was to determine how dietary fat potentiates the development of colon tumors through altered B(a)P biotransformation, using the Adenomatous polyposis coli with Multiple intestinal neoplasia mouse model. Benzo(a)pyrene was administered to mice through tricaprylin, and unsaturated (USF; peanut oil) and saturated (SF; coconut oil) fats at doses of 50 and 100 μg/kg via oral gavage over a 60-day period. Blood, colon, and liver were collected at the end of exposure period. The expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes [cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1 and glutathione-S-transferase] in liver and colon were assayed at the level of protein, mRNA and activities. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography for B(a)P metabolites. Additionally, DNA isolated from colon and liver tissues was analyzed for B(a)P-induced DNA adducts by the (32)P-postlabeling method using a thin-layer chromatography system. Benzo(a)pyrene exposure through dietary fat altered its metabolic fate in a dose-dependent manner, with 100 μg/kg dose group registering an elevated expression of B(a)P biotransformation enzymes, and greater concentration of B(a)P metabolites, compared to the 50 μg/kg dose group (Pcolon and liver, whose concentrations also registered a dose-dependent increase. These metabolites were found to bind with DNA and form B(a)P-DNA adducts, which may have contributed to colon tumors in a subchronic exposure regimen.

  11. The yeast split-ubiquitin membrane protein two-hybrid screen identifies BAP31 as a regulator of the turnover of endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein tyrosine phosphatase-like B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Pelletier, Jerry; Massaad, Michel J; Herscovics, Annette; Shore, Gordon C

    2004-04-01

    In the past decade, traditional yeast two-hybrid techniques have identified a plethora of interactions among soluble proteins operating within diverse cellular pathways. The discovery of associations between membrane proteins by genetic approaches, on the other hand, is less well established due to technical limitations. Recently, a split-ubiquitin system was developed to overcome this barrier, but so far, this system has been limited to the analysis of known membrane protein interactions. Here, we constructed unique split-ubiquitin-linked cDNA libraries and provide details for implementing this system to screen for binding partners of a bait protein, in this case BAP31. BAP31 is a resident integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, where it operates as a chaperone or cargo receptor and regulator of apoptosis. Here we describe a novel human member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like B (PTPLB) family, an integral protein of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane with four membrane-spanning alpha helices, as a BAP31-interacting protein. PTPLB turns over rapidly through degradation by the proteasome system. Comparisons of mouse cells with a deletion of Bap31 or reconstituted with human BAP31 indicate that BAP31 is required to maintain PTPLB, consistent with a chaperone or quality control function for BAP31 in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

  12. Ação do BAP na regeneração in vitro de Blc Owen Holmes Ponkan x Brassavola digbiana nº 2 BAP (6-benzylaminopurine in the regeneration in vitro of Blc Owen Holmes Ponkan x Brassavola digbiana nº 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Giatti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A Cattleya é considerada a mais bela e procurada de todas as orquídeas. Esta demanda cria a necessidade do desenvolvimento de técnicas mais eficazes de propagação que ofereçam maior número de indivíduos em período de tempo e espaço físico reduzido, além de manterem a uniformidade e a identidade genotípica para atender às exigências do mercado. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a regeneração de meristemas provenientes de gemas cultivadas in vitro do híbrido Blc Owen Holmes Ponkan x Brassavola digbiana nº 2, em diferentes concentrações de BAP (6-benzilaminopurina. Gemas com 37 dias de cultivo foram inoculadas em meio de cultura líquido com reguladores vegetais, nos respectivos tratamentos: T1 - MS líquido + água de coco; T2 - MS + água de coco + 0,1 mg L-1 ANA (ácido naftaleno acético + 0,2 mg L-1 BAP; T3 - MS + água de coco + 0,1 mg L-1 ANA + 0,5 mg L-1 BAP; T4 - MS + água de coco + 0,1 mg L-1 ANA + 1,0 mg L-1 BAP. Os subcultivos se realizaram aos 18, 32, 62, 93, 123, 153 e 184 dias e as avaliações foram feitas observando-se a porcentagem de sobrevivência, contaminação, oxidação e regeneração dos explantes. Observou-se que 86,7% dos explantes sobreviveram e aos 93 dias ocorreu o primeiro sinal de regeneração. BAP (1,0 mg L-1 promoveu resultados satisfatórios com a formação de 132 perfilhos aos 184 dias de cultivo, potencializando a técnica para produção em escala comercial dessa espécie.Cattleya is considered the most beautiful and searched among all orchids. This fact creates the need of developing more effective propagation techniques to become available a greater number of individuals in reduced periods of time and physical space, besides maintenance of uniformity and genotipic identity to meet the needs of the market. The objective of this work was to evaluate the regeneration of the cultivated shoot meristematic in vitro of the hybrid Blc Owen Holmes Ponkan x Brassavola digbiana nº 2 in the

  13. BAP31 and BiP are essential for dislocation of SV40 from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Roger; Andritschke, Daniel; Friebe, Sarah; Herzog, Fabian; Luisoni, Stefania; Heger, Thomas; Helenius, Ari

    2011-09-25

    How non-enveloped viruses overcome host cell membranes is poorly understood. Here, we show that after endocytosis and transport to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but before crossing the ER membrane to the cytosol, incoming simian virus 40 particles are structurally remodelled leading to exposure of the amino-terminal sequence of the minor viral protein VP2. These hydrophobic sequences anchor the virus to membranes. A negatively charged residue, Glu 17, in the α-helical, membrane-embedded peptide is essential for infection, most likely by introducing an 'irregularity' recognized by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) system for membrane proteins. Using a siRNA-mediated screen, the lumenal chaperone BiP and the ER-membrane protein BAP31 (both involved in ERAD) were identified as being essential for infection. They co-localized with the virus in discrete foci and promoted its ER-to-cytosol dislocation. Virus-like particles devoid of VP2 failed to cross the membrane. The results demonstrated that ERAD-factors assist virus transport across the ER membrane.

  14. Usefulness of p16/CDKN2A fluorescence in situ hybridization and BAP1 immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of biphasic mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Yusa, Toshikazu; Ozaki, Daisuke; Koh, Eitetsu; Sekine, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Shinji; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Yamakawa, Hisami; Tada, Yuji; Shimada, Hideaki; Tagawa, Masatoshi

    2017-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm, and the histologic subtype is one of the most reliable prognostic factors. Some biphasic mesotheliomas are difficult to distinguish from epithelioid mesotheliomas with atypical fibrous stroma. The aim of this study was to analyze p16/CDKN2A deletions in mesotheliomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and BAP1 immunohistochemistry to evaluate their potential role in the diagnosis of biphasic mesothelioma. We collected 38 cases of pleural mesotheliomas. The results of this study clearly distinguished 29 cases of biphasic mesothelioma from 9 cases of epithelioid mesothelioma. The proportion of biphasic mesotheliomas with homozygous deletions of p16/CDKN2A in total was 96.6% (28/29). Homozygous deletion of p16/CDKN2A was observed in 18 (94.7%) of 19 biphasic mesotheliomas with 100% concordance of the p16/CDKN2A deletion status between the epithelioid and sarcomatoid components in each case. Homozygous deletion of the p16/CDKN2A was observed in 7 (77.8%) of 9 epithelioid mesotheliomas but not in fibrous stroma. BAP1 loss was observed in 5 (38.5%) of 13 biphasic mesotheliomas and in both epithelioid and sarcomatoid components. BAP1 loss was observed in 5 (62.5%) of 8 epithelioid mesotheliomas but not in fibrous stroma. Homozygous deletion of p16/CDKN2A is common in biphasic mesotheliomas, and the analysis of only one component of mesothelioma is sufficient to show that the tumor is malignant. However, compared with histology alone, FISH analysis of the p16/CDKN2A status and BAP1 immunohistochemistry in the spindled mesothelium provide a more objective means to differentiate between biphasic mesothelioma and epithelioid mesothelioma with atypical stromal cells.

  15. Systemic control of cell division and endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by modulating CDKs in root tip cells of Allium cepa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Jigna G; Thaker, Vrinda S

    2014-01-01

    Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP) treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  16. Systemic Control of Cell Division and Endoreduplication by NAA and BAP by Modulating CDKs in Root Tip Cells of Allium cepa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigna G. Tank

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular mechanism regulated by auxin and cytokinin during endoreduplication, cell division, and elongation process is studied by using Allium cepa roots as a model system. The activity of CDK genes modulated by auxin and cytokinin during cell division, elongation, and endoreduplication process is explained in this research work. To study the significance of auxin and cytokinin in the management of cell division and endoreduplication process in plant meristematic cells at molecular level endoreduplication was developed in root tips of Allium cepa by giving colchicine treatment. There were inhibition of vegetative growth, formation of c-tumor at root tip, and development of endoreduplicated cells after colchicine treatment. This c-tumor was further treated with NAA and BAP to reinitiate vegetative growth in roots. BAP gave positive response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from center of c-tumor. However, NAA gave negative response in reinitiation of vegetative growth of roots from c-tumor. Further, CDKs gene expression analysis from normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormone (NAA or BAP treated root tip was done and remarkable changes in transcription level of CDK genes in normal, endoreduplicated, and phytohormones treated cells were observed.

  17. A Tumor-Specific Neo-Antigen Caused by a Frameshift Mutation in BAP1 Is a Potential Personalized Biomarker in Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jun; Zhou, Zhan; Tang, Xiao-Jing; Gao, Zhi-Bin; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Shu-Qing

    2016-05-14

    Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive rare malignancy associated with asbestos exposure. A better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of MPM will help develop a targeted therapy strategy. Oncogene targeted depth sequencing was performed on a tumor sample and paired peripheral blood DNA from a patient with malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum. Four somatic base-substitutions in NOTCH2, NSD1, PDE4DIP, and ATP10B and 1 insert frameshift mutation in BAP1 were validated by the Sanger method at the transcriptional level. A 13-amino acids neo-peptide of the truncated Bap1 protein, which was produced as a result of this novel frameshift mutation, was predicted to be presented by this patient's HLA-B protein. The polyclonal antibody of the synthesized 13-mer neo-peptide was produced in rabbits. Western blotting results showed a good antibody-neoantigen specificity, and Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with the antibody of the neo-peptide clearly differentiated neoplastic cells from normal cells. A search of the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database also revealed that 53.2% of mutations in BAP1 were frameshift indels with neo-peptide formation. An identified tumor-specific neo-antigen could be the potential molecular biomarker for personalized diagnosis to precisely subtype rare malignancies such as MPM.

  18. Bcl2 at the endoplasmic reticulum protects against a Bax/Bak-independent paraptosis-like cell death pathway initiated via p20Bap31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath-Engel, Hannah M; Wang, Bing; Shore, Gordon C

    2012-02-01

    Bap31 is an integral ER membrane protein which functions as an escort factor in the sorting of newly synthesized membrane proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). During apoptosis signaling, Bap31 is subject to early cleavage by initiator caspase-8. The resulting p20Bap31 (p20) fragment has been shown to initiate proapoptotic ER-mitochondria Ca2+ transmission, and to exert dominant negative (DN) effects on ER protein trafficking. We now report that ectopic expression of p20 in E1A/DNp53-transformed baby mouse kidney epithelial cells initiates a non-apoptotic form of cell death with paraptosis-like morphology. This pathway was characterized by an early rise in ER Ca2+ stores and massive dilation of the ER/nuclear envelope, dependent on intact ER Ca2+ stores. Ablation of the Bax/Bak genes had no effect on these ER/nuclear envelope transformations, and delayed but did not prevent cell death. ER-restricted expression of Bcl2 in the absence of Bax/Bak, however, delayed both ER/nuclear envelope dilation and cell death. This prosurvival role of Bcl2 at the ER thus extended beyond inhibition of Bax/Bak, and correlated with its ability to lower ER Ca2+ stores. Furthermore, these results indicate that ER restricted Bcl2 is capable of antagonizing not only apoptosis, but also a non-apoptotic, Bax/Bak independent, paraptosis-like form of cell death.

  19. Concentrações de ANA e BAP na micropropagação de abacaxizeiro L. Merrill (Ananas comosus e no cultivo hidropônico das plântulas obtidas in vitro The effect of ANA and BAP concentrations on the micropropagation and hydroponic cultures of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Elizabeth Costa de Macêdo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes concentrações de ANA e BAP na micropropagação do abacaxizeiro, bem como no cultivo em hidroponia das plântulas obtidas in vitro, foram estudados em brotos de abacaxizeiro da variedade Pérola, inoculados em meio de cultura básico MS, suplementado com os fitorreguladores BAP e ANA em diferentes concentrações. Caracteres morfológicos quantitativos relacionados ao crescimento dos brotos e das plântulas de abacaxizeiro foram avaliados respectivamente durante os cultivos in vitro e em hidroponia e mostraram que, o tratamento T1 (BAP = 1,0 mg L-1e ANA = 0,5 mg L-1 proporcionou a maior taxa média de regeneração de brotos e conseqüentemente uma maior produção de matéria fresca. Entretanto, a altura dos brotos e a formação de suas raízes foram maiores nos tratamentos T2 (BAP = 0,5 mg L-1 e ANA = 0,25 mg L-1 e T3 (BAP = 0,25 mg L-1 e ANA = 0,12 mg L-1 . Após sessenta dias de cultivo em hidroponia, todas as plântulas oriundas do tratamento T1 apresentaram um bom desenvolvimento, expresso pela maioria dos caracteres morfológicos avaliados. O sistema de micropropagação utilizado neste trabalho possibilitou a obtenção de brotos de abacaxizeiro Pérola, em quantidade suficiente e ao mesmo tempo de fácil individualização, seguida da regeneração de plântulas que foram cultivadas em hidroponia.The effect of different ANA and BAP concentrations on in vitro and hydroponic cultures were studied. Pineapple shoots derived from Pérola explants variety were inoculated in MS media containing BAP and ANA in different concentrations. Growth parameters of shoots and plantlets were measured for in vitro and hydroponic cultures. Showed a highest multiplication rates of shoots and consequently highest fresh matter production were obtained with BAP and ANA at the concentrations of 1,0 and 0,5 mg L-1 respectively. However, the shoot length as well as the root number formed were higher in the T2 (0,5 de BAP + 0,25 de ANA

  20. 以肿瘤抗原BAP31为靶点的基因疫苗构建及其诱导小鼠免疫反应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋朝君; 孙元杰; 魏玉英; 张谮; 欧阳清; 陈琨; 金伯泉; 杨琨

    2009-01-01

    目的: 构建重组表达载体P-BAP31和P-L-BAP31基因疫苗并接种小鼠, 评价其诱导的体液和细胞免疫应答.方法: 利用分子克隆技术, 构建重组质粒P-BAP31和P-L-BAP31, 同时构建P-BAP31/EGFP和P-L-BAP31/EGFP重组质粒, 并将其以脂质体瞬时转染HeLa细胞, 通过荧光显微镜观察目的蛋白的表达;将重组质粒P-BAP31和P-L-BAP31免疫C57BL/6小鼠, 采用间接ELISA检测免疫小鼠血清中特异性抗体效价;通过酶联免疫斑点实验(ELISPOT)检测免疫脾细胞在受到BAP31抗原刺激后产生IFN-γ和IL-4细胞因子的频率;通过乳酸脱氢酶(LDH释放)试验检测小鼠特异性细胞毒性T淋巴细胞(CTL)的应答.结果: 酶切及测序结果表明, 成功构建了针对BAP31肿瘤抗原的P-BAP31和P-L-BAP31基因疫苗.通过荧光显微镜观察重组质粒转染的HeLa细胞, 可见EGFP报告基因表达的绿色荧光.ELISA检测免疫小鼠血清中特异性抗体效价发现, 带LAMP组明显高于不带LAMP组(P<0.05), 且两者均高于空质粒(P-LAMP)及正常对照(N)组(P<0.01).ELISPOT检测脾细胞分泌细胞因子IFN-γ和IL-4的频率, 带LAMP组与其他组相比显著提高(P<0.01).LDH释放试验显示, 带LAMP组的特异性CTL活性高于不带LAMP组, 且均高于对照组(P<0.01).结论: 构建了针对肿瘤抗原BAP31的全长基因疫苗, 以其免疫C57BL/6小鼠可诱导特异性体液和细胞免疫反应, 其中, P-L-BAP31基因疫苗各项免疫反应均优于P-BAP31.

  1. C-terminal mutations destabilize SIL1/BAP and can cause Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Jennifer; Shimizu, Yuichiro; Feige, Matthias J; Hendershot, Linda M

    2012-03-01

    Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome (MSS) is an autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative, multisystem disorder characterized by severe phenotypes developing in infancy. Recently, mutations in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated co-chaperone SIL1/BAP were identified to be the major cause of MSS. SIL1 acts as a nucleotide exchange factor for BiP, the ER Hsp70 orthologue, which plays an essential role in the folding and assembly of nascent polypeptide chains in the ER. SIL1 facilitates the release of BiP from unfolded protein substrates, enabling the subsequent folding and transport of the protein. Although most mutations leading to MSS result in deletion of the majority of the protein, three separate mutations have been identified that disrupt only the last five or six amino acids of the protein, which were assumed to encode a divergent ER retention motif. This study presents an in depth analysis of two of these mutants and reveals that the phenotype in the affected individuals is not likely to be due to depletion of SIL1 from the ER via secretion. Instead, our analyses show that the mutant proteins are particularly unstable and either form large aggregates in the ER or are rapidly degraded via the proteasome. In agreement with our findings, homology modeling suggests that the very C-terminal residues of SIL1 play a role in its structural integrity rather than its localization. These new insights might be a first step toward a possible pharmacological treatment of certain types of MSS by specifically stabilizing the mutant SIL1 protein.

  2. 肝豆状核变性致骨关节损害的临床观察及骨碱性磷酸酶(BAP)水平的研究%The Clinical Observe in Osteoarticular Damage on HLD and Relative Variation in BAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满棠; 罗成宏; 崔玉真

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To observe clinic manifastation,X-ray change,bone alkaline phosphatase(BAP) of osteoarticular damage on hepatolenticular degeneration, and analysis the variation of BAP after decopper therapy accompanied by calsium supplement and activated vitamin D.Methods: All 48 patients in experimental group,analysis the clinic manifastation,all 48 patients are examined by X-ray.20 volunteers in matched group.BAP in two groups are examined by ELISA.BAP are examined again after decopper therapy accompanied by calsium supplement and activated vitamin D for two month.The stasitcal data of two groups and before and after treatment is contastive analysised,.Results:The activity testing of BAP is more specific,sensitive,accurate to diagnose the osteoarticular damage on hepatolenticular degeneration.Conclusion: Decopper therapy accompanied by calsium supplement and activated vitamin D should be starts as early as possible according to the cause of osteoarticular damage on hepatolenticular degeneration,which can effectivly prevent the evolvement of osteoarticular danmage and relief the symptoms, improve the living quality of patients.%目的:对肝豆状核变性致骨关节损害的各种症状、体征、X线检查、骨碱性磷酸酶(BAP)水平进行观察,并对驱铜治疗及配合钙剂和活性维生素D制剂治疗后BAP水平进行统计研究.方法:实验组48例患者统计骨关节损害临床症状情况,全部行相应部位X片检查.另设20名健康志愿者为健康对照组.两组均用ELISA法检验BAP.于常规驱铜治疗加钙剂和活性维生素D制剂治疗,2个月后再次检验BAP,并进行治疗前后及与健康对照组的数值统计对比.结果:BAP 活性测定对HLD致骨关节损害诊断具有更好的特异性、灵敏性、准确性.结论:针对HLD骨关节病变的发病原因尽量早期采取有效驱铜治疗及配合钙剂和活性维生素D制剂治疗,可以有效预防骨关节损害进展和缓解症状,以改善HLD患者的生活质量.

  3. Glycolic acid inhibits enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom: insights from docking and molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereañez, Jaime Andrés; Patiño, Arley Camilo; Rey-Suarez, Paola; Núñez, Vitelbina; Henao Castañeda, Isabel Cristina; Rucavado, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) (2-Hydroxyethanoic acid) is widely used as chemical peeling agent in Dermatology and, more recently, as a therapeutic and cosmetic compound in the field of skin care and disease treatment. In this work we tested the inhibitory ability of glycolic acid on the enzymatic, hemorrhagic and edema-inducing activities of BaP1, a P-I metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper venom, which induces a variety of toxic actions. Glycolic acid inhibited the proteolytic activity of BaP1 on azocasein, with an IC₅₀ of 1.67 mM. The compound was also effective at inhibiting the hemorrhagic activity of BaP1 in skin and muscle in experiments involving preincubation of enzyme and inhibitor prior to injection. When BaP1 was injected i.m. and then, at the same site, different concentrations of glycolic acid were administered at either 0 or 5 min, 7 mM solutions of the inhibitor partially abrogated hemorrhagic activity when administered at 0 min. Moreover, glycolic acid inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, edema-forming activity of BaP1 in the footpad. In order to have insights on the mode of action of glycolic acid, UV-vis and intrinsic fluorescence studies were performed. Results of these assays suggest that glycolic acid interacts directly with BaP1 and chelates the Zn²⁺ ion at the active site. These findings were supported by molecular docking results, which suggested that glycolic acid forms hydrogen bonds with residues Glu143, Arg110 and Ala111 of the enzyme. Additionally, molecular modeling results suggest that the inhibitor chelates Zn²⁺, with a distance of 3.58 Å, and may occupy part of substrate binding cleft of BaP1. Our results suggest that glycolic acid is a candidate for the development of inhibitors to be used in snakebite envenomation.

  4. Development of a reliable assay protocol for identification of diseases (RAPID)-bioactive amplification with probing (BAP) for detection of Newcastle disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chi-Young; Hsu, Chia-Jen; Chen, Heng-Ju; Chulu, Julius L C; Liu, Hung-Jen

    2008-07-27

    Due to appearance of new genotypes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with no cross-protection and with vaccine strains, some outbreaks have been reported in Taiwan that caused significant damage to the poultry industry. A reliable assay protocol, (RAPID)-bioactive amplification with probing (BAP), for detection of NDV that uses a nested PCR and magnetic bead-based probe to increase sensitivity and specificity, was developed. Primers and probes were designed based on the conserved region of the F protein-encoding gene sequences of all NDV Taiwan isolates. The optimal annealing temperature for nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify the gene was 61 degrees C and optimal hybridization occurred when buffer 1x SSC and 0.5% SDS were used at 50 degrees C. The sensitivity of RAPID-BAP was 1 copy/microl for standard plasmids and 10 copy/mul for transcribed F protein-encoding gene of NDV with comparable linearity (R(2)=0.984 versus R(2)=0.99). This sensitivity was superior to that of other techniques currently used. The assay was also highly specific because the negative controls, including classical swine fever virus, avian influenza virus, avian reovirus, and infectious bursa disease virus could not be detected. Thirty-four field samples were tested using conventional RT-PCR, nested RT-PCR, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, and RAPID-BAP assay and the positive rates were 24%, 30%, 41%, and 53%, respectively. The developed assay allows for rapid, correct, and sensitive detection of NDV and fulfils all of the key requirements for clinical applicability. It could reliably rule out false negative results from antibody-based assays and also facilitate a rapid diagnosis in the early phase of the disease for emergency quarantine that may help prevent large-scale outbreaks.

  5. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Fact Sheets En Español: Mapeo Genético Genetic Mapping What is genetic mapping? How do researchers create ... genetic map? What are genetic markers? What is genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome ...

  6. Concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina no desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões de pêssegos e nectarinas precoces In vitro effects of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP on early peach and nectarine embryos development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Barbosa

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando melhorar o desenvolvimento in vitro de embriões de pêssegos e nectarinas, de maturação precoce, adicionou-se, em meio básico de cultura, o regulador de crescimento 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP nas concentrações de 0,5,10,15 e 20µM. Esse meio consistiu na solução salina de Murashige & Skoog acrescido de tiamina, 1mg/l; ácido nicotínico, 0,5mg/l; inositol, 100mg/1, glicina, 250mg/l; glutamina, 500mg/l; asparagina, 250mg/l, ácido giberélico, 0,1mg/l; sacarose, 30g/l, e ágar, 6g/l. A melhor taxa de desenvolvimento dos embriões, após 30dias de cultura, ocorreu nas concentrações de 5 e 10µM de BAP, com uma emissão média de 4,5 brotos por embrião. Nas concentrações de 15 e 20mM de BAP, o número de brotações foi maior, porém com menor aproveitamento, devido à presença dos sintomas indesejáveis de vitrificação. O BAP não eliminou, totalmente, a roseta e o ananismo fisiológico dos embriões.Embryos of early peach and nectarine were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 3%sacarose,0.6%agar and(in mg/liter 1 thiamin, 0.5 nicotinic acid, 100 inositol, 250 glycin, 500 glutamin, 250 asparagin, 0.1 giberelic acid, and BAP at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20µM. The frequency of growth was as high as 100% when BAP was included in the medium. The best development of the embryos occurred with BAP rates of 5 and 10µM. At these concentrations of BAP, the mean number of adventitious shoots was 4.5 per embryo. The vitrification ratio was higher at concentrations of 15 and 20µM. The inclusion of BAP, consistently reduced but not fully eliminated lhe rosette and dwarf appearances in vitroplantules.

  7. Concept Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Schwendimann, Beat Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A concept map is a node-link diagram showing the semantic relationships among concepts. The technique for constructing concept maps is called "concept mapping". A concept map consists of nodes, arrows as linking lines, and linking phrases that describe the relationship between nodes. Two nodes connected with a labeled arrow are called a proposition. Concept maps are versatile graphic organizers that can represent many different forms of relationships between concepts. The relationship between...

  8. Analytical performances of d-ROMs test and BAP test in canine plasma. Definition of the normal range in healthy Labrador dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, A; Luchetti, E; Marchetti, V; Cardini, G; Iorio, E L

    2008-02-01

    An high level of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species), due to an increased production of oxidant species and/or a decreased efficacy of antioxidant system, can lead to oxidative stress, an emerging health risk factor involved in the aging and in many diseases, including inflammatory, infectious and degenerative disorders, either in humans or in animals. In the last years some assays panels have been developed to globally evaluate the oxidative balance by means of the concomitant assessment of ROS production and antioxidant system capability. In this report, the validation trials of d-ROMs (Reactive Oxygen Metabolites- derived compounds) and BAP (Biological Antioxidant Potential) tests in canine specie are described and also the specific referral ranges are calculated in a Labrador population. The results of linearity, precision and accuracy trials show that both tests exhibit good to excellent analytical performances. The possibility of measuring oxidative stress in vivo with simple, cheap and accurate tests, d-ROMs test and BAP test, provides for the veterinarians a very suitable tool to monitor oxidative stress and to correctly choice of eventual antioxidant supplementations in diseases proven related to oxidative stress in animals and particularly in dogs. Further studies will be useful to confirm this possibility.

  9. BAP e substratos na aclimatização de plântulas de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. provenientes de cultura de tecidos BAP and substrates on gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. plantlets from tissue culture acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A gloxínia é uma planta ornamental cultivada pela exoticidade e variação de coloração de suas flores. Objetivou-se avaliar a influência residual da citocinina 6-Benzilaminopurina (BAP usada durante a cultura in vitro sobre o processo de aclimatização de gloxínia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern.. As concentrações de 0,0; 0,5; 1 e 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP, em cultivo in vitro, foram combinadas com os substratos: vermiculita, plantmax® e vermiculita + plantmax®, durante o processo de aclimatização. Após o processo de inoculação in vitro, o material foi transferido para sala de crescimento com temperatura de 26 ± 1ºC, intensidade luminosa de 35 m mol m² s-1 e fotoperíodo de 16 horas, permanecendo nessas condições por 60 dias. Após esse período, as plantas obtidas foram plantadas nos diferentes substratos. As avaliações foram efetuadas após 120 dias, em casa-de-vegetação, registrando-se o número de brotos, peso da matéria fresca do sistema radicular, peso da matéria seca da planta e número de flores. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com o cultivo em substrato plantmax® ou plantmax�� + vermiculita advinda de meio de cultura in vitro isento de BAP.The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP used in acclimatization of gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa Lood. Hiern. Concentrations of BAP (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 mg L-1 in vitro and substrates (vermiculite, plantmax®, and vermiculite+plantmax® were tested for acclimatization in every possible combination. After in vitro inoculation, the material was transferred to a growth chamber with temperature of 26±1ºC and light intensity of 35 m mol m-2 s-1 for 16 hours, remaining under these conditions for 60 days. After that period, the plants obtained were transferred to pots containing substrates in a greenhouse. The evaluations were performed 120 days after cultivation. It were measured number of shoots, roots dry weight, above

  10. BAP1 missense mutation c.2054 A>T (p.E685V completely disrupts normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site in a human mesothelioma cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianne Morrison

    Full Text Available BAP1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is lost or deleted in diverse cancers, including uveal mela¬noma, malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM, clear cell renal carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. Recently, BAP1 germline mutations have been reported in families with combinations of these same cancers. A particular challenge for mutation screening is the classification of non-truncating BAP1 sequence variants because it is not known whether these subtle changes can affect the protein function sufficiently to predispose to cancer development. Here we report mRNA splicing analysis on a homozygous substitution mutation, BAP1 c. 2054 A&T (p.Glu685Val, identified in an MPM cell line derived from a mesothelioma patient. The mutation occurred at the 3rd nucleotide from the 3' end of exon 16. RT-PCR, cloning and subsequent sequencing revealed several aberrant splicing products not observed in the controls: 1 a 4 bp deletion at the end of exon 16 in all clones derived from the major splicing product. The BAP1 c. 2054 A&T mutation introduced a new 5' splice site (GU, which resulted in the deletion of 4 base pairs and presumably protein truncation; 2 a variety of alternative splicing products that led to retention of different introns: introns 14-16; introns 15-16; intron 14 and intron 16; 3 partial intron 14 and 15 retentions caused by activation of alternative 3' splice acceptor sites (AG in the introns. Taken together, we were unable to detect any correctly spliced mRNA transcripts in this cell line. These results suggest that aberrant splicing caused by this mutation is quite efficient as it completely abolishes normal splicing through creation of a novel 5' splice site and activation of cryptic splice sites. These data support the conclusion that BAP1 c.2054 A&T (p.E685V variant is a pathogenic mutation and contributes to MPM through disruption of normal splicing.

  11. Influência da benzilaminopurina (BAP NA multiplicação in vitro de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa The influence of benzylaminopurine in the in vitro multiplication of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Costa Nachtigal

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos da EMBRAPA/CPACT, Pelotas, RS, com o objetivo de estudar a influência de diferentes concentrações de 6-benzilaminopurina (BAP na multiplicação in vitro de kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa, cv. Tomun. Utilizou-se o meio de cultura MS, acrescido de sacarose, mio-inositol, ágar e das seguintes concentrações de BAP: 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0 e 2,5 mg/l. Os explantes foram constituídos de microestacas provenientes da coleção in vitro do Laboratório, com aproximadamente 10mm de comprimento. Verificou-se que, para o número e comprimento de brotações, número de gemas e folhas a concentração em torno de 1,5mg/l de BAP proporcionou os memores resultados. Nas condições em que o trabalho foi realizado, pode-se concluir que o BAP foi eficiente na multiplicação in vitro de kiwi, cv. Tomuri.This trial was carried out in the Tissue Culture Laboratory at EMBRAPA/CPACT, Pelotas, RS, Brazil, aiming to study the influence of different 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP concentrations in the in vitro multiplication of kiwi, cv. Tomuri. A MS medium was used adding sucrose, myo-inositol, agar and concentrations of BAP as follows: 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5mg/l. The explants consisting of microshoots of 10mm length were obtained from the in vitro collection at the laboratory. The best results of bud and shoot numbers, shoot length and number of leaves were obtained using about 1.5mg/l BAP. Results of this experiment demonstrated that BAP is efficient in the in vitro multiplication of kiwi, cv. Tomuri.

  12. Map Projection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for these projections. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  13. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  14. Indução de calos em sempre-viva (Syngonanthus mucugensis Giulietti, utilizando diferentes tipos de explantes e concentrações de BAP = Callus induction in sempre-viva (Syngonanthus mucugensis Giulietti using different types of explants and BAP concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janilza da Paixão Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A sempre-viva-de-mucugê [Syngonanthus mucugensis – Eriocaulaceae] é uma planta com grande valor ornamental e caracteriza-se pela durabilidade de suas inflorescências que se mantém mesmo depois de coletadas e secas. A propagação sexuada dessa espécie resulta em plantas desuniformes por ser geneticamente segregante e, aliada aeste fato, existe a ameaça de extinção da espécie, sendo por isso restrita a coleta na sua região de origem. Desta forma, a cultura de tecidos torna-se uma alternativa viável para a formação de novas mudas e, por isso, objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a indução de calos in vitro de Syngonanthus mucugensis, utilizando diferentes concentrações de BAP (6-benzilaminapurina. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado (DIC, sendo que cadatratamento continha quatro repetições e cada repetição era formada por quatro explantes. Os explantes utilizados foram plantas cultivadas in vitro e segmentos nodais delas. O meio de cultivo utilizado foi o MS (metade dos sais, suplementado com (0,0; 0,89; 1,78; 3,55; 7,10; 14,21 e 28,42 μM de BAP. Aos 60 dias, avaliaram-se a sobrevivência dos explantes e a porcentagem de formação de calos. Verificou-se que plantas inteiras e segmentos nodais deSyngonanthus mucugensis são explantes responsíveis à formação de calos friáveis, sendo que a produção significativa é obtida utilizando-se as concentrações de 1,78 e 3,55 μM de BAP.Sempre-viva-de-mucugê [Syngonanthus mucugensis – Eriocaulaceae] is a plant with great ornamental value characterized by the durability of its inflorescences, which remains even after collected and dried. Thesexual propagation of this species results in disuniform plants, as it is genetically segregating; in addition, this species is currently endangered, with collection therefore restricted to its region of origin. Thus, tissue culture becomes a viable alternative for theformation of new plants. This study aimed to

  15. Biofilm production and presence of ica and bap genes in Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from cows with mastitis in the eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szweda, Piotr; Schielmann, Marta; Milewski, Sławomir; Frankowska, Aneta; Jakubczak, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was phenotypic and genotypic analysis of 132 S. aureus strains isolated from mastitis in eastern Poland in respect to their biofilm formation ability. The analysis of the size polymorphism of fragment X in the gene encoding protein A (spa) revealed high genetic differentiation of the analyzed group of isolates. The ability of biofilm formation by the isolates was tested using two phenotypic methods. The Congo Red plate assay was found to be irreproducible and very subjective. More objective results were obtained using the spectrophotometric, microtiter plate assay. Most of the isolates, namely 76/132 (57.6 %) were classified as biofilm producers depending on the value of absorbance in the microtiter plate test. All of the isolates tested were found to possess both icaA and icaD genes, while the bap gene was absent in all strains.

  16. Enhancement of hypoxia-induced gene expression in fish liver by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Richard Man Kit; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Tan, Tianfeng; Chu, Daniel Ling Ho; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Kong, Richard Yuen Chong

    2008-11-21

    Fish in polluted coastal habitats commonly suffer simultaneous exposure to both hypoxia and xenobiotics. Although the adaptive molecular responses to each stress have been described, little is known about the interaction between the signaling pathways mediating these responses. Previous studies in mammalian hepatoma cell lines have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)- and/or aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-activated gene expression is suppressed following co-exposure to hypoxia and the hallmark AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). However, whether similar crosstalk exists in the non-tumor liver tissues of fish and whether other non-TCDD ligands also play the same inhibitory role in this crosstalk remain unknown. Here, the in vivo hepatic mRNA expression profiles of multiple hypoxia- and AhR-responsive genes (later gene expression=mRNA expression of the gene) were examined in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) upon single and combined exposures to hypoxia and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). Combined exposure enhanced hypoxia-induced gene expression but did not significantly alter BaP-induced gene expression. Protein carbonyl content was markedly elevated in fish subjected to combined exposure, indicating accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Application of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) to hypoxia-treated grouper liver explants similarly exaggerated hypoxia-induced gene expression as in the combined stress tissues in vivo. These observations suggest that ROS derived from the combined hypoxia and BaP stress have a role in enhancing hypoxia-induced gene expression.

  17. Amino acid sequence and crystal structure of BaP1, a metalloproteinase from Bothrops asper snake venom that exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Leandra; Shannon, John D.; Valente, Richard H.; Rucavado, Alexandra; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Kamiguti, Aura S.; Theakston, R. David G.; Fox, Jay W.; Gutiérrez, José María; Arni, Raghuvir K.

    2003-01-01

    BaP1 is a 22.7-kD P-I-type zinc-dependent metalloproteinase isolated from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper, a medically relevant species in Central America. This enzyme exerts multiple tissue-damaging activities, including hemorrhage, myonecrosis, dermonecrosis, blistering, and edema. BaP1 is a single chain of 202 amino acids that shows highest sequence identity with metalloproteinases isolated from the venoms of snakes of the subfamily Crotalinae. It has six Cys residues involved in three disulfide bridges (Cys 117–Cys 197, Cys 159–Cys 181, Cys 157–Cys 164). It has the consensus sequence H142E143XXH146XXGXXH152, as well as the sequence C164I165M166, which characterize the “metzincin” superfamily of metalloproteinases. The active-site cleft separates a major subdomain (residues 1–152), comprising four α-helices and a five-stranded β-sheet, from the minor subdomain, which is formed by a single α-helix and several loops. The catalytic zinc ion is coordinated by the Nɛ2 nitrogen atoms of His 142, His 146, and His 152, in addition to a solvent water molecule, which in turn is bound to Glu 143. Several conserved residues contribute to the formation of the hydrophobic pocket, and Met 166 serves as a hydrophobic base for the active-site groups. Sequence and structural comparisons of hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic P-I metalloproteinases from snake venoms revealed differences in several regions. In particular, the loop comprising residues 153 to 176 has marked structural differences between metalloproteinases with very different hemorrhagic activities. Because this region lies in close proximity to the active-site microenvironment, it may influence the interaction of these enzymes with physiologically relevant substrates in the extracellular matrix. PMID:14500885

  18. Acetate free citrate-containing dialysate increase intact-PTH and BAP levels in the patients with low intact-PTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuragano Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, acetate-free citrate containing dialysate (A(−D was developed. We have already reported about the significant effect of A(−D on metabolic acidosis, anemia, and malnutrition in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients. In this study, we compared the effect of A(−D and acetate containing dialysate (A(+D on serum calcium and intact-parathyroid hormone (int-PTH levels. Method Single session study: Seventeen patients were treated with A(+D in one session and also treated with A(−D in another session. Serum levels of pH, HCO3-, total (t-calcium, ionized (i-calcium, and int-PTH were evaluated at the beginning and the end of each session. Cross over study: A total of 29 patients with MHD were treated with A(+D for 4 months, switched to A(−D for next 4 months, and returned to A(+D for the final 4 months. Results In single session study, serum i-calcium and t-calcium levels significantly increased, and int-PTH levels decreased after HD with A(+D, whereas HD with A(−D did not affect iCa and int-PTH. In cross over study, if all patients were analyzed, there was no significant difference in serum int-PTH or bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP levels during each study period. In contrast, in the patients with low int-PTH ( Conclusion A(−D containing citrate could affect calcium and PTH levels, and, in 4 month period of crossover study, increased int-PTH levels pararelled with increasing BAP levels, exclusively in MHD patients with low int-PTH levels.

  19. Mapping Deeply

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Wood

    2015-01-01

    This is a description of an avant la lettre deep mapping project carried out by a geographer and a number of landscape architecture students in the early 1980s. Although humanists seem to take the “mapping” in deep mapping more metaphorically than cartographically, in this neighborhood mapping project, the mapmaking was taken literally, with the goal of producing an atlas of the neighborhood. In this, the neighborhood was construed as a transformer, turning the stuff of the world (gas, wate...

  20. Performance assessment of a nested-PCR assay (the RAPID BAP-MTB) and the BD ProbeTec ET system for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jann-Yuan; Lee, Li-Na; Chou, Chin-Sheng; Huang, Chung-Yi; Wang, Shu-Kuan; Lai, Hsin-Chih; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Luh, Kwen-Tay

    2004-10-01

    The performance of a nested PCR-based assay (the RAPID BAP-MTB; AsiaGen, Taichung, Taiwan) and the BD ProbeTec ET (DTB) system (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, Md.) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was evaluated with 600 consecutive clinical samples. These samples, including 552 respiratory specimens and 48 nonrespiratory specimens, were collected from 333 patients treated at National Taiwan University Hospital from September to October 2003. The results of both assays were compared to the gold standard of combined culture results and clinical diagnosis. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the RAPID BAP-MTB assay for respiratory specimens were 66.7% and 97.2%, respectively, and for the DTB assay they were 56.7% and 95.3%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for the RAPID BAP-MTB were 74.1% and 96.0%, respectively, and for the DTB assay they were 59.6% and 94.7%, respectively. For smear-negative samples, the sensitivity of the RAPID BAP-MTB and DTB assays was 57.1% and 40.5%, respectively. The RAPID BAP-MTB assay produced 14 false-positive results in 14 samples, including one of the six samples yielding Mycobacterium abscessus, one of the six samples yielding Mycobacterium avium intracellulare, one sample from a patient with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis with complete treatment, and three samples from three patients with a previous diagnosis of tuberculosis who were under treatment at the time of specimen collection. Among the 48 nonrespiratory specimens, the RAPID BAP-MTB assay was positive in one biopsy sample from a patient with lumbar tuberculous spondylitis and one pus sample from a patient with tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy. Our results showed that the RAPID BAP-MTB assay is better than the DTB assay for both respiratory specimens and nonrespiratory specimens. The overall time for processing this assay is only 5 h. In addition, its diagnostic accuracy in smear-negative samples is as high as in smear

  1. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  2. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  3. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  4. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State...... enterprise is, when applied in a given organisation modified with respect to the industry regarded, hence irrelevant measure parameters are eliminated to avoid redundancy. This assessment of CALS Mapping, quantify the CALS potential of an organisation with the purpose of providing decision support to the top...

  5. 最佳水产养殖规范(BAP)认证及其在中国的发展%Best Aquaculture Practice certificate and its possible impact on international trade of Chinese seafood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘利平; 赵广学; 张宗峰

    2011-01-01

    最佳水产养殖规范(BAP)秉承可持续发展的理念,被国际认证组织作为一种新的认证标准走进水产业并逐渐受到人们的重视.该认证主要针对一些水产养殖企业或基地的重要水产养殖品种的育苗、养殖和食品加工以及流通等过程,按照特定的标准对企业进行认证.目前已经形成了对虾、罗非鱼、斑点叉尾鮰、越南鲶鱼和鲑鱼的标准.本文主要以凡纳滨对虾和罗非鱼产业为例,介绍BAP和BAP认证的内容、认证程序、在中国和世界的发展趋势,以及对我国水产养殖业可能产生的影响.%With the prosperous development of world aquaculture together with the significance of certificates and standards on aquaculture industry, "Best Aquaculture Practice, BAP" was raised and well known to aquaculturists with its core idea of sustaining development. As a NGO, Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA)has been framing and advocating the "best aquaculture practice" certificate, which aims at the hatcheries,farms, processors, feed mills and repacking plants worldwide for several commercially important species. Up to now, BAP standards for shrimp, tilapia, catfish, pangasius and salmon have been published online.Hundreds of plants in the world and dozens of plants in China have been issued with the Best Aquaculture Practice Certificate. However, BAP to be advocated as international standards of seafood may become a new trade barrier especially for small enterprises. In this paper, the origin of BAP, BAP certificate as well as its possible impacts on aquaculture in China has been presented taking shrimp and tilapia industry as examples.

  6. CALOGÊNESE DE TECIDO FOLIAR DE PORTA-ENXERTO DE MACIEIRA M.7 (MALUS sp. INDUZIDA POR BAP E CPPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTINS CARLOS ROBERTO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a organogênese de macieira (Malus sp, após a obtenção de calo por meio de explantes de folhas do porta-enxerto M.7 multiplicado in vitro. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos da Embrapa Clima Temperado, utilizando folhas com a superfície abaxial e adaxial em contato com o meio, com ou sem escarificação; associados às citocininas Benzilaminopurina (BAP e Forchlorfenuron (CPPU na concentração de 5mM. Utilizou-se o meio básico MS acrescido de sacarose (30 g.L-1 , mio-inositol (100 mg.L-1 e ágar (6 g.L-1, além do regulador de crescimento Ácido Naftalenoácetico (ANA 0,5mM. Os tratamentos permaneceram por três semanas no escuro sob temperatura ambiente, o que propiciou 100% de formação de calos, sendo em seguida submetidos a fotoperíodo de 16 horas com intensidade luminosa de 20 mE.m-2.s-1 e temperatura de 25 ± 2ºC. Os explantes escarificados proporcionaram maior intensidade de calo do que a utilização de explantes intatos. Explantes escarificados com a superfície abaxial em contato com o meio proporcionaram maior intensidade de calo, independentemente de o meio conter BAP ou CPPU. O uso da escarificação, associado ao CPPU, promoveu uma maior intensidade de calo, independentemente da superfície do disco foliar. A superior regeneração de calos foi alcançada em condição de superfície abaxial do disco foliar associado ao CPPU. Portanto, o uso de explantes escarificados com a superfície abaxial em contato com o meio proporcionou aumento da intensidade de calo. O uso do explante escarificado em meio contendo CPPU proporcionou maior intensidade de calo, independentemente da superfície do disco foliar em contato com o meio.

  7. Mapping VADEMECUM

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    The work plan for the implementation of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution under the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE) includes the production of maps of critical loads, critical levels, and exceedances as a basis for developing potential abatement strategies for sulphur and nitrogen. This Vademecum is designed to provide guidance to those responsible for calculating and mapping critical loads, critical levels, and exceedances on a national or regional scale. Th...

  8. 截短型肿瘤抗原BAP31 DNA疫苗的构建及免疫效果分析%Construction of a new DNA vaccine based on truncated BAP31 and study on its anti-tumor effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙元杰; 宋朝君; 魏玉英; 张赟; 金伯泉; 杨安钢; 杨琨

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To develop an anti-tumor DNA vaccine encoding a truncated protein of routine BAP31 (△BAF31) to en-hance endogenous antigen trafficking to the MHC-Ⅱ compartment of antigen-presenting cells by LAMP and to study its efficacy to induce cellular and humoral immunity. METHODS: The DNA vaccine was identified by restriction enzyme analysis, sequencing and protein expression. The frequency of cells producing IFN-γ or IL-4 in splenocytes immunized mice was measured by ELISPOT. Specific antibodies for △BAP31 were determined by indirect ELISA and cytotoxicity of specific CTL was measured by LDH releasing assay. RESULTS : ELISPOT showed that the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing cells in LAMP group was significantly higher than that in control groups. The level of △BAP31 specific antibodies and CTL the cytotoxicity in LAMP group were markedly higher than those in control groups. CONCLUSION: LAMP enhances cellular and humoral response through greater antigen-specific activation of both CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells.%目的:通过LAMP分子的靶向作用,增强截短型BAP31肿瘤抗原(BAP31)的MHC-Ⅱ提呈,激活更多的特异性CD44T细胞,最终辅助增加CTL细胞的杀伤活性及特异性抗体产生.方法:构建重组质粒P-△AP31和P-L-△AP31,同时构建重组质粒P-△AP31/EGFP和P-L-△AP31/EGFP.质粒P-△AP31/EGFP和P-L-△AP31/EGFP瞬时转染Hela细胞,荧光显微镜观察目的蛋白的表达;将重组质粒P-△AP31和P-L-△AP31免疫C57BL/6小鼠,间接ELISA检测免疫小鼠血清中特异性抗体效价;ELISPOT检测免疫脾淋巴细胞分泌细胞因子IFN-γ和IL-4的频率;乳酸脱氢酶释放法检测免疫小鼠特异性CTL反应.结果:经酶切鉴定及序列测定,成功构建截短型肿瘤抗原BAP31的DNA疫苗重组载体;用带EGFP报告基因的重组质粒转染Hela细胞,荧光显微镜观察可见特异性的绿色荧光;ELISA检测免疫小鼠血清,带LAMP组BAP31特异性抗体

  9. Effects of NAA and BAP, double-layered media, and light distance on in vitro regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (lotus), an aquatic edible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmad, Noraini; Taha, Rosna Mat; Othman, Rashidi; Saleh, Azani; Hasbullah, Nor Azlina; Elias, Hashimah

    2014-01-01

    In vitro direct regeneration of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. was successfully achieved from immature explants (yellow plumule) cultured on a solid MS media supplemented with combinations of 0.5 mg/L BAP and 1.5 mg/L NAA which resulted in 16.00 ± 0.30 number of shoots per explant and exhibited a new characteristic of layered multiple shoots, while normal roots formed on the solid MS basal media. The double-layered media gave the highest number of shoots per explant with a ratio of 2 : 1 (liquid to solid) with a mean number of 16.67 ± 0.23 shoots per explant with the formation of primary and secondary roots from immature explants. In the study involving light distance, the tallest shoot (16.67 ± 0.23 mm) obtained from the immature explants was at a light distance of 200 mm from the source of inflorescent light (1000 lux). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized in clay loam soil after 8 months being maintained under in vitro conditions.

  10. Mapping Deeply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Wood

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a description of an avant la lettre deep mapping project carried out by a geographer and a number of landscape architecture students in the early 1980s. Although humanists seem to take the “mapping” in deep mapping more metaphorically than cartographically, in this neighborhood mapping project, the mapmaking was taken literally, with the goal of producing an atlas of the neighborhood. In this, the neighborhood was construed as a transformer, turning the stuff of the world (gas, water, electricity into the stuff of individual lives (sidewalk graffiti, wind chimes, barking dogs, and vice versa. Maps in the central transformer section of the atlas were to have charted this process in action, as in one showing the route of an individual newspaper into the neighborhood, then through the neighborhood to a home, and finally, as trash, out of the neighborhood in a garbage truck; though few of these had been completed when the project concluded in 1986. Resurrected in 1998 in an episode on Ira Glass’ This American Life, the atlas was finally published, as Everything Sings: Maps for a Narrative Atlas, in 2010 (and an expanded edition in 2013.

  11. Efeito do ácido naftaleno acético (ANA e benzilaminopurina (BAP no aumento do ângulo de inserção dos ramos em macieira The effect of naftalen acetic acid (NAA and benzilaminopurin (BAP in the increase of the angle of insertion of the branches in apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aike Anneliese Kretzschmar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência dos fitorreguladores ANA (ácido naftaleno acético e BAP (benzilaminopurina, no aumento do ângulo de inserção de ramos jovens em macieira. O experimento foi conduzido em um pomar comercial da região de Lages-SC, utilizando-se das cultivares Imperial Gala e Fuji, sobre porta-enxerto Marubakaido, testando diferentes doses de fitorreguladores e o arqueamento convencional. Os fitorreguladores foram aplicados com auxílio de algodão, na inserção entre os ramos e o caule, na parte superior dos ramos em crescimento. Os resultados evidenciaram que ANA teve um efeito positivo no arqueamento de ramos, nas doses de 200 a 500 ppm, mas a prática convencional para aumentar o ângulo de inserção dos ramos, através do uso de palitos, continua sendo o melhor método de arqueamento.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of the growth regulators NAA (naftalen acetic acid and BAP (benzilaminopurin, in the increase of the angle of insertion of the branches in apple trees. The experiment was driven in a commercial orchard area of Lages/SC, where has been cultivated Imperial Gala and Fuji cultivars on rootstock Marubakaido, testing different doses of the regulators compared with the conventional bending. The regulators were applied with cotton aid, in the superior part of the branches in growth, in the insertion between the branch and the stem. The results evidenced that, even NAA tends to have a good effect in the bending of branches, in the doses of 200 to 500 ppm, the conventional practice to increase the angle of insertion of the branches, through the use of toothpicks, continues being the best bending method.

  12. THE EFFECT OF PLANT HORMONE INDOLE-3-BUTYRIC ACID (IBA AND 6-BENZIL AMINO PURIN (BAP ON IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPE CULTIVAR ‘PRABU BESTARI’ AND JESTRO AG 86 AXILARY SHOOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Wahyu Cerianingsih

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro propagation study was carried out at Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. It was conducted using Completely Randomized Design with two factors. The first factor was plant growth regulator (PGR, consist of nine concentration mixture of IBA (0, 0.5, 1 mg/L and BAP (0, 1, 2 mg/L. The second factor was grape varieties, consisted of Prabu Bestari and Jestro Ag 86. There were five replicates for each treatment combination. Variable observed included presence and absence of callus, percentage of callus growth, percentage of shoot growth, number of shoot per explants, emergence of shoots, percentage of root growth and number of roots per explants. Data were statistically analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. When treatment showed a significant different (P<0.05 or highly significant (P<0.01 mean separation was conducted following Tukey Test. Data were analyzed using MINITAB Statistical Program. Results showed that PGR and varieties was highly significant for percent of callus growth. PGR also showed significant effect on shoot growth percentage, while there was significant difference found on root growth percentage. It can be concluded that combination of 1 mg/L IBA and 2 mg/L BAP was able to produce the highest percentage of callus growth. Addition of 2 mg/L BAP without IBA was able to produce the highest percentage of shoot growth. Percentage of root growth of Jestro Ag 86 was higher than Prabu Bestari.

  13. Olive oil prevents benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced colon carcinogenesis through altered B(a)P metabolism and decreased oxidative damage in Apc(Min) mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Leah D; Amoah, Priscilla; Niaz, Mohammad S; Washington, Mary K; Adunyah, Samuel E; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2016-02-01

    Colon cancer ranks third in cancer-related mortalities in the United States. Many studies have investigated factors that contribute to colon cancer in which dietary and environmental factors have been shown to play an integral role in the etiology of this disease. Specifically, human dietary intake of environmental carcinogens such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has generated interest in looking at how it exerts its effects in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the preventative effects of olive oil on benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P]-induced colon carcinogenesis in adult Apc(Min) mice. Mice were assigned to a control (n=8) or treatment group (n=8) consisting of 25, 50 and 100-μg B(a)P/kg body weight (bw) dissolved in tricaprylin [B(a)P-only group] or olive oil daily via oral gavage for 60 days. Our studies showed that Apc(Min) mice exposed to B(a)P developed a significantly higher number (Polive oil. Treatment of mice with B(a)P and olive oil significantly altered (Polive oil. Lastly, olive oil promoted rapid detoxification of B(a)P by decreasing its organic metabolite concentrations and also decreasing the extent of DNA damage to colon and liver tissues (Polive oil has a protective effect against B(a)P-induced colon tumors.

  14. Association of active caspase 8 with the mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis: potential roles in cleaving BAP31 and caspase 3 and mediating mitochondrion-endoplasmic reticulum cross talk in etoposide-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Dhyan; Choy, Grace; Deng, Xiaodi; Bhatia, Bobby; Daniel, Peter; Tang, Dean G

    2004-08-01

    It was recently demonstrated that during apoptosis, active caspase 9 and caspase 3 rapidly accumulate in the mitochondrion-enriched membrane fraction (D. Chandra and D. G. Tang, J. Biol. Chem.278:17408-17420, 2003). We now show that active caspase 8 also becomes associated with the membranes in apoptosis caused by multiple stimuli. In MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells treated with etoposide (VP16), active caspase 8 is detected only in the membrane fraction, which contains both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as revealed by fractionation studies. Immunofluorescence microscopy, however, shows that procaspase 8 and active caspase 8 predominantly colocalize with the mitochondria. Biochemical analysis demonstrates that both procaspase 8 and active caspase 8 are localized mainly on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) as integral proteins. Functional analyses with dominant-negative mutants, small interfering RNAs, peptide inhibitors, and Fas-associated death domain (FADD)- and caspase 8-deficient Jurkat T cells establish that the mitochondrion-localized active caspase 8 results mainly from the FADD-dependent and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated death domain-dependent mechanisms and that caspase 8 activation plays a causal role in VP16-induced caspase 3 activation and cell death. Finally, we present evidence that the OMM-localized active caspase 8 can activate cytosolic caspase 3 and ER-localized BAP31. Cleavage of BAP31 leads to the generation of ER- localized, proapoptotic BAP20, which may mediate mitochondrion-ER cross talk through a Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism.

  15. Cognitive maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minder, Bettina; Laursen, Linda Nhu; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2014-01-01

    . Conceptual clustering is used to analyse and order information according to concepts or variables from within the data. The cognitive maps identified are validated through the comments of some of the same experts. The study presents three cognitive maps and respective world-views explaining how the design...... and innovation field are related and under which dimensions they differ. The paper draws preliminary conclusions on the implications of the different world- views on the innovation process. With the growing importance of the design approach in innovation e.g. design thinking, a clear conception...

  16. Mole Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Curtright, Robert D.; Brooks, David W.

    2000-01-01

    The abstract nature of the mole and its applications to problem solving make learning the concept difficult for students, and teaching the concept challenging for teachers. Presents activities that use concept maps and graphing calculators as tools for solving mole problems. (ASK)

  17. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometime...

  18. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia...

  19. Increase of carcinogenic risk via enhancement of cyclooxygenase-2 expression and hydroxyestradiol accumulation in human lung cells as a result of interaction between BaP and 17-beta estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Louis W; Chang, Yun-Ching; Ho, Chia-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Lin, Pinpin

    2007-07-01

    Animal studies demonstrated that females are more susceptible than males to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)-induced toxicities, including lung carcinogenesis. Elevation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression has been shown to increase the risk of cancer development. BaP induces COX-2 expression, and an interaction between BaP and estrogen in relation to COX-2 expression is suspected. In the present study, 10 muM BaP alone only slightly increased COX-2 mRNA expression and 10 nM 17-beta estradiol (E(2)) alone slightly increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion in human bronchial epithelial cells. However, co-treatment with BaP and E(2) potentiated COX-2 mRNA expression and significantly elevated PGE2 secretion. Utilizing specific inhibitors and reporter assays, we further investigated the potentiation mechanisms of E(2) on BaP-induced COX-2 expression. First, E(2) activated estrogen receptor to increase PGE2 secretion, which directly increased COX-2 expression. Second, E(2) potentiated BaP-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, which regulates COX-2 expression. Third, although the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) did not play a role in BaP-induced COX-2 expression, the potentiation effect of E(2) itself was AhR dependent. We further demonstrated that BaP induced the production of genotoxic E(2) metabolites (2- and 4-hydroxyestradiols) via AhR-up-regulated cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1. These metabolites could directly activate NF-kappaB to further promote COX-2 mRNA expression in human lung epithelial cells. These findings were further supported by increased PGE2 secretion in rat lung slice cultures. Our findings that the BaP-E(2) interaction enhanced COX-2 expression and hydroxyestradiol accumulation in the media of cultivated lung cells and tissues provide the needed scientific basis for higher risk of BaP-associated lung cancer in females.

  20. Accumulation of mutant alpha1-antitrypsin Z in the endoplasmic reticulum activates caspases-4 and -12, NFkappaB, and BAP31 but not the unfolded protein response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidvegi, Tunda; Schmidt, Bela Z; Hale, Pamela; Perlmutter, David H

    2005-11-25

    In alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency, a polymerogenic mutant form of the secretory glycoprotein alpha1AT, alpha1ATZ, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells. It is not yet known how this results in liver injury in a subgroup of deficient individuals and how the remainder of deficient individuals escapes liver disease. One possible explanation is that the "susceptible" subgroup is unable to mount the appropriate protective cellular responses. Here we examined the effect of mutant alpha1ATZ on several potential protective signaling pathways by using cell lines with inducible expression of mutant alpha1AT as well as liver from transgenic mice with liver-specific inducible expression of mutant alpha1AT. The results show that ER retention of polymerogenic mutant alpha1ATZ does not result in an unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR can be induced in the presence of alpha1ATZ by tunicamycin excluding the possibility that the pathway has been disabled. In striking contrast, ER retention of nonpolymerogenic alpha1AT mutants does induce the UPR. These results indicate that the machinery responsible for activation of the UPR can distinguish the physical characteristics of proteins that accumulate in the ER in such a way that it can respond to misfolded but not relatively ordered polymeric structures. Accumulation of mutant alpha1ATZ does activate specific signaling pathways, including caspase-12 in mouse, caspase-4 in human, NFkappaB, and BAP31, a profile that was distinct from that activated by nonpolymerogenic alpha1AT mutants.

  1. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  2. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...... is on their learning practices and how they create ‘learning paths’ in relation to resources in diverse learning contexts, whether formal, non-formal and informal contexts.......This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus...

  3. 大连湾沉积物-水界面BAP交换通量的影响因素%The influencing factors of BAP exchange flux at the sediment-water interface in Dalian Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗虎民; 张志锋; 王燕; 张哲

    2012-01-01

    The influencing factors of BAP (bio-available phosphorus) exchange flux at the sediment-water interface in Dalian Bay were studied by laboratory incubation experiment, and the BAP fluxes between sediment and water in the dredged area and in the area near the sediment dredging location were analyzed with the methods of laboratory incubation experiment and nutrient concentration gradients in the pore water. The results showed that the fluxes of BAP from sediment to water increased with the increase of pH and temperature in overlying water, and it also increased by the condition of applying sterilized sediment and aerating in overlying water during the incubation experiment. The fluxes from sediment to water decreased when the concentrations of phosphorus increased in the overlying water, and the flux direction reversed with the continuous increase of the concentrations. Both results of the two methods showed that the annual average exchange flux of BAP between sediment and water in the area near the sediment dredging location was higher than that in dredged area affected by dredging works. The exchange fluxes of BAP between sediment and water in Dalian Bay were different in four seasons, which was highest in summer and lowest in winter. However, it was at a high level in the area near the sediment dredging location in winter due to the impact of dredging.%利用实验室培养法研究了不同因素对大连湾沉积物-水界面间生物可利用磷(BAP)交换通量的影响,并利用实验室培养法和间隙水浓度梯度法估算了大连湾已疏浚区和疏浚点邻近海域沉积物-水界面BAP的交换通量.结果表明,随着上覆水pH和温度的增加,BAP由沉积物向水体释放量逐渐增加;灭菌和贫氧条件下,也会导致沉积物BAP的释放量增加;上覆水中磷酸盐浓度的升高会导致BAP由沉积物向水体释放通量降低,且随着上覆水磷酸盐浓度的不断升高,BAP逐渐转化为由水体向沉积物中扩散.

  4. An Integrated Map of Soybean Physical Map and Genetic Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhaoming; LI Hui; WU Qiong; SUN Yanan; LIU Chunyan; HU Guohua; CHEN Qingshan

    2009-01-01

    Soybean is a major crop in the world, and it is a main source of plant proteins and oil. A lot of soybean genetic maps and physical maps have been constructed, but there are no integrated map between soybean physical map and genetic map. In this study, soybean genome sequence data, released by JGI (US Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute), had been downloaded. With the software Blast 2.2.16, a total of 161 super sequences were mapped on the soybean public genetic map to construct an integrated map. The length of these super sequences accounted for 73.08% of all the genome sequence. This integrated map could be used for gene cloning, gene mining, and comparative genome of legume.

  5. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  6. The Bath Adolescent Pain--Parental Impact Questionnaire (BAP-PIQ): development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an instrument to assess the impact of parenting an adolescent with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Abbie; Eccleston, Christopher; McCracken, Lance M; Connell, Hannah; Clinch, Jacqui

    2008-07-31

    When an adolescent has chronic pain many aspects of a parent's life can be affected, including their emotional and social functioning. The assessment of this multidimensional parental impact is an essential, yet often neglected, clinical task. This study reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of the Bath Adolescent Pain--Parental Impact Questionnaire (BAP-PIQ), an assessment tool comprising multiple scales thought to be relevant for better understanding changes in functioning and behavior associated with parenting an adolescent with chronic pain. A sample of 194 parents of adolescents with chronic pain, recruited from three UK clinics, completed the 94 item draft inventory. Frequency and item correlation analyses resulted in a final inventory of 62 items. Internal consistency of all eight scales was established based on Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was undertaken by comparison of individual scales with existing validated measures of parental stress, mood, parenting behavior, marital adjustment, and general functioning. The temporal reliability of each scale was established using a sub-sample of 46 participants over a 14-day period. Psychometric evaluation suggests that the inventory yields a reliable and valid assessment of the multiple impacts of parenting an adolescent with chronic pain. The BAP-PIQ may offer a comprehensive assessment of these impacts in both a research and a clinical setting. Further study of the validity of BAP-PIQ scales and their ability to detect clinically meaningful change would be of use. Additional data from samples comprising fathers of adolescents with chronic pain and parents of adolescents with non-musculoskeletal pain would be of benefit.

  7. Dose- and time-dependent expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) in PCB-, B[a]P-, and TBT-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Un-Ki; Seo, Jung Soo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) genes from the copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Tj) were cloned to examine their potential functions in the invertebrate putative AhR-CYP signaling pathway. The amino acid sequences encoded by the Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT genes showed high similarity to homologs of Daphnia and Drosophila, ranging from 68% and 70% similarity for the AhR genes to 56% for the ARNT genes. To determine whether Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT are modulated by environmental pollutants, transcriptional expression of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT was analyzed in response to exposure to five concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB 126) (control, 10, 50, 100, 500 μg L(-1)), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (control, 5, 10, 50, 100 μg L(-1)), and tributyltin (TBT) (control, 1, 5, 10, 20 μg L(-1)) 24h after exposure. A time-course experiment (0, 3, 6, 12, 24h) was performed to analyze mRNA expression patterns after exposure to PCB, B[a]P, and TBT. T. japonicus exhibited dose-dependent and time-dependent upregulation of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT in response to pollutant exposure, and the degree of expression was dependent on the pollutant, suggesting that pollutants such as PCB, B[a]P, and TBT modulate expression of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT genes in the putative AhR-CYP signaling pathway.

  8. Effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Wang; Han-Qiang Ren; Xiao-Bo Shen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of insulin combined alendronate sodium on bone mineral density and levels of serum BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP in aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis.Methods: A total of 136 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis in January 2014 to January 2016 in our hospital for the treatment were selected, and randomly divided into 4 groups, each of 40 cases. Caltrate D was given as a basic treatment to all the patients, and the control group was given the treatment of insulin, and the metformin group was given the treatment of metformin, and the combination group was given the treatment of metformin combined alendronate, and the experiment group was given the treatment of insulin combined alendronate. BMD of the femoral neck and the serum levels of BAP, TRAP-5b and BGP were detected and recorded before the treatment and after one year’s treatment.Results:On index of bone mineral density, the control group and the metformin group showed no significant differences; the combination group was slightly improved, but showed no statistical significance; After the treatment, the bone mineral density of the experiment was significantly improved. On index of bone turnover, the levels of serum BAP and BGP all had been improved and the level of TRAP-5b all was reduced then before the treatment in the control group, the combination group and the experiment group, but only the experiment group showed significant differences; On index of bone turnover, the experiment group were better than other groups, the differences were statistical significant.Conclusions:It has greater clinical curative effect that insulin combined alendronate sodium in the treatment of aged patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with osteoporosis, it can effectively balance the metabolism of bone, safe and reliable, and it is worthy of application.

  9. Analysis of Pollution Current Situation about Bap in the Surrounding Air in Tongling City%铜陵市环境空气苯并(a)芘污染现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅建鸣

    2005-01-01

    本文对铜陵市空气中苯并(a)芘(Bap)的污染水平及污染源进行了简要分析,指出焦化作业是造成空气BaP污染的重要污染源之一,对原焦化厂进行污染综合治理,实施移址建设,对降低城区BaP空气污染意义重大.

  10. 肺癌患者血清NTx、ICTP和BAP水平与骨转移的相关性研究%Relationships between the levels of sermn NTx, ICTP, BAP and bone metastasis in patients with lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世强; 陈冬波; 王保庆; 张兰胜

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical significance of serum N-telopeptide of type I collagen( NTx), carboxy-terminal collagen telopeptide( ICTP), and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase(BAP) in diagnosing bone metastasis of lung cancer. Methods A total of 106 patients with lung cancer were diagnosed by pathology in this study. Patients were divided into two groups: 61 patients with bone metastasis and 45 patients without bone metastasis. The levels of serum NTx, ICTP and BAP were measured by ELISA. Results The levels of serum NTx, ICTP and BAP in bone metastasis group were (25.36 ± 11.07) nmol/L, (29. 18 ± 10. 74) μg/L and (78. 31 ± 16. 53 ) μg/L higher than ( 12. 16 ± 7.62) nmol/L, ( 11.02 ± 5.32)μg/L and (24. 01 ± 7.98 ) μg/L in non-bone metastasis group( P < 0. 01 ). The sensitivity and specificity of serum NTx in the diagnosis of bone metastasis were 90. 16% and 84. 44%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum BAP were 80. 32% and 77.78%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum ICTP were 70.49% and 91.11%, respectively. While The levels of serum NTx, ICTP and BAP in patients with more bone metastasis were significantly higher than those in single bone metastasis (P < 0. 05 ). The levels of serum NTx, ICTP and BAP were related to the degree of pain with bone metastasis. But we could not find that there were difference of serum NTx, ICTP and BAP among sex, pathology and different bone metastasis position. Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity of the serum NTx, ICTP and BAP are higher in diagnosis of lung cancer with bone metastasis. The three markers can be regarded as important factors for bone metastasis of lung cancer.%目的 探讨联合检测骨代谢生化指标血清Ⅰ型胶原氨基末端肽(NTx)、Ⅰ型胶原羧基端肽(ICTP)及骨特异性碱性磷酸酶(BAP)对诊断肺癌骨转移的临床意义.方法 选择经细胞学和病理学确诊的肺癌患者106例,分为两组,其中骨转移组61

  11. Mapping Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carruth, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Resilience theory is a growing discipline with great relevance for the discipline of planning, particularly in fields like energy planning that face great uncertainty and rapidly transforming contexts. Building on the work of the Stockholm Resilience Centre, this paper begins by outlining...... the relationship between resilience and energy planning, suggesting that planning in, and with, time is a core necessity in this domain. It then reviews four examples of graphically mapping with time, highlighting some of the key challenges, before tentatively proposing a graphical language to be employed...... by planners when aiming to construct resilient energy plans. It concludes that a graphical language has the potential to be a significant tool, flexibly facilitating cross-disciplinary communication and decision-making, while emphasising that its role is to support imaginative, resilient planning rather than...

  12. Effect of gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the synthesis of essential oils and the isomerization of methyl chavicol and trans-anethole in Ocimum gratissimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzoumi, Zakaria; Moustakime, Youssef; Amrani Joutei, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Basil (O. gratissimum L) is a aromatic and medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine in Morocco. The aim of this work was to study the effect of three plant growth regulators gibberellic acid (GA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP) on the content and composition of essential oils of this plant, especially on the main compound (methyl chavicol) and its isomer (the trans-anethole). The results showed a wide variation on yield, content and range of the molecule constituent of oil, with a balance of appearances and/or disappearances of a few molecules. GA caused a slight decrease in the oil yield (0.2%), but it increased the diversity of compounds (17 molecules) with the appearance of four new compounds (naphthalene, camphor, germacrene-D, and ledene) and disappearance of (β cedrene, azulene). This variation also caused a very important decrease in the main compound (methyl chavicol) and increases its isomer (trans-anethole). IAA and BAP caused an increase in the yield of essential oil (0.30% and 0.32% respectively) without much influence on the main compounds, but with some change in the composition such as the appearance of (germacrene-D) and the disappearance of (aristolene).

  13. lAA and BAP affect protein phosphorylation-dependent processes during sucrose-mediated G1 to S and G2 to M transitions in root meristem cells of Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Teresa Polit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In carbohydrate-starved root meristems of Vicia faba subsp. minor, the expression of two Principal Control Points located at the final stages of the G1 (PCP1 and G2 (PCP2 phases has been found to be correlated with a marked decrease of protein phosphorylation within cell nuclei, nucleoli and cytoplasm. Adopting the same experimental model in our present studies, monoclonal FITC conjugated antibodies that recognize phosphorylated form of threonine (αTPab-FITC were used to obtain an insight about how the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP, and the mixture of both phytohormones influence the time-course changes in an overall protein phosphorylation during sucrose-mediated PCP1→S and PCP2→M transitions. Unsuspectedly, neither IAA, BAP, nor the mixture of both phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose did up-regulate protein phosphorylation. However using the block-and-release method, it was shown that root meristems of Vicia provided with sucrose alone indicated higher levels of αTPab-FITC. Contrarily, phytohormones supplied in combination with sucrose induced apparent decline in phosphorylation of cell proteins, which - when compared with the influence of sucrose alone - became increasingly evident in time. Thus, it seems probable, that a general decline in the amount of αTPab-FITC labeled epitopes may overlay specific phosphorylations and dephosphorylations governed by the main cell cycle kinases and phosphatases.

  14. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  15. Efecto del carbón activado, ácido indolacético (AIA y bencil amino purina (BAP en el desarrollo de protocormos de Epidendrum elongatum Jacq bajo condiciones in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alonso Pedroza-Manrique

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of activated charcoal, indol acetic acid (IAA and benzylaminopurine (BAP on Epidendrum elongatum Jacq protocorm-like body (PLB development in vitro conditions Resumen:  El desarrollo vegetativo de los protocormos de Epidendrum elongatum Jacq., una orquídea endémica y en vías de extinción, se logró eficazmente mediante el cultivo in vitro en el medio Murashige y Skoog (1962, donde se evaluó el efecto de la interacción entre los siguientes tres factores: carbón activado (0,0; 0,5; 1,0% (w/v; ácido indol acético (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mg.L-1; bencil amino purina (0,0; 0,5; 1,0 mg.L-1. El medio de cultivo empleado fue enriquecido con sacarosa al 3%, y el Myo inositol al 0,1 g.L-1. En este estudio se evaluó que el efecto sobre la tasa de crecimiento de la interacción del carbón activado en concentraciones de 0,5 y 1,0% con 0,5 mg.L-1 de AIA es positivo para el desarrollo de los protocormos de E. elongatum bajo condiciones in vitro, mientras que la interacción del BAP, tanto en concentraciones de 0,5 mg.L-1 y 1,0 mg.L-1, muestra resultados no tan favorables en cuanto al grado de desarrollo de los protocormos estudiados. Este estudio describe un protocolo que permite alcanzar más de 270.000 plántulas en excelente desarrollo vegetativo dentro de 30 semanas, a partir de una cápsula de esta importante orquídea. Este protocolo es un modelo de conservación para especies que se encuentran en vías de extinción, y además permite la propagación a gran escala de Epidendrum elongatum. Palabras clave: orquídea, Epidendrum elongatum, germinación in vitro, carbón activado, AIA, BAP. Abstract: The vegetative development of protocorm-like bodies (PLB from Epidendrum elongatum Jacq. (an endemic and endangered orchid was effectively achieved through in vitro culture in Murashige and Skoog medium (1962; the effect of the interaction between the following three factors was studied: activated charcoal (0.0, 0.5, 1.0% (w/v, indol acetic acid

  16. BAP, 2,4-D e ácido acetilsalicílico na indução e diferenciação de calos em anteras de Coffea arabica L BAP, 2,4-D and acetyl-salicylic acid on the callus induction and differentiation in Coffea arabica L. anthers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaide Siqueira Silva

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético do cafeeiro por meio de métodos convencionais é um processo demorado para se obter uma nova cultivar. A redução desse tempo é possível através da produção de linhagens homozigóticas, oriundas de dihaplóides obtidas através da cultura de anteras. Objetivou-se aplicar a técnica da cultura de anteras em diferentes cvs. de Coffea arabica L. para induzir a formação de calos e regenerar plântulas di-haplóides, com uso de reguladores vegetais. Os experimentos foram conduzidos no laboratório de Biotecnologia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia (UFU. Anteras das cultivares Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 e Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 foram inoculadas em meio MS suplementado com 2,0 mg L-1 de 2,4-D e AAS, nas concentrações de 0; 8; 16; 32 e 64 mg L-1. Calos de 'Catuaí Vermelho 44' foram subcultivados em meio MS acrescido de diferentes concentrações de BAP (0; 2; 4 e 8 mg L-1 e 2,4-D (0; 1; 2 e 4 mg L-1. Tanto para as cvs. Mundo Novo quanto para Catuaí Vermelho 44 o aumento das concentrações de AAS diminuiu a formação de próembrióides nos calos e somente o 2,4-D foi capaz de promover a formação de calos friáveis, porém o equilíbrio da auxina e da citocinina utilizadas no trabalho, favoreceram a produção de calos friáveis.Coffee plant breeding through conventional methods demands a long time to obtain new cultivars. The reduction of this period is possible through the production of homozygous lines, from dihaploids obtained via anther culture. The aim of this study was to apply the anther culture technique on different C. arabica L. cultivars to induce calli formation and to regenerate dihaploid seedlings with the use of plant growth regulators. The experiments were accomplished in the Plant Biotechnology laboratory at Uberlândia Federal University (UFU. Anthers of the cultivars Mundo Novo LCP-379-19 and Catuaí Vermelho H2077-2-5-44 were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L-1

  17. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  18. ShakeMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — ShakeMap is a product of the USGS Earthquake Hazards Program in conjunction with the regional seismic networks. ShakeMaps provide near-real-time maps of ground...

  19. Mapping: A Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Paul M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the history of cartography. Describes the contributions of Strabo and Ptolemy in early maps. Identifies the work of Gerhard Mercator as the most important advancement in mapping. Discusses present mapping standards from history. (CW)

  20. Mapping with the Masses: Google Map Maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, J.

    2008-12-01

    After some 15,000 years of map making, which saw the innovations of cardinal directions, map projections for a spherical earth, and GIS analysis, many parts of the world still appear as the "Dark Continent" on modern maps. Google Map Maker intends to shine a light on these areas by tapping into the power of the GeoWeb. Google Map Maker is a website which allows you to collaborate with others on one unified map to add, edit, locate, describe, and moderate map features, such as roads, cities, businesses, parks, schools and more, for certain regions of the world using Google Maps imagery. In this session, we will show some examples of how people are mapping with this powerful tool as well as what they are doing with the data. With Google Map Maker, you can become a citizen cartographer and join the global network of users helping to improve the quality of maps and local information in your region of interest. You are invited to map the world with us!

  1. Mutagenicity of 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-6) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the gill and hepatopancreas of rpsL transgenic zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanuma, Kimiko; Tone, Suguru; Nagaya, Masato; Matsumoto, Michi; Watanabe, Tetsushi; Totsuka, Yukari; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Aoki, Yasunobu

    2008-10-30

    We examined the in vivo mutagenicity of 2-[2-(acetylamino)-4-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]-5-methoxyphenyl]-5-amino-7-bromo-4-chloro-2H-benzotriazole (PBTA-6) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by using transgenic (Tg) zebrafish carrying the mutational target gene rpsL. PBTA-6 is one of the PBTA-type compounds that were recently identified in highly mutagenic river water in Japan. BaP is a well-known contaminant that is frequently found in polluted water. Both compounds are potent mutagens, as determined by using the Ames test employing S9 mix and Salmonella. Adult rpsL Tg zebrafish were exposed to 0, 7, or 10 mg/L PBTA-6 or 0, 1.5, or 3 mg/L BaP for 96 h in a water bath and the mutations in their gills and hepatopancreata were measured 2-4 weeks later. At 3 weeks after exposure, 3 mg/L BaP significantly increased the rpsL mutant frequency (MF) in the gill and hepatopancreas by 5- and 2.3-fold, respectively, as compared to control fish. Sequence analysis showed that BaP mainly induced G:C to T:A and G:C to C:G transversions, which is consistent with the known mutagenic effects of BaP. In contrast, despite its extremely high mutagenic potency in Salmonella strains, PBTA-6 did not significantly increase the MF in the zebrafish gill or hepatopancreas. Although PBTA-6 is 300 times more mutagenic than BaP in the Ames test [T. Watanabe, H. Nukaya, Y. Terao, Y. Takahashi, A. Tada, T. Takamura, H. Sawanishi, T. Ohe, T. Hirayama, T. Sugimura, K. Wakabayashi, Synthesis of 2-phenylbenzotriazole-type mutagens, PBTA-5 and PBTA-6, and their detection in river water from Japan, Mutat. Res. 498 (2001) 107-115], calculation of the mutagenicity per mole of compound indicated that PBTA-6 was 33- and BaP.

  2. Mapping the Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Grace

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made ceramic heart maps. The impetus for this project came from reading "My Map Book" by Sara Fanelli. This book is a collection of quirky, hand-drawn and collaged maps that diagram a child's world. There are maps of her stomach, her day, her family, and her heart, among others. The…

  3. USGS Map Indices Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Map Indices service from The National Map (TNM) consists of 1x1 Degree, 30x60 Minute (100K), 15 Minute (63K), 7.5 Minute (24K), and 3.75 Minute grid...

  4. Google Maps: You Are Here

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    Librarians use online mapping services such as Google Maps, MapQuest, Yahoo Maps, and others to check traffic conditions, find local businesses, and provide directions. However, few libraries are using one of Google Maps most outstanding applications, My Maps, for the creation of enhanced and interactive multimedia maps. My Maps is a simple and…

  5. -Deformed nonlinear maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramaswamy Jaganathan; Sudeshna Sinha

    2005-03-01

    Motivated by studies on -deformed physical systems related to quantum group structures, and by the elements of Tsallis statistical mechanics, the concept of -deformed nonlinear maps is introduced. As a specific example, a -deformation procedure is applied to the logistic map. Compared to the canonical logistic map, the resulting family of -logistic maps is shown to have a wider spectrum of interesting behaviours, including the co-existence of attractors – a phenomenon rare in one-dimensional maps.

  6. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  7. Characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococcus species from cows' milk and environment based on bap, icaA, and mecA genes and phenotypic susceptibility to antimicrobials and teat dips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piessens, V; De Vliegher, S; Verbist, B; Braem, G; Van Nuffel, A; De Vuyst, L; Heyndrickx, M; Van Coillie, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the main coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) species involved in bovine intramammary infections (IMI) possess specific characteristics that promote colonization of the udder. Virulence markers associated with biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance, and biocide tolerance were compared between typically contagious CNS species (Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus simulans) and those rarely causing IMI (Staphylococcus sciuri, Staphylococcus equorum, and others) to find possible associations with pathogenicity. Coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates (n=366) belonging to 22 different species were analyzed by PCR for the presence of the biofilm-associated genes bap and icaA, and the methicillin resistance gene mecA. A selection of 82 isolates was additionally tested for their susceptibility to 5 antibiotics and 2 commercial teat dip products. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobials were determined by Etest (AB bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), and a microdilution method was optimized to determine minimum biocidal concentrations of teat dips. The bap, icaA, and mecA genes were detected significantly more in isolates from CNS species typically living in the cows' environment than in isolates from IMI-causing species. Antimicrobial resistance was mainly against erythromycin (23%) or oxacillin (16%), and was detected more often in the environmental species. The isolates least susceptible to the teat dips belonged to the IMI-causing species Staph. chromogenes and Staph. simulans. We concluded that carriage of biofilm genes and antimicrobial resistance were not associated with the ability to colonize the mammary gland because free-living CNS species constituted a more significant reservoir of biofilm and resistance determinants than did IMI-causing species. In contrast, increased tolerance to biocides may favor the establishment of

  8. Challenges and controversies in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma: Part 2. Malignant mesothelioma subtypes, pleural synovial sarcoma, molecular and prognostic aspects of mesothelioma, BAP1, aquaporin-1 and microRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Douglas W; Reid, Glen; Kao, Steven C; van Zandwijk, Nico; Klebe, Sonja

    2013-10-01

    Pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM) includes several unusual and even rare but distinctive histological subtypes, in addition to the usual subdivision into epithelioid, biphasic and sarcomatoid MM. Criteria for discrimination between fibrous pleuritis versus desmoplastic mesothelioma include evidence of neoplastic invasion for diagnosis of desmoplastic MM, but this histological assessment is complicated by the recently-described 'fake fat phenomenon' in cases of fibrous pleuritis. The distinction between biphasic and monophasic synovial sarcoma of the pleura versus biphasic and sarcomatoid MM can be problematical and is most cogently based upon molecular detection of the t(X;18) translocation, whereas a clear diagnosis of MM for a pleural tumour histologically resembling synovial sarcoma is favoured by a negative result for this translocation and, probably, microRNA evidence supportive of a diagnosis of MM. Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a molecule involved in the growth of MM cells, and yet is a factor reported to correlate with improved survival rates for MM with an epithelioid component, in comparison to AQP1-poor MM, as assessed from AQP1 expression by epithelioid MM cells only (apart from co-expression by stromal endothelial cells in addition to the tumour cells). Recent reports have also focused upon germline mutations in the BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1), not only in cases of familial mesothelioma, but also BAP1 deletion in sporadic MM. Prognostic factors for MM include not only the histological subtypes, but other independent variables that include (among others), AQP1 expression by mesothelioma cells, the clinical status of the patient, the serum neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and blood thrombocytosis.

  9. Using an international workshop to develop functional requirements and a Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) with which to develop a preferred concept for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrublevskis, John; Guest, Michael; Bennett, Allan; Walker, James; Smith, Caroline; Baker, Robert; Grant, Colin

    COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy places very stringent requirements on Sample Return missions and `breaking the chain of contact' between Earth and the celestial body from which the sample is returned. This must be continued after return to Earth and -at the same time-any contamination or damage to the sample must be avoided until such time as it can be confirmed as not presenting a biohazard and available for subsequent curation and scientific investigation. Such a facility has never before been built and an investigation has been made to determine the requirements for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) from first principles based on a Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) rather than the modification of an existing BSL-4 facility. This approach fully takes in to account cleanliness requirements to avoid sample contamination. This paper will present the results from the first part of an ESA funded study, which derived the top level functional requirements by reviewing published scientific literature from all expert domains i.e.; biocontainment, science curation, space technology, infrastructure and equipment. These functional requirements were then examined by invited attendees from all expert domains in a 2 day international workshop. From the results of the international workshop an existing Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) was modified and a trade off was conducted to derive a preferred concept which allowed early indications of future technological direction of study. The results of the MSR SRF study by SEA (as well as the results of another parallel study) will be taken into account by ESA to define the requirements for a follow-on procurement action in the future. There will be a review of the results from both studies and an agreement on the requirements based on these parallel studies. Therefore, the views expressed herein should not be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Space Agency.

  10. Web Mapping Using Logo on Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximing Hou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The newly proposed Logo on Map (LoM system consists of three modules: picture extraction module (PEM, logo matching module (LMM and web mapping module (WMM. Since the first two modules were covered in our previous paper, the third module WMM is described here to present a complete LoM system. Current research is focused on geo-location distribution of brands on Google Maps. Pictures taken by ordinary people are extracted using Picture Extraction Module (PEM. The pictures containing relevant logos are obtained via Logo Matching Module (LMM. Brand distributions are overlaid on Google Maps. In this paper, GPS and brands are briefly described, and the implementation of Web Mapping Module (WMM based on Google Maps API is detailed. Then several experiments are carried out on the selected top brands. Finally the LMM-pictures are mapped on the Google Maps and the geographical distributions of the brands are visualised. Brand uniqueness is discussed and conclusion is drawn that with unique brand names web mapping can visually reflect the real economic activities of a company in the world.

  11. Benzo [a]pyrene (BaP) promotes abdominal aortic aneurysm formation in mice and its mechanism%苯并[a]芘诱导小鼠腹主动脉瘤形成机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋凤春; 季亢挺; 隋向前; 唐疾飞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of benzo [a]pyrene (BaP) on the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in mice and its mechanism. Methods C57BL/6N mice aged 7~9 months were divided into four groups, control group, angiotensinⅡ(AngⅡ) group, BaP group and AngⅡ/BaP group. After 5 weeks of treatment of various agents the abdominal aor-tas of mice were taken. Aortic tissues were subject to HE, immunochemistry staining for evaluation of vascular wal structure, the expression of matrix metal oproteinase- 3, nuclear factor- κB and the apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cel s. Results AngⅡinfusion with BaP injection induced AAA in 41.67%of mice (versus 25%in AngⅡgroup, P<0.05). Histological analysis of the aortic wal showed severe damage to the medial layer and breakage of elastic lamel a. Immunohistochemistry staining showed that the expression of MMP- 3 and NF- κB were increased in AngⅡ/BaP group compared with AngⅡand BaP group (0.48± 0.13%vs 0.24±0.16%and 0.34±0.10%, P<0.05; 0.42±0.12%vs 0.23±0.06%and 0.32±0.09%, P<0.05). The apoptosis of aortic vascular smooth muscle cel s was highest in AngⅡ/BaP group compared with AngⅡand BaP group (30±12%vs 19±5%and 23±4%, P<0.05). Conclusion BaP promotes AngⅡ- induced AAA formation in aging C57BL/6N mice, which may be as-sociated with activating NF- κB, up- regulation of MMP- 3 expression, resulting in disarray of elastic lamella, apoptosis of vascu-lar smooth muscle cel s, vascular structural destroy and ultimately aneurysm formation.%目的:探讨香烟烟雾重要成分苯并[a]芘(BaP)诱导小鼠腹主动脉瘤(AAA)形成的相关机制。方法48只7~9月龄C57BL/6N小鼠分为对照组、血管紧张素Ⅱ(AngⅡ)组、BaP组、AngⅡ/BaP复合物组。5周后取各组小鼠腹主动脉观察大体标本形态,切片行HE染色观察血管结构;免疫组化法检测各组靶血管基质金属蛋白酶-3(MMP-3)、核转录因子-κappaB(NF-κB)的表达, POD

  12. Mapping in the cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    This engaging text provides a solid introduction to mapmaking in the era of cloud computing. It takes students through both the concepts and technology of modern cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), and Web-based mapping. Conceptual chapters delve into the meaning of maps and how they are developed, covering such topics as map layers, GIS tools, mobile mapping, and map animation. Methods chapters take a learn-by-doing approach to help students master application programming interfaces and build other technical skills for creating maps and making them available on the Internet. Th

  13. Mapping with Drupal

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzolo, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Build beautiful interactive maps on your Drupal website, and tell engaging visual stories with your data. This concise guide shows you how to create custom geographical maps from top to bottom, using Drupal 7 tools and out-of-the-box modules. You'll learn how mapping works in Drupal, with examples on how to use intuitive interfaces to map local events, businesses, groups, and other custom data. Although building maps with Drupal can be tricky, this book helps you navigate the system's complexities for creating sophisticated maps that match your site design. Get the knowledge and tools you ne

  14. Coded MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Songze; Maddah-Ali, Mohammad Ali; Avestimehr, A. Salman

    2015-01-01

    MapReduce is a commonly used framework for executing data-intensive jobs on distributed server clusters. We introduce a variant implementation of MapReduce, namely "Coded MapReduce", to substantially reduce the inter-server communication load for the shuffling phase of MapReduce, and thus accelerating its execution. The proposed Coded MapReduce exploits the repetitive mapping of data blocks at different servers to create coding opportunities in the shuffling phase to exchange (key,value) pair...

  15. Some Semi - Equivelar Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Ashish K; Maity, Dipendu

    2011-01-01

    Semi-Equivelar maps are generalizations of Archimedean Solids (as are equivelar maps of the Platonic solids) to the surfaces other than $2-$Sphere. We classify some semi equivelar maps on surface of Euler characteristic -1 and show that none of these are vertex transitive. We establish existence of 12-covered triangulations for this surface. We further construct double cover of these maps to show existence of semi-equivelar maps on the surface of double torus. We also construct several semi-equivelar maps on the surfaces of Euler characteristics -8 and -10 and on non-orientable surface of Euler characteristics -2.

  16. Parabolic-like maps

    CERN Document Server

    Lomonaco, Luciana Luna Anna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of parabolic-like mapping, which is an object similar to a polynomial-like mapping, but with a parabolic external class, i.e. an external map with a parabolic fixed point. We prove a straightening theorem for parabolic-like maps, which states that any parabolic-like map of degree 2 is hybrid conjugate to a member of the family Per_1(1), and this member is unique (up to holomorphic conjugacy) if the filled Julia set of the parabolic-like map is connected.

  17. MapBook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Beginning with the systematic mapping of the lunar surface more than three decades ago, this database contains over 1600 maps of the planets and satellites of the...

  18. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  19. Letter of Map Revision

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. NAIP Status Maps Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — NAIP Status Maps Gallery. These maps illustrate what aerial imagery collection is planned, whats been collected, when it is available and how it is available. These...

  1. Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Minority Health has designed an interactive map, the Mapping Medicare Disparities Tool, to identify areas of disparities between subgroups of...

  2. Improving wetland mapping techniques

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Mapping wetland extent, structure and invasives using radar imagery. Acquiring optical, thermal, LIDAR, and RADAR images and analysis for improved wetland mapping,...

  3. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  4. Invariants for Parallel Mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Yajun; WU Jiye; FAN Qinshan; HUANG Kezhi

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the geometric quantities that remain unchanged during parallel mapping (i.e., mapping from a reference curved surface to a parallel surface with identical normal direction). The second gradient operator, the second class of integral theorems, the Gauss-curvature-based integral theorems, and the core property of parallel mapping are used to derive a series of parallel mapping invadants or geometri-cally conserved quantities. These include not only local mapping invadants but also global mapping invari-ants found to exist both in a curved surface and along curves on the curved surface. The parallel mapping invadants are used to identify important transformations between the reference surface and parallel surfaces. These mapping invadants and transformations have potential applications in geometry, physics, biome-chanics, and mechanics in which various dynamic processes occur along or between parallel surfaces.

  5. Mapping Mutations on Phylogenies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides a short review of recent methodologies developed for mapping mutations on phylogenies. Mapping of mutations, or character changes in general, using the maximum parsimony principle has been one of the most powerful tools in phylogenetics, and it has been used in a variety...... of different applications, for example, in the detection of correlated evolution and to identify selection acting on DNA sequences. However, many uses of parsimony mappings have been criticized because they focus on only one of many possible mappings and/or because they do not incorporate statistical...... uncertainty in the mapping. Recently developed probabilistic methods can incorporate statistical uncertainty in the character mappings. In these methods, focus is on a probability distribution of mutational mappings instead of a single estimate of the mutational mapping....

  6. Lying with Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Monmonier, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Darrell Huff’s How to Lie with Statistics was the inspiration for How to Lie with Maps, in which the author showed that geometric distortion and graphic generalization of data are unavoidable elements of cartographic representation. New examples of how ill-conceived or deliberately contrived statistical maps can greatly distort geographic reality demonstrate that lying with maps is a special case of lying with statistics. Issues addressed include the effects of map scale on geometry and featu...

  7. Curriculum Mapping. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molineaux, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This "Focus On" discusses curriculum mapping, a process that allows educators to align the curriculum both within and across grades and to ensure that the curriculum is in line with school, local, and state standards. It outlines the steps of the curriculum mapping process from planning the mapping initiative to creating and editing curriculum…

  8. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  9. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Olsen, Ole Fogh; Sporring, Jon

    2006-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  10. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Fogh Olsen, Ole; Sporring, Jon

    2007-01-01

    . To address this problem we introduce a novel photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way we preserve the important illumination features......, while eliminating noise. We call our method diffusion based photon mapping....

  11. Mapping a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltman, Joseph P.

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the importance of maps for instruction in both history and geography. Suggests that maps have gotten recent attention because of the rapid political changes occurring in Europe and the quincentenary of Columbus' voyage. Discusses different map projections and the importance of media and satellite display of real pictures of the world.…

  12. Cosmopolitan linkage disequilibrium maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Jane

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linkage maps have been invaluable for the positional cloning of many genes involved in severe human diseases. Standard genetic linkage maps have been constructed for this purpose from the Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain and other panels, and have been widely used. Now that attention has shifted towards identifying genes predisposing to common disorders using linkage disequilibrium (LD and maps of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, it is of interest to consider a standard LD map which is somewhat analogous to the corresponding map for linkage. We have constructed and evaluated a cosmopolitan LD map by combining samples from a small number of populations using published data from a 10-megabase region on chromosome 20. In support of a pilot study, which examined a number of small genomic regions with a lower density of markers, we have found that a cosmopolitan map, which serves all populations when appropriately scaled, recovers 91 to 95 per cent of the information within population-specific maps. Recombination hot spots appear to have a dominant role in shaping patterns of LD. The success of the cosmopolitan map might be attributed to the co-localisation of hot spots in all populations. Although there must be finer scale differences between populations due to other processes (mutation, drift, selection, the results suggest that a whole-genome standard LD map would indeed be a useful resource for disease gene mapping.

  13. On palaeogeographic map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Zhao Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The palaeogeographic map is a graphic representation of physical geographical characteristics in geological history periods and human history periods. It is the most important result of palaeogeographic study. The author, as the Editor-in-Chief of Journal of Palaeogeography, Chinese Edition and English Edition, aimed at the problems of the articles submitted to and published in the Journal of Palaeogeography in recent years and the relevant papers and books of others, and integrated with his practice of palaeogeographic study and mapping, wrote this paper. The content mainly includes the data of palaeogeographic mapping, the problems of palaeogeographic mapping method, the “Single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method —— Methodology of quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography”, i.e., the “4 steps mapping method”, the nomenclature of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of each palaeogeographic unit in palaeogeographic map, the explanation of significance of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, the evaluative standards of palaeogeographic map and palaeogeographic article, and the self-evaluation. Criticisms and corrections are welcome.

  14. Stable ion study of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) derivatives: 7,8-dihydro-BaP, 9,10-dihydro-BaP and its 6-halo derivatives, 1- and 3-methoxy-9,10-dihydro-BaP-7(8H)-one, as well as the proximate carcinogen BaP 7,8-dihydrodiol and its dibenzoate, combined with a comparative DNA binding study of regioisomeric (1-, 4-, 2-) pyrenylcarbinols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Takao; Laali, Kenneth K; Zajc, Barbara; Lakshman, Mahesh K; Kumar, Subodh; Baird, William M; Dashwood, Wan-Mohaiza

    2003-05-01

    A stable ion study of a series of BaP derivatives is reported. 7,8-Dihydro-BaP 1 gives a persistent bay-region benzyliclike carbocation which shows extensive charge delocalization into the pyrene moiety. In contrast, a "benzylic" carbocation can not be generated from 9,10-dihydro-BaP 2. Introduction of bulky substituents at peri C-6 of 9,10-dihydro-BaP (as in 4 and 5) prevents side reactions (dimerization) to the extent that the initially formed carbocation undergoes rearrangement to generate the corresponding bay-region "benzylic" carbocation as a persistent species. Introduction of methoxy substituents into the 1- or 3-positions of 9,10-dihydro-BaP-7(8H)-one (6,7) increases its electrophilic reactivity to the extent that stable carboxonium-arenium dications are produced in FSO3H-SO2ClF. A detailed NMR study (at 500 MHz) of the resulting mono- and dications is reported, and charge delocalization mode (as well as conformational aspects) are addressed. Other oxidized derivatives of BaP such as the 7,8-dihydrodiol 9 and the 7,8-dihydrodibenzoate 8 are not suitable models for stable ion study because of competing O-protonation (and elimination). Energies for various possible arenium ions and regioisomeric "benzylic" cations were computed by the DFT method at the B3LYP/6-31G(d)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level or by AM1 for comparison with the experimental results. These findings provide further evidence in support of the stability sequence: 1-pyrenyl > 4-pyrenyl > 2-pyrenyl in alpha-pyrene-substituted carbocations as models for the intermediates arising from BaP-epoxide ring opening. In an effort to provide a parallel, a series of alpha-pyrenylcarbinols were subjected to a DNA binding study using human MCF-7 cells. The results/trends are discussed and compared with the stable ion data.

  15. Map Projection Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Map Projection Transitions is a very successful web application about map projections. The web page (http://www.jasondavies.com/maps/transition pre­sents a world map with graticule and country borders in the oblique Aitoff projection, with the South Pole. The map is not static, but animated. The South Pole moves toward the bottom and Earth rotates around its poles. The animation lasts five seconds, after which the projection changes and movement continues for five seconds, after which the projection changes again. Names of projections appear in a separate window. There are a total of 56 projections. The South Pole eventually becomes invisible and the North Pole appears at the top. Various parts of Earth appear in the center of the map by rotating around the poles.

  16. Blood Bone Alkaline Phosphatase(BAP) and the Clinic Importance of Mensuration%血液骨源性碱性磷酸酶的测定及临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾新建

    2007-01-01

    目的 检测小儿/成人血中骨源性碱性磷酸酶(BAP)活性,籍以筛查或辅助诊断因钙营养不良引起的骨钙化障碍或其他原因引起的代谢性骨病.方法 BAP活性测定采用免疫渗透和全血干化学技术原理研制而成,通过与标准比色板对照判读结果.结果 通过儿童873人的NBAP检测,均值:(225±30)U/L;成人330例ABAP检测,均值(140±20)U/L.结论 BAP的测定对辅助诊断因钙营养不良引起的骨钙化障碍或其他原因引起的代谢性骨病,对儿童和孕产妇科学补钙有较大的指导作用.

  17. Increase the foliage area of Asparagus Officinalis L. Cv. UC 157 F1 “asparagus” by the spraying of Gibberellin (AG3 and 6 – Benzilaminopurine (6 – BAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Paraguay Mercado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work had as objective to study the increment of the leaf area of Asparagus Officinalis L., for they were used it asparagus crown with 5 yolks, to those that were applied by aspersion, different concentrations of the hormones of gibberellic acid and 6-bencilaminopurina which were applied at the 25, 60, 110 and 160 days respectively. It was found that in the different rehearsed treatments one doesn't observe differential significant in the increment of the number of plants, plant height, number of yolks and dry weight of foliage. However it was observed that the combined application of the phytohormonas in the range of 0.110 at 0.230 m of gibberllic acid and 0.037 to 0.075 m of 6-Bencilaminopurin a bigger number of yolk is achieved (13%, sprout (7%, plant height (11.3% and dry weight (7.3% in the treated plants. Concluded to continue making studies of sinergism of these two phytohormonas, gibberellic (AG3 and 6-bencilaminopurina (6-BAP, seeking to achieve adequate levels of leaf area increase of the leaf area in the asparagus.

  18. Multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose secon......-torus symmetry in terms of tri-symplectic geometry of four-manifolds. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  19. Classification of Lipschitz mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Piasecki, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    The Lipschitz Condition Nonlinear spectral radius Uniformly lipschitzian mappings Basic Facts on Banach Spaces Convexity The operator norm Dual spaces, reexivity, the weak, and weak* topologiesMean Lipschitz Condition Nonexpansive and mean nonexpansive mappings in Banach spaces General case On the Lipschitz Constants for Iterates of Mean Lipschitzian Mappings A bound for Lipschitz constants of iterates A bound for the constant k∞(T)Moving averages in Bana

  20. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence in 2015 Varies Across States and Territories ...

  1. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  2. Occupancy Grid Map Merging Using Feature Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Gonzalez, “Toward a unified bayesian approach to hybrid metric-topological SLAM,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics , 24(2), April 2008, 259-270. [14] G...Risetti, C. Stachniss, and W. Burgard, “Improved Techniques for grid mapping with Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter,” IEEE Transactions on Robotics , 23

  3. On circle map coupled map lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, E

    2002-01-01

    Circle map in one and two dimensions is studied. Both its stability, synchronization using bounded control and persistence is discussed. This work is expected to be applicable in ecology where spatial effects are known to be important. Also it will be relevant to systems where delay effects are not negligible.

  4. Acoustic mapping velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muste, M.; Baranya, S.; Tsubaki, R.; Kim, D.; Ho, H.; Tsai, H.; Law, D.

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of sediment dynamics in rivers is of great importance for various practical purposes. Despite its high relevance in riverine environment processes, the monitoring of sediment rates remains a major and challenging task for both suspended and bed load estimation. While the measurement of suspended load is currently an active area of testing with nonintrusive technologies (optical and acoustic), bed load measurement does not mark a similar progress. This paper describes an innovative combination of measurement techniques and analysis protocols that establishes the proof-of-concept for a promising technique, labeled herein Acoustic Mapping Velocimetry (AMV). The technique estimates bed load rates in rivers developing bed forms using a nonintrusive measurements approach. The raw information for AMV is collected with acoustic multibeam technology that in turn provides maps of the bathymetry over longitudinal swaths. As long as the acoustic maps can be acquired relatively quickly and the repetition rate for the mapping is commensurate with the movement of the bed forms, successive acoustic maps capture the progression of the bed form movement. Two-dimensional velocity maps associated with the bed form migration are obtained by implementing algorithms typically used in particle image velocimetry to acoustic maps converted in gray-level images. Furthermore, use of the obtained acoustic and velocity maps in conjunction with analytical formulations (e.g., Exner equation) enables estimation of multidirectional bed load rates over the whole imaged area. This paper presents a validation study of the AMV technique using a set of laboratory experiments.

  5. BenMAP Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download the current and legacy versions of the BenMAP program. Download configuration and aggregation/pooling/valuation files to estimate benefits. BenMAP-CE is free and open source software, and the source code is available upon request.

  6. Statistical air quality mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassteele, van de J.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis handles statistical mapping of air quality data. Policy makers require more and more detailed air quality information to take measures to improve air quality. Besides, researchers need detailed air quality information to assess health effects. Accurate and spatially highly resolved maps

  7. Quaternionic versus complex maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Scolarici, G [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy); Solombrino, L [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita del Salento and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the relation between completely positive quaternionic maps and the corresponding complex maps obtained via projection operation. In order to illustrate this formalism, we reobtain the (complex) qubit subdynamics of maximally entangled Bell states, as complex projection of unitary dynamics between quaternionic pure states.

  8. Pore size distribution mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Strange, John H.; J. Beau W. WEBBER; Schmidt, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Pore size distribution mapping has been demonstrated using NMR cryoporometry\\ud in the presence of a magnetic field gradient, This novel method is extendable to 2D and 3D mapping. It offers a unique nondestructive method of obtaining full pore-size distributions in the range 3 to 100 nm at any point within a bulk sample. \\ud

  9. MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Bisgaard, M L

    2008-01-01

    MUTYH Associated Polyposis (MAP), a Polyposis predisposition caused by biallelic mutations in the Base Excision Repair (BER) gene MUTYH, confers a marked risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The MAP phenotype is difficult to distinguish from other hereditary CRC syndromes. Especially from Familial...

  10. Simplifying Massive Contour Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Deleuran, Lasse Kosetski; Mølhave, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    We present a simple, efficient and practical algorithm for constructing and subsequently simplifying contour maps from massive high-resolution DEMs, under some practically realistic assumptions on the DEM and contours.......We present a simple, efficient and practical algorithm for constructing and subsequently simplifying contour maps from massive high-resolution DEMs, under some practically realistic assumptions on the DEM and contours....

  11. Map-A-Planet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Map-A-Planet website allows users to create and download custom image maps of planets and satellites from a variety of missions in an easy to use web interface

  12. Android Mapping Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalwhab Bakheet

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Location-aware and mapping applications have gone f rom a desirable feature to an essential part of any smart phone. Whether a user is checking into a social network, looking for a pharmacy in the middle of the night, or located in somewhere and needs help, the key is always the same: location. In this project, an Android mapping application is developed. The application is able to display the map of the whole world while online or, display a pre-downloaded map while offline, track the user’s location, display a compass to determine north, send the user’s location to others in case of emergency using SMS, receive and interpret received location from the message, display it on the map, and notify the user by the reception of the location. The application was developed using agile methodol ogy. It, met its objectives and successfully passed 91% of the final system test, recording that some limitations were discovered, the application needs further testing and can be implem ented for particular company or university using their own maps or editing the maps in OSM (op en street maps.

  13. Diffusion Based Photon Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjøth, Lars; Sporring, Jon; Fogh Olsen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    . To address this problem, we introduce a photon mapping algorithm based on nonlinear anisotropic diffusion. Our algorithm adapts according to the structure of the photon map such that smoothing occurs along edges and structures and not across. In this way, we preserve important illumination features, while...

  14. The Modern Geomorphological Map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Switzer, A.; Kennedy, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Classical geomorphological maps are representations of the spatial distribution of landforms, materials and of the processes responsible for their formation, in a single paper map. They contain a wealth of information that is generally documented with the aid of symbol and color legends. Uniformity

  15. Geologic map of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Dohm, James M.; Irwin, Rossman P.; Kolb, Eric J.; Fortezzo, Corey M.; Platz, Thomas; Michael, Gregory G.; Hare, Trent M.

    2014-01-01

    This global geologic map of Mars, which records the distribution of geologic units and landforms on the planet's surface through time, is based on unprecedented variety, quality, and quantity of remotely sensed data acquired since the Viking Orbiters. These data have provided morphologic, topographic, spectral, thermophysical, radar sounding, and other observations for integration, analysis, and interpretation in support of geologic mapping. In particular, the precise topographic mapping now available has enabled consistent morphologic portrayal of the surface for global mapping (whereas previously used visual-range image bases were less effective, because they combined morphologic and albedo information and, locally, atmospheric haze). Also, thermal infrared image bases used for this map tended to be less affected by atmospheric haze and thus are reliable for analysis of surface morphology and texture at even higher resolution than the topographic products.

  16. Bodily maps of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  17. Iconicity as structure mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen

    2014-09-19

    Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence is presented to support the use of structure-mapping theory as a framework for understanding effects of iconicity on sign language grammar and processing. The existence of structured mappings between phonological form and semantic mental representations has been shown to explain the nature of metaphor and pronominal anaphora in sign languages. With respect to processing, it is argued that psycholinguistic effects of iconicity may only be observed when the task specifically taps into such structured mappings. In addition, language acquisition effects may only be observed when the relevant cognitive abilities are in place (e.g. the ability to make structural comparisons) and when the relevant conceptual knowledge has been acquired (i.e. information key to processing the iconic mapping). Finally, it is suggested that iconicity is better understood as a structured mapping between two mental representations than as a link between linguistic form and human experience.

  18. Mental Mapping: A Classroom Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Les

    1978-01-01

    Examines potential uses of mental maps in the classroom by reviewing research efforts, providing an example of the differences between mental maps of two student groups, and suggesting how to use mental maps in the geography curriculum. Mental mapping (or cognitive mapping) refers to individuals' processes of collecting, storing, and retrieving…

  19. Expression of bacterial alkaline phosphatase-steroid receptor coactivator-1 fusion protein and its application in regulation of drug metabolism enzymes%BAP-SRC-1融合蛋白的表达及其在药物代谢酶调控研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亚坤; 陈枢青; 曾苏

    2005-01-01

    目的获得活性表达的细菌碱性磷酸酶(bacterial alkaline phosphatase,BAP)基因和人甾体受体辅活化因子-1(stero1d receptor coactivator-1,SRC-1)的融合蛋白,应用于辅活化因子与核受体的结合研究.方法从Escherichia coli JM83基因组和人肝总RNA中分别扩增获得BAP基因和SRC-1的186个氨基酸对应的基因序列(简称SRC186).用重组技术,构建BAP-SRC186-pET28a融合基因表达载体,在Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)中,以IPTG低温诱导表达.以对硝基苯磷酸盐(p-nitrophenyl-phos-phate,PNPP)为底物进行活性测定.活性表达的BAP-SRC186融合蛋白被应用于辅活化因子与核受体的结合研究.结果获得可溶性融合蛋白BAP-SRC186.该融合蛋白的BAP比活为(0.176±0.013 4)μmol·min-1·mg(pro).在利福平存在的情况下,BAP-SRC186能与孕烷X受体配体结合域(pregnane X receptor ligand binding domain,PXRLBD)发生利福平剂量依赖性的相互作用,作用强度通过BAP的显色反应可方便地检测.结论 BAP融合蛋白与核受体的结合研究为药物代谢酶调控的体外研究开辟了新的思路.

  20. nowCOAST's Map Service for Political Map Overlays

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST map service provides map overlays depicting the boundaries of U.S. states, territories, counties and townships/county subdivisions,...

  1. nowCOAST's Map Service for Transportation Map Overlays

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST map service provides maps depicting the locations of major world airport runways, major U.S. seaports, and latitude/longitude grid...

  2. The effects of ibandronate on OST and BAP in hepatic carcinoma with bone metastases patients%伊班膦酸钠对肝癌并骨转移骨钙素及骨碱性磷酸酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张囡囡; 李静; 杨舒; 曹忠书

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨骨钙素(osteocalcin,OST)、骨碱性磷酸酶(bone alkaline phosphatase,BAP)对肝癌并骨转移的预测作用及其伊班膦酸钠对骨代谢的影响。方法收集肝癌并骨转移患者16例、肝癌并非骨转移患者22例及肝癌无转移患者20例,并予伊班磷酸钠治疗肝癌并骨转移组,检测各组及肝癌并骨转移治疗前、治疗28、56及84 d骨钙素、骨碱性磷酸酶水平,比较各组间及治疗前后其差异。结果肝癌并骨转移组、肝癌非骨转移组、无转移组血清骨钙素水平分别为31.12±4.18、13.00±6.92、10.23±1.34,骨碱性磷酸酶分别为20.11±1.65、11.41±1.25、10.78±1.35,其中骨转移组骨钙素及骨碱性磷酸酶水平较其他两组差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。伊班膦酸钠注射液可降低肝癌骨转移组骨钙素及骨碱性磷酸酶水平,治疗后较治疗前差异有统计学意义( P <0.05)。结论骨钙素、骨碱性磷酸酶对肝癌并骨转移患者有较好的预测作用,伊班膦酸钠注射液可有效治疗骨转移瘤,机制可能与降低骨钙素及骨碱性磷酸酶相关。%Objective To investigate the prognosis of OST(osteocalcin)and BAP(bone alkaline phosphatase)for he-patic carcinoma with bone metastases patients and valuation of Ibandronate. Methods 16 patients of hepatic carcinoma with bone metastases,22 patients of hepatic carcinoma without bone metastases and 20 patients of hepatic carcinoma without metastases were collected. The hepatic carcinoma with bone metastases group was treated with Ibandronate. To observe the defferences of BAP and OST in three groups and treatment or not. Results The levels of serum OST in hepatic carcinoma with bone metastases group,hepatic carcinoma without bone metastases group and hepatic carcinoma without metastases group were 31. 12 ± 4. 18,13. 00 ± 6. 92,10. 23 ± 1. 34,respectively;And the levels of BAP in three groups were 20. 11 ± 1. 65,11. 41

  3. Distribution of Bioavailable Phosphorus (BAP) in lake sediments of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River%长江中下游湖泊沉积物生物可利用磷分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张路; 范成新; 朱广伟; 王建军

    2006-01-01

    利用化学提取方法对太湖6个样点,巢湖4个样点和龙感湖3个样点的表层沉积物和沉积物柱样进行了生物可利用磷(BAP)测定.北太湖表层沉积物的平均含量为259.5mg/kg,而西部湖区平均含量为114.6mg/kg,湖心区平均含量为40.6 mg/kg,而东太湖平均含量为50.7 mg/kg,呈显著北高南低的特点.巢湖西部湖区表层沉积物的BAP平均含量为254.2mg/kg,而东部湖区BAP含量降低为101.9mg/kg.龙感湖表层沉积物BAP平均含量为67.8mg/kg.显著表明污染程度较高的湖区沉积物的BAP相应较高.BAP在沉积物中随深度呈指数降低,显示生物可利用磷在沉积作用下向稳定的非活性磷转化.夏季沉积物中的BAP由于生物活性的增强向溶解态活性磷转化过程增强,显示为较低的BAP含量.BAP含量与水体溶解态活性磷呈正相关关系,且该相关性在BAP含量较低的样点好于高BAP的样点.

  4. Luminescent nitridophosphates CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucher, Florian J; Marchuk, Alexey; Schmidt, Peter J; Wiechert, Detlef; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2015-04-20

    Nitridophosphates MP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) and BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) have been synthesized at elevated pressures and 1100-1300 °C starting from the corresponding azides and P3 N5 with EuCl2 as dopant. Addition of NH4 Cl as mineralizer allowed for the growth of single crystals. This led to the successful structure elucidation of a highly condensed nitridophosphate from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) (P63 , no. 173), a=16.847(2), c=7.8592(16) Å, V=1931.7(6) Å(3) , Z=24, 2033 observed reflections, 176 refined parameters, wR2 =0.096). Upon excitation by UV light, luminescence due to parity-allowed 4f(6) ((7) F)5d(1) →4f(7) ((8) S7/2 ) transition was observed in the orange (CaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =575 nm), green (SrP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =529 nm), and blue regions of the visible spectrum (BaSr2 P6 N12 :Eu(2+) and BaP2 N4 :Eu(2+) , λmax =450 and 460 nm, respectively). Thus, the emission wavelength decreases with increasing ionic radius of the alkaline-earth ions. The corresponding full width at half maximum values (2240-2460 cm(-1) ) are comparable to those of other known Eu(2+) -doped (oxo)nitrides emitting in the same region of the visible spectrum. Following recently described quaternary Ba3 P5 N10 Br:Eu(2+) , this investigation represents the first report on the luminescence of Eu(2+) -doped ternary nitridophosphates. Similarly to nitridosilicates and related oxonitrides, Eu(2+) -doped nitridophosphates may have the potential to be further developed into efficient light-emitting diode phosphors.

  5. Fractional standard map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Mark, E-mail: edelman@cims.nyu.ed [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Stern College at Yeshiva University, 245 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Tarasov, Vasily E. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)] [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-28

    Properties of the phase space of the standard map with memory are investigated. This map was obtained from a kicked fractional differential equation. Depending on the value of the map parameter and the fractional order of the derivative in the original differential equation, this nonlinear dynamical system demonstrates attractors (fixed points, stable periodic trajectories, slow converging and slow diverging trajectories, ballistic trajectories, and fractal-like structures) and/or chaotic trajectories. At least one type of fractal-like sticky attractors in the chaotic sea was observed.

  6. Map: Geospatial paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonović Vesna

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different definitions of map. There is no one which is accepted in whole world or at least from the most cartographers. In the paper it will be given several definitions which are, at the best way, (according to the author’s opinion reflecting essence of map as a model of reality. Map as a universal meaning of researching can’t serve only for representing particular geospace (spatial system or some its element, or to give only clear view about geographical dispersion of objects, phenomena and processes, but have to make possible studying the patterns of that dispersion, as well as their mutual connections and conditions.

  7. The Problem of Map Illiteracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, James D.

    1985-01-01

    Describes an approach to eliminating "map illiteracy" in college students. Map illiteracy is defined as the inability to read and draw meaning from simple maps used in history texts and teaching. (JDH)

  8. Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...

  9. Complete Quasiconvex Mappings in Polydisc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tai-shun; ZHANG Wen-jun

    2006-01-01

    In this paper,a class of biholomorphic mappings called complete quasiconvex mappings is introduced and studied in bounded convex Reinhardt domains of Cn.Through a detailed analysis of the analytic characterization for this class of mappings,it is shown that this class of mappings contains the convex mappings and is also a subset of the class of starlike mappings.In the special case of the polydisc,a decomposition theorem is established for the complete quasiconvex mappings,which in turn is used to derive an improved sufficient condition for the convex mappings.

  10. Mapping posthumanism: an exchange

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: posthumanism in question Noel Castree, Catherine Nash Mapping posthumanism Neil Badmington Modalities of posthumanism Bruce Braun Humanising posthumanism Jonathan Murdoch Humanism's excess: some thoughts on the 'post-human/ist' agenda Sarah Whatmore Organisors: Noel Castree, Catherine Nash

  11. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  12. Minidoka - Invasive Species Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Locate and map, via the use of GPS, Rush skeletonweed on the refuge. Located areas then entered into GIS to allow refuge staff to pin point locations and treat this...

  13. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING, Bandera, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  14. TOXMAP®: Environmental Health Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — TOXMAP® is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that uses maps of the United States and Canada to help users visually explore data primarily from the EPA's Toxics...

  15. USGS map quadrangles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS map quandrangle boundaries with names and unique identifiers for the 1:24,000 (7.5 minute) quadrangles. Additional attributes provide unique identifiers and...

  16. BaseMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The goal of this project is to provide a convenient base map that can be used as a starting point for CA projects. It's simple, but designed to work at a number of...

  17. Public Waters Inventory Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...

  18. The CPD Maps System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CPD Maps includes data on the locations of existing CDBG, HOME, public housing and other HUD-funded community assets, so that users can view past investments...

  19. Map of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Based on bibliometric data from information-services provider Thomson Reuters, this map reveals "core areas" of physics, shown as coloured circular nodes, and the relationship between these subdisciplines, shown as lines.

  20. MAPPING IN MICRONESIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Randle W.; Swinnerton, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has recently completed a series of new topographic maps of Micronesia in cooperation with the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Federal agency administering the islands. Monocolor 1:10,000-scale manuscripts were compiled, from which 1:25,000-scale metric quadrangles were derived with symbology consistent with USGS quadrangle mapping. The publication of these new maps coincides with the impending political changes resulting from self-determination referendums held in Micronesia. Local sources have helped considerably with field logistics and resolution of geographic name controversies. Technical aspects of this project included development of tropical feature symbology, location of cadastral subdivisions and associated boundaries and mapping of many outlying coral reefs.

  1. NOS Bathymetric Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection of bathymetric contour maps which represent the seafloor topography includes over 400 individual titles and covers US offshore areas including Hawaii...

  2. Marketplace Enrollment Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The maps show the distribution of consumers in a state who enrolled in marketplace plans through federally facilitated, partnership, and supported state-based...

  3. Programming with Hierarchical Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørbæk, Peter

    This report desribes the hierarchical maps used as a central data structure in the Corundum framework. We describe its most prominent features, ague for its usefulness and briefly describe some of the software prototypes implemented using the technology....

  4. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  5. PDS Planetary Maps API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are developing a set of NASA Extensions to the Google Maps API—and soon to other frameworks such as OpenLayers as well—that will make these platforms more useful...

  6. Haz-Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Haz-Map is an occupational health database designed for health and safety professionals and for consumers seeking information about the adverse effects of workplace...

  7. MetaMap

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — MetaMap is a highly configurable application developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) to...

  8. Irreversible quantum baker map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łoziński, Artur; Pakoński, Prot; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2002-12-01

    We propose a generalization of the model of classical baker map on the torus, in which the images of two parts of the phase space do overlap. This transformation is irreversible and cannot be quantized by means of a unitary Floquet operator. A corresponding quantum system is constructed as a completely positive map acting in the space of density matrices. We investigate spectral properties of this superoperator and their link with the increase of the entropy of initially pure states.

  9. Maps and (no) Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Etienne

    As the title suggests, I examine the role of maps in accelerator theory, conveniently leaving simulation out of the picture for lack of time and space. This is really a primer on the map-based "Courant Snyder" theory as independently proposed by Dragt's group (author included) and Turchetti's group at Bologna. Quite obviously it is viewed here from the author's own perspective and prejudices.

  10. Olympic Maps Available

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Beijing is publishing a set of Olympic maps covering everything from the location of sporting venues to the city’s history As soon as Zhou Liyi hopped off the train from Shanghai to Beijing, he hurried to Wangfujing Xinhua Book Store,one of the largest of its kind in Beijing,to buy an Olympic map. Zhou is a Shanghai resident who came to Beijing on business and plans to return as a

  11. Wind Resource Maps (Postcard)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative provides high-resolution wind maps and estimates of the wind resource potential that would be possible from development of the available windy land areas after excluding areas unlikely to be developed. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to Wind Powering America's online wind energy resource maps.

  12. Irreversible Quantum Baker Map

    CERN Document Server

    Lozinski, A; Zyczkowski, K; Lozinski, Artur; Pakonski, Prot; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2002-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the model of classical baker map on the torus, in which the images of two parts of the phase space do overlap. This transformation is irreversible and cannot be quantized by means of a unitary Floquet operator. A corresponding quantum system is constructed as a completely positive map acting in the space of density matrices. We investigate spectral properties of this super-operator and their link with the increase of the entropy of initially pure states.

  13. Interactive Metro Map Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Shuen; Peng, Wan-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Manual editing of a metro map is essential because many aesthetic and readability demands in map generation cannot be achieved by using a fully automatic method. In addition, a metro map should be updated when new metro lines are developed in a city. Considering that manually designing a metro map is time-consuming and requires expert skills, we present an interactive editing system that considers human knowledge and adjusts the layout to make it consistent with user expectations. In other words, only a few stations are controlled and the remaining stations are relocated by our system. Our system supports both curvilinear and octilinear layouts when creating metro maps. It solves an optimization problem, in which even spaces, route straightness, and maximum included angles at junctions are considered to obtain a curvilinear result. The system then rotates each edge to extend either vertically, horizontally, or diagonally while approximating the station positions provided by users to generate an octilinear layout. Experimental results, quantitative and qualitative evaluations, and user studies show that our editing system is easy to use and allows even non-professionals to design a metro map.

  14. Mars synthetic topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S.S.C.

    1978-01-01

    Topographic contour maps of Mars are compiled by the synthesis of data acquired from various scientific experiments of the Mariner 9 mission, including S-band radio-occulation, the ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS), the infrared radiometer (IRR), the infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) and television imagery, as well as Earth-based radar information collected at Goldstone, Haystack, and Arecibo Observatories. The entire planet is mapped at scales of 1:25,000,000 and 1:25,000,000 using Mercator, Lambert, and polar stereographic map projections. For the computation of map projections, a biaxial spheroid figure is adopted. The semimajor and semiminor axes are 3393.4 and 3375.7 km, respectively, with a polar flattening of 0.0052. For the computation of elevations, a topographic datum is defined by a gravity field described in terms of spherical harmonics of fourth order and fourth degree combined with a 6.1-mbar occulation pressure surface. This areoid can be approximated by a triaxial ellipsoid with semimajor axes of A = 3394.6 km and B = 3393.3 km and a semiminor axis of C = 3376.3 km. The semimajor axis A intersects the Martian surface at longitude 105??W. The dynamic flattening of Mars is 0.00525. The contour intercal of the maps is 1 km. For some prominent features where overlapping pictures from Mariner 9 are available, local contour maps at relatively larger scales were also compiled by photogrammetric methods on stereo plotters. ?? 1978.

  15. Creating Heliophysics Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Paglierani, R.; Mendez, B. J.

    2011-12-01

    The Center for Science Education at University of California Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory is creating concept maps for Heliophysics and would like to get input from scientists. The purpose of this effort is to identify key concepts related to Heliophysics and map their progression to show how students' understanding of Heliophysics might develop from Kindergarten through higher education. These maps are meant to tie into the AAAS Project 2061 Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy and National Science Education Standards. It is hoped that the results of this effort will be useful for curriculum designers developing Heliophysics-related curriculum materials and classroom teachers using Heliophysics materials. The need for concept maps was identified as a result of product analysis undertaken by the NASA Heliophysics Forum Team. The NASA Science Education and Public Outreach Forums have as two of their goals to improve the characterization of the contents of the Science Mission Directorate and Public Outreach (SMD E/PO) portfolio (Objective 2.1) and assist SMD in addressing gaps in the portfolio of SMD E/PO products and project activities (Objective 2.2). An important part of this effort is receiving feedback from solar scientists regarding the inclusion of key concepts and their progression in the maps. This session will introduce the draft concept maps and elicit feedback from scientists.

  16. Development of base maps' role in soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brad; Brevik, Eric

    2014-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of soil science is the production of accurate soil maps, but historically these thematic maps have relied upon base maps for positional reference and later for parameters that help predict soil properties. This presentation reviews the history of base maps and the dependence of soil mapping on them. The availability of geographic technology for producing these base maps has constrained and directed the geographic study of soil. A lack of accurate methods for determining location limited early geographic description of soils to narratives. The availability of accurate topographic maps in the late 18th century, fueled by governments' interests in documenting national boundaries and popular interest in world atlases, provided the first base maps for soil geographers. These soil maps primarily used the topographic maps as a spatial reference onto which the thematic details were drawn. Due to the late start of a systematic topographic survey in the United States, early Soil Survey maps depended upon plat maps for spatial reference. The adoption of aerial photographs in the process of soil mapping increased the role of base maps as predictive parameters. In the current geospatial revolution, global positioning systems and geographic information systems have nearly replaced the need for base maps to provide spatial reference. Today, base maps are more likely to be used as parameters in landscape models for predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties and classes. As model parameters for digital soil maps, base maps constitute the library of predictive variables and constrain the supported resolution of the soil map. This change in the relationship between base maps and the soil map is a paradigm shift that affects fundamental definitions of geography, such as scale, resolution, and detectable features. These concepts are the essential tools used to study the spatial characteristics of Earth Systems.

  17. Conformal mappings and CR mappings on the Engel group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QingYan; WANG Wei

    2009-01-01

    We show that conformal mappings between the Engel groups are CR or anti-CR mappings.This reduces the determination of conformal mappings to a problem in the theory of several complex analysis. The result about the group of CR automorphisms is used to determine the identity component of the group of conformal mappings on the Engel group.

  18. Conformal mappings and CR mappings on the Engel group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    We show that conformal mappings between the Engel groups are CR or anti-CR mappings. This reduces the determination of conformal mappings to a problem in the theory of several complex analysis.The result about the group of CR automorphisms is used to determine the identity component of the group of conformal mappings on the Engel group.

  19. Geologic Mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High- Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  20. Geologic mapping of Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Mest, S. C.; Berman, D. C.; Garry, W. B.; Williams, D. A.; Buczkowski, D.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Frigeri, A.; Le Corre, L.; Preusker, F.; Raymond, C. A.; Reddy, V.; Russell, C. T.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P. M.

    2014-11-01

    We report on a preliminary global geologic map of Vesta, based on data from the Dawn spacecraft's High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and informed by Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) data. This map is part of an iterative mapping effort; the geologic map has been refined with each improvement in resolution. Vesta has a heavily-cratered surface, with large craters evident in numerous locations. The south pole is dominated by an impact structure identified before Dawn's arrival. Two large impact structures have been resolved: the younger, larger Rheasilvia structure, and the older, more degraded Veneneia structure. The surface is also characterized by a system of deep, globe-girdling equatorial troughs and ridges, as well as an older system of troughs and ridges to the north. Troughs and ridges are also evident cutting across, and spiraling arcuately from, the Rheasilvia central mound. However, no volcanic features have been unequivocally identified. Vesta can be divided very broadly into three terrains: heavily-cratered terrain; ridge-and-trough terrain (equatorial and northern); and terrain associated with the Rheasilvia crater. Localized features include bright and dark material and ejecta (some defined specifically by color); lobate deposits; and mass-wasting materials. No obvious volcanic features are evident. Stratigraphy of Vesta's geologic units suggests a history in which formation of a primary crust was followed by the formation of impact craters, including Veneneia and the associated Saturnalia Fossae unit. Formation of Rheasilvia followed, along with associated structural deformation that shaped the Divalia Fossae ridge-and-trough unit at the equator. Subsequent impacts and mass wasting events subdued impact craters, rims and portions of ridge-and-trough sets, and formed slumps and landslides, especially within crater floors and along crater rims and scarps. Subsequent to the formation of Rheasilvia, discontinuous low-albedo deposits formed or were

  1. Bap: A New Type of Functional Amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria can build a biofilm matrix scaffold from exopolysaccharides or proteins, and DNA. In a recent report, Taglialegna and colleagues show that pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus produces a protein scaffold based on amyloid assembly of fragments from the biofilm-associated protein. Amyloidogenesis occurs in response to environmental signals.

  2. Maps, immersions and permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of counting and of listing topologically inequivalent "planar" {4-valent} maps with a single component and a given number n of vertices. This enables us to count and to tabulate immersions of a circle in a sphere (spherical curves), extending results by Arnold and followers. Different options where the circle and/or the sphere are/is oriented are considered in turn, following Arnold's classification of the different types of symmetries. We also consider the case of bicolourable and bicoloured maps or immersions, where faces are bicoloured. Our method extends to immersions of a circle in a higher genus Riemann surface. There the bicolourability is no longer automatic and has to be assumed. We thus have two separate countings in non zero genus, that of bicolourable maps and that of general maps. We use a classical method of encoding maps in terms of permutations, on which the constraints of "one-componentness" and of a given genus may be applied. Depending on the orientation issue and on...

  3. Web Interactive Campus Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marylene S. Eder

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interactive campus map is a web based application that can be accessed through a web browser. With the Google Map Application Programming Interface availability of the overlay function has been taken advantage to create custom map functionalities. Collection of building points were gathered for routing and to create polygons which serves as a representation of each building. The previous campus map provides a static visual representation of the campus. It uses legends building name and its corresponding building number in providing information. Due to its limited capabilities it became a realization to the researchers to create an interactive campus map.Storing data about the building room and staff information and university events and campus guide are among the primary features that this study has to offer. Interactive Web-based Campus Information System is intended in providing a Campus Information System.It is open to constant updates user-friendly for both trained and untrained users and capable of responding to all needs of users and carrying out analyses. Based on the data gathered through questionnaires researchers analyzed the results of the test survey and proved that the system is user friendly deliver information to users and the important features that the students expect.

  4. Introduction to "Mapping Vietnameseness"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam and China are currently engaged in a map war, with each country using ancient maps to buttress its claims to territorial sovereignty over some uninhabited islands in the South China Sea (in Chinese terminology, also known as the Eastern Sea (in Vietnamese. But what do maps in fact represent? What is meant by “territory”? How are territorial limits conceived? These questions were raised in a May 2015 workshop inspired by Thongchai Winichakul’s Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation (1994, a groundbreaking book that traces the transformation of Thai geographical consciousness as a result of Siam’s encounter with Western powers in the nineteenth century. While many of Thongchai’s insights apply to the Vietnamese case, as the first of the three articles included in this special issue of Cross-Currents shows, some of the 2015 workshop participants’ conclusions departed from his, especially regarding the formation of a Vietnamese geographical consciousness before the colonial period.[i] This is true of the other two papers, which focus specifically on the construction of borders and the associated production of maps in the nineteenth century before French colonial conquest... Notes 1 Thanks are due to the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Religious and Ethnic Change in Gottingen, Germany, for its gracious hosting and generous funding of the conference, together with the Asia Center of Harvard University.

  5. Study on serum BAP and OC of tibetan adolescents%藏族青少年骨碱性磷酸酶与骨钙素水平分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 王红梅; 温友峰; 许德顺; 席焕久

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨西藏拉萨与那曲地区藏族青少年血清骨碱性磷酸酶(BAP)和骨钙素(OC)的特点及其差异.方法 选取拉萨和那曲地区12~18岁健康藏族青少年共1 458人,测定身高及血清BAP的活性及OC的含量.结果 拉萨男性血清BAP、OC在13~14岁均出现高峰;女性12岁时值最高.而那曲地区男女性血清BAP、OC水平在大部分年龄组明显低于拉萨男女性(P<0.05).男性BAP、OC出现高峰的年龄提前1年.2组随年龄增大,血清BAP、OC值均明显下降(P<0.05).但拉萨女性在16岁以后,那曲男性16岁以后、女性15岁以后,各年龄组血清BAP、OC水平差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).血清BAP、OC水平均与身高密切相关(r=0.42,0.41,P<0.01).结论 拉萨与那曲藏族青少年男女血清BAP和OC水平均与年龄、性别呈显著相关,但那曲地区青少年BAP和OC水平均低于拉萨地区青少年,且高峰期提前,高水平持续时间短,可能是该地区身高较矮的原因之一.

  6. Significance of BAP and PSA in diagnosis of prostate cancer bone metastases%血清BAP和PSA测定在前列腺癌骨转移诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季鸿; 于建芳; 袁志斌; 朱瑞森

    2005-01-01

    我们分析、比较了骨源性碱性磷酸酶(BAP)和前列腺特异抗原(PSA)对前列腺癌骨转移的诊断意义,并探讨了二者在前列腺癌骨转移分级中的应用价值.对68例前列腺癌病人进行骨显像,根据骨显像结果及临床表现分为骨转移组与非骨转移组.骨显像依Soloway分级标准分为五级(M0-M4).对所有病人进行血清BAP与PSA检测,各组之间BAP值及PSA值比较采用t检验.对转移级别的升高与BAP值之间进行相关分析.结果显示骨转移的级别升高与BAP呈正相关.(r=1.1083,P<0.01). PSA仅在M0与M1-M3之间有显著差异.BAP对前列腺癌骨转移最佳检测范围为25-35 u/L,阳性预测率为96.6%,阴性预测率为75%.BAP与PSA值分别为35 u/L和20ng/mL时,骨转移阳性预测率为97.5%.BAP与PSA值分别为25 u/L和20ng/mL时,阴性预测率达73.9%.由此我们得出:1.BAP预测前列腺癌骨转移比PSA有效,并且BAP对前列腺癌骨转移的分级有诊断价值;2.BAP与PSA联合应用可提高前列腺癌病人骨转移的阳性预测率.

  7. Ergodicity of polygonal slap maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Magno, Gianluigi; Lopes Dias, João; Duarte, Pedro; Gaivão, José Pedro

    2014-08-01

    Polygonal slap maps are piecewise affine expanding maps of the interval obtained by projecting the sides of a polygon along their normals onto the perimeter of the polygon. These maps arise in the study of polygonal billiards with non-specular reflection laws. We study the absolutely continuous invariant probabilities (acips) of the slap maps for several polygons, including regular polygons and triangles. We also present a general method for constructing polygons with slap maps with more than one ergodic acip.

  8. The World Stress Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Knowledge of the stress field in the Earth's crust is a key issue for the understanding of geodynamic processes,seismic hazard assessment, and stability of underground openings such as waste disposals, tunnels, mines or wells, and reservoir management. The World Stress Map project is a collaborative project of academia,industry and governmental organizations that aims to understand the states and sources of tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust. We present the Worm Stress Map at 1:46,000,000 scale as a result of more than two decades of international collaboration. The map reveals that the first-order pattern of stress is of plate-wide scale, indicating that plate boundary forces are the major control of the stress orientations and the tectonic regime.

  9. Mapping your competitive position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  10. Learning Bing maps API

    CERN Document Server

    Sinani, Artan

    2013-01-01

    This is a practical, hands-on guide with illustrative examples, which will help you explore the vast universe of Bing maps.If you are a developer who wants to learn how to exploit the numerous features of Bing Maps then this book is ideal for you. It can also be useful for more experienced developers who wish to explore other areas of the APIs. It is assumed that you have some knowledge of JavaScript, HTML, and CSS. For some chapters a working knowledge of .Net and Visual Studio is also needed.

  11. Mapping the Frozen Void

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suutarinen, Aleksi; Fraser, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Reactions on the surfaces of dust grains play a vital role in the overall chemistry of interstellar matter. These grains become covered by icy layers, which are the largest molecular reservoir in the interstellar medium. Given this, it is surprising that the effect ice has on the overall chain of reactions is poorly characterized. One step on the path of gaining better understanding here is to develop methods of figuring out how much ice is present in these clouds, the links between ice components, and synergy between the ices and gas phase molecules. We do this by examining the absorption spectra of ices on lines of sight towards several stars behind clouds of interstellar matter. From these we can reconstruct spatial maps of the ice distribution on scales of as little as 1000 AU, as a test of the chemical variation within a cloud. By overlapping the ice data with other maps of the same region (gas emission, temperature, density etc) we create combined maps to reveal the astrochemistry of star-forming regions and pre-stellar cores. In this poster we present the continuing results of our ice mapping programme, using data from the AKARI satellite, specifically in slitless spectroscopy observations in the NIR. In this region the key ice features encompass H2O, CO and CO2. The maps illustrate the power of our dedicated AKARI data reduction pipeline, and the novelty of our observing programme. We also detail the next steps' in our ice mapping research. The method is being expanded to include the full 10'x10' AKARI field of view, taking account of image distortion induced by the dispersing optics. These maps are then combined with exiting gas-phase observations and SCUBA maps. The latest attempts at this are shown here. What is clear already is that it is difficult to predict ice abundances from factors such as extinction or gas density alone, and that ice formation and evolution can vary hugely over even very small astronomical scales.

  12. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  13. Mapping Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    The demand to cultivate global citizenship is frequently invoked as central to colleges' and universities' internationalization efforts. However, the term "global citizenship" remains undertheorized in the context of U.S. higher education. This article maps and engages three common global citizenship positions--entrepreneurial, liberal…

  14. STOCHASTIC FLOWS OF MAPPINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic flow of mappings generated by a Feller convolution semigroup on a compact metric space is studied. This kind of flow is the generalization of superprocesses of stochastic flows and stochastic diffeomorphism induced by the strong solutions of stochastic differential equations.

  15. eMAPS

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Starting with the 2005 performance appraisal and advancement exercise (MAPS), the paper version of the annual appraisal report has been replaced by an electronic EDH version - eMAPS (see Weekly Bulletin 48/2004). As announced in Weekly Bulletin 2/2005, information sessions to explain the features of eMAPS using EDH have been arranged as follows: 18 January 2005: Main Auditorium (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB Auditorium II (864-1-D02) from 14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT Auditorium (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. The changeover to an electronic appraisal report is designed to reduce the administrative workload involving, e.g. photocopying, tracing and filing paper copies, while allowing staff members and their hierarchy access to the report form at the appropriate times. There is no change in the procedure for the annual interview and the advancement exercise, though Administrative Circular No 26 (Rev. 5) has been updated to take account of the introduction of eMAPS. The content...

  16. Photogrammetry and Digital Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Technical tour to Lithuania, Poland and Estonia for 13 technical staff and managers of State Land Service, HQ, Latvia. Focus on technical aspects and management of geographical data for map production and administration. Visits to state and local government organisations and newly established pri...

  17. Bipartite depolarizing maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, Ludovico; Huber, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    We introduce a 3-parameter class of maps (1) acting on a bipartite system which are a natural generalisation of the depolarizing channel (and include it as a special case). Then, we find the exact regions of the parameter space that alternatively determine a positive, completely positive, entanglement-breaking, or entanglement-annihilating map. This model displays a much richer behaviour than the one shown by a simple depolarizing channel, yet it stays exactly solvable. As an example of this richness, positive partial transposition but not entanglement-breaking maps is found in Theorem 2. A simple example of a positive yet indecomposable map is provided (see the Remark at the end of Section IV). The study of the entanglement-annihilating property is fully addressed by Theorem 7. Finally, we apply our results to solve the problem of the entanglement annihilation caused in a bipartite system by a tensor product of local depolarizing channels. In this context, a conjecture posed in the work of Filippov [J. Russ. Laser Res. 35, 484 (2014)] is affirmatively answered, and the gaps that the imperfect bounds of Filippov and Ziman [Phys. Rev. A 88, 032316 (2013)] left open are closed. To arrive at this result, we furthermore show how the Hadamard product between quantum states can be implemented via local operations.

  18. 2004 Alaska Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data sets are generated using the OPTECH ALTM 70 kHz LIDAR system mounted onboard AeroMap's twin-engine Cessna 320 aircraft. Classified data sets such as this...

  19. Map of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China has finished the full map of the Moon based on data obtained by its lunar probe Chang'e l,said Ouyang Ziyuan,chief scientist of China's lunar exploration program and an academician at the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS),at a press conference about the scientific achievements made by Chang'e1 on July 16,2010.

  20. Bisimulation from Open Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyal, André; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1996-01-01

    and van Glabeek and Goltz. A tie-up with open maps in a (pre)topos, as they appear in the work of Joyal and Moerdijk, brings to light a new model, presheaves on categories of pomsets, into which the usual category of labelled event structures embeds fully and faithfully. As an indication of its promise...

  1. Bisimulation and open maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyal, André; Nielsen, Mogens; Winskel, Glynn

    1993-01-01

    ), and Goltz and van Glabeek (1989). A tie-up with open maps in a (pre)topos brings to light a promising new model, presheaves on categories of pomsets, into which the usual category of labeled event structures embeds fully and faithfully. As an indication of its promise, this new presheaf model has refinement...

  2. Personal Food System Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, David; Dover, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Personal food system mapping is a practical means to engage community participants and educators in individualized and shared learning about food systems, decisions, and behaviors. Moreover, it is a useful approach for introducing the food system concept, which is somewhat abstract. We developed the approach to capture diversity of personal food…

  3. Covariance mapping techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, Leszek J.

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances in the generation of intense femtosecond pulses have made covariance mapping an attractive analytical technique. The laser pulses available are so intense that often thousands of ionisation and Coulomb explosion events will occur within each pulse. To understand the physics of these processes the photoelectrons and photoions need to be correlated, and covariance mapping is well suited for operating at the high counting rates of these laser sources. Partial covariance is particularly useful in experiments with x-ray free electron lasers, because it is capable of suppressing pulse fluctuation effects. A variety of covariance mapping methods is described: simple, partial (single- and multi-parameter), sliced, contingent and multi-dimensional. The relationship to coincidence techniques is discussed. Covariance mapping has been used in many areas of science and technology: inner-shell excitation and Auger decay, multiphoton and multielectron ionisation, time-of-flight and angle-resolved spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, stimulated Raman scattering, directional gamma ray sensing, welding diagnostics and brain connectivity studies (connectomics). This review gives practical advice for implementing the technique and interpreting the results, including its limitations and instrumental constraints. It also summarises recent theoretical studies, highlights unsolved problems and outlines a personal view on the most promising research directions.

  4. Mapping the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2012-01-01

    As the utilization of various e-voting technologies has notably increased in the past few years, so has the amount of publications on experiences with these technologies. This article, will, therefore map the literature while highlighting some of the important topics discussed within the field of e...

  5. Enridged Contour Maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Jarke J. van; Telea, Alexandru

    2001-01-01

    The visualization of scalar functions of two variables is a classic and ubiquitous application. We present a new method to visualize such data. The method is based on a non-linear mapping of the function to a height field, followed by visualization as a shaded mountain landscape. The method is easy

  6. Genetic Algoritm Eclipse Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevin, A. V.

    In this paper we analyse capabilities of eclipse mapping technique, based on genetic algorithm optimization. To model of accretion disk we used the "fire-flies" conception. This model allows us to reconstruct the distribution of radiating medium in the disk using less number of free parameters than in other methods. Test models show that we can achieve good approximation without optimizing techniques.

  7. The Power of Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    American Indians and other Native peoples are using maps to chart their resources, fight for their land, and remember their history. Describes the efforts of the Zuni Pueblo in the Southwest; the Gitxsan Nation (Canada); the Kuna, Embera, and Wounaan tribes (Panama); and the Mayas (Belize). A sidebar lists Geographic Information Systems (GIS)…

  8. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pin surfaces were analysed by laser profilometry. Two roughness parameters, R(a) and the fractal dimension, were investigated as a first step towards methods of quantitative wear mechanism mapping. Both parameters were analysed for their relationship to the severity and prevalence of a mechanism....

  9. Comparative wear mapping techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, J.; Sørensen, Ole Toft; Jensen, S.

    1996-01-01

    Pin-on-disc tests of tungsten carbide pins against silicon carbide discs were performed and wear rate, mechanism and friction maps constructed. Correlations were observed between the wear mode and the friction of the pin-disc interface, and between the qualitative incidence of disruptive wear...

  10. Mapping digital media: Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, M.; Leurdijk, A.; Nordeman, L.; Poell, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Mapping Digital Media project examines the global opportunities and risks created by the transition from traditional to digital media. Covering 60 countries, the project examines how these changes affect the core democratic service that any media system should provide: news about political, econ

  11. Generalized Smooth Transition Map Between Tent and Logistic Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Wafaa S.; Fahmy, Hossam A. H.; Rezk, Ahmed A.; Radwan, Ahmed G.

    There is a continuous demand on novel chaotic generators to be employed in various modeling and pseudo-random number generation applications. This paper proposes a new chaotic map which is a general form for one-dimensional discrete-time maps employing the power function with the tent and logistic maps as special cases. The proposed map uses extra parameters to provide responses that fit multiple applications for which conventional maps were not enough. The proposed generalization covers also maps whose iterative relations are not based on polynomials, i.e. with fractional powers. We introduce a framework for analyzing the proposed map mathematically and predicting its behavior for various combinations of its parameters. In addition, we present and explain the transition map which results in intermediate responses as the parameters vary from their values corresponding to tent map to those corresponding to logistic map case. We study the properties of the proposed map including graph of the map equation, general bifurcation diagram and its key-points, output sequences, and maximum Lyapunov exponent. We present further explorations such as effects of scaling, system response with respect to the new parameters, and operating ranges other than transition region. Finally, a stream cipher system based on the generalized transition map validates its utility for image encryption applications. The system allows the construction of more efficient encryption keys which enhances its sensitivity and other cryptographic properties.

  12. Cosmic Microwave Background Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.

    2012-03-01

    The last decade of research in cosmology was connected with the ambitious experiments including space and ground base observations. Among the most impressive results of these investigations are the measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation like WMAP* and Planck. Exactly from the CMB studies, we have started the epoch of the precision cosmology when generally the values of cosmological parameters have been known and present research is devoted to improvement of the precision. These achievements are connected with both the creation of the new facilities in millimeter and submillimeter astronomy (e.g., satellites, receivers, antennas, computers) and development of the methods for the CMB data analysis. Actually, the process of data analysis contains several technical stages including 1. Registration of time-ordered data (TOD) 2. Pixelization of the CMB data - map preparation 3. Component separation 4. Map statistics analysis 5. Map - spherical harmonics transformation 6. C(l)-spectrum calculation and spectrum statistics analysis 7. Cosmological parameters estimation Starting from the cosmic background explorer (COBE) experiment using the so-called Quadrilateralized Sky Cube Projection (see [1-3]), the problem of the whole sky CMB pixelization has attracted great interest and many such schemes were developed. Let us note however that accurate pixelization of the CMB data on the sphere is very important but not the final step of analysis. Usually, the next step implies the determination of the coefficients of the spherical harmonic decomposition of the CMB signal for both anisotropy and polarization. This means that some of the pixelization schemes provide a very accurate map but are inconvenient for further decomposition. This also means that the choice of suitable pixelization schemes depends upon the general goals of the investigation. In this review, we consider several of the most popular sky map pixelization schemes and link them with the

  13. Developments of VLBI synthesis mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dongrong; Wan, Tongshan

    1992-12-01

    The authors review the developments of VLBI synthesis mapping. First they give a brief history of VLBI techniques and a summary of some technical parameters frequently used in VLBI synthesis mapping. They then mention problems, namely, (u,v) coverage, correction of errors in visibility data, image quality, GFF (Global Fringe Fitting), field of view, etc. The new developments which are presented include the improvements of (u,v) coverage and angular resolution, Mk III GFF, phase reference mapping, wide field mapping, difference mapping, the potential of space VLBI mapping, mosaicing and non-linear deconvolution.

  14. USGS Imagery Only Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Imagery Only is a tile cache base map of orthoimagery in The National Map visible to the 1:18,000 scale. Orthoimagery data are typically high resolution images...

  15. Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Hoogveld, Bert; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Stoyanov, S., Hoogveld, A. W. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Mapping Future Education and Training: Group Concept Mapping Study. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands; EU Forlic project.

  16. Habitat--Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  17. Contours Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. The vector data file is...

  18. Bathymetry Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  19. Bathymetry Hillshade Offshore of Point Reyes Map Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Point Reyes map area, California. Raster data file is included in...

  20. Bedrock geologic map of Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, Nicholas M.; Stanley, Rolfe S.; Gale, Marjorie H.; Thompson, Peter J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; With contributions by Hatch, Norman L.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Doolan, Barry L.; Kim, Jonathan; Mehrtens, Charlotte J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McHone, J. Gregory; Cartography by Masonic, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Vermont is the result of a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State of Vermont. The State's complex geology spans 1.4 billion years of Earth's history. The new map comes 50 years after the most recent map of the State by Charles G. Doll and others in 1961 and a full 150 years since the publication of the first geologic map of Vermont by Edward Hitchcock and others in 1861. At a scale of 1:100,000, the map shows an uncommon level of detail for State geologic maps. Mapped rock units are primarily based on lithology, or rock type, to facilitate derivative studies in multiple disciplines. The 1961 map was compiled from 1:62,500-scale or smaller maps. The current map was created to integrate more detailed (1:12,000- to 1:24,000-scale) modern and older (1:62,500-scale) mapping with the theory of plate tectonics to provide a framework for geologic, tectonic, economic, hydrogeologic, and environmental characterization of the bedrock of Vermont. The printed map consists of three oversize sheets (52 x 76 inches). Sheets 1 and 2 show the southern and northern halves of Vermont, respectively, and can be trimmed and joined so that the entire State can be displayed as a single entity. These sheets also include 10 cross sections and a geologic structure map. Sheet 3 on the front consists of descriptions of 486 map units, a correlation of map units, and references cited. Sheet 3 on the back features a list of the 195 sources of geologic map data keyed to an index map of 7.5-minute quadrangles in Vermont, as well as a table identifying ages of rocks dated by uranium-lead zircon geochronology.

  1. Mapping or Tracing? Rethinking Curriculum Mapping in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum mapping has been emphasized in recent curriculum innovations in higher education in the drive for global competitiveness. This paper begins by providing an outline of current discourses of curriculum mapping in higher education. Curriculum mapping is frequently associated with outcome-based learning and work readiness, and guiding the…

  2. 唑来膦酸、降钙素对骨生化标志物BAP、N-MID、β-CTX的影响%Effect of zoledronic acid and calcitonin on bone metabolic biochemical markers, BAP, N-MID, and β-CTX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔西建; 吴丹; 叶进; 廉杰

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过监测绝经后骨质疏松症患者使用唑来膦酸、降钙素治疗前后骨代谢生化标志物的变化来分析二者对骨代谢的影响.方法 回顾性分析绝经后骨质疏松症病例115例,55例使用唑来膦酸(5mg静滴一次),60例使用鲑鱼降钙素(50IU隔日一次肌注,治疗90日),检测每个病例治疗前和开始治疗后4周、8周、12周的BAP、N-MID、β-CTX,并进行统计学分析.结果 降钙素组治疗4周后BAP、β-CTX与治疗前相比降低(P<0.05),骨转换率降低;治疗8周、12周后β-CTX仍明显降低(P<0.05),但BAP与治疗前相比变化无统计学意义;唑来膦酸组治疗4周、8周后BAP、N-MID、β-CTX与治疗前相比均明显降低(P<0.05),骨转换率明显降低;治疗后12周后BAP、β-CTX仍明显降低(P<0.05);与降钙素组相比,唑来膦酸组治疗后4周、8周BAP、N-MID、β-CTX降低更明显(P<0.05),骨转换率降低更明显;治疗后12周BAP、β-CTX仍明显降低(P<0.05).两种药物均具有较好的安全性.结论 降钙素组、唑来膦酸组均可有效抑制骨吸收,降低骨转换率;与降钙素相比,唑来膦酸抑制骨吸收的作用更迅速、更稳定,病人低骨转换持续时间更久.%Objective To analyze the effect of zoledronic acid or calcitonin on bone metabolism by monitoring the changes of bone metabolic markers before and after the treatment of zoledronic acid or calcitonin in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods The data of 115 patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis was analyzed retrospectively. Fifty-five patients were treated with zoledronic acid ( 5mg intravenous drip once ). Sixty patients were treated with salmon calcitonin ( 50U intramuscular injection every other day, lasting for 90 days ). BAP, N-MID , and β-CTX was tested before and 4-, 8-, and 12-week after the treatment. All the results were analyzed statistically. Result BAP and β-CTX in patients in calcitonin treatment group after 4-week treatment were

  3. The mappings of degree 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The maps of the form f( x = ∑ i=1 n a i ⋅x⋅ b i , called 1-degree maps, are introduced and investigated. For noncommutative algebras and modules over them 1-degree maps give an analogy of linear maps and differentials. Under some conditions on the algebra 𝒜 , contractibility of the group of 1-degree isomorphisms is proved for the module l 2 ( 𝒜 . It is shown that these conditions are fulfilled for the algebra of linear maps of a finite-dimensional linear space. The notion of 1-degree map gives a possibility to define a nonlinear Fredholm map of l 2 ( 𝒜 and a Fredholm manifold modelled by l 2 ( 𝒜 . 1-degree maps are also applied to some problems of Markov chains.

  4. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  5. NEPR Benthic Habitat Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This benthic habitat map was created from a semi-automated habitat mapping process, using a combination of bathymetry, satellite imagery, aerial imagery and...

  6. NEPR Geographic Zone Map 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This geographic zone map was created by interpreting satellite and aerial imagery, seafloor topography (bathymetry model), and the new NEPR Benthic Habitat Map...

  7. Knowledge Map of Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nenonen, Suvi; Jensen, Per Anker; Lindahl, Göran

    2014-01-01

    in creating an inventory of knowledge (i.e. the knowledge base) and developing/improving the processes of knowledge sharing in research, education and practice. Theory Knowledge mapping is discussed in terms of knowledge management. The research is connected to knowledge mapping in the facilities management......Purpose This paper aims to draft a knowledge map of the fragmented and multidisciplinary research of and relevant to FM. Facilities management knowledge map is a tool for presenting what relevant data and knowledge, a.k.a. knowledge, resides in different disciplines. Knowledge mapping is a step...... profession, research and education. The knowledge map aims to contrast perspectives on how to map interdisciplinary research. Design/methodology/approach The Knowledge map is based on classification of 83 articles, including volume 2013 of Facilities (40 articles) and of Journal of Facilities Management (21...

  8. Mapping Deviant Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A number of countries have emerged as stable (though minimalist) democracies despite low levels of modernization, lack of democratic neighbouring countries and other factors consistently related to democratic stability in the literature. The study of these deviant democracies is a promising new...... research field but it is afflicted by a notable problem, viz. the lack of a consensus as to which countries are actually instances of deviant democracy. The present article attempts to solve this problem by carrying out a comprehensive mapping of deviant democracies. First, I review the existing literature...... to provide an overview of the cases most often identified as deviant democracies. Second, I use a large-N analysis to systematically map deviant democracies. The analysis includes 159 countries covering the time period 1993–2008. The analysis points to 12 cases that merits further attention, viz...

  9. Mapping the Gendered City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Scharnhorst, Eric; Carstensen, Trine Agervig;

    2017-01-01

    Walking is a mode of perceiving the city which also contributes to health and social benefits. This paper studies the influence of the socio-cultural aspects on the practice of walking and the meaning of walkscapes in Riyadh, one of the most auto-dependent and gender-segregated cities on the Arab...... Peninsula, where socio-cultural values and restrictions regulate men and women’s use and access to public spaces. The methodology used is a combination of movement tracking data using GPS technology and map-based workshops where participants can reflect on their walking behaviour and spatial preferences....... The results of mapping where the respondents walk show a city consisting of gender-specific walkscapes. Indoor environments, such as shopping malls, function as ‘urban shelters’ for women, so they use such spaces for walking. On the other hand, young men mainly walk in urban streets, which provide greater...

  10. Conformal Complementarity Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Barbón, José L F

    2013-01-01

    We study quantum cosmological models for certain classes of bang/crunch singularities, using the duality between expanding bubbles in AdS with a FRW interior cosmology and perturbed CFTs on de Sitter space-time. It is pointed out that horizon complementarity in the AdS bulk geometries is realized as a conformal transformation in the dual deformed CFT. The quantum version of this map is described in full detail in a toy model involving conformal quantum mechanics. In this system the complementarity map acts as an exact duality between eternal and apocalyptic Hamiltonian evolutions. We calculate the commutation relation between the Hamiltonians corresponding to the different frames. It vanishes only on scale invariant states.

  11. Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Vrielmann, S

    2000-01-01

    The tomographic method "Physical Parameter Eclipse Mapping" is a tool to reconstruct spatial distributions of physical parameters (like temperatures and surface densities) in accretion discs of cataclysmic variables. After summarizing the method, we apply it to multi-colour eclipse light curves of various dwarf novae and nova-likes like VZ Scl, IP Peg in outburst, UU Aqr, V2051 Oph and HT Cas in order to derive the temperatures (and surface densities) in the disc, the white dwarf temperature, the disc size, the effective temperatures and the viscosities. The results allows us to establish or refine a physical model for the accretion disc. Our maps of HT Cas and V2051 Oph, for example, indicate that the (quiescent) disc must be structured into a cool, optically thick inner disc sandwiched by hot, optically thin chromospheres. In addition, the disc of HT Cas must be patchy with a covering factor of about 40% caused by magnetic activity in the disc.

  12. MAPS Appraisal Report Form

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2005-01-01

    As announced in Weekly Bulletin 48/2004, from now onwards, the paper MAPS appraisal report form has been replaced by an electronic form, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. Practical information will be available on the web page http://cern.ch/ais/projs/forms/maps/info.htm, and information meetings will be held on the following dates: 18 January 2005: MAIN AUDITORIUM (500-1-001) from 14:00 to 15:30. 20 January 2005: AB AUDITORIUM II (864-1-D02) from14:00 to 15:30. 24 January 2005: AT AUDITORIUM (30-7-018) from 10:00 to 11:30. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  13. Graphene mobility mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2015-01-01

    Carrier mobility and chemical doping level are essential figures of merit for graphene, and large-scale characterization of these properties and their uniformity is a prerequisite for commercialization of graphene for electronics and electrodes. However, existing mapping techniques cannot directly...... assess these vital parameters in a non-destructive way. By deconvoluting carrier mobility and density from non-contact terahertz spectroscopic measurements of conductance in graphene samples with terahertz-transparent backgates, we are able to present maps of the spatial variation of both quantities over...... graphene indicates dominance by charged scatterers. Unexpectedly, significant variations in mobility rather than doping are the cause of large conductance inhomogeneities, highlighting the importance of statistical approaches when assessing large-area graphene transport properties....

  14. Spectral Conditions for Positive Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2009-09-01

    We provide partial classification of positive linear maps in matrix algebras which is based on a family of spectral conditions. This construction generalizes the celebrated Choi example of a map which is positive but not completely positive. It is shown how the spectral conditions enable one to construct linear maps on tensor products of matrix algebras which are positive but only on a convex subset of separable elements. Such maps provide basic tools to study quantum entanglement in multipartite systems.

  15. Map of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China releases data about the Moon collected its first lunar probe China has finished the full map of the Moon based on data obtained by its lunar probe Chang ’e 1,said Ouyang Ziyuan,chief scientist of China’s lunar exploration program and an academician at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS),at a press conference about the scientific achievements made by Chang’e 1 on July 16,2010.

  16. Mapping the Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2012-01-01

    As the utilization of various e-voting technologies has notably increased in the past few years, so has the amount of publications on experiences with these technologies. This article, will, therefore map the literature while highlighting some of the important topics discussed within the field of......-voting. Particular attention will be paid to non-technical dimensions, including socio-cultural, organizational and political dimensions of these implementations....

  17. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  18. Beyond Fast Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Since the seminal 1957 studies of word learning by Roger Brown, most experimental studies of lexical acquisition have concerned fast mapping: the process through which a new lexical entry is established, and through which representations of the linguistic context of a newly heard word interact with representations of its nonlinguistic context to fix an initial partial meaning. Here I focus on the subsequent extended process through which the adult meaning is approximated. Two factors lead to ...

  19. Mapping Yeast Transcriptional Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Timothy R; de Boer, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    The term “transcriptional network” refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face....

  20. Mapping the EEZ

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De, S.; Shashikumar, K.

    on the processes leading to the formation of the continental margins of India. The ongoing EEZ project is a small initiative not only for ocean development but also for the economic and social benefit of the country. Shri Sutirtha De and Shri K. Shashikumar... The National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa is trying to map the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of the country, which will be a boon for defense, communication, navigation, and oceanographic research OCEANOGRAPHY - the scientific study...

  1. The grief map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, L. H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Grieving is a natural human reaction to a significant loss. According to a psychiatric model, this process is characterized by a typical sequence of psychological changes. Here, I propose a discrete-time dynamical system, called the grief map, in order to represent the grieving process. The corresponding bifurcation diagram, which exhibits stationary, periodic, and chaotic behavior, is related to the stages of this sorrowful journey occurring during about 12 months post-loss.

  2. Effect of Kaempferol on the BaP Induced Apoptosis in Human Chorionic Trophoblast Cells HTR8/SV neo%山奈酚对BaP引起的人绒毛膜外滋养层细胞HTR8/SV neo凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连立芬; 陈亚琼; 侯海燕; 曹波; 吴念

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究山奈酚对苯并芘(BaP)引起的人绒毛膜外滋养层细胞HTR8/SV neo凋亡的影响。方法:通过四甲基偶氮唑盐(MTT)法观察及测定,最终选取10μmol/L BaP和0.01,0.1,1μmol/L山奈酚共同处理人HTR8/SV neo细胞48 h,光镜下观察不同浓度BaP作用下细胞生长情况,吉姆萨(Gimesa)染色及Hochest33342荧光染色观察细胞凋亡情况,利用流式细胞术测定细胞凋亡率变化。结果:①流式细胞术测定结果表明BaP单独作用细胞存活率为(72.58±0.29)%,与0.01,0.1,1μmol/L山奈酚同时作用时细胞存活率分别为(84.96±1.34)%、(89.54±1.64)%和(91.01±1.26)%,两者同时作用组细胞存活率均高于BaP单独作用组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01)。②单独BaP作用可引起细胞染色质浓缩,出现凋亡小体等典型凋亡形态、细胞核致密浓染、碎裂状。结论:山奈酚对BaP引起的HTR8/SV neo细胞凋亡有明显的抑制作用。%Objective:To study the effect of kaempferol on the BaP induced apoptosis in human chorionic trophoblast cells HTR8/SV neo. Methods:10μmol/L BaP were added 0.01,0.1,1μmol/L kaempferol jointly deal with human HTR8/SV neo cells 48 h,observed cells growth under the inverted microscope,Gimesa staining and Hochest33342 fluorescent staining observed morphologic changes,determination of apoptosis rate changes by flow cytometry. Results: ①Flow cytometry results showed that BaP alone cell viability was (72.58 ±0.29)%, with 0.01,0.1,1 μmol/L kaempferol the role of cell viability was (84.96 ±1.34)%, (89.54 ±1.64)% and (91.01 ±1.26)%, respectively, compared with BaP alone group, the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). ②BaP alone can cause cell chromatin condensation,apoptotic bodies and other typical apoptotic morphology,dense hyperchromatic nuclei,fragmentation shape. Conclusions:Kaempferol showed a protective effect on BaP induced apoptosis in

  3. The value analysis of bone metabolic markers CTx, OST, BAP and PINP for bone metastases in breast cancer patients%骨代谢标志物CTx、OST、BAP和PINP在乳腺癌骨转移患者血清中的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晖; 王智煜; 杨玉妹; 郑研; 宁琳琳; 李洪涛; 姚阳

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: The tumor cell of bone metastascs in cancer produces cell factors in The roie of The osteoblast and osteociasT, destroying The normal bone metabolism mechanism, cause bone metabolism index changes. To investigate the value of quantitative measurement of bone metabolism relevant markers in bone metastases of breast cancer .which is collagen type 1 C-telopeptide (CTx), procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP). bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and osteocalcin (OST). Methods; Collect serums of 51 cases breast cancer with bone metastases, 47 cases breast cancer without bone metastases and '14 normal controls. The blood concentrations of CTx, PINP, BAP and OST in patients with bone metastases and in control subjects were measured using radiolmmunoassay and immimochemiluminescent assay. Remits: The levels of CTx, PINP, BAP and OST increased significantly in The bone metastasis group. Results showed that there were no significant correlations between factors such as the number and nature of the bone metastases cancer and bone metabolic markers. The median survival Time was 42.90 months (95%C7: 38.02-47.78 months) for 5] patients until The end of follow-up. Time of onset of bone metastasis (since the diagnosis of breast cancer) was 63.65 month (95%C7: 37.26-90.43 months)after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Conclusion: The value of bone metabolic markers CTx, PiNP, BAP and OST were significantly higher in breast cancer patients with bone metastases, which can be used as reference index of clinical follow-up.%背景与目的:肿瘤骨转移时细胞因子作用于成骨和破骨细胞,破坏正常的骨代谢机制,导致骨代谢指标在恶性肿瘤骨转移中发生变化.本研究旨在探讨骨代谢标志物在乳腺癌骨转移患者血清中的变化,以期寻找较为可靠的临床随访指标.方法:收集51例乳腺癌骨转移患者,47例乳腺癌无骨转移患者及44例正常对照者的血清,采用放射免疫法和

  4. Making maps a visual guide to map design for GIS

    CERN Document Server

    Krygier, John

    2011-01-01

    Acclaimed for its innovative use of visual material, this book is engaging, clear, and compelling-exactly how an effective map should be. Nearly every page is organized around maps and other figures (many in full color) that illustrate all aspects of map making, including instructive examples of both good and poor design choices. The book covers everything from locating and processing data to making decisions about layout, symbols, color, and type. Readers are invited to think critically about both the technical features and social significance of maps as they learn to create better maps of t

  5. Mapping yeast transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Timothy R; de Boer, Carl G

    2013-09-01

    The term "transcriptional network" refers to the mechanism(s) that underlies coordinated expression of genes, typically involving transcription factors (TFs) binding to the promoters of multiple genes, and individual genes controlled by multiple TFs. A multitude of studies in the last two decades have aimed to map and characterize transcriptional networks in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We review the methodologies and accomplishments of these studies, as well as challenges we now face. For most yeast TFs, data have been collected on their sequence preferences, in vivo promoter occupancy, and gene expression profiles in deletion mutants. These systematic studies have led to the identification of new regulators of numerous cellular functions and shed light on the overall organization of yeast gene regulation. However, many yeast TFs appear to be inactive under standard laboratory growth conditions, and many of the available data were collected using techniques that have since been improved. Perhaps as a consequence, comprehensive and accurate mapping among TF sequence preferences, promoter binding, and gene expression remains an open challenge. We propose that the time is ripe for renewed systematic efforts toward a complete mapping of yeast transcriptional regulatory mechanisms.

  6. Mapping Israel/Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Leuenberger

    2012-01-01

    studies and the sociology of knowledge in order to analyze the social context of map-making and the content and structure of maps. The focus is on how and why British, American, and Arab online news outlets depict the contested territories of Israel and the Palestinian Territories in often varied and inconsistent ways. Certain online news sources have been accused of political biases concerning the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which arguably translates into particular maps and map layers being included in news stories. Rather than they are being a direct and pre-determined link between map-choice and politics, however, I argue that map-making can be understood as a form of ‘situated’ practice. In other words, the newsroom brings together various actors, materials, technologies and resources that enable and constrain certain activities. It is therefore local cultures, social and interactional contingencies, and institutional and political circumstances that impact map-making and explain how and why maps may converge with or diverge from politics at any given time and place. At the same time, the choice of certain maps and map layers in terms of their focus, content, design, and detail is inevitably selective and can hereby become politically meaningful. It is thus the various textual and visual signifiers and the contextual information included in a map that can become politics by other means. Moreover, the types and sources of news stories and their maps are also co-determined by power politics, the structural inequities between the state of Israel and a Palestinian state-in-the-making, and their respective ease of access to public relations infrastructures that can reach the public at large.

  7. Normal family of quasimeromorphic mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Daochun(孙道椿); YANG; Lo(杨乐)

    2003-01-01

    The more general quasimeromorphic mappings are studied with the geometric method. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the normality of the family of quasimeromorphic mappings are discussed. We proved two inequalities on the covering surface and obtained some normal criteria on quasimeromorphic mappings with them. Obviously, these criteria hold for meromorphic functions.

  8. Usability engineering for mobile maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looije, R.; Brake, G.M. te; Neerincx, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    because interaction with these maps can be laborious the applications are often hard to use. Therefore, the usability of maps on mobile devices must be improved. In this paper we review the research that has been done to solve technical, environmental, and social challenges of mobile map use. We wil

  9. Hazard Maps in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes the use of geophysical hazard maps and illustrates how they can be used in the classroom from kindergarten to college level. Depicts ways that hazard maps of floods, landslides, earthquakes, volcanoes, and multi-hazards can be integrated into classroom instruction. Tells how maps may be obtained. (SLM)

  10. Classical and molecular genetic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brief history of classical genetic mapping in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is described. Detailed descriptions are given of the development of molecular genetic linkage maps based upon various types of DNA markers Like many plant and animal species, the first molecular map of soybean was bas...

  11. Geologic map of Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Crown, David A.; Yff, Jessica A.; Jaeger, Windy L.; Schenk, Paul M.; Geissler, Paul E.; Becker, Tammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Io, discovered by Galileo Galilei on January 7–13, 1610, is the innermost of the four Galilean satellites of the planet Jupiter (Galilei, 1610). It is the most volcanically active object in the Solar System, as recognized by observations from six National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) spacecraft: Voyager 1 (March 1979), Voyager 2 (July 1979), Hubble Space Telescope (1990–present), Galileo (1996–2001), Cassini (December 2000), and New Horizons (February 2007). The lack of impact craters on Io in any spacecraft images at any resolution attests to the high resurfacing rate (1 cm/yr) and the dominant role of active volcanism in shaping its surface. High-temperature hot spots detected by the Galileo Solid-State Imager (SSI), Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS), and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer (PPR) usually correlate with darkest materials on the surface, suggesting active volcanism. The Voyager flybys obtained complete coverage of Io's subjovian hemisphere at 500 m/pixel to 2 km/pixel, and most of the rest of the satellite at 5–20 km/pixel. Repeated Galileo flybys obtained complementary coverage of Io's antijovian hemisphere at 5 m/pixel to 1.4 km/pixel. Thus, the Voyager and Galileo data sets were merged to enable the characterization of the whole surface of the satellite at a consistent resolution. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) produced a set of four global mosaics of Io in visible wavelengths at a spatial resolution of 1 km/pixel, released in February 2006, which we have used as base maps for this new global geologic map. Much has been learned about Io's volcanism, tectonics, degradation, and interior since the Voyager flybys, primarily during and following the Galileo Mission at Jupiter (December 1995–September 2003), and the results have been summarized in books published after the end of the Galileo Mission. Our mapping incorporates this new understanding to assist in map unit definition and to provide a global synthesis

  12. Geologic mapping of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, R.; Figueredo, P.H.; Williams, D.A.; Chuang, F.C.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Kadel, S.D.; Prockter, L.M.; Pappalardo, R.T.; Head, J. W.; Collins, G.C.; Spaun, N.A.; Sullivan, R.J.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Senske, D.A.; Tufts, B.R.; Johnson, T.V.; Belton, M.J.S.; Tanaka, K.L.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo data enable the major geological units, structures, and surface features to be identified on Europa. These include five primary units (plains, chaos, band, ridge, and crater materials) and their subunits, along with various tectonic structures such as faults. Plains units are the most widespread. Ridged plains material spans a wide range of geological ages, including the oldest recognizable features on Europa, and appears to represent a style of tectonic resurfacing, rather than cryovolcanism. Smooth plains material typically embays other terrains and units, possibly as a type of fluid emplacement, and is among the youngest material units observed. At global scales, plains are typically mapped as undifferentiated plains material, although in some areas differences can be discerned in the near infrared which might be related to differences in ice grain size. Chaos material is composed of plains and other preexisting materials that have been severely disrupted by inferred internal activity; chaos is characterized by blocks of icy material set in a hummocky matrix. Band material is arrayed in linear, curvilinear, wedge-shaped, or cuspate zones with contrasting albedo and surface textures with respect to the surrounding terrain. Bilateral symmetry observed in some bands and the relationships with the surrounding units suggest that band material forms by the lithosphere fracturing, spreading apart, and infilling with material derived from the subsurface. Ridge material is mapped as a unit on local and some regional maps but shown with symbols at global scales. Ridge material includes single ridges, doublet ridges, and ridge complexes. Ridge materials are considered to represent tectonic processes, possibly accompanied by the extrusion or intrusion of subsurface materials, such as diapirs. The tectonic processes might be related to tidal flexing of the icy lithosphere on diurnal or longer timescales. Crater materials include various interior (smooth central

  13. Hybrid optical acoustic seafloor mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Gabrielle

    The oceanographic research and industrial communities have a persistent demand for detailed three dimensional sea floor maps which convey both shape and texture. Such data products are used for archeology, geology, ship inspection, biology, and habitat classification. There are a variety of sensing modalities and processing techniques available to produce these maps and each have their own potential benefits and related challenges. Multibeam sonar and stereo vision are such two sensors with complementary strengths making them ideally suited for data fusion. Data fusion approaches however, have seen only limited application to underwater mapping and there are no established methods for creating hybrid, 3D reconstructions from two underwater sensing modalities. This thesis develops a processing pipeline to synthesize hybrid maps from multi-modal survey data. It is helpful to think of this processing pipeline as having two distinct phases: Navigation Refinement and Map Construction. This thesis extends existing work in underwater navigation refinement by incorporating methods which increase measurement consistency between both multibeam and camera. The result is a self consistent 3D point cloud comprised of camera and multibeam measurements. In map construction phase, a subset of the multi-modal point cloud retaining the best characteristics of each sensor is selected to be part of the final map. To quantify the desired traits of a map several characteristics of a useful map are distilled into specific criteria. The different ways that hybrid maps can address these criteria provides justification for producing them as an alternative to current methodologies. The processing pipeline implements multi-modal data fusion and outlier rejection with emphasis on different aspects of map fidelity. The resulting point cloud is evaluated in terms of how well it addresses the map criteria. The final hybrid maps retain the strengths of both sensors and show significant improvement

  14. Compositional maps of 67P/CG nucleus surface after perihelion passage by Rosetta/VIRTIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filacchione, Gianrico; Ciarniello, M.; Capaccioni, F.; Raponi, A.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Tosi, F.; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, G.; Cerroni, P.; Capria, M. T.; Erard, S.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Arnold, G.; Barucci, M. A.; Schmitt, B.; Quirico, E.

    2016-11-01

    Moving after perihelion passage (August 13th 2015), VIRTIS-M the 0.25-5.0 μm imaging spectrometer on board Rosetta has mapped again the north and equatorial regions of 67P/CG's nucleus with the scope to trace color and composition evolution of the surface. With the loss of the IR channel due to the active cryogenic cooler failure occurred in May 2015, VIRTIS-M has observed only with the VIS channel in the 0.25-1.0 μm spectral range. Despite this limitation, the returned data are valuable in performing a comparison of surface properties between pre and post-perihelion times. Approaching perihelion passage, 67P/CG's nucleus has experienced a general brightening due to the removal of the surficial dust layer caused by the more intense gaseous activity with the consequent exposure of a larger fraction of water ice. Coma observations by VIRTIS during pre-perihelion have shown a correlation between the areas of the nucleus where gaseous activity by water ice sublimation is more intense with the surface brightening caused by dust removal. After having applied data calibration and photometric correction, VIRTIS data are projected on the irregularly shaped digital model6 of 67P/CG with the aim to derive visible albedo and colors maps rendered with a spatial resolution of 0.5×0.5 deg in latitude-longitude, corresponding to a sampling of about 15 m/pixel. Dedicated mapping sequences executed at different heliocentric distances, are employed to follow the dynamical evolution of the surface. Direct comparison between compositional maps obtained at the same heliocentric distances along inbound and outbound orbits allows to evidence the changes occurred on the same areas of the surface. In this context, the first VIRTIS-M maps, obtained in August 2014 at heliocentric distance of 3.4 AU along the inbound orbit with a solar phase angle of about 30-45° are compared with the last ones, taken in June 2016 at 3.2 AU from the Sun on the outbound trajectory at solar phases of about

  15. Image processing for optical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Prabu; Gupta, Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Optical Mapping is an established single-molecule, whole-genome analysis system, which has been used to gain a comprehensive understanding of genomic structure and to study structural variation of complex genomes. A critical component of Optical Mapping system is the image processing module, which extracts single molecule restriction maps from image datasets of immobilized, restriction digested and fluorescently stained large DNA molecules. In this review, we describe robust and efficient image processing techniques to process these massive datasets and extract accurate restriction maps in the presence of noise, ambiguity and confounding artifacts. We also highlight a few applications of the Optical Mapping system.

  16. Mapping the human protein interactome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Figeys

    2008-01-01

    Interactions are the essence of all biomolecules because they cannot fulfill their roles without interacting with other molecules. Hence, mapping the interactions of biomolecules can be useful for understanding their roles and functions. Furthermore, the development of molecular based systems biology requires an understanding of the biomolecular interactions. In recent years, the mapping of protein-protein interactions in different species has been reported, but few reports have focused on the large-scale mapping of protein-protein interactions in human. Here, we review the developments in protein interaction mapping and we discuss issues and strategies for the mapping of the human protein interactome.

  17. Radon mapping strategies in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Friedmann, H

    2015-11-01

    According to current European and international recommendations (e.g. by IAEA, WHO and European Union), countries shall identify high radon areas. In Austria, this task was initiated already in the early 1990s, which yielded the first Austrian Radon Potential Map. This map is still in use, updated with recent indoor radon data in 2012. The map is based on radon gas measurements in randomly selected dwellings, normalised to a standard situation. To meet the current (legal) requirements, uncertainties in the existing Austrian radon map should be reduced. A new indoor radon survey with a different sampling strategy was started, and possible mapping methods are studied and tested. In this paper, the methodology for the existing map as well as the planned strategies to improve this map is discussed.

  18. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  19. Copenhagen Sonic Experience Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    of assessment and management of environmental noise brings forth the disturbing and potentially damaging effect of environmental sound.1 But as maps of coloured streets start to circulate, and real estate prices drop in designated blue and red areas,2 it is worth remembering that sound itself is not a killer....... The challenge for planners, designers, and architects is to deal with the auditory not only as pollution but also as an integrated part of urban experience, promoting fellowship and liveliness as well as distress....

  20. Pseudomythological Constellation Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Kuperjanov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to observe how the description of the starry sky has developed by looking at the sky map as a mental composition, a symbolic system that enables orientation in the sky on the basis of a specific integral narrative. The article observes the different ways in which such narratives have emerged and the astromythological essence of these stories. The author attempts to evaluate the nature and development of the different layers of constellations in folk astronomy.

  1. Hierarchical Reverberation Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Brendon J. Brewer; Elliott, Tom M.

    2013-01-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) is an important technique in studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag $\\tau$ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of $\\tau$ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass $M_{\\rm BH}$. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large a...

  2. Mapping the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nold, Christian; Jensen, Ole B.; Harder, Henrik

    art, design and ethnographical methodologies. The projects are initiated in collaboration with a broad range of local institutions such as a community groups, arts organisations, universities and local government in cases where they have identified a particular context where there are social, cultural...... or political tensions and they feel they do not know how to mediate or deal with these issues. The second case is about GPS mapping of the citizen's use of public parks in Aalborg, Denmark. In collaboration between Aalborg University and the Municipality of Aalborg a GPS based park survey was carried out based...

  3. Variable Sampling Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey, S.; Aronstein, David L.; Dean, Bruce H.; Lyon, Richard G.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of an optical system (for example, a telescope) is limited by the misalignments and manufacturing imperfections of the optical elements in the system. The impact of these misalignments and imperfections can be quantified by the phase variations imparted on light traveling through the system. Phase retrieval is a methodology for determining these variations. Phase retrieval uses images taken with the optical system and using a light source of known shape and characteristics. Unlike interferometric methods, which require an optical reference for comparison, and unlike Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensors that require special optical hardware at the optical system's exit pupil, phase retrieval is an in situ, image-based method for determining the phase variations of light at the system s exit pupil. Phase retrieval can be used both as an optical metrology tool (during fabrication of optical surfaces and assembly of optical systems) and as a sensor used in active, closed-loop control of an optical system, to optimize performance. One class of phase-retrieval algorithms is the iterative transform algorithm (ITA). ITAs estimate the phase variations by iteratively enforcing known constraints in the exit pupil and at the detector, determined from modeled or measured data. The Variable Sampling Mapping (VSM) technique is a new method for enforcing these constraints in ITAs. VSM is an open framework for addressing a wide range of issues that have previously been considered detrimental to high-accuracy phase retrieval, including undersampled images, broadband illumination, images taken at or near best focus, chromatic aberrations, jitter or vibration of the optical system or detector, and dead or noisy detector pixels. The VSM is a model-to-data mapping procedure. In VSM, fully sampled electric fields at multiple wavelengths are modeled inside the phase-retrieval algorithm, and then these fields are mapped to intensities on the light detector, using the properties

  4. Between Maps and Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Rasmus; Stricker, Jan Høgh

    2016-01-01

    This audio paper departs from an artwork made by Andreas Führer called The Map is Not The Territory D’Or; a score for a soundwalk in the town of Roskilde, Denmark. The basic sound materials used in the audio paper are 1) an interview in Danish with the artist, 2) a voice over of a theoretical text...... in English, and 3) recordings from performances of the piece, including walking, breathing exercises, and the sounds of ventilation systems and other environmental sound. By mingling these different materials, and by using ‘map’ and ‘territory’ as metaphors, the paper complicates issues of representation...

  5. Learning Isometric Separation Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiloglou, Nikolaos; Anderson, David V

    2008-01-01

    Maximum Variance Unfolding (MVU) and its variants have been very successful in embedding data-manifolds in lower dimensionality spaces, often revealing the true intrinsic dimensions. In this paper we show how to also incorporate supervised class information into an MVU-like method without breaking its convexity. We call this method the Isometric Separation Map and we show that the resulting kernel matrix can be used for a binary/multiclass Support Vector Machine in a semi-supervised (transductive) framework. We also show that the method always finds a kernel matrix that linearly separates the training data exactly without projecting them in infinite dimensional spaces.

  6. Schema matching and mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Bellahsene, Zohra; Rahm, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Requiring heterogeneous information systems to cooperate and communicate has now become crucial, especially in application areas like e-business, Web-based mash-ups and the life sciences. Such cooperating systems have to automatically and efficiently match, exchange, transform and integrate large data sets from different sources and of different structure in order to enable seamless data exchange and transformation. The book edited by Bellahsene, Bonifati and Rahm provides an overview of the ways in which the schema and ontology matching and mapping tools have addressed the above requirements

  7. Mapping Wind Energy Controversies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    As part the Wind2050 project funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research we have mapped controversies on wind energy as they unfold online. Specifically we have collected two purpose built datasets, a web corpus containing information from 758 wind energy websites in 6 different countries......, and a smaller social media corpus containing information from 14 Danish wind energy pages on Facebook. These datasets have been analyzed to answer questions like: How do wind proponents and opponents organize online? Who are the central actors? And what are their matters of concern? The purpose of this report...

  8. [HapMap project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2009-06-01

    Haplotype map is the basis of SNP association studies in two aspects. One is to understand how SNPs are organized on chromosomes, thereby helping researchers to select tag SNPs to be examined. The other is to explore the presence of "hidden SNP" by haplotype analyses that is really associated with the disease. Although it is very difficult to forecast the future of SNP studies, the final and ideal methodology should be high--throughput whole genome sequencing with low price. At such stage, data mining technique will be very important since huge amount of genotype data should be handled and analyzed.

  9. Karst Map of Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman-Gonzalez, Wilma B.

    2010-01-01

    This map is a digital compilation, combining the mapping of earlier geologists. Their work, cited on the map, contains more detailed descriptions of karst areas and landforms in Puerto Rico. This map is the basis for the Puerto Rico part of a new national karst map currently being compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, this product is a standalone, citable source of digital karst data for Puerto Rico. Nearly 25 percent of the United States is underlain by karst terrain, and a large part of that area is undergoing urban and industrial development. Accurate delineations of karstic rocks are needed at scales suitable for national, State, and local maps. The data on this map contribute to a better understanding of subsidence hazards, groundwater contamination potential, and cave resources as well as serve as a guide to topical research on karst. Because the karst data were digitized from maps having a different scale and projection from those on the base map used for this publication, some karst features may not coincide perfectly with physiographic features portrayed on the base map.

  10. Implicitization of rational maps

    CERN Document Server

    Botbol, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the interest in computing explicit formulas for resultants and discriminants initiated by B\\'ezout, Cayley and Sylvester in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and emphasized in the latest years due to the increase of computing power, we focus on the implicitization of hypersurfaces in several contexts. Our approach is based on the use of linear syzygies by means of approximation complexes, following [Bus\\'e Jouanolou 03], where they develop the theory for a rational map $f:P^{n-1}\\dashrightarrow P^n$. Approximation complexes were first introduced by Herzog, Simis and Vasconcelos in [Herzog Simis Vasconcelos 82] almost 30 years ago. The main obstruction for this approximation complex-based method comes from the bad behavior of the base locus of $f$. Thus, it is natural to try different compatifications of $A^{n-1}$, that are better suited to the map $f$, in order to avoid unwanted base points. With this purpose, in this thesis we study toric compactifications $T$ for $A^{n-1}$. We provide re...

  11. Quantitive DNA Fiber Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Mei; Greulich-Bode, Karin M.; Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.

    2008-01-28

    Several hybridization-based methods used to delineate single copy or repeated DNA sequences in larger genomic intervals take advantage of the increased resolution and sensitivity of free chromatin, i.e., chromatin released from interphase cell nuclei. Quantitative DNA fiber mapping (QDFM) differs from the majority of these methods in that it applies FISH to purified, clonal DNA molecules which have been bound with at least one end to a solid substrate. The DNA molecules are then stretched by the action of a receding meniscus at the water-air interface resulting in DNA molecules stretched homogeneously to about 2.3 kb/{micro}m. When non-isotopically, multicolor-labeled probes are hybridized to these stretched DNA fibers, their respective binding sites are visualized in the fluorescence microscope, their relative distance can be measured and converted into kilobase pairs (kb). The QDFM technique has found useful applications ranging from the detection and delineation of deletions or overlap between linked clones to the construction of high-resolution physical maps to studies of stalled DNA replication and transcription.

  12. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...

  13. Statistical methods in physical mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, David O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    One of the great success stories of modern molecular genetics has been the ability of biologists to isolate and characterize the genes responsible for serious inherited diseases like fragile X syndrome, cystic fibrosis and myotonic muscular dystrophy. This dissertation concentrates on constructing high-resolution physical maps. It demonstrates how probabilistic modeling and statistical analysis can aid molecular geneticists in the tasks of planning, execution, and evaluation of physical maps of chromosomes and large chromosomal regions. The dissertation is divided into six chapters. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the field of physical mapping, describing the role of physical mapping in gene isolation and ill past efforts at mapping chromosomal regions. The next two chapters review and extend known results on predicting progress in large mapping projects. Such predictions help project planners decide between various approaches and tactics for mapping large regions of the human genome. Chapter 2 shows how probability models have been used in the past to predict progress in mapping projects. Chapter 3 presents new results, based on stationary point process theory, for progress measures for mapping projects based on directed mapping strategies. Chapter 4 describes in detail the construction of all initial high-resolution physical map for human chromosome 19. This chapter introduces the probability and statistical models involved in map construction in the context of a large, ongoing physical mapping project. Chapter 5 concentrates on one such model, the trinomial model. This chapter contains new results on the large-sample behavior of this model, including distributional results, asymptotic moments, and detection error rates. In addition, it contains an optimality result concerning experimental procedures based on the trinomial model. The last chapter explores unsolved problems and describes future work.

  14. Visualizing Dynamic Data with Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashima, Daisuke; Kobourov, Stephen G; Hu, Yifan

    2012-09-01

    Maps offer a familiar way to present geographic data (continents, countries), and additional information (topography, geology), can be displayed with the help of contours and heat-map overlays. In this paper, we consider visualizing large-scale dynamic relational data by taking advantage of the geographic map metaphor. We describe a map-based visualization system which uses animation to convey dynamics in large data sets, and which aims to preserve the viewer's mental map while also offering readable views at all times. Our system is fully functional and has been used to visualize user traffic on the Internet radio station last.fm, as well as TV-viewing patterns from an IPTV service. All map images in this paper are available in high-resolution at [1] as are several movies illustrating the dynamic visualization.

  15. Quantum Programs as Kleisli Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Westerbaan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Furber and Jacobs have shown in their study of quantum computation that the category of commutative C*-algebras and PU-maps (positive linear maps which preserve the unit is isomorphic to the Kleisli category of a comonad on the category of commutative C*-algebras with MIU-maps (linear maps which preserve multiplication, involution and unit. [Furber and Jacobs, 2013] In this paper, we prove a non-commutative variant of this result: the category of C*-algebras and PU-maps is isomorphic to the Kleisli category of a comonad on the subcategory of MIU-maps. A variation on this result has been used to construct a model of Selinger and Valiron's quantum lambda calculus using von Neumann algebras. [Cho and Westerbaan, 2016

  16. Mapping and measuring place attachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Greg; Raymond, Christopher Mark; Corcoran, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    in a regional study in South Australia. Our research objectives were to (1) analyze and present the spatial results of the mapping method as a benchmark for future research, (2) compare mapped place attachment to the more common practice of mapping landscape values in PPGIS that comprise a values home range, (3......-based measures. The area of place attachment is influenced by occupational roles such as farming or conservation, as well as home location, especially in coastal versus non-coastal contexts. The spatial distribution of mapped landscape values or values home range is related to, but not identical to mapped place......The concept of place attachment has been studied extensively across multiple disciplines but only recently with empirical measurement using public participation GIS (PPGIS) and related crowd-sourcing mapping methods. This research trialed a spatially explicit method for identifying place attachment...

  17. Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Graves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambition of this issue of Portal is to reach across the methodological boundaries of history, politics, literature and geography to apply their complementary perspectives to the study of identity and its relation to space and place, an aim that involves attempting to identify the many different ways the notoriously slippery concepts of identity and geography may intersect. For this issue we have selected articles that cast a fresh perspective on two areas where identity and geography intersect: the construction of identity through the imaginative recreation of place in literature: Mapping Literary Spaces; and the study of the shifting relationships of centre and periphery, exclusion and inclusion in urban settings and geopolitical confrontations: Social and Political Peripheries. Gerard Toal has written that geography is not a noun but a verb: it does not describe what space is but studies what we do with space, imaginatively and politically. The articles in this issue illustrate the exercise of the literary and political imagination and the role of materiality and memory in the creation of geographic representation. They show too a new awareness of the centrality of space in the constitution of identities, and the need for a new geocritical reading of its discourse, as the interrelations of place and community are played out on the many scales of social and political life, from the local to the global.   The special issue is organised thus: Introduction Matthew Graves (Aix-Marseille University & Liz Rechniewski (Sydney University: “Imagining Geographies, Mapping Identities.” I. Mapping Literary Spaces - Isabelle Avila (University of Paris XIII, "Les Cartes de l'Afrique au XIXe siècle et Joseph Conrad : Perceptions d'une Révolution Cartographique." - Daniela Rogobete (University of Craiova, "Global vs Glocal: Dimensions of the post-1981 Indian English Novel." II. Social and Political Peripheries - Elizabeth Rechniewski (Sydney

  18. Weak compactness of biharmonic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhou Zheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that if a sequence of weak solutions of a perturbed biharmonic map satisfies $Phi_ko 0$ in $(W^{2,2}^*$ and $u_kightharpoonup u$ weakly in $W^{2,2}$, then $u$ is a biharmonic map. In particular, we show that the space of biharmonic maps is sequentially compact under the weak-$W^{2,2}$ topology.

  19. Symplectic maps for accelerator lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnock, R.L.; Ruth, R.; Gabella, W.

    1988-05-01

    We describe a method for numerical construction of a symplectic map for particle propagation in a general accelerator lattice. The generating function of the map is obtained by integrating the Hamilton-Jacobi equation as an initial-value problem on a finite time interval. Given the generating function, the map is put in explicit form by means of a Fourier inversion technique. We give an example which suggests that the method has promise. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Mapping the deep sea floor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    By the early 20th century, oceanographers intensified their efforts to map the deep sea. The great depth of the Philippine Trench was first observed by the German Planet Expedition in 1912. During World War II, the US naval vessel Cape Johnson used directional echo-sounding to obtain a depth of 10...... Trench in order to map its bathymetric features. The resulting maps are presented in this poster. Unlike many other contemporary developments in deep sea topography and cartography that were shaped by the Cold War, the Galathea maps of the Philippine Trench were intimately connected with the expedition...

  1. Composite Genus One Belyi Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vidunas, Raimundas

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a demand for explicit genus 1 Belyi maps from physics, we give an efficient method of explicitly computing genus one Belyi maps by (1) composing covering maps from elliptic curves to the Riemann surface with the simpler, univariate, genus zero Belyi maps as well as by (2) composing further with isogenies of the elliptic curve. This gives many new explicit dessins on the doubly periodic plane, including several which have been realized in the physics literature as so-called brane-tilings in the context of quiver gauge theories.

  2. Combinatorial Maps with Normalized Knot

    CERN Document Server

    Zeps, Dainis

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinatorial maps with fixed combinatorial knot numbered with augmenting numeration called normalized knot. We show that knot's normalization doesn't affect combinatorial map what concerns its generality. Knot's normalization leads to more concise numeration of corners in maps, e.g., odd or even corners allow easy to follow distinguished cycles in map caused by the fixation of the knot. Knot's normalization may be applied to edge structuring knot too. If both are normalized then one is fully and other partially normalized mutually.

  3. Beyond Fast Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Susan

    2010-07-08

    Since the seminal 1957 studies of word learning by Roger Brown, most experimental studies of lexical acquisition have concerned fast mapping: the process through which a new lexical entry is established, and through which representations of the linguistic context of a newly heard word interact with representations of its nonlinguistic context to fix an initial partial meaning. Here I focus on the subsequent extended process through which the adult meaning is approximated. Two factors lead to an extended learning process; the size of the hypothesis space and the need, sometimes, for the creation of new semantic primitives. Sometimes lexical learning requires conceptual change. I sketch a learning mechanism through which this can be achieved. A case study of learning the meanings of verbal numerals illustrates the argument.

  4. Mapping of nitrogen risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Andersen, Hans Estrup; Carstensen, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    will be more effective if they are implemented in N loss hot spots or risk areas. Additionally, the highly variable N reduction in groundwater and surface waters needs to be taken into account as this strongly influences the resulting effect of mitigation measures. The objectives of this study were to develop...... risk mapping part of the tool, we combined a modelled root zone N leaching with a catchment-specific N reduction factor which in combination determines the N load to the marine recipient. N leaching was calculated using detailed information of agricultural management from national databases as well...... and apply an N risk tool to the entire agricultural land area in Denmark. The purpose of the tool is to identify high risk areas, i.e. areas which contribute disproportionately much to diffuse N losses to the marine recipient, and to suggest cost-effective measures to reduce losses from risk areas. In the N...

  5. 21 cm Intensity Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Jeffrey B; Ansari, Reza; Bandura, Kevin; Bond, Dick; Bunton, John; Carlson, Kermit; Chang, Tzu-Ching; DeJongh, Fritz; Dobbs, Matt; Dodelson, Scott; Darhmaoui, Hassane; Gnedin, Nick; Halpern, Mark; Hogan, Craig; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Liu, Tiehui Ted; Legrouri, Ahmed; Loeb, Avi; Loudiyi, Khalid; Magneville, Christophe; Marriner, John; McGinnis, David P; McWilliams, Bruce; Moniez, Marc; Palanque-Delabruille, Nathalie; Pasquinelli, Ralph J; Pen, Ue-Li; Rich, Jim; Scarpine, Vic; Seo, Hee-Jong; Sigurdson, Kris; Seljak, Uros; Stebbins, Albert; Steffen, Jason H; Stoughton, Chris; Timbie, Peter T; Vallinotto, Alberto; Wyithe, Stuart; Yeche, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Using the 21 cm line, observed all-sky and across the redshift range from 0 to 5, the large scale structure of the Universe can be mapped in three dimensions. This can be accomplished by studying specific intensity with resolution ~ 10 Mpc, rather than via the usual galaxy redshift survey. The data set can be analyzed to determine Baryon Acoustic Oscillation wavelengths, in order to address the question: 'What is the nature of Dark Energy?' In addition, the study of Large Scale Structure across this range addresses the questions: 'How does Gravity effect very large objects?' and 'What is the composition our Universe?' The same data set can be used to search for and catalog time variable and transient radio sources.

  6. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    is required to address the issue, since by definition cultural services (encompassing physical, intellectual, spiritual interactions with biota) need to be analysed from multiple perspectives (i.e. ecological, social, behavioural). A second reason is the lack of data for large-scale assessments, as detailed......Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...

  7. Hail Size Distribution Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A 3-D weather radar visualization software program was developed and implemented as part of an experimental Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor System. 3DRadPlot, a radar plotting program, is one of several software modules that form building blocks of the hail data processing and analysis system (the complete software processing system under development). The spatial and temporal mapping algorithms were originally developed through research at the University of Central Florida, funded by NASA s Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), where the goal was to merge National Weather Service (NWS) Next-Generation Weather Radar (NEXRAD) volume reflectivity data with drop size distribution data acquired from a cluster of raindrop disdrometers. In this current work, we adapted these algorithms to process data from a cluster of hail disdrometers positioned around Launch Pads 39A or 39B, along with the corresponding NWS radar data. Radar data from all NWS NEXRAD sites is archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). That data can be readily accessed at . 3DRadPlot plots Level III reflectivity data at four scan elevations (this software is available at Open Channel Software, ). By using spatial and temporal interpolation/extrapolation based on hydrometeor fall dynamics, we can merge the hail disdrometer array data coupled with local Weather Surveillance Radar-1988, Doppler (WSR-88D) radial velocity and reflectivity data into a 4-D (3-D space and time) picture of hail size distributions. Hail flux maps can then be generated and used for damage prediction and assessment over specific surfaces corresponding to structures within the disdrometer array volume. Immediately following a hail storm, specific damage areas and degree of damage can be identified for inspection crews.

  8. The Future of the Map Library and Map Librarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Moore

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in maps and cartography is on the rise, partly spurred by new technologies such as Google Earth and Google Maps. But the new users, welcome as they are, do bring new challenges in terms of ease of use and speed of delivery. Therefore, LIBER's Groupe des Cartothécaires devoted its biennial conference to state-of-the-art technologies and concepts such as new retrieval techniques, Web 2.0 content, links with geospatial databases and FRBRisation to investigate their potential for and impact on map libraries and map librarians — whilst concluding that the particular expertise of a map librarian is as indispensable as ever. John Moore, the Group's Secretary, reports on the conference.

  9. Polder maps: improving OMIT maps by excluding bulk solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Afonine, Pavel V; Moriarty, Nigel W; Poon, Billy K; Sobolev, Oleg V; Terwilliger, Thomas C; Adams, Paul D

    2017-02-01

    The crystallographic maps that are routinely used during the structure-solution workflow are almost always model-biased because model information is used for their calculation. As these maps are also used to validate the atomic models that result from model building and refinement, this constitutes an immediate problem: anything added to the model will manifest itself in the map and thus hinder the validation. OMIT maps are a common tool to verify the presence of atoms in the model. The simplest way to compute an OMIT map is to exclude the atoms in question from the structure, update the corresponding structure factors and compute a residual map. It is then expected that if these atoms are present in the crystal structure, the electron density for the omitted atoms will be seen as positive features in this map. This, however, is complicated by the flat bulk-solvent model which is almost universally used in modern crystallographic refinement programs. This model postulates constant electron density at any voxel of the unit-cell volume that is not occupied by the atomic model. Consequently, if the density arising from the omitted atoms is weak then the bulk-solvent model may obscure it further. A possible solution to this problem is to prevent bulk solvent from entering the selected OMIT regions, which may improve the interpretative power of residual maps. This approach is called a polder (OMIT) map. Polder OMIT maps can be particularly useful for displaying weak densities of ligands, solvent molecules, side chains, alternative conformations and residues both in terminal regions and in loops. The tools described in this manuscript have been implemented and are available in PHENIX.

  10. Link maps and map meetings: Scaffolding student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lindstrøm

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available With student numbers decreasing and traditional teaching methods having been found inefficient, it is widely accepted that alternative teaching methods need to be explored in tertiary physics education. In 2006 a different teaching environment was offered to 244 first year students with little or no prior formal instruction in physics. Students were invited to attend additional enrichment classes 1 h a week called map meetings. The focus of these classes was a different type of visual presentation of physics material called link maps. Link maps explicitly show the key concepts covered in lectures and how these interrelate to help novices establish their physics schemata. In each map meeting the link map for the different topic was interactively discussed by the researcher before the students worked on problems in groups using the link map. The class ended with the researcher going through one problem, talking aloud about how to logically attack it. The results were promising. Each week about 20% of the class voluntarily attended map meetings whereas 22% reported that they did not attend due to timetable clashes. Two questionnaires revealed that students thought the classes were helpful for gaining an overview of physics and for developing their problem solving abilities. In the final examination the 32 students who had attended at least eight out of ten map meetings achieved, on average, 9 points out of 90 better in the examination (p=0.004 than a comparison group (N=40 with similar academic background which had not attended map meetings. The results of this study suggest that map meetings are a valuable learning environment for physics novices. Further investigations are currently being undertaken.

  11. Rational formality of mapping spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Felix, Yves

    2010-01-01

    Let X and Y be finite nilpotent CW complexes with dimension of X less than the connectivity of Y. Generalizing results of Vigu\\'e-Poirrier and Yamaguchi, we prove that the mapping space Map(X,Y) is rationally formal if and only if Y has the rational homotopy type of a finite product of odd dimensional spheres.

  12. Curriculum Mapping in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Heidi; Webb, Katy Kavanagh; Houk, Amy Harris; Tingelstad, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Librarians at four different academic institutions concurrently completed curriculum mapping projects using varying methods to analyze their information literacy instruction. Curriculum mapping is a process for systematically evaluating components of an instructional program for cohesiveness, proper sequencing, and goal achievement. There is a…

  13. JournalMap: Research. Reimagined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JournalMap is a scientific literature search engine that empowers you to find relevant research based on location and biophysical variables as well as traditional keyword searches. All publications are geotagged based on reported location information and plotted on a world map showing where the rese...

  14. QTL mapping designs for aquaculture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massault, C.; Bovenhuis, H.; Haley, C.S.; Koning, de D.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid development of genomics technology is providing new opportunities for genetic studies, including QTL mapping, in many aquaculture species. This paper investigates the strengths and limitations of QTL mapping designs for fish and shellfish under three different controlled breeding schemes. For

  15. Hazard Map for Autonomous Navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels

    This dissertation describes the work performed in the area of using image analysis in the process of landing a spacecraft autonomously and safely on the surface of the Moon. This is suggested to be done using a Hazard Map. The correspondence problem between several Hazard Maps are investigated fu...

  16. Association mapping in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    hoop, D' B.B.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a four year project within the Centre for BioSystems Genomics (www.cbsg.nl), entitled “Association mapping and family genotyping in potato” are described in this thesis. This project was intended to investigate whether a recently emerged methodology, association mapping, could provide

  17. Global Geologic Map of Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, T.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Hare, T.; Kolb, E.; Mullins, K.; Senske, D.; Tanaka, K.; Weiser, S.

    2008-01-01

    Europa, with its indications of a sub-ice ocean, is of keen interest to astrobiology and planetary geology. Knowledge of the global distribution and timing of Europan geologic units is a key step for the synthesis of data from the Galileo mission, and for the planning of future missions to the satellite. The first geologic map of Europa was produced at a hemisphere scale with low resolution Voyager data. Following the acquisition of higher resolution data by the Galileo mission, researchers have identified surface units and determined sequences of events in relatively small areas of Europa through geologic mapping using images at various resolutions acquired by Galileo's Solid State Imaging camera. These works provided a local to subregional perspective and employed different criteria for the determination and naming of units. Unified guidelines for the identification, mapping and naming of Europan geologic units were put forth by and employed in regional-to-hemispheric scale mapping which is now being expanded into a global geologic map. A global photomosaic of Galileo and Voyager data was used as a basemap for mapping in ArcGIS, following suggested methodology of all-stratigraphy for planetary mapping. The following units have been defined in global mapping and are listed in stratigraphic order from oldest to youngest: ridged plains material, Argadnel Regio unit, dark plains material, lineaments, disrupted plains material, lenticulated plains material and Chaos material.

  18. Concept Maps in Introductory Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Concept maps are tools for organizing thoughts on the main ideas in a course. I present an example of a concept map that was created through the work of students in an introductory class and discuss major topics in statistics and relationships among them.

  19. Genetic Mapping in Human Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, David; Daly, Mark J; Lander, Eric S.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful approach to identify genes and biological processes underlying any trait influenced by inheritance, including human diseases. We discuss the intellectual foundations of genetic mapping of Mendelian and complex traits in humans, examine lessons emerging from linkage analysis of Mendelian diseases and genome-wide association studies of common diseases, and discuss questions and challenges that lie ahead.

  20. Gaussianity of the QMASK Map

    CERN Document Server

    Shandarin, S F; Xu, Y; Tegmark, M; Shandarin, Sergei F.; Feldman, Hume A.; Xu, Yongzhong; Tegmark, Max

    2001-01-01

    We test degree-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy for Gaussianity by studying the \\qmask map that was obtained from combining the QMAP and Saskatoon data. We compute seven morphological functions $M_i(\\dt)$, $i=1,...,7$: six \\mf and the number of regions $N_c$ at a hundred $\\dt$ levels. We also introduce a new parameterization of the morphological functions $M_i(A)$ in terms of the total area $A$ of the excursion set. We show that the latter considerably decorrelates the morphological statistics. We compare these results with those from 1000 Gaussian Monte Carlo maps with the same power spectrum, and conclude that the \\qmask map is neither a very typical nor a very exceptional realization of a Gaussian field. Roughly 20% of the 1000 Gaussian Monte Carlo maps differ more than the \\qmask map from the mean morphological parameters of the Gaussian fields.

  1. Conformal Mapping for Multiple Terminals

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Weimin; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool in many physical and engineering fields, especially in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. However in the existing textbooks and literatures, it is only adopted to solve the problems which have only two terminals. Two terminals with electric potential differences, pressure difference, optical path difference, etc., can be mapped conformally onto a solvable structure, e.g., a rectangle, where the two terminals are mapped onto two opposite edges of the rectangle. Here we show a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals, which is more common in practical applications. Through accurate analysis of the boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded in the inner of the mapped rectangle. Then the solution will not be influenced. The method is described in several typical situations and two application examples are detailed. The first example is an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes. A ...

  2. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  3. Fast approximate delivery of fluence maps: the single map case

    CERN Document Server

    Craft, David

    2016-01-01

    In this first paper of a two-paper series, we present a method for optimizing the dynamic delivery of fluence maps in radiation therapy. For a given fluence map and a given delivery time, the optimization of the leaf trajectories of a multi-leaf collimator to approximately form the given fluence map is a non-convex optimization problem. Its general solution has not been addressed in the literature, despite the fact that dynamic delivery of fluence maps has long been a common approach to intensity modulated radiation therapy. We model the leaf trajectory and dose rate optimization as a non-convex continuous optimization problem and solve it by an interior point method from randomly initialized feasible starting solutions. We demonstrate the method on a fluence map from a prostate case and a larger fluence map from a head-and-neck case. While useful for static beam IMRT delivery, our main motivation for this work is the extension to the case of sequential fluence map delivery, i.e. the case of VMAT, which is th...

  4. Hierarchical Reverberation Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Brewer, Brendon J

    2013-01-01

    Reverberation mapping (RM) is an important technique in studies of active galactic nuclei (AGN). The key idea of RM is to measure the time lag $\\tau$ between variations in the continuum emission from the accretion disc and subsequent response of the broad line region (BLR). The measurement of $\\tau$ is typically used to estimate the physical size of the BLR and is combined with other measurements to estimate the black hole mass $M_{\\rm BH}$. A major difficulty with RM campaigns is the large amount of data needed to measure $\\tau$. Recently, Fine et al (2012) introduced a new approach to RM where the BLR light curve is sparsely sampled, but this is counteracted by observing a large sample of AGN, rather than a single system. The results are combined to infer properties of the sample of AGN. In this letter we implement this method using a hierarchical Bayesian model and contrast this with the results from the previous stacked cross-correlation technique. We find that our inferences are more precise and allow fo...

  5. ANNUAL INTERVIEWS (MAPS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...

  6. Mapping Nursing Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Birks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Articulated education pathways between the vocational education training sector and universities provide opportunities for students wishing to progress to higher qualifications. Enrolled nurses seeking to advance their career in nursing can choose to enter baccalaureate degree programs through such alternative entry routes. Awarding of credit for prior studies is dependent on accurate assessment of the existing qualification against that which is sought. This study employed a modified Delphi method to inform the development of an evidence-based, structured approach to mapping the pathway from the nationally consistent training package of the Diploma of Nursing to the diversity of baccalaureate nursing programs across Australia. The findings of this study reflect the practical nature of the role of the enrolled nurse, particularly the greater emphasis placed on direct care activities as opposed to those related to professional development and the generation and use of evidence. These findings provide a valuable summative overview of the relationship between the Diploma of Nursing and the expectations of the registered nurse role.

  7. Mapping the human genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, Charles R.

    1989-06-01

    The following pages aim to lay a foundation for understanding the excitement surrounding the ''human genome project,'' as well as to convey a flavor of the ongoing efforts and plans at the Human Genome Center at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Our own work, of course, is only part of a broad international effort that will dramatically enhance our understanding of human molecular genetics before the end of this century. In this country, the bulk of the effort will be carried out under the auspices of the Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health, but significant contributions have already been made both by nonprofit private foundations and by private corporation. The respective roles of the DOE and the NIH are being coordinated by an inter-agency committee, the aims of which are to emphasize the strengths of each agency, to facilitate cooperation, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of effort. The NIH, for example, will continue its crucial work in medical genetics and in mapping the genomes of nonhuman species. The DOE, on the other hand, has unique experience in managing large projects, and its national laboratories are repositories of expertise in physics, engineering, and computer science, as well as the life sciences. The tools and techniques the project will ultimately rely on are thus likely to be developed in multidisciplinary efforts at laboratories like LBL. Accordingly, we at LBL take great pride in this enterprise -- an enterprise that will eventually transform our understanding of ourselves.

  8. Reverberation Mapping with Photometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zu, Ying; Kozłowski, Szymon; Peterson, B M

    2013-01-01

    Using both simulated and real quasar light curves we explore the feasibility of one and two--band photometric reverberation mapping (RM) and compare to the results for spectroscopic RM. We do this using modifications to our previously developed method based on modeling quasar variability as a stochastic process, the damped random walk. We find that two-band photometric RM can be competitive with spectroscopic RM for strong lines like H\\alpha and H\\beta, and that the one-band method is feasible, but requires very small photometric uncertainties. For the sample of Palomar-Green quasars with both dual band and spectroscopic data we find consistent lags using the two-band and spectroscopic methods. For the OGLE-III and IV single band light curves of quasars behind the Magellanic Clouds, we fail to robustly detect H\\alpha lags despite the outstanding cadence and time span of the data due to the photometric uncertainties (0.02-0.04 mag). Single-band RM for all lines and dual-band RM for lower equivalent width lines...

  9. Planet Map Generation by Tetrahedral Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  10. Planet map generation by tetrahedral subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  11. Piri Reis and the Columbus Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunde, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the origins and impact of the Piri Reis map, an early world map based on the voyages of Columbus and 20 other source maps. Maintains that evidence exists that Christopher Columbus may have drawn part of the map. Includes lengthy quotes from the map's legend written by Reis. (CFR)

  12. Mapping the Natchez Trace Parkway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri; Ramsey, Elijah W.

    2011-01-01

    Based on a National Park Service (NPS) landcover classification, a landcover map of the 715-km (444-mile) NPS Natchez Trace Parkway (hereafter referred to as the "Parkway") was created. The NPS landcover classification followed National Vegetation Classification (NVC) protocols. The landcover map, which extended the initial landcover classification to the entire Parkway, was based on color-infrared photography converted to 1-m raster-based digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles, according to U.S. Geological Survey mapping standards. Our goal was to include as many alliance classes as possible in the Parkway landcover map. To reach this goal while maintaining a consistent and quantifiable map product throughout the Parkway extent, a mapping strategy was implemented based on the migration of class-based spectral textural signatures and the congruent progressive refinement of those class signatures along the Parkway. Progressive refinement provided consistent mapping by evaluating the spectral textural distinctiveness of the alliance-association classes, and where necessary, introducing new map classes along the Parkway. By following this mapping strategy, the use of raster-based image processing and geographic information system analyses for the map production provided a quantitative and reproducible product. Although field-site classification data were severely limited, the combination of spectral migration of class membership along the Parkway and the progressive classification strategy produced an organization of alliances that was internally highly consistent. The organization resulted from the natural patterns or alignments of spectral variance and the determination of those spectral patterns that were compositionally similar in the dominant species as NVC alliances. Overall, the mapped landcovers represented the existent spectral textural patterns that defined and encompassed the complex variety of compositional alliances and associations of the Parkway. Based

  13. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NWS NHC Potential Storm Surge Flooding Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST map service provides maps depicting the latest official NWS Potential Storm Surge Flooding Map for any significant landfalling...

  14. USGS NAIPPlus Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS NAIP Plus service from The National Map consists of National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) and high resolution orthoimagery (HRO) that combine the...

  15. USGS Imagery Topo Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Imagery Topo is a topographic tile cache base map with orthoimagery as a backdrop, and combines the most current data (Boundaries, Names, Transportation,...

  16. USGS Elevation Contours Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Elevation Contours service from The National Map (TNM) consists of contours generated for the conterminous United States from 1- and 1/3 arc-second...

  17. USGS NAIP Imagery Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS NAIP Imagery service from The National Map (TNM) consists of high resolution images that combine the visual attributes of an aerial photograph with the...

  18. USGS Hill Shade Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Hill Shade (or Shaded Relief) is a tile cache base map created from the National Elevation Dataset (NED), a seamless dataset of best available raster elevation...

  19. Mapping (USPTO) Patent Data using Overlays to Google Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a technique to use patent information available online (at the US Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps that indicate both the quantity and quality of patents granted at the city level. The resulting maps are relevant for technological innovation policies and R&D management because the US market can be considered as the leading market for patenting and patent competition. Quantitative data is made available by the mapping routines for more detailed statistical analysis, and the non-parametric statistics for significance testing are specified. The new mapping approach is explored for the cases of the emerging technologies of "RNA interference" and "nanotechnology" as specific examples. Perspectives for further developments of this technique (other databases and network analysis of co-inventions) are specified.

  20. USGS Topo Base Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — USGS Topo is a topographic tile cache base map that combines the most current data (Boundaries, Names, Transportation, Elevation, Hydrography, Land Cover, and other...

  1. Angola Seismicity MAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  2. The National Map: from geography to mapping and back again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmelis, John A.; DeMulder, Mark L.; Ogrosky, Charles E.; Van Driel, J. Nicholas; Ryan, Barbara J.

    2003-01-01

    When the means of production for national base mapping were capital intensive, required large production facilities, and had ill-defined markets, Federal Government mapping agencies were the primary providers of the spatial data needed for economic development, environmental management, and national defense. With desktop geographic information systems now ubiquitous, source data available as a commodity from private industry, and the realization that many complex problems faced by society need far more and different kinds of spatial data for their solutions, national mapping organizations must realign their business strategies to meet growing demand and anticipate the needs of a rapidly changing geographic information environment. The National Map of the United States builds on a sound historic foundation of describing and monitoring the land surface and adds a focused effort to produce improved understanding, modeling, and prediction of land-surface change. These added dimensions bring to bear a broader spectrum of geographic science to address extant and emerging issues. Within the overarching construct of The National Map, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is making a transition from data collector to guarantor of national data completeness; from producing paper maps to supporting an online, seamless, integrated database; and from simply describing the Nation’s landscape to linking these descriptions with increased scientific understanding. Implementing the full spectrum of geographic science addresses a myriad of public policy issues, including land and natural resource management, recreation, urban growth, human health, and emergency planning, response, and recovery. Neither these issues nor the science and technologies needed to deal with them are static. A robust research agenda is needed to understand these changes and realize The National Map vision. Initial successes have been achieved. These accomplishments demonstrate the utility of

  3. Design of LOG-MAP / MAX-LOG-MAP Decoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai TIMIS, PhD Candidate, Dipl.Eng.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of turbo-code decoding starts with the formation of a posteriori probabilities (APPs for each data bit, which is followed by choosing the data-bit value that corresponds to the maximum a posteriori (MAP probability for that data bit. Upon reception of a corrupted code-bit sequence, the process of decision making with APPs allows the MAP algorithm to determine the most likely information bit to have been transmitted at each bit time.

  4. Mapping (USPTO) Patent Data using Overlays to Google Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Leydesdorff, Loet; Bornmann, Lutz

    2011-01-01

    A technique is developed using patent information available online (at the US Patent and Trademark Office) for the generation of Google Maps. The overlays indicate both the quantity and quality of patents at the city level. This information is relevant for research questions in technology analysis, innovation studies and evolutionary economics, as well as economic geography. The resulting maps can also be relevant for technological innovation policies and R&D management, because the US market...

  5. Linking Mind-maps and Digital Maps with Hypertext

    OpenAIRE

    Klust, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    Information management is an important personal skill, therefore a concept allowing a better information management extended by a digital map was developed in this thesis. It focuses on two independent spaces. The first space is called abstract and handles information in form of spatial diagrams particularly mind-maps consisting of keywords and relations forming for instance a complex structures of ideas. The second space called physical aims to organize information on basis of assigned geogr...

  6. Coordinate systems and map projections

    CERN Document Server

    Maling, DH

    1992-01-01

    A revised and expanded new edition of the definitive English work on map projections. The revisions take into account the huge advances in geometrical geodesy which have occurred since the early years of satellite geodesy. The detailed configuration of the geoid resulting from the GEOS and SEASAT altimetry measurements are now taken into consideration. Additionally, the chapter on computation of map projections is updated bearing in mind the availability of pocket calculators and microcomputers. Analytical derivation of some map projections including examples of pseudocylindrical and polyconic

  7. Mapping online journalism in transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller; Houman Ellersgaard, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    or broadcast versions within a constructed Danish “field of news” by graphically presenting the data as maps of the changes in these relations. First, mapping transformations graphically shows that the online newspapers have gained autonomy from their “parent platforms”, but we see that in the same period...... they have increased their dependence on news agency stories. Furthermore, the mapping demonstrates how the online newspapers differ in terms of news productions strategies and in their relation to their parent platforms, meaning they take up different...

  8. BSP vs MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, Matthew Felice

    2012-01-01

    The MapReduce framework has been generating a lot of interest in a wide range of areas. It has been widely adopted in industry and has been used to solve a number of non-trivial problems in academia. Putting MapReduce on strong theoretical foundations is crucial in understanding its capabilities. This work links MapReduce to the BSP model of computation, underlining the relevance of BSP to modern parallel algorithm design and defining a subclass of BSP algorithms that can be efficiently imple...

  9. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YongliangZhang; ChenDong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1):20-27.

  10. The history of dermatome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Steven A

    2003-01-01

    Dermatome maps are commonly used in clinical neurology. These maps are valuable for the localization of varied sensory phenomena in patients with neurological disorders. The methods used in the construction of the classic maps by Sir Henry Head, Sir Charles Sherrington, Otfrid Foerster, and Jay Keegan and Frederic Garrett are of historical interest and are relevant to the current understanding of dermatome anatomy and physiology. In particular, the work of Derek Denny-Brown and his colleagues demonstrates that patterns of dermatomal sensory loss depend on the anatomical and physiological characteristics of large regions of nervous tissue, multiple adjacent dorsal ganglia, and the nearby caudal and rostral spinal cord.

  11. MAP Kinases in Immune Responses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongliang Zhang; Chen Dong

    2005-01-01

    MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved signaling regulators from budding yeast to mammals and play essential roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. There are three main families of MAPKs in mammals. Each of them has its own activators, inactivators, substrates and scaffolds, which altogether form a fine signaling network in response to different extracellular or intracellular stimulation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding of the regulation of MAP kinases and the roles of MAP kinases in innate and adaptive immune responses.

  12. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge habitat map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This habitat map was created along with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map of the refuge. Refuge...

  13. A Revised Map of the Human Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents an updated map of the human chromosomes, building on a "plain English map" that was previously published. A brief summary of genes research is included in the gene explanations accompanying the map. (PR)

  14. Software patterns, knowledge maps, and domain analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fayad, Mohamed E; Hegde, Srikanth GK; Basia, Anshu; Vakil, Ashka

    2014-01-01

    Preface AcknowledgmentsAuthors INTRODUCTIONAn Overview of Knowledge MapsIntroduction: Key Concepts-Software Stable Models, Knowledge Maps, Pattern Language, Goals, Capabilities (Enduring Business Themes + Business Objects) The Motivation The Problem The Objectives Overview of Software Stability Concepts Overview of Knowledge Maps Pattern Languages versus Knowledge Maps: A Brief ComparisonThe Solution Knowledge Maps Methodology or Concurrent Software Development ModelWhy Knowledge Maps? Research Methodology Undertaken Research Verification and Validation The Stratification of This Book Summary

  15. The Quasi—affine Maps and Fractals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LunhaiLONG; GangCHEN

    1997-01-01

    In this paper,we discuss the discretization of the affine maps in R2,that is ,we consider a class of maps in Z2,which are induced by affine maps and called the quasi-affine maps.We investigate the properties and the dynamical behaviour of such maps,and give a sort of construction of complicated fractals by using quasi-affine maps.

  16. Constructing positive maps in matrix algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chruściński, D.; Kossakowski, A.

    2011-10-01

    We analyze several classes of positive maps in infinite dimensional matrix algebras. Such maps provide basic tools for studying quantum entanglement infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces. Instead of presenting the most general approach to the problem we concentrate on specific examples. We stress that there is no general construction of positive maps. We show how to generalize well known maps in low dimensional algebras: Choi map in M3(C) and Robertson map in M4(C).

  17. TCDD和B[a]P诱导大鼠肺癌变过程CYPIA1表达变化的研究%Expression of CYPIA1 in the process of rat lung carcinogenesis induced by TCDD and B[a]P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖和龙; 吕嘉春; 黎银燕; 宾晓农; 谭敏; 刘小琦

    2013-01-01

    目的:利用四氧二苯二氧杂环己二烯(TCDD,二噁英)和苯并(a)芘(B[a]P)致大鼠肺癌的动物模型,研究肺癌变过程中CYPIA1基因mRNA和蛋白水平的表达.方法:应用RT-PCR方法及荧光免疫法检测大鼠正常肺组织、癌前病变组织和肺癌组织中CYPIA1基因mRNA的表达及CYPIA1基因在肺组织蛋白水平的表达,评价CYPIA1基因在肺癌变过程的作用.结果:CYPIA1 mRNA/β-actin比值在TCDD、TCDD+ B[a]P、B[a]P致癌组及对照组分别为0.956 4±0.328 2、1.153 3±0.432 6、0.252 4±0.103 2和0.093 6±0.032 7;在大鼠正常肺组织、正常增生、癌前病变和肺癌组织中分别为0.105±0.098、0.235±0.108、1.127±0.295和1.564±0.421.结果表明,CYPIA1 mRNA在TCDD+B[a]P、TCDD致癌组有较强表达,在肺癌前病变和肺癌组织中有较强表达;CYP1A1蛋白表达灰度值在TCDD、TCDD+ B[a]P、B[a]P致癌组及对照组分别为41.76±4.82、46.28±4.32、31.02±3.16和18.75±2.27,在大鼠肺正常组织、正常增生、癌前病变和肺癌组织中分别为19.77±2.74、26.71±3.32、43.95±3.98和47.38±4.96.结果表明,CYP1A1蛋白在TCDD+ B[a]P和TCDD致癌组有较强表达,在肺癌前病变和肺癌组织中有较强表达.结论:TCDD和B[a]P对CYPIA1有较好的诱导作用,CYPIA1高表达与肺癌的发生有着密切的关系,其在肺癌前病变和肺癌组织中的高表达,可能是肺癌前病变、肺癌发生的一个标志.%OBJECTIVE:To investigate the role of gene CYPIA1 in the process of lung carcinogenesis. METHODS: In the animal model of rats lung cancer induced by dioxin and B[a]P,the level of CYPIA1 mRNA and CYPIA1 protein expression in groups of TCDD, TCDD + B[a]P, B[a]P and control group were tested. RESULTS: The ratio of CYPIAlmRNA/p-actin in cancerogen groups of TCDD,TCDD+B[a]P, B[a]P and control group were 0. 956 4±0. 328 2, 1. 153 3 + 0. 432 6,0. 252 4 + 0. 103 2,0. 093 6 + 0. 032 7;in normal epithelium,epithelial hyperplasia,atypical hyperplasia

  18. Developed Matrix inequalities via Positive Multilinear Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, Mahdi; Kian, Mohsen; Seo, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the notion of positive multilinear mappings, we give some matrix inequalities. In particular, Choi--Davis--Jensen and Kantorovich type inequalities including positive multilinear mappings are presented.

  19. Farmland Mapping and Monitoring 2004 Mosaic

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program (FMMP) produces maps and statistical data used for analyzing impacts on California's agricultural resources. Agricultural...

  20. Floodplain Mapping, Washita County, Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...