Sample records for baby hamster kidney

  1. Efficient expression of histidine-tagged large hepatitis delta antigen in baculovirus-transduced baby hamster kidney cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Wei Chiang; Jaw-Chin Wu; Kuei-Chun Wang; Chia-Wei Lai; Yao-Chi Chung; Yu-Chen Hu


    AIM: To study the baculovirus/mammalian cell system for efficient expression of functional large hepatitis delta antigen (L-HDAg).METHODS: A recombinant baculovirus expressing histidine-tagged L-HDAg (L-HDAgH) was constructed to transduce baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells by a simplified transduction protocol.RESULTS: The recombinant baculovirus transduced BHK cells with efficiencies higher than 90% as determined by flow cytometry. The expression level was significantly higher than that obtained by plasmid transfection and was further enhanced 3-fold to around 19 pg/cell by the addition of 10 mmol/L sodium butyrate. Importantly,the expressed L-HDAgH was localized to the cell nucleus and correctly isoprenylated as determined by immunofluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy.Moreover, L-HDAgH interacted with hepatitis B surface antigen to form virus-like particles.CONCLUSION: The fusion with histidine tags as well as overexpression of L-HDAgH in the baculovirus-transduced BHK cells does not impair the biological functions. Taken together, the baculovirus/mammalian cell system offers an attractive alternative for high level expression of L-HDAgH or other proteins that require extensive posttranslational modifications.

  2. Hydatid Cyst Protoscolices Induce Cell Death in WEHI-164 Fibrosarcoma Cells and Inhibit the Proliferation of Baby Hamster Kidney Fibroblasts In Vitro

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    Hossein Yousofi Darani


    Full Text Available Both in vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated that some parasites can interfere with tumor cell growth. The present study investigates the anticancer activity of hydatid cyst protoscolices on WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells and baby hamster kidney (BHK fibroblast cells in vitro. Those above two cell types were treated with live hydatid cyst protoscolices or left untreated for control groups. After 48 h, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and cell counts were assayed for both treated cells and control groups. Following treatment with hydatid cyst protoscolices, cell proliferation of both cell types was inhibited, and lysis of fibrosarcoma cells increased. Based on these results, it appears that hydatid cyst protoscolices have strong anticancer activity, and additional studies are needed to further clarify the mechanisms of this activity.

  3. Mifepristone treatment results in differential regulation of glycerolipid biosynthesis in baby hamster kidney cells expressing a mifepristone-inducible ABCA1. (United States)

    Hauff, Kristin D; Mitchell, Ryan W; Xu, Fred Y; Dembinski, Thomas; Mymin, David; Zha, Xiaohui; Choy, Patrick C; Hatch, Grant M


    ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) transports cholesterol, phospholipids and lipophilic molecules to and across cellular membranes. We examined if ABCA1 expression altered cellular de novo glycerolipid biosynthesis in growing Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Mock BHK cells or cells expressing a mifepristone-inducible ABCA1 (ABCA1) were incubated plus or minus mifepristone and then with [(3)H]serine or [(3)H]inositol or [(3)H]ethanolamine or [methyl-(3)H]choline or [(3)H]glycerol or [(14)C]oleate and radioactivity incorporated into glycerolipids determined. Mifepristone did not affect [1,3-(3)H]glycerol or [(14)C]oleate or [(3)H]ethanolamine or [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake in BHK cells. In contrast, [(3)H]glycerol and [(14)C]oleate incorporated into phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) were elevated 2.4-fold (p < 0.05) and 54% (p < 0.05), respectively, upon ABCA1 induction confirming increased PtdSer biosynthesis from these precursors. However, mifepristone inhibited [(3)H]serine uptake and incorporation into PtdSer indicating that PtdSer synthesis from serine in BHK cells is dependent on serine uptake. Mifepristone stimulated [(3)H]inositol uptake in mock and ABCA1 cells but not its incorporation into phosphatidylinositol indicating that its synthesis from inositol is independent of inositol uptake in BHK cells. [(3)H]glycerol and [(14)C]oleate incorporated into triacylglycerol were reduced and into diacylglycerol elevated only in mifepristone-induced ABCA1 expressing cells due to a decrease in diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) activity. The presence of trichostatin A, a class I and II histone deacetylase inhibitor, reversed the ABCA1-mediated reduction in DGAT-1 activity but did not affect DGAT-1 mRNA expression. Thus, mifepristone has diverse effects on de novo glycerolipid synthesis. We suggest that caution should be exercised when using mifepristone-inducible systems for studies of glycerolipid metabolism in cells expressing glucocorticoid responsive receptors.

  4. 人胰岛素基因在幼仓鼠肾细胞中的表达及其降血糖效应%Expression of human insulin gene in baby hamster kidney cells and its effect on decreasing blood glucose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华; 王苹; 刘维全; 王吉贵


    BACKGROUND: With the development and application of molecular biology and molecular genetic techniques,people research the production of human insulin by means of genetic engineering,and consider from the molecular level to reconstruct the cloning cell line which excretes insulin,so as to replace insulin injection and islet transplantation to treat diabetes mellitus.OBJECTIVE: To construct and screen human insulin gene eukaryon expression carrier of high performance.DESIGN: A randomized control experiment.SETTING: Experimental Animal Department of China Medical University.MATERIALS: Forty healthy adult Kunming mice of clean degree, weighing 20-30 g, half males and half females, were provided by the experimental animal center of Munitions University of Chinese PLA,and they were free to the access of the artificial granule food and water,and all the mice were lighted for 14 hours every day. Escherichia coli DH5α and BHK cell line were preserved by the experimental animal center.METHODS: Recombinant plasmid pEF1α-ImINS was constructed with routine method.The baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were transfected with recombinant plasmid pEF1α-ImINS and other 3 recombinant plasmids of insulin, then screened with G418, and the positive clone cells were passaged to the 20th generation, the expressions of insulin and/or proinsulin in BHK cells were detected with radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical technique. The PBS suspension (5×107) and the supernatant (0.5 mL) of the 20th generation BHK positive cells trasnfected with pEF1α-ImINS were injected intraperitoneally to each mice, the blood glucose was detected before and after injection to analyze the biological effect of the transgeneic product in decreasing blood glucose.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The integration and expression of insulin gene in BHK cells and the changes of blood glucose before and after injection were mainly observed.RESULTS: The highest insulin expression was 7.984 mIU/L,the gray value of insulin

  5. Hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, G.J.D.M.; Haye, la M.J.J.


    The common hamster occurs locally in the central and Southern part of Limburg. Its habitat is limited to loess and loam soils, which it constructs underground burrows. Changes in Agricultural land use sparked a steady decline from the 1970s onwards, By the end of the 1990s, the common hamster had al

  6. Somatic mutations in stilbene estrogen-induced Syrian hamster kidney tumors identified by DNA fingerprinting

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    Roy Deodutta


    Full Text Available Abstract Kidney tumors from stilbene estrogen (diethylstilbestrol-treated Syrian hamsters were screened for somatic genetic alterations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain-reaction (RAPD-PCR fingerprinting. Fingerprints from tumor tissue were generated by single arbitrary primers and compared with fingerprints for normal tissue from the same animal, as well as normal and tumor tissues from different animals. Sixty one of the arbitrary primers amplified 365 loci that contain approximately 476 kbp of the hamster genome. Among these amplified DNA fragments, 44 loci exhibited either qualitative or quantitative differences between the tumor tissues and normal kidney tissues. RAPD-PCR loci showing decreased and increased intensities in tumor tissue DNA relative to control DNA indicate that loci have undergone allelic losses and gains, respectively, in the stilbene estrogen-induced tumor cell genome. The presence or absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicate homozygous insertions or deletions in the kidney tumor DNA compared to the age-matched normal kidney tissue DNA. Seven of 44 mutated loci also were present in the kidney tissues adjacent to tumors (free of macroscopic tumors. The presence of mutated loci in uninvolved (non-tumor surrounding tissue adjacent to tumors from stilbene estrogen-treated hamsters suggests that these mutations occurred in the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cloning and sequencing of RAPD amplified loci revealed that one mutated locus had significant sequence similarity with the hamster Cyp1A1 gene. The results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate, in a single step, DNA sequences representing genetic alterations in stilbene estrogen-induced cancer cells, including losses of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion and insertion mutations. RAPD-PCR provides an alternative molecular approach for studying cancer cytogenetics in stilbene estrogen-induced tumors in humans and experimental

  7. Managing pregnancy in chronic kidney disease: improving outcomes for mother and baby

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    Fitzpatrick A


    Full Text Available Alyssa Fitzpatrick,1 Fadak Mohammadi,2 Shilpanjali Jesudason1–3 1Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Central and Northern Adelaide Renal and Transplantation Service, Royal Adelaide Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Abstract: Parenthood is a central focus for women with chronic kidney disease, but raises important fears and uncertainties about risks to their own and their baby’s health. Pregnancy in women with background kidney disease, women receiving dialysis, or those with a functioning kidney transplant poses a challenging clinical scenario, associated with high maternal–fetal morbidity and potential impact on maternal renal health. Improvements in care over recent decades have led to a paradigm shift with cautious optimism and growing interest regarding pregnancies in women with chronic kidney disease. In this review, we discuss obstetric and renal outcomes, and practical aspects of management of pregnancy in this complex cohort. Keywords: renal, obstetric, fetal, transplant, drugs

  8. Replication of simian virus 40 in simian virus 40-transformed hamster kidney cells induced by mitomycin C or /sup 60/Co. gamma. irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakusanova, T.; Smales, W.P.; Kaplan, J.C.; Black, P.H.


    Several clones of simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed hamster kidney cells, which are heterogeneous for induction of infectious SV40, have been studied. SV40 yields are low after induction with /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. irradiation or mitomycin C. In order to clarify the mechanism(s) by which virus is produced in induced cells, we analyzed the replication of viral DNA and production of virion (V) antigen and infectious virus after induction in various clones as well as in lytically infected permissive cells. Cells replicating SV40 DNA or synthesizing V antigen were visualized by in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence techniques, respectively. Only some cells in induced cultures were found to produce SV40 and those which did were less efficient than lytically infected monkey cells. Mitomycin C or /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. irradiation acted by inducing more cells to replicate virus rather than by increasing the amount of SV40 released from individual cells. A greater proportion of cells could be induced to replicate SV40 DNA than to synthesize V antigen in all induced clones studied. Also, SV40 DNA replication was induced at lower doses of ..gamma.. irradiation than the production of either V antigen or infectious virus suggesting that synthesis of late virus protein is more restricted in induced cells than is replication of SV40 DNA. These findings indicate that one of the effects of induction treatments on SV40-transformed hamster cells is an enhancement of the cells' capacity to support SV40 replication.

  9. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... the kidneys gives the kidneys their dark red color. While the blood is in the kidneys, water ...

  10. Designer Babies


    Menard, Marion; Overgaard, Anne Cecilie; Birisawa, Noella C.; Laloë, Juliette


    This project aims at examining the sense-making process of Danish females between the age 18-25 regarding the Designer Babies awareness campaign “How far would you go?”. We investigate how we as communicators can get to know our audience through quantitative and qualitative research methods, and by utilizing various theoretical frameworks such as audience reception analysis and dialogical approach. Our discussion is anchored in Anthony Giddens's theory of ‘modernity and self-identity’, which ...

  11. Shaken baby symptoms (image) (United States)

    ... baby syndrome is a severe form of head injury caused by the baby's brain rebounding inside of the baby's skull when shaken. In this injury there is bruising of the brain, swelling, pressure, and bleeding (intracerebral hemorrhage). This can ...

  12. Organic Baby Food: Better for Baby? (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Infant and toddler health Is organic baby food better for my baby? Answers from Jay L. Hoecker, M.D. Organic foods are grown or processed without synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Feeding ...

  13. Breastfeed Your Baby (United States)

    ... your baby breast milk only (no formula, juice, cow's milk, solid foods, or water). Give your baby any ... both moms and babies. Benefits for your baby Breast milk: Has just the ... you from ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and heart disease Learn more about ...

  14. Babies Need Tummy Time (United States)

    ... so your baby can start to sit up, crawl, and walk Improves your baby's motor skills (using ... Health and Human Services. Home About SIDS/Safe Infant Sleep Campaign Materials Explore the Campaign News & Media ...

  15. Diapering Your Baby (United States)

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development ( ... bebé New parents spend a lot of time changing their baby. Indeed, babies may use 10 diapers ...

  16. Kidney Dysplasia (United States)

    ... Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Dysplasia What is kidney dysplasia? Kidney dysplasia is a condition in which ... Kidney dysplasia in one kidney What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  17. Bringing Up Baby. (United States)

    Nespeca, Sue McCleaf


    Presents recommendations for developing sound baby collections that include selecting books that: have designs infants are attracted to, provide tactile experiences, incorporate rhymes, have rounded edges (board books), and can be cleaned (cloth books). Includes an alphabetical list of good books for babies, as well as books on planning a lapsit…

  18. Your Colicky Baby (United States)

    ... movement of the car are often calming. Play music — some babies respond to sound as well as movement. Place your baby in the same room as a running clothes dryer, white noise machine, or vacuum — some infants find the constant ...

  19. Ectopic Kidney (United States)

    ... Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Ectopic Kidney What is an ectopic kidney? An ectopic kidney is a birth defect in ... has an ectopic kidney. 1 What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  20. Beschermingsplan hamster 2005-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haye, la M.J.J.; Jansman, H.A.H.


    Alterra-Concept van het beschermingsplan hamster 2005-2010. De hamster is in het meest westelijke deel van het Europese verspreidingsgebied bedreigd. De kennis die in de afgelopen periode is opgedaan van de hamster en de maatregelen die in het veld zijn uitgevoerd vormen de basis voor dit tweede Bes

  1. Bonding with Your Baby (United States)

    ... in infant massage in your area. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding are both natural times for bonding. Infants respond ... activities include: participating together in labor and delivery feeding ( breast or bottle ); sometimes dad forms a special bond with baby ...

  2. "The Water Babies" (United States)

    Leavis, Q. D.


    Describes the loss of esteem as a children's classic of "The Water Babies," discusses the literary justification for keeping it in circulation, and offers suggestions for using it in children's education. (JM)

  3. [Babies with cranial deformity]. (United States)

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J


    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option.

  4. Dinosaur Eggs and Babies (United States)

    Carpenter, Kenneth; Hirsch, Karl F.; Horner, John R.


    In the last couple of decades the study of dinosaur eggs and babies has proved to be one of the most exciting and profitable areas of dinosaur research. This is the first book solely devoted to this topic and reviews, in scientific detail, our present state of knowledge about this exciting area of palaeontology. Chapters in the book discuss all aspects of the science including the occurrence of eggs, nests and baby skeletons, descriptive osteology of juvenile skeletons, comparative histology of juvenile bone, analyses of eggs and egg shells, palaeoenvironments of nesting sites, nesting behaviour and developmental growth of baby dinosaurs. The volume will be an invaluable addition to the book collections of vertebrate palaeontologists and their graduate students.

  5. Sequencing, annotation and analysis of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus transcriptome.

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    Nicolas Tchitchek

    Full Text Available The Syrian hamster (golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus is gaining importance as a new experimental animal model for multiple pathogens, including emerging zoonotic diseases such as Ebola. Nevertheless there are currently no publicly available transcriptome reference sequences or genome for this species.A cDNA library derived from mRNA and snRNA isolated and pooled from the brains, lungs, spleens, kidneys, livers, and hearts of three adult female Syrian hamsters was sequenced. Sequence reads were assembled into 62,482 contigs and 111,796 reads remained unassembled (singletons. This combined contig/singleton dataset, designated as the Syrian hamster transcriptome, represents a total of 60,117,204 nucleotides. Our Mesocricetus auratus Syrian hamster transcriptome mapped to 11,648 mouse transcripts representing 9,562 distinct genes, and mapped to a similar number of transcripts and genes in the rat. We identified 214 quasi-complete transcripts based on mouse annotations. Canonical pathways involved in a broad spectrum of fundamental biological processes were significantly represented in the library. The Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned to the current release of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell transcriptome and genome to improve the genomic annotation of this species. Finally, our Syrian hamster transcriptome was aligned against 14 other rodents, primate and laurasiatheria species to gain insights about the genetic relatedness and placement of this species.This Syrian hamster transcriptome dataset significantly improves our knowledge of the Syrian hamster's transcriptome, especially towards its future use in infectious disease research. Moreover, this library is an important resource for the wider scientific community to help improve genome annotation of the Syrian hamster and other closely related species. Furthermore, these data provide the basis for development of expression microarrays that can be used in functional genomics studies.

  6. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants (United States)

    ... this page: // Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  7. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  8. Caring for Your Premature Baby (United States)

    ... for the first time, and when your baby crawls for the first time. These are things doctors ... mattress may increase your baby's risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). SIDS is the sudden and ...

  9. Assessing vision in a baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bowman


    Full Text Available Don’t be anxious about examining a baby. If the baby is awake and attentive, there is a lot you can find out by asking the parents and by simply observing the baby’s reactions.

  10. Healthy Smile for Your Baby (United States)

    ... your baby’s gums or brush your baby’s teeth, give your baby healthy foods, and take your baby to the dentist by the time ... they have teeth, you should clean their gums. Give your baby a healthy start! Here are tips ... healthy. Take Care of Your Baby’s Mouth m Clean your ...

  11. Shaken baby syndrome (United States)

    ... Still, it is a form of child abuse . Injuries are most likely to happen when the baby is shaken and then the ... or tossing the child in the air, or jogging with the child. It also ... other types of head injuries, although these are often minor.

  12. Salmonella from Baby Turtles

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Stacey Bosch, a veterinarian with CDC, discusses her article on Salmonella infections associated with baby turtles.  Created: 1/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/9/2017.

  13. Math: "Baby Research" (United States)

    Leeb-Lundberg, Kristina


    The concept of "baby research" signifies a playful investigation that takes place at a child's initiative, carried out with freedom and joy, without specific knowledge of preconceived ideas of where it will lead. A joyous firsthand experience with Cuisenaire rods is described by a teacher who once disliked teaching mathematics.…

  14. Shaken baby syndrome; Shaken-baby-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Ahlhelm, F.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Rohrer, T. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Allgemeine Paediatrie und Neonatologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) describes the coincidence of subdural hematoma, retinal bleeding and, disadvantageous for the prognosis, diffuse brain damage caused by powerful shaking of the infant. The clinical symptoms include irritability, difficulty with drinking, somnolence, apathy, cerebral cramp attacks, apnoea, temperature regulation disorders and vomiting due to cranial pressure. Milder symptoms of SBS are often not diagnosed and the number of unregistered cases is probably much greater. The diagnosis of SBS is made through the typical symptom constellation, but the lack of retinal bleeding does not exclude the diagnosis. Normally the infants are held by the thorax or upper arms and shaken in a sagittal direction during which the head falls backwards and forwards and is stopped abruptly at each extreme position. The injurious mechanism is considered to be caused by rotational forces which force tissue layers in the brain against each other and also lead to rupture of bridging veins between the skull and the brain. The prognosis is poor and approximately 25% of infants die of SBS within days or weeks. Approximately 75% of survivors suffer from long term damage with physical handicaps, limitations in hearing, visual disturbances up to blindness and mental disorders or combinations of these conditions. Prevention is therefore the most important aspect. (orig.) [German] Das Shaken-baby-Syndrom (SBS) oder Schuetteltrauma des Saeuglings beschreibt die Koinzidenz subduraler Haematome, retinaler Blutungen und prognostisch unguenstiger, diffuser Hirnschaeden durch heftiges Schuetteln eines Saeuglings. Die klinischen Symptome umfassen Irritabilitaet, Trinkschwierigkeiten, Somnolenz, Apathie, zerebrale Krampfanfaelle, Apnoe, Temperaturregulationsstoerungen und Erbrechen durch Hirndruck. Leichtere Symptome des SBS werden haeufig nicht diagnostiziert, die Dunkelziffer ist wahrscheinlich viel hoeher. Die Diagnose des SBS wird durch die typische Symptomkonstellation gestellt

  15. Superstitions Endanger Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    泰国妇女择日分娩,为了让子女在“黄道吉日”来到这个世界,泰国1/5以上的孕妇实行了剖腹产。殊不知,此举将严重影响孩子大脑的发育。可怜天下父母心!本则消息出现“剖腹产”一词:caesarean/caesarean section([医]剖腹生产术)。另如:Their first baby was born by caesarean。/他们的头胎婴儿是剖腹产的。需注意的是,首字母大写的Cesarean却别具含义:凯撒的;皇帝的。 此外,文中一个way,用法新鲜,别具含义。

  16. Melatonin and schistosomal antigens ameliorate the anti-oxidative and biochemical response to Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahla S.El-SHENAWY; Maha F.M.SOLIMAN; Shimaa E.Abel-RAHMAN


    The present study was designed to investigate the potential protective effect of melatonin as an antioxidant separately or in combination with antigens (cercarial; CAP or soluble worm; SWAP) against Schistosoma mansoni infection in hamsters. Each hamster was sensitized with an initial immunization of 0.6 ml of the extracted antigen (30 μg protein/mL). After four days, a second injection of 0.4 mL was given (20 μg protein/mL). Then, each hamster was exposed to 260±20 S.mansoni cercariae followed with melatonin treatment (3.5 mg/kg) for thirty days from the 1st day of post infection. Levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, catalase (CAT) activity, hepatic glutathione (GSH) and biochemical changes in the liver and kidneys functions were investigated. The results revealed a high significant increasing of LPO and decreasing of CAT and GSH in liver of infected hamsters. Biochemical observations showed severe damage in the liver enzyme activities and increasing cholesterol level in infected animals. Melatonin co-treatment with antigen to the infected-hamster attenuated the increase of LPO and restored the activity of CAT and levels of hepatic GSH. Also, the biochemical damages in the liver and kidneys functions were reduced. The present study suggests that melatonin may be useful in combating free radical-induced damage due to infection toxicity. The immunization with previous antigens resulted in a remarkable improvement on the liver enzyme activities, which were increased after infection. Thus, vaccination of hamsters with antigens (both CAP and SWAP) and melatonin treatment has more potent effect on the enhancement of antioxidant and biochemical of S.mansoni infected-hamster than each treatment separately. Immunization of the hamster with SWAP followed by melatonin was the best way among the other regime treatments to improve the biochemical and antioxidant parameters of the infected-hamsters[Current Zoology 55(2):165-172,2009].

  17. Your Kidneys (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Kidneys KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Kidneys A A A ... and it will be lighter. What Else Do Kidneys Do? Kidneys are always busy. Besides filtering the ...

  18. Kidney Cysts (United States)

    ... fluid-filled sac. There are two types of kidney cysts. Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) runs in families. In PKD, the ... place of the normal tissue. They enlarge the kidneys and make them work poorly, leading to kidney ...

  19. The hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) as an experimental model of toxocariasis: histopathological, immunohistochemical, and immunoelectron microscopic findings. (United States)

    da Silva, Ana Maria Gonçalves; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Kanashiro, Edite Hatsumi Yamashiro; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Cunha-Neto, Edécio; Mairena, Eliane Conti; De Brito, Thales


    Toxocariasis is a globally distributed parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of Toxocara spp. The typical natural hosts of the parasite are dogs and cats, but humans can be infected by the larval stage of the parasite after ingesting embryonated eggs in soil or from contaminated hands or fomites. The migrating larvae are not adapted to complete their life cycle within accidental or paratenic hosts like humans and laboratory animals, respectively, but they are capable of invading viscera or other tissues where they may survive and induce disease. In order to characterize hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) as a model for Toxocara canis infection, histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were used to detect pathological lesions and the distribution of toxocaral antigens in the liver, lungs, and kidneys of experimentally infected animals. We also attempted to characterize the immunological parameters of the inflammatory response and correlate them with the histopathological findings. In the kidney, a correlation between glomerular changes and antigen deposits was evaluated using immunoelectron microscopy. The hamster is an adequate model of experimental toxocariasis for short-term investigations and has a good immunological and pathological response to the infection. Lung and liver manifestations of toxocariasis in hamsters approximated those in humans and other experimental animal models. A mixed Th2 immunological response to T. canis infection was predominant. The hamster model displayed a progressive rise of anti-toxocaral antibodies with the formation of immune complexes. Circulating antigens, immunoglobulin, and complement deposits were detected in the kidney without the development of a definite immune complex nephropathy.

  20. Effect of mercuric acetate on selected enzymes of maternal and fetal hamsters at different gestational ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, W.B.; Gale, T.F.; Subramanyam, S.B.; DuRant, R.H.


    This study establishes levels of activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), glycogen phosphorlyase (GP), and cytochrome c oxidase (cyt c ox) in maternal, placental, and fetal tissues at Days 9, 12, and 15 in the 16-day gestation period of the hamster, and following a single dose of either 8 or 15 mg/kg mercuric acetate on the eighth gestational day. Mercury significantly elevated maternal kidney G6PD activity and decreased GP activity. The increase in kidney G6PD strongly correlated with observed urine and kidney abnormalities.

  1. Baby Naps: Daytime Sleep Tips (United States)

    ... of sudden infant death syndrome: Diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to ... infant-and-toddler-health/in-depth/baby-naps/art-20047421 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  2. Shaken Baby Syndrome: a review. (United States)

    Mian, Maha; Shah, Janki; Dalpiaz, Amanda; Schwamb, Richard; Miao, Yimei; Warren, Kelly; Khan, Sardar


    Shaken Baby Syndrome occurs in infants as a result of the brain pushing against the skull due to severe acceleration-deceleration forces. Symptoms of Shaken Baby Syndrome include subdural, subarachnoid, and retinal hemorrhages. MRI and ocular examinations are used to determine the extent of mental and visual damage and β-amyloid precursor protein immunohistochemical staining is used to detect axonal injuries. Surgeries such as Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) evacuation surgery and the Burr hole craniotomy are used to treat Shaken Baby Syndrome; however, the prognosis is poor in many cases. Because of the severity of Shaken Baby Syndrome and its traumatic and sometimes fatal effects, it is important to educate new parents, nurses, and doctors on the syndrome in order to prevent incidents.

  3. Collodion Baby - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Vesna


    Full Text Available Colloidon baby describes a highly characteristic clinical entity in newborns encased in a yellowish translucent membrane resembling collodion. In most cases the condition either precedes the development of one of a variety of ichthyoses, the commonest of which are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma, or occasionally represents an initial phase of other ichthyoses such as ichthyosis vulgaris. In at least 10% of all cases of collodion baby, the condition is followed by a mild ichthyosis of lamellar type, so mild as to be considered more or less normal, so-called self-healing collodion baby or ‘lamellar ichthyosis of the newborn’. In this report we present a rare case of collodion baby in whom, after collodion membrane peeled-off, the skin retained normal appearance.

  4. The LHC babies

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso


    With the machine restart and first collisions at 3.5 TeV, 2009 and 2010 were two action-packed years at the LHC. The events were a real media success, but one important result that remained well hidden was the ten births in the LHC team over the same period. The mothers – engineers, cryogenics experts and administrative assistants working for the LHC – confirm that it is possible to maintain a reasonable work-life balance. Two of them tell us more…   Verena Kain (left) and Reyes Alemany (right) in the CERN Control Centre. With the LHC running around the clock, LHC operations engineers have high-pressure jobs with unsociable working hours. These past two years, which will undoubtedly go down in the annals of CERN history, the LHC team had their work cut out, but despite their high-octane professional lives, several female members of the team took up no less of a challenge in their private lives, creating a mini-baby-boom by which the LHC start-up will also be remembe...

  5. Recognition of a Baby's Emotional Cry Towards Robotics Baby Caregiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shota Yamamoto


    Full Text Available We developed a method for pattern recognition of baby’s emotions (discomfortable, hungry, or sleepy expressed in the baby’s cries. A 32‐dimensional fast Fourier transform is performed for sound form clips, detected by our reported method and used as training data. The power of the sound form judged as a silent region is subtracted from each power of the frequency element. The power of each frequency element after the subtraction is treated as one of the elements of the feature vector. We perform principal component analysis (PCA for the feature vectors of the training data. The emotion of the baby is recognized by the nearest neighbor criterion applied to the feature vector obtained from the test data of sound form clips after projecting the feature vector on the PCA space from the training data. Then, the emotion with the highest frequency among the recognition results for a sound form clip is judged as the emotion expressed by the baby’s cry. We successfully applied the proposed method to pattern recognition of baby’s emotions. The present investigation concerns the first stage of the development of a robotics baby caregiver that has the ability to detect babyʹs emotions. In this first stage, we have developed a method for detecting babyʹs emotions. We expect that the proposed method could be used in robots that can help take care of babies.

  6. Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Kidney Disease What is Kidney Disease? What the Kidneys Do Click for more information You have two ... damaged, wastes can build up in the body. Kidney Function and Aging Kidney function may be reduced ...

  7. Study on Safety and Effect of Purified Inactivited Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine (Primary Hamster Kidney cell, PHK)%流行性乙型脑炎纯化灭活疫苗(地鼠肾细胞)安全性及血清学效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李薇; 王玉琳; 贾丽丽; 邹勇; 孙振鹏; 岳广智; 王志伟; 童亦兵; 庄妍; 吴昊


    目的 评价流行性乙型脑炎(乙脑)纯化灭活疫苗(地鼠肾细胞)[Purified Inactivited Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine(Primary Hamster Kidney Cell),JEV-I(PHK)]接种安全性及血清学效果.方法 共选择943名6月龄~10岁儿童进行Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ期临床研究,临床研究用疫苗为兰州生物制品研究所研制,批号20010401,剂量为0.5ml/剂,每剂蛋白含量11.5μg.上臂三角肌肌内注射,0、7d各接种1剂.结果 接种人体后副反应轻微,无严重全身及局部反应.共接种1848剂次,101剂次出现发热反应,其中98剂次≤37.5℃,24~72h自行恢复.Ⅰ期接种40人,总反应率2.5%;Ⅱ、Ⅲ期接种903人.另设对照疫苗组JEV-I(Vero细胞)接种101人,总反应率分别为6.2%和14.2%.血清学效果测定表明,在试验组与对照组,免疫前抗体阴性组的抗体阳转率分别为96.9%和84.0%,抗体几何平均滴度(Geometric Mean Titer,GMT)分别为1:32.8和1:43.9;免疫前抗体阳性组的抗体≥4倍增长率分别为93.1%和100.0%,抗体GMT分别为1:167.2和1:181.0.结论 JEV-I(PHK)安全性和血清学效果良好.临床试验注册国家食品药品监督管理局(批件号2003L00429).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas M


    Full Text Available Collodion baby is a rare, genetic heterogeneous skin disorder. It refers to a clinicentity used for newborns who are encased by a translucent, tight and parchment paper like skin sheets so called collodion membrane, on the entire body surface. 1 Collodion baby is a phenotype which broadly describes the above condition which includes a number of phenotypes. The two most common phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis and non-bullous congenital erythroderma which account for 75% of cases and others like Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, Netherton syndrome, Gaucher disease etc account for 15% of the cases. 2 Lamellar ichthyosis which is more common, is an autosomal recessive condition caused by mutations in the transglutaminase-1 gene, defect on chromosome 14q11.Lid ectropion and ocular complications like exposure keratitis are seen commonly in colloidon babies. 3 15 day old male baby, first issue of a second degree consanguineously married couple, born at a gestation age of 36 weeks (normal vaginal delivery was referred to ophthalmic institute for management of ectropion. Child was diagnosed to have lamellar ichthyosis at the paediatric referral institute. At birth baby weighed 2500 grams, length 48 cm, head circumference of 34 cm.

  9. Kidney Diseases (United States)

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  10. Kidney Infection (United States)

    ... X-ray called a voiding cystourethrogram. Antibiotics for kidney infections Antibiotics are the first line of treatment ... the infection is completely eliminated. Hospitalization for severe kidney infections For a severe kidney infection, your doctor ...

  11. Kidney School (United States)

    ... copies? Read our licensing agreement Living Successfully with Kidney Disease People with kidney disease can live long ... Listen Printing multiple copies? Read our licensing agreement Kidneys: How They Work, How They Fail, What You ...

  12. Kidney Problems (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  13. Expression patterns of Doppel gene in golden hamster: quantification using real-time RT-PCR. (United States)

    Li, Y R; Li, Q; Yang, J M; Zhou, X M; Yin, X M; Zhao, D M


    Doppel (prion-like protein, Dpl) may act as a useful molecular marker in tumor diagnosis and in tumor grade definition, as over-expression of Dpl protein has been found in tumors with different histologic origin. Accordingly, the quantitative analysis of the expression of Dpl in different tissues is essential for understanding its role in tumor progression and cancer diagnostic. Herein we report Dpl mRNA quantification in golden hamster by calibrated highly sensitive externally standardized real-time RT-PCR with LightCycler instrument. Total RNA was isolated from nine different organs of golden hamster in different stages of development: from neonatal to adult golden hamster. Highest level of Dpl mRNA was detected in the testis, and lower levels of Dpl mRNA were detected in the following tissues: spleen, heart, bone marrow, skeletal muscles and neocortex (only in neonatal hamster). The expression of Dpl was not detected in kidney, liver and lung. This is the first study to report the expression of Dpl in bone marrow of murine and the difference of expression levels of Dpl in testis between adult and neonatal hamsters.

  14. Histiocytic Sarcoma and Bilateral Facial Vein Thrombosis in a Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Coble, Dondrae J; Shoemaker, Margaret; Harrington, Bonnie; Dardenne, Adrienne D; Bolon, Brad


    A 21-mo-old, male Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) presented with left-sided facial swelling, proptosis of the left eye, and blepharospasm of the right eye. The hamster had been used only for breeding. Because of the poor prognosis, the hamster was euthanized without additional diagnostic assays or treatments. Routine gross pathologic evaluation demonstrated exophthalmos and presumptive hyphema of the left eye, bilateral facial edema, freely movable nodules within the mesentery, white foci within the liver, and a large mass effacing the cranial pole of the right kidney. On histologic evaluation, the mesenteric nodules and liver foci expressed histiocytic marker CD163 and thus were diagnosed as sites of histiocytic sarcoma, whereas the kidney mass was a well-differentiated renal cell carcinoma. The facial swelling resulted from bilateral, chronic, severe, branching thrombi in many facial veins. Additional age-related histopathologic findings were observed in other organs, including diffuse glomerulopathy, nesidioblastosis (pancreatic islet neoformation), and multiple foci of severe cartilage degeneration in the axial skeleton. To our knowledge, this report provides the first description of histiocytic sarcoma in a Siberian hamster.

  15. Designer babies--why not? (United States)

    Evans, M


    Though many objections can be levelled against the idea of the practice of genetic intervention to produce 'designer babies', upon examination they are shown to hinge on features which concern parental intentions towards their children, rather than features specific to the means involved. These intentions may be pursued by a variety of social practices which may, though need not, involve a measure of 'traditional' genetic selection (i.e. in terms of the identity and characteristics of the reproducing partners). This paper reviews a number of these objections and, by parity of reasoning, rejects their claim to count specifically or decisively against genetic intervention in pursuit of 'designer babies'. Rejecting these objections does not lead to the endorsement of 'designing babies, but it shows that any unease must be grounded elsewhere and defended by other arguments.

  16. Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee (United States)

    ... Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee Parents should reduce ... 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to secondhand marijuana smoke take in THC, the primary psychoactive chemical ...

  17. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome) KidsHealth > For Parents > Abusive Head ... babies tend to cry the most. How These Injuries Happen Abusive head trauma results from injuries caused ...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-43 - Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. 319.56-43... § 319.56-43 Baby corn and baby carrots from Zambia. (a) Immature, dehusked “baby” sweet corn (Zea mays L... inches) in length may be imported into the continental United States from Zambia only under the...

  19. Wonderful Instant of Chinese Millennium Babies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AS the new millennium arrived twenty-five photographers in various cities took photos of newly delivered babies, These valuable photos became the first chapter in the photo data bank featuring babies' photographs started on January 22. Though they were all the very first photos of these newly-born babies, the behavior of the babies was very different. Li Shuzhe in Beijing was the

  20. Compassionate Roots Begin with Babies (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mena, Janet


    Long before babies understand words, they understand touch. The first experience of compassion infants receive is gentle, caring touch, which gives a strong message, especially when accompanied by eye contact and a soft tone of voice. The kind of relationship a compassionate caregiver strives to develop with an infant creates attachment, an…

  1. Solitary Kidney (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  2. Somatostatin Agonist Pasireotide Promotes a Physiological State Resembling Short-Day Acclimation in the Photoperiodic Male Siberian Hamster (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Dumbell, R A; Scherbarth, F; Diedrich, V; Schmid, H A; Steinlechner, S; Barrett, P


    The timing of growth in seasonal mammals is inextricably linked to food availability. This is exemplified in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), which uses the annual cycle of photoperiod to optimally programme energy expenditure in anticipation of seasonal fluctuations in food resources. During the autumn, energy expenditure is progressively minimised by physiological adaptations, including a 30% reduction in body mass, comprising a reduction in both fat and lean tissues. However, the mechanistic basis of this adaptation is still unexplained. We hypothesised that growth hormone (GH) was a likely candidate to underpin these reversible changes in body mass. Administration of pasireotide, a long-acting somatostatin receptor agonist developed for the treatment of acromegaly, to male hamsters under a long-day (LD) photoperiod produced a body weight loss. This comprised a reduction in lean and fat mass, including kidneys, testes and brown adipose tissue, typically found in short-day (SD) housed hamsters. Furthermore, when administered to hamsters switched from SD to LD, pasireotide retarded the body weight increase compared to vehicle-treated hamsters. Pasireotide did not alter photoperiod-mediated changes in hypothalamic energy balance gene expression but altered the expression of Srif mRNA expression in the periventricular nucleus and Ghrh mRNA expression in the arcuate nucleus consistent with a reduction in GH feedback and concurrent with reduced serum insulin-like growth factor-1. Conversely, GH treatment of SD hamsters increased body mass, which included increased mass of liver and kidneys. Together, these data indicate a role for the GH axis in the determination of seasonal body mass of the Siberian hamster.

  3. ["Designer baby" changed to French for "double hope baby"]. (United States)

    Fagniez, P-L; Loriau, J; Tayar, C


    Scientific advances during the last decades regarding potential intervention on embryos arouse many questions in society to prepare the ground concerning the limits that should be set for these practices. For the first time in 1994, a parliamentary proceeding allowed the definition of a French model of bioethics through laws of the same name. These laws, among others, authorized in a well and strictly defined setting the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Because of technical progress concerning PGD, new questions arose, especially concerning the accomplishment of designer babies. The French Chamber of Representatives came in with a new law that banishes the concept of designer babies and replaces it with another concept: double hope babies, in French "bébé du double espoir". A first hope of a pregnancy giving birth to a healthy child and the second being that this child conceived with the aid of PGD could help treat an elder brother. Because of the issuing of two specific laws in a ten years interval, France occupies a privileged place in a Europe where bioethical issues continue to be debated, particularly PGD.

  4. Injury - kidney and ureter (United States)

    Kidney damage; Toxic injury of the kidney; Kidney injury; Traumatic injury of the kidney; Fractured kidney; Inflammatory injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, ...

  5. Battered Baby: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Introduction We report on a three-year-old child, a case of battered baby syndrome. Case Presentation A three-year-old female child was brought with multiple bruises, fracture of left femur and features of raised intracranial tension. The etiology was unclear at presentation. Inconsistencies in history given by the mother, a background of poverty and single parenthood, presence of multiple bruises over the body, multiple infarcts in Computerized Tomography (CT scan, absence of external calvarial injuries and finally subdural hematoma in the autopsy report led to the diagnosis of child abuse. Conclusions Every clinician must be alert to the possibility of battered baby in a child with multiple injuries.

  6. Baby universes in string theory (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun


    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield black holes naturally includes multicenter solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS2×S2 but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e-N) nonperturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave function of the multicenter black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  7. Baby Universes in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, R; Ooguri, H; Vafa, C; Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun


    We argue that the holographic description of four-dimensional BPS black holes naturally includes multi-center solutions. This suggests that the holographic dual to the gauge theory is not a single AdS_2 times S^2 but a coherent ensemble of them. We verify this in a particular class of examples, where the two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory gives a holographic description of the black holes obtained by branes wrapping Calabi-Yau cycles. Using the free fermionic formulation, we show that O(e^{-N}) non-perturbative effects entangle the two Fermi surfaces. In an Euclidean description, the wave-function of the multi-center black holes gets mapped to the Hartle-Hawking wave-function of baby universes. This provides a concrete realization, within string theory, of effects that can be interpreted as the creation of baby universes. We find that, at least in the case we study, the baby universes do not lead to a loss of quantum coherence, in accord with general arguments.

  8. Kidney Failure (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  9. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Freitas Henriques


    Full Text Available Rocio virus (ROCV is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC. ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  10. An immunosuppressed Syrian golden hamster model for SARS-CoV infection. (United States)

    Schaecher, Scott R; Stabenow, Jennifer; Oberle, Christina; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark; Sagartz, John E; Pekosz, Andrew


    Several small animal models have been developed for the study of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replication and pathogenesis. Syrian golden hamsters are among the best small animal models, though little clinical illness and no mortality are observed after virus infection. Cyclophosphamide was used to immunosuppress hamsters leading to a prolonged disease course and higher mortality after SARS-CoV infection. In addition, there was a significant weight loss, expanded tissue tropism, and increased viral pathology in the lung, heart, kidney, and nasal turbinate tissues. Infection with recombinant SARS-CoV viruses bearing disruptions in the gene 7 coding region showed no significant change in replication kinetics, tissue tropism, morbidity, or mortality suggesting that the ORF7a (7a) and ORF7b (7b) proteins are not required for virus replication in immunosuppressed hamsters. This modified hamster model may provide a useful tool for SARS-CoV pathogenesis studies, evaluation of antiviral therapy, and analysis of additional SARS-CoV mutants.

  11. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). (United States)

    Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Quaresma, Juarez Antonio Simões; Fuzii, Helen Thais; Nunes, Márcio Roberto Teixeira; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Carvalho, Valéria Lima; Martins, Lívia Carício; Casseb, Samir Mansour Moraes; Chiang, Jannifer Oliveira; Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando da Costa


    Rocio virus (ROCV) is an encephalitic flavivirus endemic to Brazil. Experimental flavivirus infections have previously demonstrated a persistent infection and, in this study, we investigated the persistence of ROCV infection in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). The hamsters were infected intraperitoneally with 9.8 LD50/0.02 mL of ROCV and later anaesthetised and sacrificed at various time points over a 120-day period to collect of blood, urine and organ samples. The viral titres were quantified by real-time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The specimens were used to infect Vero cells and ROCV antigens in the cells were detected by immunefluorescence assay. The levels of antibodies were determined by the haemagglutination inhibition technique. A histopathological examination was performed on the tissues by staining with haematoxylin-eosin and detecting viral antigens by immunohistochemistry (IHC). ROCV induced a strong immune response and was pathogenic in hamsters through neuroinvasion. ROCV was recovered from Vero cells exposed to samples from the viscera, brain, blood, serum and urine and was detected by qRT-PCR in the brain, liver and blood for three months after infection. ROCV induced histopathological changes and the expression of viral antigens, which were detected by IHC in the liver, kidney, lung and brain up to four months after infection. These findings show that ROCV is pathogenic to golden hamsters and has the capacity to cause persistent infection in animals after intraperitoneal infection.

  12. Field trials of the Baby Check score card: mothers scoring their babies at home. (United States)

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Green, S J; Cole, T J; Walker, K A; Bonnett, J M


    The Baby Check score card has been developed to help parents and health professionals grade the severity of acute illness in babies. This paper reports the results of two field trials in which mothers used Baby Check at home, 104 mothers scoring their babies daily for a week and 56 using it for six months. They all found Baby Check easy to use, between 68% and 81% found it useful, and 96% would recommended it to others. Over 70% of those using it daily used it very competently. Those using it infrequently did less well, suggesting that familiarity with the assessment is important. The scores obtained show that Baby Check's use would not increase the number of mothers seeking medical advice. With introduction and practice most mothers should be able to use Baby Check effectively. It should help them assess their babies' illnesses and make appropriate decisions about seeking medical advice.

  13. Acute appendicitis in a premature baby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Alberici, Elisa [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Section of Paediatric Radiology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi 2, 27100 Pavia PV (Italy)


    A case of acute appendicitis in a premature baby in whom diagnosis was suggested on plain films of the abdomen is presented. In this baby air in a hollow viscus suspected of being an enlarged appendix was the clue to diagnosis. The diagnostic dilemma of this rare and life-threatening condition in premature babies and newborns is underlined. The relevance of different imaging modalities and of different findings in this age group is discussed. Awareness of this rare condition and possible differential diagnosis in newborns and premature babies is stressed. (orig.)

  14. Induction of lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, J.L.; Schell, R.F.; Hejka, A.; England, D.M.; Konick, L.


    In studies of experimental Lyme disease, a major obstacle has been the unavailability of a suitable animal model. We found that irradiated LSH/Ss Lak hamsters developed arthritis after injection of Borrelia burgdorferi in the hind paws. When nonirradiated hamsters were injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi, acute transient synovitis was present. A diffuse neutrophilic infiltrate involved the synovia and periarticular structures. The inflammation was associated with edema, hyperemia, and granulation tissue. Numerous spirochetes were seen in the synovial and subsynovial tissues. The histopathologic changes were enhanced in irradiated hamsters. The onset and duration of the induced swelling were dependent on the dose of radiation and the inoculum of spirochetes. Inoculation of irradiated hamsters with Formalin-killed spirochetes or medium in which B. burgdorferi had grown for 7 days failed to induce swelling. This animal model should prove useful for studies of the immune response to B. burgdorferi and the pathogenesis of Lyme arthritis.

  15. Metabolism of radiohafnium in marmosets and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, D.M.; Seidel, A.; Doerfel, H.


    The whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf was studied in marmosets (Callithrex jacchus) and found to be closely similar to that in rats and Chinese hamsters. Limited tissue distribution studies suggest a higher uptake in liver and much lower deposition in skin and muscle in the marmoset as compared to the rat or Chinese hamster. Studies in Chinese hamsters showed that treatment with the chelating agent diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid resulted in only a small reduction in the whole body retention of /sup 181/Hf. The absorption of orally administered /sup 181/Hf, in various chemical forms, was found to be between 0.04 and 0.13% of the ingested dose and was unaffected by age between 5 and 21 months but was increased by fasting. The measured absorption of /sup 181/Hf in Chinese hamsters and in rats was similar to that of plutonium suggesting that radiohafnium could be used as a surrogate for plutonium for selected studies in human volunteers.

  16. Polymyopathy in a Syrian golden hamster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnands, M.V.W.; Woutersen, R.A.


    A Syrian golden hamster suffered from general swelling of skeletal muscles. At microscopical observation the muscle tissue exhibited degeneration and necrosis, as well as regenerative features. The inflammatory response was very slight. The histopathological lesions were diagnosed as polymyopathy.

  17. Can Babies Learn to Read? A Randomized Trial of Baby Media (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley; Strouse, Gabrielle


    Targeted to children as young as 3 months old, there is a growing number of baby media products that claim to teach babies to read. This randomized controlled trial was designed to examine this claim by investigating the effects of a best-selling baby media product on reading development. One hundred and seventeen infants, ages 9 to 18 months,…

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;


    To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens......To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis...

  19. Baby Universes and String Theory (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Gopakumar, Rajesh; Ooguri, Hirosi; Vafa, Cumrun

    The description of 4D BPS black holes in terms of branes wrapped on various cycles in a Calabi-Yau space gives us the opportunity to study various issues in quantum gravity in a definite way by means of the worldvolume theory of the branes. In the particular example discussed here, there is a simple worldvolume description in terms of 2D Yang-Mills theory. The latter is an exactly solvable system of free fermions in one dimension. The exact answer for the free energy of this system can be written in a way that suggests an interpretation in terms of contributions from multiple (baby) universes.

  20. Water Babies: an evolutionary parable. (United States)

    Beatty, John; Hale, Piers J


    The nineteenth-century Anglican theologian Charles Kingsley was immediately impressed by Darwin's Origin of Species. Whilst many in Victorian Britain reacted against the idea of natural selection, Kingsley saw in the contingency of selection a divinely ordained imperative for human endeavour, not least the pursuit of scientific knowledge. Here, Kingsley believed, was a crucial insight into the seemingly indifferent laws of nature, one that humankind could use to elevate themselves to ever-greater heights. Kingsley chose to teach these lessons about the moral nature of evolution through 'Water Babies', one of the most charming and enduring of children's fairy tales.

  1. Medullary Sponge Kidney (United States)

    ... Sponge Kidney? Complications of medullary sponge kidney include hematuria, or blood in the urine kidney stones urinary ... both kidneys. Complications of medullary sponge kidney include hematuria, or blood in the urine kidney stones urinary ...

  2. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  3. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? More than 75 years of solving problems March ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety March for Babies Sign up now to ...

  4. Cytokine and Chemokine Expression in Kidneys during Chronic Leptospirosis in Reservoir and Susceptible Animal Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Matsui

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Humans can be infected after exposure to contaminated urine of reservoir animals, usually rodents, regarded as typical asymptomatic carriers of leptospires. In contrast, accidental hosts may present an acute form of leptospirosis with a range of clinical symptoms including the development of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD is considered as a possible AKI-residual sequela but little is known about the renal pathophysiology consequent to leptospirosis infection. Herein, we studied the renal morphological alterations in relation with the regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, comparing two experimental models of chronic leptospirosis, the golden Syrian hamster that survived the infection, becoming carrier of virulent leptospires, and the OF1 mouse, a usual reservoir of the bacteria. Animals were monitored until 28 days after injection with a virulent L. borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum to assess chronic infection. Hamsters developed morphological alterations in the kidneys with tubulointerstitial nephritis and fibrosis. Grading of lesions revealed higher scores in hamsters compared to the slight alterations observed in the mouse kidneys, irrespective of the bacterial load. Interestingly, pro-fibrotic TGF-β was downregulated in mouse kidneys. Moreover, cytokines IL-1β and IL-10, and chemokines MIP-1α/CCL3 and IP-10/CXCL-10 were significantly upregulated in hamster kidneys compared to mice. These results suggest a possible maintenance of inflammatory processes in the hamster kidneys with the infiltration of inflammatory cells in response to bacterial carriage, resulting in alterations of renal tissues. In contrast, lower expression levels in mouse kidneys indicated a better regulation of the inflammatory response and possible resolution processes likely related to resistance mechanisms.

  5. Baby Blues’ highbush blueberry (United States)

    Baby Blues’ is a new highbush blueberry from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with Oregon State University’s Agricultural Experiment Station. ‘Baby Blues’ is a vigorous, high-yielding, very small-f...

  6. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options? (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.


    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…

  7. Welcoming a New Baby into Your Family (United States)

    ... X-ray Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family KidsHealth > For Kids > Welcoming a New Baby Into Your Family Print A A A What's in this article? ... first look at the newest member of your family. Expect your brother or sister to be small, ...

  8. Designer Babies: Eugenics Repackaged or Consumer Options? (United States)

    Baird, Stephen L.


    "Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced Reproductive…

  9. Motor Development Programming in Trisomic-21 Babies (United States)

    Sanz, Teresa; Menendez, Javier; Rosique, Teresa


    The present study contributes to the understanding of gross motor development in babies with Down's syndrome. Also, it facilitates the comprehension of the efficiency of the early motor stimulation as well as of beginning it as early as possible. We worked with two groups of babies with Down's syndrome, beginning the early motor training in each…

  10. Resuscitating the Baby after Shoulder Dystocia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Menticoglou


    Full Text Available Background. To propose hypovolemic shock as a possible explanation for the failure to resuscitate some babies after shoulder dystocia and to suggest a change in clinical practice. Case Presentation. Two cases are presented in which severe shoulder dystocia was resolved within five minutes. Both babies were born without a heartbeat. Despite standard resuscitation by expert neonatologists, no heartbeat was obtained until volume resuscitation was started, at 25 minutes in the first case and 11 minutes in the second. After volume resuscitation circulation was restored, there was profound brain damage and the babies died. Conclusion. Unsuspected hypovolemic shock may explain some cases of failed resuscitation after shoulder dystocia. This may require a change in clinical practice. Rather than immediately clamping the cord after the baby is delivered, it is proposed that (1 the obstetrician delay cord clamping to allow autotransfusion of the baby from the placenta and (2 the neonatal resuscitators give volume much sooner.

  11. Kidney Cancer (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  12. Methods for modeling chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods for identify......Embodiments of the present invention generally relate to the computational analysis and characterization biological networks at the cellular level in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Based on computational methods utilizing a hamster reference genome, the invention provides methods...

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure (United States)

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure Small Text Medium Text Large Text Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure YESTERDAY One third of diabetic ...

  14. Kinetics of Leptospira interrogans infection in hamsters after intradermal and subcutaneous challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Coutinho


    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by highly motile, helically shaped bacteria that penetrate the skin and mucous membranes through lesions or abrasions, and rapidly disseminate throughout the body. Although the intraperitoneal route of infection is widely used to experimentally inoculate hamsters, this challenge route does not represent a natural route of infection.Here we describe the kinetics of disease and infection in hamster model of leptospirosis after subcutaneous and intradermal inoculation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni, strain Fiocruz L1-130. Histopathologic changes in and around the kidney, including glomerular and tubular damage and interstitial inflammatory changes, began on day 5, and preceded deterioration in renal function as measured by serum creatinine. Weight loss, hemoconcentration, increased absolute neutrophil counts (ANC in the blood and hepatic dysfunction were first noted on day 6. Vascular endothelial growth factor, a serum marker of sepsis severity, became elevated during the later stages of infection. The burden of infection, as measured by quantitative PCR, was highest in the kidney and peaked on day 5 after intradermal challenge and on day 6 after subcutaneous challenge. Compared to subcutaneous challenge, intradermal challenge resulted in a lower burden of infection in both the kidney and liver on day 6, lower ANC and less weight loss on day 7.The intradermal and subcutaneous challenge routes result in significant differences in the kinetics of dissemination and disease after challenge with L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130 at an experimental dose of 2×106 leptospires. These results provide new information regarding infection kinetics in the hamster model of leptospirosis.

  15. Histopathology of Lyme arthritis in LSH hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejka, A.; Schmitz, J.L.; England, D.M.; Callister, S.M.; Schell, R.F.


    The authors studied the histopathologic evolution of arthritis in nonirradiated and irradiated hamsters infected with Borrelia burgdorferi. Nonirradiated hamsters injected in the hind paws with B. burgdorferi developed an acute inflammatory reaction involving the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and dermis. This acute inflammatory reaction was short-lived and was replaced by a mild chronic synovitis as the number of detectable spirochetes in the synovium, periarticular soft tissues, and perineurovascular areas diminished. Exposing hamsters to radiation before inoculation with B. burgdorferi exacerbated and prolonged the acute inflammatory phase. Spirochetes also persisted longer in the periarticular soft tissues. A major histopathologic finding was destructive and erosive bone changes of the hind paws, which resulted in deformation of the joints. These studies should be helpful in defining the immune mechanism participating in the onset, progression, and resolution of Lyme arthritis.

  16. Contribution to the normal fecal flora of the hamster: Proteus mirabilis in normal feces of hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco


    Full Text Available Proteus mirabilis must be considered a normal inhabitant of the intestine of hamsters. It is also found in the vaginal secretion of females of this animal, when in oestrus.1 Os hamsters são parasitados pelos Proteus. 2 As amostras isoladas foram identificadas ao Pr. mirabilis de Hauser. 3 O Proteus isolado não revelou ação patogênica sôbre camundongos mas se mostrou patogênico para cobaias. 4 O germen era presente na secreção vaginal de hamsters, na época do cio.

  17. Kidney (Renal) Failure (United States)

    ... How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain proper fluid ... marrow and strengthen the bones. The term kidney (renal) failure describes a situation in which the kidneys have ...

  18. Chronic Kidney Diseases (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth > For Kids > Chronic Kidney Diseases Print ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  19. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  20. Sickle Cell Disease and Your Baby (United States)

    ... of SCD? Yes. Common kinds of SCD are: Sickle cell anemia (also called hemoglobin SS). Hemoglobin is the part of ... carries oxygen to the rest of the body. Sickle cell anemia is caused when a baby gets one sickle ...

  1. Healthy Family 2009: Bringing in Baby (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Bringing in Baby Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... Down syndrome and other common genetic disorders, inherited family conditions, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, or disorders ...

  2. Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough (United States)

    ... Emails CDC Features Help Protect Babies from Whooping Cough Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... few even die from the disease. Understanding Whooping Cough Vaccines: DTaP and Tdap Two vaccines in the ...

  3. Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive (United States)

    ... page: Music Therapy Helps Preemie Babies Thrive Mom's singing helps ... of over a dozen clinical trials, found that music therapy helped stabilize premature newborns' breathing rate during ...

  4. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby KidsHealth > For Parents > Finding ... to be board certified in their subspecialty. Family Physicians Family physicians must complete 3 years of residency ...

  5. Finding a Doctor for Your New Baby (United States)

    ... suspending or revoking his or her license for criminal behavior. Disciplinary action is rare but, fortunately, very ... feel after the baby is born. Choosing the right health care provider will help you feel confident ...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-48 - Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes from Zambia. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-48 Conditions governing the entry of baby squash and baby courgettes...

  7. Exact BPS bound for noncommutative baby Skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domrin, Andrei, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Moscow State University, Leninskie gory, 119992, GSP-2, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lechtenfeld, Olaf, E-mail: [Institut für Theoretische Physik and Riemann Center for Geometry and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Linares, Román, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico); Maceda, Marco, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, San Rafael Atlixco 186, C.P. 09340, México D.F. (Mexico)


    The noncommutative baby Skyrme model is a Moyal deformation of the two-dimensional sigma model plus a Skyrme term, with a group-valued or Grassmannian target. Exact abelian solitonic solutions have been identified analytically in this model, with a singular commutative limit. Inside any given Grassmannian, we establish a BPS bound for the energy functional, which is saturated by these baby Skyrmions. This asserts their stability for unit charge, as we also test in second-order perturbation theory.

  8. The ART of marketing babies. (United States)

    Qadeer, Imrana


    New legislation can be oppressive for a significant population depending upon the politics of its drafters. The current upsurge of the surrogacy trade in India, and the label of a "win-win" situation that it has acquired, points towards an unfettered commercialisation of assisted reproductive technology and the practice of surrogacy that is blinding its middle class users as well as providers, policy makers and law makers, and charging an imagination that is already caught up in spiralling consumerism. This paper analyses the Draft Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill and Rules, 2008, in the Indian socioeconomic context. It identifies the interests of the affected women, and examines the contradictions of the proposed Bill with their interests, as well as with current health and population policies, confining itself to the handling of surrogacy and not the entire content of the Bill. The bases of the analytical perspective used are: the context of poverty and the health needs of the Indian population; the need to locate surrogacy services within the overall public health service context and its epidemiological basis; the need to restrain direct human experimentation for the advancement of any technology; the use of safer methods; and, finally, the rights of surrogate mothers and their babies, in India, as opposed to the compulsion or dynamics of the medical market and reproductive tourism.

  9. Ahne hamster lõikuskuul/ Tambet Kaugema

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaugema, Tambet


    Eesti Nuku- ja Noorsoteatri jõululavastusest "Ahne hamster ja värvilised jäälilled", autor Miloš Macourek, tõlkija Leo Metsar, lavastaja ja muusikaline kujundaja Virko Annus, mängib Tarmo Männard. Esietendus 21. novembril Köismäe tornis

  10. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena


    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  11. Comparison of the pathogenicity of Nipah virus isolates from Bangladesh and Malaysia in the Syrian hamster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blair L DeBuysscher

    Full Text Available Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe disease in humans. The mechanisms of pathogenesis are not well described. The first Nipah virus outbreak occurred in Malaysia, where human disease had a strong neurological component. Subsequent outbreaks have occurred in Bangladesh and India and transmission and disease processes in these outbreaks appear to be different from those of the Malaysian outbreak. Until this point, virtually all Nipah virus studies in vitro and in vivo, including vaccine and pathogenesis studies, have utilized a virus isolate from the original Malaysian outbreak (NiV-M. To investigate potential differences between NiV-M and a Nipah virus isolate from Bangladesh (NiV-B, we compared NiV-M and NiV-B infection in vitro and in vivo. In hamster kidney cells, NiV-M-infection resulted in extensive syncytia formation and cytopathic effects, whereas NiV-B-infection resulted in little to no morphological changes. In vivo, NiV-M-infected Syrian hamsters had accelerated virus replication, pathology and death when compared to NiV-B-infected animals. NiV-M infection also resulted in the activation of host immune response genes at an earlier time point. Pathogenicity was not only a result of direct effects of virus replication, but likely also had an immunopathogenic component. The differences observed between NiV-M and NiV-B pathogeneis in hamsters may relate to differences observed in human cases. Characterization of the hamster model for NiV-B infection allows for further research of the strain of Nipah virus responsible for the more recent outbreaks in humans. This model can be used to study NiV-B pathogenesis, transmission, and countermeasures that could be used to control outbreaks.

  12. What is my Baby Like? Representations Concerning the Baby in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pedreira


    Full Text Available AimTo investigate if during the third trimester of pregnancy fantasies emerge in the baby representations based on the information that pregnant women have on their real babies through ultrasound techniques.MethodA qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research based on a sample of 30 pregnant Portuguese women, whose average age is 32 years old, was developed. A socio-demographic questionnaire and a semi-directive interview entitled "Interview of Maternal Representations During Pregnancy – Revised Version" (IRMAG-R, Ammaniti & Tambelli, 2010 were employed.ResultsBaby representations are immersed in a fantasy dimension, which means that the imaginary baby is quite present in this phase of pregnancy. Pregnant women mainly attribute psychological characteristics to the babies, rather than physical characteristics. Regardless of the type of characteristics analysed, the preference for these characteristics emerges based on their wishes. Secondly, characteristics of the parents may also emerge. Fetal movements and information from ultrasound have no significant influence on the characterization of the baby.ConclusionDespite the development of ultrasound techniques, the imaginary baby defines parents representations about the baby on the third trimester of pregnancy. Consequently, a new understanding of how pregnant women experience the transition to the postnatal phase has to be considered.

  13. Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Kidneys are remarkable organs. Inside them ... resulting in kidney disease. How Does Diabetes Cause Kidney Disease? When our bodies digest the protein we ...

  14. Polycystic kidney disease (United States)

    Cysts - kidneys; Kidney - polycystic; Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease; ADPKD ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is passed down through families (inherited). The 2 inherited forms of PKD are autosomal dominant ...

  15. Kidney Disease Basics (United States)

    ... Links Take the first step Alternate Language URL Kidney Disease Basics Page Content Your kidneys filter extra ... blood pressure are the most common causes of kidney disease. ​These conditions can slowly damage the kidneys ...

  16. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    CERN Document Server

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Krusch, Steffen


    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as all currently known baby Skyrme models must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons whilst at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  17. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres


    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  18. VTR module: weaning foods for baby. (United States)


    Weaning should start when the baby turns 4 months old. At this stage (4 to 6 months), milk is no longer enough. Parents should introduce new foods which can meet the fast-increasing nutrition needs of the child. Among the latest materials produced by the Video Radio Production Division of the Nutrition Center of the Philippines is a VTR training module entitled "Karagdagang Pagkain ni Baby" (Weaning Foods for Baby), designed to strengthen this important aspect of child care. Specifically, the module seeks to encourage parents to introduce foods in addition to breastmilk to their 4 to 6 month old children and to start giving them "complete" meals from 6 months onward. It provides suggestions on the kinds of foods or food combinations to give to the baby and encourages home food production (backyard gardening, poultry-raising etc) to supply food requirements of growing children. Contents of the module include how-to's on weaning food preparation (mashing, straining, flaking, chopping, scraping, etc), prescriptions on the kinds and amounts of foods for babies; and food combinations (porridge or rice and a viand from the 3 basic food groups: energy-giving, body building and regulating). For instance, at 4 months old, the baby may be given lugao (porridge), soup and fruits; at 5 months, eggs, vegetables and beans; at 6 months, fish/meat, oil or gata (coconut oil). With a running time of 18 minutes, the module uses computer graphics to highlight food items, recommended amounts, and age group requirements in the text, and applies digital multi-effects to ensure smooth traditions.

  19. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles. (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J


    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryati Suryati


    Full Text Available The Baby Bluesadalah depresi ringan yang terjadi pada ibu-ibu dalam masa beberapa jam setelah melahirkan, sampai beberapa hari setelah melahirkan, dan kemudian dia akan hilang dengan sendirinya jika diberikan pelayanan psikologis yang baik. Banyak para ibu-ibu setelah melahirkan mengalami emosi yang berlebihan dan merasa sangat sedih sekali, dan diiringi tangisan tanpa alasan yang jelas. Dalam masa ini tidak mungkin lagi kita akan melihat ibu tersenyum atau tertawa. Sebagian ibu merasa sangat khawatir, cemas, dan tegang. Masalah – masalah kecil saja jika tidak cepat diatasi pada masa hamil, atau sebelum melahirkan dapat menimbulkan Baby Blues.

  1. Faith, existence and birth of preterm babies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina Prinds

    The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping-resource and the oppos......The aim is to explore if becoming a mother preterm of a premature baby, actualises existential and religious issues, and to explore the impact of the considerations in their way of coping. It is thus to shed light on these issues, that can both function as a positive coping...

  2. Hexagonal Structure of Baby Skyrmion Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, Itay


    We study the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby Skyrmions by applying a full-field numerical minimization algorithm to baby Skyrmions placed inside different parallelogramic unit-cells and imposing periodic boundary conditions. We find that within this setup, the minimal energy is obtained for the hexagonal lattice, and that in the resulting configuration the Skyrmion splits into quarter-Skyrmions. In particular, we find that the energy in the hexagonal case is lower than the one obtained on the well-known rectangular lattice, in which splitting into half-Skyrmions is observed.

  3. Kidney pain (image) (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  4. Armenian hamster female protein (serum amyloid P component). Comparison with the sex-regulated homolog in Syrian hamster. (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Waggoner, D J


    Complementary DNA clones for Armenian hamster female protein (FP) were isolated and the complete nucleotide sequence and derived amino acid sequence were determined and compared with relevant data for the closely related Syrian hamster. Although biosynthesis of preSAP is directed by a 1.0-kb mRNA in both genera and the molecular mass of the primary translation product of FP is identical, the FP gene structure and regulation of expression of FP are different in Syrian and Armenian hamsters. Whereas the direction of alteration in FP mRNA levels is divergent in Syrian hamsters during an acute phase reaction, hepatic FP mRNA levels increase in both male and female Armenian hamsters during inflammation. Regulation of expression of Armenian and Syrian hamster FP genes occurs at a pretranslational level.

  5. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests (United States)

    ... 160159.html Pregnancy Problems More Likely With Baby Boys, Study Suggests Gender-related differences seem to start ... are more likely when women are carrying baby boys, new research suggests. After analyzing more than half ...

  6. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during ... life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so good for babies. You and your ...

  7. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... share stories Become inspired by stories from the families at the heart of our mission or share ...

  8. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ... This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping ...

  9. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in hospital. (United States)

    Thornton, A J; Morley, C J; Cole, T J; Green, S J; Walker, K A; Rennie, J M


    The Baby Check score card was used by junior paediatric doctors to assess 262 babies under 6 months old presenting to hospital. The duty registrar and two consultants independently graded the severity of each baby's illness without knowledge of the Baby Check score. The registrars assessed the babies at presentation while the consultants reviewed the notes. The consultants and registrars agreed about the need for hospital admission only about 75% of the time. The score's sensitivity and predictive values were similar to those of the registrars' grading. The score's specificity was 87%. Babies with serious diagnosis scored high, while minor illnesses scored low. The predictive value for requiring hospital admission increased with the score, rising to 100% for scores of 20 or more. The appropriate use of Baby Check should improve the detection of serious illness. It could also reduce the number of babies admitted with minor illness, without putting them at increased risk.

  10. 'Video Feedback' Program Might Help Treat Autism in Babies (United States)

    ... 'Video Feedback' Program Might Help Treat Autism in Babies Therapists ... TUESDAY, April 11, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A "video feedback" intervention program may help babies at risk of ...

  11. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  12. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos


    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster.

  13. Review of Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    CERN Document Server

    Karliner, Marek


    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions -- breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  14. Hepatitis B Shots Are Recommended for All New Babies (United States)

    ... baby who gets infected with the hepatitis B virus during the first five years of life has a 15% to 25% risk for pre ... your baby from infection with the hepatitis B virus, make sure your baby ... the first year of life will stay infected for life. How many doses ...

  15. Portrait of Promise: Preventing Shaken Baby Syndrome. [Videotape. (United States)

    Junior League of St. Paul, MN.

    Shaken baby syndrome describes the serious injuries that can occur when a very young child is severely or violently shaken, causing the brain to move back and forth inside the skull. The syndrome usually originates when a parent or other caregiver shakes a baby out of anger or frustration, often because the baby would not stop crying or…

  16. Daughter Elimination: Cradle Baby Scheme in Tamil Nadu

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Srinivasan (Sharada); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)


    textabstractTamil Nadu’s two decade old Cradle Baby Scheme tries to ensure that female babies who would otherwise have been killed are given up for adoption. Civil society activists are not happy with the scheme because they feel that it only encourages parents to abandon female babies and is not a

  17. Implementing the Fussy Baby Network[R] Approach (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda; Hofherr, Jennifer; Heffron, Mary Claire; Sims, Jennifer Murphy; Jalowiec, Barbara; Bromberg, Stacey R.; Paul, Jennifer J.


    Erikson Institute Fussy Baby Network[R] (FBN) developed an approach to engaging parents around their urgent concerns about their baby's crying, sleeping, or feeding in a way which builds their longer-term capacities as parents. This approach, called the FAN, is now in place in new Fussy Baby Network programs around the country and is being infused…

  18. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies (United States)

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez


    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  19. Pacifiers: Are They Good for Your Baby? (United States)

    ... it might be more difficult to break the habit. Of course, pacifiers have pitfalls as well. Consider the drawbacks: Early pacifier use might interfere with breast-feeding. Sucking on a breast is different from sucking on a pacifier or bottle, and some babies are sensitive to those differences. ...

  20. Baby Bell Libraries?--An Update. (United States)

    Kessler, Jack


    Discusses the emerging three-tiered structure (i.e., the "Baby Bells," network nodes, and information marketers) that will assume responsibility for implementing a new national information network and getting networked information to the public. The role of libraries related to networked information is also considered. (EA)

  1. Me? Have a Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  2. Me? Have Another Baby? Preconception Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Preconception health means taking care of your own health now so you’ll be healthy for yourself and your future baby.  Created: 10/1/2012 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 10/1/2012.

  3. Thermostability of sperm nuclei assessed by microinjection into hamster oocytes (United States)

    Nuclei isolated from spermatozoa of various species (golden hamster, mouse, human, rooster, and the fish tilapia) were heated at 60 degrees-125 degrees C for 20-120 min and then microinjected into hamster oocytes to determine whether they could decondense and develop into pronucl...

  4. Characteristics of 263K scrapie agent in multiple hamster species. (United States)

    Meade-White, Kimberly D; Barbian, Kent D; Race, Brent; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Don; Taubner, Lara; Porcella, Stephen; Race, Richard


    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are known to cross species barriers, but the pathologic and biochemical changes that occur during transmission are not well understood. To better understand these changes, we infected 6 hamster species with 263K hamster scrapie strain and, after each of 3 successive passages in the new species, analyzed abnormal proteinase K (PK)-resistant prion protein (PrPres) glycoform ratios, PrPres PK sensitivity, incubation periods, and lesion profiles. Unique 263K molecular and biochemical profiles evolved in each of the infected hamster species. Characteristics of 263K in the new hamster species seemed to correlate best with host factors rather than agent strain. Furthermore, 2 polymorphic regions of the prion protein amino acid sequence correlated with profile differences in these TSE-infected hamster species.

  5. Carcinogenicity of azo dyes: Acid Black 52 and Yellow 3 in hamsters and rats. Volume 2. Technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plankenhorn, L.J.


    This document is an appendix to a study concerning the carcinogenicity of the azo dyes acid-black-52 and yellow-3 in male and female hamsters and rats and contains individual histopathology studies of both dyes. Histopathological features were reported in tabular form for the skin, mammary gland, muscle, salivary gland, mandibular lymph node, sciatic nerve, thymus, larynx, thyroid, parathyroid, trachea, bronchus, esophagus, adrenal, stomach, duodenum, jejunem, ileum, cecum, colon, rectum, mesenteric lymph node, lung, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, kidney, heart, urinary bladder, seminal vesicle, prostate, testis, cerebrum, cerebellum, pituitary, sternabrae, femur, bone marrow, and nasal cavity.

  6. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD ... as polycystic kidney disease (PKD), another disease that causes the kidneys to ... chronic kidney disease (CKD)—a condition that develops over many years ...

  7. Circadian rhythms of photorefractory siberian hamsters remain responsive to melatonin. (United States)

    Butler, Matthew P; Paul, Matthew J; Turner, Kevin W; Park, Jin Ho; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Zucker, Irving


    Short day lengths increase the duration of nocturnal melatonin (Mel) secretion, which induces the winter phenotype in Siberian hamsters. After several months of continued exposure to short days, hamsters spontaneously revert to the spring-summer phenotype. This transition has been attributed to the development of refractoriness of Mel-binding tissues, including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), to long-duration Mel signals. The SCN of Siberian hamsters is required for the seasonal response to winter-like Mel signals, and becomes refractory to previously effective long-duration Mel signals restricted to this area. Acute Mel treatment phase shifts circadian locomotor rhythms of photosensitive Siberian hamsters, presumably by affecting circadian oscillators in the SCN. We tested whether seasonal refractoriness of the SCN to long-duration Mel signals also renders the circadian system of Siberian hamsters unresponsive to Mel. Males manifesting free-running circadian rhythms in constant dim red light were injected with Mel or vehicle for 5 days on a 23.5-h T-cycle beginning at circadian time 10. Mel injections caused significantly larger phase advances in activity onset than did the saline vehicle, but the magnitude of phase shifts to Mel did not differ between photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters. Similarly, when entrained to a 16-h light/8-h dark photocycle, photorefractory and photosensitive hamsters did not differ in their response to Mel injected 4 h before the onset of the dark phase. Activity onset in Mel-injected hamsters was masked by light but was revealed to be significantly earlier than in vehicle-injected hamsters upon transfer to constant dim red light. The acute effects of melatonin on circadian behavioral rhythms are preserved in photorefractory hamsters.

  8. Passive smoking in babies: The BIBE study (Brief Intervention in babies. Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Carmen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that exposure to passive smoking in general, and in babies in particular, is an important cause of morbimortality. Passive smoking is related to an increased risk of pediatric diseases such as sudden death syndrome, acute respiratory diseases, worsening of asthma, acute-chronic middle ear disease and slowing of lung growth. The objective of this article is to describe the BIBE study protocol. The BIBE study aims to determine the effectiveness of a brief intervention within the context of Primary Care, directed to mothers and fathers that smoke, in order to reduce the exposure of babies to passive smoking (ETS. Methods/Design Cluster randomized field trial (control and intervention group, multicentric and open. Subject: Fathers and/or mothers who are smokers and their babies (under 18 months that attend pediatric services in Primary Care in Catalonia. The measurements will be taken at three points in time, in each of the fathers and/or mothers who respond to a questionnaire regarding their baby's clinical background and characteristics of the baby's exposure, together with variables related to the parents' tobacco consumption. A hair sample of the baby will be taken at the beginning of the study and at six months after the initial visit (biological determination of nicotine. The intervention group will apply a brief intervention in passive smoking after specific training and the control group will apply the habitual care. Discussion Exposure to ETS is an avoidable factor related to infant morbimortality. Interventions to reduce exposure to ETS in babies are potentially beneficial for their health. The BIBE study evaluates an intervention to reduce exposure to ETS that takes advantage of pediatric visits. Interventions in the form of advice, conducted by pediatric professionals, are an excellent opportunity for prevention and protection of infants against the harmful effects of ETS. Trial Registration Clinical

  9. Anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Garcinia mangostana extract in hamster opisthorchiasis. (United States)

    Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Boonmars, Thidarut; Sriraj, Pranee; Songsri, Jiraporn; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Waraasawapati, Sakda; Boonyarat, Chantana; Rattanasuwan, Panaratana; Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip


    Administration of praziquantel for treatment of liver fluke infection may affect the host, with mild and severe effects after treatment caused by host immune response. Therefore, we focused on the antioxidant property, inflammatory and anthelmintic effects of the traditional folk medicine, G. mangostana pericarp extract, in hamster opisthorchiasis. Syrian hamsters were divided into four groups: normal (control) (N); administered G. mangostana alone (GM); infected with Opisthorchis viverrini alone (OV); and infected with O. viverrini and administered G. mangostana extract for 1.5 months (OVGM). Hamster livers were collected 45 days after infection to determine histopathological changes, i.e. aggregation of inflammatory cells. The morphology of adult O. viverrini (body size and sizes of reproductive organs) was analyzed, as well as worm burden, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces. Toxicity was tested by kidney function (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine); the results demonstrated that G. mangostana had no renal toxic effect. ABTS radical-scavenging assay indicated that the extract had antioxidant property. Reduction in aggregation of inflammatory cells surrounding the hepatic bile duct, especially at the hilar region, was found in the OVGM group. Worm burden was similar in both infected groups (treated or untreated with G. mangostana), but the average size of adults in the OV group was larger than in the OVGM group; moreover, eggs per worm and eggs per gram of feces were also comparatively higher. The present study suggests that G. mangostana extract possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and can interfere with parasite development by affecting adult size and egg production. This may be useful for controlling the spread of OV infection and other parasites in endemic areas.

  10. Rotational symmetry breaking in baby Skyrme models

    CERN Document Server

    Hen, Itay


    We consider multisolitons with charges 1 =< B =< 5 in the baby Skyrme model for the one-parametric family of potentials U=\\mu^2 (1-\\phi_3)^s with 0baby Skyrme models. We find that for charge one, stable solutions exist for every value of s and they are rotationally-symmetric. For higher charges, stable solutions exist only below s \\approx 2. In the charge-two sector the stable solutions are always rotationally-symmetric and ring-like. For charge three and above, rotational symmetry is exhibited only in the small s region; above a certain critical value of s, this symmetry is broken and a strong repulsion between the constituent one-Skyrmions becomes apparent. We also compute the spatial energy distributions of these solutions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kharis


    Full Text Available Babi merupakan inang alami dari virus influensa yang secara anatomis, fisiologis, dan imunitas mirip (similar dengan yang ada pada manusia. Virus influenza subtipe A yang ada pada manusia yaitu H1N1, H3N2 dan H1N2 merupakan enzootic pada populasi babi di dunia. babi dapat terinfeksi oleh turunan-turunan virus influenza tipe A dari manusia maupun dari burung dan dalam hal ini dianggap sebagai inang sementara (Intermediate hosts dari turunan-turunan virus flu babi yang berpotensi menyebabkan epidemi bahkan pandemi. Evolusi antigenik dari virus influenza pada babi terjadi dengan laju sekitar 6 kali lebih lambat dibandingkan dengan virus influenza pada manusia. Dalam tulisan ini akan dikaji model matematika untuk epidemi flu babi pada populasi babi. Model yang diberikan merupakan model deterministik dengan laju kontak jenuh yang merupakan perumuman dari laju kontak standar. Perumuman ini dinyatakan dengan adanya probabilitas suatu individu melakukan kontak yang dinyatakan sebagai suatu fungsi dari populasi. Pengkajian yang dilakukan meliputi penentuan titik ekuilibrium model matematika dan analisa kestabilannya. Diharapkan hasil kajian ini dapat bermanfaat dalam penanggulangan wabah flu babi pada sumber utama yaitu populasi babi sehingga dapat dilakukan pencegahan sebelum mewabah di populasi manusia. Pigs are a natural host of influenza virus that are similar anatomically, physiologically, and immunity which in humans. Influenza viruses of A subtype in humans are H1N1, H3N2 and H1N2. They are enzootic in the swine population in the world. Pigs can be infected by strains of type A influenza viruses from humans or from birds. Pigs are considered as a temporary host (intermediate hosts of the derivatives of the swine flu virus that has the potential to cause epidemics and even pandemics. Antigenic evolution of influenza viruses in pigs occurred at rate about 6 times slower than the influenza viruses in humans. In this paper the mathematical model

  12. Acute Kidney Failure (United States)

    ... out of balance. Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over ... 2015. Palevsky PM. Definition of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure). Accessed April ...

  13. Diabetic Kidney Problems (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter wastes and excess water out of ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  15. Acute kidney failure (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Budaarsa


    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis hijauan yang diberikan sebagai pakan ternak babi dan cara penggunaannya di propvinsi Bali. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survei di seluruh kabupaten dan kota di Bali. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik stratified random sampling, dengan pengelompokan atas dataran rendah dan dataran tinggi di masing-masing kabupaten dan kota. Pada masing-masing kelompok di ambil 2 orang peternak babi tradisional, sehingga ada 4 peternak yang diwawancarai di masing-masing kabupaten dan kota atau 32 peternak di seluruh Bali. Hasil survei menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan hijauan yang diberikan oleh peternak di dataran rendah dan dataran tinggi. Jenis hijauan yang diberikan di dataran rendah antara lain: batang pisang (Musa paradisiaceae, kangkung (Ipomaea aquatica, biah-biah (Limnocharis flava, dan eceng gondok (Eichornia crassipes. Sedamgkan di dataran tinggi antara lain: batang pisang (Musa paradisiaceae, ketela rambat (Ipomaea batatas, daunt alas (Colocasia esculenta daun lamtoro (Leucaena leucocephala dan dag-dagse (Pisonia alba. Batang pisang dominan (95 % diberikan di dataran rendah maupun di dataran tinggi. Pemberian hijauan ada dengan cara direbus ada yang diberikan dalam bentuk segar. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat keragaman jenis hijauan pakan babi dan cara pemberiannya antara di dataran rendah dengan dataran tinggi di Bali. Batang pisang merupakan hijauan yang paling banyak digunakan untuk pakan babi pada peternakan babi tradisional, baik pada dataran rendah maupun dataran tinggi.

  17. Piper species protect cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. (United States)

    Agbor, Gabriel A; Akinfiresoye, Luli; Sortino, Julianne; Johnson, Robert; Vinson, Joe A


    Pre-clinical and clinical studies points to the use of antioxidants as an effective measure to reduce the progression of oxidative stress related disorders. The present study evaluate the effect of three Piper species (Piper guineense, Piper nigrum and Piper umbellatum) for the protection of cardiac, hepatic and renal antioxidant status of atherogenic diet fed hamsters. Hamsters were classified into eight groups: a normal control, atherogenic control and six other experimental groups (fed atherogenic diet supplemented with different doses of P. nigrum, P. guineense and P. umbellatum (1 and 0.25 g/kg) for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding period the heart, liver and kidney from each group were analyzed for lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. Atherogenic diet induced a significant (PPiper species significantly inhibited the alteration effect of atherogenic diet on the lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes activities. The Piper extracts may possess an antioxidant protective role against atherogenic diet induced oxidative stress in cardiac, hepatic and renal tissues.

  18. Recognition of competitors by male golden hamsters. (United States)

    Petrulis, Aras; Weidner, Molly; Johnston, Robert E


    Golden hamsters, like many animals, form dominant/subordinate relationships after aggressive encounters. We examined whether behavioral responses by males that won or lost fights would differ toward familiar and unfamiliar male stimulus animals. In Experiment 1, male winners or losers of fights explored an arena containing a confined stimulus animal that was either familiar or novel and had either won or lost a fight. Compared to dominant males, losers spent less time in proximity to stimulus males and investigated them less. Losers also displayed higher levels of stretch-attend postures (indicative of risk assessment) than winners, and they showed more escape and locomotion in response to familiar winners than to unfamiliar winners, indicating recognition of the male that they had lost to. In Experiment 2, losers scent marked less to the odors of a familiar winner than to those of an unfamiliar winner. Thus, male hamsters appear to use familiarity with a former opponent's odors to adaptively regulate their responses to variations in social threat.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Santos


    Full Text Available The Hamster, rodent originating from the Middle East, is a species studied along with other laboratory animals as experimental models in scientific papers and currently is also created as a pet, by virtue of being docile, easy to handle and require little space for survival. The suppurative processes in domestic animals are relatively frequent. Due to infectious diseases or purulent course of aggressiveness of the environment in which they live. The habit of storing food in the cheeks with sharp edges can injure the skin and often cause abscesses in this species. However, other lesions may lead to suppuration, diseases such as testicular tumor or no tumor or not produced by damage in the skin, leading to tumescence (VITAL et al., 2007. This article reports a case of a hamster treated at the Veterinary Hospital of FAFRAM with clinical history of discomfort, anorexia and frequent licking of the scrotum. On clinical examination it was found by aspiration of purulent secretions and the presence of large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells on cytology, diagnosed with testicular abscess. The animal was taken to the operating room where was performed conventional bilateral orchiectomy and total excision of the abscess by opening the tunica vaginalis and ligation of the spermatic cord. Postoperative care included antibiotic therapy with enrofloxacin and use of an anti-inflammatory meloxicam. After ten days the stitches were removed, the wound was healing satisfactorily and the animal was in good health.O Hamster, roedor originário do Oriente Médio, é uma espécie estudada juntamente com outros animais de laboratório como modelo experimental em trabalhos científicos e, atualmente, também é criado como animal de companhia, em virtude de ser dócil, de fácil manuseio e necessitar de pequeno espaço para sobrevivência. Os processos supurativos nos animais domésticos são relativamente frequentes. Em decorrência de doenças infectocontagiosas de

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Hamster and Human Pancreatic Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Crowell


    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 has been implicated in the development of gastrointestinal malignancies. The aim of the present study was to determine COX-2 expression/activity throughout stages of experimental and human pancreatic neoplasia. COX-2 immunohistochemistry was performed in pancreata of hamsters subjected to the carcinogen N-nitrosobis-(2-oxopropylamine (BOP and in human pancreatic tumors. COX-2 activity was determined by prostaglandin E2 assay in tumor versus matched normal pancreatic tissues. The activity of the COX inhibitor sulindac was tested in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model. COX-2 expression was elevated in all pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs and adenocarcinomas. In BOP-treated hamsters, there were significant progressive elevations in COX-2 expression throughout pancreatic tumorigenesis. In human samples, peak COX-2 expression occurred in PanIN2 lesions and remained moderately elevated in PanIN3 and adenocarcinoma tissues. COX-2 activity was significantly elevated in hamster and human pancreatic cancers compared to pair-matched normal pancreas. Furthermore, hamster pancreatic tumor engraftment/formation in the PC-1 hamster pancreatic cancer model was reduced 4.9-fold by oral administration of sulindac. Increased COX-2 expression is an early event in pancreatic carcinogeneses. The BOP-induced hamster carcinogenesis model is a representative model used to study the role of COX-2 in well-differentiated pancreatic tumorigenesis. COX inhibitors may have a role in preventing tumor engraftment/formation.

  1. Torpor shortens the period of Siberian hamster circadian rhythms. (United States)

    Thomas, E M; Jewett, M E; Zucker, I


    We investigated the influence of ambient and body temperature (Ta and Tb) on circadian rhythms of gonadectomized male Siberian hamsters. Animals that entered torpor (Tb circadian periods (tau s) than did nontorpid hamsters at a Ta of 13 degrees C (24.17 +/- 0.05 vs. 24.33 +/- 0.04 h). The tau s of homeothermic hamsters were not affected by Ta change. Short-term decreases in Tb, rather than changes in Ta, appear to affect tau. Access to activity wheels inhibited expression of torpor in short daylengths and was associated with significant increases in body mass. Running wheel activity can mask or block specific short-day responses.

  2. Bioavailability and disposition of solanine in rats and hamsters


    Groen K; Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH; Besamusca P; Beekhof PK; Speijers GJA; Derks HJGM


    The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (po) and intravenous (iv) administration in rats and hamsters were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The iv dose was 54 mug/kg; the oral dose was 170 mug/kg. After iv administration, the toxicokinetics of total radioactivity in blood were comparable in rats and hamsters. However, the clearance of total radioactivity from plasma was more effective in rats than in hamsters The half-liv...

  3. Cucumis melo ssp. Agrestis var. Agrestis Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Dyslipidemia in Syrian Golden Hamsters and Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kripa Shankar


    Full Text Available Background: Cucumis melo ssp. agrestis var. agrestis (CMA is a wild variety of C. melo. This study aimed to explore anti-dyslipidemic and anti-adipogenic potential of CMA. Materials and Methods: For initial anti-dyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic potential of CMA fruit extract (CMFE, male Syrian golden hamsters were fed a chow or high-fat diet with or without CMFE (100 mg/kg. Further, we did fractionation of this CMFE into two fractions namely; CMA water fraction (CMWF and CMA hexane fraction (CMHF. Phytochemical screening was done with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry LC- (MS/MS and direct analysis in real time-MS to detect active compounds in the fractions. Further, high-fat diet fed dyslipidemic hamsters were treated with CMWF and CMHF at 50 mg/kg for 7 days. Results: Oral administration of CMFE and both fractions (CMWF and CMHF reduced the total cholesterol, triglycerides, low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very low‐density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in high fat diet-fed dyslipidemic hamsters. CMHF also modulated expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and reverse cholesterol transport. Standard biochemical diagnostic tests suggested that neither of fractions causes any toxicity to hamster liver or kidneys. CMFE and CMHF also decreased oil-red-O accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is concluded that CMA possesses anti-dyslipidemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity along with the anti-adipogenic activity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available To solve congestion problems facing many hospitals in developing countries, baby cots are being eliminated and mothers are made to sleep on the same bed with their new-born babies; a practice known as co-sleeping. The work presented here seeks to reduce risks of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS and suffocation associated with co-sleeping by employing the formal engineering design process to develop a portable, safe and cost effective baby cot. The cot is attachable to the mother’s bed, has four movement restrictors to regulate the movement of the baby within a given range and a hard surface mattress to ensure the safety of the baby. There are ventilation ports provided to keep the temperature within the cot comfortable. The design can be modified to be used by older babies and may be mounted on a collapsible stand where space limitations are not critical.

  5. Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer (United States)

    ... Stage for Kidney Cancer Kidney Cancer Treating Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer The goal of biologic therapy ... Therapy for Kidney Cancer Targeted Therapies for Kidney Cancer Biologic Therapy (Immunotherapy) for Kidney Cancer Chemotherapy for Kidney Cancer Pain ...

  6. Successful liver transplantation in babies under 1 year.


    Beath, S V; Brook, G D; Kelly, D. A.; Cash, A J; McMaster, P; Mayer, A. D.; Buckels, J A


    OBJECTIVE--To review the outcome of liver transplantation in babies aged less than 1 year. DESIGN--Prospective evaluation of survival, clinical complications, and nutritional and developmental status before and one year after liver transplantation. SETTING--The Children's Hospital and Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham. SUBJECTS--All 25 babies who received liver transplantation from January 1989 to December 1992 were included. Median age was 9 months and median weight was 7.0 kg. Seven babi...

  7. Short term outcome in babies refused perinatal intensive care.


    Sidhu, H.; Heasley, R. N.; Patterson, C C; Halliday, H L; Thompson, W.


    OBJECTIVE--To compare the mortality in babies refused admission to a regional perinatal centre with that in babies accepted for intensive care in the centre. DESIGN--Retrospective study with group comparison. SETTING--Based at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast, with follow up of patients in all obstetric units in Northern Ireland. PATIENTS--Requests for transfer of 675 babies to the regional perinatal centre (prenatally and postnatally) were made from hospitals in Northern Ireland between...

  8. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.


    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  9. Simple Kidney Cysts (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  10. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  11. Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis) (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  12. Polycystic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  13. Neuropeptide Y induces torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Paul, Matthew J; Freeman, David A; Park, Jin Ho; Dark, John


    Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are known to decrease body temperature (Tb) of laboratory rats by 1-3 degrees C. Several NPY pathways in the brain terminate in hypothalamic structures involved in energy balance and thermoregulation. Laboratory rats are homeothermic, maintaining Tb within a narrow range. We examined the effect of ICV injected NPY on Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), a species that naturally undergoes daily torpor in which Tb decreases by as much as 15-20 degrees C. Minimum effective dose was determined in preliminary testing then various doses of NPY were tested in cold-acclimated Siberian hamsters while food was withheld. NPY markedly reduced Tb in the heterothermic Siberian hamster. In addition, the reduction in Tb in 63% of the observations was sufficient to reach the criterion for daily torpor (Tb Siberian hamster. NPY treatment may be activating hypothalamic systems that normally integrate endogenous torpor-producing signals and initiate torpor.

  14. A study of the carcinogenicity of glycidol in Syrian hamsters. (United States)

    Lijinsky, W; Kovatch, R M


    The industrial chemical glycidol is a directly acting mutagen and a broadly acting carcinogen in rats. It was administered to Syrian golden hamsters (20 male and 20 female) by gavage of 12 mg twice a week for 60 weeks. The total dose per animal was 1.45 g or 20 mmol. Survival was not different from control hamsters treated with corn oil/ethyl acetate. Of the treated males, 9 had tumors and 13 of the treated females had tumors, some of which were adrenal cortex tumors seen in controls. More tumors were seen in the glycidol-treated hamsters than in controls, but the spleen was the only notable target organ and the number of animals with spleen hemangiosarcomas was small. Glycidol appeared to be less carcinogenic in hamsters than in rats or mice.

  15. Manual Activity and Onset of First Words in Babies Exposed and Not Exposed to Baby Signing (United States)

    Seal, Brenda C.; DePaolis, Rory A.


    Support for baby signing (BS) with hearing infants tends to converge toward three camps or positions. Those who advocate BS to advance infant language, literacy, behavioral, and cognitive development rely heavily on anecdotal evidence and social media to support their claims. Those who advocate BS as an introduction to another language, such as…

  16. Recognition and management of Shaken Baby Syndrome

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nicholson, Alf


    Abusive head trauma (previously referred to as Shaken Baby Syndrome) consists of a triad of findings which included subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy after receiving a shake injury or blunt trauma to the head. Debate rages regarding the exact mechanism. Previously published reports on abusive head trauma (AHT) highlight the young age of the victims (median 4 months of age), the significant preponderance of male infants (3:1 in most series), the high rate of probable male perpetrators (just over 50%), and relatively high rates of mortality and morbidity

  17. Misi Baby Spa - Un Mundo para Bebes



    Misi Baby Spa es un lugar privilegiado concebido y diseñado especialmente para mamás, papás y bebés. Busca fortalecer el vínculo afectivo entre el núcleo familiar con herramientas como la lúdica, la música y el agua. Aliado con grandes marcas representativas del sector y encadenado a la marca Misi brindará un gran respaldo y garantía de servicio a sus clientes. Hombres y mujeres de clase media alta y alta interesados en el cuidado de y desarrollo de sus hijos, obtendrán en ...

  18. Baby falcon rescued on CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    Harriet Jarlett


    This baby falcon was found on Tuesday, 7 June near a car parked in the Building 40 carpark.   Connie Potter, who first saw the bird, contacted CRR (Centre de Réadaptation des Rapaces) at Bardonnex. Following their advice Connie and Chris Thomas managed to pick it up and get it into a box, and waited with the bird at the main gate for the CRR to collect it. The chick will be fed and trained to fly at the Centre in a tunnel, and ultimately released into the wild, probably near CERN. The bird, who has been tagged with ID number 2054, weighed 119 grams.

  19. Infertility trial outcomes: healthy moms and babies. (United States)

    Silver, Robert


    Traditionally, the primary outcome of infertility trials has been a positive pregnancy test or a clinically recognized pregnancy. However, parents desire a healthy baby that grows up to be a healthy adult, rather than a positive pregnancy test. Too often results of infertility trials are lacking in crucial obstetric details. This is problematic because treatments for infertility have the capacity to increase the risk for a variety of adverse obstetric outcomes. This review will outline important obstetric variables that should be included when reporting infertility research. The rationale for including these data, precise definitions of the variables, and cost-effective strategies for obtaining these obstetric details will be highlighted.

  20. Genitourinary changes in hamsters infected and reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi


    Cabrine-Santos Marlene; Santos Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima Marcus Aurelho; Abreu Marta Elena Araújo de; Lages-Silva Eliane; Ramírez Luís Eduardo


    Authors describe genitourinary changes in male hamsters infected and reinfected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Changes in genital organs have been described in human and in experimental chagasic infection. Genital dysfunctions in chronic chagasic patients affect ejaculation, libido and sexual potency, and testis biopsies may show arrested maturation of germ cells, oligozoospermia and azoospermia. Sixty-five male hamsters were inoculated and reinoculated with 2x10³ trypomastigotes of T. cruzi VIC str...

  1. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.


    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  2. [Induction of protective antiamebic immunity in hamsters with heterologous antigens]. (United States)

    Jiménez Cardoso, J M; Jiménez, E; de Jesús Bernal, M; Kumate, J


    Two hundred and twenty-five Syrian golden hamsters were used. Twenty five of them served as the control group. All other hamsters were intradermal immunized, once a week for four weeks, with a mixture of amebic proteins, mixed with complete Freund adjuvant, obtained from 5 x 10(5) homogenized dead amebic trophozoites from five different strains. Each group of hamsters (five groups of 40 animals each) were immunized with one of the following strains: E. histolytica HM-531, HJ-1, HM1-IMSS, E. chattoni PM-4 and PM-5. All hamsters, including those from the control group, were later inoculated with 0.2 mL equivalent to 1 x 10(5) live trophozoites from the different strains grown in axenic TYI-S-33 medium. Inoculation was performed by direct injection into the liver. The hamsters were sacrificed eight days later and their livers examined. All non-immunized animals showed extensive gross hepatic nodular abscesses. The liver of immunized hamsters showed mild to moderate lesions: the histopathological striking feature was non-specific granulomata. It is concluded that the immunized animals inoculated with homologous stock showed protective immunity to amebic infections. In other cases, immunity was seen though they were inoculated with a heterologous stock.

  3. Japan's baby bust: an economic issue? (United States)


    This brief article articulates that the solution to the declining birthrate in Japan is to change the corporate culture and societal values and begin putting the family first. At the present rate of fertility decline, Japan could well have just over 67 million total population in another 100 years, which is 50% of the present total. In 1990, the Finance Minister tried to convince Japanese couples to have more babies by abandoning policies that led women to higher education. The implication is that women would then want to stay at home and have babies. The prosperity of the late 1980s and early 1990s did not encourage higher fertility. The likely reason for low fertility is the male-dominated, corporate culture where male workers leave home early in the morning and work till late at night. Wives are left to care for children and maintain a full-time job. The total fertility rate (TFR) was 3.65 in 1950 and 1.39 in 1998. Both Germany and Italy have lower fertility but higher rates of immigration. The decline in the TFR is responsible for many of the current economic policies. New taxes were introduced in 1997 to pay for social security of the aged, and then the economy stalled. Life expectancies continue to rise. The elderly are a larger proportion of total population than children aged under 15 years. Women marry late, and the divorce rate is high.

  4. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega


    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  5. Massage Changes Babies' Body, Brain and Behavior (United States)

    Ishikawa, Chihiro; Shiga, Takashi

    Tactile stimulation is an important factor in mother-infant interactions. Many studies on both human and animals have shown that tactile stimulation during the neonatal period has various beneficial effects in the subsequent growth of the body and brain. In particular, massage is often applied to preterm human babies as “touch care”, because tactile stimulation together with kinesthetic stimulation increases body weight, which is accompanied by behavioral development and the changes of endocrine and neural conditions. Among them, the elevation of insulin-like growth factor-1, catecholamine, and vagus nerve activity may underlie the body weight gain. Apart from the body weight gain, tactile stimulation has various effects on the nervous system and endocrine system. For example, it has been reported that tactile stimulation on human and animal babies activates parasympathetic nervous systems, while suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenalcortical (HPA) axis, which may be related to the reduction of emotionality, anxiety-like behavior, and pain sensitivity. In addition, animal experiments have shown that tactile stimulation improves learning and memory. Facilitation of the neuronal activity and the morphological changes including the hippocampal synapse may underlie the improvement of the learning and memory. In conclusion, it has been strongly suggested that tactile stimulation in early life has beneficial effects on body, brain structure and function, which are maintained throughout life.

  6. Safety evaluation of superabsorbent baby diapers. (United States)

    Kosemund, Kirstin; Schlatter, Harald; Ochsenhirt, Jennifer L; Krause, Edburga L; Marsman, Daniel S; Erasala, Geetha N


    Superabsorbent disposable baby diapers are sophisticated, well-engineered products that provide many benefits including convenience, comfort, exceptional leakage protection, improved hygiene and skin care benefits compared with cloth diapers. Safety assurance is an integral part of the diaper development process at Procter & Gamble, with the goal of ensuring safety for both caregivers and babies. A systematic, stepwise approach to safety assessment starts with a thorough evaluation of new design features and materials, using the principles of general risk assessment including, as appropriate, controlled trials to assess clinical endpoints or independent scientific review of safety data. The majority of the diaper materials are polymers that are safe and do not have inherent toxicity issues. Trace amounts of non-polymeric materials, such as colorants, are assessed based on their skin contact potential. New materials or design features are introduced in marketed products only if they have been shown to be safe under the conditions of recommended or foreseeable use. The product safety continues to be confirmed after launch by means of in-market monitoring. This article provides a broad overview of human safety exposure-based risk assessment used at Procter & Gamble for absorbent hygiene products.

  7. Zuigelingen met een scheef hoofd [Babies with cranial deformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijen, M.M.; Claessens, E.A.; Dovens, A.J.; Vles, J.S.; van der Hulst, R.R.


    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet ther

  8. Fussy Babies, Worried Families, and a New Service Network (United States)

    Gilkerson, Linda; Gray, Larry; Mork, Nancy


    The authors document the conceptualization, over time, of "fussy baby syndrome" and the establishment of a Fussy Baby Clinic. Excessive infant crying (commonly called colic) typically subsides in the first 3 months but may set up a cycle of parent-infant distress. Families studied felt a high degree of emotional stress and physical exhaustion;…

  9. Animal Models of Leptospirosis: Of Mice and Hamsters (United States)

    Gomes-Solecki, Maria; Santecchia, Ignacio; Werts, Catherine


    Pathogenic Leptospira sp. are spirochetal bacteria responsible for leptospirosis, an emerging worldwide zoonosis. These spirochetes are very successful pathogens that infect a wide range of hosts such as fish, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and mammals. Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. Leptospira sp. enter their hosts through damaged skin and mucosa. Chronically infected rats and mice are asymptomatic and are considered as important reservoirs of the disease. Infected humans may develop either a flu-like, usually mild illness with or without chronic asymptotic renal colonization, or a severe acute disease with kidney, liver, and heart failure, potentially leading to death. Leptospirosis is an economic burden on society due to health-care costs related to elevated morbidity of humans and loss of animals of agricultural interest. There are no effective vaccines against leptospirosis. Leptospira sp. are difficult to genetically manipulate which delays the pace of research progress. In this review, we discuss in an historical perspective how animal models have contributed to further our knowledge of leptospirosis. Hamsters, guinea pigs, and gerbils have been instrumental to study the pathophysiology of acute lethal leptospirosis and the Leptospira sp. genes involved in virulence. Chronic renal colonization has been mostly studied using experimentally infected rats. A special emphasis will be placed on mouse models, long thought to be irrelevant since they survive lethal infection. However, mice have recently been shown to be good models of sublethal infection leading to chronic colonization. Furthermore, congenic and transgenic mice have proven essential to study how innate immune cells interact with the pathogen and to understand the role of the toll-like receptor 4, which is important to control Leptospira sp. load and disease. The use of inbred and transgenic mouse models opens

  10. Social thermoregulation and torpor in the Siberian hamster. (United States)

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Głabska, Marta; Wojciechowski, Michał S


    Social thermoregulation and huddling bring about energy benefits to animals sharing a nest because of the smaller surface-to-volume ratio of a huddle and the higher local temperature in the nest. We tested whether living in groups and huddling affect daily torpor, metabolic rate and seasonal changes in the body mass of a small heterothermic rodent, the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus), housed under semi-natural conditions both singly and in groups of four litter-mates. We predicted that in hamsters housed in groups: (1) synchronized torpor bouts would be longer and deeper than non-synchronized ones but shallower than in solitary hamsters, (2) seasonal variations in metabolic rate would be lower than in solitary hamsters, and (3) the winter decrease in body mass would be smaller in grouped than in singly housed hamsters. We found that group housing led to a smaller decrease in body mass in winter, and affected the length and depth of daily torpor. In group-living hamsters more than 50% of all torpor episodes were synchronized and torpid animals were often found in huddles formed of all cage-mates. The longest and deepest torpor bouts in groups were recorded when all animals in a group entered torpor simultaneously. Although the minimum body temperature during torpor was higher, torpor duration was slightly longer than in solitary hamsters. We did not record significant differences in the body mass-adjusted rate of oxygen consumption between solitary and grouped animals, either in the cold or at the lower critical temperature. We conclude that social thermoregulation enables maintenance of a larger body mass, and thus a larger body fat content, which can ensure better body condition at the beginning of the reproductive season.

  11. The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maiken W.; Klest, Sihu; Sandoy, Tróndur Møller


    linear-regression analyses were used for evaluating the effect of the intervention on primary and secondary outcomes. Results There were no intervention effects on the primary outcomes. For secondary outcomes, intervention mothers reported a significantly smaller network than control mothers (β = -0......Introduction Infancy is an important period of life; adverse experiences during this stage can have both immediate and lifelong impacts on the child’s mental health and well-being. This study evaluates the effects of the Incredible Years Parents and Babies (IYPB) program as a universal intervention.......15 [-1.85,-0.28]). None of the other secondary outcomes showed any effects. When examining the lowest-functioning mothers in a moderator analysis, we found that intervention mothers report significantly higher parent stress (β = 5.33 [0.27,10.38]), lower confidence (β = -2.37 [-4.45,-0.29]), and worse...

  12. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng


    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  13. Facial aesthetics: babies prefer attractiveness to symmetry. (United States)

    Samuels, Curtis A; Butterworth, George; Roberts, Tony; Graupner, Lida; Hole, Graham


    The visual preferences of human infants for faces that varied in their attractiveness and in their symmetry about the midline were explored. The aim was to establish whether infants' visual preference for attractive faces may be mediated by the vertical symmetry of the face. Chimeric faces, made from photographs of attractive and unattractive female faces, were produced by computer graphics. Babies looked longer at normal and at chimeric attractive faces than at normal and at chimeric unattractive faces. There were no developmental differences between the younger and older infants: all preferred to look at the attractive faces. Infants as young as 4 months showed similarity with adults in the 'aesthetic perception' of attractiveness and this preference was not based on the vertical symmetry of the face.

  14. Power outages, power externalities, and baby booms. (United States)

    Burlando, Alfredo


    Determining whether power outages have significant fertility effects is an important policy question in developing countries, where blackouts are common and modern forms of family planning are scarce. Using birth records from Zanzibar, this study shows that a month-long blackout in 2008 caused a significant increase in the number of births 8 to 10 months later. The increase was similar across villages that had electricity, regardless of the level of electrification; villages with no electricity connections saw no changes in birth numbers. The large fertility increase in communities with very low levels of electricity suggests that the outage affected the fertility of households not connected to the grid through some spillover effect. Whether the baby boom is likely to translate to a permanent increase in the population remains unclear, but this article highlights an important hidden consequence of power instability in developing countries. It also suggests that electricity imposes significant externality effects on rural populations that have little exposure to it.

  15. Carbon Footprint Analysis for Baby Strollers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ang; Luo Yifan


    The increasing awareness of climate change has led or- ganizations to demand a standard procedure to measure and com- municate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions linked to their products or services. The publicly available specification PAS 2050 has been developed in response to broad community and industry desire for a consistent method-carbon footprint for assessing the life cycle GHG emissions of goods and services. Specifically, this paper illustrates the implementation of carbon footprint for a baby stroller in accordance with PAS 2050. A fial value of 321 kg per one stroller including package was calculated. Moreover, the study led to identify raw materials production of the stroller as the main source of GHS emissions where efforts need to focus for emission reduction opportunities. This case study is hoped to be a starting point for organizations to benefit from the increasing application of carbon footprint assessment.

  16. Failure to thrive in babies and toddlers. (United States)

    Goh, Lay Hoon; How, Choon How; Ng, Kar Hui


    Failure to thrive in a child is defined as 'lack of expected normal physical growth' or 'failure to gain weight'. Diagnosis requires repeated growth measurements over time using local, age-appropriate growth centile charts. Premature babies with appropriate growth velocity and children with 'catch-down' growth, constitutional growth delay or familial short stature show normal growth variants, and usually do not require further evaluation. In Singapore, the most common cause of failure to thrive in children is malnutrition secondary to psychosocial and caregiver factors. 'Picky eating' is common in the local setting and best managed with an authoritative feeding style from caregivers. Other causes are malabsorption and existing congenital or chronic medical conditions. Child neglect or abuse should always be ruled out. Iron deficiency is the most common complication. The family doctor plays a pivotal role in early detection, timely treatment, appropriate referrals and close monitoring of 'catch-up' growth in these children.

  17. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean. (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B


    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells (United States)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Chen, Lily; Lewis, Nathan E.; Nagarajan, Harish; Sarkaria, Vishaldeep; Kumar, Amit; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joe; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; O'Meally, Robert N.; Krag, Sharon S.; Cole, Robert N.; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Zhang, Hui; Betenbaugh, Michael


    In order to complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multi-dimensional liquid chromatography, and solid phase extraction of glycopeptides (SPEG). From the 120 different mass spectrometry analyses generating 682,097 MS/MS spectra, 93,548 unique peptide sequences were identified with at most a 0.02 false discovery rate (FDR). A total of 6164 grouped proteins were identified from both glycoproteome and proteome analysis, representing an 8-fold increase in the number of proteins currently identified in the CHO proteome. Furthermore, this is the first proteomic study done using CHO genome exclusively which provides for more accurate identification of proteins. From this analysis, the CHO codon frequency was determined and found to be distinct from humans, which will facilitate expression of human proteins in CHO cells. Analysis of the combined proteomic and mRNA data sets indicated the enrichment of a number of pathways including protein processing and apoptosis but depletion of proteins involved in steroid hormone and glycosphingolipid metabolism. 504 of the detected proteins included N-acetylation modifications and 1292 different proteins were observed to be N-glycosylated. This first large-scale proteomic analysis will enhance the knowledge base about CHO capabilities for recombinant expression and provide information useful in cell engineering efforts aimed at modifying CHO cellular functions. PMID:22971049

  19. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney (United States)

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to ...

  20. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal) (United States)

    ... if your entire kidney needs to be removed. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. In a variation of laparoscopic ... living kidney donor. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. AskMayoExpert. Partial nephrectomy. Rochester, ...

  1. Diet - chronic kidney disease (United States)

    ... page: // Diet - chronic kidney disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... make changes to your diet when you have chronic kidney disease. These changes may include limiting fluids, eating a ...

  2. Diabetes and Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... disease of diabetes, or diabetic nephropathy. How does diabetes cause kidney disease? High blood glucose , also called ... I keep my kidneys healthy if I have diabetes? The best way to slow or prevent diabetes- ...

  3. Kidney Stones (For Parents) (United States)

    ... of kidney stones if taken in large doses. Metabolic disorders. Having a metabolic disorder (a problem in the way the body breaks ... arthritis), other kidney diseases , conditions that affect the thyroid or parathyroid gland, and some urinary tract infections ( ...

  4. Kidney Replacement Therapy (United States)

    ... to fail. If the new kidney does develop diabetic nephropathy, it too will take many years to fail. ... 2013 Articles from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: cc-kidneys-nephropathy, In ... Diabetes » Close nonprofit software

  5. Kidneys and Urinary Tract (United States)

    ... amino acids, byproducts of bile from the liver, ammonia, and any substances that cannot be reabsorbed into ... Blood Dialysis Digestive System Kidney Transplant Kidney Stones Spleen and Lymphatic System Bones, Muscles, and Joints Contact ...

  6. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) (United States)

    ... CKD treated? Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people are ... and high blood pressure are the most common causes of CKD. If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, ...

  7. Masculine sexual activity affects slow wave sleep in Golden hamsters. (United States)

    Jiménez-Anguiano, A; Arteaga-Silva, M; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J


    The sleep pattern is modified by events occurring during wakefulness. In rats, it has been shown that male sexual behavior has a direct influence on sleeping patterns, increasing slow wave sleep (SWS) duration. On the other hand, the sexual behavior pattern of the male Golden hamster differs from the copulatory pattern of male rats. Male hamsters copulate faster and they do not display the motor inhibition observed in rats after each ejaculation. Moreover, close to exhaustion, hamsters display a behavioral pattern known as Long Intromission, which has been linked to an sexual inhibitory process. The present study was performed to determine the effects of male sexual activity on the sleep pattern in hamsters. Subjects were allowed to copulate for 30 and 60 min. In addition, the effect of locomotor activity was also assessed. The results show that male sexual behavior induced a significant increase of SWS II, with a reduction of wakefulness. No effect was observed on REM sleep. Locomotor activity produced only a slight effect on sleep. The results are discussed in terms of the similarities between the effects observed after sexual behavior on sleep in rats and hamsters, despite the substantial differences in the behavioral pattern.

  8. Pineal melatonin synthesis in Syrian hamsters: A summary (United States)

    Rollag, M. D.


    During the past decade there has been ample documentation of the proposition that the pineal gland mediates photoperiodic influences upon reproductive behavior of hamsters. It is commonly hypothesized that the pineal gland expresses its activity by transformation of photoperiodic information into an hormonal output, that hormone being melatonin. If this hypothesis is correct, there must be some essential diffrence in melatonin's output when hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic environments. The experiments summarized in this communication analyze pineal melatonin contents in Syrian hamsters maintained in a variety of photoperiodic conditions during different physiological states. The results demonstrate that adult hamsters have a daily surge in pineal melatonin content throughout their lifetime when exposed to simulated annual photoperiodic cycles. There is some fluctuation in the amount of pineal melatonin produced during different physiological states and photoperiodic environments, but these fluctuations seem small when compared to those normally found for other regulatory hormones. When hamsters are exposed to different photoperiodic regimens, the daily melatonin surge maintains a relatively constant phase relationship with respect to the onset of daily activity. There is a concomitant change in its phase relationship with respect to light-dark transitions.

  9. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya


    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  10. Hamster and Murine Models of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Munson


    Full Text Available Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ- deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology.

  11. Circadian regulation of cortisol release in behaviorally split golden hamsters. (United States)

    Lilley, Travis R; Wotus, Cheryl; Taylor, Daniel; Lee, Jennifer M; de la Iglesia, Horacio O


    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately 12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We show that unsplit control hamsters present a single peak of cortisol release that is concomitant with a single peak of ACTH release. In contrast, split hamsters show two peaks of cortisol release that are approximately 12 h appart and are appropriately phased to each locomotor activity bout but surprisingly do not rely on rhythmic release of ACTH. Our results are consistent with a model in which the circadian pacemaker within the SCN regulates the circadian release of GC via input to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and via a second regulatory pathway, which likely involves sympathetic innervation of the adrenal and can operate even in the absence of ACTH circadian rhythmic release. Furthermore, we show that although the overall 24-h cortisol output in split hamsters is lower than in unsplit controls, split hamsters release constant low levels of ACTH. This result suggests that the timing, rather than the absolute amount, of cortisol release is more critical for the induction of negative feedback effects that regulate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  12. Hydronephrosis of one kidney (United States)

    ... Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; Ureteral calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  13. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.


    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  14. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. (United States)


    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal...

  15. Activity of synthetic chalcones in hamsters experimentally infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. (United States)

    de Mello, Tatiane F P; Cardoso, Bruna M; Lopes, Sara N; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Voltarelli, Evandra M; Hernandes, Luzmarina; Aristides, Sandra M A; Lonardoni, Maria V C; Silveira, Thais G V


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of synthetic chalcones 1 and 2 in uninfected hamsters and anti-Leishmania activity of synthetic chalcones 1 and 2 in hamsters infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. For the toxicity test, uninfected animals were treated with chalcones 1 and 2, and clinical and biochemical parameters and histological aspects of the liver and kidneys were assessed. Chalcones 1 and 2 were then intraperitoneally or topically administered (10 mg/kg body weight) three times per week in animals infected with promastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. We monitored the thickness of the infected footpads, determined parasitic load, performed histological analysis, and detected apoptosis in situ. The results were analyzed using Student's t test and Mann-Whitney test at a significance level of 5%. Neither of the chalcones showed toxicity. Chalcone 2 administered intraperitoneally significantly reduced the thickness of the infected footpad compared with the beginning of treatment. The parasite load of the lymph node and spleen was reduced in the groups treated with chalcones 1 (topical) and 2 (intraperitoneal). Chalcone 2 (topical) reduced parasite burden only in the lymph node. The histological analysis revealed reconstitution of the tissue and reductions of inflammation and apoptosis in the infected footpad in these groups. The synthetic chalcones 1 (topical) and 2 (intraperitoneal and topical) at a dose of 10 mg/kg showed anti-Leishmania activity in vivo, no renal or hepatic toxicity, and a reduction of apoptosis of the cells in the lesions. These chalcones may have substantial potential for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  16. A Syrian golden hamster model recapitulating ebola hemorrhagic fever. (United States)

    Ebihara, Hideki; Zivcec, Marko; Gardner, Donald; Falzarano, Darryl; LaCasse, Rachel; Rosenke, Rebecca; Long, Dan; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Elizabeth; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Feldmann, Heinz


    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a severe viral infection for which no effective treatment or vaccine is currently available. While the nonhuman primate (NHP) model is used for final evaluation of experimental vaccines and therapeutic efficacy, rodent models have been widely used in ebolavirus research because of their convenience. However, the validity of rodent models has been questioned given their low predictive value for efficacy testing of vaccines and therapeutics, a result of the inconsistent manifestation of coagulopathy seen in EHF. Here, we describe a lethal Syrian hamster model of EHF using mouse-adapted Ebola virus. Infected hamsters displayed most clinical hallmarks of EHF, including severe coagulopathy and uncontrolled host immune responses. Thus, the hamster seems to be superior to the existing rodent models, offering a better tool for understanding the critical processes in pathogenesis and providing a new model for evaluating prophylactic and postexposure interventions prior to testing in NHPs.

  17. Homeostatic regulation of sleep in arrhythmic Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yokogawa, Tohei; Heller, H Craig; Franken, Paul; Ruby, Norman F


    Sleep is regulated by independent yet interacting circadian and homeostatic processes. The present study used a novel approach to study sleep homeostasis in the absence of circadian influences by exposing Siberian hamsters to a simple phase delay of the photocycle to make them arrhythmic. Because these hamsters lacked any circadian organization, their sleep homeostasis could be studied in the absence of circadian interactions. Control animals retained circadian rhythmicity after the phase shift and re-entrained to the phase-shifted photocycle. These animals displayed robust daily sleep-wake rhythms with consolidated sleep during the light phase beginning about 1 h after light onset. This marked sleep-wake pattern was circadian in that it persisted in constant darkness. The distribution of sleep in the arrhythmic hamsters over 24 h was similar to that in the light phase of rhythmic animals. Therefore, daily sleep amounts were higher in arrhythmic animals compared with rhythmic ones. During 2- and 6-h sleep deprivations (SD), it was more difficult to keep arrhythmic hamsters awake than it was for rhythmic hamsters. Because the arrhythmic animals obtained more non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) during the SD, they showed a diminished compensatory response in NREMS EEG slow-wave activity during recovery sleep. When amounts of sleep during the SD were taken into account, there were no differences in sleep homeostasis between experimental and control hamsters. Thus loss of circadian control did not alter the homeostatic response to SD. This supports the view that circadian and homeostatic influences on sleep regulation are independent processes.

  18. Susceptibility of hamsters to Clostridium difficile isolates of differing toxinotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony M Buckley

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is the most commonly associated cause of antibiotic associated disease (AAD, which caused ∼21,000 cases of AAD in 2011 in the U.K. alone. The golden Syrian hamster model of CDI is an acute model displaying many of the clinical features of C. difficile disease. Using this model we characterised three clinical strains of C. difficile, all differing in toxinotype; CD1342 (PaLoc negative, M68 (toxinotype VIII & BI-7 (toxinotype III. The naturally occurring non-toxic strain colonised all hamsters within 1-day post challenge (d.p.c. with high-levels of spores being shed in the faeces of animals that appeared well throughout the entire experiment. However, some changes including increased neutrophil influx and unclotted red blood cells were observed at early time points despite the fact that the known C. difficile toxins (TcdA, TcdB and CDT are absent from the genome. In contrast, hamsters challenged with strain M68 resulted in a 45% mortality rate, with those that survived challenge remaining highly colonised. It is currently unclear why some hamsters survive infection, as bacterial & toxin levels and histology scores were similar to those culled at a similar time-point. Hamsters challenged with strain BI-7 resulted in a rapid fatal infection in 100% of the hamsters approximately 26 hr post challenge. Severe caecal pathology, including transmural neutrophil infiltrates and extensive submucosal damage correlated with high levels of toxin measured in gut filtrates ex vivo. These data describes the infection kinetics and disease outcomes of 3 clinical C. difficile isolates differing in toxin carriage and provides additional insights to the role of each toxin in disease progression.

  19. The "Shaken Baby" syndrome: pathology and mechanisms. (United States)

    Squier, Waney


    The "Shaken Baby" syndrome (SBS) is the subject of intense controversy; the diagnosis has in the past depended on the triad of subdural haemorrhage (SDH), retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. While there is no doubt that infants do suffer abusive injury at the hands of their carers and that impact can cause catastrophic intracranial damage, research has repeatedly undermined the hypothesis that shaking per se can cause this triad. The term non-accidental head injury has therefore been widely adopted. This review will focus on the pathology and mechanisms of the three physiologically associated findings which constitute the "triad" and are seen in infants suffering from a wide range of non-traumatic as well as traumatic conditions. "Sub" dural bleeding in fact originates within the deep layers of the dura. The potential sources of SDH include: the bridging veins, small vessels within the dura itself, a granulating haemorrhagic membrane and ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Most neuropathologists do not routinely examine eyes, but the significance of this second arm of the triad in the diagnosis of Shaken Baby syndrome is such that it merits consideration in the context of this review. While retinal haemorrhage can be seen clinically, dural and subarachnoid optic nerve sheath haemorrhage is usually seen exclusively by the pathologist and only rarely described by the neuroradiologist. The term encephalopathy is used loosely in the context of SBS. It may encompass anything from vomiting, irritability, feeding difficulties or floppiness to seizures, apnoea and fulminant brain swelling. The spectrum of brain pathology associated with retinal and subdural bleeding from a variety of causes is described. The most important cerebral pathology is swelling and hypoxic-ischaemic injury. Mechanical shearing injury is rare and contusions, the hallmark of adult traumatic brain damage, are vanishingly rare in infants under 1 year of age. Clefts and haemorrhages in the immediate

  20. Field trials of the Baby Check score card in general practice. (United States)

    Morley, C J; Thornton, A J; Green, S J; Cole, T J


    Sixteen general practitioners (GPs) used the Baby Check score card to assess illness severity in 86 babies under 6 months old. Their reactions to Baby Check were positive: in 79 (92%) it gave an accurate assessment of the baby's illness and 16 (100%) said they would trust it. Fifteen (94%) found it useful, and most of those who did not said the baby was not ill or had an obvious diagnosis. Thirteen (81%) said they would use it and wanted their health visitors and midwives to use it and 15 (94%) wanted the mothers in their practice to use it. The majority (64%) of babies scored 0-7; 31% scored 8 to 19; and only 5% scored over 20. Well babies had low scores, while the two sickest babies, needing urgent hospital treatment, scored 29 and 33. The use of Baby Check by GPs would help them assess babies thoroughly and quantify illness severity objectively.

  1. Pediatricians Say No to Wearable Smartphone Baby Monitors (United States)

    ... Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends against using these high-tech baby monitors in healthy infants, said Dr. Rachel ... Owlet responded that the company has performed "extensive product safety testing," adding that its Smart Sock is ...

  2. Phonetic features by babies with unilateral cleft lip and palate. (United States)

    O'Gara, M M; Logemann, J A; Rademaker, A W


    Twenty-three babies with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate were audiotaped at regular intervals from 5 to 35 months of age. Narrow phonetic transcription of their comfort-state vocalizations and word approximations was accomplished to describe phonetic development over time and according to the nonrandomized age of palatoplasty. The babies that had earlier palatal repair produced significantly higher percentages of oral stops after 12 months of age than babies with similar clefts that had later palatal repair. No significant differences are evident, however, according to age of palatoplasty, for mean frequency use of oral fricatives up to 3 years of age. For all 23 babies, regardless of the age of palatoplasty intervention, time is an even stronger variable than age of palatoplasty for development of palatal, alveolar and velar place features, oral stops, and oral fricatives.

  3. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Card Grades Cities, Counties; Focuses on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March of Dimes Plan Aims to Make ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  4. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples (United States)

    ... and nipples. References American Academy of Pediatrics. Practical Bottle Feeding Tips. Available at: Accessed April 7, 2015. Stettler N, ...

  5. Drug Might Help Some Babies with Rare, Fatal Disease (United States)

    ... fared so well. As published Dec. 5 in The Lancet , four of the babies in the trial died ... SOURCES: new releases, Dec. 6, 2016, Stanford University, The Lancet HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. ...

  6. Mother and baby yoga is good for you. (United States)

    MacDonald, Cheryl


    Mother and baby yoga is becoming more and more popular in the western world, as postpartum mothers discover the benefits of being able to 'work out', bond with their baby and relax, all in one session. Postnatal yoga can offer calm and a sense of wellbeing, helping mothers to improve and stabilise their emotional health and to bond. Additionally the mother is able to focus on her relationship with her baby, rebuild the weakened pelvic floor, strengthen the abdominal muscles and even alleviate back and neck pain. For babies, yoga can aid digestion and alleviate colic; help to strengthen tiny limbs; improve sleep patterns; and enhance their ability to interact with their mother and other people.

  7. Are Ultrasound "Snapshots" of Your Unborn Baby a Good Idea? (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Are Ultrasound "Snapshots" of Your Unborn Baby a Good Idea? ... It Works Risks of Nonmedical Ultrasounds What's an Ultrasound? For many expectant parents, ultrasounds offer a window ...

  8. Gene Therapy Helps 2 Babies Fight Type of Leukemia (United States)

    ... page: Gene Therapy Helps 2 Babies Fight Type of Leukemia Tweaking ... time," said Qasim, a professor of cell and gene therapy at University College London. Small trials are under ...

  9. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food ... baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food ...

  10. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  11. Oral Health: What Parents Can Do: Babies & Toddlers (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Oral Health What Parents Can Do: Babies & Toddlers Past Issues / ... the best way to clean them. Read More "Oral Health" Articles Children's Dental Health / What Parents Can Do: ...

  12. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... premature birth Zika virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  13. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for ... a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! ...

  14. Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion (United States)

    ... PREGNANCY Pregnancy Choices: Raising the Baby, Adoption, and Abortion • What are my options if I find out ... is financial help available? • If I am considering abortion, what should I know about my state’s laws? • ...

  15. Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies


    Valls Esteve, Arnau


    Exploration of a hearing protective device solution for premature babies The levels of noise in most hospital NICUs frequently exceed recommended World Health Organization (WHO) standards and recommended international limits. Additionally, premature babies and newborns can have stays of up to 3 months in these settings. In recent years, the combination of these two factors has raised concerns in the medical community about the effects of patients' exposure to noise, starting to be clearly ...

  16. Having Healthy Babies (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Most babies in the United States are born perfectly healthy. However, a small percentage are born with birth defects, and these conditions account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. In this podcast, Dr. Sarah Tinker discusses ways for women to improve their chances of having a healthy baby.  Created: 1/19/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/19/2017.

  17. Baby Boomers and Generation X: strategies to bridge the gap. (United States)

    Bertholf, L; Loveless, S


    Health care staffing challenges for the next few years necessitate the need to develop strategies to integrate the Generation Xer into a predominantly Baby Boomer work force. Strategies to assist Baby Boomers and Generation Xers to engage one another in constructive relationships are discussed. Misunderstanding and stereotyping create barriers that focus on differences and perceived limitations rather than identification of common thinking and focusing on strengths of each generation.

  18. Efficient gene targeting in golden Syrian hamsters by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Fan

    Full Text Available The golden Syrian hamster is the model of choice or the only rodent model for studying many human diseases. However, the lack of gene targeting tools in hamsters severely limits their use in biomedical research. Here, we report the first successful application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficiently conduct gene targeting in hamsters. We designed five synthetic single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs--three for targeting the coding sequences for different functional domains of the hamster STAT2 protein, one for KCNQ1, and one for PPP1R12C--and demonstrated that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is highly efficient in introducing site-specific mutations in hamster somatic cells. We then developed unique pronuclear (PN and cytoplasmic injection protocols in hamsters and produced STAT2 knockout (KO hamsters by injecting the sgRNA/Cas9, either in the form of plasmid or mRNA, targeting exon 4 of hamster STAT2. Among the produced hamsters, 14.3% and 88.9% harbored germline-transmitted STAT2 mutations from plasmid and mRNA injection, respectively. Notably, 10.4% of the animals produced from mRNA injection were biallelically targeted. This is the first success in conducting site-specific gene targeting in hamsters and can serve as the foundation for developing other genetically engineered hamster models for human disease.

  19. Urban poverty: delivering babies in the slum. (United States)

    Lloyd, M


    Government of India statistics indicate that about 3 million of New Delhi's 11 million people live in slums, while another 3 million people, most fleeing rural poverty, are expected to migrate to the capital by 2000. ASHA Community Health and Development Society is a nongovernmental organization currently working in 23 of India's slums, serving a population of about 150,000 people. The group has pioneered the use of community-based networks in New Delhi to improve health in the poorest communities. While ASHA has a small, full-time staff, most of the daily health care work is conducted by slum volunteers. Ekta Vihar is a slum community of 1800 residents. Community members' primary source of health care are Vimla Rana and Sobha, two illiterate women who reside in the community and are part of a team of community health workers trained by ASHA. Rana and Sobha deliver almost all of the babies born annually in the slum and care for community members when they become ill.

  20. Shaken baby syndrome: the quest for evidence. (United States)

    Squier, Waney


    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS), characterized by the triad of subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage, and encephalopathy, was initially based on the hypothesis that shaking causes tearing of bridging veins and bilateral subdural bleeding. It remains controversial. New evidence since SBS was first defined three decades ago needs to be reviewed. Neuropathology shows that most cases do not have traumatic axonal injury, but hypoxic-ischaemic injury and brain swelling. This may allow a lucid interval, which traumatic axonal injury will not. Further, the thin subdural haemorrhages in SBS are unlike the thick unilateral space-occupying clots of trauma. They may not originate from traumatic rupture of bridging veins but from vessels injured by hypoxia and haemodynamic disturbances, as originally proposed by Cushing in 1905. Biomechanical studies have repeatedly failed to show that shaking alone can generate the triad in the absence of significant neck injury. Impact is needed and, indeed, seems to be the cause of the majority of cases of so-called SBS. Birth-related subdural bleeds are much more frequent than previously thought and their potential to cause chronic subdural collections and mimic SBS remains to be established.

  1. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches (United States)


    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Cross correlations of the American baby names

    CERN Document Server

    Barucca, Paolo; Marinari, Enzo; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico


    The quantitative description of cultural evolution is a challenging task. The most difficult part of the problem is probably to find the appropriate measurable quantities that can make more quantitative such evasive concepts as, for example, dynamics of cultural movements, behavior patterns and traditions of the people. A strategy to tackle this issue is to observe particular features of human activities, i.e. cultural traits, such as names given to newborns. We study the names of babies born in the United States of America from 1910 to 2012. Our analysis shows that groups of different correlated states naturally emerge in different epochs, and we are able to follow and decrypt their evolution. While these groups of states are stable across many decades, a sudden reorganization occurs in the last part of the twentieth century. We think that this kind of quantitative analysis can be possibly extended to other cultural traits: although databases covering more than one century (as the one we used) are rare, the ...

  3. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields at nonthermal SAR values on melatonin and body weight of Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Krüger, Heike; Niehaus, Michael; Streckert, Joachim R; Bitz, Andreas K; Hansen, Volkert


    In three experiments, adult male Djungarian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) were exposed 24 hr/day for 60 days to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) at 383, 900, and 1800 MHz, modulated according to the TETRA (383 MHz) and GSM standards (900 and 1800 MHz), respectively. A radial waveguide system ensured a well defined and uniform exposure at whole-body averaged specific absorption rates of 80 mW/kg, which is equal to the upper limit of whole-body exposure of the general population in Germany and other countries. For each experiment, using two identical waveguides, hamsters were exposed (n = 120) and sham-exposed (n = 120) in a blind fashion. In all experiments, pineal and serum melatonin levels as well as the weights of testes, brain, kidneys, and liver were not affected. At 383 MHz, exposure resulted in a significant transient increase in body weight up to 4%, while at 900 MHz this body weight increase was more pronounced (up to 6%) and not transient. At 1800 MHz, no effect on body weight was seen. The results corroborate earlier findings which have shown no effects of RF-EMF on melatonin levels in vivo and in vitro. The data are in accordance with the hypothesis that absorbed RF energy may result in metabolic changes which eventually cause body weight increases in exposed animals. The data support the notion that metabolic effects of RF-EMFs need to be investigated in more detail in future studies.

  4. What Is Kidney Cancer (Renal Cell Carcinoma)? (United States)

    ... Treatment? Kidney Cancer About Kidney Cancer What Is Kidney Cancer? Kidney cancer is a cancer that starts ... and spread, see What Is Cancer? About the kidneys To understand more about kidney cancer, it helps ...

  5. Cloning of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody sequences and identification of a new hamster immunoglobulin lambda constant IGLC gene region. (United States)

    Haggart, Ryan; Perera, Jason; Huang, Haochu


    Anti-CD79 antibodies have been effective at targeting B cell lymphoma cells and depleting B cells in animal models. In order to engineer recombinant antibodies with additional effector functions in mice, we cloned and sequenced the full-length cDNAs of the heavy and light chain of a hamster anti-mouse CD79B antibody. Although hamster antibodies represent a unique source of monoclonal antibodies against mouse, rat, and human antigens, sequence information of hamster immunoglobulins (IG) is sparse. Here, we report a new hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) IG lambda constant (IGLC) gene region that is most homologous to mouse IGLC2 and IGLC3.

  6. Enhanced longevity in tau mutant Syrian hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, Malgorzata; Daan, Serge


    The single-gene mutation tau in the Syrian hamster shortens the circadian period by about 20% in the homozygous mutant and simultaneously increases the mass-specific metabolic rate by about 20%. Both effects might be expected to lead to a change in longevity. To test such expectations, the life span

  7. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maravilla Pablo


    Full Text Available Abstract The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  8. Melatonin production accompanies arousal from daily torpor in Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Larkin, Jennie E; Yellon, Steven M; Zucker, Irving


    Arousal from deep hibernation is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel concentrations in species that undergo much shallower, shorter duration episodes of daily torpor. Serum Mel concentrations were determined during arousal from both natural daily torpor and torpor induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) treatment (2,500 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [IP]); blood samples were drawn from the retro-orbital sinus of anesthetized Siberian hamsters. For animals kept in darkness during torpor, Mel concentrations were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body temperature increased during arousal and returned to baseline once euthermia was reestablished. In hamsters kept in the light during the torpor bout, Mel concentrations were elevated above basal values during arousal, but the response was significantly blunted in comparison with values recorded in darkness. Increased Mel concentrations were detected in hamsters only during arousal from torpor (either natural or 2-DG induced) and were not simply a result of the drug treatment; hamsters that remained euthermic or manifested mild hypothermia after drug treatment maintained basal Mel concentrations. We propose that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympathetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis during arousal from torpor rather than an adjustment of the circadian rhythm of Mel secretion.

  9. Development of Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). (United States)

    Toral-Bastida, Elizabeth; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Jimenez-Gonzalez, Diego E; Garcia-Cortes, Ramon; Avila-Ramirez, Guillermina; Maravilla, Pablo; Flisser, Ana


    The life cycle of Taenia pisiformis includes canines as definitive hosts and rabbits as intermediate hosts. Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent that has been successfully used as experimental model of Taenia solium taeniosis. In the present study we describe the course of T. pisiformis infection in experimentally infected golden hamsters. Ten females, treated with methyl-prednisolone acetate were infected with three T. pisiformis cysticerci each one excised from one rabbit. Proglottids released in faeces and adults recovered during necropsy showed that all animals were infected. Eggs obtained from the hamsters' tapeworms, were assessed for viability using trypan blue or propidium iodide stains. Afterwards, some rabbits were inoculated with eggs, necropsy was performed after seven weeks and viable cysticerci were obtained. Our results demonstrate that the experimental model of adult Taenia pisiformis in golden hamster can replace the use of canines in order to study this parasite and to provide eggs and adult tapeworms to be used in different types of experiments.

  10. Bioavailability and disposition of solanine in rats and hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen K; Pereboom-de Fauw DPKH; Besamusca P; Beekhof PK; Speijers GJA; Derks HJGM


    The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (po) and intravenous (iv) administration in rats and hamsters were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The iv dose was 54 mug/kg; the oral dose was 170 mug/kg. After iv administration, the

  11. Cuba's kidney transplantation program. (United States)

    Mármol, Alexander; Pérez, Alexis; Pérez de Prado, Juan C; Fernández-Vega, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Arce, Sergio


    The first kidney transplant in Cuba was performed on 24 February 1970, using a cadaveric donor. In 1979, living donor kidney transplantation began between first-degree relatives. A total of 2775 patients are enrolled in renal replacement therapy in 47 hospitals across the country, 1440 of whom are awaiting kidney transplantation. Organs for the kidney program are procured in 63 accredited hospitals equipped for multidisciplinary management of brain death. Accordingly, over 90% of transplanted kidneys are from cadaveric donors. Identification of potential recipients is carried out through a national, computerized program that affords all patients the same opportunity regardless of distance from a transplant center, and selection of the most suitable candidate is based primarily on HLA compatibility. KEYWORDS Chronic renal failure, kidney transplantation.

  12. Tissue engineering the kidney. (United States)

    Hammerman, Marc R


    The means by which kidney function can be replaced in humans include dialysis and renal allotransplantation. Dialytic therapies are lifesaving, but often poorly tolerated. Transplantation of human kidneys is limited by the availability of donor organs. During the past decades, a number of different approaches have been applied toward tissue engineering the kidney as a means to replace renal function. The goals of one or another of them included the recapitulation of renal filtration, reabsorptive and secretory functions, and replacement of endocrine/metabolic activities. This review will delineate the progress to date recorded for five approaches: (1) integration of new nephrons into the kidney; (2) growing new kidneys in situ; (3) use of stem cells; (4) generation of histocompatible tissues using nuclear transplantation; and (5) bioengineering of an artificial kidney. All five approaches utilize cellular therapy. The first four employ transplantation as well, and the fifth uses dialysis.

  13. Should we maintain baby hatches in our society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asai Atsushi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A baby hatch called the “Stork’s Cradle” has been in place at Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto City, Japan, since May 10, 2007. Babyklappes were first established in Germany in 2000, and there are currently more than 90 locations. Attitudes regarding baby hatches are divided in Japan and neither opinions for nor against baby hatches have thus far been overwhelming. To consider the appropriateness of baby hatches, we present and examine the validity of each major objection to establishing baby hatches. Discussion There are various objections to baby hatches as follows: It violates a child’s right to know the identity of his or her biological parents by allowing anonymous birth; it neglects fulfillment of the biological parents’ basic obligation to raise their child and its very availability induces abandonment of infants; some people abuse it for very selfish reasons; it cannot save babies’ lives; the rights of one parent can be ignored if the other surrenders a child without his or her consent; it puts a baby in medical jeopardy; and it has no clear legal basis. The authors would argue that there are many plausible refutations for each objection mainly based on priority of child’s right to life, pregnant women’s vulnerability and necessity of anonymity, social responsibility to protect and raise children, differences between dropping a child off at a baby hatch and child neglect, limited function of social childcare center, inevitability of abuse by a minority of people, necessary distinction between outcomes that occur only because baby hatches exist and those that occur regardless of their existence, important local direct and upmost measures for women in trouble, and difference between ambiguous legality and illegality. Summary We argue that a certain number of baby hatches should continue to be established as a last resort, in a form that can maintain anonymity if the parent dropping the child off so desires. It

  14. Seasonal aspects of sleep in the Djungarian hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deboer Tom


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes in photoperiod and ambient temperature trigger seasonal adaptations in the physiology and behaviour of many species, including the Djungarian hamster. Exposure of the hamsters to a short photoperiod and low ambient temperature leads to a reduction of the polyphasic distribution of sleep and waking over the light and dark period. In contrast, a long photoperiod enhances the daily sleep-wake amplitude leading to a decline of slow-wave activity in NREM sleep within the light period. It is unknown whether these changes can be attributed specifically to photoperiod and/or ambient temperature, or whether endogenous components are contributing factors. The influence of endogenous factors was investigated by recording sleep in Djungarian hamsters invariably maintained at a low ambient temperature and fully adapted to a short photoperiod. The second recording was performed when they had returned to summer physiology, despite the maintenance of the 'winter' conditions. Results Clear winter-summer differences were seen in sleep distribution, while total sleep time was unchanged. A significantly higher light-dark cycle modulation in NREM sleep, REM sleep and waking was observed in hamsters in the summer physiological state compared to those in the winter state. Moreover, only in summer, REM sleep episodes were longer and waking bouts were shorter during the light period compared to the dark period. EEG power in the slow-wave range (0.75–4.0 Hz in both NREM sleep and REM sleep was higher in animals in the summer physiological state than in those in the 'winter' state. In winter SWA in NREM sleep was evenly distributed over the 24 h, while in summer it decreased during the light period and increased during the dark period. Conclusion Endogenous changes in the organism underlie the differences in sleep-wake redistribution we have observed previously in hamsters recorded in a short and long photoperiod.

  15. η Carinae Baby Homunculus uncovered by ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, Zulema; Beaklini, Pedro P. B. [Instituto de Astronomia, Geofísica e Ciências Atmosféricas, Universidade de São Paulo, R. do Matão 1226, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-900 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Falceta-Gonçalves, Diego, E-mail: [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, R. Arlindo Bettio 1000, 03828-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    We report observations of η Carinae obtained with ALMA in the continuum of 100, 230, 280, and 660 GHz in 2012 November, with a resolution that varied from 2.''88 to 0.''45 for the lower and higher frequencies, respectively. The source is not resolved, even at the highest frequency; its spectrum is characteristic of thermal bremsstrahlung of a compact source, but different from the spectrum of optically thin wind. The recombination lines H42α, He42α, H40α, He40α, H50β, H28α, He28α, H21α, and He21α were also detected, and their intensities reveal non-local thermodynamic equilibrium effects. We found that the line profiles could only be fit by an expanding shell of dense and ionized gas, which produces a slow shock in the surroundings of η Carinae. Combined with fittings to the continuum, we were able to constrain the shell size, radius, density, temperature, and velocity. The detection of the He recombination lines is compatible with the high-temperature gas and requires a high-energy ionizing photon flux, which must be provided by the companion star. The mass-loss rate and wind velocity, necessary to explain the formation of the shell, are compatible with an luminous blue variable eruption. The position, velocity, and physical parameters of the shell coincide with those of the Weigelt blobs. The dynamics found for the expanding shell correspond to matter ejected by η Carinae in 1941 in an event similar to that which formed the Little Homunculus; for that reason, we called the new ejecta the 'Baby Homunculus'.

  16. National Kidney Disease Education Program (United States)

    ... from our online catalog . Alternate Language URL National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) Page Content Improving the ... kidney disease. Minorities Are at Higher Risk for Kidney Disease. If you are African American, Hispanic, or ...

  17. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: A dreadful condition of premature babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak sharma


    Full Text Available NEC is inflammatory necrosis of intestine with most common site being terminal ileum and ascending colon in preterm babies (1. The condition is typically seen in premature infants, and the timing of its onset is generally inversely proportional to the gestational age of the baby at birth, i.e. The earlier a baby is born, longer is the time of risk for NEC in premature babies. The incidence of NEC is inversely proportional to the gestational age and birth weight (2. Baby have initial symptoms which include feeding intolerance, increased gastric residuals, abdominal distension and bloody stools (3. The laboratory triad includes metabolic acidosis, hyponatremia and thrombocytopenia. Pneumatosis intestinalis is the pathognomonic radiological finding in the NEC. Modified Bell’s staging is used to stage the NEC. Treatment involves Nil per Oral, supportive care, antibiotics, surgery in advanced stages and parenteral nutrition (4,5. Complication of NEC includes mortality, prolonged NICU stay, intestinal strictures, enterocutaneous fistula, intra-abdominal abscess, cholestasis, and short-bowel syndrome (6,7, neurodevelopmental, motor, sensory, and cognitive problems (8,9.

  18. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    11.1.Kidney function2005391 Increased levels of advanced oxidationproducts are associated with atherosclerosis in chron-ic kidney disease.YANG Xiaobing(杨小兵),et al.Dept Nephrol,Nanfang Hops,1st Milit Med Univ,Guangzhou.Chin J Intern Med 2005;44(5):342-346.Objective:Accumulation of advanced oxidation protein

  19. Cross neutralizing antibodies in hamsters vaccinated with leptospiral bacterins produced with three serovars of serogroup Sejroe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Tabata


    Full Text Available Three leptospiral bacterins, produced with different serovars of Serogroup Sejroe, namely the hardjo (bacterin A, wolffi (bacterin B and guaricura (bacterin C, were evaluated in male hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus by comparing the agglutinating and neutralizing antibodies titers using microscopic agglutination (MAT and in vitro growth inhibition (GIT tests. The immunization schedule was based on two 1.0 mL doses of non-diluted formalininactivated whole culture bacterin given through subcutaneous route with 10-day interval. The challenge was performed ten days after the second vaccine dose, when the animals were inoculated with 0.2 mL of non-inactivated cultures of each serovar through intraperitoneal route. On the 21st post-challenge day (PCD, all animals were bled and their sera were joined in pools (n=8 and tested by MAT and GIT. All vaccinated and control animals presented no clinical signs of leptospirosis after the challenge, but the serovar guaricura was isolated from the kidneys of control animals on the 21st PCD. The MAT results showed cross agglutinins between serovars hardjo and wolffi, and between wolffi and guaricura. The GIT results revealed the presence of cross neutralizing antibodies between serovars wolffi or guaricura against hardjo, wolffi and guaricura. It was found that the tested strain of serovar hardjo did not produce detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, indicating its poor immunogenicity.

  20. A LigA three-domain region protects hamsters from lethal infection by Leptospira interrogans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana L Coutinho


    Full Text Available The leptospiral LigA protein consists of 13 bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big domains and is the only purified recombinant subunit vaccine that has been demonstrated to protect against lethal challenge by a clinical isolate of Leptospira interrogans in the hamster model of leptospirosis. We determined the minimum number and location of LigA domains required for immunoprotection. Immunization with domains 11 and 12 was found to be required but insufficient for protection. Inclusion of a third domain, either 10 or 13, was required for 100% survival after intraperitoneal challenge with Leptospira interrogans serovar Copenhageni strain Fiocruz L1-130. As in previous studies, survivors had renal colonization; here, we quantitated the leptospiral burden by qPCR to be 1.2×10(3 to 8×10(5 copies of leptospiral DNA per microgram of kidney DNA. Although renal histopathology in survivors revealed tubulointerstitial changes indicating an inflammatory response to the infection, blood chemistry analysis indicated that renal function was normal. These studies define the Big domains of LigA that account for its vaccine efficacy and highlight the need for additional strategies to achieve sterilizing immunity to protect the mammalian host from leptospiral infection and its consequences.

  1. Acute kidney injury during pregnancy. (United States)

    Van Hook, James W


    Acute kidney injury complicates the care of a relatively small number of pregnant and postpartum women. Several pregnancy-related disorders such as preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathies may produce acute kidney injury. Prerenal azotemia is another common cause of acute kidney injury in pregnancy. This manuscript will review pregnancy-associated acute kidney injury from a renal functional perspective. Pathophysiology of acute kidney injury will be reviewed. Specific conditions causing acute kidney injury and treatments will be compared.

  2. Babies born dying: just bad karma? A discussion paper. (United States)

    Kain, Victoria J


    The paper examines the notion of being born dying and karma. Karma is a belief upheld by Buddhists and non-Buddhists: That is, karma follows people from their previous lives into their current lives. This raises a difficult question: Does karma mean that a baby's death is its own fault? While great peace can be found from a belief in karma, the notion of a baby's karma returning in some sort of retributive, universal justice can be de-emphasized and is considered "un-Buddhist." Having an understanding of karma is intrinsic to the spiritual care for the dying baby, not only from the perspective of parents and families who have these beliefs, but also for reconciling one's own beliefs as a healthcare practitioner.

  3. Major congenital anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana;


    Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed...... to determine if the introduction of these screening programs and the subsequent termination of prenatally detected pregnancies were associated with any decline in the prevalence of additional anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome. The study sample consisted of 7,044 live births and fetal deaths with Down...... syndrome registered in 28 European population-based congenital anomaly registries covering seven million births during 2000-2010. Overall, 43.6% (95% CI: 42.4-44.7%) of births with Down syndrome had a cardiac anomaly and 15.0% (14.2-15.8%) had a non-cardiac anomaly. Female babies with Down syndrome were...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective: To investigate the roles of telomerase activity (TA) in relation to hamster buccal pouch tumor progression. Methods: male hamster were treated three times weekly with 0.5% of 7, 12-dimethyl- benzanthracene (DMBA) over a 15 weeks experimental period. Hamsters were sacrificed at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 weeks after treatment. Telomerase activity of hamster buccal pouch tissue were measured along with the analyses of the formation of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumors. Results: DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas were found at the 6th week after dosing. Telomerase activity elevation began at the 3rd week and was increasing to a plateau at the 12th week. Conclusion: Our results show that telomerase activity in the target tissue may be detected at the early stage of the DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch tumor formation and suggests that telomerase activity may be used as a biomarker for an early clinical detection of buccal pouch cancer.

  5. Heat and cold acclimation in helium-cold hypothermia in the hamster. (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.


    A study was made of the effects of acclimation of hamsters to high (34-35 C) and low (4-5 C) temperatures for periods up to 6 weeks on the induction of hypothermia in hamsters. Hypothermia was achieved by exposing hamsters to a helox mixture of 80% helium and 20% oxygen at 0 C. Hypothermic induction was most rapid (2-3 hr) in heat-acclimated hamsters and slowest (6-12 hr) in cold-acclimated hamsters. The induction period was intermediate (5-8 hr) in room temperature nonacclimated animals (controls). Survival time in hypothermia was relatable to previous temperature acclimations. The hypothesis that thermogenesis in cold-acclimated hamsters would accentuate resistance to induction of hypothermia was substantiated.

  6. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.


    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine, whereas (/sup 3/H)clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, (/sup 3/H) clonidine and (/sup 3/H)yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of (/sup 3/H)clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations.

  7. Cystolithiasis in a Syrian hamster: a different outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Petrini


    Full Text Available A 14-month-old intact male Syrian hamster was admitted for lethargy and hematuria. A total body radiographic image and abdominal ultrasonography showed the presence of a vesical calculus. During cystotomy, a sterile urine sample was obtained and sent to the diagnostic laboratory along with the urolith for analysis. Urine culture was found negative for bacterial growth, and the urolith was identified as a calcium-oxalate stone. Diet supplementation with palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine and hesperidin was adopted the day after discharge. One year follow up revealed no presence of vesical calculi. Although this is the report of a single clinical case, this outcome differs from the results reported in the literature characterized by recurrences after few months. Considering the positive outcome and the beneficial properties of palmitoylethanolamide, glucosamine, and hesperidin, these nutritional elements in Syrian hamsters, are recommended to reduce recurrence after surgical treatment of urolithiasis.

  8. [Stiff baby syndrome is a rare cause of neonatal hypertonicity]. (United States)

    Rønne, Maria Sode; Nielsen, Preben Berg; Mogensen, Christian Backer


    Stiff baby syndrome (hyperekplexia) is a rare genetic disorder. The condition can easily be misdiagnosed as epilepsy or severe sepsis because of hypertonicity and seizure-like episodes and has an increased risk of severe apnoea and sudden infant death. Tapping of the nasal bridge inducing a startle response is the clinical hallmark. We report cases of two sisters born with stiff baby syndrome with hypertonicity, exaggerated startle reaction and cyanosis. The syndrome has a good prognosis if treated with clonazepam and both cases were developmental normal after one year.

  9. The wise baby as the voice of the true self. (United States)

    Bethelard, F; Young-Bruehl, E


    Sandor Ferenczi wrote about a typical dream of the "Wise Baby" and later used this figure to represent the child who is traumatized into precocious wisdom, who becomes "the family psychiatrist." We discuss Ferenczi's theory of traumatization and the "split self," noting how it was taken up in D. W. Winnicott's "True Self/False Self" conceptualization. We then present three patients' wise baby dreams to show how these trauma theories can be used in dream interpretation and how dream interpretation can support them.

  10. Diffusion-weighted MRI in shaken baby syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yu-Leung; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Gary W.K. [Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Yeung, David K.W. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)


    We present the characteristic CT and MRI findings of a 2-month-old girl with shaken baby syndrome. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging performed 8 days after the insult established the presence of injury to the white matter in the corpus callosum and subcortical white matter in the temporo-occipito-parietal region. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is valuable in the diagnostic work-up of suspected shaken baby syndrome, as injury to the white matter can be demonstrated days after the injury. (orig.)

  11. Efficient and Rapid Development of Transgenic Hamster Models of TSEs Using a Radical New Technology (United States)


    by TOSK Inc. to introduce the human, sheep, and other prion genes into golden Syrian hamsters and to use the new transgenic animals both to measure...Transgenic Hamster Models of TSEs Using a Radical New Technology PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Robert G. Rohwer, Ph.D. Irena Alexeeva, Ph.D...From - To) 1 SEP 2003 - 31 AUG 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Efficient and Rapid Development of Transgenic Hamster Models of

  12. Photoperiodic influences on ultradian rhythms of male Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Zucker, Irving


    Seasonal changes in mammalian physiology and behavior are proximately controlled by the annual variation in day length. Long summer and short winter day lengths markedly alter the amplitude of endogenous circadian rhythms and may affect ultradian oscillations, but the threshold photoperiods for inducing these changes are not known. We assessed the effects of short and intermediate day lengths and changes in reproductive physiology on circadian and ultradian rhythms of locomotor activity in Siberian hamsters. Males were maintained in a long photoperiod from birth (15 h light/day; 15 L) and transferred in adulthood to 1 of 7 experimental photoperiods ranging from 14 L to 9 L. Decreases in circadian rhythm (CR) robustness, mesor and amplitude were evident in photoperiods ≤14 L, as were delays in the timing of CR acrophase and expansion of nocturnal activity duration. Nocturnal ultradian rhythms (URs) were comparably prevalent in all day lengths, but 15 L markedly inhibited the expression of light-phase URs. The period (τ'), amplitude and complexity of URs increased in day lengths ≤13 L. Among hamsters that failed to undergo gonadal regression in short day lengths (nonresponders), τ' of the dark-phase UR was longer than in photoresponsive hamsters; in 13 L the incidence and amplitude of light-phase URs were greater in hamsters that did not undergo testicular regression. Day lengths as long as 14 L were sufficient to trigger changes in the waveform of CRs without affecting UR waveform. The transition from a long- to a short-day ultradian phenotype occurred for most UR components at day lengths of 12 L-13 L, thereby establishing different thresholds for CR and UR responses to day length. At the UR-threshold photoperiod of 13 L, differences in gonadal status were largely without effect on most UR parameters.

  13. Circadian arrhythmia dysregulates emotional behaviors in aged Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Patel, Priyesh N; Stevenson, Tyler J


    Emotional behaviors are influenced by the circadian timing system. Circadian disruptions are associated with depressive-like symptoms in clinical and preclinical populations. Circadian rhythm robustness declines markedly with aging and may contribute to susceptibility to emotional dysregulation in aged individuals. The present experiments used a model of chronic circadian arrhythmia generated noninvasively, via a series of circadian-disruptive light treatments, to investigate interactions between circadian desynchrony and aging on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, and on limbic neuroinflammatory gene expression that has been linked with emotionality. We also examined whether a social manipulation (group housing) would attenuate effects of arrhythmia on emotionality. In aged (14-18 months of age) male Siberian hamsters, circadian arrhythmia increased behavioral despair and decreased social motivation, but decreased exploratory anxiety. These effects were not evident in younger (5-9 months of age) hamsters. Social housing (3-5 hamsters/cage) abolished the effects of circadian arrhythmia on emotionality. Circadian arrhythmia alone was without effect on hippocampal or cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido) mRNA expression in aged hamsters, but social housing decreased hippocampal IL-1β and Ido mRNAs. The data demonstrate that circadian disruption can negatively impact affective state, and that this effect is pronounced in older individuals. Although clear associations between circadian arrhythmia and constitutive limbic proinflammatory activity were not evident, the present data suggest that social housing markedly inhibits constitutive hippocampal IL-1β and Ido activity, which may contribute to the ameliorating effects of social housing on a number of emotional behaviors.

  14. Circadian Regulation of Cortisol Release in Behaviorally Split Golden Hamsters



    The master circadian clock located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is necessary for the circadian rhythm of glucocorticoid (GC) release. The pathways by which the SCN sustains rhythmic GC release remain unclear. We studied the circadian regulation of cortisol release in the behaviorally split golden hamster, in which the single bout of circadian locomotor activity splits into two bouts approximately12 h apart after exposing the animals to constant light conditions. We sh...

  15. Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk (United States)

    ... Excess Pre-Pregnancy Weight May Slightly Raise Baby's Cerebral Palsy Risk But, study found overall odds remain quite ... slight increased risk of having a baby with cerebral palsy, a new study suggests. After reviewing data from ...

  16. Living in the Real World--"Babies Get Out: Outdoor Settings for Infant Toddler Play." (United States)

    Greenman, Jim


    Suggests advantages and design considerations for outdoor settings for babies. Climate, wildlife, equipment, and the needs and natures of both babies and caregivers are discussed. Provides ideas for landscape design and structures. (SH)

  17. Zika Babies May Look Normal At Birth, Display Brain Defects Later: CDC (United States)

    ... page: Zika Babies May Look Normal at Birth, Display Brain ... 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to the Zika virus in the womb can look normal at ...

  18. Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk of Type 1 Diabetes (United States)

    ... page: Most Cow's Milk Baby Formulas Don't Up Risk ... nutrition for babies, a new study suggests that most cow's milk formulas don't increase the risk ...

  19. Developmental Changes in the ECG of a Hamster Model of Muscular Dystrophy and Heart Failure. (United States)

    Hampton, Thomas G; Kale, Ajit; McCue, Scott; Bhagavan, Hemmi N; Vandongen, Case


    Aberrant autonomic signaling is being increasingly recognized as an important symptom in neuromuscular disorders. The δ-sarcoglycan-deficient BIO TO-2 hamster is recognized as a good model for studying mechanistic pathways and sequelae in muscular dystrophy and heart failure, including autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. Recent studies using the TO-2 hamster model have provided promising preclinical results demonstrating the efficacy of gene therapy to treat skeletal muscle weakness and heart failure. Methods to accelerate preclinical testing of gene therapy and new drugs for neuromuscular diseases are urgently needed. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate a rapid non-invasive screen for characterizing the ANS imbalance in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Electrocardiograms were recorded non-invasively in conscious ∼9-month old TO-2 hamsters (n = 10) and non-myopathic F1B control hamsters (n = 10). Heart rate was higher in TO-2 hamsters than controls (453 ± 12 bpm vs. 311 ± 25 bpm, P imbalance with increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Similar observations in newborn hamsters indicate autonomic nervous dysfunction may occur quite early in life in neuromuscular diseases. Our findings of autonomic abnormalities in newborn hamsters with a mutation in the δ-sarcoglycan gene suggest approaches to correct modulation of the heart rate as prevention or therapy for muscular dystrophies.

  20. Experience-independent development of the hamster circadian visual system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Kampf-Lassin

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent functional plasticity is a hallmark of the primary visual system, but it is not known if analogous mechanisms govern development of the circadian visual system. Here we investigated molecular, anatomical, and behavioral consequences of complete monocular light deprivation during extended intervals of postnatal development in Syrian hamsters. Hamsters were raised in constant darkness and opaque contact lenses were applied shortly after eye opening and prior to the introduction of a light-dark cycle. In adulthood, previously-occluded eyes were challenged with visual stimuli. Whereas image-formation and motion-detection were markedly impaired by monocular occlusion, neither entrainment to a light-dark cycle, nor phase-resetting responses to shifts in the light-dark cycle were affected by prior monocular deprivation. Cholera toxin-b subunit fluorescent tract-tracing revealed that in monocularly-deprived hamsters the density of fibers projecting from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN was comparable regardless of whether such fibers originated from occluded or exposed eyes. In addition, long-term monocular deprivation did not attenuate light-induced c-Fos expression in the SCN. Thus, in contrast to the thalamocortical projections of the primary visual system, retinohypothalamic projections terminating in the SCN develop into normal adult patterns and mediate circadian responses to light largely independent of light experience during development. The data identify a categorical difference in the requirement for light input during postnatal development between circadian and non-circadian visual systems.

  1. Effect of diethylstilbestrol on polyamine metabolism in hamster epididymis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-HongQiu; MasatoOhe; ShigeruMatsuzaki


    Aim: To investigate the effect of diethylstilbestrol (DES), one of the most potent endocrine disruptors, on the metabolism of polyamines in hamster epididymis. Methods: Male golden hamsters of 7-week-old were kept under a light and dark cycle of 14 h and 10 h for 1 week to stimulate maximally the gonadal function. DES was injected subcutaneously at doses of 0.01mg·kg-1·day-1,0.1mg·kg-1·day-1 and 1mg·kg-1·day-1 for one week. Results:DES treatment caused a significant decrease in the weight of epididymis. The activity of epididymal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) increased 1 day after DES treatment, kept at a high level for 4 days and then decreased to nearly normal level at day 7. The activity of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) also increased transiently after DES treatment. The contents of putrescine, spermidine, spermine and N1-acetylspermidine were increased 1 day 4 days after DES treatment and restored to normal at day 7. All these changes showed a marked difference between the caput and the cauda. Conclusion: The polyamine biosynthesis in the hamster epididymis can be affected by DES,a xenoestrogen. DES may probably affect polyamine metabolism in the epididymis by regulating the rate-limiting enzymes involved in the polyamine biosynthesis.

  2. Female-biased anorexia and anxiety in the Syrian hamster. (United States)

    Shannonhouse, John L; Fong, Li An; Clossen, Bryan L; Hairgrove, Ross E; York, Daniel C; Walker, Benjamin B; Hercules, Gregory W; Mertesdorf, Lauren M; Patel, Margi; Morgan, Caurnel


    Anorexia and anxiety cause significant mortality and disability with female biases and frequent comorbidity after puberty, but the scarcity of suitable animal models impedes understanding of their biological underpinnings. It is reported here that in adult or weanling Syrian hamsters, relative to social housing (SH), social separation (SS) induced anorexia characterized as hypophagia, weight loss, reduced adiposity, and hypermetabolism. Following anorexia, SS increased reluctance to feed, and thigmotaxis, in anxiogenic environments. Importantly, anorexia and anxiety were induced post-puberty with female biases. SS also reduced hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing factor mRNA and serum corticosteroid levels assessed by RT-PCR and RIA, respectively. Consistent with the view that sex differences in adrenal suppression contributed to female biases in anorexia and anxiety by disinhibiting neuroimmune activity, SS elevated hypothalamic interleukin-6 and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA levels. Although corticosteroids were highest during SH, they were within the physiological range and associated with juvenile-like growth of white adipose, bone, and skeletal muscle. These results suggest that hamsters exhibit plasticity in bioenergetic and emotional phenotypes across puberty without an increase in stress responsiveness. Thus, social separation of hamsters provides a model of sex differences in anorexia and anxiety during adulthood and their pathogeneses during adolescence.

  3. Learned magnetic compass orientation by the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutschlander, Mark E.; Freake, Michael J.; Borland, Christopher; Phillips, John B.; Madden, R C.; Anderson, Larry E.; Wilson, B W.


    Magnetic orientation has been demonstrated in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. The behavior, using a nest building assay, shows a directional preference in nest position and appears in this animal to be a learned behavior. Hamsters were housed prior to testing in rectangular cages aligned along perpendicular axes. When subsequently tested in a radially-symmetrical arena, the hamsters positioned their nests in a bimodal distribution that coincided with the magnetic direction of the long-axis of the holding cages. In addition, results are presented that illustrate some of the factors that can influence behavioral responses to the magnetic field. In particular for P. sungorus, holding conditions prior to testing and the presence of non-magnetic cues may influence the strength and expression of magnetic orientation. Failure to consider these and other factors may help to explain why previous attempts to demonstrate magnetic orientation in a number of rodent species have failed or, when positive results have been obtained, have been difficult to replicate in other laboratories.

  4. Teratogenicity and embryotoxicity of nickel carbonyl in Syrian hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Shen, S.K.; Reid, M.C.; Allpass, P.R.


    Nickel carbonyl was administered to groups of pregnant hamsters by inhalation on days 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8 of gestation. The dams were killed on day 15 of gestation, and the fetuses were examined for malformations. Exposure to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 4 or 5 of gestation resulted in malformation in 5.5% and 5.8% of the progeny, respectively. Progeny included 9 fetuses with cystic lungs, 7 fetuses with exencephaly, 1 fetus with exencephaly plus fused rib and 1 fetus with anophthalmia plus cleft palate. Hemorrhages into serious cavities were found. In progeny of dams exposed to Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on days 6 or 7 of gestation, there was 1 fetus with fused ribs and there were 2 fetuses with hydronephrosis. In another experiment, pregnant hamsters were exposed to inhalation of Ni(CO)/sub 4/ on day 5 of gestation; these dams were permitted to deliver their litters and to nurse their pups. There was no significant difference in the average number of live pups in the Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters compared to control litters. Neonatal mortality was increased in Ni(CO)/sub 4/-exposed litters. This study demonstrates that Ni(CO)/sub 4/ is teratogenic and embryotoxic in Syrian hamsters.

  5. Experimental Models in Syrian Golden Hamster Replicate Human Acute Pancreatitis. (United States)

    Wang, Yunan; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Lu, Guotao; Xu, Pengfei; Qiu, Xu; Chen, Liye; Qi, Rong; Huang, Shouxiong; Li, Weiqin; Wang, Yuhui; Liu, George


    The hamster has been shown to share a variety of metabolic similarities with humans. To replicate human acute pancreatitis with hamsters, we comparatively studied the efficacy of common methods, such as the peritoneal injections of caerulein, L-arginine, the retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate, and another novel model with concomitant administration of ethanol and fatty acid. The severity of pancreatitis was evaluated by serum amylase activity, pathological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and the expression of inflammation factors in pancreas. The results support that the severity of pathological injury is consistent with the pancreatitis induced in mice and rat using the same methods. Specifically, caerulein induced mild edematous pancreatitis accompanied by minimal lung injury, while L-arginine induced extremely severe pancreatic injury including necrosis and neutrophil infiltration. Infusion of Na-taurocholate into the pancreatic duct induced necrotizing pancreatitis in the head of pancreas and lighter inflammation in the distal region. The severity of acute pancreatitis induced by combination of ethanol and fatty acids was between the extent of caerulein and L-arginine induction, with obvious inflammatory cells infiltration. In view of the advantages in lipid metabolism features, hamster models are ideally suited for the studies of pancreatitis associated with altered metabolism in humans.

  6. Serum amyloid-P component of the Armenian hamster: gene structure and comparison with structure and expression of the SAP gene from Syrian hamster. (United States)

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B


    Serum amyloid P (SAP), a phylogenetically conserved pentraxin, is an integral component of all amyloid deposits. Regulation of expression of SAP gene expression is quite different in two related hamster species. In Syrian hamsters, the resting serum levels of SAP are determined by gender, and the direction of alteration following inflammation is divergent. In Armenian hamsters, SAP is not a prominent acute-phase reactant and there is no gender dimorphism of expression. The structure and expression of the SAP gene of the Armenian hamsters was investigated by isolation of genomic clones, nucleotide sequence analysis, and RNA studies. The gene structure of Armenian hamster SAP is similar to the genes of all other pentraxins studied. While the upstream regions of the SAP genes of Syrian and Armenian hamsters are quite similar, important differences in potential enhancer sites have been recognized by comparing the corresponding sequences of SAP genes from both species. Little alteration in hepatic levels of transcripts encoding SAP or CRP, the other pentraxin, were noted following administration of lipopolysaccharide to Armenian hamsters. This relative lack of response occurred despite a marked acute phase reaction documented for serum amyloid A mRNA levels.

  7. Kidneys and How They Work (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  8. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage (United States)

    ... Disease Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Causes of CKD Tests & Diagnosis Managing CKD Eating Right Preventing CKD What If My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart ... Nephropathy Kidney Disease in Children Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome Hemolytic ...

  9. Efficacy of cefepime, ertapenem and norfloxacin against leptospirosis and for the clearance of pathogens in a hamster model. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlong; Zhang, Naisheng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Fei; Gong, Yue; Jiang, Haichao; Zhang, Zecai; Liu, Xiaofei; Song, Xiaojing; Wang, Tiancheng; Ding, Zhuang; Cao, Yongguo


    Animals and humans with severe leptospirosis may require empirical treatment. Although many antibiotics are active against multiple leptospira serovars in vitro, their efficacy in vivo is limited. We evaluated the efficacy of cefepime (daily dose: 2, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), ertapenem (daily dose: 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg) and norfloxacin (daily dose: 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg) for the treatment of leptospirosis and the ability to clear leptospira in target organs (liver, kidney, lung, heart, and spleen) in a lethal hamster model using Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis. The histopathology of infected kidney, lung and liver was also evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain). All untreated animals, serving as a negative control, died with leptospira existing in the target organs between the 5th and 7th day after infection. All of the treated groups displayed improved survival compared to the untreated group and demonstrated a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of leptospira in the target organs. Cefepime showed survival benefit comparable to the standard treatment, doxycycline. We conclude that all of the antibiotics tested in vivo produce a statistically significant survival advantage, alleviate tissue injury and decrease the abundance of leptospira in target organs.

  10. 76 FR 65933 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach (United States)


    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a... United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach. Under this systems approach... baby kiwi from Chile using mitigation measures other than fumigation with methyl bromide....

  11. 76 FR 15225 - Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi From Chile Under a Systems Approach (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD37 Importation of Fresh Baby Kiwi... importation into the continental United States of baby kiwi fruit from Chile, subject to a systems approach... packinghouse inspections. This proposed rule would allow for the safe importation of fresh baby kiwi from...

  12. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    2011229 Combined detection of markers in the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. CHE Miaolin (车妙琳) ,et al. Renal Division,Renji Hosp,Med Sch,Shanghai Jiaotong Univ, Shanghai 200127.

  13. Kidneys in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Bandegi


    Conclusion: These observations indicate that saffron and its active constituent crocin can prevent chronic stress–induced oxidative stress damage of the brain, liver and kidneys and suggest that these substances may be useful against oxidative stress.

  14. Chronic kidney disease (United States)

    ... 2010;362(1):56-65. PMID: 20054047 . Fogarty DG, Tall ... 5 Suppl 1):S1-S290. PMID: 15114537 . Kidney Disease: Improving ...

  15. 9 Great Information Sources About Baby and You (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 9 Great Information Sources About Baby and You Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript ... array of other accessible information on pregnancy from the National Library of Medicine. ...


    Liddle, Mitzi-Jane E; Bradley, Ben S; Mcgrath, Andrew


    Empathy is an important competence in our social world, a motivator of prosocial behavior, and thought to develop throughout the second year of life. The current study examined infants' responses to naturalistic peer distress to explore markers of empathy and prosocial behavior in young babies. Seventeen 8-month-old infants participated in a repeated measures design using the "babies-in-groups" paradigm, with maternal presence as the independent variable. Significant differences were found between response types: Gaze was the standard response to infant distress, followed by socially directed behaviors and affect, with self-distress rarely occurring. Maternal presence was not found to impact the nature or frequency of babies' responses to peer distress. During distress episodes, babies looked preferentially at the distressed peer, then other mothers, and least to their own mother. Data revealed that infant responses to peer distress resulted in a successful cessation of that distress episode over one third of the time. Case studies are provided to illustrate the quantitative data. The results provided evidence of empathic concern and prosocial behavior in the first year of life, and provoke a challenge to developmental theories of empathy.

  17. Every Day in The Womb Boosts Babies' Brain Development (United States)

    ... at birth. They showed no signs of structural brain injury. The preterm babies were compared to 130 infants born full term at a mean age of 39 weeks of pregnancy. The mean birth weight was nearly 3,400 ... comparison of the infants' brains in the third trimester (the final 13 to ...

  18. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief. (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  19. Do Mothers Want Professional Carers to Love Their Babies? (United States)

    Page, Jools


    This article reports an aspect of a life historical study which investigated the part that "love" played in mothers' decision-making about returning to work and placing their babies in day care. The article begins with a brief discussion of the context, including 21st-century policies in England to encourage mothers to return to the workforce…

  20. Time to Eat! What Will You Feed Your Baby?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Collaboratives Launch Prematurity research centers What is team science? ... It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ...

  1. Baby Health Checkup: MedlinePlus Health Topic (United States)

    ... The Pediatrician: The First Year (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish Well-Baby Exam: What to Expect during Routine ... A Check-Up for Success (American Academy of Pediatrics) Also in Spanish What Can Parents Expect During Their Infant's Well- ...

  2. Having Healthy Babies (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Birth defects account for one of every five infant deaths in the United States. This podcast discusses the chances and ways for women to have healthy babies.  Created: 1/19/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/19/2017.

  3. Sign Language with Babies: What Difference Does It Make? (United States)

    Barnes, Susan Kubic


    Teaching sign language--to deaf or other children with special needs or to hearing children with hard-of-hearing family members--is not new. Teaching sign language to typically developing children has become increasingly popular since the publication of "Baby Signs"[R] (Goodwyn & Acredolo, 1996), now in its third edition. Attention to signing with…

  4. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects. Learn how to protect babies from Zika-related health conditions.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  5. Little Babies: Born Too Soon--Born Too Small. (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD. Office of Research Reporting.

    The booklet describes the condttion known as low birth weight and suggests ways in which a mother can take precautions against its occurring in her own child. Problems and maternal factors associated with low birth weight babies are discussed, and research on the causes of prematurity and growth retardation are reviewed. (SBH)

  6. Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later (United States)

    ... Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: Tiny Babies May Face Mental Health Problems Later Review found greater likelihood of ADHD, anxiety and depression To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  7. Developing Baby Bag Design by Using Kansei Engineering Method (United States)

    Janari, D.; Rakhmawati, A.


    Consumer's preferences and market demand are essential factors for product's success. Thus, in achieving its success, a product should have design that could fulfill consumer's expectation. Purpose of this research is accomplishing baby bag product as stipulated by Kansei. The results that represent Kanseiwords are; neat, unique, comfortable, safe, modern, gentle, elegant, antique, attractive, simple, spacious, creative, colorful, durable, stylish, smooth and strong. Identification value on significance of correlation for durable attribute is 0,000 < 0,005, which means significant to baby's bag. While the value of coefficient regression is 0,812 < 0,005, which means that durable attribute insignificant to baby's bag.The result of the baby's bag final design selectionbased on the questionnaire 3 is resulting the combination of all design. Space for clothes, diaper's space, shoulder grip, side grip, bottle's heater pocket and bottle's pocket are derived from design 1. Top grip, space for clothes, shoulder grip, and side grip are derived from design 2.Others design that were taken are, spaces for clothes from design 3, diaper's space and clothes’ space from design 4.

  8. Signaling during Kidney Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja Krause


    Full Text Available The kidney plays an essential role during excretion of metabolic waste products, maintenance of key homeostasis components such as ion concentrations and hormone levels. It influences the blood pressure, composition and volume. The kidney tubule system is composed of two distinct cell populations: the nephrons forming the filtering units and the collecting duct system derived from the ureteric bud. Nephrons are composed of glomeruli that filter the blood to the Bowman’s capsule and tubular structures that reabsorb and concentrate primary urine. The collecting duct is a Wolffian duct-derived epithelial tube that concentrates and collects urine and transfers it via the renal pelvis into the bladder. The mammalian kidney function depends on the coordinated development of specific cell types within a precise architectural framework. Due to the availability of modern analysis techniques, the kidney has become a model organ defining the paradigm to study organogenesis. As kidney diseases are a problem worldwide, the understanding of mammalian kidney cells is of crucial importance to develop diagnostic tools and novel therapies. This review focuses on how the pattern of renal development is generated, how the inductive signals are regulated and what are their effects on proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis.

  9. The presence of opioidergic pinealocytes in the pineal gland of the European hamster (Cricetus cricetus): an immunocytochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coto-Montes, A.; Masson-Pévet, M.; Pévet, P.;


    Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)......Neurobiologi, pineal gland, leu-enkephalin, Met-enkephalin, synaptic contacts, paracrine regulation, European hamster, cricetus cricetus (rodents)...

  10. Developmental Changes in the ECG of a Hamster Model of Muscular Dystrophy and Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gerard Hampton


    Full Text Available Aberrant autonomic signaling is being increasingly recognized as an important symptom in neuromuscular disorders. The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient BIO TO-2 hamster is recognized as a good model for studying mechanistic pathways and sequelae in muscular dystrophy and heart failure, including autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Recent studies using the TO-2 hamster model have provided promising preclinical results demonstrating the efficacy of gene therapy to treat skeletal muscle weakness and heart failure. Methods to accelerate preclinical testing of gene therapy and new drugs for neuromuscular diseases are urgently needed. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate a rapid non-invasive screen for characterizing the autonomic nervous system imbalance in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Electrocardiograms were recorded non-invasively in conscious ~9-month old TO-2 hamsters (n=10 and non-myopathic F1B control hamsters (n=10. Heart rate was higher in TO-2 hamsters than controls (453 ± 12 bpm vs. 311 ± 25 bpm, P<0.01. Time domain heart rate variability, an index of parasympathetic tone, was lower in TO-2 hamsters (12.2 ± 3.7 bpm vs. 38.2 ± 6.8, P<0.05, as was the coefficient of variance of the RR interval (2.8 ± 0.9 % vs. 16.2 ± 3.4 %, P<0.05 compared to control hamsters. Power spectral analysis demonstrated reduced high frequency and low frequency contributions, indicating autonomic imbalance with increased sympathetic tone and decreased parasympathetic tone in dystrophic TO-2 hamsters. Similar observations in newborn hamsters indicate autonomic nervous dysfunction may occur quite early in life in neuromuscular diseases. Our findings of autonomic abnormalities in newborn hamsters with a mutation in the delta-sarcoglycan gene suggest approaches to correct modulation of the heart rate as prevention or therapy for muscular dystrophies.

  11. Presence of amastigotes in the central nervous system of hamsters infected with Leishmania sp. Presença de amastigotas em sistema nervoso central de hamster infectado com Leishmania sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe chronic disease caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Better knowledge on the effects caused by this disease can help develop adequate clinical management and treatment. Parasitological and immunohistochemical studies were performed golden hamsters Mesocricetus auratus infected with bone marrow from individuals with VL in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, central-west Brazil. The effects of parasitism in the spleen, liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and brain of the animals were examined. Eighteen hamsters were inoculated intraperitoneally, and six healthy animals were used as negative controls. The animals were kept in the animal house and checked for clinical signs. Specimens of each organ were examined for the presence of amastigotes. Immunohistochemical technique was performed in all brain specimens and organs negative on the direct examination of parasites. Direct examination of amastigotes was positive in the spleen and liver of all infected animals; 33.3% showed the parasite in the kidneys and lungs, and 16.7% in the heart. Parasitic forms were seen in 83.3% (15/18 of the brain examined. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the results of the direct examination, except in two specimens of lung tissue and in the brain specimens. Other studies are needed to further clarify the effect of the parasite in the central nervous system.A leishmaniose visceral (LV é uma doença crônica grave, causada pelo parasito Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. Esclarecer as alterações provocadas pela doença é fundamental para que se adotem condutas clínicas e de tratamento adequadas. Com o objetivo de analisar a infecção experimental em hamsters da linhagem golden, Mesocricetus auratus, infectados com tecido de medula óssea de pacientes com LV no Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, foram realizados estudos parasitológicos e de imunomarcação. Foi verificada a distribuição do parasitismo no baço, f

  12. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters RM


    Full Text Available Russel M Walters, Emmanuel Anim-Danso, Stephanie M Amato, Kimberly A Capone, M Catherine Mack, Lorena S Telofski, David A Mays Skin Care Research & Development, Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc., Skillman, NJ, USA Background: Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema. We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed.Methods: Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+ before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years.Results: At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes.Conclusion: Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. Keywords: bath, cleanser, hard water, infant, neonate, surfactant

  13. Hard water softening effect of a baby cleanser (United States)

    Walters, Russel M; Anim-Danso, Emmanuel; Amato, Stephanie M; Capone, Kimberly A; Mack, M Catherine; Telofski, Lorena S; Mays, David A


    Background Hard water is associated with atopic dermatitis (eczema). We wanted to determine if a baby cleanser and its individual components altered free ionized calcium (Ca2+) in a simulated hard water baby bath. For these studies, an in vitro determination of free Ca2+ in a simulated hard water baby bath, and an in vivo exploratory study of free Ca2+ absorption into skin from hard water were performed. Methods Free Ca2+ was measured with an ion-sensitive electrode in vitro in hard water (100–500 ppm, Ca2+) before and after addition of the cleanser and/or its components. In an exploratory study, absorption of Ca2+ into skin from hard water was determined in three female participants (aged 21–29 years). Results At an in-use dilution of 1%, the test cleanser reduced free Ca2+ from ~500 ppm to <200 ppm; a 10% in-use dilution bound virtually all free Ca2+. The anionic surfactant component contributed the most to this effect. In the exploratory in vivo study, we measured a reduction of ~15% in free Ca2+ from simulated hard water over 10 minutes. Conclusion Baby cleansers can bind free Ca2+ and reduce the effective water hardness of bath water. Reducing the amount of free Ca2+ in the water will reduce the availability of the ion for binding to the skin. Altering or reducing free Ca2+ concentrations in bath water may be an important parameter in creating the ideal baby bath. PMID:27789967

  14. CpG oligodeoxynucleotides with crude parasite antigens reduce worm recovery in Opisthorchis viverrini infected hamsters. (United States)

    Kaewraemruaen, Chamraj; Sermswan, Rasana W; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi


    Opisthorchis viverrini, a human liver fluke, is still an endemic parasitic infection in Thailand and nearly all countries in Southeast Asia. O. viverrini induces a chronic stage of infection in hamsters. During the first 2 weeks of infection, Th1 inducing cytokine, IL-12, increased but was down regulated in chronic infection. In this study it was found that unmethylated-CpG ODN (oligodeoxynucleotides) 1826 increased hamster mononuclear cell proliferation and stimulated IFN-γ production in vitro. The IFN-γ levels in hamster sera were significantly increased in hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 alone or plus crude somatic antigens (CSAg). Further investigation using the flow cytometer found that CD4(+)T cells and IFN-γ(+) CD4(+)T cells (Th1-like cells) in the hamster blood were significantly increased. The role of these cells in the protective responses in hamsters was evaluated by challenging with 25 metacercaria and observation for 3 months. The number of worms recovered was significantly reduced in the hamsters injected with CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg, but not in CpG ODN 1826 alone groups when compared to PBS control. The percent of reduction in hamsters against this parasite were 32.95% and 21.49% in the CpG ODN 1826 with CSAg and CpG ODN 1826 alone. This study indicates that CpG ODN 1826 plus parasite antigens elicit a Th1-like response that leads to the enhancement of worm reduction.

  15. The Chemistry of Cold: Mechanisms of Torpor Regulation in the Siberian Hamster. (United States)

    Cubuk, Ceyda; Bank, Jonathan H H; Herwig, Annika


    Siberian hamsters use spontaneous daily torpor, a state of hypometabolism and hypothermia, to save energy during winter. Multiple neuroendocrine signals set the scene for spontaneous torpor to occur, and several brain areas have been identified as potential sites for torpor regulation. Here, we summarize the known mechanisms of a fascinating physiological state in the Siberian hamster.

  16. Diet affects resting, but not basal metabolic rate of normothermic Siberian hamsters acclimated to winter. (United States)

    Gutowski, Jakub P; Wojciechowski, Michał S; Jefimow, Małgorzata


    We examined the effect of different dietary supplements on seasonal changes in body mass (m(b)), metabolic rate (MR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) capacity in normothermic Siberian hamsters housed under semi-natural conditions. Once a week standard hamster food was supplemented with either sunflower and flax seeds, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (FA), or mealworms, rich in saturated and monounsaturated FA. We found that neither of these dietary supplements affected the hamsters' normal winter decrease in m(b) and fat content nor their basal MR or NST capacity. NST capacity of summer-acclimated hamsters was lower than that of winter-acclimated ones. The composition of total body fat reflected the fat composition of the dietary supplements. Resting MR below the lower critical temperature of the hamsters, and their total serum cholesterol concentration were lower in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with mealworms than in hamsters fed a diet supplemented with seeds. These results indicate that in mealworm-fed hamsters energy expenditure in the cold is lower than in animals eating a seed-supplemented diet, and that the degree of FA unsaturation of diet affects energetics of heterotherms, not only during torpor, but also during normothermy.

  17. On the systematic position of the Western Hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens Nehring (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.


    The systematic position of the western hamster, Cricetus cricetus canescens, has been a subject of discussion and criticism ever since NEHRING (1899, pp. 1—2) described the hamster occurring in Belgium west of the Meuse as a separate variety. The present paper is a new effort to throw more light on

  18. A Comparison of Hamster Anesthetics and Their Effect on Mosquito Blood Feeding (United States)

    Hamsters or mice are often anesthetized when they are used as the hosts for insect feeding experiments. An experiment was done to determine if there was a difference in mosquito blood feeding success when fed on hamsters anesthetized using two commonly used protocols. The number of blood-fed females...

  19. Phylogenetic conservation of immunoglobulin heavy chains: direct comparison of hamster and mouse Cmu genes. (United States)

    McGuire, K L; Duncan, W R; Tucker, P W


    We have analyzed the JH-Cmu locus of the Syrian hamster by DNA cloning and sequencing. The single Cmu gene is highly homologous to that of the mouse. The hamster equivalents of the JH and switch (S) recombination regions are arranged as in the mouse, but surprisingly are not highly conserved. Also unlike its close murine relative, the Smu regions among inbred hamster strains are not polymorphic. The complete nucleotide sequence of hamster and mouse Cmu genes have been compared to partial Cmu sequences of other species. Conservation within a portion of the 3' untranslated region may signify functional requirements for 3' end processing. Mutational frequencies within exons and introns of hamster and mouse do not support the theory that the rate of DNA transitions to transversions decreases with evolutionary distance.

  20. SNC 80, a delta-opioid agonist, elicits phase advances in hamster circadian activity rhythms. (United States)

    Byku, M; Gannon, R L


    Non-photic stimuli administered to hamsters during the subjective day can cause phase advances in circadian wheel running activity. It is believed that afferent projections from the intergeniculate leaflet of the thalamus to circadian pacemaker cells within the suprachiasmatic nucleus mediate the phase shifting effects of some non-photic stimuli. In hamsters, many of the intergeniculate leaflet afferents contain enkephalin, yet the role of opioids in producing non-photic phase shifts in hamsters has not been reported. In the present study, we show that SNC 80, an agonist for the delta opioid receptor subtype, will phase advance hamster wheel running activity rhythms when administered late in the subjective day. These results indicate that opioids may be involved in modulating the circadian pacemaker in hamsters.

  1. Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cena Rivero


    Full Text Available The Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD is a genetic disease which is characterized by the gradual emergence of cystic lesions in the kidneys, which replace the renal parenchyma causing deterioration of its function to stage 5. The PKD is one of the causes of Chronic Kidney Disease on renal replacement therapy (RRT. The Polycystic Kidney Disease has two patterns of inheritance: autosomal dominant pattern and the autosomal recessive pattern. The dominant form is more common but less severe than autosomal recessive form. PKD is known that is caused by mutations in several loci of the human genome. The autosomal dominant form can be caused by mutations in two different genes (PKD1 and PKD2, unlike the autosomal recessive form only has a causal gene (PKHD1. At present the international scientific community efforts toward deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of this entity for the purpose of developing therapeutic alternatives that avoid the appearance of cysts or progression of those already in place. The aim is to systematize the available scientific knowledge about Polycystic Kidney Disease and provide a source of consultation update on clinical characteristics and therapeutic options for patients with PKD

  2. Necroinflammation in Kidney Disease. (United States)

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Linkermann, Andreas; Anders, Hans-Joachim


    The bidirectional causality between kidney injury and inflammation remains an area of unexpected discoveries. The last decade unraveled the molecular mechanisms of sterile inflammation, which established danger signaling via pattern recognition receptors as a new concept of kidney injury-related inflammation. In contrast, renal cell necrosis remained considered a passive process executed either by the complement-related membrane attack complex, exotoxins, or cytotoxic T cells. Accumulating data now suggest that renal cell necrosis is a genetically determined and regulated process involving specific outside-in signaling pathways. These findings support a unifying theory in which kidney injury and inflammation are reciprocally enhanced in an autoamplification loop, referred to here as necroinflammation. This integrated concept is of potential clinical importance because it offers numerous innovative molecular targets for limiting kidney injury by blocking cell death, inflammation, or both. Here, the contribution of necroinflammation to AKI is discussed in thrombotic microangiopathies, necrotizing and crescentic GN, acute tubular necrosis, and infective pyelonephritis or sepsis. Potential new avenues are further discussed for abrogating necroinflammation-related kidney injury, and questions and strategies are listed for further exploration in this evolving field.

  3. Ear length and kidney function decline after kidney donation. (United States)

    Katavetin, Pisut; Watanatorn, Salin; Townamchai, Natavudh; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat


    The preservation of kidney function after kidney donation depends on the kidney reserve - the potential of the remaining kidney to boost their function after loss of the other kidney. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, size and shape of the external ears are examined to evaluate the person's kidney health. We hypothesized that ear size might be a practical yet overlooked marker of kidney reserve. Fifty kidney transplantation donors were participated in this study. The length and width of both ears of all participants were measured during one of the post-donation visits. Pre-donation serum creatinine and post-donation serum creatinine as well as other relevant parameters (age, sex, weight, height, etc.) of the participants were extracted from medical records. The estimated GFR was calculated from serum creatinine, age and sex using the CKD-EPI equation. Ear length negatively associated with %GFR decline after kidney donation. For every 1 cm increase in ear length, it was associated with 5.7% less GFR decline after kidney donation (95% Confidence Interval 0.2 to 11.3, P = 0.04). Ear width, as well as age, sex, body weight, height, body mass index, and pre-donation eGFR did not significantly associate with the GFR decline. Our findings support the notion of Traditional Chinese Medicine that ear morphology may be associated with kidney health and suggest that ear length might be a useful predictor of kidney function decline after kidney donation.

  4. Pilot evaluation of the text4baby mobile health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans William Douglas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile phone technologies for health promotion and disease prevention have evolved rapidly, but few studies have tested the efficacy of mobile health in full-fledged programs. Text4baby is an example of mobile health based on behavioral theory, and it delivers text messages to traditionally underserved pregnant women and new mothers to change their health, health care beliefs, practices, and behaviors in order to improve clinical outcomes. The purpose of this pilot evaluation study is to assess the efficacy of this text messaging campaign. Methods We conducted a randomized pilot evaluation study. All participants were pregnant women first presenting for care at the Fairfax County, Virginia Health Department. We randomized participants to enroll in text4baby and receive usual health care (intervention, or continue simply to receive usual care (control. We then conducted a 24-item survey by telephone of attitudes and behaviors related to text4baby. We surveyed participants at baseline, before text4baby was delivered to the intervention group, and at follow-up at approximately 28 weeks of baby’s gestational age. Results We completed 123 baseline interviews in English and in Spanish. Overall, the sample was predominantly of Hispanic origin (79.7% with an average age of 27.6 years. We completed 90 follow-up interviews, and achieved a 73% retention rate. We used a logistic generalized estimating equation model to evaluate intervention effects on measured outcomes. We found a significant effect of text4baby intervention exposure on increased agreement with the attitude statement “I am prepared to be a new mother” (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.04, 7.18, p = 0.042 between baseline and follow-up. For those who had attained a high school education or greater, we observed a significantly higher overall agreement to attitudes against alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 2.80, CI = 1.13, 6.90, p = 0.026. We also observed a

  5. Photoperiodic regulation of FGF21 production in the Siberian hamster. (United States)

    Samms, Ricardo J; Fowler, Maxine J; Cooper, Scott; Emmerson, Paul; Coskun, Tamer; Adams, Andrew C; Kharitonenkov, Alexei; Tsintzas, Kostas; Ebling, Francis J P


    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". FGF21 is an endocrine member of the fibroblast growth factor superfamily that has been shown to play an important role in the physiological response to nutrient deprivation. Food restriction enhances hepatic FGF21 production, which serves to engage an integrated response to energy deficit. Specifically, elevated FGF21 levels lead to reduced gluconeogenesis and increased hepatic ketogenesis. However, circulating FGF21 concentrations also paradoxically rise in states of metabolic dysfunction such as obesity. Furthermore, multiple peripheral tissues also produce FGF21 in addition to the liver, raising questions as to its endocrine and paracrine roles in the control of energy metabolism. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma FGF21 concentrations in the Siberian hamster, a rodent which undergoes a seasonal cycle of fattening and body weight gain in the long days (LD) of summer, followed by reduction of appetite and fat catabolism in the short days (SD) of winter. Groups of adult male hamsters were raised in long days, and then exposed to SD for up to 12 weeks. Chronic exposure of LD animals to SD led to a significant increase in circulating FGF21 concentrations. This elevation of circulating FGF21 was preceded by an increase in liver FGF21 protein production evident as early as 4 weeks of exposure to SD. FGF21 protein abundance was also increased significantly in interscapular brown adipose tissue, with a positive correlation between plasma levels of FGF21 and BAT protein abundance throughout the experimental period. Epididymal white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle (gastrocnemius) also produced FGF21, but levels did not change in response to a change in photoperiod. In summary, a natural programmed state of fat catabolism was associated with increased FGF21 production in the liver and BAT, consistent with the view that FGF21 has a role in adapting hamsters to the hypophagic winter state.

  6. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies. (United States)

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E


    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  7. Melatonin attenuates photic disruption of circadian rhythms in Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Ruby, N F; Kang, T; Heller, H C


    Body temperature (Tb) was recorded via a biotelemetry system from 28 adult male Siberian hamsters maintained in a light-dark (LD) cycle of 16 h light/day for several months. After Tb was recorded for 3 wk, the LD cycle was phase delayed by extending the light phase by 5 h for 1 day; animals remained on a 16:8 LD cycle for the remainder of the experiment. Hamsters were injected daily with melatonin or vehicle solution for several weeks, beginning either 2 mo after (experiment 1) or on the day of (experiment 2) the phase shift; injections occurred within 30 min of dark onset. In experiment 1, 75% of animals free ran with circadian periods >24 h, beginning on the day of the phase shift, and never reentrained to the LD cycle; no hamsters unambiguously entrained to daily injections. In contrast, 78% of animals in experiment 2 entrained to melatonin injections, and 71% of those animals subsequently reentrained to the photocycle when the injection regimen ended. No vehicle-treated animals entrained to the injection schedule. Melatonin had no effect on daily mean Tb and Tb rhythm amplitude in either experiment; however, melatonin doubled the duration of a hyperthermic response that occurred after each injection. Thus melatonin can prevent loss of entrainment induced by a phase shift of the LD cycle but cannot restore entrainment to free-running animals. Failure to reentrain in the presence of two appropriately coordinated entraining agents also suggests that a phase shift of the photocycle can diminish the sensitivity of the circadian system to both photic and nonphotic input.

  8. The effects of simultaneous hyperlipemia-hyperglycemia on the resistance arteries, myocardium and kidney glomeruli. (United States)

    Costache, G; Popov, D; Georgescu, A; Cenuse, M; Jinga, V V; Simionescu, M


    The experimental model of Golden Syrian hamster subjected to concomitant hyperlipemia (diet-induced) and diabetes (by streptozotocin injection) for 24 weeks is characterised by the prevalence of micro- and macroangiopathies. We have used the hyperlipemic-diabetic (HD) hamsters to investigate: a) whether there is an alteration in the reactivity of the resistance arteries (mean internal diameter: 210-250 microm), b) if present, which are the structural and biochemical changes that accompany the functional modifications, and c) to examine the pathomorphological changes induced by the association of hyperlipemia and diabetes on vital organs such as myocardium and kidney glomeruli. To these aims, biochemical assays of plasma components, light- and electronmicroscopy, myographic, morphometric and spectrofluorimetric techniques were used. The mesenteric resistance arteries of HD hamsters exhibited (as compared to similar arteries in normals) a decreased contractile response to noradrenaline (1.86+/-0.35 vs. 2.43+/-0.21), and an impeded endothelium dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (approximately 61.40% vs. approximately 79.80%). The association of hyperlipemia with diabetes induced changes in morphology of the resistance arteries consisting in approximately 10% increase of the intima plus media cross-sectional area, approximately 20% decrease of the vascular lumen area, and approximately 2.85 fold augmentation of the wall to lumen ratio. The resistance arteries exhibited structural modifications of the endothelium (up to 8 copies of Weibel-Palade bodies/endothelial cell), and smooth muscle cells (secretory phenotype), and in the vessels media small calcification cores appeared embedded in a hyperplasic extracellular matrix. The vascular mesenteric bed of the HD hamsters contained approximately 2.30 and approximately 1.30 fold increased concentrations of AGE-collagen and pentosidine, respectively, above the normal values. The HD hamsters displayed also modifications

  9. Healthy Parenting Skills Program toward First-Time Father’s Skills on Caring for Newborn Baby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uswatun Khasanah


    Full Text Available Purpose: This study is to examine the effects of skills training program named healthy parenting program on first time father skills. The skills are baby bath and umbilical cord care, baby blanket, burping and handling the baby, baby lullaby and replace baby clothes.Method: This is a quasi experiment study. Sampling technique is purposive sampling with 30 first time father with 0-28 days new born baby. Sample equally assigned into experimental and control groups. Subject in experimental group received healthy parenting skills program, while control group was given routine care only. The instrument is observation guideline. Wilcoxon and Man Whitney Test are used to analyze data.Result: Father’ skills in experimental group after receiving the program are statistically increased from before the program (bathing and umbilical cord care, baby blanket, baby burping, baby handling, baby lullaby, replace baby clothes.Conclusion: Father’ skills in experimental group after receiving the program are statistically increased over control group (bathing and umbilical cord care, baby blanket skill, baby burping, baby handling, baby lullaby, replace baby clothes. Suggestions are the educational efforts by health-care professionals could beneficially be directed toward fathers throughout prenatal and postpartum periods. Health center in Indonesia should initiate class program directed to father in part of program in reducing neonates and post partum mothers health problems.

  10. 76 FR 37055 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby... (United States)


    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Importation of Baby Squash and Baby Courgettes From Zambia AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... plant pests are not introduced into the United States. Allowing baby squash and baby courgettes to...

  11. Kidney development in the first year of life in small-for-gestational-age preterm infants

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    Hotoura, Efthalia; Giapros, Vasilios; Drougia, Aikaterini [University Hospital of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria; Papadopoulou, Frederica; Nikolopoulos, Panayiotis [University Hospital of Ioannina, Radiology Department, Ioannina (Greece); Andronikou, Styliani [University Hospital of Ioannina, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Ioannina (Greece); University of Ioannina Medical School, Child Health Department, Ioannina (Greece)


    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants have been reported to have a significantly reduced number of nephrons that could be a risk factor for development of hypertension later in life. To evaluate kidney size prospectively in relation to other anthropometric parameters during the first year of life in SGA babies. The babies in the study were 31-36 weeks' gestational age (GA) at birth and were matched with control preterm infants of similar GA, but appropriate for gestational age (AGA). The SGA infants were further classified as symmetrical and asymmetrical according to the anthropometric parameters. The total number of measurements in symmetrical SGA preterm infants was 324, in asymmetrical SGA preterm infants 295, and in AGA infants 536. In symmetrical SGA preterm infants (31-36 weeks' GA) mean kidney length ({+-} SD) of 56{+-}4 mm was significantly different from the controls (58.9{+-}4.6 mm) up to 6 months' chronological age (P < 0.05). In the asymmetrical SGA preterm infants, mean kidney length (45.3{+-}4.0 mm) was significantly different from the controls (48.2{+-}4.4 mm) up to 40 weeks' corrected age. At 1 year chronological age, all preterm infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical SGA and AGA) had similar mean kidney length (61.6{+-}4.6, 62.8{+-}4.3, and 62.3{+-}4.0 mm, respectively). The ratio of kidney length to crown-to-heel length was similar in all preterm groups. Kidney length in preterm SGA infants (symmetrical and asymmetrical) follows closely the other auxological parameters during the first year of life. (orig.)

  12. Hamster exhibits major differences in organ-specific metabolism of the esophageal carcinogen N-nitrosodiethylamine. (United States)

    Visoni, Sílvia; Lang, Matti; Ribeiro Pinto, Luis Felipe


    Nitrosamines are carcinogens that require metabolic activation by CYP enzymes in order to exert their carcinogenic effect. Species differences exist in their esophageal carcinogenic potency, with the rat being the most sensitive and the Syrian hamster a resistant species. In the latter, the liver is the main target organ. This difference does not apply to directly acting N-nitroso compounds, suggesting that tissue-specific metabolic activation is involved in hamster esophageal resistance to nitrosamines. We have previously shown that Cytochrome P450 2A3 (CYP2A3) is responsible for N-nitrosodiethylamine activation in the rat esophagus. In order to find a mechanistic explanation for the resistance of hamster esophagus for nitrosamines, we have compared the metabolism of NDEA between esophagus and liver of the hamster. Hamster esophagus is capable of activating NDEA (K(m)=1.02+/-0.44microM and V(max)=1.96+/-0.26nmol acetaldehyde/min/mg microsomal protein). However, the hamster liver showed a 40-fold higher catalytic efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) towards NDEA metabolism compared with its esophagus. Hamster esophagus expresses CYP2A8, CYP2A9 and CYP2A16, but not CYP2E1. An antibody against human CYP2A6 was able to inhibit NDEA metabolism in hamster esophageal, but not liver microsomes. Our results suggest that in the hamster esophagus, but not in the liver, most of the NDEA is metabolized by CYP2A enzymes, but with a rather poor efficiency when compared to the liver. This is in accordance with previous results showing that for the hamster, the main target organ of NDEA is the liver.

  13. [Pregnancy and kidney diseases]. (United States)

    Siekierka-Harreis, M; Rump, L C


    The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in women of childbearing age reaches approximately 0.2%. Under physiological conditions pregnancy results in important hemodynamic changes on the maternal organism. In the case of chronic kidney disease these adaptations often are only partial. Physiological changes of immune response during pregnancy may contribute to the progress of renal disease. Regardless of the underlying kidney disease, one can assume that the better the glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure are the more favorable the course of pregnancy will be with the chance for a healthy child and stable renal function. To achieve this goal, a close interaction is required between gynecologist, nephrologist, and other specialists in a center with appropriate experience.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarabattina Rattaia


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: T he subject of kidney anomalies has created much interest to the scientists in late 1950 and 1960 with the aim of prevention and curing. E tiological factors includes variou s genetic environmental factors , teratogens such as physical, chemical, nutritional, causing mutations in the genes. Hypoplastic kidney indicates small kidney that have less normal number of calices and nephrons. MATERIAL AND METHODS: T he present study has been under taken on 76 kidneys from cadavers and 60 from sonograms and 40 from fetal kidneys. Kidneys identified and photographs are taken in situ wherever necessary OBSERVATION : 10 hypo plastic kidneys were observed. SUMM A RY AND CONCLUSION: The cause for this is many birth defects, it may be unilateral or bilateral, in unilateral the oth er kidney shows greater compensatory group

  15. God-mother-baby: what children think they know. (United States)

    Kiessling, Florian; Perner, Josef


    This study tested one hundred and nine 3- to 6-year-old children on a knowledge-ignorance task about knowledge in humans (mother, baby) and God. In their responses, participants not reliably grasping that seeing leads to knowing in humans (pre-representational) were significantly influenced by own knowledge and marginally by question format. Moreover, knowledge was attributed significantly more often to mother than baby and explained by agent-based characteristics. Of participants mastering the task for humans (representational), God was largely conceived as ignorant "man in the sky" by younger and increasingly as "supernatural agent in the sky" by older children. Evidence for egocentrism and for anthropomorphizing God lends support to an anthropomorphism hypothesis. First-time evidence for an agent-based conception of others' knowledge in pre-representational children is presented.

  16. On the names of Babiński. (United States)

    Gasecki, A P; Hachinski, V


    The 100th anniversary of the discovery of the extensor plantar response will be celebrated in 1996. It was Joseph François Félix Babiński who became known worldwide for the sign that bears his name. In order to help Joseph in establishing his career, brother Henri gave up his aspirations and abandoned engineering. Clovis Vincent, "father' of French neurosurgery and pupil of Joseph, stated: "Joseph Babinski lived for science, and Henri lived for his brother; without Henri Babinski, Joseph would not have accomplished that much". However, Henri's name became famous in all Paris for a cookbook Gastronomie Pratique written under the pseudonym of "Ali-Bab.' Throughout Joseph's career his surname remained distorted despite his own efforts to spell and pronounce it correctly. Several people can claim the name Babiński, but in neurology and neurosurgery there is only one, Joseph.

  17. Goals and options in keeping preterm babies warm. (United States)

    Lyon, A J; Freer, Y


    More than 50 years after Silverman showed the association between temperature control and mortality, recent data again stress the importance of the thermal environment of the preterm infant. The goals of care are straightforward: maintain a normal body temperature, ensure a stable thermal environment and avoid cold stress; but the options to achieve them are many and less certain. There is a problem in defining a 'normal' temperature. A single measurement will tell nothing about whether the baby is using energy for thermal balance. The preterm baby should be monitored with the continuous recording and display of a central and peripheral temperature. This will give an early indication of cold stress before any change is seen in the central temperature. Reducing evaporative heat losses at birth has improved temperatures on admission, although no studies have shown any effect on outcome. No data have shown that the use of incubators is any better than radiant heaters.

  18. Ultradian components of the sleep-wake cycle in babies. (United States)

    Menna-Barreto, L; Benedito-Silva, A A; Marques, N; de Andrade, M M; Louzada, F


    Behavioral states may be analyzed as expressions of underlying cyclic activity involving several physiological systems. The human sleep-wake cycle in the first year of life shows, in addition to the establishment of circadian rhythmicity around the second month, the dynamics of its ultradian components, as can be seen in the more or less gradual decline of the polyphasic pattern. To detect these changes, we have analyzed the sleep-wake cycle of five babies of different ages (3, 4, 9, 11, and 13 months) observed for 5 consecutive days (Monday through Friday), 10 h (08:00-18:00 h) per day at a kindergarten by the first author, and during the night (18:00-08:00 h) by the parents. Behavioral observations were designed for minimizing interference with the babies' habits. Sleep/wake data were arranged in 60-min intervals, and the relative amount of time spent asleep per interval constituted the time series submitted for statistical analysis. The five resulting time series were submitted to spectral analysis for detecting the composition of frequencies contributing to the observed sleep/wake cycle. Several frequencies were thus obtained for each baby in the ultradian and circadian domain, ranging from one cycle in 2.0 h to one cycle in 24 h. The circadian component was the strongest rhythmic influence for all individuals except for the youngest (3-month-old) baby, who showed a semicircadian component as the main frequency in the power spectrum. Three individuals showed ultradian frequencies in the domain of 3-4 h. Differences in the spectra derive from three possible, and probably not exclusive, causes: 1) ontogenetic changes, 2) different masking effects, and 3) individual differences.

  19. How much wrapping do babies need at night? (United States)

    Wigfield, R E; Fleming, P J; Azaz, Y E; Howell, T E; Jacobs, D E; Nadin, P S; McCabe, R; Stewart, A J


    In a longitudinal, population based study, overnight temperature recordings were made in the bedrooms of 152 babies aged 3-18 weeks and the insulation provided by their bedclothing was assessed. Outdoor temperatures for the study nights were also available. Parents applied more insulation on colder nights with lower bedroom temperatures than on warmer nights (mean 8.5 tog at 15 degrees C minimum bedroom temperature falling to 4.0 tog at 25 degrees C). For a particular temperature they also applied 2 tog more insulation in winter than in summer. The amounts of bedclothing used in the home were compared with insulation levels predicted to achieve thermo-neutrality over a similar range of environmental temperature from heat balance studies in young infants. They corresponded closely. The average amount of bedclothing chosen for babies in Avon allows them to remain in thermoneutral conditions throughout the night. These values are proposed as broad guidelines for the thermal care of young babies at night.

  20. [Brazilian guidelines for marketing baby food: history, limitations and perspectives]. (United States)

    Monteiro, Renata


    The objective of this paper is to present and discuss Brazilian policy concerning actions to protect breastfeeding, especially the history, international and national background, limitations, and perspectives of the Brazilian Guidelines for the Marketing of Baby Food, Pacifiers and Bottles. The Brazilian Guidelines, which play a crucial role in protecting breastfeeding against industry marketing strategies, were based on the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, proposed by the World Health Organization in 1981. The first version of the Brazilian Guidelines was released in 1988, and there were subsequent revisions in 1992 and 2001/2002. In 2006, the Guidelines became national law. However, the strides made over this period in terms of regulation have been few because the law is not always observed. Thus, it is essential that all actors involved, including government officials, manufacturers and sellers of baby food and other baby products, teaching and health professionals and their associations, international bodies, and non-governmental organizations make a commitment to enforce the current law.

  1. Shaken Baby Syndrome: A South African Medico-Legal Perspective

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    Andra Le Roux-Kemp


    Full Text Available Shaken Baby Syndrome refers to the violent and repetitive shaking of an infant, and is a form of abusive head trauma. It was first described in 1974, and has since been the topic of intensive study and discussion. The syndrome has classically been diagnosed with a triad of injuries, namely subdural haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage and encephalopathy (brain abnormalities. However, recent publications have led to some doubt regarding the causation and diagnostic significance of the triad. It is now generally accepted that other conditions, even natural diseases, may cause the findings listed in the so-called "triad". To date, no reported case law is available on Shaken Baby Syndrome in South Africa; therefore this article focuses on cases in the United States and United Kingdom to delineate some of the issues associated with litigating the condition. This includes the obligation of expert witnesses to give independent, factual evidence about their areas of expertise. It is recommended that medical and legal professionals involved in cases of alleged child abuse should collect as much information as possible about the context of the case. Confessions by parents or caregivers should be treated with circumspection. Awareness campaigns should be aimed at informing the public of the dangers of shaking an infant. And with regards to Shaken Baby Syndrome an increased focus on evidence-based medicine is necessary to dissipate the uncertainty around the condition.

  2. Development of the e-Baby serious game with regard to the evaluation of oxygenation in preterm babies: contributions of the emotional design. (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Dias, Danielle Monteiro Vilela; Góes, Fernanda Dos Santos Nogueira; Seixas, Carlos Alberto; Scochi, Carmen Gracinda Silvan; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves


    The present study aimed to describe the development process of a serious game that enables users to evaluate the respiratory process in a preterm infant based on an emotional design model. The e-Baby serious game was built to feature the simulated environment of an incubator, in which the user performs a clinical evaluation of the respiratory process in a virtual preterm infant. The user learns about the preterm baby's history, chooses the tools for the clinical evaluation, evaluates the baby, and determines whether his/her evaluation is appropriate. The e-Baby game presents phases that contain respiratory process impairments of higher or lower complexity in the virtual preterm baby. Included links give the user the option of recording the entire evaluation procedure and sharing his/her performance on a social network. e-Baby integrates a Clinical Evaluation of the Preterm Baby course in the Moodle virtual environment. This game, which evaluates the respiratory process in preterm infants, could support a more flexible, attractive, and interactive teaching and learning process that includes simulations with features very similar to neonatal unit realities, thus allowing more appropriate training for clinical oxygenation evaluations in at-risk preterm infants. e-Baby allows advanced user-technology-educational interactions because it requires active participation in the process and is emotionally integrated.

  3. Kidney stones - self-care (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  4. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  5. Aging changes in the kidneys (United States)

    ... this page: // Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder To use ... in the reproductive system can affect bladder control. AGING CHANGES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE KIDNEYS AND ...

  6. Renal (Kidney) Manifestations in TSC (United States)

    ... International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved RENAL (KIDNEY) MANIFESTATIONS IN TSC Download a PDF of ... sclerosis complex (TSC) will develop some form of renal (kidney) disease during their lifetime. There are three ...

  7. [Immune response induced by phosphofructokinase from E. histolytica in hamsters]. (United States)

    Jiménez Cardoso, J M; Jiménez, E; Kumate, J


    The enzymatic activity of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) dependent phosphofructokinase became manifest in the supernatant obtained by centrifugation in a homogenate of E. histolytica strain HMI-IMSS at 700,000 g. Partial purification of the enzyme was achieved by column chromatography with Ultrogel AcA-34. Ten protein elution spikes were obtained: five showed enzymatic activity. Elution spikes I and II attained the highest values of specific enzymatic activity 6.45 and 6.98 U/mg of protein, respectively. Next were spikes X and III with similar values 2.55 and 2.63 U/mg of protein, and spike IV presented the lowest value of 0.86 U/mg of protein. The five spikes were used to immunize hamsters which were challenged intrahepatically, four weeks later, with 3 x 10(5) trophozoites of E. histolytica. A control group of animals not immunized underwent intrahepatic challenge with the same number of amebae. The proteins with enzymatic activity contained in elution spikes I and II conferred immunologic protection in 100% of the animals, while elution spikes X and III were protective in 50 to 63%, and spike IV gave the lowest value of 37%. It can be assumed that there is an antienzyme antibody responsible for the absence of hepatic abscesses in the immunized hamsters.

  8. Sex differences in Siberian hamster ultradian locomotor rhythms. (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Stevenson, Tyler J; Zucker, Irving


    Sex differences in ultradian activity rhythms (URs) and circadian rhythms (CRs) were assessed in Siberian hamsters kept in long day (LD) or short day (SD) photoperiods for 40 weeks. For both sexes URs of locomotor activity were more prevalent, greater in amplitude and more robust in SDs. The UR period was longer in females than males in both day lengths. The reproductive system underwent regression and body mass declined during the initial 10 weeks of SD treatment, and in both sexes these traits spontaneously reverted to the LD phenotype at or before 40 weeks in SD, reflecting the development of neuroendocrine refractoriness to SD patterns of melatonin secretion. Hamsters of both sexes, however, continued to display SD-like URs at the 40 weeks time point. CRs were less prevalent and the waveform less robust and lower in amplitude in SDs than LDs; the SD circadian waveform also did not revert to the long-day phenotype after 40 weeks of SD treatment. Short day lengths enhanced ultradian and diminished circadian rhythms in both sexes. Day length controls several UR characteristics via gonadal steroid and melatonin-independent mechanisms. Sex differences in ultradian timing may contribute to sex diphenisms in rhythms of sleep, food intake and exercise.

  9. Constant darkness restores entrainment to phase-delayed Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Ruby, Norman F; Joshi, Nirav; Heller, H Craig


    Over 90% of Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) fail to reentrain to a 5-h phase delay of a 16:8-h photocycle. Because constant darkness (DD) restores rhythms disrupted by constant light, we tested whether DD could also restore entrainment. DD began 0, 5, or 14 days after a 5-h phase delay, and the light-dark cycle was reinstated 14 days later. All hamsters exposed to DD on day 0 reentrained, whereas 42% reentrained irrespective of whether DD began 5 or 14 days later. For these latter two groups, tau (tau) and alpha (alpha) in DD predicted reentrainment; animals that reentrained had a mean tau and alpha of 24.1 and 8.9 h, respectively, whereas those that failed to reentrain maintained a mean tau and alpha of 25.0 and of 7.1 h, respectively. Restoration of entrainment by DD is somewhat paradoxical because it suggests that reentrainment to the photocycle was prevented by continued exposure to that same photocycle. The dichotomy of circadian responses to DD suggests "entrainment" phenotypes that are similar to those of photoperiodic responders and nonresponders.

  10. Role of cathepsins in blastocyst hatching in the golden hamster. (United States)

    Sireesha, G V; Mason, R W; Hassanein, M; Tonack, S; Navarrete Santos, A; Fischer, B; Seshagiri, P B


    The mammalian embryo is encased in a glycoproteinaceous coat, the zona pellucida (ZP) during preimplantation development. Prior to implantation, the blastocyst must undergo 'hatching' or ZP escape. In hamsters, there is a thinning of the ZP followed by a focal lysis and a complete dissolution of the ZP during blastocyst hatching. Earlier studies from our laboratory have indicated a role for cysteine proteases in the hatching phenomenon. In this study, we tested the effect of specific inhibitors of the three classes of cysteine protease on blastocyst hatching. Cystatin, an endogenous cathepsin inhibitor, blocked blastocyst hatching. Similarly, Fmoc-Tyr-Ala-diazomethane, a synthetic cathepsin inhibitor, blocked hatching. Both showed dose-dependent and temporal inhibition of hatching. However, Z-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a synthetic caspase inhibitor, and calpastatin, an endogenous calpain inhibitor, had no effect on hatching. The cathepsins were localized to blastocyst cells. Exogenous addition of cathepsins L, P or B to cultured 8-cell embryos caused a complete ZP dissolution. The expression of mRNA and protein of cathepsins L and P was observed in peri-hatching blastocysts. Cathepsins L and P were detected in trophectodermal projections and in the ZP of peri-hatching blastocysts. These data provide the first evidence that blastocyst-derived cathepsins are functionally involved as zonalytic factors in the hatching of blastocysts in the golden hamster.

  11. C-reactive protein (CRP) of the Syrian hamster. (United States)

    Dowton, S B; Holden, S N


    Complementary and genomic clones encoding the mRNA and gene for a protein in the Syrian hamster that is highly homologous to C-reactive protein (CRP) have been isolated and studied. Coding sequence of the genomic clone is identical with that of the cDNA clone and predicts a mature protein of 206 amino acids and a 19 amino acid signal peptide. The single intron is 217 base pairs long and contains a short repetitive (GT)n motif. RNA blot analysis demonstrates that mRNA for hamster CRP is approximately 2.0 kb long, and unlike the closely related pentraxin female protein (FP), expression of this mRNA is not affected by the gender of the animal and accumulates equally in males and females during inflammation. In vivo administration of interleukin 1, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor induces accumulation of hepatic CRP mRNA, and the acute-phase alterations in CRP mRNA levels arise as a result of enhanced gene transcription.

  12. Everolimus in kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper JE


    Full Text Available James E Cooper¹, Uwe Christians², Alexander C Wiseman¹¹Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, Transplant Center, ²iC42 Integrated Solutions in Systems Biology for Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USAAbstract: Everolimus is a novel target of rapamycin (mTOR-I analog that has recently been approved in combination with cyclosporine A and steroids for use in the prevention of organ rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Compared with rapamycin, everolimus is characterized by a shorter half-life and improved bioavailability. Prior to US Food and Drug Administration approval, a number of Phase II and III clinical trials were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of everolimus in combination with calcineurin inhibitors for preventing acute rejection and promoting allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. In this report, we review the pharmacokinetic properties of everolimus, the clinical efficacy studies that led to its approval for use in kidney transplantation, as well as reported data on patient safety and tolerability associated with its use.Keywords: mTOR inhibitors, kidney transplantation, everolimus


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    13.1 Kidney function2004258 Safety and efficacy of very low protein di-et in the treatment of patients withsevere chronic renal insufficiency. LIU Yan (刘岩), et al. Dept Nephrol Guangzhou Red Cross Hosp, Guangzhou 510220. Chin J Nephrol 2004;20(1):18-22.Objective: To investigate the effects of long-term


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    10.1 Kidney function2004116 Measurement of urinary neutral endopeptid-ase and its significance in diagnosing renal tubular injury. ZHANG Zhi (张智), et al. Div Nephrol, Ruijin Hosp, Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Nephrol 2003; 19(6) :392-396.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    11.1 Kidney function2004416 The role of adhesion molecules and dendritic cells in hepatic/renal ischemia-reperfusion injury and the effect of antiadhesive treatment in rats.ZHOU Tong(周同), et al. Dept Nephrol, Ruijing Hosp Shanghai 2nd Med Univ, Shanghai 200025. Chin J Emerg Med 2004; 13(5):315 -318.

  16. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik


    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules...

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... of the feet and ankles Causes & Risk FactorsWhat causes CKD?The most common causes of CKD are high blood pressure, diabetes and heart disease. ... caused by CKD.How else is CKD treated?Chronic kidney disease can cause other problems. Talk with your doctor about how ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    11.1 Kidney function2003454 Effects of protein kinase C on type 1 inosi-tol 1,4, 5-triphosphate receptor expression in smooth muscle cells of rat glomerular afferent arterioles.WANG Jingyan(王静艳), et al. Dept Infect DLs, 2nd Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110004. China World J Digestol 2003; (11)6:705-707.

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines (United States)

    ... from our online catalog. Alternate Language URL Español Chronic Kidney Disease and Medicines: What You Need to Know Page ... What you need to know Because you have chronic kidney disease, you should take steps to protect your kidneys. ...

  20. Urological Complications in Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.B. Slagt (Inez)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The kidney is an essential organ that plays an crucial role in acid-base balance, sodium and potassium balance, calcium metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, red blood cell synthesis and excretion of metabolites. Kidney diseases may result in kidney failure with the

  1. Pineal-independent regulation of photo-nonresponsiveness in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    Prendergast, B J; Freeman, D A


    The pineal hormone melatonin influences circadian rhythms and also mediates reproductive responses to photoperiod. The authors tested whether pinealectomy influences circadian oscillators responsible for induction of nonresponsiveness to short day lengths by preventing normal short-day patterns of circadian entrainment. Adult male Siberian hamsters were pinealectomized or sham operated, maintained in either 18 h light per day (18L) or 15L for 10 weeks, and then tested for responsiveness to 10L. Because pinealectomized hamsters do not show gonadal regression in short day lengths, responsiveness was assessed by measuring phase angle of entrainment and the length of the nightly activity period following transfer to 10L. The incidence of nonresponsiveness was significantly higher in 18L hamsters than in 15L hamsters but was unaffected by pineal status. Fully 88% of 18L hamsters failed to entrain to 10L in the normal short-day manner; the duration of nightly activity remained compressed, and the phase angle of entrainment was large and negative relative to lights off. The 15L hamsters entrained normally to 10L. Exposure to constant light after 10L treatment was equally effective in inducing arrhythmicity in pinealectomized and intact hamsters. Changes in the period of morning and evening circadian oscillators subsequent to 18L treatment did not predict circadian responsiveness to short photoperiod. Long-day induction of photo-nonresponsiveness, which prevents winter responses to short day lengths, occurs independently of pineal melatonin feedback on the circadian system.

  2. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. (United States)

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L


    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo, plasma acetaldehyde in daidzin-treated hamsters was measured after the administration of a test dose of ethanol. Daidzin treatment (150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 6 days) significantly suppresses (> 70%) hamster ethanol intake but does not affect overall acetaldehyde metabolism. In contrast, after administration of the same ethanol dose, plasma acetaldehyde concentration in disulfiram-treated hamsters reaches 0.9 mM, 70 times higher than that of the control. In vitro, daidzin suppresses hamster liver mitochondria-catalyzed acetaldehyde oxidation very potently with an IC50 value of 0.4 microM, which is substantially lower than the daidzin concentration (70 microM) found in the liver mitochondria of daidzin-treated hamsters. These results indicate that (i) the action of daidzin differs from that proposed for the classic, broad-acting ALDH inhibitors (e.g., disulfiram), and (ii) the daidzin-sensitive mitochondrial ALDH is not the one and only enzyme that is essential for acetaldehyde metabolism in golden hamsters.

  3. Hamster Weight Patterns Predict the Intensity and Course of Schistosoma haematobium Infection. (United States)

    Le, Thien-Linh P; Boyett, Deborah M; Hurley-Novatny, Amelia; Hsieh, Michael H


    Although Syrian golden hamsters are widely used as hosts for experimental infection by Schistosoma haematobium , surprisingly little is known about the course of infection and associated intensity (as defined by measures of parasite burden). As such, we sought to define inexpensive, simple, noninvasive, and accurate methods for assessing and predicting the severity of disease in S. haematobium -infected hamsters in order to prevent premature hamster sacrifice and unexpected morbidity and mortality. Through monitoring the weight and behavior of infected hamsters, we determined that the weight-loss patterns of infected hamsters are highly correlated with commonly used measures of the severity of infection (i.e., numbers of eggs passed in the stool, worm burdens, and total egg yields). In contrast, we found no significant correlation between hamster weight-loss patterns and egg yields from liver and intestinal tissues. Our findings suggest that a more complex relationship exists among worm burden, fecundity, and egg passage in the feces than previously appreciated. Regardless, our data may be useful for workers seeking to optimize harvests of S. haematobium eggs and worms from infected hamsters for downstream applications.

  4. Changes of spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and development potential of golden hamster oocytes during the aging process. (United States)

    Jiang, Han; Wang, Ce; Guan, Jiyu; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Ziyi


    The golden hamster is an excellent animal experimental model for oocyte research. The hamster oocytes are very useful in clinical examination of human spermatozoan activity. Non-fertile oocytes can lead to time-dependent processes of aging, which will affect the results of human spermatozoa examination. As a consequence there is a need to investigate the aging and anti-aging processes of golden hamster oocytes. In order to study the aging processes and parthenogenetic activation of golden hamster oocytes, in vivo oocytes, oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells, and oocytes treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) or caffeine were collected and investigated. We found that: (1) spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, developmental potential (cleavage rate), and zona pellucida (ZP) hardening undergo age-dependent changes in in vivo, in vitro, and after TSA or caffeine treatment; (2) in vivo, oocytes became spontaneously parthenogenetic 25 h post-hCG treatment; (3) in vitro, cumulus cells did not significantly increase the parthenogenetic activation rate of cultured hamster oocytes; and (4) TSA or caffeine could delay spontaneous oocyte parthenogenetic activation and the aging processes by at least 5h, but also accelerated the hardening of the ZP. These results define the conditions for the aging and anti-aging processes in golden hamster oocytes. TSA and caffeine play roles in controlling spontaneous activation, which could facilitate the storage and use of golden hamster oocytes for studying processes relevant to human reproduction.

  5. Development of chronic and acute golden Syrian hamster infection models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo. (United States)

    Zuerner, R L; Alt, D P; Palmer, M V


    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several Leptospira species. Onset of an acute lethal infection following inoculation with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for pathogenesis studies. An important exception is the outcome following inoculation of hamsters with live L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, the primary cause of bovine leptospirosis and a cause of human infections. Typically, inoculation of hamsters with L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo fails to induce clinical signs of infection. In this study, the authors defined LD(50) and ID(50) for 2 strains of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo: JB197 and 203. Both strains infected hamsters with ID(50) values of approximately 1.5 × 10(2) bacteria yet differed in tissue invasion and interaction with leukocytes, resulting in widely divergent clinical outcomes. Hamsters infected with strain 203 established renal colonization within 4 days postinfection and remained asymptomatic with chronic renal infections similar to cattle infected with serovar Hardjo. In contrast, hamsters infected with strain JB197 developed a rapidly debilitating disease typical of acute leptospirosis common in accidental hosts (eg, humans) with an LD(50) of 3.6 × 10(4) bacteria. Evidence that strain JB197 resides in both extracellular and intracellular environments during hamster infection was obtained. Development of models that result in chronic and acute forms of leptospirosis provides a platform to study L. borgpetersenii pathogenesis and to test vaccines for the prevention of leptospirosis.

  6. Application study of intracytoplasmic sperm injection for golden hamster and cattle production. (United States)

    Horiuchi, Toshitaka


    This paper describes several technical improvements and our results in hamster intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), hamster round spermatid injection (ROSI) and bovine ICSI. The hamster is the mammalian species in which ICSI was first tried to produce fertilized oocytes. However, until recently, no live offspring following ICSI have ever been obtained. We reported the birth of live offspring following hamster ICSI. Improved points to success were 1) performing hamster ICSI in a dark room with a small incandescent lamp and manipulating both oocytes and fertilized eggs under microscope with a red light source and 2) injecting sperm heads without acrosomes. Under controlled illumination, the majority of the oocytes injected with acrosomeless sperm heads were fertilized normally, cleaved, and developed into morulae. Nine live offspring (19%) were born by transfer of hamster ICSI-derived embryos. Furthermore, we reported the birth of live offspring following hamster ROSI. About 70% of oocytes injected with round spermatids broken before injection were fertilized normally and about half of them developed to morulae and blastocysts. Three (5%) live young were born by transfer of hamster ROSI-derived embryos. On the other hand, in cattle, the main improvements were 1) injection of spermatozoa immobilized by scoring their tail just before injection into oocytes, and 2) additional ethanol activation 4 h after ICSI. About 70% of oocytes injected were activated 4 h after ICSI, and about 30% of them developed to blastocysts. Twenty-four live calves (39%) were born by non-surgical transfer of ICSI-derived embryos. Those results shows that, at present, live offspring are able to be obtained following hamster ICSI, ROSI and bovine ICSI, but further improvement is required due to higher production efficiency of offspring.

  7. Bioavailability and disposition of 3H-solanine in rat and hamster. (United States)

    Groen, K; Pereboom-de Fauw, D P; Besamusca, P; Beekhof, P K; Speijers, G J; Derks, H J


    1. The toxicokinetics of [3H]-alpha-solanine after oral (p.o.) and intravenous (i.v.) administration in rat and hamster were studied, in order to decide which is the most appropriate model in risk assessment studies. The i.v. dose was 54 micrograms/kg; the oral dose was 170 micrograms/kg. 2. After i.v. administration, the toxicokinetics of total radioactivity in blood were comparable in rat and hamster. However, the clearance of total radioactivity from plasma was more effective in rat than in hamster. The half-lives of distribution and of the terminal phase of unchanged alpha-solanine were not different between rat and hamster, whereas the systemic and metabolic clearance were, respectively, about 1.6 and 2.7 times higher in rat than in hamster. The clearance of unchanged alpha-solanine is more effective than of total radioactivity. 3. After p.o. administration in rat and hamster, the mean bioavailability of total radioactivity is about 29 and 57%, respectively. The bioavailability of unchanged alpha-solanine is only 1.6 and 3.2%, respectively, when compared with i.v. administration. 4. T1/2el of alpha-solanine after p.o. administration was in rats a factor of four and in hamsters a factor of two shorter than after i.v. administration. A strong retention of radioactivity was seen in the hamsters after p.o. administration; only 40% of the dose was excreted within 7 days versus 90% in rat. 5. Based on these and toxicological data from literature, it was decided that the hamster is a more appropriate model in (sub)-chronic toxicity studies with alpha-solanine than the rat.

  8. Lifelong persistent infection of hamster brain by human adenovirus type 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available To establish an experimental persistent infection of the brain with human adenoviruses, adenovirus type 6 (ad 6 was inoculated intracerebrally into young adult hamsters. Hamsters appeared languid for a few days after inoculation, but recovered rapidly. By cocultivation of tissue fragments with HeLa cells, ad 6 was always recovered from the brains of hamsters throughout their lives, as long as 29 months, indicating the establishment of a lifelong persistent infection. Except for the first few days after inoculation, however, attempts to recover virus by inoculation of tissue extracts onto HeLa cells or by cultivation of tissue fragments alone were unsuccessful.

  9. Kidney and Urinary Tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    12.1 Kidney function2007244 Short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. JIANG suhua(蒋素华), et al. Dept Nephrol, Zhongshan Hosp, Fudan Univ, Shanghai 200032. Chin J Nephrol 2007;23(4):246-250. Objective To investigate short-and long-term outcome of the kidney after acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Methods Rat model of renal IR was established by clamping both pedicles for 40 min followed by reperfusion. Blood sample and kidneys were collected at indicated times. Serum creatinine levels, mortality and histological change were observed throughout the study. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe tubular ultra-structure. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The extent of tubulointerstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Masson trichome staining. The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. Results Extensive proximal tubular necrosis, functional impairment and high mortality (32%, 8/25) were found in the early phase after renal IR injury, accompanied by a small number of apoptotic cells. Patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis was obvious at 5th and 10th week postischemia in correlation with renal hypertrophy and increased urinary output. Moreover, the expression of a-SMA and TGF-β1 increased significantly at first, 5th and 10th week in the kidneys of IR group compared to sham-operated group. The expression mentioned above was localized mainly in the injured tubulointerstitium, consistent with the distribution of renal fibrosis. Conclusion Severe renal IR injury may lead to acute tubular necrosis, functional disorder and high mortality in short term. The initial structural injury in the kidney is irreversible and tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the final outcome. Increased myofibrolasts (s-SMA positive) and



    Diana Sawen; Bernaddeta Wahyuni Irianti Rahayu; Iriani Sumpe


    Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan pada bulan April 2013, untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan limbah hasil pengolahan buah merah pada sistem pemeliharaan ternak babi secara pastura di Kampung Umpakalo Jayawijaya. Bagi masyarakat suku Dani di Lembah Baliem Kabupaten Jayawijaya, babi memiliki nilai penting secara sosial budaya dan ekonomi. Babi tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kehidupan keseharian mereka secara turun temurun. Penelitian menggunakan metode eksperimen dengan percobaan lapangan untuk mengukur p...

  11. Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers


    Coret CD; Suero MB; Tierney NK


    Catherine D Coret, Michael B Suero, Neena K Tierney Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ, USA Purpose: To evaluate the tolerance of baby skin-care products with at least 95% naturally derived ingredients on infants and toddlers. Materials and methods: Healthy, full-term infants and toddlers aged 1–36 months were enrolled. In study 1, a lightly fragranced natural baby hair and body wash (n=30), a lightly fragranced natural baby shampoo (n=30), or a lightly...

  12. Implications of the baby bust generation upon the health care market. (United States)

    Herbig, P; Koehler, W


    Implications of the Baby Boomers upon the American society are well known. However, the effects of its successor generation, the Baby Busters, have not been as well documented nor reviewed. The next twenty years (1990-2010) will see the fabric of American society unfolded and rewoven as this phenomenon undergoes its place in history. It is not too early to examine the implications of the Baby Bust phenomenon. This study examines the implications and consequences of the Baby Bust for Health Care Marketers.

  13. The kidney research predicament. (United States)

    Bryan, Lisa; Ibrahim, Tod; Zent, Roy; Fischer, Michael J


    Research funding from public and private sources has reached an all-time low. Economic conditions, sequestration, and a trend of low award success rates have created an imbalance between the supply of highly qualified research investigators and the availability of critically necessary research dollars. This grim environment continues to hinder the success of established investigators and deter potential investigators from joining the research workforce. Without action and support of innovative science, the future of the US health care system is in jeopardy, and its leadership role in medical research will decrease. This work discusses the effects of the decline in research funding, the plight of kidney research, and the impact of the American Society of Nephrology Grants Program on scientists. The ASN also calls on the entire nephrology community to rejuvenate the research environment, improve the lives of millions of people with kidney disease, and ultimately, find a cure.

  14. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Einollahi


    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clearly it has advantages over other organ procurementsystems primarily that thousands in need do not diewhile waiting for a compatible donor.In the present review I discuss the history of renal transplantationin Iran, "Iranian model" protocol, the situation ofIran’s kidney transplantation from either living or deceaseddonors compared with the Middle East countries, and our experiencesof unrelated renal transplantation.

  15. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis (United States)

    Todd, P.


    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  16. Kidney Transplantation in Iran



    Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clea...

  17. [Acute Kidney Injury]. (United States)

    Brix, Silke; Stahl, Rolf


    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important part of renal diseases and a common clinical problem. AKI is an acute decline in renal function. Due to a lack of therapeutic options, prevention and optimal management of patients with AKI are the most important strategies. Although seldom the sole cause of patients' death, AKI is associated with a significant increase in mortality. Our objective is to draw the attention towards the prevention of AKI of non-renal causes.

  18. An NSF rotator's perspective: view from inside the hamster wheel (United States)

    White, Gary


    Duncan McBride served as my unofficial mentor during my time at NSF as a ``rotator'' (or, in NSF-speak, an IPA, short for an Intergovernmental Personnel Act assignee), from fall 2012 through summer of 2013. A rotator's main job is to help keep the wheels of the grant submission process turning, shepherding individual proposal jackets through the submission cycle. While most proposals are eventually ``Declined'' it is the few that are funded that evoke the most vivid memories of my time there. I hope to relay a little bit about what that was like on a daily basis, to give one hamster's take on the machinations of the NSF machine, and testify to Duncan McBride's critical role in establishing physics as the leader in disciplinary based educational research (DBER). It was a heady experience in many ways, despite the sheer girth of proposal jackets to be processed and the uncertain footing upon which federal employees tread these days.

  19. Mitotic spindle proteomics in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kate Bonner

    Full Text Available Mitosis is a fundamental process in the development of all organisms. The mitotic spindle guides the cell through mitosis as it mediates the segregation of chromosomes, the orientation of the cleavage furrow, and the progression of cell division. Birth defects and tissue-specific cancers often result from abnormalities in mitotic events. Here, we report a proteomic study of the mitotic spindle from Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells. Four different isolations of metaphase spindles were subjected to Multi-dimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT analysis and tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 1155 proteins and used Gene Ontology (GO analysis to categorize proteins into cellular component groups. We then compared our data to the previously published CHO midbody proteome and identified proteins that are unique to the CHO spindle. Our data represent the first mitotic spindle proteome in CHO cells, which augments the list of mitotic spindle components from mammalian cells.

  20. Arsenite exposure compromises early embryonic development in the Golden hamster. (United States)

    Unis, Dave; Osborne, Cassandra; Diawara, Moussa M


    The toxicity of arsenite to 8-cell stage hamster embryos was evaluated. Females were superovulated and mated; embryos were collected and grown for 72 h in culture medium containing vehicle control, 25, 50, 250, 500, or 750 nM arsenite. Morphological observations were taken at 0 and 24h increments. A TUNEL assay was used for determining DNA damage. Survival was expressed by the ability to undergo zona escape. The control group had 78% survival and no evidence of deformities. Embryos in the 25, 50 and 250 nM groups had survival rates of 63%, 55% and 27%, respectively. Arsenite exposure caused total embryo lethality, major deformities, complete failure to undergo zona lysis, and significantly higher number of cells with fragmented DNA in embryos at the 500 and 750 nM concentrations. The study underscores the sensitivity of preimplantation stage embryos to the presence of even relatively small amounts of arsenic in luminal fluid.

  1. Kisspeptin and the seasonal control of reproduction in hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonneaux, Valérie; Ansel, Laura; Revel, Florent G


    Reproduction is a complex and energy demanding function. When internal and external conditions might impair reproductive success (negative energy balance, stress, harsh season) reproductive activity has to be repressed. Recent evidence suggests that these inhibitory mechanisms operate on Kiss1......-expressing neurons, which were recently shown to be implicated in the regulation of GnRH release. Hamsters are seasonal rodents which are sexually active in long photoperiod and quiescent in short photoperiod. The photoperiodic information is transmitted to the reproductive system by melatonin, a pineal...... hormone whose secretion is adjusted to night length. The photoperiodic variation in circulating melatonin has been shown to synchronize reproductive activity with seasons, but the mechanisms involved in this effect of melatonin were so far unknown. Recently we have observed that Kiss1 mRNA level...

  2. Estudios inmunologicos en hamsters (Cricetus auratus infectados con Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Monge


    Full Text Available Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que el hamster (Cricetus auratus puede ser utilizado como un modelo experimental para estudios inmunológicos en la infección por Schistosoma mansoni. Los datos obtenidos, relativos a inmunidad concomitante, producción de anticuerpo letal e inmunosupresión se asemejan a los conseguidos en otros modelos experimentales ya establecidos. Estas observaciones indican que el hámster, además de ser un hospedero satisfactorio para el mantenimiento del parásito en el laboratorio, puede ser considerado como un modelo experimental alterno cuyo crecimiento y mantenimiento son relativamente simples y además es un animal de fácil manejo.

  3. Kidney stones during pregnancy. (United States)

    Semins, Michelle J; Matlaga, Brian R


    Kidney stones affect 10% of people at some point in their lives and, for some unfortunate women, this happens during pregnancy. Pregnancy is a complex state and both physiological and mechanical changes alter risk factors for kidney stone formation. When a pregnant woman develops acute nephrolithiasis, the situation is more complicated than in nonpregnant women. Imaging limitations and treatment restrictions mean that special diagnostic and management algorithms are needed upon presentation. Ultrasonography remains the gold-standard first-line diagnostic imaging modality for kidney stones during pregnancy but several second-line alternatives exist. Acute renal colic during pregnancy is associated with risks to both mother and fetus. As such, these patients need to be handled with special attention. First-line management is generally conservative (trial of passage and pain management) and is associated with a high rate of stone passage. Presentation of obstructive nephrolithiasis with associated infection represents a unique and serious clinical situation requiring immediate drainage. If infection is not present and conservative management fails, ureteroscopy can be offered if clinically appropriate, but, in some circumstances, temporary drainage with ureteral stent or nephrostomy tube might be indicated. Shockwave lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are contraindicated during pregnancy.

  4. Pregnancy and kidney transplantation. (United States)

    Josephson, Michelle A; McKay, Dianne B


    Despite decades of experience with child bearing in women with kidney transplants, these pregnancies remain high risk with an increased prevalence of hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Infertility, common in women with end-stage renal disease, is rapidly restored after transplant although pregnancy rates appear lower in transplant recipients than the general public. Many unanswered questions exist, some old questions such as what is the optimal timing of pregnancy after transplant, whether breast feeding is safe, the long-term impact if any on the offspring, and whether pregnancy negatively affects the kidney graft; and some new questions such as whether to modify immunosuppression in a patient taking a mycophenolic acid-containing drug, whether kidney donation has a deleterious impact on future pregnancies, whether to use erythropoietin-stimulating agents, and the role of BK virus. Counseling about contraception and pregnancy after transplant should be initiated during the pretransplant evaluation process. It is important because of the rapid restoration of fertility that occurs after transplant as well as the many risks and unanswered questions that remain.

  5. Connexins and the kidney. (United States)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sorensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Peti-Peterdi, János


    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules, there is morphological evidence for the presence of gap junction plaques only in the proximal tubules. In the distal nephron, Cx30, Cx30.3, and Cx37 are expressed, but it is not known whether they form gap junctions connecting neighboring cells or whether they primarily act as hemichannels. As in other systems, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling. Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved in hypertension and diabetes.

  6. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters. (United States)

    Noli, Barbara; Brancia, Carla; Pilleri, Roberta; D'Amato, Filomena; Messana, Irene; Manconi, Barbara; Ebling, Francis J P; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Cocco, Cristina


    VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC) or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  7. Photoperiod Regulates vgf-Derived Peptide Processing in Siberian Hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Noli

    Full Text Available VGF mRNA is induced in specific hypothalamic areas of the Siberian hamster upon exposure to short photoperiods, which is associated with a seasonal decrease in appetite and weight loss. Processing of VGF generates multiple bioactive peptides, so the objective of this study was to determine the profile of the VGF-derived peptides in the brain, pituitary and plasma from Siberian hamsters, and to establish whether differential processing might occur in the short day lean state versus long day fat. Antisera against short sequences at the C- or N- termini of proVGF, as well as against NERP-1, TPGH and TLQP peptides, were used for analyses of tissues, and both immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA coupled with high-performance liquid (HPLC or gel chromatography were carried out. VGF peptide immunoreactivity was found within cortex cholinergic perikarya, in multiple hypothalamic nuclei, including those containing vasopressin, and in pituitary gonadotrophs. ELISA revealed that exposure to short day photoperiod led to a down-regulation of VGF immunoreactivity in the cortex, and a less pronounced decrease in the hypothalamus and pituitary, while the plasma VGF levels were not affected by the photoperiod. HPLC and gel chromatography both confirmed the presence of multiple VGF-derived peptides in these tissues, while gel chromatography showed the presence of the VGF precursor in all tissues tested except for the cortex. These observations are consistent with the view that VGF-derived peptides have pleiotropic actions related to changing photoperiod, possibly by regulating cholinergic systems in the cortex, vasopressin hypothalamic pathways, and the reproductive axis.

  8. Ductuli efferentes of the male Golden Syrian hamster reproductive tract. (United States)

    Ford, J; Carnes, K; Hess, R A


    Efferent ductules are responsible for the transportation of spermatozoa from the testis to the epididymis and their epithelium is responsible for the reabsorption of over 90% of the luminal fluid. The purpose of this research was to characterize the gross morphology and histology of efferent ductules in the male Golden Syrian hamster. The efferent ductules emerge from rete testis with a unique polarity at the apex or cephalic pole of the testis. The number of efferent ductules varied from 3 to 10 with an average of 6.0 and blind ending ducts were observed in approximately 56% of the males. The ductules merged into a single common duct prior to entering the caput epididymidis. The proximal efferent ductule lumen was wider than the distal (conus and common ducts), consistent with reabsorption of most of the luminal fluid, as was morphology of the ductal epithelium. Non-ciliated cells in the proximal region had prominent endocytic apparatuses, showing both coated pits and apical tubules in the apical cytoplasm. Large basolateral, intercellular spaces were also present in the epithelium of the proximal region. Distal non-ciliated cells had an abundance of large endosomes and lysosomal granules. Localisation of sodium/hydrogen exchanger-3 (NHE3; SLC9A3) and aquaporins 1 and 9 (AQP1, AQP9) along the microvillus border was also consistent with ion transport and fluid reabsorption by this epithelium. In comparison, the caput epididymidis epithelium expressed only AQP9 immunostaining. Another unusual feature of the hamster efferent ductules was the presence of glycogen aggregates in the basal cytoplasm of small groups of epithelial cells, but only in the proximal ducts near the rete testis. Androgen (AR), estrogen (ESR1 and ESR2) and vitamin D receptors (VDR) were also abundant in epithelial nuclei of proximal and distal efferent ductules. In comparison, caput epididymidis showed very little immunostaining for ESR1.

  9. SEA中Baby-step-giant-step策略的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  10. The experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A GW Nolte


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers who lost a baby during pregnancy and care given by doctors and midwives during this period. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die ervaring van moeders met betrekking tot die dood van ‘n baba tydens swangerskap te verken en te beskryf, asook die versorging wat hulle van vroedvroue en dokters gedurende die periode ontvang het. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  11. Planning for the baby boomers' healthcare needs: a case study. (United States)

    Albert, Terri C; Johnson, Edward; Gasperino, Daniel; Tokatli, Pinar


    Will the impact of baby boomers, as they age, be a bonanza or a bust for the healthcare system? A range of perspectives prevail, from increasing in-patient admissions capacity to accommodate the sheer numbers, to the creation of a variety of healthcare services and delivery channels that address their unique requirements. This case study presents a top 100, regional hospital's approach to this dilemma. The strategic marketing process using segmentation, targeting, and positioning (STP) was employed to guide the administration's planning and decision making.

  12. Baby Fae: the "anything goes" school of human experimentation. (United States)

    Annas, G J


    The case of Baby Fae is likened to previous cases of high-risk xenograft experiments in which members of groups at particular risk for exploitation were sacrificed to scientific progress in violation of major precepts of the Nuremberg Code. Annas finds fault with the scientific justification for performing the experiment on an infant, the adequacy of the Institutional Review Board review, and the quality of the parents' consent. He concludes that, if current federal regulations cannot prevent such gross exploitation of the terminally ill, they must be revised. In addition, a "national review board" should perhaps be established to deal with complex new technologies.

  13. Maturation of the lower oesophageal sphincter in the preterm baby.



    There are few reported studies of the lower oesophageal sphincter in preterm infants and none has investigated babies of less than 34 weeks gestation. Using a modified manometric technique suitable for use on very low birth weight infants we have measured sphincter pressures on 68 occasions in 25 infants of postconceptional age between 27 and 41 weeks. In even the most preterm infants the lower oesophageal sphincter could be defined. The mean effective sphincter pressure rose from 3.8 mmHg in...

  14. How do baby boomers' mobility patterns change with retirement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu; Haustein, Sonja


    . To analyse how retirement affects baby boomers' travel and the related future travel demand, we compared three groups, distinguished by employment status as ‘still working’, ‘early retirees’ and ‘recent retirees’, in a longitudinal setting. Data for 864 individuals were collected via standardised telephone...... working had a high car reliance that did not decline over time. This study suggests that retirement is a transition point associated with decreasing car use. Hence, the ageing of the population is likely to have a decreasing effect on transportation demand. However, informal care-giving, prolonged careers...

  15. Four miniature kidneys: supernumerary kidney and multiple organ system anomalies. (United States)

    Afrouzian, Marjan; Sonstein, Joseph; Dadfarnia, Tahereh; Sreshta, J Nicholas; Hawkins, Hal K


    More than 350 years after Martius's first reported case in 1656, supernumerary kidney (SNK) continues to fascinate the world of medicine, generating new ideas in the domain of embryogenesis. Association of a normal kidney with a second or third ipsilateral smaller kidney is an extremely rare anomaly with only a total of 81 cases reported until today. We are reporting a case of SNK, clinically diagnosed as right hydronephrosis, associated with an ipsilateral ectopic ureter, a contralateral partially duplicated ureter, and a multiseptate gallbladder. Pathologic examination of the nephrectomy revealed 4 miniature kidneys, joining a dilated ureter through 4 separate conduits. Our patient is the first reported case of SNK with absent ipsilateral normal kidney, presence of more than 3 kidneys on 1 side, and associated anomaly in the gallbladder. This case represents a unique combination of rarities, suggesting insights in the domain of molecular embryology.

  16. Efficacy of the Rabbit Polyclonal Anti-leptospira Antibody against Homotype or Heterotype Leptospira Infection in Hamster (United States)

    Ding, Zhuang; Wang, Hai; Wu, Dianjun; Xie, Xufeng; Lin, Tao; Fu, Yunhe; Zhang, Naisheng; Cao, Yongguo


    Leptospirosis, caused by Leptospira, is one of the most important of neglected emerging zoonotic diseases that has important impacts on public health worldwide. Polyclonal antibody (pcAb) therapy is a potential method to process a series of pathogens for which there are limited determination of treatment, such as leptospirosis. First, we evaluated the efficacy of pcAb, derived from the sera of rabbits inoculated with Leptospira, against homotype (Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai) or heterotype (Leptospira interrogans serovar Autumnalis) Leptospira infection in a lethal hamster model. The pcAb treatment improved survival compared to the controls. The histopathology’s of the infected kidney, liver and lung were also examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we determined that most of the leptospires in the primary organs were almost completely removed by pcAb. In the second experiment, treatments, including antibiotic, pcAb, and combination, were started immediately after occurrence of the first serious sickness mouse in any group. No significant difference in survival rate between pcAb group and antibiotic group was found, but the combination therapy group significantly improved survival rate compared to the others (Phamster, and combination therapy improved survival compared to antibiotic group in the late treatment of homotype leptospirosis. PMID:28027297

  17. Trasplante renal Kidney transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martín


    Full Text Available El trasplante renal es la terapia de elección para la mayoría de las causas de insuficiencia renal crónica terminal porque mejora la calidad de vida y la supervivencia frente a la diálisis. El trasplante renal de donante vivo es una excelente alternativa para el paciente joven en situación de prediálisis porque ofrece mejores resultados. El tratamiento inmunosupresor debe ser individualizado buscando la sinergia inmunosupresora y el mejor perfil de seguridad, y debe adaptarse a las diferentes etapas del trasplante renal. En el seguimiento del trasplante renal hay que tener muy en cuenta los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los tumores puesto que la muerte del paciente con injerto funcionante es la segunda causa de pérdida del injerto tras el primer año del trasplante. La función alterada del injerto es un factor de mortalidad cardiovascular independiente que requerirá seguimiento y control de todas sus complicaciones para retrasar la entrada en diálisis.The kidney transplant is the therapy of choice for the majority of the causes of chronic terminal kidney insufficiency, because it improves the quality of life and survival in comparison with dialysis. A kidney transplant from a live donor is an excellent alternative for the young patient in a state of pre-dialysis because it offers the best results. Immunosuppressive treatment must be individualised, seeking immunosuppressive synergy and the best safety profile, and must be adapted to the different stages of the kidney transplant. In the follow-up to the kidney transplant, cardiovascular risk factors and tumours must be especially taken into account, given that the death of the patient with a working graft is the second cause of loss of the graft following the first year of the transplant. The altered function of the graft is a factor of independent cardiovascular mortality that will require follow-up and the control of all its complications to postpone the entrance in dialysis.

  18. Effects of pharmacological manipulation of GABAergic neurotransmission in a new mutant hamster model of paroxysmal dystonia. (United States)

    Fredow, G; Löscher, W


    Attacks of sustained dystonic postures of limbs and trunk can be initiated by handling or mild environmental stimuli (e.g. new cage) in an inbred line of Syrian hamsters. The severity of the dystonic syndrome in these mutant hamsters (gene symbol dtsz) is age-dependent, with a peak at about 30-40 days of age. A scoring system for grading type and severity of the dystonic attacks can be used to study the activity of drugs against dystonic movements with individual pre- and post-drug vehicle trials as control. In the present experiments, the effects of drugs which alter GABAergic functions in the brain were studied in dystonic hamsters. Anticonvulsants, i.e. valproate, diazepam and phenobarbital, which augment GABAergic neurotransmission, decreased the severity of dystonic attacks in the mutant hamsters, while administration of subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol or the inverse benzodiazepine receptor agonist FG 7142 increased the severity of the syndrome. Anticonvulsants, i.e. phenytoin and carbamazepine, which are not thought to act via effects on GABAergic neurotransmission, exerted no antidystonic effects, but even worsened the attack in several animals. In contrast, the GABA-elevating drug, aminooxyacetic acid, produced a marked antidystonic effect in the hamsters. Similarly, the GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, significant decreased the severity of the dystonic attack. The data indicate that dystonic movements in dtsz mutant hamsters can be attenuated by drugs which facilitate GABAergic functions, but worsened by drugs which impair GABAergic neurotransmission. These data thus seem to suggest that the dystonic syndrome in dtsz mutant hamsters is under GABAergic influence. The data show furthermore that dystonic hamsters are a suitable model to detect antidystonic effects of drugs.

  19. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification. (United States)

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A


    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  20. Effects of Porcine Pancreatic Enzymes on the Pancreas of Hamsters. Part 2: Carcinogenesis Studies



    Context Our previous study suggested that porcine pancreatic extract in hamsters with peripheral insulin resistance, normalizes insulin output, islet size and pancreatic DNA synthetic rate. It also inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in nude mice. Objective To examine the potential value of the porcine pancreatic extract in controlling pancreatic carcinogenesis in this model, the present experiment was performed. Design Hamsters were fed a high fat diet and four wee...

  1. Leptin mediates seasonal variation in some but not all symptoms of sickness in Siberian hamsters. (United States)

    Carlton, Elizabeth D; Demas, Gregory E


    Many seasonally breeding species, including Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus), exhibit seasonal variation in sickness responses. One hypothesis regarding the mechanism of this variation is that sickness intensity tracks an animal's energetic state, such that sickness is attenuated in the season that an animal has the lowest fat stores. Energetic state may be signaled via leptin, an adipose hormone that provides a signal of fat stores. Siberian hamsters respond to extended housing in short, winter-like days by reducing fat stores and leptin levels, relative to those housed in long, summer-like days. Sickness responses are also attenuated in short-day hamsters as compared to long-day hamsters. We hypothesized that leptin provides a physiological signal by which seasonally breeding animals modulate sickness responses, such that animals with higher leptin levels show increased sickness intensity. To test this, we provided short-day hamsters with a long-day-like leptin signal and assessed their responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a sickness-inducing antigen. We compared these responses to short-day vehicle-, long-day vehicle-, and long-day leptin-treated hamsters. Unexpectedly, LPS induced a hypothermic response (rather than fever) in all groups. Short-day vehicle-treated hamsters exhibited the greatest LPS-induced hypothermia, and leptin treatment attenuated this response, making hypothermia more long-day-like. Contrary to our hypothesis, short-day leptin-treated hamsters showed the least pronounced LPS-induced anorexia among all groups. These results suggest that leptin may mediate some but not all aspects of seasonal sickness variation in this species. Future studies should be targeted at determining roles of other energetic hormones in regulating seasonal sickness response variation.

  2. Response of Gut Microbiota to Fasting and Hibernation in Syrian Hamsters


    Sonoyama, Kei; Fujiwara, Reiko; Takemura, Naoki; Ogasawara, Toru; Watanabe, Jun; Ito, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tatsuya


    Although hibernating mammals wake occasionally to eat during torpor, this period represents a state of fasting. Fasting is known to alter the gut microbiota in nonhibernating mammals; therefore, hibernation may also affect the gut microbiota. However, there are few reports of gut microbiota in hibernating mammals. The present study aimed to compare the gut microbiota in hibernating torpid Syrian hamsters with that in active counterparts by using culture-independent analyses. Hamsters were all...

  3. Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Arthur S


    Full Text Available Abstract Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs are frequently isolated from domestic and wild birds throughout the world and are separated into nine serotypes (APMV-1 to -9. Only in the case of APMV-1, the infection of non-avian species has been investigated. The APMVs presently are being considered as human vaccine vectors. In this study, we evaluated the replication and pathogenicity of all nine APMV serotypes in hamsters. The hamsters were inoculated intranasally with each virus and monitored for clinical disease, pathology, histopathology, virus replication, and seroconversion. On the basis of one or more of these criteria, each of the APMV serotypes was found to replicate in hamsters. The APMVs produced mild or inapparent clinical signs in hamsters except for APMV-9, which produced moderate disease. Gross lesions were observed over the pulmonary surface of hamsters infected with APMV-2 & -3, which showed petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, respectively. Replication of all of the APMVs except APMV-5 was confirmed in the nasal turbinates and lungs, indicating a tropism for the respiratory tract. Histologically, the infection resulted in lung lesions consistent with bronchointerstitial pneumonia of varying severity and nasal turbinates with blunting or loss of cilia of the epithelium lining the nasal septa. The majority of APMV-infected hamsters exhibited transient histological lesions that self resolved by 14 days post infection (dpi. All of the hamsters infected with the APMVs produced serotype-specific HI or neutralizing antibodies, confirming virus replication. Taken together, these results demonstrate that all nine known APMV serotypes are capable of replicating in hamsters with minimal disease and pathology.

  4. Use of hamster as a model to study diet-induced atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Alice H


    Full Text Available Abstract Golden-Syrian hamsters have been used as an animal model to assess diet-induced atherosclerosis since the early 1980s. Advantages appeared to include a low rate of endogenous cholesterol synthesis, receptor-mediated uptake of LDL cholesterol, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, hepatic apoB-100 and intestinal apoB-48 secretion, and uptake of the majority of LDL cholesterol via the LDL receptor pathway. Early work suggested hamsters fed high cholesterol and saturated fat diets responded similarly to humans in terms of lipoprotein metabolism and aortic lesion morphology. Recent work has not consistently replicated these findings. Reviewed was the literature related to controlled hamster feeding studies that assessed the effect of strain, background diet (non-purified, semi-purified and dietary perturbation (cholesterol and/or fat on plasma lipoprotein profiles and atherosclerotic lesion formation. F1B hamsters fed a non-purified cholesterol/fat-supplemented diet had more atherogenic lipoprotein profiles (nHDL-C > HDL-C than other hamster strains or hamsters fed cholesterol/fat-supplemented semi-purified diets. However, fat type; saturated (SFA, monounsaturated or n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA had less of an effect on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. Cholesterol- and fish oil-supplemented semi-purified diets yielded highly variable results when compared to SFA or n-6 PUFA, which were antithetical to responses observed in humans. Dietary cholesterol and fat resulted in inconsistent effects on aortic lipid accumulation. No hamster strain was reported to consistently develop lesions regardless of background diet, dietary cholesterol or dietary fat type amount. In conclusion, at this time the Golden-Syrian hamster does not appear to be a useful model to determine the mechanism(s of diet-induced development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  5. Serum amyloid P (female protein) of the Syrian hamster. Gene structure and expression. (United States)

    Rudnick, C M; Dowton, S B


    The structure and expression of the gene encoding serum amyloid P (SAP) component of the Syrian hamster have been studied by isolation of cosmid clones, nucleotide sequence analyses, and quantitation of nuclear run-on transcripts, nuclear RNA, mRNA, and protein levels. Hamster SAP, originally identified as female protein (FP), is a unique pentraxin because pretranslational expression of this gene is modulated by mediators of inflammation and sex steroids. SAP(FP) levels are high in sera from female hamsters and low in males. The response to inflammation is divergent; SAP(FP) levels decrease in females and increase in males during an acute phase response. The SAP(FP) gene encodes a 211 amino acid residue mature polypeptide as well as a 22-residue signal peptide. The intron/exon organization is similar to that of other pentraxins, but additional transcripts are generated from alternate polyadenylation sites in the 3' region. Circulating levels of SAP(FP) and the corresponding hepatic transcript levels are augmented by estrogen, while testosterone, dexamethasone, and progesterone cause a decrease in these levels. In addition the cytokines interleukin-1, -6, and tumor necrosis factor mediate a decrease in hepatic SAP(FP) transcript levels in female hamsters but did not cause a significant elevation of SAP(FP) mRNA in livers of male hamsters. The differences in expression of the SAP(FP) gene between male and female hamsters and between unstimulated male hamsters and male hamsters stimulated with an injection of lipopolysaccharide are due, at least in part, to alterations in transcription.

  6. Beneficial effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on livers of high-fat dietary hamsters. (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen


    Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses.

  7. Individual differences in circadian waveform of Siberian hamsters under multiple lighting conditions. (United States)

    Evans, Jennifer A; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Gorman, Michael R


    Because the circadian clock in the mammalian brain derives from a network of interacting cellular oscillators, characterizing the nature and bases of circadian coupling is fundamental to understanding how the pacemaker operates. Various phenomena involving plasticity in circadian waveform have been theorized to reflect changes in oscillator coupling; however, it remains unclear whether these different behavioral paradigms reference a unitary underlying process. To test whether disparate coupling assays index a common mechanism, we examined whether there is covariation among behavioral responses to various lighting conditions that produce changes in circadian waveform. Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus, were transferred from long to short photoperiods to distinguish short photoperiod responders (SP-R) from nonresponders (SP-NR). Short photoperiod chronotyped hamsters were subsequently transferred, along with unselected controls, to 24-h light:dark:light: dark cycles (LDLD) with dim nighttime illumination, a procedure that induces bifurcated entrainment. Under LDLD, SP-R hamsters were more likely to bifurcate their rhythms than were SP-NR hamsters or unselected controls. After transfer from LDLD to constant dim light, SP-R hamsters were also more likely to become arrhythmic compared to SP-NR hamsters and unselected controls. In contrast, short photoperiod chronotype did not influence more transient changes in circadian waveform. The present data reveal a clear relationship in the plasticity of circadian waveform across 3 distinct lighting conditions, suggesting a common mechanism wherein individual differences reflect variation in circadian coupling.

  8. Daidzin inhibits mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and suppresses ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. (United States)

    Keung, W M; Klyosov, A A; Vallee, B L


    Daidzin is the major active principle in extracts of radix puerariae, a traditional Chinese medication that suppresses the ethanol intake of Syrian golden hamsters. It is the first isoflavone recognized to have this effect. Daidzin is also a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2). To establish a link between these two activities, we have tested a series of synthetic structural analogs of daidzin. The results demonstrate a direct correlation between ALDH-2 inhibition and ethanol intake suppression and raise the possibility that daidzin may, in fact, suppress ethanol intake of golden hamsters by inhibiting ALDH-2. Hamster liver contains not only mitochondrial ALDH-2 but also high concentrations of a cytosolic form, ALDH-1, which is a very efficient catalyst of acetaldehyde oxidation. Further, the cytosolic isozyme is completely resistant to daidzin inhibition. This unusual property of the hamster ALDH-1 isozyme accounts for the fact we previously observed that daidzin can suppress ethanol intake of this species without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism. Thus, the mechanism by which daidzin suppresses ethanol intake in golden hamsters clearly differs from that proposed for the classic ALDH inhibitor disulfiram. We postulate that a physiological pathway catalyzed by ALDH-2, so far undefined, controls ethanol intake of golden hamsters and mediates the antidipsotropic effect of daidzin.

  9. Genomic organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes in the Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus). (United States)

    Qin, T; Zhu, H; Wang, D; Hao, H; Du, W


    In science, the hamsters are widely used as a model for studying the human diseases because they display many features like humans. The utility of the Chinese hamster as a biology model can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization and expression of the Chinese hamster immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. The Chinese hamster IgH locus contains 268 VH segments (132 potentially functional genes, 12 ORFs and 124 pseudogenes), 4 DH segments, 6 JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε and α) and one reverse δ remnant fragment. The Igκ locus contains only a single Cκ gene, 4 Jκ segments and 48 Vκ segments (15 potentially functional genes and 33 pseudogenes), whereas the Igλ locus contains 4 Cλ genes, but only Cλ 3 and Cλ 4 each preceded by a Jλ gene segment. A total of 49 Vλ segments (39 potentially functional genes, 3 ORFs and 7 pseudogenes) were identified. Analysis of junctions of the recombined V(D)J transcripts reveals complex diversity in both expressed H and κ sequences, but the microhomology-directed VJ recombination obviously results in very limited diversity in the Chinese hamster λ gene despite more potential germline-encoded combinatorial diversity. This is the first study to make a comprehensive analysis of the Ig genes in the Chinese hamster, which provides insights into the Ig genes in placental mammals.

  10. A survey on intestinal parasites of golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in the northeast of Iran. (United States)

    Borji, Hassan; Khoshnegah, Javad; Razmi, Gholamreza; Amini, Hossein; Shariatzadeh, Mahnaz


    The aims of this study were to provide baseline knowledge about gastrointestinal parasites in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) that inhabit the Mashhad area, and to analyze possible independent variable from October 2011-August 2012. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in golden hamster, faecal samples were tested specifically for nematode eggs, protozoan oocysts and sporocysts utilizing a combined sedimentation-flotation technique. In addition, all fecal samples were examined to detect oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Of 100 golden hamsters, 52 % were females and 48 % males. Of all examined fecal samples of golden hamsters, 44 % (95 % CI: 34.3-53.7 %) were found to harbor at least one parasite species. The following parasites were detected (with their respective prevalence): undetermined Trichurata (42 %, 95 % CI: 29.5-48.5 %), Syphacia spp. (4.3 %, 95 % CI: 1-7.3 %). Cryptosporidium and protozoan oocysts were not found in these animals. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between age, sex, litter, breeding place, breeding style and anthelminthic treatment with individual helminth infection in faecal examination. This is the first record of the gastrointestinal parasites of golden hamster in Iran. Considering that hamster and other rodents are pets in many homes, the likelihood of cross-infections, particularly involving children and mainly due to unhygienic habits, should be determined.

  11. [Influence of the sex of the final host on experimental Dipetalonema vitae filariosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Reynouard, F; Barrabes, A; Combescot, C


    The authors have studied the influence of the sex of the host on experimental Dipetalonema viteae parasitosis in golden hamsters Cricetus auratus. The parasited hamsters are sacrificed fifteen days after testing for microfilarial count, and then the extent of the infestation is measured by counting the number of male worms and female worms. The average level of microfilarial count is significantly higher in male hamsters than in female hamsters. The same applies to the extent of parasitism: the average number of adult worms is higher when parasitosis occurs in males. However, the sex of the hamster has no influence on the proportion of male and female worms present and the degree of microfilarial count, observed in male hamsters seems to result only from the presence in the same of a greater number of worms.

  12. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois;


    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  13. Implementing and revitalizing the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. (United States)

    Saadeh, Randa; Casanovas, Carmen


    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) was launched in the 1990s by the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF as a global effort with hospitals, health services, and parents to ensure babies are breastfed for the best start in life. It is one of the Operational Targets of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding endorsed in 2002 by the Fifty-Fifth World Health Assembly and the UNICEF Executive Board. After about 18 years, great progress has been made, and most countries have breastfeeding authorities or BFHI coordinating groups. The BFHI has led to increased rates of exclusive breastfeeding, which are reflected in improved health and survival. Based on this progress, the Initiative was streamlined according to the experience of the countries and materials were revised. The new package consolidated all WHO and UNICEF materials into one package, reflected new research and experience, revisited the criteria used for the BFHI in light of HIV/ AIDS, reinforced the International Code of Marketing of Breast-Milk Substitutes, provided modules for mother-friendly care, and gave more guidance for monitoring and reassessment. WHO and partners will continue to give support to BFHI implementation as one essential effort contributing to achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

  14. Improvement of baby corn yield by using green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutichudet, P.


    Full Text Available Suitable rates of compost and chemical fertilizers to improve baby corn yield have been reported ; information on an appropriate type of green manure to increase its yield is rather limited. Use of green manure showed from a farmer with a practicable method in actual fields, which is not expensive and can be adjusted to the physical and chemical characteristics of soil. Therefore , the major objective of this experiment was to find a way to improve the yield of baby corn through the use of five types of green manure treatments and control, comprising no green manure (control, mung bean (Vigna radiata L., hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L., sword bean (Canavaria ensiformis L., copwea (Vigna unguiculata L. and sesbania (Sesbania rostrata Brem.. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications on June 2000, tested at the experimental field of Agricultural Technology Department, Technology Faculty, Mahasarakham University, Kantharawichai District, Maha Sarakham Province. The results indicated that sesbania used as green manure resulted in a fresh weight content higher than the others, and promoted plant height, plant diameter, leaf area, ear number / plant, yield both before and after peeling / rai, ear weight both before and after peeling / ear, ear diameter after peeling and standard yield content / rai consequently. In addition, the ear color after peeling was satisfactory for consumers. Yield contents / rai grown on the other sources of green manures were significantly lower (P < 0.01

  15. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  16. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  17. Plasticizers in total diet samples, baby food and infant formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Breindahl, T.


    The plasticizers di-n-butylphthalate (DBP), butylbenzylphthalate (BBP), di-2-(ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-2-(ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA) were analysed in 29 total diet samples, in 11 samples of baby food and in 11 samples of infant formulae. In all of the total diet samples the presence of one...... or more of the plasticizers was demonstrated. Maximum and minimum mean concentrations in the total diet samples were: 0.09-0.19 mg DBP/kg, 0.017-0.019 mg BBP/kg, 0.11-0.18 mg DEHP/kg and 0.13-0.14 mg DEHA/kg. One or more of the phthalates was also found in about 50% of the samples of baby food as well...... as in infant formulae. The calculated mean maximum intakes of the individual compounds from the total diet samples were below 10% of the restrictions proposed by the EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF), and the spread in individual intakes was considerable. DEHP was the plasticizer determined most...

  18. Common feeding problems in babies and children: 2. (United States)

    Gilbert, P


    Weaning is the cause of much concern among first-time mothers. A milk-only diet is advised until 3-4 months of age. Health professionals should ensure the baby receives a sufficient and balanced diet during the weaning period, to meet the needs for energy and growth. Breast milk or infant formula should continue up to the age of at least one year. The weaning period is a good time to educate parents in good nutrition. A wide variety of foods should be the aim in child nutrition, but each different type needs to be started separately during weaning. Care is needed to ensure vegetarian babies receive enough proteins, vitamins and minerals (especially iron). Failure to thrive has a multitude of causes, and treatment must be that of the cause. Strictly vegan children who eat no dairy products will need added synthetic vitamin B12. Failure to thrive may be due to physical problems (eg choanal atresia), infection, vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, parental ignorance or poverty. Other causes include coeliac disease, cow's milk protein allergy, cystic fibrosis, severe eczema or asthma, or diabetes.

  19. Living Kidney Donors and ESRD


    Ross, Lainie Friedman


    There are over 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These two locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry s...

  20. Distinctive Profiles of Infection and Pathology in Hamsters Infected with Clostridium difficile Strains 630 and B1 ▿


    Goulding, David; Thompson, Harold; Emerson, Jenny; Fairweather, Neil F.; Dougan, Gordon; Douce, Gill R.


    Currently, the Golden Syrian hamster is widely considered an important model of Clostridium difficile disease, as oral infection of this animal pretreated with antibiotics reproduces many of the symptoms observed in humans. Two C. difficile strains, B1 and 630, showed significant differences in the progression and severity of disease in this model. B1-infected hamsters exhibited more severe pathology and a shorter time to death than hamsters infected with 630. Histological changes in the gut ...

  1. CD74 in kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara eValiño-Rivas


    Full Text Available CD74 (invariant MHC class II regulates protein trafficking and is a receptor for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF and D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT/MIF-2. CD74 expression is increased in tubular cells and/or glomerular podocytes and parietal cells in human metabolic nephropathies, polycystic kidney disease, graft rejection and kidney cancer and in experimental diabetic nephropathy and glomerulonephritis. Stressors like abnormal metabolite (glucose, lyso-Gb3 levels and inflammatory cytokines increase kidney cell CD74. MIF activates CD74 to increase inflammatory cytokines in podocytes and tubular cells and proliferation in glomerular parietal epithelial cells and cyst cells. MIF overexpression promotes while MIF targeting protects from experimental glomerular injury and kidney cysts, and interference with MIF/CD74 signaling or CD74 deficiency protected from crescentic glomerulonephritis. However, CD74 may protect from interstitial kidney fibrosis. Furthermore, CD74 expression by stressed kidney cells raises questions about the kidney safety of cancer therapy strategies delivering lethal immunoconjugates to CD74-expressing cells. Thus, understanding CD74 biology in kidney cells is relevant for kidney therapeutics.

  2. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.


    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after micro

  3. On America’s Baby Boom Generation and It’s Social Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Baby boom generation is the larger than expected generation in U.S born shortly after World War II. This post- World War II phenomenon upsets the phenomenon which had been a century-long decline in the U.S fertility rate. This paper simply analyzed America’s baby boom generation from three aspects.

  4. Age and Sex Differences in Children's Responses to Babies: Effects of Adult's Caretaking Requests and Instructions. (United States)

    Berman, Phyllis W.; Goodman, Vickie


    In a double-baseline design, children were observed first after being asked to take care of a baby then after watching a male or female adult demonstrate appropriate interactions with the baby. Younger and older day care children (between 30 and 63 months old) participated. (Author/RH)

  5. Contrast Enema and Risk of Sepsis in Premature Babies: A 12-Year Retrospective Study. (United States)

    Agarwal, Arpit; Ogwara, Frederick; Homel, Peter; Filipov, Panayot


    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association between contrast enema (CE) and clinical sepsis (CS) in premature babies (PB) and the role of antibiotics (ABs) in its prevention. Study Design A retrospective electronic chart review of preterm babies, who underwent CE during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. Group I includes CEs of babies exposed to AB during or within 48 hours of the procedure. Group II represents CEs of babies, not exposed to AB. Variables for both groups were collected and analyzed. Results There were 161 CEs performed in 133 babies. The overall incidence of CS after CE in preterm babies was 21/160 cases (13%). The incidence was significantly lower in Group I (1/79, 1.2%), compared with Group II (20/81, 24.7%) (p babies from Group II had positive blood culture and all 20 required AB after the CE. There were no statistical differences in the variables between the two groups. Conclusion There is a possible association between CE and CS in preterm babies. ABs given during or before the procedure prevent this complication.

  6. The Crossover Generation: Baby Boomers and the Role of the Public Library (United States)

    Williamson, Kirsty; Bannister, Marion; Sullivan, Jen


    The article explores the concept of baby boomers as a "crossover" generation, one that embodies characteristics of previous and later generations. The context is the retirement of the baby boomers and its potential impact on the public library. Ethnographic method within a constructivist framework was used, employing the techniques of focus groups…

  7. Safe Sleep For Your Baby | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine (United States)

    ... Baby Learn how to reduce the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) and other sleep-related causes of infant death. Always place baby on his or her back to sleep for all sleep ... blankets, and crib bumpers. 1-800-505-CRIB https://www.nichd. ...

  8. Old Folks and Spoiled Brats : Why the baby Boomers' Saving Crisis Need Not be that Bad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, M.; Harms, P.


    We study the impact of an anticipated "baby boom" in an overlapping generations economy.The rise of the working population lowers the wage, and the high demand for assets causes a rise in the price of capital which will be reversed when the baby boomers leave the work-force.However, the swings in fa

  9. Infant Mental Health for Medically Fragile Babies in Intensive Care and Their Families (United States)

    Browne, Joy V.; Talmi, Ayelet


    Infants who begin their lives in intensive care are impacted physically and socioemotionally for many months and years to come. Likewise, stressful experiences of caring for a baby hospitalized in intensive care have an impact on primary caregivers, typically the baby's parents. Infant mental health (IMH) is an expanding, evidence-based field that…

  10. Babies, Music and Gender: Music Playschools in Finland as Multimodal Participatory Spaces (United States)

    Leppanen, Taru


    Studies of education and childhood studies in general tend to focus on the experiences and cultures of toddlers and school-age children. The experiences and cultures of babies and infants are often excluded from the scope of the studies of children. In Gilles Deleuze's (and Felix Guattari's) thinking, a child, and especially a baby or an infant,…

  11. The Sociocognitive Determinates of HIV/AIDS Prevention Behaviors among Baby Boomers (United States)

    Haynes, Carion R.


    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is steadily increasing among the baby boom population. Among this population, there is a gap between knowledge and behavioral choices. HIV risk perception is multifaceted and shaped by different sociodemographic factors. Baby boomers' perception of risk and sociocognitive determinates that impact their decision…

  12. What about the Dads: A Case Study of Young Fathers of Babies Born to Adolescent Mothers (United States)

    Scholl, Marilyn Faris


    Adolescent pregnancy remains a persistent societal problem. Both teenage mothers and the fathers of their babies are unprepared for parenthood and often drop out of school, take low-paying jobs, and never complete their education. Fathers of babies born to adolescent mothers are a critical but often forgotten component of the adolescent pregnancy…

  13. Basics about Babies' Brain Development = Los basicos del desarrollo del cerebro. (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This brochure for parents, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides facts about infants' brains and offers suggestions for parents to help their baby's development by providing experiences to stimulate neural development. The facts are: (1) a baby's brain needs many different experiences to be nourished, such as being talked or sung to…

  14. [Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney]. (United States)

    Todorov, V; Penkova, S; Lalev, I


    A case of a 22 years old woman with autosomal-recessive form of kidney polycystosis is presented. The diagnosis was made in early childhood. A combination of renal anomaly and hepatic fibrosis with manifestations of portal hypertension was present. No deviations from the other internal organs were found. At the age of 12 she entered into the stage of chronic renal failure. The last five years she is on dialysis treatment. She had survived several acute bleedings from esophageal varices. The authors are of the opinion that the case is of interest since patients with autosomal-recessive renal polycystosis very rarely reach majority.

  15. Boron and the kidney. (United States)

    Pahl, Madeleine V; Culver, B Dwight; Vaziri, Nosratola D


    Boron, the fifth element in the periodic table, is ubiquitous in nature. It is present in food and in surface and ocean waters, and is frequently used in industrial, cosmetic, and medical settings. Exposure to boron and related compounds has been recently implicated as a potential cause of chronic kidney disease in Southeast Asia. This observation prompted the present review of the published data on the effects of acute and chronic exposure to boron on renal function and structure in human beings and in experimental animals.

  16. [Human physiology: kidney]. (United States)

    Natochin, Iu V


    The content of human physiology as an independent part of current physiology is discussed. Substantiated is the point that subjects of human physiology are not only special sections of physiology where functions are inherent only in human (physiology of intellectual activity, speech, labor, sport), but also in peculiarities of functions, specificity of regulation of each of physiological systems. By the example of physiology of kidney and water-salt balance there are shown borders of norm, peculiarities of regulation in human, new chapters of renal physiology which have appeared in connection with achievements of molecular physiology.

  17. The Vulcan kidney. (United States)

    Waud, D R


    One can often gain new insights into a topic when approaching it from a new angle. The paradigm example involves the insights into histology that can be gained from studying pathology. For example, a rare cell type in the pituitary suddenly becomes very easy to recognize once a whole field of them can be seen in a tumour. Similarly, one can gain insights by looking at species other than our own. In this article, Doug Waud, using the kidney in Vulcans, takes this latter theme one step further to provide useful insights into renal physiology and pharmacology.

  18. Characterization of Syrian hamster adapted prions derived from L-type and C-type bovine spongiform encephalopathies



    Atypical forms of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) may be caused by different prions from classical BSE (C-BSE). In this study, we examined the susceptibility of mice overexpressing mouse and hamster chimeric prion protein (PrP) to L-type atypical BSE (L-BSE). None of the transgenic mice showed susceptibility to L-BSE, except mice overexpressing hamster PrP. We also examined the transmission properties of L-BSE in hamsters. The incubation period of hamsters intracerebrally inoculated wi...

  19. Breastfeeding maintenance of very low weight premature babies: experience of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz de Carvalho Ciaciare


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to comprehend the breastfeeding process from reports of mothers of premature babies and identify factors facilitating or complicating this process. A descriptive qualitative study regarding the family centered care. We conducted 12 interviews with mothers of six months premature babies of chronological age and we submitted data to content analysis. Four categories emerged: The previous breastfeeding experience in the process of breastfeeding the premature baby; Emotional context versus the breastfeeding process; The ability to manage breastfeeding the premature baby and, Successes and failures. We concluded that family and professional support, adequate management and the welcoming of individualized services in the prematurity context were majorly responsible for the breastfeeding success, being even able to surpass the previous maternal desire. Breastfeeding accompaniment after discharge is indispensable for its success with premature babies.

  20. Recombinant hamster oviductin is biologically active and exerts positive effects on sperm functions and sperm-oocyte binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Yang

    Full Text Available Studies carried out in several mammalian species suggest that oviductin, also known as oviduct-specific glycoprotein or OVGP1, plays a key role in sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of early embryos. In the present study, we used recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, recombinant hamster OVGP1 (rHamOVGP1 in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293 cells. rHamOVGP1 secreted in the culture medium was purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein migrated as a poly-dispersed band of 160-350 kDa on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the molecular mass of the native HamOVGP1. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the purified rHamOVGP1 confirmed its identity as HamOVGP1. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated binding of rHamOVGP1 to the mid-piece and head of hamster sperm and to the zona pellucida (ZP of ovarian oocytes. In vitro functional experiments showed that addition of rHamOVGP1 in the capacitation medium further enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of two sperm proteins of approximately 75 kDa and 83 kDa in a time-dependent manner. After 3 hours of incubation in the presence of rHamOVGP1, a significant increase in acrosome reaction was measured. Pretreatment of either sperm or oocyte with 20 μg/ml of rHamOVGP1 prior to sperm-egg binding assay significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP. Addition of rHamOVGP1 in the medium during sperm-egg binding with either oocyte or sperm pretreated with rHamOVGP1 also saw an increase in the number of sperm bound to ZP. In all experimental conditions, the effect of rHamOVGP1 on sperm-oocyte binding was negated by the addition of monoclonal anti-HamOVGP1 antibody. The successful production and purification of a biologically active rHamOVGP1 will allow further exploration of the function of this glycoprotein in reproductive function.

  1. Recombinant hamster oviductin is biologically active and exerts positive effects on sperm functions and sperm-oocyte binding. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Yuewen; Yang, Xiaolong; Kan, Frederick W K


    Studies carried out in several mammalian species suggest that oviductin, also known as oviduct-specific glycoprotein or OVGP1, plays a key role in sperm capacitation, fertilization, and development of early embryos. In the present study, we used recombinant DNA technology to produce, for the first time, recombinant hamster OVGP1 (rHamOVGP1) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. rHamOVGP1 secreted in the culture medium was purified by affinity chromatography. The resulting protein migrated as a poly-dispersed band of 160-350 kDa on SDS-PAGE corresponding to the molecular mass of the native HamOVGP1. Subsequent mass spectrometric analysis of the purified rHamOVGP1 confirmed its identity as HamOVGP1. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated binding of rHamOVGP1 to the mid-piece and head of hamster sperm and to the zona pellucida (ZP) of ovarian oocytes. In vitro functional experiments showed that addition of rHamOVGP1 in the capacitation medium further enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of two sperm proteins of approximately 75 kDa and 83 kDa in a time-dependent manner. After 3 hours of incubation in the presence of rHamOVGP1, a significant increase in acrosome reaction was measured. Pretreatment of either sperm or oocyte with 20 μg/ml of rHamOVGP1 prior to sperm-egg binding assay significantly increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP. Addition of rHamOVGP1 in the medium during sperm-egg binding with either oocyte or sperm pretreated with rHamOVGP1 also saw an increase in the number of sperm bound to ZP. In all experimental conditions, the effect of rHamOVGP1 on sperm-oocyte binding was negated by the addition of monoclonal anti-HamOVGP1 antibody. The successful production and purification of a biologically active rHamOVGP1 will allow further exploration of the function of this glycoprotein in reproductive function.

  2. Beyond Baby Doe: Does Infant Transplantation Justify Euthanasia? (United States)

    Coulter, David L.


    The paper examines ethical issues in the transplantation of organs from infants with anencephaly into infants with severe heart and kidney disease. It argues that active euthanasia of infants with anencephaly should be prohibited to safeguard the rights of all persons with severe neurological disabilities. (Author/DB)

  3. LipL21 mRNA expression in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chintana Chirathaworn; Namo Suksomyos; Somchai Utivamek; Somboon Keelawat; Duangjai Suwancharoen; Duangporn Phulsuksombati; Yong Poovorawan


    Objective:Pulmonary haemorrhage is an increasing cause of death in leptospirosis patients.However,molecu-lar mechanism underlying pathologies in this organ is not clearly understood.It has been shown that sodium transport was disturbed following Leptospira infection.LipL21 is the second abundant outer membrane protein found only in pathogenic Leptospira.Its expression in vivo has been shown which suggests that this protein may be involved in survival in hosts or pathogenesis.However,the expression of this protein in host organs and its role in lung pathology has not been demonstrated.In this study we demonstrated the expression of LipL21 in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.Methods:Lung tissues were collected from Golden Syri-an hamsters injected with Leptospira interrogans serovar Pyrogenes at days 3,5 and 7 post-infection.Four ham-sters were used for each time point.Lungs from non-infected hamsters were collected as a control group.Li-pL21 mRNA expression in lung tissues was investigated by reverse transcription and nested PCR.Results:Li-pL21 mRNA expression was detected in all lung tissues from hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.No PCR product was detected when tissues from non-infected hamsters were investigated.Conclusion:Our data demonstrated that LipL21 is expressed in lungs of hamsters infected with pathogenic Leptospira.Additional ex-periments such as quantitation and localization of LipL21 expression in lungs will provide further information whether this protein is involved in pathogenesis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Rosadi


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the viability of mice and hamster embryos developed in Kalium Simplex Optimized Medium amino acid (KSOMaa and Hamster Embryo Culture Medium-6 (HECM-6 medium. Female DDY mice were superovulated by injection i.p. of 5 IU Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropine (PMSG and 5 IU Human Chorionic Gonadotropine (hCG in 48 h interval, hamster (Phodopus campbelli injected by 2.5 IU PMSG and 2.5 IU hCG 48 h later. Then females were mated with fertile males. Eight-cell embryos were recovered at day 3 after natural mating. The mice embryos were cultured in KSOMaa+5% NBCS (New Born Calf Serum (T1 and HECM-6+5% NBCS (T2, the hamster embryos were cultured in KSOMaa+5% NBCS (T3 and HECM-6 + 5% NBCS (T4 for further development at 37oC in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air for 48 h. The examinations were replicated five times. The T1 embryos developed to compact morulla and early blastocyst 100% (140/140, 92.1% (129/140 to blastocyst and expanded blastocyst, and 22.9% (32/140 became hatching/hatched. The T3 reached 100% (60/60 to compact morulla and early blastocyst, 85.0% (51/60 blastocyst, and 48.3% (29/60 expanded blastocyst, no embryo observed hatching/hatced. The T2 embryos had more expanded blastocyst than T3 (P<0.05, hatching/hatched rate higher than T1 and T3 but lower than T4 (P<0.05. Shortly, KSOMaa enable to support 8-cell stage mice and hamster embryo, but the hamster embryo developed lower at expanded blastocyst stage. HECM-6 is more appropriate than KSOMaa to support 8-cell mice embryos development and suitable to develop 8-cell stage hamster embryos.

  5. Identification, expression, and physiological functions of Siberian hamster gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone. (United States)

    Ubuka, Takayoshi; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Fukuda, Yujiro; Mizuno, Takanobu; Ukena, Kazuyoshi; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi


    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that inhibits gonadotropin secretion in birds and mammals. To further understand its physiological roles in mammalian reproduction, we identified its precursor cDNA and endogenous mature peptides in the Siberian hamster brain. The Siberian hamster GnIH precursor cDNA encoded two RFamide-related peptide (RFRP) sequences. SPAPANKVPHSAANLPLRF-NH(2) (Siberian hamster RFRP-1) and TLSRVPSLPQRF-NH(2) (Siberian hamster RFRP-3) were confirmed as mature endogenous peptides by mass spectrometry from brain samples purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. GnIH mRNA expression was higher in long days (LD) compared with short days (SD). GnIH mRNA was also highly expressed in SD plus pinealectomized animals, whereas expression was suppressed by melatonin, a nocturnal pineal hormone, administration. GnIH-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons were localized to the dorsomedial region of the hypothalamus, and GnIH-ir fibers projected to hypothalamic and limbic structures. The density of GnIH-ir perikarya and fibers were higher in LD and SD plus pinealectomized hamsters than in LD plus melatonin or SD animals. The percentage of GnRH neurons receiving close appositions from GnIH-ir fiber terminals was also higher in LD than SD, and GnIH receptor was expressed in GnRH-ir neurons. Finally, central administration of hamster RFRP-1 or RFRP-3 inhibited LH release 5 and 30 min after administration in LD. In sharp contrast, both peptides stimulated LH release 30 min after administration in SD. These results suggest that GnIH peptides fine tune LH levels via its receptor expressed in GnRH-ir neurons in an opposing fashion across the seasons in Siberian hamsters.

  6. Transmission of chronic wasting disease identifies a prion strain causing cachexia and heart infection in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bessen

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is an emerging prion disease of free-ranging and captive cervids in North America. In this study we established a rodent model for CWD in Syrian golden hamsters that resemble key features of the disease in cervids including cachexia and infection of cardiac muscle. Following one to three serial passages of CWD from white-tailed deer into transgenic mice expressing the hamster prion protein gene, CWD was subsequently passaged into Syrian golden hamsters. In one passage line there were preclinical changes in locomotor activity and a loss of body mass prior to onset of subtle neurological symptoms around 340 days. The clinical symptoms included a prominent wasting disease, similar to cachexia, with a prolonged duration. Other features of CWD in hamsters that were similar to cervid CWD included the brain distribution of the disease-specific isoform of the prion protein, PrP(Sc, prion infection of the central and peripheral neuroendocrine system, and PrP(Sc deposition in cardiac muscle. There was also prominent PrP(Sc deposition in the nasal mucosa on the edge of the olfactory sensory epithelium with the lumen of the nasal airway that could have implications for CWD shedding into nasal secretions and disease transmission. Since the mechanism of wasting disease in prion diseases is unknown this hamster CWD model could provide a means to investigate the physiological basis of cachexia, which we propose is due to a prion-induced endocrinopathy. This prion disease phenotype has not been described in hamsters and we designate it as the 'wasting' or WST strain of hamster CWD.

  7. 75 FR 26707 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Pomegranates and Baby Kiwi from... (United States)


    ... and Baby Kiwi from Chile into the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... the importation into the continental United States of fresh pomegranates and fresh baby kiwi from... weeds via the importation of fresh pomegranates and fresh baby kiwi from Chile. EFFECTIVE DATE: May...

  8. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  9. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  10. Retinopathy of prematurity in babies weighing <1800 g; with special reference to babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g: An experience from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kapoor


    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease related to low birth weight, prematurity, oxygen administration, and various other factors, which are yet to be identified. Aims: The aim was to find incidence of ROP and risk factors for causation in babies weighing <1800 g; and in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Neonates weighing ≤1800 g taking birth in our institution from January 2011 to January 2012 for a span of 1 year; were included in the study. The data were analyzed to determine risk factors for ROP causation. Information was collected using the standardized performa which included the maternal risk factors as well. Infants were classified by ophthalmologic examination findings using ICROP revisited. Statistics: Qualitative data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test and possible risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 278 subjects was included in the study. Incidence of ROP in babies ≤1800 g was found to be 13.67% (38/278. Incidence of ROP in babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g was 11.64% (17/146. Twenty-one risk factors were significant on univariate analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and 18 risk factors in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Multiple gestations (P < 0.01, blood transfusion (P < 0.01, antepartum hemorrhage (P < 0.01, pregnancy-induced hypertension (P < 0.01, mechanical ventilation (MV (P < 0.01, and APGAR at 1 min (P < 0.01 were found to be independently significant for ROP causation on logistic regression analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and MV (P < 0.01 and resuscitation (P < 0.01 were significant for babies weighing 1501-1800 g. Conclusion: It should be considered to incorporate screening of babies ≤1800 g uniformly in developing nations. It is recommended that further studies be done taking representative

  11. ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation (United States)

    Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Döhler, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard; Süsal, Caner


    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression. Anti-A/B antibodies are aimed to be below a certain threshold at the time of ABOi kidney transplantation and during the first 2 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, even a rebound of anti-A/B antibodies does not appear to harm the kidney transplant, a phenomenon that is called accommodation, but is poorly understood. There is still concern, however, that infectious complications such as viral disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and severe urinary tract infections are increased after ABOi transplantations. Recent data from the Collaborative Transplant Study show that during the first year after kidney transplantation, one additional patient death from an infectious complication occurs in 100 ABOi kidney transplant recipients. Herein, we review the recent evidence on ABOi kidney transplantation with a focus on desensitization strategies and respective outcomes. PMID:28321223

  12. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  13. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter


    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  14. Dual kidney transplantation: case report. (United States)

    Vidas, Zeljko; Kocman, Branislav; Knotek, Mladen; Skegro, Dinko


    Chronic shortage of kidney transplants worldwide has led to the use of organs from so called marginal or borderline donors, now termed "expanded-criteria donors". There has been an emerging practice of dual kidney transplantation (DKT) to compensate for sub optimal nephron mass of such kidneys. We performed DKT in "Merkur" University Hospital in August 2005. The donor was a 72-year old female with a history of long-term hypertension, aneurysm of the posterior cerebral artery, cerebrovascular insult (CVI), and with normal creatinine values and kidney function at the time of explantation. Initial biopsy of donor kidneys revealed acute tubular damage, with connective changes in 22% and 11% of glomeruli in the left and the right kidney, respectively. The recipient was a 60-year old male diagnosed with the IgA nephropathy on the last biopsy in 1999, and on dialysis since November 2003. Postoperative course was uneventful without any surgical complications. A triple immunosuppressive protocol was used. On follow-up ultrasonography 4 years posttransplantation both kidneys appeared of normal size and parenchymal pattern and with no signs of dilatation of the canal system, and color Doppler examination demonstrated normal flow in both kidneys. In conclusion, the use of DKT ie. donors by the expanded-criteria will continue to increase, and further studies of the results will, with no doubt, support this method.

  15. [Floppy baby with macrocytic anemia and vegan mother]. (United States)

    Schlapbach, L J; Schütz, B; Nuoffer, J M; Brekenfeld, C; Müller, G; Fluri, S


    We report the case of a 7 month-old girl that presented with acute anemia, generalized muscular hypotonia and failure to thrive. Laboratory evaluation revealed cobalamin deficiency, due to a vegan diet of the mother. The clinical triad of an acquired floppy baby syndrome with megaloblastic anemia and failure to thrive is pathognomic for infantile cobalamin deficiency. Neurological abnormalities are often irreversible and may be associated with delayed myelinization in the MRI. A normal cobalamin level in maternal serum and absence of anemia do not exclude subclinical deficiency. If cobalamin deficiency is suspected, e.g. in pregnant women on vegan diet, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion and plasma homocysteine levels should be determined and cobalamin substitution should be started at an early stage to avoid potentially irreversible damage of the fetus.

  16. Skyrmion and Baby Skyrmion Formation from Domain Walls

    CERN Document Server

    Winyard, Thomas


    We numerically simulate the formation of $(2+1)$-dimensional baby Skyrmions and $(3+1)$-dimensional $SU(2)$ Skyrmions from domain wall collisions. It has been suggested that Skyrmion, anti-Skyrmion pairs can be produced from the interaction of two domain walls. This is confirmed, however it is also demonstrated that the process can require quite precise conditions. An alternative, more stable, formation process is proposed as the interaction of more than two segments of domain wall. This is simulated, requiring far less constraints on the initial conditions used. Finally domain wall networks are considered, demonstrating how Skyrmions may be produced in a complex dynamical system. We show that the local topological charge configurations, formed within the system, are countered by opposite winding on the boundary of the system to conserve topological charge.

  17. Desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de lactentes desnutridos Neuropsychomotor development of malnourished babies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Mansur


    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor de lactentes com desnutrição leve e caracterizar seu perfil nutricional. MÉTODOS: A pesquisa foi do tipo transversal, numa população de 374 lactentes e amostra de 31 desnutridos leve, entre 7 e 24 meses de idade, matriculados em creches municipais. O estado nutricional foi identificado pelo critério de Gómez e caracterizado por um questionário. Para a avaliação neuropsicomotora utilizou-se a Escala de Desenvolvimento Psicomotor da Primeira Infância de Brunet e Lézine. RESULTADOS: Os principais resultados do questionário mostraram: infecções respiratórias (48,4%; diarréias (71,0%; pais em união estável (61,3%; pais com ensino fundamental incompleto (74,2% das mães, 83,8% dos pais; renda familiar de 1 a 3 salários-mínimos (80,6%; aleitamento materno satisfatório (67,7%; reação adversa a algum alimento (41,9%. Entre os dados neuropsicomotores, as médias das Idades de Desenvolvimento da Linguagem (14,45 meses e da Sociabilidade (14,74 meses foram as que obtiveram os valores mais abaixo da média da Idade Cronológica (16,41 meses. Todas as áreas avaliadas obtiveram Quocientes de Desenvolvimento dentro da normalidade, porém, as áreas da Linguagem e da Sociabilidade foram classificadas em nível "normal baixo" e as outras em nível "normal médio". CONCLUSÕES: A avaliação neuropsicomotora é instrumento fundamental na assistência ao lactente desnutrido, que tende a apresentar deficiências nas áreas da Linguagem e Sociabilidade, fornecendo subsídios para observar sua atuação exploratória, efeito de seu pensamento, e planejar o trabalho intervencionista.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze the neuropsychomotor development of babies with slight malnutrition and to characterize their nutritional profile. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional survey on a population of 374 babies and a sample of 31 babies with slight

  18. On Storks and Babies: Correlation, Causality and Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambrecht Anja


    Full Text Available The explosion of available data has created much excitement among marketing practitioners about their ability to better understand the impact of marketing investments. Big data allows for detecting patterns and often it seems plausible to interpret them as causal. While it is quite obvious that storks do not bring babies, marketing relationships are usually less clear. Apparent “causalities” often fail to hold up under examination. If marketers want to be sure not to walk into a causality trap, they need to conduct field experiments to detect true causal relationships. In the present digital environment, experiments are easier than ever to execute. However, they need to be prepared and interpreted with great care in order to deliver meaningful and genuinely causal results that help improve marketing decisions.

  19. Calcium biofortification and bioaccessibility in soilless "baby leaf" vegetable production. (United States)

    D'Imperio, Massimiliano; Renna, Massimiliano; Cardinali, Angela; Buttaro, Donato; Serio, Francesco; Santamaria, Pietro


    Calcium is an essential nutrient for human health, because it is a structural component and takes part in a variety of biological processes. The aim of this study was to increase Ca content of baby leaf vegetables (BLV: basil, mizuna, tatsoi and endive), as fresh-cut products. For the production of biofortified BLV, a floating system with two level of Ca (100 and 200mgL(-1)) in the nutrient solution was used. In addition, the assessment of bioaccessibility of Ca, by in vitro digestion process, was performed. In all vegetables, the Ca biofortification (200mgL(-1)) caused a significant Ca enrichment (9.5% on average) without affecting vegetables growth, oxalate contents and marketable quality. Calcium bioaccessibility ranged from 25% (basil) to 40% (endive) but the biofortified vegetables showed more bioaccessible Ca. These results underline the possibility to obtain Ca biofortified BLV by using agronomic approaches.

  20. Teratogenic effects of mescaline, epinephrine, and norepinephrine in the hamster. (United States)

    Hirsch, K S; Fritz, H I


    Mescaline was administered orally at doses of 16 and 32 mg/kg on the seventh through tenth days of gestation to pregnant cream-strain hamsters. This treatment resulted in a dose-dependent effect on reproductive success and skeletal ossification. The effect of mescaline on reproductive success included an increased number of resorptions resulting in a decreased litter size. The 32 mg/kg dose of mescaline caused 48.8% resorptions, while 16 mg/kg and control animals had 12.0% and 6.4% resorptions, respectively. Litter size was decreased from 12.0 pups in controls to 10.3 (16 mg/kg) and 6.5 (32 mg/kg) pups per litter in treated groups. No gross abnormalities were observed at necropsy; there was, however, a dose-dependent increased delay in the ossification of the skull, sternum, and metatarsals. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine caused a decrease in reproductive success when administered at 500 micrograms/kg. Epinephrine appeared to cause a trend toward preimplantation wastage as indicated by an increased corpora lutea to implantation site ratio (from 1.3-1.9). Norepinephrine, however, caused an increased number of resorptions (29.1% in controls). Both norepinephrine and epinephrine produced similar delays in ossification.

  1. Red Yeast Rice Increases Excretion of Bile Acids in Hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objectives To investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of red yeast rice (RYR) and its underlying mechanism. Methods Three groups of hamsters were fed either the control diet or one of the two experimental diets containing by weight 0.1% RYR (0.1RYR) or 0.3% RYR (0.3RYR). Blood (0.5 mL) was collected from the retro-orbital sinus into a heparinized capillary tube at the end of week 0,3, and 6.Plasma lipoproteins were measured using enzymatic kits, while fecal neutral and acidic sterols were quantified using a gas-liquid chromatography. Results Plasma total cholesterol was reduced by 12% in 0.1RYR group and by 18% in 0.3RYR group compared with the control value. Similarly, plasma triacylglycerol was decreased by ll% in 0.1RYR group and by 24% in 0.3RYR group. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that RYR had no effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein 2, liver X receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-CoA reductase, LDL receptor, and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase. HPLC analysis confirmed that RYR contained 0.88% monacolin K.It was recently found that RYR supplementation increased excretion of fecal acidic sterols by 3-4 folds compared with the control value. Conclusion Hypocholesterolemic activity of RYR is mediated at least partially by enhancement of acidic sterol excretion.

  2. Propranolol induced chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Sedigh-Ardekani


    Full Text Available Propranolol (PL, a non-selective beta-blocker, is a cardiovascular drug widely used to treat hypertension. The present study was concerned with assessing the cytogenetic effects of this drug on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. MTT assay was then carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index (IC50 of the drug. The IC50 value of PL was 0.43±0.02 mM. To investigate the clastogenic effects of the drug, chromatid and chromosome breaks and polyploidy in metaphases were analyzed. CHO cells were exposed to different concentrations of the drug (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mM for 24 hours. Considering that PL has liver metabolism, experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of the metabolic activation system (S9 mix. Mitomycin-C and sodium arsenite were used as positive controls. It was observed that in cells treated with different PL concentrations as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM, the frequency of chromatid and chromosome breaks as well as polyploidy increased when compared with untreated CHO cells. The addition of S9 mix significantly decreased the chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks and polyploidy compared to the treatment of PL alone. It is concluded that, PL causes chromatid and chromosome aberrations in CHO cell line and the metabolic activation system (S9 mix, playing an important role in drug cytotoxicity reduction.

  3. Oropouche virus experimental infection in the golden hamster (Mesocrisetus auratus). (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alcir Humberto; Santos, Rodrigo Ivo; Arisi, Gabriel Maisonnave; Bernardes, Emerson Soares; Silva, Maria Lúcia; Rossi, Marcos Antônio; Lopes, Maria Beatriz Sampaio; Arruda, Eurico


    Oropouche virus (OROV), of the family Bunyaviridae, is the second most frequent arbovirus causing febrile disease in Brazil. In spite of this, little is known about pathogenesis of OROV infection. This report describes an experimental model of OROV in golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Following subcutaneous inoculation of OROV, over 50% of the animals developed disease characterized by lethargy, ruffled fur, shivering, paralysis, and approximately one third died. Animals were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 11 post-inoculation to collect tissue samples from brain, heart, liver, lung, spleen, muscle and blood for virus titration, histology and OROV immunohistochemistry. OROV was detected in high titers in blood, liver and brain, but not in the other organs. Histopathology revealed meningoencephalitis and hepatitis, with abundant OROV antigen detected in liver and brain. Diffuse galectin-3 immunostaining in brain and liver supports microglial and Kupfer cells activation. This is the first description of an experimental model for OROV infection and should be helpful to study pathogenesis and possibly to test antiviral interventions such as drugs and vaccine candidates.

  4. Radiation-induced emission from golden hamster embryo cells (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Nagasaka, Shigeru; Maeda, Isao; Matsumoto, Takuro; Koyama, Shinji; Kodama, Seiji; Watanabe, Masami


    Emission from high-energy-electron-irradiated golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells has been studied over the temperature range 12-300 K both by a one-shot-single-photon-counting method and by photocurrent measurements with an oscilloscope. Emission from the irradiated phosphate buffered saline (PBS) also has been studied. The emission spectra from PBS at 12 and 77 K show a maximum around 330 and 380 nm, respectively, which are the same spectra as those from irradiated pure H 2O. The emission from irradiated GHE consists of the new band at 480 nm in addition to the emission from H 2O. The 480 nm emission is observed at the temperature range of 12-300 K, though the emission at 300 K is much lower than that at low temperature. The 480 nm emission is ascribed to the transition from excited organic substances in GHE cells. The intensity of 480 nm emission at 300 K increases linearly with increasing irradiation-dose in the range of 11-600 Gy.

  5. Immunization effect of purified bivalent vaccine to haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome manufactured from primary cultured hamster kidney cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Guan-mu; HAN Liang; AN Qi; LIU Wen-xue; KONG Yan; YANG Li-hong


    @@ Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a worldwide epidemic plaguing over thirty nations. This disease has spread across 26 provinces, cities and autonomous regions of China with an annual onsets number of more than a hundred thousand and a mortality rate of 5% to 15%, accounting for over 80% of cases in the world, and threatening the safety and health of Chinese people.1 Analysis of serum samples over recent years indicates that the plagued areas are expanding.

  6. The sz mutant hamster: a genetic model of epilepsy or of paroxysmal dystonia? (United States)

    Löscher, W; Fisher, J E; Schmidt, D; Fredow, G; Hönack, D; Iturrian, W B


    Attacks of sustained dystonic postures of limbs and trunk can be initiated by mild environmental stimuli in an inbred line of Syrian hamsters. The trait is determined by an autosomal simple recessive genetic mutation, originally designated by the gene symbol sz, because the abnormal movements were thought to represent epileptic seizures. The attacks, which can be reproducibly initiated by placing the sz mutant hamsters in a new environment, begin with rapid twitches of the vibrissae, flattened ears, and flattened posture of the trunk while walking, followed by facial contortions, rearing, and sustained posturing of trunk and limbs, often resulting in falling over to the side or backwards. In the final stage, the hamsters became immobile, which can last for hours. An increased tone of limbs and trunk muscles can be palpated during the attack. Electromyographical recordings in awake, unrestrained mutant hamsters showed that the onset of the attack coincided with continuous tonic muscle activity and phasic bursts, which were present even when the animals did not move. During the attack, the animals continue to react to external stimuli. Bilateral electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings before and during motor disturbances in sz mutant hamsters showed no abnormalities. The severity of the dystonic syndrome in hamsters is age dependent with a peak at about 30-40 days of age. A score system for grading type and severity of dystonic attack was developed for use in drug activity studies. The severity of the attack was reduced or attacks were completely prevented by diazepam (1-2.5 mg/kg i.p.) and valproic acid (100-400 mg/kg i.p.) in a dose-dependent fashion. The latency to dystonic movements was significantly increased by diazepam but markedly reduced by subconvulsive doses of pentylenetetrazol (40 mg/kg s.c.). Diazepam antagonized the latency-reducing action of pentylenetetrazol in the hamsters. The pathophysiology and pharmacological sensitivity of the dystonic attacks

  7. HAMSTER: visualizing microarray experiments as a set of minimum spanning trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Hajime


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visualization tools allow researchers to obtain a global view of the interrelationships between the probes or experiments of a gene expression (e.g. microarray data set. Some existing methods include hierarchical clustering and k-means. In recent years, others have proposed applying minimum spanning trees (MST for microarray clustering. Although MST-based clustering is formally equivalent to the dendrograms produced by hierarchical clustering under certain conditions; visually they can be quite different. Methods HAMSTER (Helpful Abstraction using Minimum Spanning Trees for Expression Relations is an open source system for generating a set of MSTs from the experiments of a microarray data set. While previous works have generated a single MST from a data set for data clustering, we recursively merge experiments and repeat this process to obtain a set of MSTs for data visualization. Depending on the parameters chosen, each tree is analogous to a snapshot of one step of the hierarchical clustering process. We scored and ranked these trees using one of three proposed schemes. HAMSTER is implemented in C++ and makes use of Graphviz for laying out each MST. Results We report on the running time of HAMSTER and demonstrate using data sets from the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO that the images created by HAMSTER offer insights that differ from the dendrograms of hierarchical clustering. In addition to the C++ program which is available as open source, we also provided a web-based version (HAMSTER+ which allows users to apply our system through a web browser without any computer programming knowledge. Conclusion Researchers may find it helpful to include HAMSTER in their microarray analysis workflow as it can offer insights that differ from hierarchical clustering. We believe that HAMSTER would be useful for certain types of gradient data sets (e.g time-series data and data that indicate relationships between cells/tissues. Both

  8. Comparison of pulmonary and pleural responses of rats and hamsters to inhaled refractory ceramic fibers. (United States)

    Gelzleichter, T R; Bermudez, E; Mangum, J B; Wong, B A; Janszen, D B; Moss, O R; Everitt, J I


    The present study was designed to determine whether pleural fiber burdens or subchronic pleural fibroproliferative and inflammatory changes can help explain the marked interspecies differences in pleural fibrosis and mesothelioma that are observed following long-term inhalation of RCF-1 ceramic fibers by rats and hamsters. Fischer 344 rats and Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to RCF-1 for 4 h per day, 5 days per week, for 12 consecutive weeks. Lung and pleural fiber burdens were characterized during and after exposure. For all time points, approximately 67% of fibers associated with lung tissues from both rats and hamsters were longer than 5 microns in length. In comparison, fibers longer than 5 microns recovered from the pleural compartment, following a 12-week exposure and 12 weeks of recovery, accounted for 13% (hamsters) and 4% (rats) of the distribution. In the 12 weeks after the cessation of exposure, the number of fibers longer than 5 microns in length remained constant in the hamster at approximately 150 fibers per cm2 pleura. This was 2 to 3 times the corresponding fiber surface density in the rat. Significant pulmonary and pleural inflammation was detected at all time points and for both species. DNA synthesis by pleural mesothelial cells was quantified by bromodeoxyuridine uptake following 3 days of labeling. Labeling indices were higher in hamsters than in rats, both for RCF-1-exposed and filtered air-control animals and was highest for the parietal surface of the pleura. Significantly greater collagen deposition was measured in the visceral pleura of hamsters 12 weeks post-exposure but was not significantly elevated in rats. These findings demonstrate that subchronic inhalation exposure to RCF-1 induces pleural inflammation, mesothelial-cell turnover, pleural fibrosis, and an accumulation of fibers with a length greater than 5 microns in the hamster. The accumulation of long fibers in the pleural space may contribute to the pathology observed in the

  9. Comparison of Pavlovian serial conditional discrimination in rats and hamsters in the same experimental situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.O. Bueno


    Full Text Available The present study compares behavioral changes between two distinct rodent groups, hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus and Wistar rats, when submitted in the same homogeneous experimental situations to a serial conditional discrimination procedure which involves water deprivation and the processing of temporal variables. Both hamsters and rats acquired serial positive conditional discrimination as indicated by higher frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior during the tone followed by reinforcement (T+ and preceded by the feature stimulus light (L and during the empty interval, than during the tone alone not followed by reinforcement (T-. Rats' frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior were high during T+ and T-, initially during training, and decreased during T- as the training progressed. However, the hamsters' frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior started very low and increased only during T+ as the training progressed. Comparison of the frequencies of magazine-oriented behavior during the empty interval in relation to the frequencies during the preceding L period showed that rats' frequencies remained very high and hamsters' frequencies increased during training. These results suggest that rats and hamsters have different behavioral strategies for the acquisition of a conditional discrimination. The results of the comparisons made in these experiments support the view of the importance of an ecological psychology approach to the understanding of complex learning in animals.

  10. Protective Effects of Aspirin from Cardiac Hypertrophy and Oxidative Stress in Cardiomyopathic Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Wu


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the capacity of chronic ASA therapy to prevent cardiac alterations and increased oxidative stress in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Methods and Results. Male Syrian cardiomyopathic and age-matched inbred control hamsters received ASA orally from the age of 60 days. Animals were sacrificed at the age of 150, 250, and 350 days to evaluate the time course of cardiac hypertrophy and cardiovascular tissue superoxide anion (O2- production. At the age of 150 days, the ventricular weight over body weight ratio, resting heart rate, and cardiovascular O2- production were much higher in cardiomyopathic hamsters than those in control. At the age of 250 days, in addition to the continual deterioration of these parameters with age, the blood pressure started to fall and the signs of heart failure appeared. In these cardiomyopathic hamsters, chronic ASA treatment (a completely prevented elevated O2- production and the NAD(PH oxidase activity, (b significantly slowed down the development of the cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Conclusions. Chronic ASA treatment significantly prevents the deterioration of cardiac function and structure as well as the increased oxidative stress in the cardiomyopathic hamster. Our findings suggest that ASA presents a therapeutic potential to prevent cardiac dysfunction.

  11. Hematologic, serologic, and histologic profile of aged Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). (United States)

    McKeon, Gabriel P; Nagamine, Claude M; Ruby, Norman F; Luong, Richard H


    Biologic samples from 18 (12 female, 6 male) Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) representing an aged colony (17 to 27 mo) were examined. Values for CBC and serum biochemical parameters were determined, and macroscopic and microscopic pathologic evaluations were performed. Blood urea nitrogen levels were significantly higher in male (54.2 ± 14 mg/dL) compared with female (35.3 ± 22 mg/dL) hamsters and correlated histologically with a higher incidence of chronic glomerulonephropathy in males (5 of 6 males; 0 of 12 females). All 18 hamsters had histologic evidence of follicular mite infestation. Half (6 of 12) of the female hamsters showed cystic rete ovarii. Other histologic findings included thymic or thyroid branchial cysts (3 of 18), focal enteritis (2 of 18), and single cases of hepatic hemangiosarcoma, renal adenoma, subcutaneous mast cell tumor, cutaneous sebaceous adenoma, cutaneous trichofolliculoma, squamous papilloma of the nonglandular stomach, epididymal cholesteatoma, pyometra, and pituitary craniopharyngeal cyst. This study is the first published report of hematologic and serum chemical values for any population of Siberian hamsters and the first published report showing a potential male predisposition for chronic progressive glomerulonephropathy and a potential female predisposition for cystic rete ovarii.

  12. Dim nocturnal illumination alters coupling of circadian pacemakers in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus. (United States)

    Gorman, M R; Elliott, J A


    The circadian pacemaker of mammals comprises multiple oscillators that may adopt different phase relationships to determine properties of the coupled system. The effect of nocturnal illumination comparable to dim moonlight was assessed in male Siberian hamsters exposed to two re-entrainment paradigms believed to require changes in the phase relationship of underlying component oscillators. In experiment 1, hamsters were exposed to a 24-h light-dark-light-dark cycle previously shown to split circadian rhythms into two components such that activity is divided between the two daily dark periods. Hamsters exposed to dim illumination (rhythms compared to hamsters exposed to completely dark scotophases. In experiment 2, hamsters were transferred to winter photoperiods (10 h light, 14 h dark) from two different longer daylengths (14 h or 18 h light daily) in the presence or absence of dim nighttime lighting. Dim nocturnal illumination markedly accelerated adoption of the winter phenotype as reflected in the expansion of activity duration, gonadal regression and weight loss. The two experiments demonstrate substantial efficacy of light intensities generally viewed as below the threshold of circadian systems. Light may act on oscillator coupling through rod-dependent mechanisms.

  13. Propagation of Asian isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV in hamster cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Ryoji


    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds The aim of this study was to confirm the propagation of various canine distemper viruses (CDV in hamster cell lines of HmLu and BHK, since only a little is known about the possibility of propagation of CDV in rodent cells irrespective of their epidemiological importance. Methods The growth of CDV in hamster cell lines was monitored by titration using Vero.dogSLAMtag (Vero-DST cells that had been proven to be susceptible to almost all field isolates of CDV, with the preparations of cell-free and cell-associated virus from the cultures infected with recent Asian isolates of CDV (13 strains and by observing the development of cytopathic effect (CPE in infected cultures of hamster cell lines. Results Eleven of 13 strains grew in HmLu cells, and 12 of 13 strains grew in BHK cells with apparent CPE of cell fusion in the late stage of infection. Two strains and a strain of Asia 1 group could not grow in HmLu cells and BHK cells, respectively. Conclusion The present study demonstrates at the first time that hamster cell lines can propagate the majority of Asian field isolates of CDV. The usage of two hamster cell lines suggested to be useful to characterize the field isolates biologically.

  14. Pravastatin activates PPARα/PPARγ expression in the liver and gallbladder epithelium of hamsters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok Ho Dong; Jin Lee; Dong Hee Koh; Min Ho Choi; Hyun Joo Jang; Sea Hyub Kae


    BACKGROUND: Our earlier study with cultured gallbladder epithelial cells demonstrated that statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) activate the expression of PPARα and PPARγ, consequently blocking the production of pro-inflmmatory cytokines. The present study used hamsters to investigate the effects of pavastatin on PPARα/PPARγ expression in the liver and gallbladder epithelium, and to determine whether pravastatin suppresses cholesterol crystal formation in the gallbladder. METHODS: A total of 40 Golden Syrian male hamsters (4 weeks old) were randomly assigned to four groups (basal diet control;basal diet+pavastatin; high cholesterol diet; high cholesterol diet+pravastatin). All hamsters were 11 weeks old at the end of the experiment. The liver, gallbladder and bile were harvested. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting for PPARα and PPARγ were performed in the liver and gallbladder. A drop of fresh bile was examined for cholesterol crystals under a microscope. RESULTS: In the gallbladder and liver of the hamsters, pravastatin activated the PPARα and PPARγ expression of gallbladder epithelial cells and hepatocytes, and particularly the response of PPARγ was much stronger than that of PPARα. Pravastatin suppressed the formation of cholesterol gallstones or crystals in the gallbladder. CONCLUSION: Pravastatinisaneffectivemedicationtoactivate PPARs (especially PPARγ) in the liver and the gallbladder epithelium of hamsters, and contributes to the prevention of gallstoneformation.

  15. The Influence of Red Wine on Lipid of Golden Hamsters Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jin-ying; LI Hua; WANG Hua; YUAN Chun-long; XIE Ren-ming


    This experiment was conducted on 50 male golden hamsters, which were divided into five groups. Each group contained 10 hamsters: red wine group, alcohol-free red wine group, alcohol group, hyperlipidemia group, and control group. During the four-week regime, all the hamsters were fed with a high cholesterol diet, except the control group. After completion of the trial, the plasma lipid levels and lipid peroxidation contents were determined in the golden hamsters, and the morphological variation in liver cells was investigated with electron microscopy. The results showed that concentrations of TC and TG in red wine, alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol groups had decreased dramatically. Compared with the hyperlipidemia group, the levels of LDL-C had significantly decreased in other groups, but not the HDL-C. Consumption of red wine,alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol, had no significant effects on Apo A1 and Apo B. Red wine, alcohol-free red wine, and alcohol significantly decreased the contents of MDA in hamsters. The experiment demonstrated that red wine could ameliorate the incidence of atherosclerosis (AS) via reducing serum TC, TG, LDL-C, and the compounds in red wine had synergic effects.

  16. Dynamics of zonula occludens-2 expression during preimplantation embryonic development in the hamster. (United States)

    Wang, Hehai; Luan, Liming; Ding, Tianbing; Brown, Naoko; Reese, Jeff; Paria, B C


    The objective was to study the expression of zonula occludens-2, a tight junction protein, during preimplantation hamster embryonic development, to predict its possible localization, source, and roles in trophectoderm differentiation and blastocyst formation in this species. Comparison of zonula occludens-2 expression pattern between the hamster and mouse preimplantation embryos from the zygote up to the blastocyst stage was also an objective of this study. Zonula occludens-2 localization was noted in nuclei of blastomeres in all stages of hamster and mouse embryonic development. Compared to mice, where zonula occludens-2 was first localized in the interblastomere membrane at the morula stage, hamster embryos had membranous zonula occludens-2 localization from the 2-cell stage onwards. Based on combined results of immunolocalization study in parthenogenic embryos and ovarian and epididymal sections, and quantitative PCR done in oocytes and all developmental stages of preimplantation embryos, perhaps there was a carry-over of zonula occludens-2 proteins or mRNA from the dam to the embryo. Based on these findings, we inferred that maternally derived zonula occludens-2 was involved in nuclear functions, as well as differentiation of blastomeres and blastocoel formation during preimplantation embryonic development in the hamster.

  17. Validation of assays to monitor immune responses in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). (United States)

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki


    The Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a valuable but under-utilized animal model for studies of human viral pathogens such as bunyaviruses, arenaviruses, flaviviruses, henipaviruses, and SARS-coronavirus. A lack of suitable reagents and specific assays for monitoring host responses has limited the use of this animal model to clinical observations, pathology and humoral immune responses. The objective of this study was to establish and validate assays to monitor host immune responses in the hamster including important pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and innate immune responses, as well as markers of apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell junction integrity and coagulation. Commercially available mouse and rat ELISA and luminex panels were screened for potential cross-reactivity, but were found to be of limited value for studying host responses in hamsters. Subsequently, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the detection of 51 immune-related and four internal reference genes were developed. To validate the immune-related assays, hamsters were infected with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Indiana species, or treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and host immune responses were monitored in selected organs. Ribosomal protein L18 was identified as the most stable internal reference gene. In conclusion, these new assays will greatly improve the use of the hamster as an important small animal model in infectious disease research.

  18. Improvement of oxidative stress and immunity by melatonin: an age dependent study in golden hamster. (United States)

    Vishwas, Dipanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Arun; Haldar, Chandana; Dash, Debabrata; Nayak, Manasa K


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to play an important role in balancing the pro- and antioxidant homeostasis during aging. Melatonin has been suggested as an effective free radical scavenger that might have a role during the process of aging. We observed, that melatonin administration (25 μg/100 g body weight for 30 days) significantly augments the activity of anti-oxidative enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the plasma, spleen and bone marrow (BM) of young (6 weeks), adult (30 weeks) and old aged (2.5 years) male golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus. A sharp decline in generation of ROS was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and splenocytes upon melatonin administration in different age group of hamsters. Reduction in the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and total nitrite and nitrate concentration as metabolites and indicators of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma, spleen and BM were observed along with night time (22:00 h) melatonin concentration in different age group of hamsters after administration of melatonin and compared to the control group (treated with 0.9% saline). General immune parameters like proliferation of splenocytes, PBMC and colony forming ability of GM-CFU were observed following melatonin treatment in different age group, although it was low only in aged hamsters compared to the young and adult. Our data indicates that the age related increase of oxidative load and simultaneously augments the general immunity in aged hamsters.

  19. Relationship between circadian period and body size in the tau-mutant golden hamster. (United States)

    Refinetti, Roberto


    The tau mutation in the golden (Syrian) hamster is a single gene mutation that drastically affects the speed of the circadian clock, in such a way that homozygous mutants have an endogenous circadian period of 20 h (compared with 24 h for wild-type hamsters). While studying the circadian system of tau-mutant hamsters during the past 25 years, several authors have noted an apparent relationship between circadian period and body size in these animals. This study, based on 181 hamsters from 24 litters, confirmed previous observations that a shorter circadian period is associated with smaller body size, documented a sex difference in this association, and evaluated several mechanisms that might explain the phenomenon (such as different organ sizes, body composition, and metabolic rate). The obtained evidence suggests that the reduced body size of short-period hamsters is likely a pleiotropic effect of the tau allele (an allele of the casein kinase 1 epsilon gene) rather than a consequence of the shortened circadian period.

  20. The Ububele Baby Mat intervention: facilitating meaning in a multi-cultural context. (United States)

    Nortje, Michelle


    This paper expands on the continuing understanding of the Ububele Baby Mat Project - a community-based parent-infant mental health intervention now offered at six primary healthcare clinics in Alexandra, Johannesburg. This paper describes the influence of cultural diversity and the complex layers of meaning-making involved in the Baby Mat intervention. Meaning-making is a collaborative process between the caregiver-infant dyad's cultural beliefs and experiences, the Baby Mat couple's relationship, knowledge and skills, and the additional minds of the multicultural supervision group. This paper aims to clarify these three layers of co-constructed meaning-making involved in the Baby Mat intervention. Three central themes are thus presented to discuss the impact of multi-cultural, multi-racial and multi-lingual therapeutic dyads on the process of the Baby Mat intervention. These core themes are the verbal and non-verbal meanings of presenting problems brought by caregiver-infant dyads; the value and obstacles involved within a cross-cultural baby mat couple; and the significance of a reflective group supervision space. Case extracts are used to illustrate these processes of multiple minds at play during a Baby Mat session.

  1. Acrylamide exposure among Turkish toddlers from selected cereal-based baby food samples. (United States)

    Cengiz, Mehmet Fatih; Gündüz, Cennet Pelin Boyacı


    In this study, acrylamide exposure from selected cereal-based baby food samples was investigated among toddlers aged 1-3 years in Turkey. The study contained three steps. The first step was collecting food consumption data and toddlers' physical properties, such as gender, age and body weight, using a questionnaire given to parents by a trained interviewer between January and March 2012. The second step was determining the acrylamide levels in food samples that were reported on by the parents in the questionnaire, using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. The last step was combining the determined acrylamide levels in selected food samples with individual food consumption and body weight data using a deterministic approach to estimate the acrylamide exposure levels. The mean acrylamide levels of baby biscuits, breads, baby bread-rusks, crackers, biscuits, breakfast cereals and powdered cereal-based baby foods were 153, 225, 121, 604, 495, 290 and 36 μg/kg, respectively. The minimum, mean and maximum acrylamide exposures were estimated to be 0.06, 1.43 and 6.41 μg/kg BW per day, respectively. The foods that contributed to acrylamide exposure were aligned from high to low as bread, crackers, biscuits, baby biscuits, powdered cereal-based baby foods, baby bread-rusks and breakfast cereals.

  2. Intestinal microbiota-kidney cross talk in acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Noel, Sanjeev; Martina-Lingua, Maria N; Bandapalle, Samatha; Pluznick, Jennifer; Hamad, Abdel Rahim A; Peterson, Daniel A; Rabb, Hamid


    The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) involves multiple and overlapping immunological, biochemical, and hemodynamic mechanisms that modulate the effects of both the initial insult and the subsequent repair. Limited but recent experimental data have revealed that the intestinal microbiota significantly affects outcomes in AKI. Additional evidence shows significant changes in the intestinal microbiota in chronic kidney disease patients and in experimental AKI. In this minireview, we discuss the current status of the effect of intestinal microbiota on kidney diseases, the immunomodulatory effects of intestinal microbiota, and the potential mechanisms by which microbiota can modify kidney diseases and vice versa. We also propose future studies to clarify the role of intestinal microbiota in kidney diseases and to explore how the modification of gut microbiota may be a potential therapeutic tool.

  3. Time-Varying, Serotype-Specific Force of Infection of Dengue Virus (United States)


    Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333; jDepartment...2010were analyzed for the presenceof DENV neutralizing antibodies by serotype-specific PRNT (11) in baby hamster kidney BHK21 cells using a carboxymethyl

  4. Lysosomal acid phosphatase is internalized via clathrin-coated pits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperman, J.; Hille, A.; Geuze, H.J.; Peters, C.; Brodsky, F.M.; Figura, K. von


    The presence of lysosomal acid phosphatase (LAP) in coated pits at the plasma membrane was investigated by immunocytochemistry in thymidine kinase negative mouse L-cells (Ltk-) and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells overexpressing human LAP (Ltk-LAP and BHK-LAP cells). Double immunogold labeling showed

  5. Gene discovery in the hamster: a comparative genomics approach for gene annotation by sequencing of hamster testis cDNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Shafiq A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete genome annotation will likely be achieved through a combination of computer-based analysis of available genome sequences combined with direct experimental characterization of expressed regions of individual genomes. We have utilized a comparative genomics approach involving the sequencing of randomly selected hamster testis cDNAs to begin to identify genes not previously annotated on the human, mouse, rat and Fugu (pufferfish genomes. Results 735 distinct sequences were analyzed for their relatedness to known sequences in public databases. Eight of these sequences were derived from previously unidentified genes and expression of these genes in testis was confirmed by Northern blotting. The genomic locations of each sequence were mapped in human, mouse, rat and pufferfish, where applicable, and the structure of their cognate genes was derived using computer-based predictions, genomic comparisons and analysis of uncharacterized cDNA sequences from human and macaque. Conclusion The use of a comparative genomics approach resulted in the identification of eight cDNAs that correspond to previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome. The proteins encoded by these genes included a new member of the kinesin superfamily, a SET/MYND-domain protein, and six proteins for which no specific function could be predicted. Each gene was expressed primarily in testis, suggesting that they may play roles in the development and/or function of testicular cells.

  6. Cryopreservation of hamster oocytes: effects of vitrification or freezing on human sperm penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes. (United States)

    Critser, J K; Arneson, B W; Aaker, D V; Ball, G D


    Three experiments were conducted for evaluation of the efficacy of conventional freezing or vitrification of hamster oocytes for use in a human sperm penetration assay (hSPA). In experiment 1, oocytes were cryopreserved and evaluated for survival on the basis of morphologic criteria. Survival of vitrified oocytes and that of frozen oocytes were not different, whereas all cryopreserved groups had lower survival than noncryopreserved controls. In experiment 2, oocytes were conventionally frozen or vitrified and evaluated in an hSPA. Vitrified oocytes had a lower frequency of sperm penetration than frozen oocytes, and all cryopreserved groups had lower penetration rates than untreated controls. In experiment 3, oocytes were exposed to the cryoprotectant used to vitrify (VS1) or freeze (DMSO) but not cooled prior to evaluation in an hSPA. Exposure to DMSO but not VS1 reduced hSPA values. It is concluded from these experiments that while all cryopreserved oocytes do not survive, at current stages of development conventionally frozen oocytes perform better than vitrified oocytes in the hSPA and losses associated with conventional freezing procedures may be related to cryoprotectant exposure, whereas vitrification losses are more probably due to events associated with rapid cooling and/or warming of the oocytes.

  7. Acquired hookworm immunity in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by living Necator americanus third-stage infective larvae. (United States)

    Xue, Jian; Zhan, Bin; Guo, Jian; He, Na; Qiang, Hui-qing; Hotez, Peter; Xiao, Shu-hua


    The aim of the study is to demonstrate and understand the acquired immunity in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by primary Necator americanus infective third-stage larvae (L3) infection. Hamsters infected with 150 L3 for 1, 2, 3, 6 and 10 weeks, were challenged with the same number of L3 and sacrificed 25 days post challenge. The primarily infected hamsters exhibited 99-100% protection against subsequent L3 challenge compared to un-infected naive hamsters. The acquired immunity was developed as early as 1 week post L3 infection and lasted up to 10 weeks. Similar protective immunity was obtained in hamsters infected with N. americanus L3 and then treated orally with a single of 100mg/kg albendazole, followed by challenge with N. americanus L3 4 and 8 weeks post-treatment. The infected hamsters exhibited a rise in IgG antibodies against L3 and juvenile adult worm antigens. Histological examination showed that challenging L3 were trapped in the skin of primarily infected hamsters and surrounded or infiltrated by different inflammatory cells. The trapped L3 were damaged and dead followed by the formation of granulomas encasing dead worms. The results demonstrate that hamsters primarily infected with N. americanus L3 develop acquired immunity against re-infection.

  8. Vasopressin immunoreactivity and release in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of wild-type and tau mutant Syrian hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, EA; Oklejewicz, M; Jansen, K; Daan, S; Gerkema, MP


    Despite the prominent role of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) in studies of circadian rhythms, there are no data available on the temporal dynamics of the neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP), a major output system of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We studied the hamster SCN-AVP system in vi

  9. Effect on skin hydration of using baby wipes to clean the napkin area of newborn babies: assessor-blinded randomised controlled equivalence trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavender Tina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some national guidelines recommend the use of water alone for napkin cleansing. Yet, there is a readiness, amongst many parents, to use baby wipes. Evidence from randomised controlled trials, of the effect of baby wipes on newborn skin integrity is lacking. We conducted a study to examine the hypothesis that the use of a specifically formulated cleansing wipe on the napkin area of newborn infants ( Methods A prospective, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled equivalence trial was conducted during 2010. Healthy, term babies (n = 280, recruited within 48 hours of birth, were randomly assigned to have their napkin area cleansed with an alcohol-free baby wipe (140 babies or cotton wool and water (140 babies. Primary outcome was change in hydration from within 48 hours of birth to 4 weeks post-birth. Secondary outcomes comprised changes in trans-epidermal water loss, skin surface pH and erythema, presence of microbial skin contaminants/irritants at 4 weeks and napkin dermatitis reported by midwife at 4 weeks and mother during the 4 weeks. Results Complete hydration data were obtained for 254 (90.7 % babies. Wipes were shown to be equivalent to water and cotton wool in terms of skin hydration (intention-to-treat analysis: wipes 65.4 (SD 12.4 vs. water 63.5 (14.2, p = 0.47, 95 % CI -2.5 to 4.2; per protocol analysis: wipes 64.6 (12.4 vs. water 63.6 (14.3, p = 0.53, 95 % CI -2.4 to 4.2. No significant differences were found in the secondary outcomes, except for maternal-reported napkin dermatitis, which was higher in the water group (p = 0.025 for complete responses. Conclusions Baby wipes had an equivalent effect on skin hydration when compared with cotton wool and water. We found no evidence of any adverse effects of using these wipes. These findings offer reassurance to parents who choose to use baby wipes and to health professionals who support their use. Trial registration Current Controlled

  10. [MicroRNAs and kidneys]. (United States)

    Stříteská, Jana; Nekvindová, Jana; Cerný, Vladimír; Palička, Vladimír


    MicroRNAs are short non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level thus affecting important physiological as well as pathophysiological processes in the organism, for example cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and metabolism. They are involved in pathogenesis of many diseases including cancer. Many microRNAs are tissue or organ-specific which implies their possible potential as biomarkers or maybe even therapeutical agents as documented by microRNA research interest rising exponentially during last years. Among all, microRNAs are important also for physiological function of the kidney and they are involved in various renal disorders. Today research is focused mainly on renal and urinary tract carcinogenesis, acute kidney injury, chronic renal diseases (polycystic kidney disease) or renal complications of systemic diseases such as diabetic or hypertension nephropathy and autoimmune kidney injury including acute allograft rejection after kidney transplantation. The review summarizes current information about microRNA effect on kidney development and function and also on the most common kidney diseases.

  11. The impact of the housing crash on the wealth of the baby boom cohorts. (United States)

    Rosnick, David; Baker, Dean


    The collapse of the housing bubble and the resulting plunge in the stock market destroyed more than $10 trillion in household wealth. The impact was especially severe for the baby boom cohorts who are at or near retirement age. This paper uses data from the Federal Reserve Board's 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances to compare the wealth of the baby boomer cohorts just before the crash with projections of household wealth following the crash. These projections show that most baby boomers will be almost entirely dependent on their Social Security income after they stop working.

  12. Perceptions of glasses as a health care product: a pilot study of New Zealand baby boomers. (United States)

    Davey, Janet; King, Chloe; Fitzpatrick, Mary


    Marketers have been slow to customize their strategies for the influential consumer segment of aging baby boomers. This qualitative research provides insights on New Zealand baby boomers' perceptions of glasses as a health care product. Appearance was a dominant theme; status was not a major concern, although style and fashion were. Wearing glasses had negative associations related to aging; however, both male and female participants recognized that glasses offered improved quality of life. Data relating to the theme of expense indicated that these New Zealand baby boomers made sophisticated perceptual associations and subsequent pragmatic trade-offs between price, quality, and style.

  13. Babies born at the threshold of viability: changes in survival and workload over 20 years


    Seaton, Sarah E.; King, Sophie; Manktelow, Bradley N.; Draper, Elizabeth S; Field, David J.


    Objective To assess the care given to the babies born at the threshold of viability over the last 20 years using regional and national data. Design Population-based retrospective study. Setting Former ‘Trent’ health region. Participants Babies born between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2010 at 22+0 to 25+6 weeks gestational age. Main outcome measure Survival and use of respiratory support. Methods Data of all babies born between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2010 with a gestational age of 2...

  14. Here are some photos chosen from the Picture Archives of Chinese Babies.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The archives set up early this year are the first in the country. Now they keep 25 pictures of "millennia baby" born on January 1,2000 in China's 25 provinces and municipalities, shot by Niu Qun, master for Kodak photographic teaching, as well as about 20,000 pictures of infants and babies shot by their young parents and appraised by photographic experts. The founder of the Picture Archives of Chinese Babies, the Organizing Council for Concerning Yourself with New Life, is a group of mothers who are

  15. Horseshoe kidney: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena S


    Full Text Available The horseshoe kidney was originally regarded as a rare anatomical curiosity, but with the aid of retrograde pyelogram, intravenous urogram and renal arteriograms in this present age of diagnosis, the incidence of horseshoe kidney is estimated at 1 in 200-400 individuals or 1 in 700 autopsies and usually remains asymptomatic. The present report is concerned with a case of horseshoe kidney, which was observed during routine cadaveric dissection, for student education in anatomy dissection hall of Osmania medical college, in a male cadaver. The kidneys formed a U-shaped structure as a result of fusion at the inferior poles of the original kidneys by a parenchymatous isthmus. As a whole, the structure presented a typical horseshoe shape. The location of the kidney was lower than that of the normal kidney. The renal arterial system was almost normal except for a surplus artery into the isthmus that directly originated from the aorta, at the origin of inferior mesenteric artery. Venous drainage of both the kidneys and the isthmus was through two veins which opened independently into the inferior vena cava. The hila on both sides opened towards the ventral direction, and the ureters descended in front of the isthmus and entered the bladder normally. This report is being made because it affords material for a review of embryological and gross anatomy findings in a case of horseshoe kidney, which could help in a thorough urologic evaluation in diagnosed cases prior to any surgical intervention. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 304-307

  16. Biological characteristics of Chinese hamster infected with Babesia%巴贝西虫感染黑线仓鼠生物学特性的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶莉; 白杰英; 马帅; 王昱佳; 郑珺文; 王冬平; 李桂军; 范君文; 时彦胜; 张小飞


    Objective To establish a Chinese hamster model of babesia infection, to find the changing pattern of organs and biochemical parameters in Chinese hamster infected with Babesia, and to promote the detection and treatment of babesiosis.Methods Healthy 5-week old Chinese hamsters were infected by intraperitoneal injection of blood containing Babesia.Blood samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 23, 30, and 37 days after infection from 5 hamsters at each time point.Blood smears were prepared to detect the parasites using Giemsa staining.ELISA assay was employed to test the IL-2 concentration.The blood biochemical indexes were detected using an automatic biochemical analyzer.DNA was extracted from the whole blood and REAL-TIME RCR was performed to determine the reproduction of Babesia.Aftert the animals were sacrificed, the heart, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney were taken to analyze the changes of organ coefficients.Results The highest level of Babesia in the hamsters occurred on day 4 after the Babesia injection, and then showing a decreasing tendency.However, there was a transient increase on the 12th day after infection.The liver and spleen displayed most extensive response to the infection showing hepatomegaly and splenomegaly, but the variation of heart and kidneys coefficients was within the norm.There were prominent changes of blood cells, especially leucocytes, with two peaks at day 10 and 23 after the Babesia infection.The peak changes of blood biochemical indexes occurred at day 12 after infection.The concentration of serum IL-2 reached a peak on the 10th day after infection.Conclusions The Chinese hamsters display typical characteristics of tick-borne diseases such as hepatomegaly and splenomegaly.The immunological system is activated along with the infection and reaches a highest stage in the second week.Afterwards the Babesia can live in the hamster body for a long period of time.The results of this study provide useful information

  17. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint


    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  18. A hamster model for Marburg virus infection accurately recapitulates Marburg hemorrhagic fever (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea; Banadyga, Logan; Haddock, Elaine; Thomas, Tina; Shen, Kui; Horne, Eva J.; Scott, Dana P.; Feldmann, Heinz; Ebihara, Hideki


    Marburg virus (MARV), a close relative of Ebola virus, is the causative agent of a severe human disease known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF). No licensed vaccine or therapeutic exists to treat MHF, and MARV is therefore classified as a Tier 1 select agent and a category A bioterrorism agent. In order to develop countermeasures against this severe disease, animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease are required. Here we describe the development of a novel, uniformly lethal Syrian golden hamster model of MHF using a hamster-adapted MARV variant Angola. Remarkably, this model displayed almost all of the clinical features of MHF seen in humans and non-human primates, including coagulation abnormalities, hemorrhagic manifestations, petechial rash, and a severely dysregulated immune response. This MHF hamster model represents a powerful tool for further dissecting MARV pathogenesis and accelerating the development of effective medical countermeasures against human MHF. PMID:27976688

  19. Stimulatory effect of RFRP-3 on the gonadotrophic axis in the male Syrian hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancel, Caroline; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sébert, Marie-Emilie;


    on the gonadotrophic axis in the Syrian hamster. We show that acute central injection of RFRP-3 induces c-Fos expression in GnRH neurons and increases LH, FSH, and testosterone secretion. Moreover, chronic central administration of RFRP-3 restores testicular activity and Kiss1 levels in the arcuate nucleus of hamsters...... despite persisting photoinhibitory conditions. By contrast RFRP-3 does not have a hypophysiotrophic effect. Overall, these findings demonstrate that, in the male Syrian hamster, RFRP-3 exerts a stimulatory effect on the reproductive axis, most likely via hypothalamic targets. This places RFRP-3...... in a decisive position between the melatonergic message and Kiss1 seasonal regulation. Additionally, our data suggest for the first time that the function of this peptide depends on the species and the physiological status of the animal model....

  20. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation. (United States)

    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N


    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs.